WorldWideScience

Sample records for models closely related

  1. Quantum quenches in the Luttinger model and its close relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazalilla, M. A.; Chung, Ming-Chiang

    2016-06-01

    A number of results on quantum quenches in the Luttinger and related models are surveyed with emphasis on post-quench correlations. For the Luttinger model and initial gaussian states, we discuss both sudden and smooth quenches of the interaction and the emergence of a steady state described by a generalized Gibbs ensemble. Comparisons between analytics and numerics, and the question of universality or lack thereof are also discussed. The relevance of the theoretical results to current and future experiments in the fields of ultracold atomic gases and mesoscopic systems of electrons is also briefly touched upon. Wherever possible, our approach is pedagogical and self-contained. This work is dedicated to the memory of our colleague Alejandro Muramatsu.

  2. A closed-loop hybrid physiological model relating to subjects under physical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Samahy, Emad; Mahfouf, Mahdi; Linkens, Derek A

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this research study is to derive a comprehensive physiological model relating to subjects under physical stress conditions. The model should describe the behaviour of the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, thermoregulation and brain activity in response to physical workload. An experimental testing rig was built which consists of recumbent high performance bicycle for inducing the physical load and a data acquisition system comprising monitors and PCs. The signals acquired and used within this study are the blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, body temperature, and EEG signals. The proposed model is based on a grey-box based modelling approach which was used because of the sufficient level of details it provides. Cardiovascular and EEG Data relating to 16 healthy subject volunteers (data from 12 subjects were used for training/validation and the data from 4 subjects were used for model testing) were collected using the Finapres and the ProComp+ monitors. For model validation, residual analysis via the computing of the confidence intervals as well as related histograms was performed. Closed-loop simulations for different subjects showed that the model can provide reliable predictions for heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, respiration, and the EEG signals. These findings were also reinforced by the residual analyses data obtained, which suggested that the residuals were within the 90% confidence bands and that the corresponding histograms were of a normal distribution. A higher intelligent level was added to the model, based on neural networks, to extend the capabilities of the model to predict over a wide range of subjects dynamics. The elicited physiological model describing the effect of physiological stress on several physiological variables can be used to predict performance breakdown of operators in critical environments. Such a model architecture lends itself naturally to exploitation via feedback control in a 'reverse

  3. Genomic comparison of closely related Giant Viruses supports an accordion-like model of evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eFilée

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Genome gigantism occurs so far in Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae (order Megavirales. Origin and evolution of these Giant Viruses (GVs remain open questions. Interestingly, availability of a collection of closely related GV genomes enabling genomic comparisons offer the opportunity to better understand the different evolutionary forces acting on these genomes. Whole genome alignment for 5 groups of viruses belonging to the Mimiviridae and Phycodnaviridae families show that there is no trend of genome expansion or general tendency of genome contraction. Instead, GV genomes accumulated genomic mutations over the time with gene gains compensating the different losses. In addition, each lineage displays specific patterns of genome evolution. Mimiviridae (megaviruses and mimiviruses and Chlorella Phycodnaviruses evolved mainly by duplications and losses of genes belonging to large paralogous families (including movements of diverse mobiles genetic elements, whereas Micromonas and Ostreococcus Phycodnaviruses derive most of their genetic novelties thought lateral gene transfers. Taken together, these data support an accordion-like model of evolution in which GV genomes have undergone successive steps of gene gain and gene loss, accrediting the hypothesis that genome gigantism appears early, before the diversification of the different GV lineages.

  4. Genomic comparison of closely related Giant Viruses supports an accordion-like model of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filée, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Genome gigantism occurs so far in Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae (order Megavirales). Origin and evolution of these Giant Viruses (GVs) remain open questions. Interestingly, availability of a collection of closely related GV genomes enabling genomic comparisons offer the opportunity to better understand the different evolutionary forces acting on these genomes. Whole genome alignment for five groups of viruses belonging to the Mimiviridae and Phycodnaviridae families show that there is no trend of genome expansion or general tendency of genome contraction. Instead, GV genomes accumulated genomic mutations over the time with gene gains compensating the different losses. In addition, each lineage displays specific patterns of genome evolution. Mimiviridae (megaviruses and mimiviruses) and Chlorella Phycodnaviruses evolved mainly by duplications and losses of genes belonging to large paralogous families (including movements of diverse mobiles genetic elements), whereas Micromonas and Ostreococcus Phycodnaviruses derive most of their genetic novelties thought lateral gene transfers. Taken together, these data support an accordion-like model of evolution in which GV genomes have undergone successive steps of gene gain and gene loss, accrediting the hypothesis that genome gigantism appears early, before the diversification of the different GV lineages.

  5. Genomic comparison of closely related Giant Viruses supports an accordion-like model of evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Filée, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Genome gigantism occurs so far in Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae (order Megavirales). Origin and evolution of these Giant Viruses (GVs) remain open questions. Interestingly, availability of a collection of closely related GV genomes enabling genomic comparisons offer the opportunity to better understand the different evolutionary forces acting on these genomes. Whole genome alignment for five groups of viruses belonging to the Mimiviridae and Phycodnaviridae families show that there is no tr...

  6. The existence of fertile hybrids of closely related model earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and E. fetida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Plytycz

    Full Text Available Lumbricid earthworms Eisenia andrei (Ea and E. fetida (Ef are simultaneous hermaphrodites with reciprocal insemination capable of self-fertilization while the existence of hybridization of these two species was still debatable. During the present investigation fertile hybrids of Ea and Ef were detected. Virgin specimens of Ea and Ef were laboratory crossed (Ea+Ef and their progeny was doubly identified. 1 -identified by species-specific maternally derived haploid mitochondrial DNA sequences of the COI gene being either 'a' for worms hatched from Ea ova or 'f' for worms hatched from Ef ova. 2 -identified by the diploid maternal/paternal nuclear DNA sequences of 28s rRNA gene being either 'AA' for Ea, 'FF' for Ef, or AF/FA for their hybrids derived either from the 'aA' or 'fF' ova, respectively. Among offspring of Ea+Ef pairs in F1 generation there were mainly aAA and fFF earthworms resulted from the facilitated self-fertilization and some aAF hybrids from aA ova but none fFA hybrids from fF ova. In F2 generation resulting from aAF hybrids mated with aAA a new generations of aAA and aAF hybrids were noticed, while aAF hybrids mated with fFF gave fFF and both aAF and fFA hybrids. Hybrids intercrossed together produced plenty of cocoons but no hatchlings independently whether aAF+aAF or aAF+fFA were mated. These results indicated that Ea and Ef species, easy to maintain in laboratory and commonly used as convenient models in biomedicine and ecotoxicology, may also serve in studies on molecular basis of interspecific barriers and mechanisms of introgression and speciation. Hypothetically, their asymmetrical hybridization can be modified by some external factors.

  7. A new isolation with migration model along complete genomes infers very different divergence processes among closely related great ape species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mailund

    Full Text Available We present a hidden Markov model (HMM for inferring gradual isolation between two populations during speciation, modelled as a time interval with restricted gene flow. The HMM describes the history of adjacent nucleotides in two genomic sequences, such that the nucleotides can be separated by recombination, can migrate between populations, or can coalesce at variable time points, all dependent on the parameters of the model, which are the effective population sizes, splitting times, recombination rate, and migration rate. We show by extensive simulations that the HMM can accurately infer all parameters except the recombination rate, which is biased downwards. Inference is robust to variation in the mutation rate and the recombination rate over the sequence and also robust to unknown phase of genomes unless they are very closely related. We provide a test for whether divergence is gradual or instantaneous, and we apply the model to three key divergence processes in great apes: (a the bonobo and common chimpanzee, (b the eastern and western gorilla, and (c the Sumatran and Bornean orang-utan. We find that the bonobo and chimpanzee appear to have undergone a clear split, whereas the divergence processes of the gorilla and orang-utan species occurred over several hundred thousands years with gene flow stopping quite recently. We also apply the model to the Homo/Pan speciation event and find that the most likely scenario involves an extended period of gene flow during speciation.

  8. ”How do the patients and their close relatives experience The Coordinated Investigation Model of Dementia in the North Denmark Region?”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgaard, Hanne; Ottesen, Aase Marie

    How do the patients and their close relatives experience The Coordinated Investigation Model of Dementia in the North Denmark Region? The aim of the project was to investigate how the patients and their close relatives experienced the investigation and the subsequent social medicine intervention,...... with lowest effective cost. A formal agreement regarding follow-up should be implemented. The relatives should be more involved during both investigation period and in the socio-medical follow-up....

  9. Pooling ASR data for closely related languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe several experiments that were conducted to assess the viability of data pooling as a means to improve speech-recognition performance for under-resourced languages. Two groups of closely related languages from the Southern Bantu language...

  10. Closed model of the earth's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piddington, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The existence of large-scale motions within the earth's magnetosphere and that of a long magnetotail were predicted in 1960 as results of a hypothetical frictional interaction between the solar wind and the geomagnetic field. The boundary layer model of this interaction involves the flow of magnetosheath plasma in a magnetospheric boundary layer. The flow is across magnetic field lines, and so the layer must be polarized, with a space charge field nearly balancing the induction field V x B. The space charge tends to discharge through the ionosphere, thus providing some magnetic and related activity as well as the Lorentz frictional force. This closed magnetosphere model has been largely neglected in favor of the reconnection model but is now strongly supported by observational results and their interpretation as follows. (1) The evidence for the reconnection model, increasing activity with a southward interplanetary field and invasion of the polar caps by flare particles, is shown to be equally compatible with the closed field model. (2) The magnetotail grows by the motions of closed flux tubes through the dawn and dusk meridians, a process which depends on the nature of the boundary between magnetosphere and magnetosheath plasmas and perhaps also on the solar wind dynamo. Both of these features depend, in turn, on the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field. (3) Closed field lines entering the tail may be stretched to a few tens of earth radii and then contract back to the corotating magnetosphere. Others enter the long tail and are stretched to hundreds of earth radii and so are pervious to fast solar particles. (4) A new model of the magnetospheric substorm involves the entry of closed field lines into the tail and their rapid return to the corotating magnetosphere. The return is due, first, to the release of their trapped plasma as it becomes electrically polarized and, second, to mounting magnetic and plasma stresses in the inflated magnetotail

  11. Closing small open economy models

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt-Grohe, Stephanie; Uribe, Martín

    2001-01-01

    The small open economy model with incomplete asset markets features a steady state that depends on initial conditions and equilibrium dynamics that possess a random walk component. A number of modifications to the standard model have been proposed to induce stationarity. This paper presents a quantitative comparison of these alternative approaches. Five different specifications are considered: (1) A model with an endogenous discount factor (Uzawa-type preferences); (2) A model with a debt-ela...

  12. Solid state conformations and antidopaminergic effects of remoxipride hydrochloride and a closely related salicylamide, FLA 797, in relation to dopamine receptor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högberg, T; Rämsby, S; de Paulis, T; Stensland, B; Csöregh, I; Wägner, A

    1986-10-01

    The X-ray structures of two new 2,6-disubstituted benzamides, i.e., remoxipride hydrochloride monohydrate [-)-(S)-3-bromo-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-2,6-dimethoxybenza mide hydrochloride monohydrate) and FLA 797 [-)-(S)-3-bromo-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-6-methoxysalicylamide ), have been determined as well as the distribution coefficients. The difference in dopamine receptor blocking activity is discussed in terms of lipophilicity and solid state conformations of the two benzamides. The major difference between the solid state conformations lies in the orientation of the carboxamide moiety. In remoxipride the carbonyl group is oriented almost perpendicularly to the benzene ring, thus preventing the formation of a hydrogen-bonded pseudo-ring between the amide hydrogen and the methoxy group found in other types of o-methoxybenzamides. In FLA 797, however, this pseudo-ring is present in the planar conformation of the salicylamide moiety. This conformation is further stabilized by a hydrogen bond between the phenol group and the carbonyl oxygen. The side chain in remoxipride adopts an extended conformation in contrast to FLA 797, where the side chain has a folded conformation. The crystal structures are related to current topographic dopamine receptor models developed from more rigid antidopaminergic compounds. Based on these comparisons, it is suggested that benzamides having an N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinylmethyl side chain interact with the receptor in the folded conformation. The binding affinity is thought to be further increased by the planar conformation of the salicylamide moiety present in FLA 797, which permits an efficient pi-pi stacking interaction.

  13. Measuring Visual Closeness of 3-D Models

    KAUST Repository

    Gollaz Morales, Jose Alejandro

    2012-09-01

    Measuring visual closeness of 3-D models is an important issue for different problems and there is still no standardized metric or algorithm to do it. The normal of a surface plays a vital role in the shading of a 3-D object. Motivated by this, we developed two applications to measure visualcloseness, introducing normal difference as a parameter in a weighted metric in Metro’s sampling approach to obtain the maximum and mean distance between 3-D models using 3-D and 6-D correspondence search structures. A visual closeness metric should provide accurate information on what the human observers would perceive as visually close objects. We performed a validation study with a group of people to evaluate the correlation of our metrics with subjective perception. The results were positive since the metrics predicted the subjective rankings more accurately than the Hausdorff distance.

  14. Closed-Loop Surface Related Multiple Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Angarita, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Surface-related multiple elimination (SRME) is one of the most commonly used methods for suppressing surface multiples. However, in order to obtain an accurate surface multiple estimation, dense source and receiver sampling is required. The traditional approach to this problem is performing data

  15. 12 CFR 225.123 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.123 Section 225.123 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.123 Activities closely related to banking. (a) Effective June 15...

  16. Model for lattice dynamics of hexagonal close packed metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, R K [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India); Kumar, S [Meerut Coll. (India). Dept. of Physics

    1977-11-19

    A lattice dynamical model, which satisfies the requirements of translational invariance as well as the static equilibrium of hexagonal close packed lattice, has been proposed and applied to study the phonon dispersion relations in magnesium. The results revealed by this model have been claimed to be better than earlier ones.

  17. Modeling closed nuclear fuel cycles processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmidt, O.V. [A.A. Bochvar All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Inorganic Materials, Rogova, 5a street, Moscow, 123098 (Russian Federation); Makeeva, I.R. [Zababakhin All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Technical Physics, Vasiliev street 13, Snezhinsk, Chelyabinsk region, 456770 (Russian Federation); Liventsov, S.N. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Lenin Avenue, 30, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-01

    Computer models of processes are necessary for determination of optimal operating conditions for closed nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) processes. Computer models can be quickly changed in accordance with new and fresh data from experimental research. 3 kinds of process simulation are necessary. First, the VIZART software package is a balance model development used for calculating the material flow in technological processes. VIZART involves taking into account of equipment capacity, transport lines and storage volumes. Secondly, it is necessary to simulate the physico-chemical processes that are involved in the closure of NFC. The third kind of simulation is the development of software that allows the optimization, diagnostics and control of the processes which implies real-time simulation of product flows on the whole plant or on separate lines of the plant. (A.C.)

  18. eShadow: A tool for comparing closely related sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovcharenko, Ivan; Boffelli, Dario; Loots, Gabriela G.

    2004-01-15

    Primate sequence comparisons are difficult to interpret due to the high degree of sequence similarity shared between such closely related species. Recently, a novel method, phylogenetic shadowing, has been pioneered for predicting functional elements in the human genome through the analysis of multiple primate sequence alignments. We have expanded this theoretical approach to create a computational tool, eShadow, for the identification of elements under selective pressure in multiple sequence alignments of closely related genomes, such as in comparisons of human to primate or mouse to rat DNA. This tool integrates two different statistical methods and allows for the dynamic visualization of the resulting conservation profile. eShadow also includes a versatile optimization module capable of training the underlying Hidden Markov Model to differentially predict functional sequences. This module grants the tool high flexibility in the analysis of multiple sequence alignments and in comparing sequences with different divergence rates. Here, we describe the eShadow comparative tool and its potential uses for analyzing both multiple nucleotide and protein alignments to predict putative functional elements. The eShadow tool is publicly available at http://eshadow.dcode.org/

  19. 12 CFR 225.131 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; operation and management of a trust department; international banking; foreign exchange transactions... specialized lending provisions; marketing operations, including research, market development and advertising... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.131 Activities closely related to banking. (a) Bank management...

  20. Quantization of bosonic closed strings and the Liouville model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paycha, S.

    1988-01-01

    The author shows that by means of a reasonable interpretation of the Lebesgue measure describing the partition function the quantization of closed bosonic strings described by compact surfaces of genus p>1 can be related to that of the Liouville model. (HSI)

  1. Dualities in ABJM matrix model from closed string viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyoshige, Kazuki; Moriyama, Sanefumi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University,3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

    2016-11-17

    We propose a new formalism to study the ABJM matrix model. Contrary to expressing the fractional brane background with the Wilson loops in the open string formalism, we formulate the Wilson loop expectation value from the viewpoint of the closed string background. With this new formalism, we can prove some duality relations in the matrix model. /includegraphics[scale=0.7]{abstract.eps}.

  2. Hosotani model in closed string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Kiyoshi.

    1988-11-01

    Hosotani mechanism in the closed string theory with current algebra symmetry is described by the (old covariant) operator method. We compare the gauge symmetry breaking mechanism in a string theory which has SU(2) symmetry with the one in an equivalent compactified closed string theory. We also investigate the difference between Hosotani mechanism and Higgs mechanism in closed string theories by calculation of a fourpoint amplitude of 'Higgs' bosons at tree level. (author)

  3. 29 CFR 541.703 - Directly and closely related.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transit, is performing exempt work. If the employee also spends part of the day taking telephone orders... employee's exempt work cannot be performed properly. Work “directly and closely related” to the performance... related to exempt work: (1) Keeping time, production or sales records for subordinates is work directly...

  4. Close pairs of relative equilibria for identical point vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, Tobias; Aref, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Numerical solution of the classical problem of relative equilibria for identical point vortices on the unbounded plane reveals configurations that are very close to the analytically known, centered, symmetrically arranged, nested equilateral triangles. New numerical solutions of this kind are fou...

  5. Mutual intelligibility between closely related language in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, Charlotte; van Heuven, Vincent; Golubovic, Jelena; Schüppert, Anja; Swarte, Femke; Voigt, Stefanie

    2018-01-01

    By means of a large-scale web-based investigation, we established the degree of mutual intelligibility of 16 closely related spoken languages within the Germanic, Slavic and Romance language families in Europe. We first present the results of a selection of 1833 listeners representing the mutual

  6. Mutual intelligibility between closely related languages in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, C.; Heuven, van V.J.J.P.; Golubović, J.; Schüppert, A.; Swarte, F.; Voigt, S.

    2017-01-01

    By means of a large-scale web-based investigation, we established the degree of mutual intelligibility of 16 closely related spoken languages within the Germanic, Slavic and Romance language families in Europe. We first present the results of a selection of 1833 listeners representing the mutual

  7. 12 CFR 225.129 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... competitive advantage over firms competing with other holding company affiliates. To reduce the possibility... Board's amendment of § 225.4(a), which adds courier services to the list of closely related activities... generally in the provision of transportation services. During the course of the Board's proceedings...

  8. Functionally relevant diversity of closely related Nitrospira in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber-Dorninger, Christiane; Pester, Michael; Kitzinger, Katharina; Savio, Domenico F; Loy, Alexander; Rattei, Thomas; Wagner, Michael; Daims, Holger

    2015-03-01

    Nitrospira are chemolithoautotrophic nitrite-oxidizing bacteria that catalyze the second step of nitrification in most oxic habitats and are important for excess nitrogen removal from sewage in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To date, little is known about their diversity and ecological niche partitioning within complex communities. In this study, the fine-scale community structure and function of Nitrospira was analyzed in two full-scale WWTPs as model ecosystems. In Nitrospira-specific 16S rRNA clone libraries retrieved from each plant, closely related phylogenetic clusters (16S rRNA identities between clusters ranged from 95.8% to 99.6%) within Nitrospira lineages I and II were found. Newly designed probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) allowed the specific detection of several of these clusters, whose coexistence in the WWTPs was shown for prolonged periods of several years. In situ ecophysiological analyses based on FISH, relative abundance and spatial arrangement quantification, as well as microautoradiography revealed functional differences of these Nitrospira clusters regarding the preferred nitrite concentration, the utilization of formate as substrate and the spatial coaggregation with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria as symbiotic partners. Amplicon pyrosequencing of the nxrB gene, which encodes subunit beta of nitrite oxidoreductase of Nitrospira, revealed in one of the WWTPs as many as 121 species-level nxrB operational taxonomic units with highly uneven relative abundances in the amplicon library. These results show a previously unrecognized high diversity of Nitrospira in engineered systems, which is at least partially linked to niche differentiation and may have important implications for process stability.

  9. Elucidation of Operon Structures across Closely Related Bacterial Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guojun

    2014-01-01

    About half of the protein-coding genes in prokaryotic genomes are organized into operons to facilitate co-regulation during transcription. With the evolution of genomes, operon structures are undergoing changes which could coordinate diverse gene expression patterns in response to various stimuli during the life cycle of a bacterial cell. Here we developed a graph-based model to elucidate the diversity of operon structures across a set of closely related bacterial genomes. In the constructed graph, each node represents one orthologous gene group (OGG) and a pair of nodes will be connected if any two genes, from the corresponding two OGGs respectively, are located in the same operon as immediate neighbors in any of the considered genomes. Through identifying the connected components in the above graph, we found that genes in a connected component are likely to be functionally related and these identified components tend to form treelike topology, such as paths and stars, corresponding to different biological mechanisms in transcriptional regulation as follows. Specifically, (i) a path-structure component integrates genes encoding a protein complex, such as ribosome; and (ii) a star-structure component not only groups related genes together, but also reflects the key functional roles of the central node of this component, such as the ABC transporter with a transporter permease and substrate-binding proteins surrounding it. Most interestingly, the genes from organisms with highly diverse living environments, i.e., biomass degraders and animal pathogens of clostridia in our study, can be clearly classified into different topological groups on some connected components. PMID:24959722

  10. Relationship of Dyadic Closeness with Work-Related Stress: A Daily Diary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Yoav; Ben-Ari, Adital

    2007-01-01

    We examined the association between work-related stress of both spouses and daily fluctuations in their affective states and dyadic closeness. Daily diary data from 169 Israeli dual-earner couples were analyzed using multilevel modeling. The findings indicate that work stress has no direct effect on dyadic closeness but rather is mediated by the…

  11. Efficient dynamic modeling of manipulators containing closed kinematic loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Gianni; Rocco, Paolo

    An approach to efficiently solve the forward dynamics problem for manipulators containing closed chains is proposed. The two main distinctive features of this approach are: the dynamics of the equivalent open loop tree structures (any closed loop can be in general modeled by imposing some additional kinematic constraints to a suitable tree structure) is computed through an efficient Newton Euler formulation; the constraint equations relative to the most commonly adopted closed chains in industrial manipulators are explicitly solved, thus, overcoming the redundancy of Lagrange's multipliers method while avoiding the inefficiency due to a numerical solution of the implicit constraint equations. The constraint equations considered for an explicit solution are those imposed by articulated gear mechanisms and planar closed chains (pantograph type structures). Articulated gear mechanisms are actually used in all industrial robots to transmit motion from actuators to links, while planar closed chains are usefully employed to increase the stiffness of the manipulators and their load capacity, as well to reduce the kinematic coupling of joint axes. The accuracy and the efficiency of the proposed approach are shown through a simulation test.

  12. Closed orbit related problems: Correction, feedback, and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozoki, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Orbit correction - moving the orbit to a desired orbit, orbit stability - keeping the orbit on the desired orbit using feedback to filter out unwanted noise, and orbit analysis - to learn more about the model of the machine, are strongly interrelated. They are the three facets of the same problem. The better one knows the model of the machine, the better the predictions that can be made on the behavior of the machine (inverse modeling) and the more accurately one can control the machine. On the other hand, one of the tools to learn more about the machine (modeling) is to study and analyze the orbit response to open-quotes kicks.close quotes

  13. Closed-form summations of Dowker's and related trigonometric sums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvijović, Djurdje; Srivastava, H M

    2012-01-01

    Through a unified and relatively simple approach which uses complex contour integrals, particularly convenient integration contours and calculus of residues, closed-form summation formulas for 12 very general families of trigonometric sums are deduced. One of them is a family of cosecant sums which was first summed in closed form in a series of papers by Dowker (1987 Phys. Rev. D 36 3095–101; 1989 J. Math. Phys. 30 770–3; 1992 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 25 2641–8), whose method has inspired our work in this area. All of the formulas derived here involve the higher-order Bernoulli polynomials. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of Stuart Dowker's 75th birthday devoted to ‘Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics’. (paper)

  14. Closed-form summations of Dowker's and related trigonometric sums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvijović, Djurdje; Srivastava, H. M.

    2012-09-01

    Through a unified and relatively simple approach which uses complex contour integrals, particularly convenient integration contours and calculus of residues, closed-form summation formulas for 12 very general families of trigonometric sums are deduced. One of them is a family of cosecant sums which was first summed in closed form in a series of papers by Dowker (1987 Phys. Rev. D 36 3095-101 1989 J. Math. Phys. 30 770-3 1992 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 25 2641-8), whose method has inspired our work in this area. All of the formulas derived here involve the higher-order Bernoulli polynomials. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of Stuart Dowker's 75th birthday devoted to ‘Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics’.

  15. Extracted facial feature of racial closely related faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liewchavalit, Chalothorn; Akiba, Masakazu; Kanno, Tsuneo; Nagao, Tomoharu

    2010-02-01

    Human faces contain a lot of demographic information such as identity, gender, age, race and emotion. Human being can perceive these pieces of information and use it as an important clue in social interaction with other people. Race perception is considered the most delicacy and sensitive parts of face perception. There are many research concerning image-base race recognition, but most of them are focus on major race group such as Caucasoid, Negroid and Mongoloid. This paper focuses on how people classify race of the racial closely related group. As a sample of racial closely related group, we choose Japanese and Thai face to represents difference between Northern and Southern Mongoloid. Three psychological experiment was performed to study the strategies of face perception on race classification. As a result of psychological experiment, it can be suggested that race perception is an ability that can be learn. Eyes and eyebrows are the most attention point and eyes is a significant factor in race perception. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to extract facial features of sample race group. Extracted race features of texture and shape were used to synthesize faces. As the result, it can be suggested that racial feature is rely on detailed texture rather than shape feature. This research is a indispensable important fundamental research on the race perception which are essential in the establishment of human-like race recognition system.

  16. Closing open SDL-systems for model checking with DTSpin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Ioustinova (Natalia); N. Sidorova; M. Steffen

    2002-01-01

    textabstractModel checkers like Spin can handle closed reactive systems, only. Thus to handle open systems, in particular when using assume-guarantee reasoning, we need to be able to close (sub-)systems, which is commonly done by adding an environment process. For models with asynchronous

  17. Transcriptome-based differentiation of closely-related Miscanthus lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Chouvarine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Distinguishing between individuals is critical to those conducting animal/plant breeding, food safety/quality research, diagnostic and clinical testing, and evolutionary biology studies. Classical genetic identification studies are based on marker polymorphisms, but polymorphism-based techniques are time and labor intensive and often cannot distinguish between closely related individuals. Illumina sequencing technologies provide the detailed sequence data required for rapid and efficient differentiation of related species, lines/cultivars, and individuals in a cost-effective manner. Here we describe the use of Illumina high-throughput exome sequencing, coupled with SNP mapping, as a rapid means of distinguishing between related cultivars of the lignocellulosic bioenergy crop giant miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus. We provide the first exome sequence database for Miscanthus species complete with Gene Ontology (GO functional annotations. RESULTS: A SNP comparative analysis of rhizome-derived cDNA sequences was successfully utilized to distinguish three Miscanthus × giganteus cultivars from each other and from other Miscanthus species. Moreover, the resulting phylogenetic tree generated from SNP frequency data parallels the known breeding history of the plants examined. Some of the giant miscanthus plants exhibit considerable sequence divergence. CONCLUSIONS: Here we describe an analysis of Miscanthus in which high-throughput exome sequencing was utilized to differentiate between closely related genotypes despite the current lack of a reference genome sequence. We functionally annotated the exome sequences and provide resources to support Miscanthus systems biology. In addition, we demonstrate the use of the commercial high-performance cloud computing to do computational GO annotation.

  18. Detecting Horizontal Gene Transfer between Closely Related Taxa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orit Adato

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal gene transfer (HGT, the transfer of genetic material between organisms, is crucial for genetic innovation and the evolution of genome architecture. Existing HGT detection algorithms rely on a strong phylogenetic signal distinguishing the transferred sequence from ancestral (vertically derived genes in its recipient genome. Detecting HGT between closely related species or strains is challenging, as the phylogenetic signal is usually weak and the nucleotide composition is normally nearly identical. Nevertheless, there is a great importance in detecting HGT between congeneric species or strains, especially in clinical microbiology, where understanding the emergence of new virulent and drug-resistant strains is crucial, and often time-sensitive. We developed a novel, self-contained technique named Near HGT, based on the synteny index, to measure the divergence of a gene from its native genomic environment and used it to identify candidate HGT events between closely related strains. The method confirms candidate transferred genes based on the constant relative mutability (CRM. Using CRM, the algorithm assigns a confidence score based on "unusual" sequence divergence. A gene exhibiting exceptional deviations according to both synteny and mutability criteria, is considered a validated HGT product. We first employed the technique to a set of three E. coli strains and detected several highly probable horizontally acquired genes. We then compared the method to existing HGT detection tools using a larger strain data set. When combined with additional approaches our new algorithm provides richer picture and brings us closer to the goal of detecting all newly acquired genes in a particular strain.

  19. Differentiation of closely related fungi by electronic nose analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlshøj, Kristian; Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2007-01-01

    the electronic nose potentially responded to, volatile metabolites were collected, by diffusive sampling overnight onto tubes containing Tenax TA, between the 7th and 8th day of Incubation.Volatiles were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and the results indicated that mail alcohols...... as well as the noacheese ociated P. expansum have been investigated by electronic nose, GC-MS, and LGMS analysis. The isolates were inoculated on yeast extract sucroseagar in 20-mL headspace flasks and electronicnose analysis was performed daily for a-74period. To assess which volatile metabolites...... by high pressure liquid chromatography, coupled-to a diode array detector and a time of flight mass spectrometer. Several mycotoxins were detected in samples from the specles P.nordicum, P.roqueforti, P.paneum, P.carneum, and P.expansum. Differentiation of closely related mycotoxin producing fungi...

  20. Family Communication Patterns and Relational Maintenance Behavior: Direct and Mediated Associations with Friendship Closeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, both face-to-face and online relational maintenance behaviors were tested as mediators of family communication patterns and closeness with a same-sex friend. Participants included 417 young adults recruited from communication courses at a large university in the Midwestern United States. The obtained structural model demonstrated…

  1. Supersymmetric models with tan β close to unity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthanarayan, B.; Babu, K.S.; Shafi, Q.

    1994-01-01

    Within the framework of supersymmetric grand unification, estimates of the b quark mass based on the asymptotic relation m b similar eqm τ single out the region with tan β close to unity, particularly if m t (m t ) < or ∼170 GeV. We explore the radiative breaking of the electroweak symmetry and the associated sparticle and higgs spectroscopy in models with 1 < tan β< or ∼1.6. The lightest scalar higgs is expected to have a mass below 100 GeV, while the remaining four higgs masses exceed 300 GeV. The lower bounds on some of the sparticle masses are within the range of LEP 200. ((orig.))

  2. Nonlinear Stochastic Models for Water Level Dynamics in Closed Lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Mishchenko, A.S.; Zelikin, M.I.; Zelikina, L.F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigation of nonlinear mathematical models of the behavior of closed lakes using the example of the Caspian Sea. Forecasting the level of the Caspian Sea is crucial both for the economy of the region and for the region's environment. The Caspian Sea is a closed reservoir; it is well known that its level changes considerably due to a variety of factors including global climate change. A series of forecasts exists based on different methods and taking...

  3. Nucleosome-coupled expression differences in closely-related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebbia Marinella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide nucleosome occupancy is negatively related to the average level of transcription factor motif binding based on studies in yeast and several other model organisms. The degree to which nucleosome-motif interactions relate to phenotypic changes across species is, however, unknown. Results We address this challenge by generating nucleosome positioning and cell cycle expression data for Saccharomyces bayanus and show that differences in nucleosome occupancy reflect cell cycle expression divergence between two yeast species, S. bayanus and S. cerevisiae. Specifically, genes with nucleosome-depleted MBP1 motifs upstream of their coding sequence show periodic expression during the cell cycle, whereas genes with nucleosome-shielded motifs do not. In addition, conserved cell cycle regulatory motifs across these two species are more nucleosome-depleted compared to those that are not conserved, suggesting that the degree of conservation of regulatory sites varies, and is reflected by nucleosome occupancy patterns. Finally, many changes in cell cycle gene expression patterns across species can be correlated to changes in nucleosome occupancy on motifs (rather than to the presence or absence of motifs. Conclusions Our observations suggest that alteration of nucleosome occupancy is a previously uncharacterized feature related to the divergence of cell cycle expression between species.

  4. Legal questions relating to nuclear installations close to national frontiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieger, G.

    1983-01-01

    Main emphasis is placed on the criteria to decide whether the construction and operation of a nulcear power plant close to a national frontier is permissible or not. The author discusses the relevant provisions of the international law and those of the Treaty of Rome pertaining to the settlement of conflicts between neighbour states. According to the opinion of the author, nuclear installations close to borders are incompatible with international law only if they do not comply with accepted safety standards. The international agreements do not prohibit the construction of nuclear installations close to frontiers. It would be desirable, however, the author says, to conclude international treaties providing for mutual consultation and information, thus offering a platform for discussing controversial national interests; this idea already being put into practice in customary international law. (WB) [de

  5. Experiments for habitation-related technologies in closed system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Tsuyoshi; Tako, Yasuhiro

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary habitation experiments, including facility implementation tests, investigation of work load and psychological and physiological effect of human subjects, environmental monitoring tests, and integrated implementation tests were performed in Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF). Results showed insufficient ability of CO 2 separator, issues of overtime work of subjects and inadequate communication between subjects and supporting staff outside the modules. Countermeasures for these issues were developed. Results show that habitation experiments from fiscal year 2005 on the CEEF were judged to be feasible. (author)

  6. A Bigraph Relational Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauquier, Maxime; Schürmann, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a model based on relations for bigraphical reactive system [Milner09]. Its defining characteristics are that validity and reaction relations are captured as traces in a multi-set rewriting system. The relational model is derived from Milner's graphical definition...

  7. A Rational Model of the Closed-End Fund Discount

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Berk; Richard Stanton

    2004-01-01

    The discount on closed-end funds is widely accepted as proof of investor irrationality. We show,however, that a parsimonious rational model can generate a discount that exhibits many of the characteristics observed in practice. The only required features of the model are that managers have (imperfectly observable) ability to generate excess returns; they sign long-term contracts guaranteeing them a fee each year equal to a fixed fraction of assets under management; and they can leave to earn ...

  8. On Closed Timelike Curves and Warped Brane World Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slagter Reinoud Jan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available At first glance, it seems possible to construct in general relativity theory causality violating solutions. The most striking one is the Gott spacetime. Two cosmic strings, approaching each other with high velocity, could produce closed timelike curves. It was quickly recognized that this solution violates physical boundary conditions. The effective one particle generator becomes hyperbolic, so the center of mass is tachyonic. On a 5-dimensional warped spacetime, it seems possible to get an elliptic generator, so no obstruction is encountered and the velocity of the center of mass of the effective particle has an overlap with the Gott region. So a CTC could, in principle, be constructed. However, from the effective 4D field equations on the brane, which are influenced by the projection of the bulk Weyl tensor on the brane, it follows that no asymptotic conical space time is found, so no angle deficit as in the 4D counterpart model. This could also explain why we do not observe cosmic strings.

  9. Models as Relational Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Tommi

    2017-11-01

    Model-based learning (MBL) has an established position within science education. It has been found to enhance conceptual understanding and provide a way for engaging students in authentic scientific activity. Despite ample research, few studies have examined the cognitive processes regarding learning scientific concepts within MBL. On the other hand, recent research within cognitive science has examined the learning of so-called relational categories. Relational categories are categories whose membership is determined on the basis of the common relational structure. In this theoretical paper, I argue that viewing models as relational categories provides a well-motivated cognitive basis for MBL. I discuss the different roles of models and modeling within MBL (using ready-made models, constructive modeling, and generative modeling) and discern the related cognitive aspects brought forward by the reinterpretation of models as relational categories. I will argue that relational knowledge is vital in learning novel models and in the transfer of learning. Moreover, relational knowledge underlies the coherent, hierarchical knowledge of experts. Lastly, I will examine how the format of external representations may affect the learning of models and the relevant relations. The nature of the learning mechanisms underlying students' mental representations of models is an interesting open question to be examined. Furthermore, the ways in which the expert-like knowledge develops and how to best support it is in need of more research. The discussion and conceptualization of models as relational categories allows discerning students' mental representations of models in terms of evolving relational structures in greater detail than previously done.

  10. Closing in on chemical bonds by opening up relativity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Cynthia K

    2008-03-01

    This paper develops a connection between the phenomenology of chemical bonding and the theory of relativity. Empirical correlations between electron numbers in atoms and chemical bond stabilities in molecules are first reviewed and extended. Quantitative chemical bond strengths are then related to ionization potentials in elements. Striking patterns in ionization potentials are revealed when the data are viewed in an element-independent way, where element-specific details are removed via an appropriate scaling law. The scale factor involved is not explained by quantum mechanics; it is revealed only when one goes back further, to the development of Einstein's special relativity theory.

  11. Power, attraction, and reference in macrolevel social relations: An analysis of closed groups and closed societies based on the psychology of the “Soviet person”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radina Nadezhda K.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the features of social-relationship systems are analyzed based on the data from a sociopsychological empirical study conducted in two stages (2002 and 2014 on a large sample with the help of g. Kelly’s Repertory grid Technique. A. V. Petrovsky’s three-factor interpersonal-relationships model as interpreted for closed groups by M. Yu. Kondratev and the concept of the closed society as described by Karl Popper provide the foundation for the theoretical hypothesis we tested. The empirical data obtained in 2002 came from 391 participants of different ages who were living in provincial towns in the Nizhny Novgorod region. The elderly respondents (232 people had lived almost all their lives under the Soviet regime; the middle-aged respondents (159 people got their education and started their careers in the USSR. Soviet society is considered to be closed because of its authoritarian and collectivist nature, static social structure, and dogmatic ideology. It is argued that both closed societies and closed groups are characterized by a rigid hierarchical social structure, isolation from other systems, and depersonalization of social relations. We have proved that members of a closed group and citizens of a closed society have similar social-relationship matrices.

  12. [Jealousy in close relationships: personal, relational and situational variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirtaş, H Andaç; Dönmez, Ali

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the effects of personal, situational, and relational variables (such as age, gender, gender role orientation, duration of relationship, relational satisfaction, and physical attractiveness of the partner) on jealousy are investigated. A sample of 454 individuals currently involved in dating or marital relationships (48 % married, 52 % unmarried) completed the Romantic Jealousy Questionnaire, Bem Sex Role Inventory, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Stepwise regression analyses and 2 (gender) x2 (gender role orientation) x2 (relational type) ANOVA's were submitted for analyzing the data. Analysis indicated that unmarried people reported higher levels of jealousy than married people (F1-446 = 5.029). Married women reported less jealousy than unmarried women and married women reported more jealousy than married men. Age, relational satisfaction level, expectation level about the duration of the relationship, and physical attractiveness of the partner were unique predictors of the reported level of jealousy (R2 = 0.12; adjusted R2 = 0.11; P physical, emotional, and cognitive responses to jealousy compared to men. Women used more constructive (F1-446 = 6.27) and less destructive strategies than men (F1-446 = 6.27). Unmarried people used more destructive strategies than married people (F1-446 = 3.84). Age, self-esteem, and the duration of the relationship were unique predictors of coping strategies. The present study revealed that jealousy was a multidimensional variable. In particular, relational type, self-esteem, age, relational satisfaction, and sex are highly correlated with jealousy.

  13. Construction of closed fermionic string models in four dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewellen, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    It is possible to construct consistent closed string models directly in four space-time dimensions if reparametrization invariance, conformal invariance and world sheet supersymmetry are properly accounted for. In the context of string models whose internal degrees of freedom are represented by free world sheet fermions, it is possible to completely solve for the above requirements, providing a simple set of rules for constructing string models. N = 1 supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric heterotic type string models with chiral fermions and realistic gauge groups, as well as generalized type II models with realistic gauge groups, can easily be constructed. Many other string models can be constructed using similar methods based on free world sheet bosons

  14. Use of Wild Relatives and Closely Related Species to Adapt Common Bean to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Kelly

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is an important legume crop worldwide. However, abiotic and biotic stress limits bean yields to <600 kg ha−1 in low-income countries. Current low yields result in food insecurity, while demands for increased yields to match the rate of population growth combined with the threat of climate change are significant. Novel and significant advances in genetic improvement using untapped genetic diversity available in crop wild relatives and closely related species must be further explored. A meeting was organized by the Global Crop Diversity Trust to consider strategies for common bean improvement. This review resulted from that meeting and considers our current understanding of the genetic resources available for common bean improvement and the progress that has been achieved thus far through introgression of genetic diversity from wild relatives of common bean, and from closely related species, including: P. acutifolius, P. coccineus, P. costaricensis and P. dumosus. Newly developed genomic tools and their potential applications are presented. A broad outline of research for use of these genetic resources for common bean improvement in a ten-year multi-disciplinary effort is presented.

  15. The Relational Humor Inventory: Functions of Humor in Close Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKoning, E.; Weiss, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    This study describes the development of a self-report measure of functional humor in relationships. People were asked to report on their own and their partner's use of humor in the marriage. The Relational Humor Inventory proved to be a useful instrument for tapping important positive and negative relationship behaviors. (Contains 30 references, 4…

  16. Burnout and engagement: Identical twins or just close relatives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toon W. Taris

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Past research has frequently cast doubts on the theoretical and empirical distinction between the concepts of work engagement and burnout. Drawing on cross-sectional survey data from 1535 Dutch police officers, the current study examined (a the associations among the two core dimensions of burnout (i.e. exhaustion and cynicism and work engagement (vigor and dedication; and (b the concurrent and discriminant validity of these dimensions by relating these four dimensions to various important job demands and job resources. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the distinction between burnout and engagement is elusive. Moreover, although the indicators of burnout and those of engagement differed in terms of their job-related correlates, these patterns of associations only partly supported previous theorizing on the antecedents of burnout and engagement. We conclude that burnout and engagement are to a large degree overlapping concepts and that their conceptual and empirical differences should not be overestimated.

  17. Molecular relationships between closely related strains and species of nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, M. H.; Wall, S. M.; Luehrsen, K. R.; Fox, G. E.; Hecht, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    Electrophoretic comparisons have been made for 24 enzymes in the Bergerac and Bristol strains of Caenorhabditis elegans and the related species, Caenorhabditis briggsae. No variation was detected between the two strains of C. elegans. In contrast, the two species, C. elegans and C. briggsae exhibited electrophoretic differences in 22 of 24 enzymes. A consensus 5S rRNA sequence was determined for C. elegans and found to be identical to that from C. briggsae. By analogy with other species with relatively well established fossil records it can be inferred that the time of divergence between the two nematode species is probably in the tens of millions of years. The limited anatomical evolution during a time period in which proteins undergo extensive changes supports the hypothesis that anatomical evolution is not dependent on overall protein changes.

  18. Evolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and its close commensal relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Mogens; Poulsen, Knud; Blomqvist, Trinelise

    2008-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a member of the Mitis group of streptococci which, according to 16S rRNA-sequence based phylogenetic reconstruction, includes 12 species. While other species of this group are considered prototypes of commensal bacteria, S. pneumoniae is among the most frequent microbial...... of unique genes and their origin support the model that the entire cluster of S. pneumoniae, S. pseudopneumoniae, and S. mitis lineages evolved from pneumococcus-like bacteria presumably pathogenic to the common immediate ancestor of hominoids. During their adaptation to a commensal life style, most...

  19. Ethical challenges embedded in qualitative research interviews with close relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haahr, Anita; Norlyk, Annelise; Hall, Elisabeth Oc

    2014-02-01

    Nurse researchers engaged in qualitative interviews with patients and spouses in healthcare may often experience being in unforeseen ethical dilemmas. Researchers are guided by the bioethical principles of justice, beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for human rights and respect for autonomy through the entire research process. However, these principles are not sufficient to prepare researchers for unanticipated ethical dilemmas related to qualitative research interviews. We describe and discuss ethically challenging and difficult moments embedded in two cases from our own phenomenological interview studies. We argue that qualitative interviews involve navigation between being guided by bioethics as a researcher, being a therapist/nurse and being a fellow human being or even a friend. The researchers' premises to react to unexpected situations and act in a sound ethical manner must be enhanced, and there is a need for an increased focus on the researchers' ethical preparation and to continually address and discuss cases from their own interviews.

  20. Ethical Challenges embedded in qualitative research interviews with close relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anita; Norlyk, Annelise; Hall, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Nurse researchers engaged in qualitative interviews with patients and spouses in healthcare may often experience being in unforseen ethical dilemmas. Researchers are guided by the bioethical principles of justice, beneficence, non-maleficence respect for human rights and respect for autonomy...... through the entire research process. However, these principles are not sufficient to prepare researchers for unanticipated ethical dilemmas related to qualitative researchs interviews. We describe and discuss ethically challenging and difficult moments embedded in two cases from our own phenomenological...... interview studies. We argue that qualitative interviews involve navigation between being guided by bioethics as a researcher, being a therapist/nurse and being a fellow human being or even a friend. The researchers' premises to react to unexpected situations and act in a sound ethical manner must...

  1. 12 CFR 225.126 - Activities not closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities not closely related to banking. 225.126 Section 225.126 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE... Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.126 Activities not closely related to banking. Pursuant to...

  2. Closed Loop Brain Model of Neocortical Information Based Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James eKozloski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe an information based exchange' model of brain function that ascribes to neocortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus distinct network functions. The model allows us to analyze whole brain system set point measures, such as the rate and heterogeneity of transitions in striatum and neocortex, in the context of neuromodulation and other perturbations. Our closed-loop model is grounded in neuroanatomical observations, proposing a novel Grand Loop through neocortex, and invokes different forms of plasticity at specific tissue interfaces and their principle cell synapses to achieve these transitions. By implementing a system for maximum information based exchange of action potentials between modeled neocortical areas, we observe changes to these measures in simulation. We hypothesize that similar dynamic set points and modulations exist in the brain's resting state activity, and that different modifications to information based exchange may shift the risk profile of different component tissues, resulting in different neurodegenerative diseases. This model is targeted for further development using IBM's Neural Tissue Simulator, which allows scalable elaboration of networks, tissues, and their neural and synaptic components towards ever greater complexity and biological realism.

  3. An Improved Model for FE Modeling and Simulation of Closed Cell Al-Alloy Foams

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, MD. Anwarul

    2010-01-01

    Cell wall material properties of Al-alloy foams have been derived by a combination of nanoindentation experiment and numerical simulation. Using the derived material properties in FE (finite element) modeling of foams, the existing constitutive models of closed-cell Al-alloy foams have been evaluated against experimental results. An improved representative model has been proposed for FE analysis of closed-cell Al-alloy foams. The improved model consists of a combination of spherical and cruci...

  4. Fisheries Closed Areas Strengthen Scallop Larval Settlement and Connectivity Among Closed Areas and Across International Open Fishing Grounds: A Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kimberley T. A.; Gentleman, W. C.; DiBacco, C.; Johnson, C. L.

    2015-09-01

    This study examined whether a measured increase in average body size of adult sea scallops inside three fishery closed areas on Georges Bank (GB), United States (US), was sufficient to increase larval supply to closed areas and open fishing areas in both US and Canadian areas of the Bank. The effects of adult scallop density-at-size and fecundity-at-size on egg production were compared among open and closed fishery areas, countries, and time periods before and after the closed areas were established. Estimated egg production was then used to define spawning conditions in a coupled biological-physical larval tracking model that simulated larval development, mortality, and dispersal. Results showed that order of magnitude increases in larval settlement after closure were facilitated by increases in size-dependant egg production inside and dispersal from Closed Areas I and II, but not Nantucket Lightship Closed Area. The distributions of both egg production and larval settlement became more uniform across the Bank, causing the relative contribution of Canadian larvae to US scallop aggregations to decrease after establishment of Closed Areas I and II. Decreases in small and medium-sized scallop density in Canada and decreases in large scallops over the US-Southern Flank after closure caused local declines in egg production but were not sufficient to negatively affect larval settlement at the regional scale. Our model suggests that the establishment of fishery closed areas on GB considerably strengthened larval supply and settlement within and among several adult scallop aggregations.

  5. Language Adaptation for Extending Post-Editing Estimates for Closely Related Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rios Miguel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an open-source toolkit for predicting human post-editing efforts for closely related languages. At the moment, training resources for the Quality Estimation task are available for very few language directions and domains. Available resources can be expanded on the assumption that MT errors and the amount of post-editing required to correct them are comparable across related languages, even if the feature frequencies differ. In this paper we report a toolkit for achieving language adaptation, which is based on learning new feature representation using transfer learning methods. In particular, we report performance of a method based on Self-Taught Learning which adapts the English-Spanish pair to produce Quality Estimation models for translation from English into Portuguese, Italian and other Romance languages using the publicly available Autodesk dataset.

  6. Calculational models of close-spaced thermionic converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    Two new calculational models have been developed in conjunction with the SAVTEC experimental program. These models have been used to analyze data from experimental close-spaced converters, providing values for spacing, electrode work functions, and converter efficiency. They have also been used to make performance predictions for such converters over a wide range of conditions. Both models are intended for use in the collisionless (Knudsen) regime. They differ from each other in that the simpler one uses a Langmuir-type formulation which only considers electrons emitted from the emitter. This approach is implemented in the LVD (Langmuir Vacuum Diode) computer program, which has the virtue of being both simple and fast. The more complex model also includes both Saha-Langmuir emission of positive cesium ions from the emitter and collector back emission. Computer implementation is by the KMD1 (Knudsen Mode Diode) program. The KMD1 model derives the particle distribution functions from the Vlasov equation. From these the particle densities are found for various interelectrode motive shapes. Substituting the particle densities into Poisson's equation gives a second order differential equation for potential. This equation can be integrated once analytically. The second integration, which gives the interelectrode motive, is performed numerically by the KMD1 program. This is complicated by the fact that the integrand is often singular at one end point of the integration interval. The program performs a transformation on the integrand to make it finite over the entire interval. Once the motive has been computed, the output voltage, current density, power density, and efficiency are found. The program is presently unable to operate when the ion richness ratio β is between about .8 and 1.0, due to the occurrence of oscillatory motives

  7. A simple multistage closed-(box+reservoir model of chemical evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple closed-box (CB models of chemical evolution are extended on two respects, namely (i simple closed-(box+reservoir (CBR models allowing gas outflow from the box into the reservoir (Hartwick 1976 or gas inflow into the box from the reservoir (Caimmi 2007 with rate proportional to the star formation rate, and (ii simple multistage closed-(box+reservoir (MCBR models allowing different stages of evolution characterized by different inflow or outflow rates. The theoretical differential oxygen abundance distribution (TDOD predicted by the model maintains close to a continuous broken straight line. An application is made where a fictitious sample is built up from two distinct samples of halo stars and taken as representative of the inner Galactic halo. The related empirical differential oxygen abundance distribution (EDOD is represented, to an acceptable extent, as a continuous broken line for two viable [O/H]-[Fe/H] empirical relations. The slopes and the intercepts of the regression lines are determined, and then used as input parameters to MCBR models. Within the errors (-+σ, regression line slopes correspond to a large inflow during the earlier stage of evolution and to low or moderate outflow during the subsequent stages. A possible inner halo - outer (metal-poor bulge connection is also briefly discussed. Quantitative results cannot be considered for applications to the inner Galactic halo, unless selection effects and disk contamination are removed from halo samples, and discrepancies between different oxygen abundance determination methods are explained.

  8. Closed-Loop Supply Chain Planning Model of Rare Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmin Son

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Rare metals (RMs are becoming increasingly important in high-tech industries associated with the Fourth Industrial Revolution, such as the electric vehicle (EV and 3D printer industries. As the growth of these industries accelerates in the near future, manufacturers will also face greater RM supply risks. For this reason, many countries are putting considerable effort into securing the RM supply. For example, countries including Japan, Korea, and the USA have adopted two major policies: the stockpile system and Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR. Therefore, it is necessary for the manufacturers with RMs to establish a suitable supply chain plan that reflects this situation. In this study, the RM classification matrix is created based on the stockpile and recycling level in Korea. Accordingly, three different types of supply chain are designed in order to develop the closed-loop supply chain (CLSC planning model of RM, and the CLSC planning models of RM are validated through experimental analysis. The results show that the stockpiling and the EPR recycling obligation increase the amount of recycled flow and reduce the total cost of the part manufacturing, which means that these two factors are significant for obtaining sustainability of the RMs’ CLSC. In addition, the government needs to set an appropriate sharing cost for promoting the manufacturer’s recycling. Also, from the manufacturer’s perspective, it is better to increase the return rate by making a contract with the collectors to guarantee the collection of used products.

  9. Measurement of laser welding pool geometry using a closed convex active contour model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Rui; Zhang, Pu; Duan, Aiqing; Xiao, Peng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a computer vision method to measure geometric parameters of the weld pool in a deep penetration CO 2 laser welding system. Accurate measurement was achieved by removing a huge amount of interference caused by spatter, arc light and plasma to extract the true weld pool contour. This paper introduces a closed convex active contour (CCAC) model derived from the active contour model (snake model), which is a more robust high-level vision method than the traditional low-level vision methods. We made an improvement by integrating an active contour with the information that the weld pool contour is almost a closed convex curve. An effective thresholding method and an improved greedy algorithm are also given to complement the CCAC model. These influences can be effectively removed by using the CCAC model to acquire and measure the weld pool contour accurately and relatively fast. (paper)

  10. Discriminative Relational Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Zhu, Jun; Xia, Fei; Zhang, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Relational topic models (RTMs) provide a probabilistic generative process to describe both the link structure and document contents for document networks, and they have shown promise on predicting network structures and discovering latent topic representations. However, existing RTMs have limitations in both the restricted model expressiveness and incapability of dealing with imbalanced network data. To expand the scope and improve the inference accuracy of RTMs, this paper presents three extensions: 1) unlike the common link likelihood with a diagonal weight matrix that allows the-same-topic interactions only, we generalize it to use a full weight matrix that captures all pairwise topic interactions and is applicable to asymmetric networks; 2) instead of doing standard Bayesian inference, we perform regularized Bayesian inference (RegBayes) with a regularization parameter to deal with the imbalanced link structure issue in real networks and improve the discriminative ability of learned latent representations; and 3) instead of doing variational approximation with strict mean-field assumptions, we present collapsed Gibbs sampling algorithms for the generalized relational topic models by exploring data augmentation without making restricting assumptions. Under the generic RegBayes framework, we carefully investigate two popular discriminative loss functions, namely, the logistic log-loss and the max-margin hinge loss. Experimental results on several real network datasets demonstrate the significance of these extensions on improving prediction performance.

  11. Close relatives find meaning to cope with cancer diagnosis and treatment of family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyh, Janelle M; Levine, Ellen G; Clay, Karine

    2012-12-01

    Pediatric palliative care has recently become a priority in the health care field and is implemented at the time of diagnosis rather than days or weeks before the child's death. Social constructivism theory in which humans generate meaning from their experiences was utilized as a general framework to determine the impact of pediatric palliative care on close relatives. The purpose of this grounded theory study was to generate a substantive theory that explains how close relatives such as grandparents, aunts, and uncles of a child with cancer experience palliative care. The participants of the study included close relatives of children in palliative care. Semistructured interviews and journaling were used to collect data. Initial, focused, and axial coding procedures were used to manage the data and a content analysis of the textual data was performed. Findings from the data suggested a process of finding meaning which helps close relatives to let go of what they cannot control while holding on to what they can control. Social change implications of this study may include improving health care programming for close relatives utilizing supportive-expressive measures. This programming may promote mental health of the close relatives who will learn to deal with their adjustment difficulties and improve their coping skills.

  12. Inflation in the closed FLRW model and the CMB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonga, Béatrice; Gupt, Brajesh; Yokomizo, Nelson, E-mail: bpb165@psu.edu, E-mail: bgupt@gravity.psu.edu, E-mail: yokomizo@gravity.psu.edu [Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos and Physics Department, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Recent cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations put strong constraints on the spatial curvature via estimation of the parameter Ω{sub k} assuming an almost scale invariant primordial power spectrum. We study the evolution of the background geometry and gauge-invariant scalar perturbations in an inflationary closed FLRW model and calculate the primordial power spectrum. We find that the inflationary dynamics is modified due to the presence of spatial curvature, leading to corrections to the nearly scale invariant power spectrum at the end of inflation. When evolved to the surface of last scattering, the resulting temperature anisotropy spectrum ( C {sup TT}{sub ℓ}) shows deficit of power at low multipoles (ℓ < 20). By comparing our results with the recent Planck data we discuss the role of spatial curvature in accounting for CMB anomalies and in the estimation of the parameter Ω{sub k}. Since the curvature effects are limited to low multipoles, the Planck estimation of cosmological parameters remains robust under inclusion of positive spatial curvature.

  13. Model Optimization Identification Method Based on Closed-loop Operation Data and Process Characteristics Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang GENG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Output noise is strongly related to input in closed-loop control system, which makes model identification of closed-loop difficult, even unidentified in practice. The forward channel model is chosen to isolate disturbance from the output noise to input, and identified by optimization the dynamic characteristics of the process based on closed-loop operation data. The characteristics parameters of the process, such as dead time and time constant, are calculated and estimated based on the PI/PID controller parameters and closed-loop process input/output data. And those characteristics parameters are adopted to define the search space of the optimization identification algorithm. PSO-SQP optimization algorithm is applied to integrate the global search ability of PSO with the local search ability of SQP to identify the model parameters of forward channel. The validity of proposed method has been verified by the simulation. The practicability is checked with the PI/PID controller parameter turning based on identified forward channel model.

  14. A Murine Herpesvirus Closely Related to Ubiquitous Human Herpesviruses Causes T-Cell Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Swapneel J; Zhao, Guoyan; Penna, Vinay R; Park, Eugene; Lauron, Elvin J; Harvey, Ian B; Beatty, Wandy L; Plougastel-Douglas, Beatrice; Poursine-Laurent, Jennifer; Fremont, Daved H; Wang, David; Yokoyama, Wayne M

    2017-05-01

    The human roseoloviruses human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A), HHV-6B, and HHV-7 comprise the Roseolovirus genus of the human Betaherpesvirinae subfamily. Infections with these viruses have been implicated in many diseases; however, it has been challenging to establish infections with roseoloviruses as direct drivers of pathology, because they are nearly ubiquitous and display species-specific tropism. Furthermore, controlled study of infection has been hampered by the lack of experimental models, and until now, a mouse roseolovirus has not been identified. Herein we describe a virus that causes severe thymic necrosis in neonatal mice, characterized by a loss of CD4 + T cells. These phenotypes resemble those caused by the previously described mouse thymic virus (MTV), a putative herpesvirus that has not been molecularly characterized. By next-generation sequencing of infected tissue homogenates, we assembled a contiguous 174-kb genome sequence containing 128 unique predicted open reading frames (ORFs), many of which were most closely related to herpesvirus genes. Moreover, the structure of the virus genome and phylogenetic analysis of multiple genes strongly suggested that this virus is a betaherpesvirus more closely related to the roseoloviruses, HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7, than to another murine betaherpesvirus, mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV). As such, we have named this virus murine roseolovirus (MRV) because these data strongly suggest that MRV is a mouse homolog of HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7. IMPORTANCE Herein we describe the complete genome sequence of a novel murine herpesvirus. By sequence and phylogenetic analyses, we show that it is a betaherpesvirus most closely related to the roseoloviruses, human herpesviruses 6A, 6B, and 7. These data combined with physiological similarities with human roseoloviruses collectively suggest that this virus is a murine roseolovirus (MRV), the first definitively described rodent roseolovirus, to our knowledge. Many biological and

  15. Convex optimisation approach to constrained fuel optimal control of spacecraft in close relative motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massioni, Paolo; Massari, Mauro

    2018-05-01

    This paper describes an interesting and powerful approach to the constrained fuel-optimal control of spacecraft in close relative motion. The proposed approach is well suited for problems under linear dynamic equations, therefore perfectly fitting to the case of spacecraft flying in close relative motion. If the solution of the optimisation is approximated as a polynomial with respect to the time variable, then the problem can be approached with a technique developed in the control engineering community, known as "Sum Of Squares" (SOS), and the constraints can be reduced to bounds on the polynomials. Such a technique allows rewriting polynomial bounding problems in the form of convex optimisation problems, at the cost of a certain amount of conservatism. The principles of the techniques are explained and some application related to spacecraft flying in close relative motion are shown.

  16. Numerical modelling of closed-cell aluminium foam under dynamic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Paul; Kader, M. A.; Islam, M. A.; Escobedo, J. P.; Saadatfar, M.

    2015-06-01

    Closed-cell aluminium foams are extensively used in aerospace and automobile industries. The understanding of their behaviour under impact loading conditions is extremely important since impact problems are directly related to design of these engineering structures. This research investigates the response of a closed-cell aluminium foam (CYMAT) subjected to dynamic loading using the finite element software ABAQUS/explicit. The aim of this research is to numerically investigate the material and structural properties of closed-cell aluminium foam under impact loading conditions with interest in shock propagation and its effects on cell wall deformation. A μ-CT based 3D foam geometry is developed to simulate the local cell collapse behaviours. A number of numerical techniques are applied for modelling the crush behaviour of aluminium foam to obtain the more accurate results. The simulation results are compared with experimental data. Comparison of the results shows a good correlation between the experimental results and numerical predictions.

  17. 31 CFR 515.561 - Persons visiting close relatives in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Cuba. 515.561 Section 515.561 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Cuba. (a) General license. (1) Persons subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and persons... close relative, as defined in § 515.339 of this part, who is a national of Cuba, as defined in § 515.302...

  18. A new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-05-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing day to day for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally three main image based approaches are using for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling and third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete solution available to create complete 3D city model by using images. These image based methods also have limitations This paper gives a new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry. This approach is divided into three sections. First, data acquisition process, second is 3D data processing, and third is data combination process. In data acquisition process, a multi-camera setup developed and used for video recording of an area. Image frames created from video data. Minimum required and suitable video image frame selected for 3D processing. In second section, based on close range photogrammetric principles and computer vision techniques, 3D model of area created. In third section, this 3D model exported to adding and merging of other pieces of large area. Scaling and alignment of 3D model was done. After applying the texturing and rendering on this model, a final photo-realistic textured 3D model created. This 3D model transferred into walk-through model or in movie form. Most of the processing steps are automatic. So this method is cost effective and less laborious. Accuracy of this model is good. For this research work, study area is the campus of department of civil engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. This campus acts as a prototype for city. Aerial photography is restricted in many country

  19. The Dynamic Genome and Transcriptome of the Human Fungal Pathogen Blastomyces and Close Relative Emmonsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F Muñoz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Three closely related thermally dimorphic pathogens are causal agents of major fungal diseases affecting humans in the Americas: blastomycosis, histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis. Here we report the genome sequence and analysis of four strains of the etiological agent of blastomycosis, Blastomyces, and two species of the related genus Emmonsia, typically pathogens of small mammals. Compared to related species, Blastomyces genomes are highly expanded, with long, often sharply demarcated tracts of low GC-content sequence. These GC-poor isochore-like regions are enriched for gypsy elements, are variable in total size between isolates, and are least expanded in the avirulent B. dermatitidis strain ER-3 as compared with the virulent B. gilchristii strain SLH14081. The lack of similar regions in related species suggests these isochore-like regions originated recently in the ancestor of the Blastomyces lineage. While gene content is highly conserved between Blastomyces and related fungi, we identified changes in copy number of genes potentially involved in host interaction, including proteases and characterized antigens. In addition, we studied gene expression changes of B. dermatitidis during the interaction of the infectious yeast form with macrophages and in a mouse model. Both experiments highlight a strong antioxidant defense response in Blastomyces, and upregulation of dioxygenases in vivo suggests that dioxide produced by antioxidants may be further utilized for amino acid metabolism. We identify a number of functional categories upregulated exclusively in vivo, such as secreted proteins, zinc acquisition proteins, and cysteine and tryptophan metabolism, which may include critical virulence factors missed before in in vitro studies. Across the dimorphic fungi, loss of certain zinc acquisition genes and differences in amino acid metabolism suggest unique adaptations of Blastomyces to its host environment. These results reveal the dynamics

  20. The Dynamic Genome and Transcriptome of the Human Fungal Pathogen Blastomyces and Close Relative Emmonsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, José F; Gauthier, Gregory M; Desjardins, Christopher A; Gallo, Juan E; Holder, Jason; Sullivan, Thomas D; Marty, Amber J; Carmen, John C; Chen, Zehua; Ding, Li; Gujja, Sharvari; Magrini, Vincent; Misas, Elizabeth; Mitreva, Makedonka; Priest, Margaret; Saif, Sakina; Whiston, Emily A; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Goldman, William E; Mardis, Elaine R; Taylor, John W; McEwen, Juan G; Clay, Oliver K; Klein, Bruce S; Cuomo, Christina A

    2015-10-01

    Three closely related thermally dimorphic pathogens are causal agents of major fungal diseases affecting humans in the Americas: blastomycosis, histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis. Here we report the genome sequence and analysis of four strains of the etiological agent of blastomycosis, Blastomyces, and two species of the related genus Emmonsia, typically pathogens of small mammals. Compared to related species, Blastomyces genomes are highly expanded, with long, often sharply demarcated tracts of low GC-content sequence. These GC-poor isochore-like regions are enriched for gypsy elements, are variable in total size between isolates, and are least expanded in the avirulent B. dermatitidis strain ER-3 as compared with the virulent B. gilchristii strain SLH14081. The lack of similar regions in related species suggests these isochore-like regions originated recently in the ancestor of the Blastomyces lineage. While gene content is highly conserved between Blastomyces and related fungi, we identified changes in copy number of genes potentially involved in host interaction, including proteases and characterized antigens. In addition, we studied gene expression changes of B. dermatitidis during the interaction of the infectious yeast form with macrophages and in a mouse model. Both experiments highlight a strong antioxidant defense response in Blastomyces, and upregulation of dioxygenases in vivo suggests that dioxide produced by antioxidants may be further utilized for amino acid metabolism. We identify a number of functional categories upregulated exclusively in vivo, such as secreted proteins, zinc acquisition proteins, and cysteine and tryptophan metabolism, which may include critical virulence factors missed before in in vitro studies. Across the dimorphic fungi, loss of certain zinc acquisition genes and differences in amino acid metabolism suggest unique adaptations of Blastomyces to its host environment. These results reveal the dynamics of genome evolution

  1. Point Cloud Based Relative Pose Estimation of a Satellite in Close Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujiang Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the relative pose of satellites is essential in space rendezvous operations and on-orbit servicing missions. The key problems are the adoption of suitable sensor on board of a chaser and efficient techniques for pose estimation. This paper aims to estimate the pose of a target satellite in close range on the basis of its known model by using point cloud data generated by a flash LIDAR sensor. A novel model based pose estimation method is proposed; it includes a fast and reliable pose initial acquisition method based on global optimal searching by processing the dense point cloud data directly, and a pose tracking method based on Iterative Closest Point algorithm. Also, a simulation system is presented in this paper in order to evaluate the performance of the sensor and generate simulated sensor point cloud data. It also provides truth pose of the test target so that the pose estimation error can be quantified. To investigate the effectiveness of the proposed approach and achievable pose accuracy, numerical simulation experiments are performed; results demonstrate algorithm capability of operating with point cloud directly and large pose variations. Also, a field testing experiment is conducted and results show that the proposed method is effective.

  2. The Dynamic Genome and Transcriptome of the Human Fungal Pathogen Blastomyces and Close Relative Emmonsia

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, José F.; Gauthier, Gregory M.; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Gallo, Juan E.; Holder, Jason; Sullivan, Thomas D.; Marty, Amber J.; Carmen, John C.; Chen, Zehua; Ding, Li; Gujja, Sharvari; Magrini, Vincent; Misas, Elizabeth; Mitreva, Makedonka; Priest, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Three closely related thermally dimorphic pathogens are causal agents of major fungal diseases affecting humans in the Americas: blastomycosis, histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis. Here we report the genome sequence and analysis of four strains of the etiological agent of blastomycosis, Blastomyces, and two species of the related genus Emmonsia, typically pathogens of small mammals. Compared to related species, Blastomyces genomes are highly expanded, with long, often sharply demarcated...

  3. Estimation of Model Uncertainties in Closed-loop Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2008-01-01

    This paper describe a method for estimation of parameters or uncertainties in closed-loop systems. The method is based on an application of the dual YJBK (after Youla, Jabr, Bongiorno and Kucera) parameterization of all systems stabilized by a given controller. The dual YJBK transfer function...

  4. Brain death: close relatives' use of imagery as a descriptor of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Ingvar; Haljamäe, Hengo; Ohlén, Joakim; Bergbom, Ingegerd

    2007-04-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore the use of imagery to describe the experience of confronting brain death in a close relative. The brain death of a loved one has been described as an extremely difficult experience for close relatives, evoking feelings of anger, emotional pain, disbelief, guilt and suffering. It can also be difficult for relatives to distinguish brain death from the state of coma and thus difficult to apprehend information about the diagnosis. Narrative theory and a hermeneutic phenomenological method guided the interpretation of 17 narratives from close relatives of brain dead patients. All narratives were scrutinized for experiences of brain death. Data were primarily collected in 1999. The primary analysis related to close relatives' experience of brain death in a loved one. A secondary analysis of the imagery they used to describe their experience was carried out in 2003. Six categories of imagery used to describe the experience of confronting a diagnosis of brain death in a loved one emerged: chaotic unreality; inner collapse; sense of forlornness; clinging to the hope of survival; reconciliation with the reality of death; receiving care which gives comfort. Participants also identified two pairs of dimensions to describe their feelings about the relationship between their brain dead relative's body and personhood: presence-absence and divisibility-indivisibility. Being confronted with brain death meant entering into the anteroom of death, facing a loved one who is 'living-dead', and experiencing a chaotic drama of suffering. It is very important for members of the intensive care unit team to recognize, face and respond to these relatives' chaotic experiences, which cause them to need affirmation, comfort and caring. Relatives' use of imagery could be the starting point for a caring conversation about their experiences, either in conversations at the time of the death or when relatives are contacted in a later follow-up.

  5. Close monitoring as a contextual stimulator : How need for structure affects the relation between close monitoring and work outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietzschel, Eric F.; Slijkhuis, Marjette; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we argue and demonstrate that employees' Personal Need for Structure (PNS) moderates the negative effects of close monitoring on job satisfaction, intrinsic work motivation, and innovative job performance (as rated by their supervisors). In a field study (N=295), we found that

  6. Differences in mating strategies in two closely related small ermine moth species (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.C.; van Ginkel, W.E.; Roessingh, P.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2008-01-01

    The degree of polyandry in a species is linked to other life history traits such as egg maturation, life span, and male ejaculate size and quality. The study of differences in mating strategies between closely related species can provide a better understanding of the evolution of these strategies

  7. Differences in memory dynamics between two closely related parasitoid wasp species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.A.K.; Smid, H.M.; Steidle, J.L.M.; Kruidhof, H.M.; van Loon, J.J.A.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2006-01-01

    The two closely related parasitoids Cotesia glomerata and C. rubecula (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) coexist in The Netherlands where they occupy slightly different niches. When searching for their caterpillar hosts, they use host plant odours that are released upon feeding by the caterpillars. The

  8. Signals of speciation: Volatile organic compounds resolve closely related sagebrush taxa, suggesting their importance in evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deidre M. Jaeger; Justin B. Runyon; Bryce A. Richardson

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important roles in the environmental adaptation and fitness of plants. Comparison of the qualitative and quantitative differences in VOCs among closely related taxa and assessing the effects of environment on their emissions are important steps to deducing VOC function and evolutionary importance.

  9. Interspecific competition, predation, and the coexistence of three closely related neotropical armoured catfishes (Siluriformes - Callichthyidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.H.A.

    1995-01-01

    Tropical ecosystems are renowned for their high biodiversity with many closely related species living together. Alpha diversity of tropical freshwater fishes is also extremely high, as exemplified by the cichlid fauna of the Great African lakes and the neotropical characins. Since

  10. A simple method to design non-collision relative orbits for close spacecraft formation flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Li, JunFeng; Jiang, FangHua; Bernelli-Zazzera, Franco

    2018-05-01

    A set of linearized relative motion equations of spacecraft flying on unperturbed elliptical orbits are specialized for particular cases, where the leader orbit is circular or equatorial. Based on these extended equations, we are able to analyze the relative motion regulation between a pair of spacecraft flying on arbitrary unperturbed orbits with the same semi-major axis in close formation. Given the initial orbital elements of the leader, this paper presents a simple way to design initial relative orbital elements of close spacecraft with the same semi-major axis, thus preventing collision under non-perturbed conditions. Considering the mean influence of J 2 perturbation, namely secular J 2 perturbation, we derive the mean derivatives of orbital element differences, and then expand them to first order. Thus the first order expansion of orbital element differences can be added to the relative motion equations for further analysis. For a pair of spacecraft that will never collide under non-perturbed situations, we present a simple method to determine whether a collision will occur when J 2 perturbation is considered. Examples are given to prove the validity of the extended relative motion equations and to illustrate how the methods presented can be used. The simple method for designing initial relative orbital elements proposed here could be helpful to the preliminary design of the relative orbital elements between spacecraft in a close formation, when collision avoidance is necessary.

  11. Quantum time evolution of a closed Friedmann model

    CERN Document Server

    Hinterleitner, F

    2002-01-01

    We consider a quantized dust-filled closed Friedmann universe in Ashtekar-type variables. Due to the presence of matter, the 'timelessness problem' of quantum gravity can be solved in this case by using the following approach to the Hamiltonian operator. 1. The arising Wheeler-DeWitt equation appears as an eigenvalue equation for discrete values of the total mass. 2. Its gravitational part is considered as the generator of the time evolution of geometry. 3. Superpositions of different eigenfunctions with time behaviour governed by the corresponding eigenvalues of mass are admitted. Following these lines, a time evolution with a correct classical limit is obtained.

  12. Effect of two novel CGRP-binding compounds in a closed cranial window rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Louise Kathrine; Edvinsson, Lars; Olesen, Jes

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the in vivo effects of two novel calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) binding molecules in the genuine closed cranial window model in the rat. The RNA-Spiegelmer (NOX-C89) and the monoclonal CGRP antibody are CGRP scavengers and might be used as an alternative to CGRP-receptor a......We investigated the in vivo effects of two novel calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) binding molecules in the genuine closed cranial window model in the rat. The RNA-Spiegelmer (NOX-C89) and the monoclonal CGRP antibody are CGRP scavengers and might be used as an alternative to CGRP......-receptor antagonists in the treatment of migraine. Rats were anaesthetized and a closed cranial window established. Changes in dural and pial artery diameter and mean arterial blood pressure were measured simultaneously. Infusion of the RNA-Spiegelmer or the CGRP antibody alone had no effect on the arteries...... and the consequent liberation of CGRP from perivascular sensory nerve fibres....

  13. 78 FR 48851 - Wireline Competition Bureau Announces Closing of the Bureau's Cost Model Virtual Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... Competition Bureau Announces Closing of the Bureau's Cost Model Virtual Workshop AGENCY: Federal... Wireline Competition Bureau announces the closing of the Bureau's Connect America Cost Model (CAM) virtual...-90. The Bureau has not yet finalized and adopted a cost model, and will raise any additional...

  14. Modelling dense relational data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    they are not naturally suited for kernel K-means. We propose a generative Bayesian model for dense matrices which generalize kernel K-means to consider off-diagonal interactions in matrices of interactions, and demonstrate its ability to detect structure on both artificial data and two real data sets....

  15. Models as Relational Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Tommi

    2017-01-01

    Model-based learning (MBL) has an established position within science education. It has been found to enhance conceptual understanding and provide a way for engaging students in authentic scientific activity. Despite ample research, few studies have examined the cognitive processes regarding learning scientific concepts within MBL. On the other…

  16. Embarrassment When Illness Strikes A Close Relative: A World Mental Health Survey Consortium Multi-Site Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedani, Brian K.; Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Kessler, Ronald C.; de Graaf, Ron; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Zarkov, Zahari; Viana, Maria Carmen; Huang, Y.Q.; Hu, Chiyi; Posada-Villa, Jose A.; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Karam, Aimee N.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Gureje, Oye; Ferry, Finola; Sagar, Rajesh; Anthony, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Background This global study seeks to estimate the degree to which a family member might feel embarrassed when a close relative is suffering from an alcohol, drug, or mental health condition (ADMC) versus a general medical condition (GMC). To date, most studies have considered embarrassment and stigma in society and internalized by the afflicted individual, but have not assessed family embarrassment in a large scale study. Method In 16 sites of the World Mental Health Surveys (WMHS), standardized assessments were completed including items on family embarrassment. Site matching was used to constrain local socially shared determinants of stigma-related feelings, enabling a conditional logistic regression model that estimates the embarrassment close relatives may hold in relation to family members affected by an ADMC, GMC, or both conditions. Results There was a statistically robust association such that subgroups with an ADMC-affected relative were more likely to feel embarrassed as compared to subgroups with a relative affected by a GMC (p<0.001), even with covariate adjustments for age and sex. Conclusions The pattern of evidence from this research is consistent with conceptual models for interventions that target individual- and family-level stigma-related feelings of embarrassment as might be part of the obstacles to effective early intervention and treatment for ADMC conditions. Macro-level interventions are underway, but micro-level interventions also may be required among family members, along with care for each person with an ADMC. PMID:23298443

  17. Relationship between ecomorphology and trophic segregation in four closely related sympatric fish species (Teleostei, Sciaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasina, Gabriela; Molina, Juan; Lopez Cazorla, Andrea; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan

    This study explores the relationship between ecomorphology and trophic segregation in four closely related sympatric fish species (Teleostei, Sciaenidae) that are known to differ in their trophic habits. Only adult specimens were analyzed: 103 Cynoscion guatucupa, 77 Pogonias cromis, 61 Micropogonias furnieri, and 48 Menticirrhus americanus. The four species presented divergent ecomorphological traits related to swimming agility, prey spotting and capture, and the potential size of prey they were able to swallow. Results suggest that these sciaenid species can partition the food resources, even though they completely overlap in space. Differences in their ecomorphological traits appear to correlate closely with the diet and consequently could explain the trophic differentiation observed. Arguably, these ecomorphological differences play a significant role in the coexistence of the adults of these sympatric fish species. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. High diversity in neuropeptide immunoreactivity patterns among three closely related species of Dinophilidae (Annelida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerbl, Alexandra; Conzelmann, Markus; Jékely, Gáspár

    2017-01-01

    Neuropeptides are conserved metazoan signaling molecules, and represent useful markers for comparative investigations on the morphology and function of the nervous system. However, little is known about the variation of neuropeptide expression patterns across closely related species in invertebrate...... groups other than insects. In this study, we compare the immunoreactivity patterns of 14 neuropeptides in three closely related microscopic dinophilid annelids (Dinophilus gyrociliatus, D. taeniatus and Trilobodrilus axi). The brains of all three species were found to consist of around 700 somata...... species. FMRFamide, MLD/pedal peptide, allatotropin, RNamide, excitatory peptide, and FVRIamide showed a broad localization within the brain, while calcitonin, SIFamide, vasotocin, RGWamide, DLamide, FLamide, FVamide, MIP, and serotonin were present in fewer cells in demarcated regions. The different...

  19. A universal nonlinear relation among boundary states in closed string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Isao; Matsuo, Yutaka; Watanabe, Eitoku

    2004-01-01

    We show that the boundary states satisfy a nonlinear relation (the idempotency equation) with respect to the star product of closed string field theory. This relation is universal in the sense that various D-branes, including the infinitesimally deformed ones, satisfy the same equation, including the coefficient. This paper generalizes our analysis [hep-th/0306189] in the following senses. (1) We present a background-independent formulation based on conformal field theory. It illuminates the geometric nature of the relation and allows us to more systematically analyze the variations around the D-brane background. (2) We show that the Witten-type star product satisfies a similar relation but with a more divergent coefficient. (3) We determine the coefficient of the relation analytically. The result shows that the α parameter can be formally factored out, and the relation becomes universal. We present a conjecture on vacuum theory based on this computation. (author)

  20. Relational Mobility Explains Between- and Within-Culture Differences in Self-Disclosure to Close Friends

    OpenAIRE

    Schug, Joanna; Yuki, Masaki; Maddux, William W.

    2010-01-01

    The current research proposes a novel explanation for previously demonstrated findings that East Asians disclose less personal information to others than do Westerners. We propose that both between- and within-culture differences in self-disclosure toward close friends may be explained by the construct of "relational mobility" - the general degree to which individuals in the society have the opportunities to form new and terminate old relationships. In Study 1, we found that cross-cultural di...

  1. Driver steering model for closed-loop steering function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolia, Pratiksh; Weiskircher, Thomas; Müller, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a two level preview driver steering control model for the use in numerical vehicle dynamics simulation is introduced. The proposed model is composed of cascaded control loops: The outer loop is the path following layer based on potential field framework. The inner loop tries to capture the driver's physical behaviour. The proposed driver model allows easy implementation of different driving situations to simulate a wide range of different driver types, moods and vehicle types. The expediency of the proposed driver model is shown with the help of developed driver steering assist (DSA) function integrated with a conventional series production (Electric Power steering System with rack assist servo unit) system. With the help of the DSA assist function, the driver is prevented from over saturating the front tyre forces and loss of stability and controllability during cornering. The simulation results show different driver reactions caused by the change in the parameters or properties of the proposed driver model if the DSA assist function is activated. Thus, the proposed driver model is useful for the advanced driver steering and vehicle stability assist function evaluation in the early stage of vehicle dynamics handling and stability evaluation.

  2. [Phylogenetic analysis of closely related Leuconostoc citreum species based on partial housekeeping genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qiang; Chen, Ming; Xu, Haiyan; Song, Yuqin; Sun, Zhihong; Dan, Tong; Sun, Tiansong

    2013-07-04

    Using the 16S rRNA, dnaA, murC and pyrG gene sequences, we identified the phylogenetic relationship among closely related Leuconostoc citreum species. Seven Leu. citreum strains originally isolated from sourdough were characterized by PCR methods to amplify the dnaA, murC and pyrG gene sequences, which were determined to assess the suitability as phylogenetic markers. Then, we estimated the genetic distance and constructed the phylogenetic trees including 16S rRNA and above mentioned three housekeeping genes combining with published corresponding sequences. By comparing the phylogenetic trees, the topology of three housekeeping genes trees were consistent with that of 16S rRNA gene. The homology of closely related Leu. citreum species among dnaA, murC, pyrG and 16S rRNA gene sequences were different, ranged from75.5% to 97.2%, 50.2% to 99.7%, 65.0% to 99.8% and 98.5% 100%, respectively. The phylogenetic relationship of three housekeeping genes sequences were highly consistent with the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence, while the genetic distance of these housekeeping genes were extremely high than 16S rRNA gene. Consequently, the dnaA, murC and pyrG gene are suitable for classification and identification closely related Leu. citreum species.

  3. Modeling and control for closed environment plant production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, David H.; Ting, K. C.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    A computer program was developed to study multiple crop production and control in controlled environment plant production systems. The program simulates crop growth and development under nominal and off-nominal environments. Time-series crop models for wheat (Triticum aestivum), soybean (Glycine max), and white potato (Solanum tuberosum) are integrated with a model-based predictive controller. The controller evaluates and compensates for effects of environmental disturbances on crop production scheduling. The crop models consist of a set of nonlinear polynomial equations, six for each crop, developed using multivariate polynomial regression (MPR). Simulated data from DSSAT crop models, previously modified for crop production in controlled environments with hydroponics under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, were used for the MPR fitting. The model-based predictive controller adjusts light intensity, air temperature, and carbon dioxide concentration set points in response to environmental perturbations. Control signals are determined from minimization of a cost function, which is based on the weighted control effort and squared-error between the system response and desired reference signal.

  4. Complete genome sequence of the industrial bacterium Bacillus licheniformis and comparisons with closely related Bacillus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Michael W; Ramaiya, Preethi; Nelson, Beth A; Brody-Karpin, Shari D; Zaretsky, Elizabeth J; Tang, Maria; de Leon, Alfredo Lopez; Xiang, Henry; Gusti, Veronica; Clausen, Ib Groth; Olsen, Peter B; Rasmussen, Michael D; Andersen, Jens T; Jørgensen, Per L; Larsen, Thomas S; Sorokin, Alexei; Bolotin, Alexander; Lapidus, Alla; Galleron, Nathalie; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Berka, Randy M

    2004-01-01

    Background Bacillus licheniformis is a Gram-positive, spore-forming soil bacterium that is used in the biotechnology industry to manufacture enzymes, antibiotics, biochemicals and consumer products. This species is closely related to the well studied model organism Bacillus subtilis, and produces an assortment of extracellular enzymes that may contribute to nutrient cycling in nature. Results We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 genome which comprises a circular chromosome of 4,222,336 base-pairs (bp) containing 4,208 predicted protein-coding genes with an average size of 873 bp, seven rRNA operons, and 72 tRNA genes. The B. licheniformis chromosome contains large regions that are colinear with the genomes of B. subtilis and Bacillus halodurans, and approximately 80% of the predicted B. licheniformis coding sequences have B. subtilis orthologs. Conclusions Despite the unmistakable organizational similarities between the B. licheniformis and B. subtilis genomes, there are notable differences in the numbers and locations of prophages, transposable elements and a number of extracellular enzymes and secondary metabolic pathway operons that distinguish these species. Differences include a region of more than 80 kilobases (kb) that comprises a cluster of polyketide synthase genes and a second operon of 38 kb encoding plipastatin synthase enzymes that are absent in the B. licheniformis genome. The availability of a completed genome sequence for B. licheniformis should facilitate the design and construction of improved industrial strains and allow for comparative genomics and evolutionary studies within this group of Bacillaceae. PMID:15461803

  5. Different patterns of oviposition learning in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakawa, Kôji; Uchijima, Kenta; Shibao, Harunobu; Shimada, Masakazu

    2013-02-01

    Many parasitoid wasps learn host-associated cues and use them in subsequent host-searching behavior. This associative learning, namely "oviposition learning," has been investigated in many studies. However, few studies have compared multiple species, and no comparative study has previously been conducted on ectoparasitoid species. We compared the effects of oviposition learning on host preference and offspring sex ratio in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies, Anisopteromalus calandrae (r-strategist) and its sibling species (K-strategist). Using two bruchine hosts, Callosobruchus chinensis and Callosobruchus maculatus larvae infesting the cowpea Vigna unguiculata, oviposition choice experiments were performed at high and low host densities. In both species, no conspicuous effect on the offspring sex ratio was detected, but effects on host preference were found to differ between the species. In A. calandrae, the effects were detected only at high host density, suggesting that oviposition learning plays a role in host discrimination from a short distance but not from a long distance. In the sibling species, those effects were not detected in any of the cases, suggesting the absence of oviposition learning. These results are compatible with those of previous comparative studies of endoparasitoid wasps in that few lifetime oviposition experiences and/or low reward per foraging decision result in low or absent oviposition learning ability. This finding may indicate that ecological traits contributing to learning ability are similar between endoparasitoid and ectoparasitoid wasps. Thus, our species comparison of ectoparasitoids provides another model system for investigating learning and memory dynamics in parasitoid wasps.

  6. Modeling of Nonlinear Marine Cooling Systems with Closed Circuit Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Stoustrup, Jakob; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of constructing a mathematical model for a specific type of marine cooling system. The system in question is used for cooling the main engine and main engine auxiliary components, such as diesel generators, turbo chargers and main engine air coolers for certain classes...

  7. Modeling and Closed Loop Flight Testing of a Fixed Wing Micro Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harikumar Kandath

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the nonlinear six degrees of freedom dynamic modeling of a fixed wing micro air vehicle. The static derivatives of the micro air vehicle are obtained through the wind tunnel testing. The propeller effects on the lift, drag, pitching moment and side force are quantified through wind tunnel testing. The dynamic derivatives are obtained through empirical relations available in the literature. The trim conditions are computed for a straight and constant altitude flight condition. The linearized longitudinal and lateral state space models are obtained about trim conditions. The variations in short period mode, phugoid mode, Dutch roll mode, roll subsidence mode and spiral mode with respect to different trim operating conditions is presented. A stabilizing static output feedback controller is designed using the obtained model. Successful closed loop flight trials are conducted with the static output feedback controller.

  8. Relational mobility explains between- and within-culture differences in self-disclosure to close friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Joanna; Yuki, Masaki; Maddux, William

    2010-10-01

    In the current research, we tested a novel explanation for previously demonstrated findings that East Asians disclose less personal information to other people than do Westerners. We propose that both between- and within-culture differences in self-disclosure to close friends may be explained by the construct of relational mobility, the general degree to which individuals in a society have opportunities to form new relationships and terminate old ones. In Study 1, we found that cross-cultural differences (Japan vs. United States) in self-disclosure to a close friend were mediated by individuals' perceptions of relational mobility. In Study 2, two separate measures of relational mobility predicted self-disclosure within a single culture (Japan), and this relationship was mediated by the motivation to engage in self-disclosure to strengthen personal relationships. We conclude that societies and social contexts higher in relational mobility (in which relationships can be formed and dissolved relatively easily) produce stronger incentives for self-disclosure as a social-commitment device.

  9. Negative binomial models for abundance estimation of multiple closed populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Mark S.; MacKenzie, Darry I.; Manly, Bryan F.J.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Moody, David W.

    2001-01-01

    Counts of uniquely identified individuals in a population offer opportunities to estimate abundance. However, for various reasons such counts may be burdened by heterogeneity in the probability of being detected. Theoretical arguments and empirical evidence demonstrate that the negative binomial distribution (NBD) is a useful characterization for counts from biological populations with heterogeneity. We propose a method that focuses on estimating multiple populations by simultaneously using a suite of models derived from the NBD. We used this approach to estimate the number of female grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) with cubs-of-the-year in the Yellowstone ecosystem, for each year, 1986-1998. Akaike's Information Criteria (AIC) indicated that a negative binomial model with a constant level of heterogeneity across all years was best for characterizing the sighting frequencies of female grizzly bears. A lack-of-fit test indicated the model adequately described the collected data. Bootstrap techniques were used to estimate standard errors and 95% confidence intervals. We provide a Monte Carlo technique, which confirms that the Yellowstone ecosystem grizzly bear population increased during the period 1986-1998.

  10. Observational constraints from models of close binary evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greve, J.P. de; Packet, W.

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of a system of 9 solar masses + 5.4 solar masses is computed from Zero Age Main Sequence through an early case B of mass exchange, up to the second phase of mass transfer after core helium burning. Both components are calculated simultaneously. The evolution is divided into several physically different phases. The characteristics of the models in each of these phases are transformed into corresponding 'observable' quantities. The outlook of the system for photometric observations is discussed, for an idealized case. The influence of the mass of the loser and the initial mass ratio is considered. (Auth.)

  11. Localization and traces in open-closed topological Landau-Ginzburg models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, Manfred; Lazaroiu, Calin-Iuliu

    2005-01-01

    We reconsider the issue of localization in open-closed B-twisted Landau-Ginzburg models with arbitrary Calabi-Yau target. Through careful analysis of zero-mode reduction, we show that the closed model allows for a one-parameter family of localization pictures, which generalize the standard residue representation. The parameter λ which indexes these pictures measures the area of worldsheets with S 2 topology, with the residue representation obtained in the limit of small area. In the boundary sector, we find a double family of such pictures, depending on parameters λ and μ which measure the area and boundary length of worldsheets with disk topology. We show that setting μ = 0 and varying λ interpolates between the localization picture of the B-model with a noncompact target space and a certain residue representation proposed recently. This gives a complete derivation of the boundary residue formula, starting from the explicit construction of the boundary coupling. We also show that the various localization pictures are related by a semigroup of homotopy equivalences

  12. Artificial light at night affects sleep behaviour differently in two closely related songbird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiachen; Raap, Thomas; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2017-12-01

    Artificial light at night (ALAN) or light pollution is an increasing and worldwide problem. There is growing concern that because of the disruption of natural light cycles, ALAN may pose serious risks for wildlife. While ALAN has been shown to affect many aspects of animal behaviour and physiology, few studies have experimentally studied whether individuals of different species in the wild respond differently to ALAN. Here, we investigated the effect of ALAN on sleep behaviour in two closely related songbird species inhabiting the same study area and roosting/breeding in similar nest boxes. We experimentally exposed free-living great tits (Parus major) and blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) to artificial light inside their nest boxes and observed changes in their sleep behaviour compared to the previous night when the nest boxes were dark. In line with previous studies, sleep behaviour of both species did not differ under dark conditions. ALAN disrupted sleep in both great and blue tits. However, compared to blue tits, great tits showed more pronounced effects and more aspects of sleep were affected. Light exposed great tits entered the nest boxes and fell asleep later, woke up and exited the nest boxes earlier, and the total sleep amount and sleep percentage were reduced. By contrast, these changes in sleep behaviour were not found in light exposed blue tits. Our field experiment, using exactly the same light manipulation in both species, provides direct evidence that two closely related species respond differently to ALAN, while their sleep behaviour under dark conditions was similar. Our research suggests that findings for one species cannot necessarily be generalised to other species, even closely-related species. Furthermore, species-specific effects could have implications for community dynamics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. First Experiences with Kinect v2 Sensor for Close Range 3d Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachat, E.; Macher, H.; Mittet, M.-A.; Landes, T.; Grussenmeyer, P.

    2015-02-01

    RGB-D cameras, also known as range imaging cameras, are a recent generation of sensors. As they are suitable for measuring distances to objects at high frame rate, such sensors are increasingly used for 3D acquisitions, and more generally for applications in robotics or computer vision. This kind of sensors became popular especially since the Kinect v1 (Microsoft) arrived on the market in November 2010. In July 2014, Windows has released a new sensor, the Kinect for Windows v2 sensor, based on another technology as its first device. However, due to its initial development for video games, the quality assessment of this new device for 3D modelling represents a major investigation axis. In this paper first experiences with Kinect v2 sensor are related, and the ability of close range 3D modelling is investigated. For this purpose, error sources on output data as well as a calibration approach are presented.

  14. FIRST EXPERIENCES WITH KINECT V2 SENSOR FOR CLOSE RANGE 3D MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lachat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available RGB-D cameras, also known as range imaging cameras, are a recent generation of sensors. As they are suitable for measuring distances to objects at high frame rate, such sensors are increasingly used for 3D acquisitions, and more generally for applications in robotics or computer vision. This kind of sensors became popular especially since the Kinect v1 (Microsoft arrived on the market in November 2010. In July 2014, Windows has released a new sensor, the Kinect for Windows v2 sensor, based on another technology as its first device. However, due to its initial development for video games, the quality assessment of this new device for 3D modelling represents a major investigation axis. In this paper first experiences with Kinect v2 sensor are related, and the ability of close range 3D modelling is investigated. For this purpose, error sources on output data as well as a calibration approach are presented.

  15. Comparative analysis of methods and tools for open and closed fuel cycles modeling: MESSAGE and DESAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, A.A.; Korovin, Yu.A.; Murogov, V.M.; Fedorova, E.V.; Fesenko, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Comparative analysis of optimization and simulation methods by the example of MESSAGE and DESAE programs is carried out for nuclear power prospects and advanced fuel cycles modeling. Test calculations for open and two-component nuclear power and closed fuel cycle are performed. Auxiliary simulation-dynamic model is developed to specify MESSAGE and DESAE modeling approaches difference. The model description is given [ru

  16. Species tree estimation for the late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, and close relatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime E Blair

    Full Text Available To better understand the evolutionary history of a group of organisms, an accurate estimate of the species phylogeny must be known. Traditionally, gene trees have served as a proxy for the species tree, although it was acknowledged early on that these trees represented different evolutionary processes. Discordances among gene trees and between the gene trees and the species tree are also expected in closely related species that have rapidly diverged, due to processes such as the incomplete sorting of ancestral polymorphisms. Recently, methods have been developed for the explicit estimation of species trees, using information from multilocus gene trees while accommodating heterogeneity among them. Here we have used three distinct approaches to estimate the species tree for five Phytophthora pathogens, including P. infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease in potato and tomato. Our concatenation-based "supergene" approach was unable to resolve relationships even with data from both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and from multiple isolates per species. Our multispecies coalescent approach using both Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods was able to estimate a moderately supported species tree showing a close relationship among P. infestans, P. andina, and P. ipomoeae. The topology of the species tree was also identical to the dominant phylogenetic history estimated in our third approach, Bayesian concordance analysis. Our results support previous suggestions that P. andina is a hybrid species, with P. infestans representing one parental lineage. The other parental lineage is not known, but represents an independent evolutionary lineage more closely related to P. ipomoeae. While all five species likely originated in the New World, further study is needed to determine when and under what conditions this hybridization event may have occurred.

  17. Species tree estimation for the late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, and close relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Jaime E; Coffey, Michael D; Martin, Frank N

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the evolutionary history of a group of organisms, an accurate estimate of the species phylogeny must be known. Traditionally, gene trees have served as a proxy for the species tree, although it was acknowledged early on that these trees represented different evolutionary processes. Discordances among gene trees and between the gene trees and the species tree are also expected in closely related species that have rapidly diverged, due to processes such as the incomplete sorting of ancestral polymorphisms. Recently, methods have been developed for the explicit estimation of species trees, using information from multilocus gene trees while accommodating heterogeneity among them. Here we have used three distinct approaches to estimate the species tree for five Phytophthora pathogens, including P. infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease in potato and tomato. Our concatenation-based "supergene" approach was unable to resolve relationships even with data from both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and from multiple isolates per species. Our multispecies coalescent approach using both Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods was able to estimate a moderately supported species tree showing a close relationship among P. infestans, P. andina, and P. ipomoeae. The topology of the species tree was also identical to the dominant phylogenetic history estimated in our third approach, Bayesian concordance analysis. Our results support previous suggestions that P. andina is a hybrid species, with P. infestans representing one parental lineage. The other parental lineage is not known, but represents an independent evolutionary lineage more closely related to P. ipomoeae. While all five species likely originated in the New World, further study is needed to determine when and under what conditions this hybridization event may have occurred.

  18. Gating of Connexin Channels by transjunctional-voltage: Conformations and models of open and closed states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargiello, Thaddeus A; Oh, Seunghoon; Tang, Qingxiu; Bargiello, Nicholas K; Dowd, Terry L; Kwon, Taekyung

    2018-01-01

    Voltage is an important physiologic regulator of channels formed by the connexin gene family. Connexins are unique among ion channels in that both plasma membrane inserted hemichannels (undocked hemichannels) and intercellular channels (aggregates of which form gap junctions) have important physiological roles. The hemichannel is the fundamental unit of gap junction voltage-gating. Each hemichannel displays two distinct voltage-gating mechanisms that are primarily sensitive to a voltage gradient formed along the length of the channel pore (the transjunctional voltage) rather than sensitivity to the absolute membrane potential (V m or V i-o ). These transjunctional voltage dependent processes have been termed V j - or fast-gating and loop- or slow-gating. Understanding the mechanism of voltage-gating, defined as the sequence of voltage-driven transitions that connect open and closed states, first and foremost requires atomic resolution models of the end states. Although ion channels formed by connexins were among the first to be characterized structurally by electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction in the early 1980's, subsequent progress has been slow. Much of the current understanding of the structure-function relations of connexin channels is based on two crystal structures of Cx26 gap junction channels. Refinement of crystal structure by all-atom molecular dynamics and incorporation of charge changing protein modifications has resulted in an atomic model of the open state that arguably corresponds to the physiologic open state. Obtaining validated atomic models of voltage-dependent closed states is more challenging, as there are currently no methods to solve protein structure while a stable voltage gradient is applied across the length of an oriented channel. It is widely believed that the best approach to solve the atomic structure of a voltage-gated closed ion channel is to apply different but complementary experimental and computational methods and to use

  19. Integrative analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms and gene expression efficiently distinguishes samples from closely related ethnic populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hsin-Chou

    2012-07-01

    accuracies and a reduced number of selected markers in AIM panels. Conclusions Integrative analysis of SNP and GE markers provides high-accuracy and/or cost-effective classification results for assigning samples from closely related or distantly related ancestral lineages to their original ancestral populations. User-friendly BIASLESS (Biomarkers Identification and Samples Subdivision software was developed as an efficient tool for selecting key SNP and/or GE markers and then building models for sample subdivision. BIASLESS was programmed in R and R-GUI and is available online at http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/hsinchou/genetics/prediction/BIASLESS.htm.

  20. Floral nectary, nectar production dynamics, and floral reproductive isolation among closely related species of Pedicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-Nan; Li, Yan; Yang, Fu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2016-02-01

    Floral nectar is thought to be one of the most important rewards that attract pollinators in Pedicularis; however, few studies have examined variation of nectary structure and/or nectar secretion in the genus, particularly among closely related species. Here we investigated nectary morphology, nectar quality, and nectar production dynamics in flowers of Pedicularis section Cyathophora. We found a conical floral nectary at the base of the ovary in species of the rex-thamnophila clade. Stomata were found on the surface of the nectary, and copious starch grains were detected in the nectary tissues. In contrast, a semi-annular nectary was found in flowers of the species of the superba clade. Only a few starch grains were observed in tissues of the semi-annular nectary, and the nectar sugar concentration in these flowers was much lower than that in the flowers of the rex-thamnophila clade. Our results indicate that the floral nectary has experienced considerable morphological, structural, and functional differentiation among closely related species of Pedicularis. This could have affected nectar production, leading to a shift of the pollination mode. Our results also imply that variation of the nectary morphology and nectar production may have played an important role in the speciation of sect. Cyathophora. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Genetic basis of hybrid male sterility among three closely related species of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Paras Kumar; Singh, B N

    2005-05-01

    The genetic basis of hybrid male sterility among three closely related species, Drosophila bipectinata, D. parabipectinata and D. malerkotliana has been investigated by using backcross analysis methods. The role of Y chromosome, major hybrid sterility (MHS) genes (genetic factors) and cytoplasm (non-genetic factor) have been studied in the hybrids of these three species. In the species pair, bipectinata--parabipectinata, Y chromosome introgression of parabipectinata in the genomic background of bipectinata and the reciprocal Y chromosome introgression were unsuccessful as all males in second backcross generation were sterile. Neither MHS genes nor cytoplasm was found important for sterility. This suggests the involvement of X-Y, X-autosomes or polygenic interactions in hybrid male sterility. In bipectinata--malerkotliana and parabipectinata--malerkotliana species pairs, Y chromosome substitution in reciprocal crosses did not affect male fertility. Backcross analyses also show no involvement of MHS genes or cytoplasm in hybrid male sterility in these two species pairs. Therefore, X- autosome interaction or polygenic interaction is supposed to be involved in hybrid male sterility in these two species pairs. These findings also provide evidence that even in closely related species, genetic interactions underlying hybrid male sterility may vary.

  2. PSP: rapid identification of orthologous coding genes under positive selection across multiple closely related prokaryotic genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fei; Ou, Hong-Yu; Tao, Fei; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2013-12-27

    With genomic sequences of many closely related bacterial strains made available by deep sequencing, it is now possible to investigate trends in prokaryotic microevolution. Positive selection is a sub-process of microevolution, in which a particular mutation is favored, causing the allele frequency to continuously shift in one direction. Wide scanning of prokaryotic genomes has shown that positive selection at the molecular level is much more frequent than expected. Genes with significant positive selection may play key roles in bacterial adaption to different environmental pressures. However, selection pressure analyses are computationally intensive and awkward to configure. Here we describe an open access web server, which is designated as PSP (Positive Selection analysis for Prokaryotic genomes) for performing evolutionary analysis on orthologous coding genes, specially designed for rapid comparison of dozens of closely related prokaryotic genomes. Remarkably, PSP facilitates functional exploration at the multiple levels by assignments and enrichments of KO, GO or COG terms. To illustrate this user-friendly tool, we analyzed Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus genomes and found that several genes, which play key roles in human infection and antibiotic resistance, show significant evidence of positive selection. PSP is freely available to all users without any login requirement at: http://db-mml.sjtu.edu.cn/PSP/. PSP ultimately allows researchers to do genome-scale analysis for evolutionary selection across multiple prokaryotic genomes rapidly and easily, and identify the genes undergoing positive selection, which may play key roles in the interactions of host-pathogen and/or environmental adaptation.

  3. SOCIAL REABILITATION MODEL FOR TEENAGERS WITH DEVIANT BEHAVIOR IN CLOSED-TYPE INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Moskvina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers educational practices in the closed-type institutions for teenagers with deviations in legal, intellectual and psychoemotional behavior, and reveals a social rehabilitation model for this category of teenagers. The model is based on A. V. Petrovsky’s concept of the three phases of personality development in adolescence – adaptation, individualization and integration. The author presumes that any deviation in a teenager’s behavior increases as the result of negative experience, developed and retained in asocial surroundings. The goal of teaching staff in closed-type institutions is to transform the trend of deviant behavior into the normal attitude of social adaptation. The author emphasizes a need for positive experience of passing the above phases in friendly atmosphere with adequate behavior patterns. Preventive work implies the priority changes – i.e. the prevalence of the future over the past, self-determination (revision of goals, meanings, and attitudes to a free choice, reorientation from ≪I don’t want, I can’t, I don’t have to≫ to the positive connotations of ≪I have to, I can, I want≫. The paper denotes the methods and ways of pedagogical facilitation, relating to different phases of educational process, and provides a technique for regular monitoring of personal behavior changes, including the key evaluation positions and scales. The paper is addressed to the teaching staff involved in rehabilitation of teenagers with deviant behavior.

  4. Emotional closeness to parents and grandparents: A moderated mediation model predicting adolescent adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet

    2015-09-01

    Warm and emotionally close relationships with parents and grandparents have been found in previous studies to be linked with better adolescent adjustment. The present study, informed by Family Systems Theory and Intergenerational Solidarity Theory, uses a moderated mediation model analyzing the contribution of the dynamics of these intergenerational relationships to adolescent adjustment. Specifically, it examines the mediating role of emotional closeness to the closest grandparent in the relationship between emotional closeness to a parent (the offspring of the closest grandparent) and adolescent adjustment difficulties. The model also examines the moderating role of emotional closeness to parents in the relationship between emotional closeness to grandparents and adjustment difficulties. The study was based on a sample of 1,405 Jewish Israeli secondary school students (ages 12-18) who completed a structured questionnaire. It was found that emotional closeness to the closest grandparent was more strongly associated with reduced adjustment difficulties among adolescents with higher levels of emotional closeness to their parents. In addition, adolescent adjustment and emotional closeness to parents was partially mediated by emotional closeness to grandparents. Examining the family conditions under which adolescents' relationships with grandparents is stronger and more beneficial for them can help elucidate variations in grandparent-grandchild ties and expand our understanding of the mechanisms that shape child outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Increased genetic divergence between two closely related fir species in areas of range overlap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Abbott, Richard J; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Liu, Jianquan

    2014-01-01

    Because of introgressive hybridization, closely related species can be more similar to each other in areas of range overlap (parapatry or sympatry) than in areas where they are geographically isolated from each other (allopatry). Here, we report the reverse situation based on nuclear genetic divergence between two fir species, Abies chensiensis and Abies fargesii, in China, at sites where they are parapatric relative to where they are allopatric. We examined genetic divergence across 126 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers in a set of 172 individuals sampled from both allopatric and parapatric populations of the two species. Our analyses demonstrated that AFLP divergence was much greater between the species when comparisons were made between parapatric populations than between allopatric populations. We suggest that selection in parapatry may have largely contributed to this increased divergence. PMID:24772279

  6. Novel intron markers to study the phylogeny of closely related mammalian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castresana Jose

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multilocus phylogenies can be used to infer the species tree of a group of closely related species. In species trees, the nodes represent the actual separation between species, thus providing essential information about their evolutionary history. In addition, multilocus phylogenies can help in analyses of species delimitation, gene flow and genetic differentiation within species. However, few adequate markers are available for such studies. Results In order to develop nuclear markers that can be useful in multilocus studies of mammals, we analyzed the mammalian genomes of human, chimpanzee, macaque, dog and cow. Rodents were excluded due to their unusual genomic features. Introns were extracted from the mammalian genomes because of their greater genetic variability and ease of amplification from the flanking exons. To an initial set of more than 10,000 one-to-one orthologous introns we applied several filters to select introns that belong to single-copy genes, show neutral evolutionary rates and have an adequate length for their amplification. This analysis led to a final list of 224 intron markers randomly distributed along the genome. To experimentally test their validity, we amplified twelve of these introns in a panel of six mammalian species. The result was that seven of these introns gave rise to a PCR band of the expected size in all species. In addition, we sequenced these bands and analyzed the accumulation of substitutions in these introns in five pairs of closely related species. The results showed that the estimated genetic distances in the five species pairs was quite variable among introns and that this divergence cannot be directly predicted from the overall intron divergence in mammals. Conclusions We have designed a new set of 224 nuclear introns with optimal features for the phylogeny of closely related mammalian species. A large proportion of the introns tested experimentally showed a perfect amplification

  7. The Role of Documentation Quality in Anesthesia-Related Closed Claims: A Descriptive Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbanks, Bryan A; Geisz-Everson, Marjorie; Boust, Rebecca R

    2016-09-01

    Clinical documentation is a critical tool in supporting care provided to patients. Sound documentation provides a picture of clinical events that can be used to improve patient care. However, many other uses for clinical documentation are equally important. Such documentation informs clinical decision support tools, creates a legal record of patient care, assists in financial reimbursement of services, and serves as a repository for secondary data analysis. Conversely, poor documentation can impair patient safety and increase malpractice risk exposure by reflecting poor or inaccurate information that ultimately may guide patient care decisions.Through an examination of anesthesia-related closed claims, a descriptive qualitative study emerged, which explored the antecedents and consequences of documentation quality in the claims reviewed. A secondary data analysis utilized a database generated by the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists Foundation closed claim review team. Four major themes emerged from the analysis. Themes 1, 2, and 4 primarily describe how poor documentation quality can have negative consequences for clinicians. The third theme primarily describes how poor documentation quality that can negatively affect patient safety.

  8. Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. and Aspergillus marvanovae sp. nov., two closely related species in section Fumigati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubka, Vit; Peterson, Stephen W.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    Two new and phylogenetically closely related species in Aspergillus section Fumigati are described and illustrated. Homothallic Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. was isolated from New Jersey soil (USA) and is represented by the ex-type isolate NRRL 179T (=CCF 4266T=Thom 4138.HS2T=IBT 31900T......). Aspergillus marvanovae sp. nov. was isolated from water with high boracic acid anions content in Dukovany nuclear power station (Czech Republic). The sexual stage of this species is unknown, but the MAT1-1 locus was successfully amplified suggesting that the species is probably heterothallic and teleomorphic...... but is represented by only the ex-type isolate CCM 8003T (=CCF 4037T=NRRL 62486T=IBT 31279T=IFM 60873T). Both species can be distinguished from all previously described species in section Fumigati based on morphology, maximum growth temperature, sequence data from five unlinked loci and unique secondary metabolites...

  9. Closely related freshwater macrophyte species, Ceratophyllum demersum and C. submersum, differ in temperature response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Benita; Sorrell, Brian Keith; Brix, Hans

    2014-01-01

    1. The importance of temperature responses of photosynthesis and respiration in determining species distributions was compared in two closely related freshwater macrophytes, Ceratophyllum demersum and C. submersum. The two species differed significantly in response to temperature in the short...... and distributional patterns corresponded well with the long-term (weeks) results obtained, but with some important deviations. The long-term responses of the two species to low temperature (12 °C) were more similar than expected. In contrast, high temperature (35 °C), which stimulated photosynthesis in C. submersum...... in the short term, inhibited photosynthesis in the long term and resulted in lower growth rates of C. submersum, both compared to C. demersum and to growth rates at intermediate temperatures (18 and 25 °C). 3. The long-term acclimation strategy differed between the two species. Ceratophyllum demersum achieved...

  10. The giant zooxanthellae-bearing ciliate Maristentor dinoferus (Heterotrichea) is closely related to folliculinidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Wei; Simpson, Alastair G B; Fu, Chengjie; Lobban, Christopher S

    2005-01-01

    The small subunit rDNA sequence of Maristentor dinoferus (Lobban, Schefter, Simpson, Pochon, Pawlowski, and Foissner, 2002) was determined and compared with sequences from other Heterotrichea and Karyorelictea. Maristentor resembles Stentor in basic morphology and had been provisionally assigned to Stentoridae. However, our phylogenetic analyses show that Maristentor is more closely related to Folliculinidae. Our results support the creation of a separate family for Maristentor, Maristentoridae n. fam., and also confirm the phylogenetic grouping of Folliculindae, Stentoridae, Blepharismidae, and Maristentoridae, which we informally call 'stentorids'. Maristentor, rather than Stentor itself, appears to be most significant in understanding the origins of folliculinids from their aloricate ancestors. Our analyses suggest continued uncertainty in the exact placement of the root of heterotrichs with this phylogenetic marker.

  11. Serological cross-reactivity between Merkel cell polyomavirus and two closely related chimpanzee polyomaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme T J Nicol

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analyses based on the major capsid protein sequence indicate that Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV and chimpanzee polyomaviruses (PtvPyV1, PtvPyV2, and similarly Trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSPyV and the orangutan polyomavirus (OraPyV1 are closely related. The existence of cross-reactivity between these polyomaviruses was therefore investigated. The findings indicated serological identity between the two chimpanzee polyomaviruses investigated and a high level of cross-reactivity with Merkel cell polyomavirus. In contrast, cross-reactivity was not observed between TSPyV and OraPyV1. Furthermore, specific antibodies to chimpanzee polyomaviruses were detected in chimpanzee sera by pre-incubation of sera with the different antigens, but not in human sera.

  12. Inverted duplication including Endothelin 3 closely related to dermal hyperpigmentation in Silkie chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming TIAN,Suyun FANG,Yanqiang WANG,Xiaorong GU,Chungang FENG,Rui HAO,Xiaoxiang HU,Ning LI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The dermal hyperpigmentation phenotype in chickens is controlled by the dominant fibromelanosis allele. One of the ten unique characteristics of Silkie chickens is the fibromelanosis phenotype, which is pigmentation in the dermal layer of the skin and connective tissue. In this study, we found a mutation of fibromelanosis, a genomic rearrangement that included an inverted duplication of endothelin3 (EDN3, is responsible. We show that, as a stimulator of melanoblast proliferation, EDN3 expression was increased in silkie embryos and in both skin and muscle throughout adulthood. EDN3 expression led to an increase in expression of the downstream genes EDNRB2 and TYRP2, and was closely relate with the hyperpigmentation phenotype. We examined eight different Chinese chicken breeds showing hyperpigmentation and conclude that this structural genetic variant exists in all fibromelanosis chicken breeds.

  13. Non-commercial surrogacy among close relatives in Vietnam: policy and ethical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, Yuri

    2018-04-19

    Altruistic surrogacy among close relatives has been legal in Vietnam since the beginning of 2015. Following the revision of the Marriage and Family Law, there have been dozens of cases of surrogacy, and instances of successful pregnancy and childbirth have also been reported. Although surrogacy was completely prohibited in 2003, numerous local brokers offered commercial surrogacy services. Today, surrogacy is permitted under very limited conditions, and commercial surrogacy is prohibited. However, brokers continue to offer illegal commercial surrogacy services, and some even present its incidence may be increasing. In terms of women's roles, Vietnamese society places the highest value on motherhood, and childless couples are stigmatized. Thus, the demand for surrogates is high in Vietnam, rendering it difficult for family members to meet the needs of all those seeking these services. This article considers the consequences and implications of the new surrogacy policy in Vietnam based on field research.

  14. Chromatographic resolution of closely related species in pharmaceutical chemistry: dehalogenation impurities and mixtures of halogen isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado, Erik L; Zhuang, Ping; Chen, Yadan; Makarov, Alexey A; Schafer, Wes A; McGachy, Neil; Welch, Christopher J

    2014-01-07

    In recent years, the use of halogen-containing molecules has proliferated in the pharmaceutical industry, where the incorporation of halogens, especially fluorine, has become vitally important for blocking metabolism and enhancing the biological activity of pharmaceuticals. The chromatographic separation of halogen-containing pharmaceuticals from associated isomers or dehalogenation impurities can sometimes be quite difficult. In an attempt to identify the best current tools available for addressing this important problem, a survey of the suitability of four chromatographic method development platforms (ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), core shell HPLC, achiral supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and chiral SFC) for separating closely related mixtures of halogen-containing pharmaceuticals and their dehalogenated isosteres is described. Of the 132 column and mobile phase combinations examined for each mixture, a small subset of conditions were found to afford the best overall performance, with a single UHPLC method (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.9 μm Hypersil Gold PFP, acetonitrile/methanol based aqueous eluents containing either phosphoric or perchloric acid with 150 mM sodium perchlorate) affording excellent separation for all samples. Similarly, a survey of several families of closely related halogen-containing small molecules representing the diversity of impurities that can sometimes be found in purchased starting materials for synthesis revealed chiral SFC (Chiralcel OJ-3 and Chiralpak IB, isopropanol or ethanol with 25 mM isobutylamine/carbon dioxide) as well as the UHPLC (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.8 μm ZORBAX RRHD Eclipse Plus C18 and the Gold PFP, acetonitrile/methanol based aqueous eluents containing phosphoric acid) as preferred methods.

  15. Poecilia picta, a Close Relative to the Guppy, Exhibits Red Male Coloration Polymorphism: A System for Phylogenetic Comparisons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K Lindholm

    Full Text Available Studies on the evolution of female preference and male color polymorphism frequently focus on single species since traits and preferences are thought to co-evolve. The guppy, Poecilia reticulata, has long been a premier model for such studies because female preferences and orange coloration are well known to covary, especially in upstream/downstream pairs of populations. However, focused single species studies lack the explanatory power of the comparative method, which requires detailed knowledge of multiple species with known evolutionary relationships. Here we describe a red color polymorphism in Poecilia picta, a close relative to guppies. We show that this polymorphism is restricted to males and is maintained in natural populations of mainland South America. Using tests of female preference we show female P. picta are not more attracted to red males, despite preferences for red/orange in closely related species, such as P. reticulata and P. parae. Male color patterns in these closely related species are different from P. picta in that they occur in discrete patches and are frequently Y chromosome-linked. P. reticulata have an almost infinite number of male patterns, while P. parae males occur in discrete morphs. We show the red male polymorphism in P. picta extends continuously throughout the body and is not a Y-linked trait despite the theoretical prediction that sexually-selected characters should often be linked to the heterogametic sex chromosome. The presence/absence of red male coloration of P. picta described here makes this an ideal system for phylogenetic comparisons that could reveal the evolutionary forces maintaining mate choice and color polymorphisms in this speciose group.

  16. Dynamic control of modeled tonic-clonic seizure states with closed-loop stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryce eBeverlin II

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Seizure control using deep brain stimulation (DBS provides an alternative therapy to patients with intractable and drug resistant epilepsy. This paper presents novel DBS stimulus protocols to disrupt seizures. Two protocols are presented: open-loop stimulation and a closed-loop feedback system utilizing measured firing rates to adjust stimulus frequency. Stimulation suppression is demonstrated in a computational model using 3000 excitatory Morris-Lecar model neurons connected with depressing synapses. Cells are connected using second order network topology to simulate network topologies measured in cortical networks. The network spontaneously switches from tonic to clonic as synaptic strengths and tonic input to the neurons decreases. To this model we add periodic stimulation pulses to simulate DBS. Periodic forcing can synchronize or desynchronize an oscillating population of neurons, depending on the stimulus frequency and amplitude. Therefore, it is possible to either extend or truncate the tonic or clonic phases of the seizure. Stimuli applied at the firing rate of the neuron generally synchronize the population while stimuli slightly slower than the firing rate prevent synchronization. We present an adaptive stimulation algorithm that measures the firing rate of a neuron and adjusts the stimulus to maintain a relative stimulus frequency to firing frequency and demonstrate it in a computational model of a tonic-clonic seizure. This adaptive algorithm can affect the duration of the tonic phase using much smaller stimulus amplitudes than the open-loop control.

  17. Inter- and intra-guild interactions related to aphids in nettle (Urtica dioica L.) strips closed to field crops.

    OpenAIRE

    Alhmedi, A.; Haubruge, Eric; Bodson, Bernard; Francis, Frédéric

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment designed to assess the biodiversity related to nettle strips closed to crops, and more particularly the aphid and related beneficial populations, was established in experimental farm located in Gembloux (Belgium). Margin strips of nettle (Urtica dioica) closed to wheat (Triticum aestivum), green pea (Pisum sativum) and rape (Brassicae napus) fields were investigated. The diversity, abundance of aphids and related predators were analysed according to the plant crop species a...

  18. Closed-loop model identification of cooperative manipulators holding deformable objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkathiri, A. A.; Akmeliawati, R.; Azlan, N. Z.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents system identification to obtain the closed-loop models of a couple of cooperative manipulators in a system, which function to hold deformable objects. The system works using the master-slave principle. In other words, one of the manipulators is position-controlled through encoder feedback, while a force sensor gives feedback to the other force-controlled manipulator. Using the closed-loop input and output data, the closed-loop models, which are useful for model-based control design, are estimated. The criteria for model validation are a 95% fit between the measured and simulated output of the estimated models and residual analysis. The results show that for both position and force control respectively, the fits are 95.73% and 95.88%.

  19. Modelling Stochastic Route Choice Behaviours with a Closed-Form Mixed Logit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjun Lai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A closed-form mixed Logit approach is proposed to model the stochastic route choice behaviours. It combines both the advantages of Probit and Logit to provide a flexible form in alternatives correlation and a tractable form in expression; besides, the heterogeneity in alternative variance can also be addressed. Paths are compared by pairs where the superiority of the binary Probit can be fully used. The Probit-based aggregation is also used for a nested Logit structure. Case studies on both numerical and empirical examples demonstrate that the new method is valid and practical. This paper thus provides an operational solution to incorporate the normal distribution in route choice with an analytical expression.

  20. Target oriented relational model finding

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Alcino; Macedo, Nuno Filipe Moreira; Guimarães, Tiago Miguel Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8411, 2014 Model finders are becoming useful in many software engineering problems. Kodkod is one of the most popular, due to its support for relational logic (a combination of first order logic with relational algebra operators and transitive closure), allowing a simpler specification of constraints, and support for partial instances, allowing the specification of a priori (exact, but potentially partial) knowledge about a problem's solution. However, in ...

  1. Implementation and identification of Preisach type hysteresis models with Everett Function in closed form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabó, Zsolt, E-mail: szabo@evt.bme.hu [Department of Broadband Infocommunications and Electromagnetic Theory, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary); Füzi, János [Neutron Spectroscopy Department, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs (Hungary)

    2016-05-15

    The Preisach function is considered as a product of two special one dimensional functions, which allows the closed form evaluation of the Everett integral. The deduced closed form expressions are included in Preisach models, in particular in the static model, moving model and a rate dependent hysteresis model, which can simulate the frequency dependence of the magnetization process. The details of the freely available implementations, which are available online are presented. The identification of the model parameters and the accuracy to describe the magnetization process are discussed and demonstrated by fitting measured data. Transient electric circuit simulation with hysteresis demonstrates the applicability of the developed models. - Highlights: • Formulation of the Preisach model with Everett function in closed form. • Identification of the parameters: when the shape of the analytical Preisach function does not matches the ferromagnetic material the moving model can be applied to increase the accuracy. • Novel algorithm with Fixed Point iteration, which utilizes the closed formulation to simulate the frequency dependence of the magnetization process. • The developed hysteresis models are utilized in circuit simulation algorithm to determine the transient behavior of the current, which flows through a toroidal coil with ferromagnetic core.

  2. Comparison of closely related, uncultivated Coxiella tick endosymbiont population genomes reveals clues about the mechanisms of symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsementzi, Despina; Castro Gordillo, Juan; Mahagna, Mustafa; Gottlieb, Yuval; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the symbiotic interaction between Coxiella-like endosymbionts (CLE) and their tick hosts is challenging due to lack of isolates and difficulties in tick functional assays. Here we sequenced the metagenome of a CLE population from wild Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (CRs) and compared it to the previously published genome of its close relative, CLE of R. turanicus (CRt). The tick hosts are closely related sympatric species, and their two endosymbiont genomes are highly similar with only minor differences in gene content. Both genomes encode numerous pseudogenes, consistent with an ongoing genome reduction process. In silico flux balance metabolic analysis (FBA) revealed the excess production of L-proline for both genomes, indicating a possible proline transport from Coxiella to the tick. Additionally, both CR genomes encode multiple copies of the proline/betaine transporter, proP gene. Modelling additional Coxiellaceae members including other tick CLE, did not identify proline as an excreted metabolite. Although both CRs and CRt genomes encode intact B vitamin synthesis pathway genes, which are presumed to underlay the mechanism of CLE-tick symbiosis, the FBA analysis indicated no changes for their products. Therefore, this study provides new testable hypotheses for the symbiosis mechanism and a better understanding of CLE genome evolution and diversity. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Differential regulation of two closely related integrative and conjugative elements from Streptococcus thermophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carraro Nicolas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two closely related ICEs, ICESt1 and ICESt3, have been identified in the lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus. While their conjugation and recombination modules are almost identical (95% nucleotide identity and their regulation modules related, previous work has demonstrated that transconjugants carrying ICESt3 were generated at rate exceeding by a 1000 factor that of ICESt1. Results The functional regulation of ICESt1 and ICESt3 transcription, excision and replication were investigated under different conditions (exponential growth or stationary phase, DNA damage by exposition to mitomycin C. Analysis revealed an identical transcriptional organization of their recombination and conjugation modules (long unique transcript whereas the transcriptional organization of their regulation modules were found to be different (two operons in ICESt1 but only one in ICESt3 and to depend on the conditions (promoter specific of stationary phase in ICESt3. For both elements, stationary phase and DNA damage lead to the rise of transcript levels of the conjugation-recombination and regulation modules. Whatever the growth culture conditions, excision of ICESt1 was found to be lower than that of ICESt3, which is consistent with weaker transfer frequencies. Furthermore, for both elements, excision increases in stationary phase (8.9-fold for ICESt1 and 1.31-fold for ICESt3 and is strongly enhanced by DNA damage (38-fold for ICESt1 and 18-fold for ICESt3. Although ICEs are generally not described as replicative elements, the copy number of ICESt3 exhibited a sharp increase (9.6-fold after mitomycin C exposure of its harboring strain CNRZ385. This result was not observed when ICESt3 was introduced in a strain deriving ICESt1 host strain CNRZ368, deleted for this element. This finding suggests an impact of the host cell on ICE behavior. Conclusions All together, these results suggest a novel mechanism of regulation shared by ICESt1

  4. Migratory New World blackbirds (icterids are more neophobic than closely related resident icterids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mettke-Hofmann

    Full Text Available Environments undergo short-term and long-term changes due to natural or human-induced events. Animals differ in their ability to cope with such changes which can be related to their ecology. Changes in the environment often elicit avoidance reactions (neophobia which protect animals from dangerous situations but can also inhibit exploration and familiarization with novel situations and thus, learning about new resources. Studies investigating the relationship between a species' ecology and its neophobia have so far been restricted to comparing only a few species and mainly in captivity. The current study investigated neophobia reactions to experimentally-induced changes in the natural environment of six closely-related blackbird species (Icteridae, including two species represented by two distinct populations. For analyses, neophobic reactions (difference in number of birds feeding and time spent feeding with and without novel objects were related to several measures of ecological plasticity and the migratory strategy (resident or migratory of the population. Phylogenetic relationships were incorporated into the analysis. The degree of neophobia was related to migratory strategy with migrants expressing much higher neophobia (fewer birds feeding and for a shorter time with objects present than residents. Furthermore, neophobia showed a relationship to diet breadth with fewer individuals of diet generalists than specialists returning when objects were present supporting the dangerous niche hypothesis. Residents may have evolved lower neophobia as costs of missing out on opportunities may be higher for residents than migrants as the former are restricted to a smaller area. Lower neophobia allows them approaching changes in the environment (e.g. novel objects quickly, thereby securing access to resources. Additionally, residents have a greater familiarity with similar situations in the area than migrants and the latter may, therefore, initially

  5. Phenology, growth, and fecundity as determinants of distribution in closely related nonnative taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marushia, Robin G.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Holt, Jodie S.

    2012-01-01

    Invasive species researchers often ask: Why do some species invade certain habitats while others do not? Ecological theories predict that taxonomically related species may invade similar habitats, but some related species exhibit contrasting invasion patterns. Brassica nigra, Brassica tournefortii, and Hirschfeldia incana are dominant, closely related nonnative species that have overlapping, but dissimilar, distributions. Brassica tournefortii is rapidly spreading in warm deserts of the southwestern United States, whereas B. nigra and H. incana are primarily limited to semiarid and mesic regions. We compared traits of B. tournefortii that might confer invasiveness in deserts with those of related species that have not invaded desert ecosystems. Brassica tournefortii, B. nigra and H. incana were compared in controlled experiments conducted outdoors in a mesic site (Riverside, CA) and a desert site (Blue Diamond, NV), and in greenhouses, over 3 yr. Desert and mesic B. tournefortii populations were also compared to determine whether locally adapted ecotypes contribute to desert invasion. Experimental variables included common garden sites and soil water availability. Response variables included emergence, growth, phenology, and reproduction. There was no evidence for B. tournefortii ecotypes, but B. tournefortii had a more rapid phenology than B. nigra or H. incana. Brassica tournefortii was less affected by site and water availability than B. nigra and H. incana, but was smaller and less fecund regardless of experimental conditions. Rapid phenology allows B. tournefortii to reproduce consistently under variable, stressful conditions such as those found in Southwestern deserts. Although more successful in milder, mesic ecosystems, B. nigra and H. incana may be limited by their ability to reproduce under desert conditions. Rapid phenology and drought response partition invasion patterns of nonnative mustards along a gradient of aridity in the southwestern United States

  6. A New Model of Tracheostomy Care: Closing the Research-Practice Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    521 A New Model of Tracheostomy Care: Closing the Research –Practice Gap Joel St. Clair Abstract Performance improvements have brought about...and it continues to close the research - practice gap . The WRAMC Department of Nursing is presently developing similar evidence-based procedures for... Research -Practice Gap 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK

  7. Dynamic simulation of perturbation responses in a closed-loop virtual arm model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yu-Fan; He, Xin; Lan, Ning

    2010-01-01

    A closed-loop virtual arm (VA) model has been developed in SIMULINK environment by adding spinal reflex circuits and propriospinal neural networks to the open-loop VA model developed in early study [1]. An improved virtual muscle model (VM4.0) is used to speed up simulation and to generate more precise recruitment of muscle force at low levels of muscle activation. Time delays in the reflex loops are determined by their synaptic connections and afferent transmission back to the spinal cord. Reflex gains are properly selected so that closed-loop responses are stable. With the closed-loop VA model, we are developing an approach to evaluate system behaviors by dynamic simulation of perturbation responses. Joint stiffness is calculated based on simulated perturbation responses by a least-squares algorithm in MATLAB. This method of dynamic simulation will be essential for further evaluation of feedforward and reflex control of arm movement and position.

  8. Multilocus analysis of nucleotide variation and speciation in three closely related Populus (Salicaceae) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shuhui; Wang, Zhaoshan; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Wang, Dongsheng; Wang, Junhui; Wu, Zhiqiang; Tembrock, Luke R; Zhang, Jianguo

    2015-10-01

    Historical tectonism and climate oscillations can isolate and contract the geographical distributions of many plant species, and they are even known to trigger species divergence and ultimately speciation. Here, we estimated the nucleotide variation and speciation in three closely related Populus species, Populus tremuloides, P. tremula and P. davidiana, distributed in North America and Eurasia. We analysed the sequence variation in six single-copy nuclear loci and three chloroplast (cpDNA) fragments in 497 individuals sampled from 33 populations of these three species across their geographic distributions. These three Populus species harboured relatively high levels of nucleotide diversity and showed high levels of nucleotide differentiation. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that P. tremuloides diverged earlier than the other two species. The cpDNA haplotype network result clearly illustrated the dispersal route from North America to eastern Asia and then into Europe. Molecular dating results confirmed that the divergence of these three species coincided with the sundering of the Bering land bridge in the late Miocene and a rapid uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau around the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Vicariance-driven successful allopatric speciation resulting from historical tectonism and climate oscillations most likely played roles in the formation of the disjunct distributions and divergence of these three Populus species. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A new closed-form thermodynamic model for thermal simulation of spark ignition internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barjaneh, Afshin; Sayyaadi, Hoseyn

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new closed-form thermal model was developed for SI engines. • Various irreversibilities of real engines were integrated into the model. • The accuracy of the model was examined on two real SI engines. • The superiority of the model to previous closed-form models was shown. • Accuracy and losses were studied over the operating range of engines. - Abstract: A closed form model based on finite speed thermodynamics, FST, modified to consider various losses was developed on Otto cycle. In this regard, the governing equations of the finite speed thermodynamics were developed for expansion/compression processes while heat absorption/rejection of the Otto cycle was determined based on finite time thermodynamics, FTT. In addition, other irreversibility including power loss caused by heat transfer through the cylinder walls and irreversibility due to throttling process was integrated into the model. The developed model was verified by implementing on two different spark ignition internal combustion engines and the results of modeling were compared with experimental results as well as FTT model. It was found that the developed model was not only very simple in use like a closed form thermodynamic model, but also it models a real spark ignition engine with reasonable accuracy. The error in predicting the output power at rated operating range of the engine was 39%, while in the case of the FTT model, this figure was 167.5%. This comparison for predicting thermal efficiency was +7% error (as difference) for the developed model compared to +39.4% error of FTT model.

  10. Cosmological models in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cosmological models in general relativity. B B PAUL. Department of Physics, Nowgong College, Nagaon, Assam, India. MS received 4 October 2002; revised 6 March 2003; accepted 21 May 2003. Abstract. LRS Bianchi type-I space-time filled with perfect fluid is considered here with deceler- ation parameter as variable.

  11. Bethe ansatz solution of the closed anisotropic supersymmetric U model with quantum supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibberd, Katrina; Roditi, Itzhak; Links, Jon; Foerster, Angela

    1999-11-01

    The nested algebraic Bethe Ansatz is presented for the anisotropic supersymmetric U model maintaining quantum a supersymmetry. The Bethe Ansatz equations of the model are obtained on a one-dimensional closed lattice and an expression for the energy is given. (author)

  12. Periodic and Aperiodic Close Packing: A Spontaneous Hard-Sphere Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Waal, B. W.

    1985-01-01

    Shows how to make close-packed models from balloons and table tennis balls to illustrate structural features of clusters and organometallic cluster-compounds (which are of great interest in the study of chemical reactions). These models provide a very inexpensive and tactile illustration of the organization of matter for concrete operational…

  13. Exact string theory model of closed timelike curves and cosmological singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Clifford V.; Svendsen, Harald G.

    2004-01-01

    We study an exact model of string theory propagating in a space-time containing regions with closed timelike curves (CTCs) separated from a finite cosmological region bounded by a big bang and a big crunch. The model is an nontrivial embedding of the Taub-NUT geometry into heterotic string theory with a full conformal field theory (CFT) definition, discovered over a decade ago as a heterotic coset model. Having a CFT definition makes this an excellent laboratory for the study of the stringy fate of CTCs, the Taub cosmology, and the Milne/Misner-type chronology horizon which separates them. In an effort to uncover the role of stringy corrections to such geometries, we calculate the complete set of α ' corrections to the geometry. We observe that the key features of Taub-NUT persist in the exact theory, together with the emergence of a region of space with Euclidean signature bounded by timelike curvature singularities. Although such remarks are premature, their persistence in the exact geometry is suggestive that string theory is able to make physical sense of the Milne/Misner singularities and the CTCs, despite their pathological character in general relativity. This may also support the possibility that CTCs may be viable in some physical situations, and may be a natural ingredient in pre-big bang cosmological scenarios

  14. Species-specific relationships between water transparency and male coloration within and between two closely related Lake Victoria cichlid species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castillo Cajas, Ruth F; Selz, Oliver M; Ripmeester, Erwin A P; Seehausen, Ole; Maan, Martine E

    2012-01-01

    Environmental variation in signalling conditions affects animal communication traits, with possible consequences for sexual selection and reproductive isolation. Using spectrophotometry, we studied how male coloration within and between populations of two closely related Lake Victoria cichlid

  15. Cognitive functioning is more closely related to real-life mobility than to laboratory-based mobility parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giannouli, Eleftheria; Bock, Otmar; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2018-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that mobility depends on cognitive resources, but the exact relationships between various cognitive functions and different mobility parameters still need to be investigated. This study examines the hypothesis that cognitive functioning is more closely related to

  16. USE OF COMPETITIVE DNA HYBRIDIZATION TO IDENTIFY DIFFERENCES IN THE GENOMES OF TWO CLOSELY RELATED FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although recent technological advances in DNA sequencing and computational biology now allow scientists to compare entire microbial genomes, comparisons of closely related bacterial species and individual isolates by whole-genome sequencing approaches remains prohibitively expens...

  17. Using SNPs with varying specificity to quantify hybridization between closely related but genetically distinct moth populations in the wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive insect species can potentially hybridize with closely related native populations to produce new phenotypes with deleterious economic and environmental consequences. Monitoring such events is often problematic because populations that can interbreed are typically sufficiently similar that it...

  18. The γ-gliadin multigene family in common wheat (Triticum aestivum and its closely related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qing

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The unique properties of wheat flour primarily depend on gluten, which is the most important source of protein for human being. γ-Gliadins have been considered to be the most ancient of the wheat gluten family. The complex family structure of γ-gliadins complicates the determination of their function. Moreover, γ-gliadins contain several sets of celiac disease epitopes. However, no systematic research has been conducted yet. Results A total of 170 γ-gliadin genes were isolated from common wheat and its closely related species, among which 138 sequences are putatively functional. The ORF lengths of these sequences range from 678 to 1089 bp, and the repetitive region is mainly responsible for the size heterogeneity of γ-gliadins. The repeat motif P(Q/L/S/T/I/V/R/AF(S/Y/V/Q/I/C/LP(R/L/S/T/H/C/YQ1–2(P(S/L/T/A/F/HQQ1–2is repeated from 7 to 22 times. Sequence polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium analyses show that γ-gliadins are highly diverse. Phylogenic analyses indicate that there is no obvious discrimination between Sitopsis and Ae. tauschii at the Gli-1 loci, compared with diploid wheat. According to the number and placement of cysteine residues, we defined nine cysteine patterns and 17 subgroups. Alternatively, we classified γ-gliadins into two types based on the length of repetitive domain. Amino acid composition analyses indicate that there is a wide range of essential amino acids in γ-gliadins, and those γ-gliadins from subgroup SG-10 and SG-12 and γ-gliadins with a short repetitive domain are more nutritional. A screening of toxic epitopes shows that γ-gliadins with a pattern of C9 and γ-gliadins with a short repetitive domain almost lack any epitopes. Conclusion γ-Gliadin sequences in wheat and closely related Aegilops species are diverse. Each group/subgroup contributes differently to nutritional quality and epitope content. It is suggested that the genes with a short repetitive domain are more

  19. Hippocampal closed-loop modeling and implications for seizure stimulation design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Roman A.; Song, Dong; Hampson, Robert E.; Deadwyler, Sam A.; Berger, Theodore W.; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.

    2015-10-01

    Objective. Traditional hippocampal modeling has focused on the series of feedforward synapses known as the trisynaptic pathway. However, feedback connections from CA1 back to the hippocampus through the entorhinal cortex (EC) actually make the hippocampus a closed-loop system. By constructing a functional closed-loop model of the hippocampus, one may learn how both physiological and epileptic oscillations emerge and design efficient neurostimulation patterns to abate such oscillations. Approach. Point process input-output models where estimated from recorded rodent hippocampal data to describe the nonlinear dynamical transformation from CA3 → CA1, via the schaffer-collateral synapse, and CA1 → CA3 via the EC. Each Volterra-like subsystem was composed of linear dynamics (principal dynamic modes) followed by static nonlinearities. The two subsystems were then wired together to produce the full closed-loop model of the hippocampus. Main results. Closed-loop connectivity was found to be necessary for the emergence of theta resonances as seen in recorded data, thus validating the model. The model was then used to identify frequency parameters for the design of neurostimulation patterns to abate seizures. Significance. Deep-brain stimulation (DBS) is a new and promising therapy for intractable seizures. Currently, there is no efficient way to determine optimal frequency parameters for DBS, or even whether periodic or broadband stimuli are optimal. Data-based computational models have the potential to be used as a testbed for designing optimal DBS patterns for individual patients. However, in order for these models to be successful they must incorporate the complex closed-loop structure of the seizure focus. This study serves as a proof-of-concept of using such models to design efficient personalized DBS patterns for epilepsy.

  20. Attention to affective pictures in closed head injury: event-related brain potentials and cardiac responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Reinvang, Ivar; Svebak, Sven; Nielsen, Christopher S; Sundet, Kjetil

    2005-02-01

    We examined whether closed head injury patients show altered patterns of selective attention to stimulus categories that naturally evoke differential responses in healthy people. Self-reported rating and electrophysiological (event-related potentials [ERPs], heart rate [HR]) responses to affective pictures were studied in patients with mild head injury (n = 20; CT/MRI negative), in patients with predominantly frontal brain lesions (n = 12; CT/MRI confirmed), and in healthy controls (n = 20). Affective valence similarly modulated HR and ERP responses in all groups, but group differences occurred that were independent of picture valence. The attenuation of P3-slow wave amplitudes in the mild head injury group indicates a reduction in the engagement of attentional resources to the task. In contrast, the general enhancement of ERP amplitudes at occipital sites in the group with primarily frontal brain injury may reflect disinhibition of input at sensory receptive areas, possibly due to a deficit in top-down modulation performed by anterior control systems.

  1. Testing DNA barcodes in closely related species of Curcuma (Zingiberaceae) from Myanmar and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Zhao, Jietang; Erickson, David L; Xia, Nianhe; Kress, W John

    2015-03-01

    The genus Curcuma L. is commonly used as spices, medicines, dyes and ornamentals. Owing to its economic significance and lack of clear-cut morphological differences between species, this genus is an ideal case for developing DNA barcodes. In this study, four chloroplast DNA regions (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA and trnL-F) and one nuclear region (ITS2) were generated for 44 Curcuma species and five species from closely related genera, represented by 96 samples. PCR amplification success rate, intra- and inter-specific genetic distance variation and the correct identification percentage were taken into account to assess candidate barcode regions. PCR and sequence success rate were high in matK (89.7%), rbcL (100%), trnH-psbA (100%), trnL-F (95.7%) and ITS2 (82.6%) regions. The results further showed that four candidate chloroplast barcoding regions (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA and trnL-F) yield no barcode gaps, indicating that the genus Curcuma represents a challenging group for DNA barcoding. The ITS2 region presented large interspecific variation and provided the highest correct identification rates (46.7%) based on BLASTClust method among the five regions. However, the ITS2 only provided 7.9% based on NJ tree method. An increase in discriminatory power needs the development of more variable markers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Trehalose 6-phosphate signal is closely related to sorbitol in apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Gala)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Lunn, John E.; Feil, Regina; Wang, Yufei; Zhao, Jingjing; Tao, Hongxia; Zhao, Zhengyang

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P) is a precursor of trehalose, which is widespread in nature and greatly influences plant growth and development. Tre6P acts as a signal of carbon availability in many plants, but little is known about the function of Tre6P in rosaceous plants, which have specific sorbitol biosynthesis and transportation pathways. In the present study, Tre6P levels and Sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were analyzed in apple (Malus domestica, Borkh. cv. Gala). Tre6P levels were positively correlated with sorbitol content but negatively correlated with sucrose, glucose, and fructose content in developing fruit. However, under sorbitol-limited conditions, Tre6P levels were positively correlated with both sorbitol and sucrose. In the presence of different exogenous sugar supply, Tre6P levels increased corresponding with sorbitol, but this was not the case with sucrose. In addition, Tre6P content and sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were more highly correlated with ADP-glucose levels under sorbitol-limited conditions and fruit development stages, respectively. These results suggest that Tre6P is more closely related to sorbitol than other soluble sugars and has an important role in influencing carbon metabolism in apple. PMID:28069587

  3. Relapsing fever causative agent in Southern Iran is a closely related species to East African borreliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, Saied Reza; Ghazinezhad, Behnaz; Kazemirad, Elham; Cutler, Sally Jane

    2017-10-01

    We obtained two blood samples from relapsing fever patients residing in Jask County, Hormozgan Province, southern Iran in 2013. Sequencing of a partial fragment of glpQ from two samples, and further characterization of one of them by analyzing flaB gene, and 16S-23S spacer (IGS) revealed the greatest sequence identity with East African borreliae, Borrelia recurrentis, and Borrelia duttonii, and Borrelia microti from Iran. Phylogenetic analyses of glpQ, flaB, and concatenated sequences (glpQ, flab, and IGS) clustered these sequences amongst East African Relapsing fever borreliae and B. microti from Iran. However, the more discriminatory IGS disclosed a unique 8-bp signature (CAGCCTAA) separating these from B. microti and indeed other relapsing fever borreliae. In southern Iran, relapsing fever cases are mostly from localities in which O. erraticus ticks, the notorious vector of B. microti, prevail. There are chances that this argasid tick serves as a host and vector of several closely related species or ecotypes including the one we identified in the present study. The distribution of this Borrelia species remains to be elucidated, but it is assumed to be endemic to lowland areas of the Hormozgan Province, as well as Sistan va Baluchistan in the southeast and South Khorasan (in Persian: Khorasan-e Jonobi) in the east of Iran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Evidence for nonallopatric speciation among closely related sympatric Heliotropium species in the Atacama Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebert, Federico; Jacobs, Pit; Hilger, Hartmut H; Muller, Ludo A H

    2014-02-01

    The genetic structure of populations of closely related, sympatric species may hold the signature of the geographical mode of the speciation process. In fully allopatric speciation, it is expected that genetic differentiation between species is homogeneously distributed across the genome. In nonallopatric speciation, the genomes may remain undifferentiated to a large extent. In this article, we analyzed the genetic structure of five sympatric species from the plant genus Heliotropium in the Atacama Desert. We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) to characterize the genetic structure of these species and evaluate their genetic differentiation as well as the number of loci subject to positive selection using divergence outlier analysis (DOA). The five species form distinguishable groups in the genetic space, with zones of overlap, indicating that they are possibly not completely isolated. Among-species differentiation accounts for 35% of the total genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.35), and F ST between species pairs is positively correlated with phylogenetic distance. DOA suggests that few loci are subject to positive selection, which is in line with a scenario of nonallopatric speciation. These results support the idea that sympatric species of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea are under an ongoing speciation process, characterized by a fluctuation of population ranges in response to pulses of arid and humid periods during Quaternary times.

  5. Trehalose 6-phosphate signal is closely related to sorbitol in apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Gala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P is a precursor of trehalose, which is widespread in nature and greatly influences plant growth and development. Tre6P acts as a signal of carbon availability in many plants, but little is known about the function of Tre6P in rosaceous plants, which have specific sorbitol biosynthesis and transportation pathways. In the present study, Tre6P levels and Sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were analyzed in apple (Malus domestica, Borkh. cv. Gala. Tre6P levels were positively correlated with sorbitol content but negatively correlated with sucrose, glucose, and fructose content in developing fruit. However, under sorbitol-limited conditions, Tre6P levels were positively correlated with both sorbitol and sucrose. In the presence of different exogenous sugar supply, Tre6P levels increased corresponding with sorbitol, but this was not the case with sucrose. In addition, Tre6P content and sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were more highly correlated with ADP-glucose levels under sorbitol-limited conditions and fruit development stages, respectively. These results suggest that Tre6P is more closely related to sorbitol than other soluble sugars and has an important role in influencing carbon metabolism in apple.

  6. Host plant use among closely related Anaea butterfly species (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QUEIROZ J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great number of Charaxinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae species in the tropics whose larvae feed on several plant families. However the genus Anaea is almost always associated with Croton species (Euphorbiaceae. This work describes patterns of host plant use by immature and adult abundance on different vertical strata of sympatric Anaea species in a forest of Southeastern Brazil. Quantitative samples of leaves were taken in April/1999 and May/2000 to collect eggs and larvae of four Anaea species on C.alchorneicarpus, C. floribundus and C. salutaris in a semideciduous forest. Sampled leaves were divided into three classes of plant phenological stage: saplings, shrubs and trees. The results showed that the butterfly species are segregating in host plant use on two scales: host plant species and plant phenological stages. C. alchorneicarpus was used by only one Anaea species, whereas C. floribundus was used by three species and C. salutaris by four Anaea species. There was one Anaea species concentrated on sapling, another on sapling/shrub and two others on shrub/tree leaves. Adults of Anaea were more frequent at canopy traps but there were no differences among species caught in traps at different vertical positions. This work supplements early studies on host plant use among Charaxinae species and it describes how a guild of closely related butterfly species may be organized in a complex tropical habitat.

  7. Drought responses of three closely related Caragana species: implication for their vicarious distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Na, Xiaofan; Xu, Tingting

    2016-05-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint affecting growth and distribution of plants in the desert region of the Inner Mongolia plateau. Caragana microphylla, C. liouana, and C. korshinskii are phylogenetically close but distribute vicariously in Mongolia plateau. To gain a better understanding of the ecological differentiation between these three species, we examined the leaf gas exchange, growth, water use efficiency, biomass accumulation and allocation by subjecting their seedlings to low and high drought treatments in a glasshouse. Increasing drought stress had a significant effect on many aspects of seedling performance in all species, but the physiology and growth varied with species in response to drought. C. korshinskii exhibited lower sensitivity of photosynthetic rate and growth, lower specific leaf area, higher biomass allocation to roots, higher levels of water use efficiency to drought compared with the other two species. Only minor interspecific differences in growth performances were observed between C. liouana and C. microphylla. These results indicated that faster seedling growth rate and more efficient water use of C. korshinskii should confer increased drought tolerance and facilitate its establishment in more severe drought regions relative to C. liouana and C. microphylla.

  8. Epistemology and Rosen's Modeling Relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dress, W.B.

    1999-01-01

    Rosen's modeling relation is embedded in Popper's three worlds to provide an heuristic tool for model building and a guide for thinking about complex systems. The utility of this construct is demonstrated by suggesting a solution to the problem of pseudo science and a resolution of the famous Bohr-Einstein debates. A theory of bizarre systems is presented by an analogy with entangled particles of quantum mechanics. This theory underscores the poverty of present-day computational systems (e.g., computers) for creating complex and bizarre entities by distinguishing between mechanism and organism

  9. Modeling biology using relational databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzsch, Robert M

    2003-02-01

    There are several different methodologies that can be used for designing a database schema; no one is the best for all occasions. This unit demonstrates two different techniques for designing relational tables and discusses when each should be used. These two techniques presented are (1) traditional Entity-Relationship (E-R) modeling and (2) a hybrid method that combines aspects of data warehousing and E-R modeling. The method of choice depends on (1) how well the information and all its inherent relationships are understood, (2) what types of questions will be asked, (3) how many different types of data will be included, and (4) how much data exists.

  10. Plan Recognition using Statistical Relational Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-25

    corresponding undirected model can be significantly more complex since there is no closed form solution for the maximum-likelihood set of parameters unlike in...algorithm did not scale to larger training sets, and the overall results are still not competitive with BALPs. 5In directed models, a closed form solution...opinions of ARO, DARPA, NSF or any other government agency. References Albrecht DW, Zukerman I, Nicholson AE. Bayesian models for keyhole plan

  11. Persuasion, Politeness and Relational Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Świątek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Politeness Theory, just like Grice’s Cooperative Principle, points out that pragmatic analysis of language behaviour has to be grounded in extra-linguistic facts of social (or even biological nature. Additionally, despite the slightly misleading label, Politeness Theory provides a sound methodology to explain some persuasive as well as politeness phenomena. In the same vein, the so called Relational Model Theory provides another theoretical framework for the explanation of persuasive phenomena and persuasive language. Both Relational Model Theory and Politeness Theory show that persuasion is also to be understood as a rational response to not-so-rational social and biological needs. In the article an attempt is made to compare the two theories focusing on their explanatory power in reference to language choices aiming at enhancing the persuasive potential of a language message.

  12. The relation of close friends to cognitive performance in old age: the mediating role of leisure activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Oris, Michel; Baeriswyl, Marie; Kliegel, Matthias

    2018-06-01

    ABSTRACTBackground:From a conceptual point of view, close friends are an important resource for promoting activity engagement in old age. Leisure activity engagement in turn is a key predictor of cognitive performance. Empirically, it remains unclear so far whether leisure activity engagement mediates between having close friends on the one hand and cognitive performance on the other, which we investigated in a large sample of older adults. We assessed cognitive performance (Mill Hill vocabulary scale and Trail Making Test (TMT) parts A and B) in 2,812 older adults. Participants reported information on leisure activity engagement and close friends. A larger number of leisure activities and a larger number of close friends were significantly related to better cognitive performance in the Mill Hill vocabulary scale and TMT parts A and B. A larger number of close friends were significantly related to a larger number of leisure activities. The number of leisure activities mediated more than half of the relation of the number of close friends to performance in all three cognitive measures. Having close friends may be helpful to stimulate and promote activity participation in old age. By enhancing individuals' cognitive reserve, this may finally preserve their cognitive performance level in old age.

  13. Persuasion, Politeness and Relational Models

    OpenAIRE

    Jerzy Świątek

    2017-01-01

    Politeness Theory, just like Grice’s Cooperative Principle, points out that pragmatic analysis of language behaviour has to be grounded in extra-linguistic facts of social (or even biological) nature. Additionally, despite the slightly misleading label, Politeness Theory provides a sound methodology to explain some persuasive as well as politeness phenomena. In the same vein, the so called Relational Model Theory provides another theoretical framework for the explanation of persuasive phenome...

  14. Like will to like: abundances of closely related species can predict susceptibility to intestinal colonization by pathogenic and commensal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecher, Bärbel; Chaffron, Samuel; Käppeli, Rina; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried; Freedrich, Susanne; Weber, Thomas C; Kirundi, Jorum; Suar, Mrutyunjay; McCoy, Kathy D; von Mering, Christian; Macpherson, Andrew J; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal ecosystem is formed by a complex, yet highly characteristic microbial community. The parameters defining whether this community permits invasion of a new bacterial species are unclear. In particular, inhibition of enteropathogen infection by the gut microbiota ( = colonization resistance) is poorly understood. To analyze the mechanisms of microbiota-mediated protection from Salmonella enterica induced enterocolitis, we used a mouse infection model and large scale high-throughput pyrosequencing. In contrast to conventional mice (CON), mice with a gut microbiota of low complexity (LCM) were highly susceptible to S. enterica induced colonization and enterocolitis. Colonization resistance was partially restored in LCM-animals by co-housing with conventional mice for 21 days (LCM(con21)). 16S rRNA sequence analysis comparing LCM, LCM(con21) and CON gut microbiota revealed that gut microbiota complexity increased upon conventionalization and correlated with increased resistance to S. enterica infection. Comparative microbiota analysis of mice with varying degrees of colonization resistance allowed us to identify intestinal ecosystem characteristics associated with susceptibility to S. enterica infection. Moreover, this system enabled us to gain further insights into the general principles of gut ecosystem invasion by non-pathogenic, commensal bacteria. Mice harboring high commensal E. coli densities were more susceptible to S. enterica induced gut inflammation. Similarly, mice with high titers of Lactobacilli were more efficiently colonized by a commensal Lactobacillus reuteri(RR) strain after oral inoculation. Upon examination of 16S rRNA sequence data from 9 CON mice we found that closely related phylotypes generally display significantly correlated abundances (co-occurrence), more so than distantly related phylotypes. Thus, in essence, the presence of closely related species can increase the chance of invasion of newly incoming species into the gut

  15. Impact of the volume of gaseous phase in closed reactors on ANC results and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Clémentine; Delolme, Cécile; Lassabatere, Laurent; Blanc, Denise

    2016-04-01

    The understanding of the geochemical behavior of polluted solid materials is often challenging and requires huge expenses of time and money. Nevertheless, given the increasing amounts of polluted solid materials and related risks for the environment, it is more and more crucial to understand the leaching of majors and trace metals elements from these matrices. In the designs of methods to quantify pollutant solubilization, the combination of experimental procedures with modeling approaches has recently gained attention. Among usual methods, some rely on the association of ANC and geochemical modeling. ANC experiments - Acid Neutralization Capacity - consists in adding known quantities of acid or base to a mixture of water and contaminated solid materials at a given liquid / solid ratio in closed reactors. Reactors are agitated for 48h and then pH, conductivity, redox potential, carbon, majors and heavy metal solubilized are quantified. However, in most cases, the amounts of matrix and water do not reach the total volume of reactors, leaving some space for air (gaseous phase). Despite this fact, no clear indication is given in standard procedures about the effect of this gaseous phase. Even worse, the gaseous phase is never accounted for when exploiting or modeling ANC data. The gaseous phase may exchange CO2 with the solution, which may, in turn, impact both pH and element release. This study lies within the most general framework for the use of geochemical modeling for the prediction of ANC results for the case of pure phases to real phase assemblages. In this study, we focus on the effect of the gaseous phase on ANC experiments on different mineral phases through geochemical modeling. To do so, we use PHREEQC code to model the evolution of pH and element release (including majors and heavy metals) when several matrices are put in contact with acid or base. We model the following scenarios for the gaseous phase: no gas, contact with the atmosphere (open system

  16. Developmental success, stability, and plasticity in closely related parthenogenetic and sexual lizards (Heteronotia, Gekkonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Michael; Shine, Richard

    2004-07-01

    The developmental trajectory of an organism is influenced by the interaction between its genes and the environment in which it develops. For example, the phenotypic traits of a hatchling reptile can be influenced by the organism's genotype, by incubation temperature, and by genetically coded norms of reaction for thermally labile traits. The evolution of parthenogenesis provides a unique opportunity to explore such effects: a hybrid origin of this trait in vertebrates modifies important aspects of the genotype (e.g., heterozygosity, polyploidy) and may thus impact not only on the phenotype generally, but also on the ways in which incubation temperature affects expression of the phenotype. The scarcity of vertebrate parthenogenesis has been attributed to developmental disruptions, but previous work has rarely considered reaction norms of embryogenesis in this respect. We used closely related sexual and asexual races of the Australian gecko Heteronotia binoei, which include those with multiple origins of parthenogenesis, to explore the ways in which reproductive modes (sexual, asexual), incubation temperatures (24, 27, and 30 degrees C), and the interaction between these factors affected hatchling phenotypes. The hatchling traits we considered included incubation period, incidence of deformities, hatchling survivorship, body size and shape, scalation (including fluctuating asymmetry), locomotor performance, and growth rate. Developmental success was slightly reduced (higher proportion of abnormal offspring) in parthenogenetic lineages although there was no major difference in hatching success. Incubation temperature affected a suite of traits including incubation period, tail length, body mass relative to egg mass, labial scale counts, running speed, growth rate, and hatchling survival. Our data also reveal an interaction between reproductive modes and thermal regimes, with the phenotypic traits of parthenogenetic lizards less sensitive to incubation temperature than

  17. Microbial environment affects innate immunity in two closely related earthworm species Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Dvořák

    Full Text Available Survival of earthworms in the environment depends on their ability to recognize and eliminate potential pathogens. This work is aimed to compare the innate defense mechanisms of two closely related earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida, that inhabit substantially different ecological niches. While E. andrei lives in a compost and manure, E. fetida can be found in the litter layer in forests. Therefore, the influence of environment-specific microbiota on the immune response of both species was followed. Firstly, a reliable method to discern between E. andrei and E. fetida based on species-specific primers for cytochrome c oxidase I (COI and stringent PCR conditions was developed. Secondly, to analyze the immunological profile in both earthworm species, the activity and expression of lysozyme, pattern recognition protein CCF, and antimicrobial proteins with hemolytic function, fetidin and lysenins, have been assessed. Whereas, CCF and lysozyme showed only slight differences in the expression and activity, fetidin/lysenins expression as well as the hemolytic activity was considerably higher in E. andrei as compared to E. fetida. The expression of fetidin/lysenins in E. fetida was not affected upon the challenge with compost microbiota, suggesting more substantial changes in the regulation of the gene expression. Genomic DNA analyses revealed significantly higher level of fetidin/lysenins (determined using universal primer pairs in E. andrei compared to E. fetida. It can be hypothesized that E. andrei colonizing compost as a new habitat acquired an evolutionary selection advantage resulting in a higher expression of antimicrobial proteins.

  18. Rapid identification of closely related muscle foods by vibrational spectroscopy and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David I; Broadhurst, David; Clarke, Sarah J; Goodacre, Royston

    2005-12-01

    Muscle foods are an integral part of the human diet and during the last few decades consumption of poultry products in particular has increased significantly. It is important for consumers, retailers and food regulatory bodies that these products are of a consistently high quality, authentic, and have not been subjected to adulteration by any lower-grade material either by accident or for economic gain. A variety of methods have been developed for the identification and authentication of muscle foods. However, none of these are rapid or non-invasive, all are time-consuming and difficulties have been encountered in discriminating between the commercially important avian species. Whilst previous attempts have been made to discriminate between muscle foods using infrared spectroscopy, these have had limited success, in particular regarding the closely related poultry species, chicken and turkey. Moreover, this study includes novel data since no attempts have been made to discriminate between both the species and the distinct muscle groups within these species, and this is the first application of Raman spectroscopy to the study of muscle foods. Samples of pre-packed meat and poultry were acquired and FT-IR and Raman measurements taken directly from the meat surface. Qualitative interpretation of FT-IR and Raman spectra at the species and muscle group levels were possible using discriminant function analysis. Genetic algorithms were used to elucidate meaningful interpretation of FT-IR results in (bio)chemical terms and we show that specific wavenumbers, and therefore chemical species, were discriminatory for each type (species and muscle) of poultry sample. We believe that this approach would aid food regulatory bodies in the rapid identification of meat and poultry products and shows particular potential for rapid assessment of food adulteration.

  19. Glycolysis Is Dynamic and Relates Closely to Respiration Rate in Stored Sugarbeet Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice A. Megguer

    2017-05-01

    storage and that changes in glycolysis are closely related to changes in sugarbeet root respiration.

  20. Visual perception can account for the close relation between numerosity processing and computational fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinlin; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Yiyun; Cui, Jiaxin; Chen, Chuansheng

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that numerosity processing (e.g., comparison of numbers of dots in two dot arrays) is significantly correlated with arithmetic performance. Researchers have attributed this association to the fact that both tasks share magnitude processing. The current investigation tested an alternative hypothesis, which states that visual perceptual ability (as measured by a figure-matching task) can account for the close relation between numerosity processing and arithmetic performance (computational fluency). Four hundred and twenty four third- to fifth-grade children (220 boys and 204 girls, 8.0-11.0 years old; 120 third graders, 146 fourth graders, and 158 fifth graders) were recruited from two schools (one urban and one suburban) in Beijing, China. Six classes were randomly selected from each school, and all students in each selected class participated in the study. All children were given a series of cognitive and mathematical tests, including numerosity comparison, figure matching, forward verbal working memory, visual tracing, non-verbal matrices reasoning, mental rotation, choice reaction time, arithmetic tests and curriculum-based mathematical achievement test. Results showed that figure-matching ability had higher correlations with numerosity processing and computational fluency than did other cognitive factors (e.g., forward verbal working memory, visual tracing, non-verbal matrix reasoning, mental rotation, and choice reaction time). More important, hierarchical multiple regression showed that figure matching ability accounted for the well-established association between numerosity processing and computational fluency. In support of the visual perception hypothesis, the results suggest that visual perceptual ability, rather than magnitude processing, may be the shared component of numerosity processing and arithmetic performance.

  1. Optimal closed-loop identification test design for internal model control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Y.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    2000-01-01

    In this work, optimal closed-loop test design for control is studied. Simple design formulas are derived based on the asymptotic theory of Ljung. The control scheme used is internal model control (IMC) and the design constraint is the power of the process output or that of the reference signal. The

  2. A Tissue Propagation Model for Validating Close-Proximity Biomedical Radiometer Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, Q.; Herzig, P.; Weller, T.

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of thermally-generated electromagnetic emissions through stratified human tissue is studied herein using a non-coherent mathematical model. The model is developed to complement subsurface body temperature measurements performed using a close proximity microwave radiometer. The model takes into account losses and reflections as thermal emissions propagate through the body, before being emitted at the skin surface. The derivation is presented in four stages and applied to the human core phantom, a physical representation of a stomach volume of skin, muscle, and blood-fatty tissue. A drop in core body temperature is simulated via the human core phantom and the response of the propagation model is correlated to the radiometric measurement. The results are comparable, with differences on the order of 1.5 - 3%. Hence the plausibility of core body temperature extraction via close proximity radiometry is demonstrated, given that the electromagnetic characteristics of the stratified tissue layers are known.

  3. Negative aspects of close social relations and 10-year incident ischaemic heart disease hospitalization among middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Thielen, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the association between negative aspects of close social relations and development of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). We aim to address if the experience of worries/demands and conflicts with close social relations are related to risk of first-time hospitalization...... National Patient Registry. Cox regression analysis was used to analyse data and all analyses were adjusted for age, gender, social class, cohabitation, and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Worries/demands from and conflicts with children were associated with IHD hospitalization in an exposure-dependent manner...

  4. Transcriptome sequencing of Crucihimalaya himalaica (Brassicaceae) reveals how Arabidopsis close relative adapt to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qin; Wang, Qia; Han, Xi; Guan, Yanlong; Sun, Hang; Zhong, Yang; Huang, Jinling; Zhang, Ticao

    2016-02-01

    The extreme environment of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) provides an ideal natural laboratory for studies on adaptive evolution. Few genome/transcriptome based studies have been conducted on how plants adapt to the environments of QTP compared to numerous studies on vertebrates. Crucihimalaya himalaica is a close relative of Arabidopsis with typical QTP distribution, and is hoped to be a new model system to study speciation and ecological adaptation in extreme environment. In this study, we de novo generated a transcriptome sequence of C. himalaica, with a total of 49,438 unigenes. Compared to five relatives, 10,487 orthogroups were shared by all six species, and 4,286 orthogroups contain putative single copy gene. Further analysis identified 487 extremely significantly positively selected genes (PSGs) in C. himalaica transcriptome. Theses PSGs were enriched in functions related to specific adaptation traits, such as response to radiation, DNA repair, nitrogen metabolism, and stabilization of membrane. These functions are responsible for the adaptation of C. himalaica to the high radiation, soil depletion and low temperature environments on QTP. Our findings indicate that C. himalaica has evolved complex strategies for adapting to the extreme environments on QTP and provide novel insights into genetic mechanisms of highland adaptation in plants.

  5. Correlations in microscopic optical model for nucleon elastic scattering off doubly closed-shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.; Karataglidis, S.; Bauge, E.; Delaroche, J.P.; Gogny, D.

    2006-01-01

    The random phase approximation (RPA) long-range correlations are known to play a significant role in understanding the depletion of single particle-hole states observed in (e,e ' ) and (e,e ' p) measurements. Here the RPA theory, implemented using the D1S force is considered for the specific purpose of building correlated ground states and related one-body density matrix elements. These may be implemented and tested in a fully microscopic optical model for NA scattering off doubly closed-shell nuclei. A method is presented to correct for the correlations overcounting inherent to the RPA formalism. One-body density matrix elements in the uncorrelated (i.e., Hartree-Fock) and correlated (i.e., RPA) ground states are then challenged in proton scattering studies based on the Melbourne microscopic optical model to highlight the role played by the RPA correlations. Agreement between the parameter free scattering predictions and measurements is good for incident proton energies ranging from 200 MeV down to approximately 60 MeV and becomes gradually worse in the lower energy range. Those features point unambiguously to the relevance of the g-matrix method to build microscopic optical model potentials at medium energies, and emphasize the need to include nucleon-phonon coupling, that is, a second-order component of the Feshbach type in the potential at lower energies. Illustrations are given for proton scattering observables measured up to 201 MeV for the 16 O, 40 Ca, 48 Ca, and 208 Pb target nuclei

  6. Modeling and forecasting foreign exchange daily closing prices with normal inverse Gaussian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teneng, Dean

    2013-09-01

    We fit the normal inverse Gaussian(NIG) distribution to foreign exchange closing prices using the open software package R and select best models by Käärik and Umbleja (2011) proposed strategy. We observe that daily closing prices (12/04/2008 - 07/08/2012) of CHF/JPY, AUD/JPY, GBP/JPY, NZD/USD, QAR/CHF, QAR/EUR, SAR/CHF, SAR/EUR, TND/CHF and TND/EUR are excellent fits while EGP/EUR and EUR/GBP are good fits with a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test p-value of 0.062 and 0.08 respectively. It was impossible to estimate normal inverse Gaussian parameters (by maximum likelihood; computational problem) for JPY/CHF but CHF/JPY was an excellent fit. Thus, while the stochastic properties of an exchange rate can be completely modeled with a probability distribution in one direction, it may be impossible the other way around. We also demonstrate that foreign exchange closing prices can be forecasted with the normal inverse Gaussian (NIG) Lévy process, both in cases where the daily closing prices can and cannot be modeled by NIG distribution.

  7. Why Do Some Estuaries Close: A Model of Estuary Entrance Morphodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, S. L.; Kennedy, D. M.; Rutherfurd, I.

    2014-12-01

    Intermittently Closed/Open Coastal Lakes/Lagoons (ICOLLs) are a form of wave-dominated, microtidal estuary that experience periodic closure in times of low river flow. ICOLL entrance morphodynamics are complex due to the interaction between wave, tidal and fluvial processes. Managers invest substantial funds to artificially open ICOLLs as they flood surrounding property and infrastructure, and have poor water quality. Existing studies examine broad scale processes but do not identify the main drivers of entrance condition. In this research, the changes in entrance geomorphology were surveyed before and after artificial entrance openings in three ICOLLs in Victoria, Australia. Changes in morphology were related to continuous measures of sediment volume, water level, tide and wave energy. A six-stage quantitative phase model of entrance geomorphology and hydrodynamics is presented to illustrate the spatio-temporal variability in ICOLL entrance morphodynamics. Phases include: breakout; channel expansion with rapid outflow; open with tidal exchange; initial berm rebuilding with tidal attenuation; partial berm recovery with rising water levels; closed with perched water levels. Entrance breakout initiates incision of a pilot channel to the ocean, whereby basin water levels then decline and channel expansion as the headcut migrates landwards. Peak outflow velocities of 5 m/s-3 were recorded and channel dimensions increased over 6 hrs to 3.5 m deep and 140 m wide. When tidal, a clear semi-diurnal signal is superimposed upon an otherwise stable water level. Deep-water wave energy was transferred 1.8 km upstream of the rivermouth with bores present in the basin. Berm rebuilding occurred by littoral drift and cross-shore transport once outflow ceased and microscale bedform features, particularly antidunes, contributed to sediment progradation. Phase duration is dependant on how high the estuary was perched above mean sea level, tidal prism extent, and onshore sediment supply

  8. A model of oil-generation in a waterlogged and closed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhigao, He

    This paper presents a new model on synthetic effects on oil-generation in a waterlogged and closed system. It is suggested based on information about oil in high pressure layers (including gas dissolved in oil), marsh gas and its fermentative solution, fermentation processes and mechanisms, gaseous hydrocarbons of carbonate rocks by acid treatment, oil-field water, recent and ancient sediments, and simulation experiments of artificial marsh gas and biological action. The model differs completely from the theory of oil-generation by thermal degradation of kerogen but stresses the synthetic effects of oil-generation in special waterlogged and closed geological systems, the importance of pressure in oil-forming processes, and direct oil generation by micro-organisms. Oil generated directly by micro-organisms is a particular biochemical reaction. Another feature of this model is that generation, migration and accumulation of petroleum are considered as a whole.

  9. Integrating Entropy and Closed Frequent Pattern Mining for Social Network Modelling and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Muhaimenul; Alhajj, Reda; Rokne, Jon

    The recent increase in the explicitly available social networks has attracted the attention of the research community to investigate how it would be possible to benefit from such a powerful model in producing effective solutions for problems in other domains where the social network is implicit; we argue that social networks do exist around us but the key issue is how to realize and analyze them. This chapter presents a novel approach for constructing a social network model by an integrated framework that first preparing the data to be analyzed and then applies entropy and frequent closed patterns mining for network construction. For a given problem, we first prepare the data by identifying items and transactions, which arc the basic ingredients for frequent closed patterns mining. Items arc main objects in the problem and a transaction is a set of items that could exist together at one time (e.g., items purchased in one visit to the supermarket). Transactions could be analyzed to discover frequent closed patterns using any of the well-known techniques. Frequent closed patterns have the advantage that they successfully grab the inherent information content of the dataset and is applicable to a broader set of domains. Entropies of the frequent closed patterns arc used to keep the dimensionality of the feature vectors to a reasonable size; it is a kind of feature reduction process. Finally, we analyze the dynamic behavior of the constructed social network. Experiments were conducted on a synthetic dataset and on the Enron corpus email dataset. The results presented in the chapter show that social networks extracted from a feature set as frequent closed patterns successfully carry the community structure information. Moreover, for the Enron email dataset, we present an analysis to dynamically indicate the deviations from each user's individual and community profile. These indications of deviations can be very useful to identify unusual events.

  10. A mouse model of weight-drop closed head injury: emphasis on cognitive and neurological deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Khalin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a leading cause of death and disability in individuals worldwide. Producing a clinically relevant TBI model in small-sized animals remains fairly challenging. For good screening of potential therapeutics, which are effective in the treatment of TBI, animal models of TBI should be established and standardized. In this study, we established mouse models of closed head injury using the Shohami weight-drop method with some modifications concerning cognitive deficiency assessment and provided a detailed description of the severe TBI animal model. We found that 250 g falling weight from 2 cm height produced severe closed head injury in C57BL/6 male mice. Cognitive disorders in mice with severe closed head injury could be detected using passive avoidance test on day 7 after injury. Findings from this study indicate that weight-drop injury animal models are suitable for further screening of brain neuroprotectants and potentially are similar to those seen in human TBI.

  11. A comparison of two closely-related approaches to aerodynamic design optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubin, G. R.; Frank, P. D.

    1991-01-01

    Two related methods for aerodynamic design optimization are compared. The methods, called the implicit gradient approach and the variational (or optimal control) approach, both attempt to obtain gradients necessary for numerical optimization at a cost significantly less than that of the usual black-box approach that employs finite difference gradients. While the two methods are seemingly quite different, they are shown to differ (essentially) in that the order of discretizing the continuous problem, and of applying calculus, is interchanged. Under certain circumstances, the two methods turn out to be identical. We explore the relationship between these methods by applying them to a model problem for duct flow that has many features in common with transonic flow over an airfoil. We find that the gradients computed by the variational method can sometimes be sufficiently inaccurate to cause the optimization to fail.

  12. Complaints related to mandibular function impairment after closed treatment of fractures of the mandibular condyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niezen, E. T.; Bos, R. R. M.; de Bont, L. G. M.; Stegenga, B.; Dijkstra, P. U.

    This study analysed the relationship between complaints and mandibular function after closed treatment of fractures of the mandibular condyle in a prospective study. In a I-year follow-up, complaints were assessed during physical examination and function was assessed using the mandibular function

  13. Close relation of interpersonal sensitivity with negative core beliefs about the self, the central construct of cognitive vulnerability to depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Shirata, Toshinori

    2018-05-01

    Interpersonal sensitivity is a personality trait linked with anxious attachment conceptualized in attachment theory. This personality trait is comprised of four components, i.e., interpersonal awareness, separation anxiety, timidity and fragile inner-self, which are measured by the corresponding subscales of the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM). Meanwhile, one study showed that six items of the IPSM tentatively used as negative self-schemas predicted the onset of depression. To clarify if interpersonal sensitivity reflects cognitive vulnerability, we examined the relation of this personality trait with negative core beliefs about the self. The study population consisted of 335 Japanese volunteers. Interpersonal sensitivity was measured by the IPSM, and negative core beliefs about the self were assessed by the negative-self subscale of the Brief Core Schema Scales (BCSS). Multiple regression analysis showed that scores of the four subscales of the IPSM were strongly correlated with those of the negative-self subscale of the BCSS (P < 0.001). Similarly, sequential equation modeling demonstrated that the four components of interpersonal sensitivity were strongly predicted by core beliefs of negative-self (P < 0.001). The present study shows that interpersonal sensitivity is closely related to negative core beliefs about the self, suggesting that this personality trait can be regarded as a cognitive vulnerability to depression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Gustatory sensitivity and food acceptance in two phylogenetically closely related papilionid species: Papilio hospiton and Papilio machaon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollai, Giorgia; Tomassini Barbarossa, Iole; Masala, Carla; Solari, Paolo; Crnjar, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    In herbivorous insects, food selection depends on sensitivity to specific chemical stimuli from host-plants as well as to secondary metabolites (bitter) and to sugars (phagostimulatory). Bitter compounds are noxious, unpalatable or both and evoke an aversive feeding response. Instead, sugars and sugar alcohols play a critical role in determining and enhancing the palatability of foods. We assumed that peripheral taste sensitivity may be related to the width of the host selection. Our model consists of two closely phylogenetically related Papilionid species exhibiting a difference in host plant choice: Papilio hospiton and Papilio machaon. The spike activity of the lateral and medial maxillary styloconic taste sensilla was recorded following stimulation with several carbohydrates, nicotine and NaCl, with the aim of characterizing their gustatory receptor neurons and of comparing their response patterns in the light of their different acceptability in feeding behaviour. The results show that: a) each sensillum houses phagostimulant and phagodeterrent cells; b) the spike activity of the gustatory neurons in response to different taste stimuli is higher in P. hospiton than in P. machaon; c) sugar solutions inhibit the spike activity of the deterrent and salt cells, and the suppression is higher in P. machaon than in P. hospiton. In conclusion, we propose that the different balance between the phagostimulant and phagodeterrent inputs from GRNs of maxillary sensilla may contribute in determining the difference in food choice and host range.

  15. Phylogeny, Traits, and Biodiversity of a Neotropical Bat Assemblage: Close Relatives Show Similar Responses to Local Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Hannah K; Frishkoff, Luke O; Mendenhall, Chase D; Daily, Gretchen C; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2017-08-01

    If species' evolutionary pasts predetermine their responses to evolutionarily novel stressors, then phylogeny could predict species survival in an increasingly human-dominated world. To understand the role of phylogenetic relatedness in structuring responses to rapid environmental change, we focused on assemblages of Neotropical bats, an ecologically diverse and functionally important group. We examined how taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity shift between tropical forest and farmland. We then explored the importance of evolutionary history by ascertaining whether close relatives share similar responses to environmental change and which species traits might mediate these trends. We analyzed a 5-year data set (5,011 captures) from 18 sites in a countryside landscape in southern Costa Rica using statistical models that account and correct for imperfect detection of species across sites, spatial autocorrelation, and consideration of spatial scale. Taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity decreased with deforestation, and assemblages became more phylogenetically clustered. Species' responses to deforestation were strongly phylogenetically correlated. Body mass and absolute wing loading explained a substantial portion of species variation in species' habitat preferences, likely related to these traits' influence on maneuverability in cluttered forest environments. Our findings highlight the role that evolutionary history plays in determining which species will survive human impacts and the need to consider diversity metrics, evolutionary history, and traits together when making predictions about species persistence for conservation or ecosystem functioning.

  16. Gustatory sensitivity and food acceptance in two phylogenetically closely related papilionid species: Papilio hospiton and Papilio machaon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Sollai

    Full Text Available In herbivorous insects, food selection depends on sensitivity to specific chemical stimuli from host-plants as well as to secondary metabolites (bitter and to sugars (phagostimulatory. Bitter compounds are noxious, unpalatable or both and evoke an aversive feeding response. Instead, sugars and sugar alcohols play a critical role in determining and enhancing the palatability of foods. We assumed that peripheral taste sensitivity may be related to the width of the host selection. Our model consists of two closely phylogenetically related Papilionid species exhibiting a difference in host plant choice: Papilio hospiton and Papilio machaon. The spike activity of the lateral and medial maxillary styloconic taste sensilla was recorded following stimulation with several carbohydrates, nicotine and NaCl, with the aim of characterizing their gustatory receptor neurons and of comparing their response patterns in the light of their different acceptability in feeding behaviour. The results show that: a each sensillum houses phagostimulant and phagodeterrent cells; b the spike activity of the gustatory neurons in response to different taste stimuli is higher in P. hospiton than in P. machaon; c sugar solutions inhibit the spike activity of the deterrent and salt cells, and the suppression is higher in P. machaon than in P. hospiton. In conclusion, we propose that the different balance between the phagostimulant and phagodeterrent inputs from GRNs of maxillary sensilla may contribute in determining the difference in food choice and host range.

  17. Analytic Closed-Form Solution of a Mixed Layer Model for Stratocumulus Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurek, Bengu Ozge

    Stratocumulus clouds play an important role in climate cooling and are hard to predict using global climate and weather forecast models. Thus, previous studies in the literature use observations and numerical simulation tools, such as large-eddy simulation (LES), to solve the governing equations for the evolution of stratocumulus clouds. In contrast to the previous works, this work provides an analytic closed-form solution to the cloud thickness evolution of stratocumulus clouds in a mixed-layer model framework. With a focus on application over coastal lands, the diurnal cycle of cloud thickness and whether or not clouds dissipate are of particular interest. An analytic solution enables the sensitivity analysis of implicitly interdependent variables and extrema analysis of cloud variables that are hard to achieve using numerical solutions. In this work, the sensitivity of inversion height, cloud-base height, and cloud thickness with respect to initial and boundary conditions, such as Bowen ratio, subsidence, surface temperature, and initial inversion height, are studied. A critical initial cloud thickness value that can be dissipated pre- and post-sunrise is provided. Furthermore, an extrema analysis is provided to obtain the minima and maxima of the inversion height and cloud thickness within 24 h. The proposed solution is validated against LES results under the same initial and boundary conditions. Then, the proposed analytic framework is extended to incorporate multiple vertical columns that are coupled by advection through wind flow. This enables a bridge between the micro-scale and the mesoscale relations. The effect of advection on cloud evolution is studied and a sensitivity analysis is provided.

  18. Model-based closed-loop glucose control in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe; Boiroux, Dimitri; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine

    2013-01-01

    To improve type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) management, we developed a model predictive control (MPC) algorithm for closed-loop (CL) glucose control based on a linear second-order deterministic-stochastic model. The deterministic part of the model is specified by three patient-specific parameters......: insulin sensitivity factor, insulin action time, and basal insulin infusion rate. The stochastic part is identical for all patients but identified from data from a single patient. Results of the first clinical feasibility test of the algorithm are presented....

  19. A Computational Model of Water Migration Flux in Freezing Soil in a Closed System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘春晗

    2005-01-01

    A computational model of water migration flux of fine porous soil in frost heave was investigated in a closed system. The model was established with the heat-mass conservation law and from some previous experimental results. Through defining an auxiliary function an empirical function in the water migration flux, which is difficult to get, was replaced. The data needed are about the water content along the soft colunm after test with enough long time. We adopt the test data of sample soil colunms in [1] to verify the model. The result shows it can reflect the real situation on the whole.

  20. On open and closed field line regions in Tsyganenko's field model and their possible associations with horse collar auroras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birn, J.; Hones, E.W. Jr.; Craven, J.D.; Frank, L.A.; Elphinstone, R.D.; Stern, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    Using the empirical Tsyganenko (1987) long model as a prime example of a megnetospheric field model, the authors have attempted to identify the boundary between open and closed field lines. They define as closed all field lines that are connested with the Earth at both ends and cross the equatorial plane earthward of x = -70 R E , the tailward validity limit of the Tsyganenko model. They find that the form of the open/closed boundary at the Earth's surface, identified with the polar cap boundary, can exhibit the arrowhead shape, pointed toward the Sun, observed in horse collar auroras (Hones et al., 1989). The polar cap size in the Tsyganenko model increases with increasing K p values, and it becomes rounder and less pointed. The superposition of a net B y field, which is the expected consequence of an IMF B y , rotates the polar cap pattern and, for larger values, degrades the arrowhead shape, resulting in polar cap configurations consistent with known asymmetries in the aurora. The pointedness of the polar cap shape also diminishes or even completely disappears if the low-latitude magnetopause is assumed open and located considerably inside of the outermost magnetic flux surface in the Tsyganenko model. The arrowhead shape of the polar cap is found to be associated with a strong increase of B z from midnight toward the tail flanks, which is observed independently, and is possibly related to the NBZ field-aligned current system, observed during quiet times and strongly northward IMF B z . The larger B z values near the flanks of the tail cause more magnetic flux to close through these regions than through the midnight equatorial region

  1. M-GCAT: interactively and efficiently constructing large-scale multiple genome comparison frameworks in closely related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messeguer Xavier

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to recent advances in whole genome shotgun sequencing and assembly technologies, the financial cost of decoding an organism's DNA has been drastically reduced, resulting in a recent explosion of genomic sequencing projects. This increase in related genomic data will allow for in depth studies of evolution in closely related species through multiple whole genome comparisons. Results To facilitate such comparisons, we present an interactive multiple genome comparison and alignment tool, M-GCAT, that can efficiently construct multiple genome comparison frameworks in closely related species. M-GCAT is able to compare and identify highly conserved regions in up to 20 closely related bacterial species in minutes on a standard computer, and as many as 90 (containing 75 cloned genomes from a set of 15 published enterobacterial genomes in an hour. M-GCAT also incorporates a novel comparative genomics data visualization interface allowing the user to globally and locally examine and inspect the conserved regions and gene annotations. Conclusion M-GCAT is an interactive comparative genomics tool well suited for quickly generating multiple genome comparisons frameworks and alignments among closely related species. M-GCAT is freely available for download for academic and non-commercial use at: http://alggen.lsi.upc.es/recerca/align/mgcat/intro-mgcat.html.

  2. Development of a transient calculation model for a closed sodium natural circulation loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Won Pyo; Ha, Kwi Seok; Jeong, Hae Yong; Heo, Sun; Lee, Yong Bum

    2003-09-01

    A natural circulation loop has usually adopted for a Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) because of its high reliability. Up-rating of the current KALIMER capacity requires an additional PDRC to the existing PVCS to remove its decay heat under an accident. As the system analysis code currently used for LMR in Korea does not feature a stand alone capability to simulate a closed natural circulation loop, it is not eligible to be applied to PDRC. To supplement its limitation, a steady state calculation model had been developed during the first phase, and development of the transient model has successively carried out to close the present study. The developed model will then be coupled with the system analysis code, SSC-K to assess a long term cooling for the new conceptual design. The incompressibility assumption of sodium which allows the circuit to be modeled with a single loop flow, makes the model greatly simplified comparing with LWR. Some thermal-hydraulic models developed during this study can be effectively applied to other system analysis codes which require such component models, and the present development will also contribute to establishment of a code system for the LMR analysis

  3. Close and distant: Contrasting the metabolism of two closely related subspecies of Scots pine under the effects of folivory and summer drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Sardans, J.; Hodar, Jose A.; Garcia-Porta, Joan; Guenther, Alex B.; Pasa Tolic, Ljiljana; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Penuelas, Josep

    2017-09-25

    The metabolome, the chemical phenotype of an organism, should be shaped by evolution. Metabolomes depend on genetic composition and expression, which can be sources of evolutionary inertia, so most aspects of metabolomes should be similar in closely related sympatric species. We examined the metabolomes of two sympatric subspecies of Pinus sylvestris in Sierra Nevada (southern Iberian Peninsula), one introduced (ssp. iberica) and one autochthonous (ssp. nevadensis), in summer and winter and exposed to folivory by the pine processionary moth. The overall metabolomes differed between the subspecies but both tended to respond more similarly to folivory. The metabolomes of the subspecies were more dissimilar in summer than in winter, and iberica trees had higher concentrations of metabolites directly related to drought stress. Our results suggest that certain plant metabolic responses associated with folivory have been conserved throughout evolutionary history. The larger divergence between subspecies metabolomes in summer is likely due to the warmer and drier conditions that the northern iberica subspecies experience in Sierra Nevada. Our results provide crucial insights into how iberica populations would respond to the predicted conditions of climate change under an increased defoliation, two recent severe issues in the Mediterranean Basin.

  4. Spatio-kinematic modelling: Testing the link between planetary nebulae and close binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, David; Tyndall, Amy A.; Huckvale, Leo; Prouse, Barnabas; Lloyd, Myfanwy

    2011-01-01

    It is widely believed that central star binarity plays an important role in the formation and evolution of aspherical planetary nebulae, however observational support for this hypothesis is lacking. Here, we present the most recent results of a continuing programme to model the morphologies of all planetary nebulae known to host a close binary central star. Initially, this programme allows us to compare the inclination of the nebular symmetry axis to that of the binary plane, testing the theo...

  5. Mechanical behaviour of a closed collar model for an 11.5 T dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emden, W. van; Daum, C.; Geerinck, J.

    1992-03-01

    A 10 cm long model of an 11.5 T Nb 3 Sn accelerator dipole magnet, which will be built in the Netherlands, with a closed ring shaped collar has been constructed. Measurements of the collar deformation and the prestress at the poles have been made with a structural analysis using the Finite Element Method (FEM) of the code ANSYS. (author). 11 refs.; 18 figs.; 7 tabs

  6. The Equilibrium Analysis of a Closed Economy Model with Government and Money Market Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Angelo Ioan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we first study the static equilibrium of a a closed economy model in terms of dependence on national income and interest rate from the main factors namely the marginal propensity to consume, tax rate, investment rate and the rate of currency demand. In the second part, we study the dynamic equilibrium solutions in terms of stability. We thus obtain the variation functions of national income and interest rate variation and their limit values.

  7. Genetically modified yeast of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely relates species, and fermentation processes using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Highland Ranch, CO; Pentilla, Merja [Helsinki, FI; Ilmen, Marja [Helsinki, FI; Ruohonen, Laura [Helsinki, FI; Koivuranta, Kari [Vantaa, FI; Roberg-Perez, Kevin [Minneapolis, MN

    2012-01-17

    Cells of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely related yeast species are transformed with a vector to introduce an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene. The cells produce lactic acid efficiently and are resistant at low pH, high lactate titer conditions.

  8. CREB expression in the brains of two closely related parasitic wasp species that differ in long-term memory formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, M.; Verbaarschot, P.; Hontelez, S.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.; Smid, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The cAMP/PKA signalling pathway and transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) play key roles in long-term memory (LTM) formation. We used two closely related parasitic wasp species, Cotesia glomerata and Cotesia rubecula, which were previously shown to be different in LTM

  9. Non-coding changes cause sex-specific wing size differences between closely related species of Nasonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loehlin, David W.; Oliveira, Deodoro C. S. G.; Edwards, Rachel; Giebel, Jonathan D.; Clark, Michael E.; Cattani, M. Victoria; van de Zande, Louis; Verhulst, Eveline C.; Beukeboom, Leo W.; Munoz-Torres, Monica; Werren, John H.

    The genetic basis of morphological differences among species is still poorly understood. We investigated the genetic basis of sex-specific differences in wing size between two closely related species of Nasonia by positional cloning a major male-specific locus, wing-size1 (ws1). Male wing size

  10. Composition of the essential oils from underground parts of Valeriana officinalis L. s.l. and several closely related taxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Rein; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Hendriks, Henk; Scheffer, Johannes J. C.

    1997-01-01

    The volatile constituents from roots and rhizomes of Valeriana officinalis L. s.l. and of several closely related Valeriana taxa were investigated by GC and GCMS (EI and NICI) analysis. Seeds were obtained from different botanical gardens in Europe, and the plants investigated were grown in an

  11. Phylogeny Inference of Closely Related Bacterial Genomes: Combining the Features of Both Overlapping Genes and Collinear Genomic Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Cong; Lin, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Overlapping genes (OGs) represent one type of widespread genomic feature in bacterial genomes and have been used as rare genomic markers in phylogeny inference of closely related bacterial species. However, the inference may experience a decrease in performance for phylogenomic analysis of too closely or too distantly related genomes. Another drawback of OGs as phylogenetic markers is that they usually take little account of the effects of genomic rearrangement on the similarity estimation, such as intra-chromosome/genome translocations, horizontal gene transfer, and gene losses. To explore such effects on the accuracy of phylogeny reconstruction, we combine phylogenetic signals of OGs with collinear genomic regions, here called locally collinear blocks (LCBs). By putting these together, we refine our previous metric of pairwise similarity between two closely related bacterial genomes. As a case study, we used this new method to reconstruct the phylogenies of 88 Enterobacteriale genomes of the class Gammaproteobacteria. Our results demonstrated that the topological accuracy of the inferred phylogeny was improved when both OGs and LCBs were simultaneously considered, suggesting that combining these two phylogenetic markers may reduce, to some extent, the influence of gene loss on phylogeny inference. Such phylogenomic studies, we believe, will help us to explore a more effective approach to increasing the robustness of phylogeny reconstruction of closely related bacterial organisms. PMID:26715828

  12. A closed-loop model of the respiratory system: focus on hypercapnia and active expiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav I Molkov

    Full Text Available Breathing is a vital process providing the exchange of gases between the lungs and atmosphere. During quiet breathing, pumping air from the lungs is mostly performed by contraction of the diaphragm during inspiration, and muscle contraction during expiration does not play a significant role in ventilation. In contrast, during intense exercise or severe hypercapnia forced or active expiration occurs in which the abdominal "expiratory" muscles become actively involved in breathing. The mechanisms of this transition remain unknown. To study these mechanisms, we developed a computational model of the closed-loop respiratory system that describes the brainstem respiratory network controlling the pulmonary subsystem representing lung biomechanics and gas (O2 and CO2 exchange and transport. The lung subsystem provides two types of feedback to the neural subsystem: a mechanical one from pulmonary stretch receptors and a chemical one from central chemoreceptors. The neural component of the model simulates the respiratory network that includes several interacting respiratory neuron types within the Bötzinger and pre-Bötzinger complexes, as well as the retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial respiratory group (RTN/pFRG representing the central chemoreception module targeted by chemical feedback. The RTN/pFRG compartment contains an independent neural generator that is activated at an increased CO2 level and controls the abdominal motor output. The lung volume is controlled by two pumps, a major one driven by the diaphragm and an additional one activated by abdominal muscles and involved in active expiration. The model represents the first attempt to model the transition from quiet breathing to breathing with active expiration. The model suggests that the closed-loop respiratory control system switches to active expiration via a quantal acceleration of expiratory activity, when increases in breathing rate and phrenic amplitude no longer provide sufficient

  13. Comparative study of acetylcholinesterase and glutathione S-transferase activities of closely related cave and surface Asellus aquaticus (Isopoda: Crustacea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Jemec

    Full Text Available The freshwater isopod crustacean Asellus aquaticus has recently been developed as an emerging invertebrate cave model for studying evolutionary and developmental biology. Mostly morphological and genetic differences between cave and surface A. aquaticus populations have been described up to now, while scarce data are available on other aspects, including physiology. The purpose of this study was to advance our understanding of the physiological differences between cave A. aquaticus and its surface-dwelling counterparts. We sampled two surface populations from the surface section of the sinking Pivka River (central Slovenia, Europe, i.e. locality Pivka Polje, and locality Planina Polje, and one cave population from the subterranean section of the sinking Pivka River, i.e. locality Planina Cave. Animals were sampled in spring, summer and autumn. We measured the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE and glutathione S-transferase (GST in individuals snap-frozen in the field immediately after collection. Acetylcholinesterase is likely related to animals' locomotor activity, while GST activity is related to the metabolic activity of an organism. Our study shows significantly lower AChE and GST activities in the cave population in comparison to both surface A. aquaticus populations. This confirms the assumption that cave A. aquaticus have lower locomotor and metabolic activity than surface A. aquaticus in their respective natural environments. In surface A. aquaticus populations, seasonal fluctuations in GST activity were observed, while these were less pronounced in individuals from the more stable cave environment. On the other hand, AChE activity was generally season-independent in all populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind conducted in A. aquaticus. Our results show that among closely related cave and surface A. aquaticus populations also physiological differences are present besides the morphological and genetic

  14. Eyes-Closed Single-Limb Balance is Not Related to Hypermobility Status in Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulli, Tiffany A; Harmon-Matthews, Lindsay E; Davis-Coen, J Hope; Willigenburg, Nienke W; Hewett, Timothy E

    2017-06-15

    Hypermobility may be associated with decreased lower extremity proprioception, which in turn may increase injury risk. The prevalence of hypermobility in dancers varies across studies, but joint hypermobility appears to be more common in dancers than in the general population. The purpose of this study was to determine how hypermobility affects eyes-closed single-limb balance as an indirect measure of proprioception in dancers. The secondary aim was to compare hypermobility and balance across dancer affiliation groups. Data were collected from 45 professional dancers, 11 collegiate modern dancers, 227 student dancers, and 15 pre-professional dancers during routine dance screens. Dancer hypermobility status was assessed via an eight-point Beighton-Horan Laxity test. Single-limb balance time, in seconds, was assessed in parallel position with the eyes closed. Hypermobile (HM) and non-hypermobile (NHM) dancers showed very similar balance times (HM median: 36.5 seconds; NHM median: 33.0 seconds; p = 0.982). Hypermobility was not significantly different between dancer affiliation groups (p = 0.154): 47% in ballet academy students, 27% in collegiate modern dancers, 62% in pre-professional dancers, and 36% in professional dancers. The student, pre-professional, and professional ballet dancers all demonstrated longer balance times than the collegiate modern dancers; however, this difference was only significant between the professional ballet dancers and collegiate modern dancers (p = 0.026). Dancers demonstrated a higher prevalence of hypermobility than what has been reported for the general population. Joint hypermobility did not affect eyes-closed single-limb balance time. Future studies are needed to determine if joint hypermobility affects more sensitive measures of proprioception and risk of injury.

  15. Modeling the short-run effect of fiscal stimuli on GDP : A new semi-closed input-output model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Quanrun; Dietzenbacher, Erik; Los, Bart; Yang, Cuihong

    In this study, we propose a new semi-closed input-output model, which reconciles input-output analysis with modern consumption theories. It can simulate changes in household consumption behavior when exogenous stimulus policies lead to higher disposable income levels. It is useful for quantifying

  16. Modeling the short-run effect of fiscal stimuli on GDP : A new semi-closed input-output model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Quanrun; Dietzenbacher, Erik; Los, Bart; Yang, Cuihong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we propose a new semi-closed input-output model, which reconciles input-output analysis with modern consumption theories. It can simulate changes in household consumption behavior when exogenous stimulus policies lead to higher disposable income levels. It is useful for quantifying

  17. Open and closed CDM isocurvature models contrasted with the CMB data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enqvist, Kari; Kurki-Suonio, Hannu; Vaeliviita, Jussi

    2002-01-01

    We consider pure isocurvature cold dark matter models in the case of open and closed universes. We allow for a large spectral tilt and scan the six-dimensional parameter space for the best fit to the COBE, Boomerang, and Maxima-1 data. Taking into account constraints from large-scale structure and big bang nucleosynthesis, we find a best fit with χ 2 =121, which is to be compared to χ 2 =44 of a flat adiabatic reference model. Hence the current data strongly disfavor pure isocurvature perturbations

  18. Anxiety, depression and PTSD-related symptoms in spouses and close relatives of burn survivors: When the supporter needs to be supported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Suzie; Gourlay, Catherine; Desjardins, Alexandra; Bodson-Clermont, Paule; Boucher, Marie-Ève

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of anxiety, depression and PTSD-related symptoms reported by spouses and close relatives of adult burn survivors. Potential associations between these symptoms and variables such as the severity of the burn were also explored. Participants were spouses (n=31) and close relatives (n=25) of hospitalized patients with acute burns. Anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed by the Hospital Distress Anxiety and Depression Scale and PTSD-related symptoms by the Modified PTSD Symptom Scale at both admission to and discharge from the burn unit. At admission, 77% of spouses and 56% of close relatives of burn patients reported anxiety, depression or PTSD-related symptoms in the clinical range. While spouses had higher scores than close relatives on symptom measures, significant differences were only established for anxiety symptoms (p<.02). A significant effect was found for gender, with women reporting more anxiety (p=.01) and depression (p=.02) symptoms than men. Results also showed a main effect for time, with anxiety (p<.0001), depression (p<.0001) and PTSD-related (p<.0001) symptoms being higher at admission than at discharge. Variables associated with the index patient, such as total body surface area burned, length of stay, number of ventilated days, facial burns, or level of care at admission, were not associated with outcome measures. Spouses and close relatives of burn survivors showed high levels of psychological distress in the first few days following admission, and more than a quarter still reported symptoms in the clinical range at discharge. Our analysis points to the need to offer psychological support and guidance to family members so that they can in turn provide effective support to the burn survivor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling close encounters with massive asteroids: a Markovian approach. An application to the Vesta family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruba, V.; Roig, F.; Michtchenko, T. A.; Ferraz-Mello, S.; Nesvorný, D.

    2007-04-01

    Context: Nearly all members of the Vesta family cross the orbits of (4) Vesta, one of the most massive asteroids in the main belt, and some of them approach it closely. When mutual velocities during such close encounters are low, the trajectory of the small body can be gravitationally deflected, consequently changing its heliocentric orbital elements. While the effect of a single close encounter may be small, repeated close encounters may significantly change the proper element distribution of members of asteroid families. Aims: We develop a model of the long-term effect of close encounters with massive asteroids, so as to be able to predict how far former members of the Vesta family could have drifted away from the family. Methods: We first developed a new symplectic integrator that simulates both the effects of close encounters and the Yarkovsky effect. We analyzed the results of a simulation involving a fictitious Vesta family, and propagated the asteroid proper element distribution using the probability density function (pdf hereafter), i.e. the function that describes the probability of having an encounter that modifies a proper element x by Δx, for all the possible values of Δx. Given any asteroids' proper element distribution at time t, the distribution at time t+T may be predicted if the pdf is known (Bachelier 1900, Théorie de la spéculation; Hughes 1995, Random Walks and Random Environments, Vol. I). Results: We applied our new method to the problem of V-type asteroids outside the Vesta family (i.e., the 31 currently known asteroids in the inner asteroid belt that have the same spectral type of members as the Vesta family, but that are outside the limits of the dynamical family) and determined that at least ten objects have a significant diffusion probability over the minimum estimated age of the Vesta family of 1.2 Gyr (Carruba et al. 2005, A&A, 441, 819). These objects can therefore be explained in the framework of diffusion via repeated close

  20. Parenting and antisocial behavior: a model of the relationship between adolescent self-disclosure, parental closeness, parental control, and adolescent antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieno, Alessio; Nation, Maury; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo

    2009-11-01

    This study used data collected from a sample of 840 Italian adolescents (418 boys; M age = 12.58) and their parents (657 mothers; M age = 43.78) to explore the relations between parenting, adolescent self-disclosure, and antisocial behavior. In the hypothesized model, parenting practices (e.g., parental monitoring and control) have direct effects on parental knowledge and antisocial behavior. Parenting style (e.g., parent-child closeness), on the other hand, is directly related to adolescent self-disclosure, which in turn is positively related to parental knowledge and negatively related to adolescents' antisocial behavior. A structural equation model, which incorporated data from parents and adolescents, largely supported the hypothesized model. Gender-specific models also found some gender differences among adolescents and parents, as the hypothesized model adequately fit the subsample of mothers but not fathers. Mothers' closeness to girls predicted their knowledge of their daughters' behavior; mothers' control predicted boys' antisocial behavior.

  1. On the closed form mechanistic modeling of milling: Specific cutting energy, torque, and power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoumi, A. E.; Yücesan, G.; Hutton, D. V.

    1994-02-01

    Specific energy in metal cutting, defined as the energy expended in removing a unit volume of workpiece material, is formulated and determined using a previously developed closed form mechanistic force model for milling operations. Cutting power is computed from the cutting torque, cutting force, kinematics of the cutter, and the volumetric material removal rate. Closed form expressions for specific cutting energy were formulated and found to be functions of the process parameters: pressure and friction for both rake and flank surfaces and chip flow angle at the rake face of the tool. Friction is found to play a very important role in cutting torque and power. Experiments were carried out to determine the effects of feedrate, cutting speed, workpiece material, and flank wear land width on specific cutting energy. It was found that the specific cutting energy increases with a decrease in the chip thickness and with an increase in flank wear land.

  2. Profit Analysis and Supply Chain Planning Model for Closed-Loop Supply Chain in Fashion Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisoo Oh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, due to market growth and use of synthetic fiber, the fashion industry faces a rapid increase of CO2 emission throughout the production cycle and raises environmental issues in recovery processing. This study proposes a closed-loop supply chain (CLSC structure in fashion industry and develops its planning model as multi-objective mixed integer linear programming to find an optimal trade-off between CLSC profit and CO2 emission. The planning model is associated with the profit analysis of each member in CLSC to find the optimal price of products on CLSC network. The model determines optimal production, transportation, and inventory quantities on CLSC network. The proposed models are validated using numerical experiments and sensitivity analyses, and from the results some managerial insights are addressed.

  3. Detection of no-model input-output pairs in closed-loop systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Alain Segundo; Alvarado, Christiam Segundo Morales; Garcia, Claudio

    2017-11-01

    The detection of no-model input-output (IO) pairs is important because it can speed up the multivariable system identification process, since all the pairs with null transfer functions are previously discarded and it can also improve the identified model quality, thus improving the performance of model based controllers. In the available literature, the methods focus just on the open-loop case, since in this case there is not the effect of the controller forcing the main diagonal in the transfer matrix to one and all the other terms to zero. In this paper, a modification of a previous method able to detect no-model IO pairs in open-loop systems is presented, but adapted to perform this duty in closed-loop systems. Tests are performed by using the traditional methods and the proposed one to show its effectiveness. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Pathogenomic Sequence Analysis of B. cereus and B.thuringiensis Isolates Closely Related to Bacillus anthracis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Cliff S.; Xie, Gary; Challacombe, Jean F.; Altherr, MichaelR.; Smriti, B.; Bruce, David; Campbell, Connie S.; Campbell, Mary L.; Chen, Jin; Chertkov, Olga; Cleland, Cathy; Dimitrijevic-Bussod, M.; Doggett, Norman A.; Fawcett, John J.; Glavina, Tijana; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Hill, Karen K.; Hitchcock, Penny; Jackson, Paul J.; Keim, Paul; Kewalramani, Avinash Ramesh; Longmire, Jon; Lucas, Susan; Malfatti,Stephanie; McMurry, Kim; Meincke, Linda J.; Misra, Monica; Moseman,Bernice L.; Mundt, Mark; Munk, A. Christine; Okinaka, Richard T.; Parson-Quintana, B.; Reilly, Lee P.; Richardson, Paul; Robinson, DonnaL.; Rubin, Eddy; Saunders, Elizabeth; Tapia, Roxanne; Tesmer, Judith G.; Thayer, Nina; Thompson, Linda S.; Tice, Hope; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Wills, Patti L.; Gilna, Payl; Brettin, Thomas S.

    2005-08-18

    The sequencing and analysis of two close relatives of Bacillus anthracis are reported. AFLP analysis of over 300 isolates of B.cereus, B. thuringiensis and B. anthracis identified two isolates as being very closely related to B. anthracis. One, a B. cereus, BcE33L, was isolated from a zebra carcass in Nambia; the second, a B. thuringiensis, 97-27, was isolated from a necrotic human wound. The B. cereus appears to be the closest anthracis relative sequenced to date. A core genome of over 3,900 genes was compiled for the Bacillus cereus group, including Banthracis. Comparative analysis of these two genomes with other members of the B. cereus group provides insight into the evolutionary relationships among these organisms. Evidence is presented that differential regulation modulates virulence, rather than simple acquisition of virulence factors. These genome sequences provide insight into the molecular mechanisms contributing to the host range and virulence of this group of organisms.

  5. Calcium signaling in closely related protozoan groups (Alveolata): non-parasitic ciliates (Paramecium, Tetrahymena) vs. parasitic Apicomplexa (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, H; Sehring, I M; Mohamed, I K; Miranda, K; De Souza, W; Billington, R; Genazzani, A; Ladenburger, E-M

    2012-05-01

    The importance of Ca2+-signaling for many subcellular processes is well established in higher eukaryotes, whereas information about protozoa is restricted. Recent genome analyses have stimulated such work also with Alveolates, such as ciliates (Paramecium, Tetrahymena) and their pathogenic close relatives, the Apicomplexa (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma). Here we compare Ca2+ signaling in the two closely related groups. Acidic Ca2+ stores have been characterized in detail in Apicomplexa, but hardly in ciliates. Two-pore channels engaged in Ca2+-release from acidic stores in higher eukaryotes have not been stingently characterized in either group. Both groups are endowed with plasma membrane- and endoplasmic reticulum-type Ca2+-ATPases (PMCA, SERCA), respectively. Only recently was it possible to identify in Paramecium a number of homologs of ryanodine and inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate receptors (RyR, IP3R) and to localize them to widely different organelles participating in vesicle trafficking. For Apicomplexa, physiological experiments suggest the presence of related channels although their identity remains elusive. In Paramecium, IP3Rs are constitutively active in the contractile vacuole complex; RyR-related channels in alveolar sacs are activated during exocytosis stimulation, whereas in the parasites the homologous structure (inner membrane complex) may no longer function as a Ca2+ store. Scrutinized comparison of the two closely related protozoan phyla may stimulate further work and elucidate adaptation to parasitic life. See also "Conclusions" section. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Closely-related Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu stricto) strains exhibit similar fitness in single infections and asymmetric competition in multiple infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynkiewicz, Evelyn C; Brown, Julia; Tufts, Danielle M; Huang, Ching-I; Kampen, Helge; Bent, Stephen J; Fish, Durland; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A

    2017-02-06

    Wild hosts are commonly co-infected with complex, genetically diverse, pathogen communities. Competition is expected between genetically or ecologically similar pathogen strains which may influence patterns of coexistence. However, there is little data on how specific strains of these diverse pathogen species interact within the host and how this impacts pathogen persistence in nature. Ticks are the most common disease vector in temperate regions with Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, being the most common vector-borne pathogen in North America. Borrelia burgdorferi is a pathogen of high public health concern and there is significant variation in infection phenotype between strains, which influences predictions of pathogen dynamics and spread. In a laboratory experiment, we investigated whether two closely-related strains of B. burgdorferi (sensu stricto) showed similar transmission phenotypes, how the transmission of these strains changed when a host was infected with one strain, re-infected with the same strain, or co-infected with two strains. Ixodes scapularis, the black-legged tick, nymphs were used to sequentially infect laboratory-bred Peromyscus leucopus, white-footed mice, with one strain only, homologous infection with the same stain, or heterologous infection with both strains. We used the results of this laboratory experiment to simulate long-term persistence and maintenance of each strain in a simple simulation model. Strain LG734 was more competitive than BL206, showing no difference in transmission between the heterologous infection groups and single-infection controls, while strain BL206 transmission was significantly reduced when strain LG734 infected first. The results of the model show that this asymmetry in competition could lead to extinction of strain BL206 unless there was a tick-to-host transmission advantage to this less competitive strain. This asymmetric competitive interaction suggests that strain identity and

  7. Genomic resources for gene discovery, functional genome annotation, and evolutionary studies of maize and its close relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Shi, Xue; Liu, Lin; Li, Haiyan; Ammiraju, Jetty S S; Kudrna, David A; Xiong, Wentao; Wang, Hao; Dai, Zhaozhao; Zheng, Yonglian; Lai, Jinsheng; Jin, Weiwei; Messing, Joachim; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Wing, Rod A; Luo, Meizhong

    2013-11-01

    Maize is one of the most important food crops and a key model for genetics and developmental biology. A genetically anchored and high-quality draft genome sequence of maize inbred B73 has been obtained to serve as a reference sequence. To facilitate evolutionary studies in maize and its close relatives, much like the Oryza Map Alignment Project (OMAP) (www.OMAP.org) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) resource did for the rice community, we constructed BAC libraries for maize inbred lines Zheng58, Chang7-2, and Mo17 and maize wild relatives Zea mays ssp. parviglumis and Tripsacum dactyloides. Furthermore, to extend functional genomic studies to maize and sorghum, we also constructed binary BAC (BIBAC) libraries for the maize inbred B73 and the sorghum landrace Nengsi-1. The BAC/BIBAC vectors facilitate transfer of large intact DNA inserts from BAC clones to the BIBAC vector and functional complementation of large DNA fragments. These seven Zea Map Alignment Project (ZMAP) BAC/BIBAC libraries have average insert sizes ranging from 92 to 148 kb, organellar DNA from 0.17 to 2.3%, empty vector rates between 0.35 and 5.56%, and genome equivalents of 4.7- to 8.4-fold. The usefulness of the Parviglumis and Tripsacum BAC libraries was demonstrated by mapping clones to the reference genome. Novel genes and alleles present in these ZMAP libraries can now be used for functional complementation studies and positional or homology-based cloning of genes for translational genomics.

  8. Closing the contrast gap between testbed and model prediction with WFIRST-CGI shaped pupil coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hanying; Nemati, Bijan; Krist, John; Cady, Eric; Prada, Camilo M.; Kern, Brian; Poberezhskiy, Ilya

    2016-07-01

    JPL has recently passed an important milestone in its technology development for a proposed NASA WFIRST mission coronagraph: demonstration of better than 1x10-8 contrast over broad bandwidth (10%) on both shaped pupil coronagraph (SPC) and hybrid Lyot coronagraph (HLC) testbeds with the WFIRST obscuration pattern. Challenges remain, however, in the technology readiness for the proposed mission. One is the discrepancies between the achieved contrasts on the testbeds and their corresponding model predictions. A series of testbed diagnoses and modeling activities were planned and carried out on the SPC testbed in order to close the gap. A very useful tool we developed was a derived "measured" testbed wavefront control Jacobian matrix that could be compared with the model-predicted "control" version that was used to generate the high contrast dark hole region in the image plane. The difference between these two is an estimate of the error in the control Jacobian. When the control matrix, which includes both amplitude and phase, was modified to reproduce the error, the simulated performance closely matched the SPC testbed behavior in both contrast floor and contrast convergence speed. This is a step closer toward model validation for high contrast coronagraphs. Further Jacobian analysis and modeling provided clues to the possible sources for the mismatch: DM misregistration and testbed optical wavefront error (WFE) and the deformable mirror (DM) setting for correcting this WFE. These analyses suggested that a high contrast coronagraph has a tight tolerance in the accuracy of its control Jacobian. Modifications to both testbed control model as well as prediction model are being implemented, and future works are discussed.

  9. Modeling the properties of closed-cell cellular materials from tomography images using finite shell elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caty, O.; Maire, E.; Youssef, S.; Bouchet, R.

    2008-01-01

    Closed-cell cellular materials exhibit several interesting properties. These properties are, however, very difficult to simulate and understand from the knowledge of the cellular microstructure. This problem is mostly due to the highly complex organization of the cells and to their very fine walls. X-ray tomography can produce three-dimensional (3-D) images of the structure, enabling one to visualize locally the damage of the cell walls that would result in the structure collapsing. These data could be used for meshing with continuum elements of the structure for finite element (FE) calculations. But when the density is very low, the walls are fine and the meshes based on continuum elements are not suitable to represent accurately the structure while preserving the representativeness of the model in terms of cell size. This paper presents a shell FE model obtained from tomographic 3-D images that allows bigger volumes of low-density closed-cell cellular materials to be calculated. The model is enriched by direct thickness measurement on the tomographic images. The values measured are ascribed to the shell elements. To validate and use the model, a structure composed of stainless steel hollow spheres is firstly compressed and scanned to observe local deformations. The tomographic data are also meshed with shells for a FE calculation. The convergence of the model is checked and its performance is compared with a continuum model. The global behavior is compared with the measures of the compression test. At the local scale, the model allows the local stress and strain field to be calculated. The calculated deformed shape is compared with the deformed tomographic images

  10. Coupling sensing to crop models for closed-loop plant production in advanced life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazzoni, James; Ling, Peter P.

    1999-01-01

    We present a conceptual framework for coupling sensing to crop models for closed-loop analysis of plant production for NASA's program in advanced life support. Crop status may be monitored through non-destructive observations, while models may be independently applied to crop production planning and decision support. To achieve coupling, environmental variables and observations are linked to mode inputs and outputs, and monitoring results compared with model predictions of plant growth and development. The information thus provided may be useful in diagnosing problems with the plant growth system, or as a feedback to the model for evaluation of plant scheduling and potential yield. In this paper, we demonstrate this coupling using machine vision sensing of canopy height and top projected canopy area, and the CROPGRO crop growth model. Model simulations and scenarios are used for illustration. We also compare model predictions of the machine vision variables with data from soybean experiments conducted at New Jersey Agriculture Experiment Station Horticulture Greenhouse Facility, Rutgers University. Model simulations produce reasonable agreement with the available data, supporting our illustration.

  11. Molecular characterization of a naturally occurring intraspecific recombinant begomovirus with close relatives widespread in southern Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed A

    2014-06-02

    in tomato closely resembled those observed in field infected tomato plants, indicating the virus is the causal agent of the leaf curl disease. The symptoms that developed in tomato seedlings closely resembled those observed in field infected tomato plants, indicating that ToLCSDV is the causal agent of the leaf curl disease in Gezira. 2014 Al-Saleh et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  12. Identifying the Best-Fitting Factor Structure of the Experience of Close Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Breinholst, Sonja; Niclasen, Janni

    2015-01-01

    . The present study used a Danish sample with the purpose of addressing limitations in previous studies, such as the lack of diversity in cultural back- ground, restricted sample characteristics, and poorly fitting structure models. Participants consisted of 253 parents of children between the ages of 7 and 12...... years, 53% being moth- ers. The parents completed the paper version of the questionnaire. Confirmatory Factor Analyses were carried out to determine whether theoretically and empirically established models including one and two factors would also provide adequate fits in a Danish sample. A previous...... study using the original ECR suggested that Scandinavian samples may best be described using a five-factor solution. Our results indicated that the one- and two-factor models of the ECR-R did not fit the data well. Exploratory Factor Analysis revealed a five- factor model. Our study provides evidence...

  13. Exact closed-form solutions of a fully nonlinear asymptotic two-fluid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheviakov, Alexei F.

    2018-05-01

    A fully nonlinear model of Choi and Camassa (1999) describing one-dimensional incompressible dynamics of two non-mixing fluids in a horizontal channel, under a shallow water approximation, is considered. An equivalence transformation is presented, leading to a special dimensionless form of the system, involving a single dimensionless constant physical parameter, as opposed to five parameters present in the original model. A first-order dimensionless ordinary differential equation describing traveling wave solutions is analyzed. Several multi-parameter families of physically meaningful exact closed-form solutions of the two-fluid model are derived, corresponding to periodic, solitary, and kink-type bidirectional traveling waves; specific examples are given, and properties of the exact solutions are analyzed.

  14. Numerical modeling of cold room's hinged door opening and closing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, R.; Gaspar, P. D.; Silva, P. D.; Domingues, L. C.

    2016-06-01

    The need of rationalize energy consumption in agrifood industry has fasten the development of methodologies to improve the thermal and energy performances of cold rooms. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) transient Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling of a cold room to evaluate the air infiltration rate through hinged doors. A species transport model is used for modelling the tracer gas concentration decay technique. Numerical predictions indicate that air temperature difference between spaces affects the air infiltration. For this case study, the infiltration rate increases 0.016 m3 s-1 per K of air temperature difference. The knowledge about the evolution of air infiltration during door opening/closing times allows to draw some conclusions about its influence on the air conditions inside the cold room, as well as to suggest best practices and simple technical improvements that can minimize air infiltration, and consequently improve thermal performance and energy consumption rationalization.

  15. A new vanilla species from Costa Rica closely related to V. planifolia (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B. Azofeifa-Bolaños

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new vanilla species growing in sympatry with Vanilla planifolia Jacks. ex Andrews (Orchidaceae in the province of Limón, Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. The morphology of the reproductive and vegetative organs observed on vines cultivated under shade-house, the nuclear (Internal Transcribed Spacer and plastid (matK nucleotide sequences, as well as the contents of aromatic compounds measured in ripe fruits, show that this species is close to but distinct from V. planifolia. The name V. sotoarenasii M.Pignal, Azofeifa-Bolaños & Grisoni sp. nov. is proposed for this new Vanilla species endemic in Costa Rica. It is especially distinguished from V. planifolia by a reduction of about 30% of the size of the fruits and flowers, by a divergence of ITS sequences for at least two species-conserved nucleotides compared to seven other species of the V. planifolia group, and by the presence of anisic compounds and low content of phenolic compounds (including vanillin in the fruits. These results confirmed the extension of the area of distribution of V. planifolia southward to Costa Rica, where a recent speciation process occurred. Because of its particular agronomic and aromatic properties, V. sotoarenasii sp. nov. could represent a valuable biological resource for the vanilla industry.

  16. Endogenous lentivirus in Malayan colugo (Galeopterus variegatus), a close relative of primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hron, Tomáš; Fábryová, Helena; Pačes, Jan; Elleder, Daniel

    2014-10-04

    A significant fraction of mammalian genomes is composed of endogenous retroviral (ERV) sequences that are formed by germline infiltration of various retroviruses. In contrast to other retroviral genera, lentiviruses only rarely form ERV copies. We performed a computational search aimed at identification of novel endogenous lentiviruses in vertebrate genomes. Using the in silico strategy, we have screened 104 publicly available vertebrate genomes for the presence of endogenous lentivirus sequences. In addition to the previously described cases, the search revealed the presence of endogenous lentivirus in the genome of Malayan colugo (Galeopterus variegatus). At least three complete copies of this virus, denoted ELVgv, were detected in the colugo genome, and approximately one hundred solo LTR sequences. The assembled consensus sequence of ELVgv had typical lentivirus genome organization including three predicted accessory genes. Phylogenetic analysis placed this virus as a distinct subgroup within the lentivirus genus. The time of insertion into the dermopteran lineage was estimated to be more than thirteen million years ago. We report the discovery of the first endogenous lentivirus in the mammalian order Dermoptera, which is a taxon close to the Primates. Lentiviruses have infiltrated the mammalian germline several times across millions of years. The colugo virus described here represents possibly the oldest documented endogenization event and its discovery can lead to new insights into lentivirus evolution. This is also the first report of an endogenous lentivirus in an Asian mammal, indicating a long-term presence of this retrovirus family in Asian continent.

  17. Home-Based Risk of Falling Assessment Test Using a Closed-Loop Balance Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayena, Johannes C; Zaibi, Helmi; Otis, Martin J-D; Menelas, Bob-Antoine J

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to improve and facilitate the methods used to assess risk of falling at home among older people through the computation of a risk of falling in real time in daily activities. In order to increase a real time computation of the risk of falling, a closed-loop balance model is proposed and compared with One-Leg Standing Test (OLST). This balance model allows studying the postural response of a person having an unpredictable perturbation. Twenty-nine volunteers participated in this study for evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed system which includes seventeen elder participants: ten healthy elderly ( 68.4 ±5.5 years), seven Parkinson's disease (PD) subjects ( 66.28 ±8.9 years), and twelve healthy young adults ( 28.27 ±3.74 years). Our work suggests that there is a relationship between OLST score and the risk of falling based on center of pressure measurement with four low cost force sensors located inside an instrumented insole, which could be predicted using our suggested closed-loop balance model. For long term monitoring at home, this system could be included in a medical electronic record and could be useful as a diagnostic aid tool.

  18. Effect of hypotension and carbon dioxide changes in an improved genuine closed cranial window rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K A; Dyrby, Lone; Williamson, D

    2005-01-01

    The genuine closed cranial window model, in which the thinned parietal bone constitutes the covering of the preparation, has contributed to a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in migraine. In its present form, only measurements of the middle meningeal artery (MMA) are perf......The genuine closed cranial window model, in which the thinned parietal bone constitutes the covering of the preparation, has contributed to a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in migraine. In its present form, only measurements of the middle meningeal artery (MMA......) are performed. The aim of this study was, in addition, to measure pial artery/arteriole (PA) diameter and cortical cerebral blood flux in the same cranial window. The model was evaluated by studying the effects of hypotension and changes in arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2), because these parameters......-induced hypotension (-64+/-0.8 mmHg) caused an increase of MMA diameter of 11.8+/-8.4%, PA diameter of 61.2+/-7.7% and a decrease in LCBF(Flux) of -36.4+/-2.5%. The decrease in blood pressure did not significantly change the MMA (P=0.38); however, the PA diameter and the LCBF(Flux) were affected (P

  19. Virtual Habitat -a dynamic simulation of closed life support systems -human model status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus Czupalla, M. Sc.; Zhukov, Anton; Hwang, Su-Au; Schnaitmann, Jonas

    In order to optimize Life Support Systems on a system level, stability questions must be in-vestigated. To do so the exploration group of the Technical University of Munich (TUM) is developing the "Virtual Habitat" (V-HAB) dynamic LSS simulation software. V-HAB shall provide the possibility to conduct dynamic simulations of entire mission scenarios for any given LSS configuration. The Virtual Habitat simulation tool consists of four main modules: • Closed Environment Module (CEM) -monitoring of compounds in a closed environment • Crew Module (CM) -dynamic human simulation • P/C Systems Module (PCSM) -dynamic P/C subsystems • Plant Module (PM) -dynamic plant simulation The core module of the simulation is the dynamic and environment sensitive human module. Introduced in its basic version in 2008, the human module has been significantly updated since, increasing its capabilities and maturity significantly. In this paper three newly added human model subsystems (thermal regulation, digestion and schedule controller) are introduced touching also on the human stress subsystem which is cur-rently under development. Upon the introduction of these new subsystems, the integration of these into the overall V-HAB human model is discussed, highlighting the impact on the most important I/F. The overall human model capabilities shall further be summarized and presented based on meaningful test cases. In addition to the presentation of the results, the correlation strategy for the Virtual Habitat human model shall be introduced assessing the models current confidence level and giving an outlook on the future correlation strategy. Last but not least, the remaining V-HAB mod-ules shall be introduced shortly showing how the human model is integrated into the overall simulation.

  20. Model-Based, Closed-Loop Control of PZT Creep for Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, A D; Ognibene, T J; Bench, G; Turteltaub, K W

    2014-09-01

    Cavity ring-down spectrometers typically employ a PZT stack to modulate the cavity transmission spectrum. While PZTs ease instrument complexity and aid measurement sensitivity, PZT hysteresis hinders the implementation of cavity-length-stabilized, data-acquisition routines. Once the cavity length is stabilized, the cavity's free spectral range imparts extreme linearity and precision to the measured spectrum's wavelength axis. Methods such as frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy have successfully mitigated PZT hysteresis, but their complexity limits commercial applications. Described herein is a single-laser, model-based, closed-loop method for cavity length control.

  1. Relative humidity effects on water vapour fluxes measured with closed-path eddy-covariance systems with short sampling lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratini, Gerardo; Ibrom, Andreas; Arriga, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    It has been formerly recognised that increasing relative humidity in the sampling line of closed-path eddy-covariance systems leads to increasing attenuation of water vapour turbulent fluctuations, resulting in strong latent heat flux losses. This occurrence has been analyzed for very long (50 m...... from eddy-covariance systems featuring short (4 m) and very short (1 m) sampling lines running at the same clover field and show that relative humidity effects persist also for these setups, and should not be neglected. Starting from the work of Ibrom and co-workers, we propose a mixed method...... and correction method proposed here is deemed applicable to closed-path systems featuring a broad range of sampling lines, and indeed applicable also to passive gases as a special case. The methods described in this paper are incorporated, as processing options, in the free and open-source eddy...

  2. A realistic closed-form radiobiological model of clinical tumor-control data incorporating intertumor heterogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Stephen A.; Hendry, Jolyon H.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the role of intertumor heterogeneity in clinical tumor control datasets and the relationship to in vitro measurements of tumor biopsy samples. Specifically, to develop a modified linear-quadratic (LQ) model incorporating such heterogeneity that it is practical to fit to clinical tumor-control datasets. Methods and Materials: We developed a modified version of the linear-quadratic (LQ) model for tumor control, incorporating a (lagged) time factor to allow for tumor cell repopulation. We explicitly took into account the interpatient heterogeneity in clonogen number, radiosensitivity, and repopulation rate. Using this model, we could generate realistic TCP curves using parameter estimates consistent with those reported from in vitro studies, subject to the inclusion of a radiosensitivity (or dose)-modifying factor. We then demonstrated that the model was dominated by the heterogeneity in α (tumor radiosensitivity) and derived an approximate simplified model incorporating this heterogeneity. This simplified model is expressible in a compact closed form, which it is practical to fit to clinical datasets. Using two previously analysed datasets, we fit the model using direct maximum-likelihood techniques and obtained parameter estimates that were, again, consistent with the experimental data on the radiosensitivity of primary human tumor cells. This heterogeneity model includes the same number of adjustable parameters as the standard LQ model. Results: The modified model provides parameter estimates that can easily be reconciled with the in vitro measurements. The simplified (approximate) form of the heterogeneity model is a compact, closed-form probit function that can readily be fitted to clinical series by conventional maximum-likelihood methodology. This heterogeneity model provides a slightly better fit to the datasets than the conventional LQ model, with the same numbers of fitted parameters. The parameter estimates of the clinically

  3. Feasibility of Close-Range Photogrammetric Models for Geographic Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of using close-range architectural photogrammetry as an alternative three dimensional modeling technique in order to place the digital models in a geographic information system (GIS) at SLAC. With the available equipment and Australis photogrammetry software, the creation of full and accurate models of an example building, Building 281 on SLAC campus, was attempted. After conducting several equipment tests to determine the precision achievable, a complete photogrammetric survey was attempted. The dimensions of the resulting models were then compared against the true dimensions of the building. A complete building model was not evidenced to be obtainable using the current equipment and software. This failure was likely attributable to the limits of the software rather than the precision of the physical equipment. However, partial models of the building were shown to be accurate and determined to still be usable in a GIS. With further development of the photogrammetric software and survey procedure, the desired generation of a complete three dimensional model is likely still feasible.

  4. Wing pattern morphology of three closely related Melitaea (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) species reveals highly inaccurate external morphology-based species identification

    OpenAIRE

    Jugovic,Jure; Koren,Toni

    2014-01-01

    Wing morphology of the three closely related species of Melitaea – M. athalia (Rottemburg, 1775), M. aurelia (Nickerl, 1850) and M. britomartis Assmann, 1847 – co-occurring in the Balkans (SE Europe) was investigated in detail through visual inspection, morphometric analysis and multivariate statistical analysis. Results are compared to recent phylogenetic studies, searching for concordant patterns and discrepancies between the two approaches. The morphology of the genitalic structures is als...

  5. Evaluation of multiple approaches to identify genome-wide polymorphisms in closely related genotypes of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seanna Hewitt

    Full Text Available Identification of genetic polymorphisms and subsequent development of molecular markers is important for marker assisted breeding of superior cultivars of economically important species. Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. is an economically important non-climacteric tree fruit crop in the Rosaceae family and has undergone a genetic bottleneck due to breeding, resulting in limited genetic diversity in the germplasm that is utilized for breeding new cultivars. Therefore, it is critical to recognize the best platforms for identifying genome-wide polymorphisms that can help identify, and consequently preserve, the diversity in a genetically constrained species. For the identification of polymorphisms in five closely related genotypes of sweet cherry, a gel-based approach (TRAP, reduced representation sequencing (TRAPseq, a 6k cherry SNParray, and whole genome sequencing (WGS approaches were evaluated in the identification of genome-wide polymorphisms in sweet cherry cultivars. All platforms facilitated detection of polymorphisms among the genotypes with variable efficiency. In assessing multiple SNP detection platforms, this study has demonstrated that a combination of appropriate approaches is necessary for efficient polymorphism identification, especially between closely related cultivars of a species. The information generated in this study provides a valuable resource for future genetic and genomic studies in sweet cherry, and the insights gained from the evaluation of multiple approaches can be utilized for other closely related species with limited genetic diversity in the breeding germplasm. Keywords: Polymorphisms, Prunus avium, Next-generation sequencing, Target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP, Genetic diversity, SNParray, Reduced representation sequencing, Whole genome sequencing (WGS

  6. Associative learning in two closely related parasitoid wasps: a neuroecological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.A.K.

    2005-01-01

    Insects are useful model organisms to study learning and memory. Their brains are less complex than vertebrate brains, but the basic mechanisms of learning and memory are similar in both taxa. In this thesis I study learning and subsequent memory formation in two parasitoid wasp species that differ

  7. Parallel genome reduction in symbionts descended from closely related free-living bacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boscaro, V.; Kolísko, Martin; Felletti, M.; Vannini, C.; Lynn, D. H.; Keeling, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 8 (2017), s. 1160-1167 E-ISSN 2397-334X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : polynucleobacter-necessarius * phylogenetic analysis * maximum-likelihood * evolution * replacement * model * endosymbionts * acceleration * perspectives Subject RIV: EB - Gene tics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology

  8. Effects of turbidity on the neural structures of two closely related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The neural structures of the sister species Pseudobarbus afer and P. asper were compared. P. afer, a redfin minnow which inhabits clear, perennial mountain streams, was found to have larger neural structures related to vision than P. asper, which inhabits turbid, intermittent streams of the Gamtoos River system, ...

  9. The close relation between birth, abortion and employment rates in Sweden from 1980 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmqvist, Mikael

    2006-09-01

    Birth and abortion rates in Sweden have fluctuated since 1980 while the proportion between the rates are the same at the beginning and end of the period. An increase in birth rates in the late 1980s resulted in a peak in 1991 and 1992, with 124,000 live births each year. Thereafter followed a steady decline in the rate until 2000, when the number of live births was about 90,000. At that point, the trend changed to an increase. The aim of this analysis was to investigate any relation between employment rates and the number of live births among women aged 20-34, and at the same time to explore the trend for abortion rates compared to the trend for live births. The relation between employment status and live birth rate is statistically more significant for women than men, and the rates have a higher correlation for the period after 1986. Young adults in this age group are vulnerable to economic cycles that can explain this covariation but the decline in birth rates in economically developed societies has multidimensional aspects and many other possible explanations. Much has been done in recent years in Sweden to decrease household inequality for families with children to avoid the risk of relative poverty, but the fact that there is no explicit health policy to reduce the abortion level that remain unchanged since the early 1980s may appear as a notable lack of strategy in a country with many other health-related goals.

  10. Closed-loop surface-related multiple elimination and its application to simultaneous data reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Angarita, G.A.; Verschuur, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Surface-related multiple elimination (SRME) is one of the most commonly used methods for suppressing surface multiples. However, to obtain an accurate surface multiple estimation, dense source and receiver sampling is required. The traditional approach to this problem is performing data

  11. Veluticeps fasciculata sp. nov. (Gloeophyllaceae, Basidiomycota), a close relative to V. berkeleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao Yang; Karen K. Nakasone; Shuang-Hui. He

    2016-01-01

    A new brown-rot fungal species, Veluticeps fasciculata, is described from southern China. It is characterized by perennial effused basidiocarps with smooth or tuberculose hymenophore, nodose-septate generative hyphae, fasciculate cystidia (as hyphal pegs in hymenophore) and relatively small basidiospores. It occurs on wood of Cunninghamia...

  12. Estrus Traits Derived from Activity Measurements are Heritable and Closely Related to Conventional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismael, Ahmed Ismael Sayed; Kargo, Morten; Fogh, Anders

    This study was aimed at assessing the genetic parameters for fertility-related traits, comparing the interval from calving to first insemination (ICF) to physical activity traits, especially days from calving to first high activity, DFHA. Data from commercial Holstein herds included insemination ...

  13. New criteria for selecting the origin of DNA replication in Wolbachia and closely related bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C; Sapountzis, Panagiotis

    2007-01-01

    , the origin of DNA replication (ori) regions were identified in silico for Wolbachia strains and eleven other related bacteria belonging to Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Rickettsia genera. These features include DnaA-, CtrA- and IHF-binding sites as well as the flanking genes in C. crescentus. The Wolbachia ori...

  14. Open and partially closed models of the solar wind interaction with outer planet magnetospheres. The case of Saturn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belenkaya, Elena S.; Alexeev, Igor I.; Kalegaev, Vladimir V.; Pensionerov, Ivan A.; Blokhina, Marina S.; Parunakian, David A. [Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Education M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics (SINP MSU); Cowley, Stanley W. H. [Leicester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2017-07-01

    A wide variety of interactions take place between the magnetized solar wind plasma outflow from the Sun and celestial bodies within the solar system. Magnetized planets form magnetospheres in the solar wind, with the planetary field creating an obstacle in the flow. The reconnection efficiency of the solar-wind-magnetized planet interaction depends on the conditions in the magnetized plasma flow passing the planet. When the reconnection efficiency is very low, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) does not penetrate the magnetosphere, a condition that has been widely discussed in the recent literature for the case of Saturn. In the present paper, we study this issue for Saturn using Cassini magnetometer data, images of Saturn's ultraviolet aurora obtained by the HST, and the paraboloid model of Saturn's magnetospheric magnetic field. Two models are considered: first, an open model in which the IMF penetrates the magnetosphere, and second, a partially closed model in which field lines from the ionosphere go to the distant tail and interact with the solar wind at its end. We conclude that the open model is preferable, which is more obvious for southward IMF. For northward IMF, the model calculations do not allow us to reach definite conclusions. However, analysis of the observations available in the literature provides evidence in favor of the open model in this case too. The difference in magnetospheric structure for these two IMF orientations is due to the fact that the reconnection topology and location depend on the relative orientation of the IMF vector and the planetary dipole magnetic moment. When these vectors are parallel, two-dimensional reconnection occurs at the low-latitude neutral line. When they are antiparallel, three-dimensional reconnection takes place in the cusp regions. Different magnetospheric topologies determine different mapping of the open-closed boundary in the ionosphere, which can be considered as a proxy for the poleward edge

  15. The changes in various hydroxyproline fractions in aortic tissue of rabbits are closely related to the progression of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhomida AS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most important function of collagen and elastin is to induce several mechanical parameters which are known to play a dominant role in governing mechanical properties of the blood vessels. The aortic tissue of rabbit is one of the important sources of collagen and elastin. The effects of high fat diet (HFD on the hydroxyproline (Hyp fractions in serum and aortic tissues of rabbits and collagen content in the aortic tissues of rabbits have not been documented before. The present study was undertaken to investigate the changes in Hyp fractions in serum and aortic tissues of rabbits and collagen content in the aortic tissues of rabbits during the progression of atherosclerosis. The atherosclerotic model used in this study was the New Zealand white rabbit (male; 12 weeks old. Twenty five rabbits were individually caged, and divided into control group (NOR; n = 10 and HFD group (CHO; n = 15. The control group was fed (100 g/day of normal (NOR diet for a period of 15 weeks. The HFD group was fed normal diet supplemented with 1.0% cholesterol plus 1.0% olive oil (100 g/day for the same period of time. Results We found that the TC, LDLC, and TG (mg/dl were significantly (p Conclusions These results suggest that percentage decrease in various Hyp fractions in aortic tissue of HFD rabbits are closely related to percentage decrease of collagen content in aortic tissues of HFD rabbits. These results also suggest that it may be possible to use the changes in various Hyp fractions in aortic tissues of rabbits as an important risk factor during the progression of atherosclerosis.

  16. Degradation of formaldehyde at high concentrations by phenol-adapted Ralstonia eutropha closely related to pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Alireza; Vahabzadeh, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01

    The ability of the phenol-adapted Ralstonia eutropha to utilize formaldehyde (FD) as the sole source of carbon and energy was studied. Adaptation to FD was accomplished by substituting FD for glucose in a stepwise manner. The bacterium in the liquid test culture could tolerate concentrations of FD up to 900 mg L(-1). Degradation of FD was complete in 528 h at 30°C with shaking at 150 rpm (r = 1.67 mg L(-1) h(-1)), q = 0.035 g(FD) g(cell) (-1) h(-1). Substrate inhibition kinetics (Haldane and Luong equations) are used to describe the experimental data. At non-inhibitory concentrations of FD, the Monod equation was used. According to the Luong model, the values of the maximum specific growth rate (μ(max)), half-saturation coefficient (k(S)), the maximum allowable formaldehyde concentration (S(m)), and the shape factor (n) were 0.117 h(-1), 47.6 mg L(-1), 900 mg L(-1), and 2.2, respectively. The growth response of the test bacterium to consecutive FD feedings was examined, and the FD-adapted R. eutropha cells were able to degrade 1000 mg L(-1) FD in 150 h through 4 cycles of FD feeds. During FD degradation, formic acid metabolite was formed. Assimilation of FD, methanol, formic acid, and oxalate by the test bacterium was accompanied by the formation of a pink pigment. The carotenoid nature of the cellular pigment has been confirmed and the test bacterium appeared to be closely related to pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFM). The extent of harm to soil exposed to biotreated wastewaters containing FD may be moderated due to the association between methylotrophic/oxalotrophic bacteria and plants.

  17. Kinematic Modeling of Normal Voluntary Mandibular Opening and Closing Velocity-Initial Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawriołek, Krzysztof; Gawriołek, Maria; Komosa, Marek; Piotrowski, Paweł R; Azer, Shereen S

    2015-06-01

    Determination and quantification of voluntary mandibular velocity movement has not been a thoroughly studied parameter of masticatory movement. This study attempted to objectively define kinematics of mandibular movement based on numerical (digital) analysis of the relations and interactions of velocity diagram records in healthy female individuals. Using a computerized mandibular scanner (K7 Evaluation Software), 72 diagrams of voluntary mandibular velocity movements (36 for opening, 36 for closing) for women with clinically normal motor and functional activities of the masticatory system were recorded. Multiple measurements were analyzed focusing on the curve for maximum velocity records. For each movement, the loop of temporary velocities was determined. The diagram was then entered into AutoCad calculation software where movement analysis was performed. The real maximum velocity values on opening (Vmax ), closing (V0 ), and average velocity values (Vav ) as well as movement accelerations (a) were recorded. Additionally, functional (A1-A2) and geometric (P1-P4) analysis of loop constituent phases were performed, and the relations between the obtained areas were defined. Velocity means and correlation coefficient values for various velocity phases were calculated. The Wilcoxon test produced the following maximum and average velocity results: Vmax = 394 ± 102, Vav = 222 ± 61 for opening, and Vmax = 409 ± 94, Vav = 225 ± 55 mm/s for closing. Both mandibular movement range and velocity change showed significant variability achieving the highest velocity in P2 phase. Voluntary mandibular velocity presents significant variations between healthy individuals. Maximum velocity is obtained when incisal separation is between 12.8 and 13.5 mm. An improved understanding of the patterns of normal mandibular movements may provide an invaluable diagnostic aid to pathological changes within the masticatory system. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  18. Closed-loop supply chain models with considering the environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajeri, Amir; Fallah, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Global warming and climate changes created by large scale emissions of greenhouse gases are a worldwide concern. Due to this, the issue of green supply chain management has received more attention in the last decade. In this study, a closed-loop logistic concept which serves the purposes of recycling, reuse, and recovery required in a green supply chain is applied to integrate the environmental issues into a traditional logistic system. Here, we formulate a comprehensive closed-loop model for the logistics planning considering profitability and ecological goals. In this way, we can achieve the ecological goal reducing the overall amount of CO2 emitted from journeys. Moreover, the profitability criterion can be supported in the cyclic network with the minimum costs and maximum service level. We apply three scenarios and develop problem formulations for each scenario corresponding to the specified regulations and investigate the effect of the regulation on the preferred transport mode and the emissions. To validate the models, some numerical experiments are worked out and a comparative analysis is investigated.

  19. Closed-Loop Supply Chain Models with Considering the Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohajeri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming and climate changes created by large scale emissions of greenhouse gases are a worldwide concern. Due to this, the issue of green supply chain management has received more attention in the last decade. In this study, a closed-loop logistic concept which serves the purposes of recycling, reuse, and recovery required in a green supply chain is applied to integrate the environmental issues into a traditional logistic system. Here, we formulate a comprehensive closed-loop model for the logistics planning considering profitability and ecological goals. In this way, we can achieve the ecological goal reducing the overall amount of CO2 emitted from journeys. Moreover, the profitability criterion can be supported in the cyclic network with the minimum costs and maximum service level. We apply three scenarios and develop problem formulations for each scenario corresponding to the specified regulations and investigate the effect of the regulation on the preferred transport mode and the emissions. To validate the models, some numerical experiments are worked out and a comparative analysis is investigated.

  20. PROBABILISTIC MODEL OF LASER RANGE FINDER FOR THREE DIMENSIONAL GRID CELL IN CLOSE RANGE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz b Iman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The probabilistic model of a laser scanner presents an important aspect for simultaneous localization and map-building (SLAM. However, the characteristic of the beam of the laser range finder under extreme incident angles approaching 900 has not been thoroughly investigated. This research paper reports the characteristic of the density of the range value coming from a laser range finder under close range circumstances where the laser is imposed with a high incident angle. The laser was placed in a controlled environment consisting of walls at a close range and 1000 iteration of scans was collected. The assumption of normal density of the metrical data collapses when the beam traverses across sharp edges in this environment. The data collected also shows multimodal density at instances where the range has discontinuity. The standard deviation of the laser range finder is reported to average at 10.54 mm, with 0.96 of accuracy. This significance suggests that under extreme incident angles, a laser range finder reading behaves differently compared to normal distribution. The use of this information is crucial for SLAM activity in enclosed environments such as inside piping grid or other cluttered environments.KEYWORDS:   Hokuyo UTM-30LX; kernel density estimation; probabilistic model  

  1. Comparative genomics of four closely related Clostridium perfringens bacteriophages reveals variable evolution among core genes with therapeutic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siragusa Gregory R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because biotechnological uses of bacteriophage gene products as alternatives to conventional antibiotics will require a thorough understanding of their genomic context, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of four closely related phages isolated from Clostridium perfringens, an important agricultural and human pathogen. Results Phage whole-genome tetra-nucleotide signatures and proteomic tree topologies correlated closely with host phylogeny. Comparisons of our phage genomes to 26 others revealed three shared COGs; of particular interest within this core genome was an endolysin (PF01520, an N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase and a holin (PF04531. Comparative analyses of the evolutionary history and genomic context of these common phage proteins revealed two important results: 1 strongly significant host-specific sequence variation within the endolysin, and 2 a protein domain architecture apparently unique to our phage genomes in which the endolysin is located upstream of its associated holin. Endolysin sequences from our phages were one of two very distinct genotypes distinguished by variability within the putative enzymatically-active domain. The shared or core genome was comprised of genes with multiple sequence types belonging to five pfam families, and genes belonging to 12 pfam families, including the holin genes, which were nearly identical. Conclusions Significant genomic diversity exists even among closely-related bacteriophages. Holins and endolysins represent conserved functions across divergent phage genomes and, as we demonstrate here, endolysins can have significant variability and host-specificity even among closely-related genomes. Endolysins in our phage genomes may be subject to different selective pressures than the rest of the genome. These findings may have important implications for potential biotechnological applications of phage gene products.

  2. TESTING BAYESIAN ALGORITHMS TO DETECT GENETIC STRUCTURE IN TWO CLOSELY RELATED OAK TAXA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Mihai Enescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the Bayesian algorithm implemented in the software STRUCTURE in order to detect the number of clusters, by using microsatellite data from four oak species. Several assignment models, with or without a priori grouping of individuals to species, were proposed. Better results were obtained by using the sampling location information and when only two taxa were analyzed. Particularly, pedunculate oak and sessile oak formed distinct clusters whatever the assignment model we use. By contrast, no separation between the two oaks from series Lanuginosae was observed. This can be explained, on one hand, by the small sampling size for Italian oak, or by the genetic similarities of the two pubescent oaks, namely Quercus pubescens and Q. virgiliana, on the other hand. Our findings support the hypothesis according which Italian oak is an intraspecific taxonomic unit of pubescent oak.

  3. A numerical insight into elastomer normally closed micro valve actuation with cohesive interfacial cracking modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongyang; Ba, Dechun; Hao, Ming; Duan, Qihui; Liu, Kun; Mei, Qi

    2018-05-01

    Pneumatic NC (normally closed) valves are widely used in high density microfluidics systems. To improve actuation reliability, the actuation pressure needs to be reduced. In this work, we utilize 3D FEM (finite element method) modelling to get an insight into the valve actuation process numerically. Specifically, the progressive debonding process at the elastomer interface is simulated with CZM (cohesive zone model) method. To minimize the actuation pressure, the V-shape design has been investigated and compared with a normal straight design. The geometrical effects of valve shape has been elaborated, in terms of valve actuation pressure. Based on our simulated results, we formulate the main concerns for micro valve design and fabrication, which is significant for minimizing actuation pressures and ensuring reliable operation.

  4. Mathematical modelling of thermoregulation processes for premature infants in closed convectively heated incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraguela, Andrés; Matlalcuatzi, Francisca D; Ramos, Ángel M

    2015-02-01

    The low-weight newborns and especially the premature infants have difficulty in maintaining their temperature in the range considered to be normal. Several studies revealed the importance of thermal environment and moisture to increase the survival rate of newborns. This work models the process of heat exchange and energy balance in premature newborns during the first hours of life in a closed incubator. In addition, a control problem was proposed and solved in order to maintain thermal stability of premature newborns to increase their rate of survival and weight. For this purpose, we propose an algorithm to control the temperature inside the incubator. It takes into account the measurements of the body temperature of a premature newborn which are recorded continuously. We show that using this model the temperature of a premature newborn inside the incubator can be kept in a thermal stability range. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Main control computer security model of closed network systems protection against cyber attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymen, Bilal

    2014-06-01

    The model that brings the data input/output under control in closed network systems, that maintains the system securely, and that controls the flow of information through the Main Control Computer which also brings the network traffic under control against cyber-attacks. The network, which can be controlled single-handedly thanks to the system designed to enable the network users to make data entry into the system or to extract data from the system securely, intends to minimize the security gaps. Moreover, data input/output record can be kept by means of the user account assigned for each user, and it is also possible to carry out retroactive tracking, if requested. Because the measures that need to be taken for each computer on the network regarding cyber security, do require high cost; it has been intended to provide a cost-effective working environment with this model, only if the Main Control Computer has the updated hardware.

  6. Bud structure, position and fate generate various branching patterns along shoots of closely related Rosaceae species: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne eCostes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Branching in temperate plants is closely linked to bud fates, either floral or vegetative. Here, we review how the fate of meristematic tissues contained in buds and their position along a shoot imprint specific branching patterns which differ among species. Through examples chosen in closely related species in different genera of the Rosaceae family, a panorama of patterns is apparent. Patterns depend on whether vegetative and floral buds are borne individually or together in mixed buds, develop as the shoot grows or after a rest period, and are located in axillary or terminal positions along the parent shoot. The resulting branching patterns are conserved among varieties in a given species but progressively change with the parent shoot length during plant ontogeny. They can also be modulated by agronomic and environmental conditions. The existence of various organizations in the topology and fate of meristematic tissues and their appendages in closely related species questions the between-species conservation of physiological and molecular mechanisms leading to bud outgrowth vs quiescence and to floral induction vs vegetative development.

  7. Bud structure, position and fate generate various branching patterns along shoots of closely related Rosaceae species: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, Evelyne; Crespel, Laurent; Denoyes, Béatrice; Morel, Philippe; Demene, Marie-Noëlle; Lauri, Pierre-Eric; Wenden, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Branching in temperate plants is closely linked to bud fates, either floral or vegetative. Here, we review how the fate of meristematic tissues contained in buds and their position along a shoot imprint specific branching patterns which differ among species. Through examples chosen in closely related species in different genera of the Rosaceae family, a panorama of patterns is apparent. Patterns depend on whether vegetative and floral buds are borne individually or together in mixed buds, develop as the shoot grows or after a rest period, and are located in axillary or terminal positions along the parent shoot. The resulting branching patterns are conserved among varieties in a given species but progressively change with the parent shoot length during plant ontogeny. They can also be modulated by agronomic and environmental conditions. The existence of various organizations in the topology and fate of meristematic tissues and their appendages in closely related species questions the between-species conservation of physiological and molecular mechanisms leading to bud outgrowth vs. quiescence and to floral induction vs. vegetative development.

  8. The evolution of different maternal investment strategies in two closely related desert vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennen, Joshua R.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Averill-Murray, Roy C.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Agha, Mickey; Loughran, Caleb; Tennant, Laura A.; Sinervo, Barry

    2017-01-01

    We compared egg size phenotypes and tested several predictions from the optimal egg size (OES) and bet-hedging theories in two North American desert-dwelling sister tortoise taxa, Gopherus agassizii and G. morafkai, that inhabit different climate spaces: relatively unpredictable and more predictable climate spaces, respectively. Observed patterns in both species differed from the predictions of OES in several ways. Mean egg size increased with maternal body size in both species. Mean egg size was inversely related to clutch order in G. agassizii, a strategy more consistent with the within-generation hypothesis arising out of bet-hedging theory or a constraint in egg investment due to resource availability, and contrary to theories of density dependence, which posit that increasing hatchling competition from later season clutches should drive selection for larger eggs. We provide empirical evidence that one species, G. agassizii, employs a bet-hedging strategy that is a combination of two different bet-hedging hypotheses. Additionally, we found some evidence for G. morafkai employing a conservative bet-hedging strategy. (e.g., lack of intra- and interclutch variation in egg size relative to body size). Our novel adaptive hypothesis suggests the possibility that natural selection favors smaller offspring in late-season clutches because they experience a more benign environment or less energetically challenging environmental conditions (i.e., winter) than early clutch progeny, that emerge under harsher and more energetically challenging environmental conditions (i.e., summer). We also discuss alternative hypotheses of sexually antagonistic selection, which arise from the trade-offs of son versus daughter production that might have different optima depending on clutch order and variation in temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) among clutches. Resolution of these hypotheses will require long-term data on fitness of sons versus daughters as a function of

  9. Ethical considerations when conducting joint interviews with close relatives or family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voltelen, Barbara; Konradsen, Hanne; Østergaard, Birte

    2018-01-01

    simultaneously in the healthcare setting. AIM: To collect and share knowledge related to ethical considerations conducting joint interviews. DESIGN AND METHODS: A literature review inspired by the integrative review method was performed. Data were retrieved through a structured search in PubMed, CINAHL......; Conduction joint interviews and Reporting on joint interviews Findings: Participants should be offered the best terms for a constructive, on-going relationship after the joint interview has ended. This obligates the researcher to ensure a safe environment during the joint interview and create a delicate...

  10. A pospiviroid from symptomless portulaca plants closely related to iresine viroid 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, J Th J; Roenhorst, J W; Hooftman, M; Meekes, E T M; Flores, R; Serra, P

    2015-07-02

    In symptomless plants of portulaca a potential new pospiviroid was characterized. Analysis by both double and return PAGE showed the presence of a circular RNA. RT-PCR and sequencing revealed a genome of 351 nt with properties characteristic of members of the genus Pospiviroid and with highest sequence identity (circa 80%) with iresine viroid 1 (IrVd-1). The circular RNA from portulaca was shown to replicate independently in its original host, thus showing that it is indeed a viroid. Based on its molecular characteristics, it should be considered a new species. However, since no biological differences have yet been found with its closest relative IrVd-1, the viroid from portulaca does not fulfil all criteria for species demarcation of the ICTV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Validation of a Quasi-Linear Numerical Model of a Pitching Wave Energy Converter in Close Proximity to a Fixed Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, Maria del Pilar Heras; Thomas, Sarah; Kramer, Morten Mejlhede

    2017-01-01

    attempting to validate a numerical model of a WEC using a variety of scaled physical tests in a waveflume. The technology used as a case study in this paper is a pitching WEC in close proximity to a fixed structure. Challenges are presented relating to waveflume effects and obtaining accurate physical input...

  12. On the significance of the noise model for the performance of a linear MPC in closed-loop operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagdrup, Morten; Boiroux, Dimitri; Mahmoudi, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the significance of the noise model for the performance of a Model Predictive Controller when operating in closed-loop. The process model is parametrized as a continuous-time (CT) model and the relevant sampled-data filtering and control algorithms are developed. Using CT...... models typically means less parameters to identify. Systematic tuning of such controllers is discussed. Simulation studies are conducted for linear time-invariant systems showing that choosing a noise model of low order is beneficial for closed-loop performance. (C) 2016, IFAC (International Federation...

  13. Bacillus subtilis Protects Public Goods by Extending Kin Discrimination to Closely Related Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Nicholas A; Kolter, Roberto

    2017-07-05

    Kin discrimination systems are found in numerous communal contexts like multicellularity and are theorized to prevent exploitation of cooperative behaviors. The kin discrimination system in Bacillus subtilis differs from most other such systems because it excludes nonkin cells rather than including kin cells. Because nonkin are the target of the system, B. subtilis can potentially distinguish degrees of nonkin relatedness, not just kin versus nonkin. We examined this by testing a large strain collection of diverse Bacillus species against B. subtilis in different multicellular contexts. The effects of kin discrimination extend to nearby species, as the other subtilis clade species were treated with the same antagonism as nonkin. Species in the less-related pumilus clade started to display varied phenotypes but were mostly still discriminated against, while cereus clade members and beyond were no longer subject to kin discrimination. Seeking a reason why other species are perceived as antagonistic nonkin, we tested the ability of B. subtilis to steal communally produced surfactant from these species. We found that the species treated as nonkin were the only ones that made a surfactant that B. subtilis could utilize and that nonkin antagonism prevented such stealing when the two strains were mixed. The nonkin exclusion kin discrimination method thus allows effective protection of the cooperative behaviors prevalent in multicellularity while still permitting interactions with more distant species that are not a threat. IMPORTANCE Multicellular systems like bacterial biofilms and swarms rely on cooperative behaviors that could be undermined by exploitative invaders. Discriminating kin from nonkin is one way to help guard against such exploitation but has thus far been examined only intraspecifically, so the phylogenetic range of this important trait is unknown. We tested whether Bacillus subtilis treats other species as nonkin by testing a single strain against a

  14. Bacillus subtilis Protects Public Goods by Extending Kin Discrimination to Closely Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Lyons

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kin discrimination systems are found in numerous communal contexts like multicellularity and are theorized to prevent exploitation of cooperative behaviors. The kin discrimination system in Bacillus subtilis differs from most other such systems because it excludes nonkin cells rather than including kin cells. Because nonkin are the target of the system, B. subtilis can potentially distinguish degrees of nonkin relatedness, not just kin versus nonkin. We examined this by testing a large strain collection of diverse Bacillus species against B. subtilis in different multicellular contexts. The effects of kin discrimination extend to nearby species, as the other subtilis clade species were treated with the same antagonism as nonkin. Species in the less-related pumilus clade started to display varied phenotypes but were mostly still discriminated against, while cereus clade members and beyond were no longer subject to kin discrimination. Seeking a reason why other species are perceived as antagonistic nonkin, we tested the ability of B. subtilis to steal communally produced surfactant from these species. We found that the species treated as nonkin were the only ones that made a surfactant that B. subtilis could utilize and that nonkin antagonism prevented such stealing when the two strains were mixed. The nonkin exclusion kin discrimination method thus allows effective protection of the cooperative behaviors prevalent in multicellularity while still permitting interactions with more distant species that are not a threat.

  15. Lokiarchaea are close relatives of Euryarchaeota, not bridging the gap between prokaryotes and eukaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forterre, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The eocyte hypothesis, in which Eukarya emerged from within Archaea, has been boosted by the description of a new candidate archaeal phylum, “Lokiarchaeota”, from metagenomic data. Eukarya branch within Lokiarchaeota in a tree reconstructed from the concatenation of 36 universal proteins. However, individual phylogenies revealed that lokiarchaeal proteins sequences have different evolutionary histories. The individual markers phylogenies revealed at least two subsets of proteins, either supporting the Woese or the Eocyte tree of life. Strikingly, removal of a single protein, the elongation factor EF2, is sufficient to break the Eukaryotes-Lokiarchaea affiliation. Our analysis suggests that the three lokiarchaeal EF2 proteins have a chimeric organization that could be due to contamination and/or homologous recombination with patches of eukaryotic sequences. A robust phylogenetic analysis of RNA polymerases with a new dataset indicates that Lokiarchaeota and related phyla of the Asgard superphylum are sister group to Euryarchaeota, not to Eukarya, and supports the monophyly of Archaea with their rooting in the branch leading to Thaumarchaeota. PMID:28604769

  16. 3D Modeling of Accretion Disks and Circumbinary Envelopes in Close Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisikalo, D.

    2010-12-01

    A number of observations prove the complex flow structure in close binary stars. The gas dynamic structure of the flow is governed by the stream of matter from the inner Lagrange point, the accretion disk, the circum-disk halo, and the circumbinary envelope. Observations reflect the current state of a binary system and for their interpretation one should consider the gas dynamics of flow patterns. Three-dimensional numerical gasdynamical modeling is used to study the gaseous flow structure and dynamics in close binaries. It is shown that the periodic variations of the positions of the disk and the bow shock formed when the inner parts of the circumbinary envelope flow around the disk result in variations in both the rate of angular-momentum transfer to the disk and the flow structure near the Lagrange point L3. All these factors lead to periodic ejections of matter from the accretion disk and circum-disk halo into the outer layers of the circumbinary envelope. The results of simulations are used to estimate the physical parameters of the circumbinary envelope, including 3D matter distribution in it, and the matter-flow configuration and dynamics. The envelope becomes optically thick for systems with high mass-exchange rates, M⊙=10-8 Msun/year, and has a significant influence on the binary's observed features. The uneven phase distributions of the matter and density variations due to periodic injections of matter into the envelope are important for interpretations of observations of CBSs.

  17. Viable Techniques, Leontief’s Closed Model, and Sraffa’s Subsistence Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Benítez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the production techniques employed in economies that reproduce themselves. Special attention is paid to the distinction usually made between those that do not produce a surplus and those that do, which are referred to as first and second class economies, respectively. Based on this, we present a new definition of viable economies and show that every viable economy of the second class can be represented as a viable economy of the first class under two different forms, Leontief‘s closed model and Sraffa’s subsistence economies. This allows us to present some remarks concerning the economic interpretation of the two models. On the one hand, we argue that the participation of each good in the production of every good can be considered as a normal characteristic of the first model and, on the other hand, we provide a justification for the same condition to be considered a characteristic of the second model. Furthermore, we discuss three definitions of viable techniques advanced by other authors and show that they differ from ours because they admit economies that do not reproduce themselves completely.

  18. A Closed-Form Error Model of Straight Lines for Improved Data Association and Sensor Fusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Sommer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Linear regression is a basic tool in mobile robotics, since it enables accurate estimation of straight lines from range-bearing scans or in digital images, which is a prerequisite for reliable data association and sensor fusing in the context of feature-based SLAM. This paper discusses, extends and compares existing algorithms for line fitting applicable also in the case of strong covariances between the coordinates at each single data point, which must not be neglected if range-bearing sensors are used. Besides, in particular, the determination of the covariance matrix is considered, which is required for stochastic modeling. The main contribution is a new error model of straight lines in closed form for calculating quickly and reliably the covariance matrix dependent on just a few comprehensible and easily-obtainable parameters. The model can be applied widely in any case when a line is fitted from a number of distinct points also without a priori knowledge of the specific measurement noise. By means of extensive simulations, the performance and robustness of the new model in comparison to existing approaches is shown.

  19. Recombining without Hotspots: A Comprehensive Evolutionary Portrait of Recombination in Two Closely Related Species of Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smukowski Heil, Caiti S.; Ellison, Chris; Dubin, Matthew; Noor, Mohamed A.F.

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic recombination rate varies across the genome within and between individuals, populations, and species in virtually all taxa studied. In almost every species, this variation takes the form of discrete recombination hotspots, determined in some mammals by a protein called PRDM9. Hotspots and their determinants have a profound effect on the genomic landscape, and share certain features that extend across the tree of life. Drosophila, in contrast, are anomalous in their absence of hotspots, PRDM9, and other species-specific differences in the determination of recombination. To better understand the evolution of meiosis and general patterns of recombination across diverse taxa, we present a truly comprehensive portrait of recombination across time, combining recently published cross-based contemporary recombination estimates from each of two sister species with newly obtained linkage-disequilibrium-based historic estimates of recombination from both of these species. Using Drosophila pseudoobscura and Drosophila miranda as a model system, we compare recombination rate between species at multiple scales, and we suggest that Drosophila replicate the pattern seen in human–chimpanzee in which recombination rate is conserved at broad scales. We also find evidence of a species-wide recombination modifier(s), resulting in both a present and historic genome-wide elevation of recombination rates in D. miranda, and identify broad scale effects on recombination from the presence of an inversion. Finally, we reveal an unprecedented view of the distribution of recombination in D. pseudoobscura, illustrating patterns of linked selection and where recombination is taking place. Overall, by combining these estimation approaches, we highlight key similarities and differences in recombination between Drosophila and other organisms. PMID:26430062

  20. Recombining without Hotspots: A Comprehensive Evolutionary Portrait of Recombination in Two Closely Related Species of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smukowski Heil, Caiti S; Ellison, Chris; Dubin, Matthew; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2015-10-01

    Meiotic recombination rate varies across the genome within and between individuals, populations, and species in virtually all taxa studied. In almost every species, this variation takes the form of discrete recombination hotspots, determined in some mammals by a protein called PRDM9. Hotspots and their determinants have a profound effect on the genomic landscape, and share certain features that extend across the tree of life. Drosophila, in contrast, are anomalous in their absence of hotspots, PRDM9, and other species-specific differences in the determination of recombination. To better understand the evolution of meiosis and general patterns of recombination across diverse taxa, we present a truly comprehensive portrait of recombination across time, combining recently published cross-based contemporary recombination estimates from each of two sister species with newly obtained linkage-disequilibrium-based historic estimates of recombination from both of these species. Using Drosophila pseudoobscura and Drosophila miranda as a model system, we compare recombination rate between species at multiple scales, and we suggest that Drosophila replicate the pattern seen in human-chimpanzee in which recombination rate is conserved at broad scales. We also find evidence of a species-wide recombination modifier(s), resulting in both a present and historic genome-wide elevation of recombination rates in D. miranda, and identify broad scale effects on recombination from the presence of an inversion. Finally, we reveal an unprecedented view of the distribution of recombination in D. pseudoobscura, illustrating patterns of linked selection and where recombination is taking place. Overall, by combining these estimation approaches, we highlight key similarities and differences in recombination between Drosophila and other organisms. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Phylogenetic reconstruction and DNA barcoding for closely related pine moth species (Dendrolimus) in China with multiple gene markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qing-Yan; Gao, Qiang; Wu, Chun-Sheng; Chesters, Douglas; Zhu, Chao-Dong; Zhang, Ai-Bing

    2012-01-01

    Unlike distinct species, closely related species offer a great challenge for phylogeny reconstruction and species identification with DNA barcoding due to their often overlapping genetic variation. We tested a sibling species group of pine moth pests in China with a standard cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and two alternative internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genes (ITS1 and ITS2). Five different phylogenetic/DNA barcoding analysis methods (Maximum likelihood (ML)/Neighbor-joining (NJ), "best close match" (BCM), Minimum distance (MD), and BP-based method (BP)), representing commonly used methodology (tree-based and non-tree based) in the field, were applied to both single-gene and multiple-gene analyses. Our results demonstrated clear reciprocal species monophyly for three relatively distant related species, Dendrolimus superans, D. houi, D. kikuchii, as recovered by both single and multiple genes while the phylogenetic relationship of three closely related species, D. punctatus, D. tabulaeformis, D. spectabilis, could not be resolved with the traditional tree-building methods. Additionally, we find the standard COI barcode outperforms two nuclear ITS genes, whatever the methods used. On average, the COI barcode achieved a success rate of 94.10-97.40%, while ITS1 and ITS2 obtained a success rate of 64.70-81.60%, indicating ITS genes are less suitable for species identification in this case. We propose the use of an overall success rate of species identification that takes both sequencing success and assignation success into account, since species identification success rates with multiple-gene barcoding system were generally overestimated, especially by tree-based methods, where only successfully sequenced DNA sequences were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. Non-tree based methods, such as MD, BCM, and BP approaches, presented advantages over tree-based methods by reporting the overall success rates with statistical significance. In addition, our

  2. Phylogenetic reconstruction and DNA barcoding for closely related pine moth species (Dendrolimus in China with multiple gene markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Yan Dai

    Full Text Available Unlike distinct species, closely related species offer a great challenge for phylogeny reconstruction and species identification with DNA barcoding due to their often overlapping genetic variation. We tested a sibling species group of pine moth pests in China with a standard cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene and two alternative internal transcribed spacer (ITS genes (ITS1 and ITS2. Five different phylogenetic/DNA barcoding analysis methods (Maximum likelihood (ML/Neighbor-joining (NJ, "best close match" (BCM, Minimum distance (MD, and BP-based method (BP, representing commonly used methodology (tree-based and non-tree based in the field, were applied to both single-gene and multiple-gene analyses. Our results demonstrated clear reciprocal species monophyly for three relatively distant related species, Dendrolimus superans, D. houi, D. kikuchii, as recovered by both single and multiple genes while the phylogenetic relationship of three closely related species, D. punctatus, D. tabulaeformis, D. spectabilis, could not be resolved with the traditional tree-building methods. Additionally, we find the standard COI barcode outperforms two nuclear ITS genes, whatever the methods used. On average, the COI barcode achieved a success rate of 94.10-97.40%, while ITS1 and ITS2 obtained a success rate of 64.70-81.60%, indicating ITS genes are less suitable for species identification in this case. We propose the use of an overall success rate of species identification that takes both sequencing success and assignation success into account, since species identification success rates with multiple-gene barcoding system were generally overestimated, especially by tree-based methods, where only successfully sequenced DNA sequences were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. Non-tree based methods, such as MD, BCM, and BP approaches, presented advantages over tree-based methods by reporting the overall success rates with statistical significance. In

  3. Inter- and intra-guild interactions related to aphids in nettle (Urtica dioica L.) strips closed to field crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhmedi, A; Haubruge, E; Bodson, B; Francis, F

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment designed to assess the biodiversity related to nettle strips closed to crops, and more particularly the aphid and related beneficial populations, was established in experimental farm located in Gembloux (Belgium). Margin strips of nettle (Urtica dioica) closed to wheat (Triticum aestivum), green pea (Pisum sativum) and rape (Brassicae napus) fields were investigated. The diversity, abundance of aphids and related predators were analysed according to the plant crop species and the differential pesticide application (treated plot and control). Insects were visually observed every week during all the cultivation season. Two main families of aphidophagous predators were found in all field crops and nettle, the Coccinellidae and Syrphidae. The diversity of the aphidophagous predators was shown to be higher on nettle than in field crops, particularly the Chrysopidae, the Anthocoridae and the Miridae. However, a striking difference of ladybird abundance was observed according to the aphid host plant. In one side, Coccinella septempunctata was much more abundant on Acyrthosiphon pisum infested green pea than on the other host plant species. At the opposite, higher occurrence of Harmonia axyridis was observed on the aphid infested nettle plants than on the crop plants. In particular, none of H. axyridis was found in wheat crop. Also, more than only a significant positive correlation between predator and aphid abundance, specialised relations between particular aphid species and some so-called generalist predators was determined in the fields. Finally, intraguild interactions between the aphidophagous predators was assessed and shown that only a significant negative correlation between Episyrphus balteatus and H. axyridis related to the nettle aphid, Micrlophium carnosum, was observed. The relative distribution of the ladybirds, namely C. septempunctata and H. axyridis according to the host plant, nettle strips and crop plots was discussed in relation to

  4. The genome of herpesvirus papio 2 is closely related to the genomes of human herpes simplex viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigger, John E; Martin, David W

    2003-06-01

    Infection of baboons (Papio species) with herpesvirus papio 2 (HVP-2) produces a disease that is clinically similar to herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 and HSV-2) infection of humans. The development of a primate model of simplexvirus infection based on HVP-2 would provide a powerful resource to study virus biology and test vaccine strategies. In order to characterize the molecular biology of HVP-2 and justify further development of this model system we have constructed a physical map of the HVP-2 genome. The results of these studies have identified the presence of 26 reading frames that closely resemble HSV homologues. Furthermore, the HVP-2 genome shares a collinear arrangement with the genome of HSV. These studies further validate the development of the HVP-2 model as a surrogate system to study the biology of HSV infections.

  5. New antagonists of LHRH. II. Inhibition and potentiation of LHRH by closely related analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajusz, S; Csernus, V J; Janaky, T; Bokser, L; Fekete, M; Schally, A V

    1988-12-01

    Modifications of the previously described LHRH antagonists, [Ac-D-Nal(2)1, D-Phe(4Cl)2, D-Trp3, D-Cit6, D-Ala10]LHRH and the corresponding D-Hci6 analogue, have been made to alter the hydrophobicity of the N-terminal acetyl-tripeptide portion. Substitution of D-Trp3 with the less hydrophobic D-Pal(3) had only marginal effects on the antagonistic activities and receptor binding potencies of the D-Cit/D-Hci6 analogues, but it appeared to further improve the toxicity lowering effect of D-Cit/D-Hci6 substitution. Antagonists containing D-Pal(3)3 and D-Cit/D-Hci6 residues, i.e. [Ac-D-Nal(2)1, D-Phe(4Cl)2, D-Pal(3)3, D-Cit6, D-Ala10]LHRH (SB-75) and [Ac-D-Nal(2)1, D-Phe(4Cl)2, D-Pal(3)3, D-Hci6, D-Ala10]LHRH (SB-88), were completely free of the toxic effects, such as cyanosis and respiratory depression leading to death, which have been observed in rats with the D-Trp3, D-Arg6 antagonist and related antagonists. Replacement of the N-acetyl group with the hydrophilic carbamoyl group caused a slight decrease in antagonistic activities, particularly in vitro. Introduction of urethane type acyl group such as methoxycarbonyl (Moc) or t-butoxycarbonyl (Boc) led to analogues that showed LHRH-potentiating effect. The increase in potency induced by these analogues, e.g. [Moc-D-Nal(2)1, D-Phe(4Cl)2, D-Trp3, D-Cit6, D-Ala10]LHRH and [Boc-D-Phe1, D-Phe(4Cl)2, D-Pal(3)3, D-Cit6, D-Ala10]LHRH, was 170-260% and persisted for more than 2 h when studied in a superfused rat pituitary system.

  6. Close-range geophotogrammetric mapping of trench walls using multi-model stereo restitution software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coe, J.A.; Taylor, E.M.; Schilling, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    Methods for mapping geologic features exposed on trench walls have advanced from conventional gridding and sketch mapping to precise close-range photogrammetric mapping. In our study, two strips of small-format (60 x 60) stereo pairs, each containing 42 photos and covering approximately 60 m of nearly vertical trench wall (2-4 m high), were contact printed onto eight 205 x 255-mm transparent film sheets. Each strip was oriented in a Kern DSR15 analytical plotter using the bundle adjustment module of Multi-Model Stereo Restitution Software (MMSRS). We experimented with several systematic-control-point configurations to evaluate orientation accuracies as a function of the number and position of control points. We recommend establishing control-point columns (each containing 2-3 points) in every 5th photo to achieve the 7-mm Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) accuracy required by our trench-mapping project. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  7. Close-range geophotogrammetric mapping of trench walls using multi-model stereo restitution software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, J.A.; Taylor, E.M.; Schilling, S.P.

    1991-06-01

    Methods for mapping geologic features exposed on trench walls have advanced from conventional gridding and sketch mapping to precise close-range photogrammetric mapping. In our study, two strips of small-format (60 {times} 60) stereo pairs, each containing 42 photos and covering approximately 60 m of nearly vertical trench wall (2-4 m high), were contact printed onto eight 205 {times} 255-mm transparent film sheets. Each strip was oriented in a Kern DSR15 analytical plotter using the bundle adjustment module of Multi-Model Stereo Restitution Software (MMSRS). We experimented with several systematic-control-point configurations to evaluate orientation accuracies as a function of the number and position of control points. We recommend establishing control-point columns (each containing 2-3 points) in every 5th photo to achieve the 7-mm Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) accuracy required by our trench-mapping project. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. A genetic algorithm approach for solving a closed loop supply chain model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannan, G.; Sasikumar, P.; Kannan, Devika

    2010-01-01

    in reverse logistics is to take back the used products, either under warranty or at the end of use or at the end of lease, so that the products or its parts are appropriately disposed, recycled, reused or remanufactured. In order to overcome this issue, it is necessary to setup a logistics network...... for arising goods flow from end users to manufacturers. In this study, the optimum usage of secondary lead recovered from the spent lead-acid batteries for producing new battery is presented. The disposal in surface or sewage water or land of liquid content of the lead-acid batteries is strictly restricted....... Because of the need for environmental protection and the lack of considerable lead resources, the spent batteries treatment and lead recovery are becoming crucial now-a-days. The objective of this paper is to develop a multi echelon, multi period, multi product closed loop supply chain network model...

  9. Exploiting fine-scale genetic and physiological variation of closely related microbes to reveal unknown enzyme functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badur, Ahmet H; Plutz, Matthew J; Yalamanchili, Geethika; Jagtap, Sujit Sadashiv; Schweder, Thomas; Unfried, Frank; Markert, Stephanie; Polz, Martin F; Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik; Rao, Christopher V

    2017-08-04

    Polysaccharide degradation by marine microbes represents one of the largest and most rapid heterotrophic transformations of organic matter in the environment. Microbes employ systems of complementary carbohydrate-specific enzymes to deconstruct algal or plant polysaccharides (glycans) into monosaccharides. Because of the high diversity of glycan substrates, the functions of these enzymes are often difficult to establish. One solution to this problem may lie within naturally occurring microdiversity; varying numbers of enzymes, due to gene loss, duplication, or transfer, among closely related environmental microbes create metabolic differences akin to those generated by knock-out strains engineered in the laboratory used to establish the functions of unknown genes. Inspired by this natural fine-scale microbial diversity, we show here that it can be used to develop hypotheses guiding biochemical experiments for establishing the role of these enzymes in nature. In this work, we investigated alginate degradation among closely related strains of the marine bacterium Vibrio splendidus One strain, V. splendidus 13B01, exhibited high extracellular alginate lyase activity compared with other V. splendidus strains. To identify the enzymes responsible for this high extracellular activity, we compared V. splendidus 13B01 with the previously characterized V. splendidus 12B01, which has low extracellular activity and lacks two alginate lyase genes present in V. splendidus 13B01. Using a combination of genomics, proteomics, biochemical, and functional screening, we identified a polysaccharide lyase family 7 enzyme that is unique to V. splendidus 13B01, secreted, and responsible for the rapid digestion of extracellular alginate. These results demonstrate the value of querying the enzymatic repertoires of closely related microbes to rapidly pinpoint key proteins with beneficial functions. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. A model of Stokesian peristalsis and vesicle transport in a three-dimensional closed cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Vivian; Cortez, Ricardo; Fauci, Lisa

    2015-06-25

    The complexity of the mechanics involved in the mammalian reproductive process is evident. Neither an ovum nor an embryo is self-propelled, but move through the oviduct or uterus due to the peristaltic action of the tube walls, imposed pressure gradients, and perhaps ciliary motion. Here we use the method of regularized Stokeslets to model the transport of an ovum or an embryo within a peristaltic tube. We represent the ovum or the embryo as a spherical vesicle of finite volume - not a massless point particle. The outer membrane of the neutrally buoyant vesicle is discretized by nodes that are joined by a network of springs. The elastic moduli of these springs are chosen large enough so that a spherical shape is maintained. For simplicity, here we choose an axisymmetric tube where the geometry of the two-dimensional cross-section along the tube axis reflects that of the sagittal cross-section of the uterine cavity. Although the tube motion is axisymmetric, the presence of the vesicle within the tube requires a fully three-dimensional model. As was found in Yaniv et al. (2009, 2012) for a 2D closed channel, we find that the flow dynamics in a 3D peristaltic tube are strongly influenced by the closed end and the manner in which the peristaltic wave damps out towards the closure. In addition, we demonstrate that the trajectory of a vesicle of finite volume can greatly differ from the trajectory of a massless fluid particle initially placed at the vesicle׳s centroid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. STOCHASTIC CHARACTERISTICS AND MODELING OF RELATIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Results are highly accurate and promising for all models based on Lewis' criteria. ... hydrological cycle. Future increases in ... STOCHASTIC CHARACTERISTICS AND MODELING OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY OF OGUN BASIN, NIGERIA. 71 ...

  12. Mutations and/or close relatives? Six case work examples where 49 autosomal SNPs were used as supplementary markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2011-01-01

    ID multiplex assay. The six cases included two duos, two trios and two cases, where the alleged father was not available for testing and one or two of his close relatives were tested instead. The SNP investigation was more informative than the STR investigation in all six cases. In two cases, the alleged...... father would have been falsely included based on the STR results, while the SNP results showed that the alleged father was not the true parent. These case work examples underline the importance of performing supplementary investigations in selected cases and demonstrate the usefulness of the SNPfor...

  13. Ademe et Vous. Research Newsletter No. 13, December 2015. Air quality and climate change: two closely-related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varet, Anne; Guignard, Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    This Research letter is the last in a series of three letters dedicated to climate change, produced in the run up to COP21. It covers the research carried out and the results obtained, with the support of ADEME, in terms of air quality and climate change. Content: - Air quality and climate change: two closely-related issues; - Significant Results: Implementing solutions to improve air quality in a wider context of climate change; - Meeting...: Vincent-Henri Peuch and Nathalie Poisson: 'Air and climate quality - developing joint solutions: a necessity'

  14. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After Bereavement: Early Psychological Sequelae of Losing a Close Relative Due to Terminal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, T. E.; Elklit, A.; Karstoft, K. I.

    2012-01-01

    Very few studies have investigated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a consequence of bereavement from terminal illness. Therefore, knowledge on the traumatizing effects of bereavement and risk factors for traumatization from bereavement is rather sparse. This study investigated prevalence...... and predictors of PTSD in a group of people who had recently lost a close relative due to incurable cancer. The participants were 132 persons who were assessed with the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, the Trauma Symptom Checklist, and the Crisis Support Scale. One month after the loss, 29.5% of the subjects had...

  15. Relational models for knowledge sharing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, N.I.; Berends, J.J.; Baalen, P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the relational dimension of knowledge sharing behavior by proposing a comprehensive theoretical framework for studying knowledge sharing in organizations. This theoretical framework originates from (Fiske, 1991) and (Fiske, 1992) Relational Models Theory (RMT). The RMT

  16. Modelling of airflow in a closed simulation box with regard to atmospheric optical link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajek Lukas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Article is dealing with defining of mathematical turbulent air flow numerical model in the laboratory box with help of ANSYS Fluent software application. The paper describes real measurement of parameters of mechanical turbulences created by high-speed ventilator mounted on the simulation box. The real measurement took place in two planes perpendicular to each other, input and output slot. Subsequently the simulation of mechanical air flow was performed by the help of k-ε and k-ω turbulent models. The results of individual simulations were evaluated by statistical model in the same points, planes respectively, in which the real measurement was made. Other simulation was dealing with effect of heaters inside of closed laboratory box with regards to optical beam degradation. During real measurement was performed temperature point measurement by probe placed inside of the box. The probe was recording air temperature every one second during seven minutes long measurement. The results comparison of simulated and measured data was made in the end. The maximal temperature reached approximately 50 °C in both cases. Also the air flow character in dependence on the number of hot-air extraction ventilators was monitored.

  17. Predictive model of food intake of the Seabass Dicentrarchus labrax in closed aquaculture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish feeding is the main source of waste in aquaculture and is also responsible for most of the environmental impacts derived from this activity. The European Seabass Dicentrarchus labrax is one of the most farmed fishes in the continent, generating an important load of waste on the environment. The consumption of food in fishes is highly dependent on the water temperature and salinity, which create a source of variability on the amount of the ration consumed by fishes. This issue is often neglected by farmers, which aggravates the ration waste. The use of models in aquaculture is increasing in the recent years, and is an excellent tool to combine an increased production with the mitigation of environmental impacts. In this context, this study aimed at developing a predictive model of the D. labrax consumption rate in closed aquaculture systems. Based on the literature review we were able to develop a conceptual diagram and a prototype of the model using the STELLA software (isee®. The preliminary results indicated that the model was capable of predicting the ration consumption of the D. labrax according to the oscillations in the water temperature and salinity. The consumption rate and growth were higher at 21ºC and with a salinity of 28 psu. Laboratory assays are need to validate the models outputs, and they are scheduled to start in October 2015. Finally, the model’s structure, equations, inputs and outputs were integrated into an easy-to-use software developed by the FoodInTech® company, that will help farmers to increase their yields and reduce the waste of ration and the nutrient load on the environment.

  18. Mathematical modelling of ultrasonic testing of components with defects close to a non-planar surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westlund, Jonathan; Bostroem, Anders

    2011-05-01

    Nondestructive testing with ultrasound is a standard procedure in the nuclear power industry. To develop and qualify the methods extensive experimental work with test blocks is usually required. This can be very time-consuming and costly and it also requires a good physical intuition of the situation. A reliable mathematical model of the testing situation can, therefore, be very valuable and cost-effective as it can reduce experimental work significantly. A good mathematical model enhances the physical intuition and is very useful for parametric studies, as a pedagogical tool, and for the qualification of procedures and personnel. The aim of the present report is to describe work that has been performed to model ultrasonic testing of components that contain a defect close to a nonplanar surface. For nuclear power applications this may be a crack or other defect on the inside of a pipe with a diameter change or connection. This is an extension of the computer program UTDefect, which previously only admits a planar back surface (which is often applicable also to pipes if the pipe diameter is large enough). The problems are investigated in both 2D and 3D, and in 2D both the simpler anti-plane (SH) and the in-plane (P-SV) problem are studied. The 2D investigations are primarily solved to get a 'feeling' for the solution procedure, the discretizations, etc. In all cases an integral equation approach with a Green's function in the kernel is taken. The nonplanar surface is treated by the boundary element method (BEM) where a division of the surface is made in small elements. The defects are mainly cracks, strip-like (in 2D) or rectangular (in 3D), and these are treated with more analytical methods. In 2D also more general defects are treated with the help of their transition (T) matrix. As in other parts of UTDefect the ultrasonic probes in transmission and reception are included in the model. In 3D normalization by a side drilled hole is possible. Some numerical results

  19. A constitutive model for the compressive response of metallic closed-cell foams including micro-inertia effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barthélémy Romain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallic foams have known a keen interest in the last decades. Their ability to undergo very large deformations while transmitting low stress levels make them capable of performing functions of protective layers against intense loadings and of energy absorbers, for instance. The behaviour of metal foams varies considerably between quasi-static and dynamic regimes. Those differences can be linked to the strain-rate sensitivity of the skeleton material and to micro-inertial effects (induced by the crushing of the foam cells. In the present work, a micromechanical model has been developed to take into account micro-inertia effects on the macroscopic behaviour of closed-cell foams under dynamic loading conditions. The proposed modelling is based on the dynamic homogenisation procedure introduced by Molinari and Mercier (J. Mech. Phys. Solids 49 (2001 1497–1516. Within this framework, the macrostress is the sum of two terms. The first one is a static stress, that can be described with any existing model of metal foam. The second contribution is a dynamic stress related to micro-inertia effects. Considering an initially spherical shell as a Representative Volume Element (RVE of the foam material, a closed-form expression of the dynamic stress was obtained. The proposed modelling was applied to shock propagation in aluminium foams (it should however be noted that the present theory is not restricted to uniaxial deformation but can be applied to arbitrary loadings. From experimental data of the literature, it is observed that incorporating micro-inertia effects allows one to achieve a better description of the foam shock response. This indicates that micro-inertia may have a significant influence on the dynamic behaviour of metallic foams.

  20. Isolation and characterisation of a ruminant alphaherpesvirus closely related to bovine herpesvirus 1 in a free-ranging red deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belák Sándor

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Varicellovirus of the Herpesviridae subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae includes a cluster of viruses antigenically and genetically related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1: namely bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5, bubaline herpesvirus 1 (BuHV-1, caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1, cervid herpesviruses 1 (CvHV-1 and 2 (CvHV-2 and elk herpesvirus 1 (ElkHV-1. Considering the serological relationship between these ruminant alphaherpesviruses, several surveys have studied the occurrence of BoHV-1 related virus infection in wild and domestic ruminant species. In this way, a recent investigation has indicated, in Belgium, a high increase in the serological prevalence of BoHV-1 related virus infection in free-ranging red deer population. In this context, it has been decided to investigate the presence of an alphaherpesvirus spreading in the Belgian free-ranging red deer population. Results The current study reports the first isolation in a free-ranging red deer of a BoHV-1 closely related virus. The isolate was antigenically, genomically and genetically characterised by comparison with several ruminant alphaherpesvirus. Immunofluorescence assays revealed the isolate was antigenically distinct from bovine and caprine alphaherpesviruses. Similarly, BamHI and BstEII restriction analyses demonstrated the genomic difference between the isolate and the other ruminant alphaherpesviruses. Next, the sequencing of selected parts of UL27 and US8 genes showed a high degree of homologies between each BoHV-1 related ruminant alphaherpesvirus and the isolate. Besides the close relationship between all ruminant alphaherpesviruses, the phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate clustered with CvHV-1. Conclusion The first isolation of a virus closely related to BoHV-1 in a free-ranging red deer is reported. Data demonstrate that a CvHV-1 strain, named Anlier, circulates in wild red deer in continental Europe. Anlier strain show consistent differences

  1. The G-dwarf problem and the closed-box models of Galactic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.; Vangioni-Flam, E.; Audouze, J.

    1990-01-01

    The paucity of very iron-poor stars in the Galactic disk with respect to the predictions of the simple model of Galactic chemical evolution (the notorious G-dwarf problem) is one of the most fundamental constraints of Galactic evolutionary models. This paper tests recently proposed models, with bimodal and varying star formation rates, against the G-dwarf metallicity distribution, the gas/total mass ratio in the solar vicinity, the age-metallicity relation, and the abundances of deuterium, O-16, Mg-24, Si-28, and Fe-56 at the birth of the sun. It is shown that none of these models agree entirely with the data, but that it is possible to find a combination of the two models leading to reasonable results. 35 refs

  2. Modeling of Filament Deposition Rapid Prototyping Process with a Closed form Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Steven Leon

    Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM(TM)) or fused filament fabrication (FFF) systems are extrusion-based technologies used to produce functional or near functional parts from a wide variety of plastic materials. First patented by S. Scott Crump and commercialized by Stratasys, Ltd in the early 1990s, this technology, like many additive manufacturing systems, offers significant opportunities for the design and production of complex part structures that are difficult if not impossible to produce using traditional manufacturing methods. Standing on the shoulders of a twenty-five year old invention, a rapidly growing open-source development community has exponentially driven interest in FFF technology. However, part quality often limits use in final product commercial markets. Development of accurate and repeatable methods for determining material strength in FFF produced parts is essential for wide adoption into mainstream manufacturing. This study builds on the empirical, squeeze flow and intermolecular diffusion model research conducted by David Grewell and Avraham Benatar, applying a combined model to predict auto adhesion or healing to FFF part samples. In this research, an experimental study and numerical modeling were performed in order to drive and validate a closed form heat transfer solution for extrusion processes to develop temperature field models. An extrusion-based 3D printing system, with the capacity to vary deposition speeds and temperatures, was used to fabricate the samples. Standardized specimens of Polylactic Acid (PLA) and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) filament were used to fabricate the samples with different speeds and temperatures. Micro-scanning of cut and lapped specimens, using an optical microscope, was performed to find the effect of the speed and the temperature on the geometry of the cross-sections. It was found that by increasing the speed of the extrusion printing, the area of the cross-section and the maximum thickness decrease

  3. Closeness and distance in the nurse-patient relation. The relevance of Edith Stein's concept of empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Sylvia M

    2006-01-01

    This paper emanates from the concept of empathy as understood by the German philosopher Edith Stein. It begins by highlighting different interpretations of empathy. According to the German philosopher Martin Buber, empathy cannot be achieved as an act of will. In contrast, the psychologist Carl Rogers believes that empathy is identical with dialogue and is the outcome of a cognitive act of active listening. The empathy concept of Edith Stein, philosopher and follower of Edmund Husserl's phenomenology, goes beyond these conflicting views and offers a more complex interpretation, with relevance for both healthcare and nursing education. When studying Stein's three-level model of empathy, a field of tension between perspectives of closeness and distance becomes apparent. The paper concludes by suggesting Stein's model of empathy as a strategy to overcome the tension and meet the demands of empathy.

  4. Reconstruction of molecular phylogeny of closely related Amorphophallus species of India using plastid DNA marker and fingerprinting approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholave, Avinash R; Pawar, Kiran D; Yadav, Shrirang R; Bapat, Vishwas A; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2017-01-01

    Plastid DNA markers sequencing and DNA fingerprinting approaches were used and compared for resolving molecular phylogeny of closely related, previously unexplored Amorphophallus species of India. The utility of individual plastid markers namely rbcL , matK , trnH - psbA , trnLC - trnLD , their combined dataset and two fingerprinting techniques viz. RAPD and ISSR were tested for their efficacy to resolves Amorphophallus species into three sections specific clades namely Rhaphiophallus , Conophallus and Amorphophallus . In the present study, sequences of these four plastid DNA regions as well as RAPD and ISSR profiles of 16 Amorphophallus species together with six varieties of two species were generated and analyzed. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian Inference based construction of phylogenetic trees indicated that among the four plastid DNA regions tested individually and their combined dataset, rbcL was found best suited for resolving closely related Amorphophallus species into section specific clades. When analyzed individually, rbcL exhibited better discrimination ability than matK , trnH - psbA , trnLC - trnLD and combination of all four tested plastid markers. Among two fingerprinting techniques used, the resolution of Amorphophallus species using RAPD was better than ISSR and combination of RAPD +ISSR and in congruence with resolution based on rbcL .

  5. Bacillus Strains Most Closely Related to Bacillus nealsonii Are Not Effectively Circumscribed within the Taxonomic Species Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kealy Peak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus strains with >99.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity were characterized with DNA:DNA hybridization, cellular fatty acid (CFA analysis, and testing of 100 phenotypic traits. When paired with the most closely related type strain, percent DNA:DNA similarities (% S for six Bacillus strains were all far below the recommended 70% threshold value for species circumscription with Bacillus nealsonii. An apparent genomic group of four Bacillus strain pairings with 94%–70% S was contradicted by the failure of the strains to cluster in CFA- and phenotype-based dendrograms as well as by their differentiation with 9–13 species level discriminators such as nitrate reduction, temperature range, and acid production from carbohydrates. The novel Bacillus strains were monophyletic and very closely related based on 16S rRNA gene sequence. Coherent genomic groups were not however supported by similarly organized phenotypic clusters. Therefore, the strains were not effectively circumscribed within the taxonomic species definition.

  6. Are the metabolomic responses to folivory of closely related plant species linked to macroevolutionary and plant-folivore coevolutionary processes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas-Ubach, Albert [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354 USA; CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; Hódar, José A. [Grupo de Ecología Terrestre, Departamento de Biología Animal y Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada Spain; Sardans, Jordi [CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; Kyle, Jennifer E. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354 USA; Kim, Young-Mo [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354 USA; Oravec, Michal [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Bĕlidla 4a CZ-603 00 Brno Czech Republic; Urban, Otmar [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Bĕlidla 4a CZ-603 00 Brno Czech Republic; Guenther, Alex [Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine California 92697 USA; Peñuelas, Josep [CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain

    2016-06-02

    The debate whether the coevolution of plants and insects or macroevolutionary processes (phylogeny) is the main driver determining the arsenal of molecular defensive compounds of plants remains unresolved. Attacks by herbivorous insects affect not only the composition of defensive compounds in plants but the entire metabolome (the set of molecular metabolites), including defensive compounds. Metabolomes are the final products of genotypes and are directly affected by macroevolutionary processes, so closely related species should have similar metabolomic compositions and may respond in similar ways to attacks by folivores. We analyzed the elemental compositions and metabolomes of needles from Pinus pinaster, P. nigra and P. sylvestris to determine if these closely related Pinus species with different coevolutionary histories with the caterpillars of the processionary moth respond similarly to attacks by this lepidopteran. All pines had different metabolomes and metabolic responses to herbivorous attack. The metabolomic variation among the pine species and the responses to folivory reflected their macroevolutionary relationships, with P. pinaster having the most divergent metabolome. The concentrations of phenolic metabolites were generally not higher in the attacked trees, which had lower concentrations of terpenes, suggesting that herbivores avoid individuals with high concentrations of terpenes. Our results suggest that macroevolutionary history plays important roles in the metabolomic responses of these pine species to folivory, but plant-insect coevolution probably constrains those responses. Combinations of different evolutionary factors and trade-offs are likely responsible for the different responses of each species to folivory, which is not necessarily exclusively linked to plant-insect coevolution.

  7. Four Closely Related HIV-1 CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC Recombinant Forms Identified in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Li, Yuxueyun; Feng, Yi; Hu, Jing; Ruan, Yuhua; Xing, Hui; Shao, Yiming

    2017-07-01

    Five near full-length genomes of novel second-generation HIV-1 recombinant virus (JS150021, JS150029, JS150129, JS150132, and AH150183) were identified from five HIV-positive people in Jiangsu and Anhui province, east China. Phylogenic analyses showed that these five sequences are all composed of two well-established circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) CRF07_BC and CRF01_AE, grouped into four new discovered recombinant forms, which show several very similar but not identical recombinant breakpoints. The four recombinant forms are also identified to be a sort of family or related viruses, seems to be the results of different recombination events. The emergence of a serious new closely related CRF07_BC/CRF01_AE recombinant strain indicates the increasing complexity of sexual transmission of the HIV-1 epidemic in China.

  8. SIMULATION MODELLING OF VITÓRIA-MINAS CLOSED-LOOP RAIL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Fernandes de FARIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a closed loop simulation model that represents the mining logistics chain of the Vitória Minas Railway (VMR, Brazil. The simulator includes the loading process, circulation of loaded trains, unloading of ores for external and internal markets and the distribution of empty trains for new loads. General cargo and passengers trains are also included in the model, which, along with the queues formed in the circulation and the preventive and corrective maintenance of rolling stock, tracks and equipment, interfere with the transportation of iron ore. The primary objective of the iron ore transport is to meet the daily loading and unloading schedules and minimize queues by maximizing the operations at the loading and unloading points. The VMR simulator developed uses macro-mesoscopic approach with Monte Carlo simulation. To validate the simulator, we used actual data of the railway and compared with reality. We obtained a very good adhesion to the value of 2.9% for the validation scenario (Scenario 1 and 3.4% for the scenario with reducing the number of lots of wagons (Scenario 2. We concluded with this simulation that it is possible to reduce the number of GDE wagons without reducing the current level of productivity of the rail system.

  9. METHOD FOR NUMERICAL MODELING OF UNSTEADY SEPARATED FLOW AROUND AIRFOILS MOVING CLOSE TO FLAT SCREEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pogrebnaya Tamara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article an attempt is made to explain the nature of differences in measurements of forces and moments, which influence an aircraft at take-off and landing when testing on different types of stands. An algorithm for numerical simulation of unsteady separated flow around airfoil is given. The algorithm is based on the combination of discrete vortex method and turbulent boundary layer equations. An unsteady flow separation modeling has been used. At each interval vortex method was used to calculate the potential flow around airfoils located near a screen. Calculated pressures and velocities were then used in boundary layer calculations to determine flow separation points and separated vortex in- tensities. After that calculation were made to determine free vortex positions to next time step and the process was fulfilled for next time step. The proposed algorithm allows using numeric visualization to understand physical picture of flow around airfoil moving close to screen. Three different ways of flow modeling (mirror method, fixed or movable screens were tested. In each case the flow separation process, which determines pressure distribution over airfoil surface and influ- ences aerodynamic performance, was viewed. The results of the calculations showed that at low atitudes of airfoil over screen mirror method over predicts lift force compared with movable screen, while fixed screen under predicts it. The data obtained can be used when designing equipment for testing in wind tunnels.

  10. Modeling and Analysis of a Closed-Loop System for High-Q MEMS Accelerometer Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yalin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High-Q sensing element is desirable for high performance while makes the loop control a great challenge. This paper presents a closed-loop system for high-Q capacitive MEMS accelerometer which has achieved loop control effectively. The proportional-derivative(PDcontrol is developed in the system to improve the system stability. In addition, pulse width modulation (PWM electrostatic force feedback is designed in the loop to overcome the nonlinearity. Furthermore, a sigma-delta (ΣΔ modulator with noise shaping is built to realize digital output. System model is built in Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results indicate that equivalent Q value is reduced to 1.5 to ensure stability and responsiveness of the system. The effective number of bits of system output is 14.7 bits. The system nonlinearity is less than 5‰. The equivalent linear model including main noise factors is built, and then a complete theory of noise and linearity analysis is established to contribute to common MEMS accelerometer research.

  11. Hindmarsh–Rose model: Close and far to the singular limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrio, Roberto, E-mail: rbarrio@unizar.es [Departamento de Matemática Aplicada and IUMA, University of Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Computational Dynamics group, University of Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Ibáñez, Santiago, E-mail: mesa@uniovi.es [Departamento de Matemáticas, University of Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain); Pérez, Lucía, E-mail: lpcuadrado@gmail.com [Departamento de Matemáticas, University of Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2017-02-12

    Dynamics arising in the Hindmarsh–Rose model are considered from a novel perspective. We study qualitative changes that occur as the time scale of the slow variable increases taking the system far from the slow-fast scenario. We see how the structure of spike-adding still persists far from the singular case but the geometry of the bifurcations changes notably. Particular attention is paid to changes in the shape of the homoclinic bifurcation curves and the disappearance of Inclination-Flip codimension-two points. These transformations seem to be linked to the way in which the spike-adding takes place, the changing from fold/hom to fold/Hopf bursting behavior and also with the way in which the chaotic regions evolve as the time scale of the slow variable increases. - Highlights: • Dynamics arising in the Hindmarsh–Rose model are considered close and far to the singular limit. • The structure of spike-adding still persists far from the singular case but the geometry of the bifurcations changes notably. • The homoclinic bifurcation curves change their shape and some codimension-two points (Inclination-Flip) disappear. • The changes in the homoclinic curves are correlated with adjustments in the spike-adding process and in the chaotic regions.

  12. A Mathematical Model Of Dengue-Chikungunya Co-Infection In A Closed Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldila, Dipo; Ria Agustin, Maya

    2018-03-01

    Dengue disease has been a major health problem in many tropical and sub-tropical countries since the early 1900s. On the other hand, according to a 2017 WHO fact sheet, Chikungunya was detected in the first outbreak in 1952 in Tanzania and has continued increasing until now in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Both these diseases are vector-borne diseases which are spread by the same mosquito, i.e. the female Aedes aegypti. According to the WHO report, there is a great possibility that humans and mosquitos might be infected by dengue and chikungunya at the same time. Here in this article, a mathematical model approach will be used to understand the spread of dengue and chikungunya in a closed population. A model is developed as a nine-dimensional deterministic ordinary differential equation. Equilibrium points and their local stability are analyzed analytically and numerically. We find that the basic reproduction number, the endemic indicator, is given by the maximum of three different basic reproduction numbers of a complete system, i.e. basic reproduction numbers for dengue, chikungunya and for co-infection between dengue and chikungunya. We find that the basic reproduction number for the co-infection sub-system dominates other basic reproduction numbers whenever it is larger than one. Some numerical simulations are provided to confirm these analytical results.

  13. Kinetic model of continuous ethanol fermentation in closed-circulating process with pervaporation membrane bioreactor by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Senqing; Chen, Shiping; Tang, Xiaoyu; Xiao, Zeyi; Deng, Qing; Yao, Peina; Sun, Zhaopeng; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Chunyan

    2015-02-01

    Unstructured kinetic models were proposed to describe the principal kinetics involved in ethanol fermentation in a continuous and closed-circulating fermentation (CCCF) process with a pervaporation membrane bioreactor. After ethanol was removed in situ from the broth by the membrane pervaporation, the secondary metabolites accumulated in the broth became the inhibitors to cell growth. The cell death rate related to the deterioration of the culture environment was described as a function of the cell concentration and fermentation time. In CCCF process, 609.8 g L(-1) and 750.1 g L(-1) of ethanol production were obtained in the first run and second run, respectively. The modified Gompertz model, correlating the ethanol production with the fermentation period, could be used to describe the ethanol production during CCCF process. The fitting results by the models showed good agreement with the experimental data. These models could be employed for the CCCF process technology development for ethanol fermentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vibrio vulnificus phage PV94 is closely related to temperate phages of V. cholerae and other Vibrio species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Pryshliak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vibrio vulnificus is an important pathogen which can cause serious infections in humans. Yet, there is limited knowledge on its virulence factors and the question whether temperate phages might be involved in pathogenicity, as is the case with V. cholerae. Thus far, only two phages (SSP002 and VvAW1 infecting V. vulnificus have been genetically characterized. These phages were isolated from the environment and are not related to Vibrio cholerae phages. The lack of information on temperate V. vulnificus phages prompted us to isolate those phages from lysogenic strains and to compare them with phages of other Vibrio species. RESULTS: In this study the temperate phage PV94 was isolated from a V. vulnificus biotype 1 strain by mitomycin C induction. PV94 is a myovirus whose genome is a linear double-stranded DNA of 33,828 bp with 5'-protruding ends. Sequence analysis of PV94 revealed a modular organization of the genome. The left half of the genome comprising the immunity region and genes for the integrase, terminase and replication proteins shows similarites to V. cholerae kappa phages whereas the right half containing genes for structural proteins is closely related to a prophage residing in V. furnissii NCTC 11218. CONCLUSION: We present the first genomic sequence of a temperate phage isolated from a human V. vulnificus isolate. The sequence analysis of the PV94 genome demonstrates the wide distribution of closely related prophages in various Vibrio species. Moreover, the mosaicism of the PV94 genome indicates a high degree of horizontal genetic exchange within the genus Vibrio, by which V. vulnificus might acquire virulence-associated genes from other species.

  15. Specificity of herbivore-induced hormonal signaling and defensive traits in five closely related milkweeds (Asclepias spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Hastings, Amy P; Patrick, Eamonn T; Knight, Anna C

    2014-07-01

    Despite the recognition that phytohormonal signaling mediates induced responses to herbivory, we still have little understanding of how such signaling varies among closely related species and may generate herbivore-specific induced responses. We studied closely related milkweeds (Asclepias) to link: 1) plant damage by two specialist chewing herbivores (milkweed leaf beetles Labidomera clivicolis and monarch caterpillars Danaus plexippus); 2) production of the phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), and abscisic acid (ABA); 3) induction of defensive cardenolides and latex; and 4) impacts on Danaus caterpillars. We first show that A. syriaca exhibits induced resistance following monarch herbivory (i.e., reduced monarch growth on previously damaged plants), while the defensively dissimilar A. tuberosa does not. We next worked with a broader group of five Asclepias, including these two species, that are highly divergent in defensive traits yet from the same clade. Three of the five species showed herbivore-induced changes in cardenolides, while induced latex was found in four species. Among the phytohormones, JA and ABA showed specific responses (although they generally increased) to insect species and among the plant species. In contrast, SA responses were consistent among plant and herbivore species, showing a decline following herbivore attack. Jasmonic acid showed a positive quantitative relationship only with latex, and this was strongest in plants damaged by D. plexippus. Although phytohormones showed qualitative tradeoffs (i.e., treatments that enhanced JA reduced SA), the few significant individual plant-level correlations among hormones were positive, and these were strongest between JA and ABA in monarch damaged plants. We conclude that: 1) latex exudation is positively associated with endogenous JA levels, even among low-latex species; 2) correlations among milkweed hormones are generally positive, although herbivore damage induces a

  16. MHD stability analysis of axisymmetric surface current model tokamaks close to the spheromak regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Toshihisa; Kaji, Ikuo; Fukai, Ichiro; Kito, Masafumi.

    1984-01-01

    In the toroidal coordinates, a stability analysis is presented for very low-aspect-ratio tokamaks with circular cross section which is described by a surface current model (SCM) of axisymmetric equilibria. The energy principle determining the stability of plasma is treated without any expansion of aspect ratio. Numerical results show that, owing to the occurrence of the non-axisymmetric (n=1) unstable modes, there exists no MHD-stable ideal SCM spheromak characterized by zero external toroidal vacuum field. Instead, a stable spheromak-type plasma which comes to the ideal SCM spheromak is provided by the configuration with a very weak external toroidal field. Close to the spheromak regime (1.0 1 aspect ratio< = 1.1), the minimum safety factor and the critical β-values increase mo notonically with aspect ratio decreasing from a large value, and curves of βsub(p) versus β in the marginal stability approach to an ideal SCM spheromak line βsub(p)=β. (author)

  17. Information loss problem and a ‘black hole’ model with a closed apparent horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.

    2014-01-01

    In a classical description the spacetime curvature inside a black hole infinitely grows. In the domain where it reaches the Planckian value and exceeds it the Einstein equations should be modified. In the absence of reliable theory of quantum gravity it is instructive to consider simplified models. We assume that a spacetime curvature is limited by some value (of the order of the Planckian one). We use modified Vaidya metric, proposed by Hayward, to describe the black hole evaporation process. In such a spacetime the curvature near r=0 remains finite, it does not have an event horizon and its apparent horizon is closed. If the initial mass of such a ‘black hole’ is much larger than the Planckian one its properties (as seen by an external observer) are practically the same as properties of the ‘standard’ black hole with the event horizon. We study outgoing null rays in the vicinity of the outer apparent horizon and introduce a notion of a quasi-horizon. We demonstrate that particles, trapped inside a ‘black hole’ during the evaporation process, finally may return to external space after the evaporation is completed. We also demonstrate that such quanta would have very large blue-shift. The absence of the event horizon makes it possible restoration of the unitarity in evaporating black holes

  18. Authentication of Closely Related Fish and Derived Fish Products Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Spectral Library Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessen, Merel A; van der Zwaan, Dennis J; Grevers, Sander; Dalebout, Hans; Staats, Martijn; Kok, Esther; Palmblad, Magnus

    2016-05-11

    Proteomics methodology has seen increased application in food authentication, including tandem mass spectrometry of targeted species-specific peptides in raw, processed, or mixed food products. We have previously described an alternative principle that uses untargeted data acquisition and spectral library matching, essentially spectral counting, to compare and identify samples without the need for genomic sequence information in food species populations. Here, we present an interlaboratory comparison demonstrating how a method based on this principle performs in a realistic context. We also increasingly challenge the method by using data from different types of mass spectrometers, by trying to distinguish closely related and commercially important flatfish, and by analyzing heavily contaminated samples. The method was found to be robust in different laboratories, and 94-97% of the analyzed samples were correctly identified, including all processed and contaminated samples.

  19. Different strategies of osmoadaptation in the closely related marine myxobacteria Enhygromyxa salina SWB007 and Plesiocystis pacifica SIR-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri Moghaddam, Jamshid; Boehringer, Nils; Burdziak, Amal; Kunte, Hans-Jörg; Galinski, Erwin A; Schäberle, Till F

    2016-02-03

    Only a few myxobacteria are known to date which are classified as marine due to their salt-dependency. In this study, the salt tolerance mechanism of these bacteria was investigated. Therefore, a growth medium was designed, in which the mutated Escherichia coli strain BKA13 served as sole food source for the predatory, heterotrophic myxobacteria. This enabled measurement of the osmolytes without any background and revealed that the closely related strains Enhygromyxa salina SWB007 and Plesiocystis pacifica SIR-1 developed different strategies to handle salt stress. P. pacifica SIR-1, which was grown between 1-4 % NaCl, relies solely on the accumulation of amino acids, while E. salina SWB007, which was grown between 0.5-3 % NaCl, employs, beside betaine, hydroxyectoine as the major compatible solute. In accordance with this analysis, only in the latter strain a gene locus was identified which codes for genes corresponding to the biosynthesis of betaine, ectoine, and hydroxyectoine.

  20. Leave for illness/accident or in the event of illness of a close relative - New medical certificate templates

    CERN Multimedia

    HR department

    2016-01-01

    Medical certificate templates are now available in the Admin e-guide (follow the “Forms and templates” link):    Medical certificate for illness/accident Medical certificate for a medical examination or treatment Medical certificate in the event of illness of a close relative These templates are provided for the convenience of members of the personnel and their use is recommended but not compulsory. Other forms of medical certificates issued by a medical doctor may also be submitted, provided they contain the same items of information as those given in the templates. More information on the applicable rules and on the way leave is managed at CERN can be found in the Admin e-guide web pages. Human Resources department HR.leave@cern.ch

  1. Report on {open_quotes}inspection of human subject research in intelligence and intelligence-related projects{close_quotes}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-16

    Executive Order 12333, {open_quotes}United States Intelligence Activities,{close_quotes} (1) designates the Department`s intelligence element as a member of the Intelligence Community, and (2) states that no agency within the Intelligence community shall sponsor, contract for or conduct research on human subjects except in accordance with guidelines issued by the Department of Health and Human Services. The Federal policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, which was based on Department of Health and Human Services regulations, was promulgated in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 745 by the Department of Energy. The purpose of this inspection was to review the internal control procedures used by the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security to manage selected intelligence and intelligence-related projects that involve human subject research.

  2. Structural and in vivo mechanical characterization of canine patellar cartilage: a closed chondromalacia patellae model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBerge, M; Audet, J; Drouin, G; Rivard, C H

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to study the relationship between the structure of the patellar cartilage and its response to static compressive loading with a closed chondromalacia patellae model. An animal model was used to induce degeneration of the patella that was monitored quantitatively and qualitatively as a function of time. Ten adult mongrel dogs had their left patellofemoral groove replaced by a customized metallic implant covered with a thin film of polyethylene for periods of 3 months (five dogs) and 6 months (five dogs). An indenter was designed to perform mechanical indentation testing on the patellar cartilage in situ. The animals were anesthetized and the response of patellar cartilage to a static compressive load of 4.5 MPa was monitored for 20 min and its relaxation after load removal for 20 min. Indentation tests were performed every 3 months of the implantation period. At the end of the implantation period, the patellae were processed for histology, and sections were stained with Safranin-O indicative of the proteoglycans content. Macroscopically, no apparent degeneration or fibrillation of the patellar surfaces was observed after 3 or 6 months of implantation. However, the patellar surface showed a change in coloration after 6 months. A 17 +/- 3% and 37 +/- 8% deformation of the cartilage were calculated for the 3-month and 6-month specimens, respectively. Histologically, a progressive loss of proteoglycans was observed in the matrix as a function of implantation time. These results indicated that an increase in cartilage compliance is associated with an intrinsic remodeling of the cartilage matrix and that these changes might occur without external signs of degeneration and can be quantified.

  3. Closed-Loop Supply Chain Planning Model for a Photovoltaic System Manufacturer with Internal and External Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songi Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic (PV generation system has been widely used since the late 1990s. Considering its lifespan of 20 to 30 years, many end-of-life systems will emerge in the near future. This is why recycling PV systems will be beneficial (and may even be detrimental to both the environment and the economy. Through the recycling process, hazardous by-product substances such as cadmium and lead can be treated properly. Moreover, valuable materials including indium, gallium, and tellurium can be extracted and reused for manufacturing purposes. Even though many studies have dealt with issues related to the PV system and its recycling policy, they lack significant factors regarding the recycling policy. This study analyzes and compares three real cases of manufacturer’s recycling policy, including Deutsche Solar, First Solar, and PV Cycle, from the perspective of a closed-loop supply chain. Two mathematical models are developed to help PV system manufacturers establish supply chain planning and choose suitable recycling policies in consideration of different circumstances. Furthermore, an experimental example of these models will be used to validate and conclude the significance of the models. The results from this study will show that recycling CdTe PV systems is much more efficient than recycling c-Si PV systems and that, in the case of c-Si, it is better to outsource recycling end-of-life systems and dispose of all manufacturing scrap.

  4. Yeasts from Scarlet ibises (Eudocimus ruber): A focus on monitoring the antifungal susceptibility of Candida famata and closely related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Silva, Aline Lobão da; Monteiro, Frederico Ozanan Barros; Guedes, Glaucia Morgana de Melo; Sales, Jamille Alencar; Oliveira, Jonathas Sales de; Maia Junior, José Erisvaldo; Miranda, Stefânia Araújo; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Alencar, Lucas Pereira de; Castelo-Branco, Débora Souza Collares Maia; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Pereira Neto, Waldemiro de Aquino; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to identify yeasts from the gastrointestinal tract of scarlet ibises (Eudocimus ruber) and from plant material collected from the environment where they live. Then, the isolates phenotypically identified as Candida famata were submitted to molecular identification of their closely related species and evaluated for their antifungal susceptibility and possible resistance mechanisms to antifungal drugs. Cloacal swabs from 20 scarlet ibises kept in captivity at Mangal das Garças Park (Brazil), pooled stool samples (n = 20) and samples of trunks and hollow of trees (n = 20) obtained from their enclosures were collected. The samples were seeded on Sabouraud agar supplemented with chloramphenicol. The 48 recovered isolates were phenotypically identified as 15 Candida famata, 13 Candida catenulata, 2 Candida intermedia, 1 Candida lusitaniae, 2 Candida guilliermondii, 1 Candida kefyr, 1 Candida amapae, 1 Candida krusei, 8 Trichosporon spp., and 4 Rhodotorula spp. The C. famata isolates were further identified as 3 C. famata, 8 Debaryomyces nepalensis, and 4 C. palmioleophila. All C. famata and C. palmioleophila were susceptible to caspofungin and itraconazole, while one D. nepalensis was resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole. This same isolate and another D. nepalensis had lower amphotericin B susceptibility. The azole resistant strain had an increased efflux of rhodamine 6G and an alteration in the membrane sterol content, demonstrating multifactorial resistance mechanism. Finally, this research shows that scarlet ibises and their environment harbor C. famata and closely related species, including antifungal resistant isolates, emphasizing the need of monitoring the antifungal susceptibility of these yeast species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Conserved PCR primer set designing for closely-related species to complete mitochondrial genome sequencing using a sliding window-based PSO algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hong Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complete mitochondrial (mt genome sequencing is becoming increasingly common for phylogenetic reconstruction and as a model for genome evolution. For long template sequencing, i.e., like the entire mtDNA, it is essential to design primers for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR amplicons which are partly overlapping each other. The presented chromosome walking strategy provides the overlapping design to solve the problem for unreliable sequencing data at the 5' end and provides the effective sequencing. However, current algorithms and tools are mostly focused on the primer design for a local region in the genomic sequence. Accordingly, it is still challenging to provide the primer sets for the entire mtDNA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The purpose of this study is to develop an integrated primer design algorithm for entire mt genome in general, and for the common primer sets for closely-related species in particular. We introduce ClustalW to generate the multiple sequence alignment needed to find the conserved sequences in closely-related species. These conserved sequences are suitable for designing the common primers for the entire mtDNA. Using a heuristic algorithm particle swarm optimization (PSO, all the designed primers were computationally validated to fit the common primer design constraints, such as the melting temperature, primer length and GC content, PCR product length, secondary structure, specificity, and terminal limitation. The overlap requirement for PCR amplicons in the entire mtDNA is satisfied by defining the overlapping region with the sliding window technology. Finally, primer sets were designed within the overlapping region. The primer sets for the entire mtDNA sequences were successfully demonstrated in the example of two closely-related fish species. The pseudo code for the primer design algorithm is provided. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, it can be said that our proposed sliding window-based PSO

  6. Finger taps and constipation are closely related to symptoms of overactive bladder in male patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Akira; Yamamoto, Yoichi; Sakoda, Saburo; Okuda, Hidenobu; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Yoshioka, Iwao; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Takao, Tetsuya; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Nonomura, Norio

    2014-01-01

    To assess which motor and non-motor symptoms are closely related to overactive bladder severity in male patients with Parkinson's disease. A total of 160 male patients (mean age 71.4 ± 8.2 years) diagnosed with Parkinson's disease were included in the present study at Osaka University and affiliated hospitals. The severity of Parkinson's disease was classified as stage 3, 4 or 5 based on the Hoehn and Yahr staging system. Disease duration was 8.9 ± 5.1 years. Age, seven items from the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor section part III and three non-motor symptoms were assessed by multivariate analysis for their impact on the overactive bladder symptom score, a specific questionnaire for overactive bladder. Overactive bladder symptom score was significantly higher in the group with severe motor symptoms related to finger taps and gait than in the group with mild motor symptoms related to these two factors. Furthermore, overactive bladder symptom score of patients with erectile dysfunction and constipation was significantly higher than that in patients without these symptoms. Multivariate analysis identified only finger taps and constipation as factors independently associated with overactive bladder symptom score. Although a study on a larger scale is required to further assess the association of Parkinson's disease symptoms with overactive bladder symptom score, information on finger taps and severity of constipation should be obtained when assessing urological patients with Parkinson's disease. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  7. Rapid differentiation of closely related isolates of two plant viruses by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, D J; Morton, A; Spence, N J; Miller, A

    1995-09-01

    Immunocapture reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the product has been shown to be an effective procedure for discriminating serologically indistinguishable isolates of two plant viruses, raspberry bushy dwarf (RBDV) and zucchini yellow mosaic (ZYMV). For both viruses, only limited sequence information was available at the time of primer design, but most of the isolates which were tested could be amplified (the one exception being a serologically quite distinct isolate of ZYMV). Restriction endonucleases revealing diagnostic RFLPs were readily identified. Each of two isolates of ZYMV could be detected in the presence of the other and the relative proportions approximately quantified by visual estimation of the relative intensity of the appropriate bands. A range of isolates of different RBDV pathotypes were compared; isolates were grouped in ways that accorded with their known history. Computer analysis of the published sequence from which the primers had been derived showed the sequenced isolate to be identical with an isolate imported from the USSR. The PCR/RFLP procedure is rapid (it can be completed in less than 2 days), effective and will probably be generally applicable to distinguishing closely related virus isolates, even where little sequence information is available.

  8. Relating structure and dynamics in organisation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2002-01-01

    To understand how an organisational structure relates to dynamics is an interesting fundamental challenge in the area of social modelling. Specifications of organisational structure usually have a diagrammatic form that abstracts from more detailed dynamics. Dynamic properties of agent systems,

  9. A global wave-driven magnetohydrodynamic solar model with a unified treatment of open and closed magnetic field topologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oran, R.; Van der Holst, B.; Landi, E.; Jin, M.; Sokolov, I. V.; Gombosi, T. I., E-mail: oran@umich.edu [Atmospheric, Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We describe, analyze, and validate the recently developed Alfvén Wave Solar Model, a three-dimensional global model starting from the top of the chromosphere and extending into interplanetary space (out to 1-2 AU). This model solves the extended, two-temperature magnetohydrodynamics equations coupled to a wave kinetic equation for low-frequency Alfvén waves. In this picture, heating and acceleration of the plasma are due to wave dissipation and to wave pressure gradients, respectively. The dissipation process is described by a fully developed turbulent cascade of counterpropagating waves. We adopt a unified approach for calculating the wave dissipation in both open and closed magnetic field lines, allowing for a self-consistent treatment in any magnetic topology. Wave dissipation is the only heating mechanism assumed in the model; no geometric heating functions are invoked. Electron heat conduction and radiative cooling are also included. We demonstrate that the large-scale, steady state (in the corotating frame) properties of the solar environment are reproduced, using three adjustable parameters: the Poynting flux of chromospheric Alfvén waves, the perpendicular correlation length of the turbulence, and a pseudoreflection coefficient. We compare model results for Carrington rotation 2063 (2007 November-December) with remote observations in the extreme-ultraviolet and X-ray ranges from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, and Hinode spacecraft and with in situ measurements by Ulysses. The results are in good agreement with observations. This is the first global simulation that is simultaneously consistent with observations of both the thermal structure of the lower corona and the wind structure beyond Earth's orbit.

  10. Approximate Models for Closed-Loop Trajectory Tracking in Underactuated Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Control of robotic systems, as a field, spans both traditional closed-loop feedback techniques and modern machine learning strategies, which are primarily open-loop....

  11. Models and relations in economics and econometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    1999-01-01

    Based on a money market analysis using the cointegrated VAR model the paper demonstrates some possible pitfalls in macroeconomic inference as a direct consequence of inadequate stochastic model formulation. A number of questions related to concepts such as empirical and theoretical steady...

  12. Relating business modelling and enterprise architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meertens, Lucas Onno

    2013-01-01

    This thesis proposes a methodology for creating business models, evaluating them, and relating them to enterprise architecture. The methodology consists of several steps, leading from an organization’s current situation to a target situation, via business models and enterprise architecture.

  13. Model-Based Closed-Loop Glucose Control in Type 1 Diabetes: The DiaCon Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe; Boiroux, Dimitri; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine

    2013-01-01

    Background: To improve type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) management, we developed a model predictive control (MPC) algorithm for closed-loop (CL) glucose control based on a linear second-order deterministic-stochastic model. The deterministic part of the model is specified by three patient-specific......Background: To improve type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) management, we developed a model predictive control (MPC) algorithm for closed-loop (CL) glucose control based on a linear second-order deterministic-stochastic model. The deterministic part of the model is specified by three patient...... crossover studies. Study 1 compared CL with open-loop (OL) control. Study 2 compared glucose control after CL initiation in the euglycemic (CL-Eu) and hyperglycemic (CL-Hyper) ranges, respectively. Patients were studied from 22:00–07:00 on two separate nights. Results: Each study included six T1DM patients...

  14. Characterization of a novel Lactobacillus species closely related to Lactobacillus johnsonii using a combination of molecular and comparative genomics methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Martínez Gaspar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH constitutes a powerful tool for identification and characterization of bacterial strains. In this study we have applied this technique for the characterization of a number of Lactobacillus strains isolated from the intestinal content of rats fed with a diet supplemented with sorbitol. Results Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene, recA, pheS, pyrG and tuf sequences identified five bacterial strains isolated from the intestinal content of rats as belonging to the recently described Lactobacillus taiwanensis species. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed that these five strains are distinct but closely related to Lactobacillus johnsonii and Lactobacillus gasseri. A whole genome DNA microarray designed for the probiotic L. johnsonii strain NCC533 was used for CGH analysis of L. johnsonii ATCC 33200T, L. johnsonii BL261, L. gasseri ATCC 33323T and L. taiwanensis BL263. In these experiments, the fluorescence ratio distributions obtained with L. taiwanensis and L. gasseri showed characteristic inter-species profiles. The percentage of conserved L. johnsonii NCC533 genes was about 83% in the L. johnsonii strains comparisons and decreased to 51% and 47% for L. taiwanensis and L. gasseri, respectively. These results confirmed the separate status of L. taiwanensis from L. johnsonii at the level of species, and also that L. taiwanensis is closer to L. johnsonii than L. gasseri is to L. johnsonii. Conclusion Conventional taxonomic analyses and microarray-based CGH analysis have been used for the identification and characterization of the newly species L. taiwanensis. The microarray-based CGH technology has been shown as a remarkable tool for the identification and fine discrimination between phylogenetically close species, and additionally provided insight into the adaptation of the strain L. taiwanensis BL263 to its ecological niche.

  15. An Agent-Based Model of School Closing in Under-Vacccinated Communities During Measles Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Wayne M; Carlson, Colin; Dougherty, Eric; Porco Francis, Travis C; Salter, Richard

    2016-04-01

    The winter 2014-15 measles outbreak in the US represents a significant crisis in the emergence of a functionally extirpated pathogen. Conclusively linking this outbreak to decreases in the measles/mumps/rubella (MMR) vaccination rate (driven by anti-vaccine sentiment) is critical to motivating MMR vaccination. We used the NOVA modeling platform to build a stochastic, spatially-structured, individual-based SEIR model of outbreaks, under the assumption that R 0 ≈ 7 for measles. We show this implies that herd immunity requires vaccination coverage of greater than approximately 85%. We used a network structured version of our NOVA model that involved two communities, one at the relatively low coverage of 85% coverage and one at the higher coverage of 95%, both of which had 400-student schools embedded, as well as students occasionally visiting superspreading sites (e.g. high-density theme parks, cinemas, etc.). These two vaccination coverage levels are within the range of values occurring across California counties. Transmission rates at schools and superspreading sites were arbitrarily set to respectively 5 and 15 times background community rates. Simulations of our model demonstrate that a 'send unvaccinated students home' policy in low coverage counties is extremely effective at shutting down outbreaks of measles.

  16. Using of material-technological modelling for designing production of closed die forgings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, K.; Vorel, I.; Jeníček, Š.; Káňa, J.; Aišman, D.; Kotěšovec, V.

    2017-02-01

    Production of forgings is a complex and demanding process which consists of a number of forging operations and, in many cases, includes post-forge heat treatment. An optimized manufacturing line is a prerequisite for obtaining prime-quality products which in turn are essential to profitable operation of a forging company. Problems may, however, arise from modifications to the manufacturing route due to changing customer needs. As a result, the production may have to be suspended temporarily to enable changeover and optimization. Using material-technological modelling, the required modifications can be tested and optimized under laboratory conditions outside the plant without disrupting the production. Thanks to material-technological modelling, the process parameters can be varied rapidly in response to changes in market requirements. Outcomes of the modelling runs include optimum parameters for the forging part’s manufacturing route, values of mechanical properties, and results of microstructure analysis. This article describes the use of material-technological modelling for exploring the impact of the amount of deformation and the rate of cooling of a particular forged part from the finish-forging temperature on its microstructure and related mechanical properties.

  17. Dynamics and control modeling of the closed-cycle gas turbine (GT-HTGR) power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardia, A.

    1980-02-01

    The simulation if presented for the 800-MW(e) two-loop GT-HTGR plant design with the REALY2 transient analysis computer code, and the modeling of control strategies called for by the inherently unique operational requirements of a multiple loop GT-HTGR is described. Plant control of the GT-HTGR is constrained by the nature of its power conversion loops (PCLs) in which the core cooling flow and the turbine flow are directly related and thus changes in flow affect core cooling as well as turbine power. Additionally, the high thermal inertia of the reactor core precludes rapid changes in the temperature of the turbine inlet flow

  18. An analysis of psychotropic drug sales. Increasing sales of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are closely related to number of products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Margrethe; Gøtzsche, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Prescribing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has increased dramatically. To compare the sales of benzodiazepines and SSRIs within the primary care sector in Denmark and relate changes in usage to number of indications and products on the market. We used data from various sources to establish the sales curves of psychotropic drugs in the period 1970 to 2007, based on the Anatomic Therapeutic Classification system and Defined Daily Doses. Fluctuations in sales of psychotropic drugs that cannot be explained by disease prevalence were caused by changes in sales of the benzodiazepines and SSRIs. We found a decline in the sales of benzodiazepines after a peak in 1986, likely due to the recognition that they cause dependence. From a low level in 1992, we found that the sales of SSRIs increased almost linearly by a factor of 18, up to 44 DDD per 1000 inhabitants, which was closely related to the number of products on the market that increased by a factor of 16. Sales of antidepressant drugs are mainly determined by market availability of products indicating that marketing pressures are playing an important role. Thus the current level of use of SSRIs may not be evidence-based, which is supported by studies showing that the effect of SSRIs has been overestimated.

  19. Protein Simulation Data in the Relational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Andrew M; Daggett, Valerie

    2012-10-01

    High performance computing is leading to unprecedented volumes of data. Relational databases offer a robust and scalable model for storing and analyzing scientific data. However, these features do not come without a cost-significant design effort is required to build a functional and efficient repository. Modeling protein simulation data in a relational database presents several challenges: the data captured from individual simulations are large, multi-dimensional, and must integrate with both simulation software and external data sites. Here we present the dimensional design and relational implementation of a comprehensive data warehouse for storing and analyzing molecular dynamics simulations using SQL Server.

  20. A LabVIEW model incorporating an open-loop arterial impedance and a closed-loop circulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, R T; Lucas, C L; Cascio, W E; Johnson, T A

    2005-11-01

    While numerous computer models exist for the circulatory system, many are limited in scope, contain unwanted features or incorporate complex components specific to unique experimental situations. Our purpose was to develop a basic, yet multifaceted, computer model of the left heart and systemic circulation in LabVIEW having universal appeal without sacrificing crucial physiologic features. The program we developed employs Windkessel-type impedance models in several open-loop configurations and a closed-loop model coupling a lumped impedance and ventricular pressure source. The open-loop impedance models demonstrate afterload effects on arbitrary aortic pressure/flow inputs. The closed-loop model catalogs the major circulatory waveforms with changes in afterload, preload, and left heart properties. Our model provides an avenue for expanding the use of the ventricular equations through closed-loop coupling that includes a basic coronary circuit. Tested values used for the afterload components and the effects of afterload parameter changes on various waveforms are consistent with published data. We conclude that this model offers the ability to alter several circulatory factors and digitally catalog the most salient features of the pressure/flow waveforms employing a user-friendly platform. These features make the model a useful instructional tool for students as well as a simple experimental tool for cardiovascular research.

  1. Modelling estimation and analysis of dynamic processes from image sequences using temporal random closed sets and point processes with application to the cell exocytosis and endocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Fernández, Ester

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, new models and methodologies are introduced for the analysis of dynamic processes characterized by image sequences with spatial temporal overlapping. The spatial temporal overlapping exists in many natural phenomena and should be addressed properly in several Science disciplines such as Microscopy, Material Sciences, Biology, Geostatistics or Communication Networks. This work is related to the Point Process and Random Closed Set theories, within Stochastic Ge...

  2. Experimental models of hepatotoxicity related to acute liver failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maes, Michaël [Department of In Vitro Toxicology and Dermato-Cosmetology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Vinken, Mathieu, E-mail: mvinken@vub.ac.be [Department of In Vitro Toxicology and Dermato-Cosmetology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Jaeschke, Hartmut [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver failure can be the consequence of various etiologies, with most cases arising from drug-induced hepatotoxicity in Western countries. Despite advances in this field, the management of acute liver failure continues to be one of the most challenging problems in clinical medicine. The availability of adequate experimental models is of crucial importance to provide a better understanding of this condition and to allow identification of novel drug targets, testing the efficacy of new therapeutic interventions and acting as models for assessing mechanisms of toxicity. Experimental models of hepatotoxicity related to acute liver failure rely on surgical procedures, chemical exposure or viral infection. Each of these models has a number of strengths and weaknesses. This paper specifically reviews commonly used chemical in vivo and in vitro models of hepatotoxicity associated with acute liver failure. - Highlights: • The murine APAP model is very close to what is observed in patients. • The Gal/ET model is useful to study TNFα-mediated apoptotic signaling mechanisms. • Fas receptor activation is an effective model of apoptosis and secondary necrosis. • The ConA model is a relevant model of auto-immune hepatitis and viral hepatitis. • Multiple time point evaluation needed in experimental models of acute liver injury.

  3. The situation on the site of closed Maisiagala repository. Modelling and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazeika, J.; Baltrunas, D.; Butkus, D.; Duskesas, G.; Remeikis, V.

    2001-01-01

    The safety of RADON type RMI disposal facility was investigated by means of the computer modelling and by measurements of concentrations of radionuclides in the water samples taken from the control wells. The repository was built on the top of the sandy hill in 1963. The dimensions of the monolithic reinforced concrete vault are 5 m x 15 m x 3 m, the thickness of the sidewalls is about 0.25 m and the thickness of the bottom is about 0.2 m. The sidewalls are covered from inside and outside with cement and sodium aluminate coatings 0.02 m thick. From outside they were also covered with two layers of hot bitumen. The bottom of the vault is covered with bitumen and two layers of rubberoid. During the exploitation time the vault was filled with radioactive waste (in a chaotic way and sources were buried together with their biological shielding). In the course of burial radioactive waste was constantly interlaid with concrete. When the disposal facility was closed in 1988 only three fifths of its volume was filled; the total activity of 3 H, 239 Pu and Pu-Be neutron sources was 4.18 10 15 Bq, 2.4 10 11 Bq, and 12.5 10 9 n/s, respectively (according the documentation). Empty two fifths of the vault was filled with concrete, then with sand, then with the concrete (0.01 m), hot bitumen and the 0.05 m asphalt layers. Monolithic concrete that was covered with bitumen and 0.05 m thick layer of asphalt closed the vault. Sand layer the thickness of which was not less than 1.2 m formed the cap. Four wells - one on each side - near the repository and four wells in the anticipated direction of ground water flow were drilled with the purpose to control the radiological situation around the repository. The volume activity of 3 H in the wells was measured with the liquid scintillator detector Tri-Carb. The highest volume activity was found in the same nearest well in all years with the exception of the year 2000. The activity of other radionuclides was measured with the Canberra

  4. Recalibrating disease parameters for increasing realism in modeling epidemics in closed settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livio Bioglio

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The homogeneous mixing assumption is widely adopted in epidemic modelling for its parsimony and represents the building block of more complex approaches, including very detailed agent-based models. The latter assume homogeneous mixing within schools, workplaces and households, mostly for the lack of detailed information on human contact behaviour within these settings. The recent data availability on high-resolution face-to-face interactions makes it now possible to assess the goodness of this simplified scheme in reproducing relevant aspects of the infection dynamics. Methods We consider empirical contact networks gathered in different contexts, as well as synthetic data obtained through realistic models of contacts in structured populations. We perform stochastic spreading simulations on these contact networks and in populations of the same size under a homogeneous mixing hypothesis. We adjust the epidemiological parameters of the latter in order to fit the prevalence curve of the contact epidemic model. We quantify the agreement by comparing epidemic peak times, peak values, and epidemic sizes. Results Good approximations of the peak times and peak values are obtained with the homogeneous mixing approach, with a median relative difference smaller than 20 % in all cases investigated. Accuracy in reproducing the peak time depends on the setting under study, while for the peak value it is independent of the setting. Recalibration is found to be linear in the epidemic parameters used in the contact data simulations, showing changes across empirical settings but robustness across groups and population sizes. Conclusions An adequate rescaling of the epidemiological parameters can yield a good agreement between the epidemic curves obtained with a real contact network and a homogeneous mixing approach in a population of the same size. The use of such recalibrated homogeneous mixing approximations would enhance the accuracy and

  5. Recalibrating disease parameters for increasing realism in modeling epidemics in closed settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioglio, Livio; Génois, Mathieu; Vestergaard, Christian L; Poletto, Chiara; Barrat, Alain; Colizza, Vittoria

    2016-11-14

    The homogeneous mixing assumption is widely adopted in epidemic modelling for its parsimony and represents the building block of more complex approaches, including very detailed agent-based models. The latter assume homogeneous mixing within schools, workplaces and households, mostly for the lack of detailed information on human contact behaviour within these settings. The recent data availability on high-resolution face-to-face interactions makes it now possible to assess the goodness of this simplified scheme in reproducing relevant aspects of the infection dynamics. We consider empirical contact networks gathered in different contexts, as well as synthetic data obtained through realistic models of contacts in structured populations. We perform stochastic spreading simulations on these contact networks and in populations of the same size under a homogeneous mixing hypothesis. We adjust the epidemiological parameters of the latter in order to fit the prevalence curve of the contact epidemic model. We quantify the agreement by comparing epidemic peak times, peak values, and epidemic sizes. Good approximations of the peak times and peak values are obtained with the homogeneous mixing approach, with a median relative difference smaller than 20 % in all cases investigated. Accuracy in reproducing the peak time depends on the setting under study, while for the peak value it is independent of the setting. Recalibration is found to be linear in the epidemic parameters used in the contact data simulations, showing changes across empirical settings but robustness across groups and population sizes. An adequate rescaling of the epidemiological parameters can yield a good agreement between the epidemic curves obtained with a real contact network and a homogeneous mixing approach in a population of the same size. The use of such recalibrated homogeneous mixing approximations would enhance the accuracy and realism of agent-based simulations and limit the intrinsic biases of

  6. Nonlinear model dynamics for closed-system, constrained, maximal-entropy-generation relaxation by energy redistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretta, Gian Paolo

    2006-01-01

    We discuss a nonlinear model for relaxation by energy redistribution within an isolated, closed system composed of noninteracting identical particles with energy levels e i with i=1,2,...,N. The time-dependent occupation probabilities p i (t) are assumed to obey the nonlinear rate equations τ dp i /dt=-p i ln p i -α(t)p i -β(t)e i p i where α(t) and β(t) are functionals of the p i (t)'s that maintain invariant the mean energy E=Σ i=1 N e i p i (t) and the normalization condition 1=Σ i=1 N p i (t). The entropy S(t)=-k B Σ i=1 N p i (t)ln p i (t) is a nondecreasing function of time until the initially nonzero occupation probabilities reach a Boltzmann-like canonical distribution over the occupied energy eigenstates. Initially zero occupation probabilities, instead, remain zero at all times. The solutions p i (t) of the rate equations are unique and well defined for arbitrary initial conditions p i (0) and for all times. The existence and uniqueness both forward and backward in time allows the reconstruction of the ancestral or primordial lowest entropy state. By casting the rate equations in terms not of the p i 's but of their positive square roots √(p i ), they unfold from the assumption that time evolution is at all times along the local direction of steepest entropy ascent or, equivalently, of maximal entropy generation. These rate equations have the same mathematical structure and basic features as the nonlinear dynamical equation proposed in a series of papers ending with G. P. Beretta, Found. Phys. 17, 365 (1987) and recently rediscovered by S. Gheorghiu-Svirschevski [Phys. Rev. A 63, 022105 (2001);63, 054102 (2001)]. Numerical results illustrate the features of the dynamics and the differences from the rate equations recently considered for the same problem by M. Lemanska and Z. Jaeger [Physica D 170, 72 (2002)]. We also interpret the functionals k B α(t) and k B β(t) as nonequilibrium generalizations of the thermodynamic-equilibrium Massieu

  7. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for Morus spp. and assessment of their transferability to other closely related species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Adoption of genomics based breeding has emerged as a promising approach for achieving comprehensive crop improvement. Such an approach is more relevant in the case of perennial species like mulberry. However, unavailability of genomic resources of co-dominant marker systems has been the major constraint for adopting molecular breeding to achieve genetic enhancement of Mulberry. The goal of this study was to develop and characterize a large number of locus specific genic and genomic SSR markers which can be effectively used for molecular characterization of mulberry species/genotypes. Result We analyzed a total of 3485 DNA sequences including genomic and expressed sequences (ESTs) of mulberry (Morus alba L.) genome. We identified 358 sequences to develop appropriate microsatellite primer pairs representing 222 genomic and 136 EST regions. Primers amplifying locus specific regions of Dudia white (a genotype of Morus alba L), were identified and 137 genomic and 51 genic SSR markers were standardized. A two pronged strategy was adopted to assess the applicability of these SSR markers using mulberry species and genotypes along with a few closely related species belonging to the family Moraceae viz., Ficus, Fig and Jackfruit. While 100% of these markers amplified specific loci on the mulberry genome, 79% were transferable to other related species indicating the robustness of these markers and the potential they hold in analyzing the molecular and genetic diversity among mulberry germplasm as well as other related species. The inherent ability of these markers in detecting heterozygosity combined with a high average polymorphic information content (PIC) of 0.559 ranging between 0.076 and 0.943 clearly demonstrates their potential as genomic resources in diversity analysis. The dissimilarity coefficient determined based on Neighbor joining method, revealed that the markers were successful in segregating the mulberry species, genotypes and other related species

  8. The experience of being a middle-aged close relative of a person who has suffered a stroke--six months after discharge from a rehabilitation clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckström, Britt; Sundin, Karin

    2010-03-01

    Being a close relative brings with it a large number of consequences, with the life situation changing over time. The aim of this study was to illuminate the experiences of being a middle-aged close relative of a person who has suffered a stroke 6 months after being discharged from a medical rehabilitation clinic. Narrative interviews were conducted with nine middle-aged close relatives and analysed using a content analysis with a latent approach. The analysis revealed that being close to someone who had suffered a stroke 6 months after discharge meant; a struggling for control and a renewal of family life in the shadow of suffering and hope. The middle-aged close relatives began to perceive the changed reality. They were struggling to take on something new, become reconciled and find a balance in their family life. Their ability to work, relief from caring concerns and having support and togetherness with others seemed to be essential for the close relatives in their efforts to manage their life situation and maintain their well-being. Having reached the 'halfway point' in their lives and still with half of their life in front of them created worries. They felt dejected about their changed relationships and roles, experience a sense of loss of shared child responsibilities, a negative impact on their marital relationships and sexual satisfaction. They felt trapped in a caring role and they worried about how to endure in the future. The middle-aged close relatives' experiences were of being alone and neglected, in an arduous and complex life situation filled with loss and grief. The findings highlights that health professionals need to see and listen to the close relatives' experiences of transition in order to provide appropriate support adjusted to their varying needs during a time of renewal.

  9. Generalization of first-principles thermodynamic model: Application to hexagonal close-packed ε-Fe3N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakkedal, Morten B.; Shang, Shu- Li; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2016-01-01

    A complete first-principles thermodynamic model was developed and applied to hexagonal close-packed structure ε-Fe3N. The electronic structure was calculated using density functional theory and the quasiharmonic phonon approximation to determine macroscopic thermodynamic properties at finite...

  10. The closely related CD103+ dendritic cells (DCs and lymphoid-resident CD8+ DCs differ in their inflammatory functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Jiao

    Full Text Available Migratory CD103+ and lymphoid-resident CD8+ dendritic cells (DCs share many attributes, such as dependence on the same transcription factors, cross-presenting ability and expression of certain surface molecules, such that it has been proposed they belong to a common sub-lineage. The functional diversity of the two DC types is nevertheless incompletely understood. Here we reveal that upon skin infection with herpes simplex virus, migratory CD103+ DCs from draining lymph nodes were more potent at inducing Th17 cytokine production by CD4+ T cells than CD8+ DCs. This superior capacity to drive Th17 responses was also evident in CD103+ DCs from uninfected mice. Their differential potency to induce Th17 differentiation was reflected by higher production of IL-1β and IL-6 by CD103+ DCs compared with CD8+ DCs upon stimulation. The two types of DCs from isolated lymph nodes also differ in expression of certain pattern recognition receptors. Furthermore, elevated levels of GM-CSF, typical of those found in inflammation, substantially increased the pool size of CD103+ DCs in lymph nodes and skin. We argue that varied levels of GM-CSF may explain the contrasting reports regarding the positive role of GM-CSF in regulating development of CD103+ DCs. Together, we find that these two developmentally closely-related DC subsets display functional differences and that GM-CSF has differential effect on the two types of DCs.

  11. A population study of killer viruses reveals different evolutionary histories of two closely related Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shang-Lin; Leu, Jun-Yi; Chang, Tien-Hsien

    2015-08-01

    Microbes have evolved ways of interference competition to gain advantage over their ecological competitors. The use of secreted killer toxins by yeast cells through acquiring double-stranded RNA viruses is one such prominent example. Although the killer behaviour has been well studied in laboratory yeast strains, our knowledge regarding how killer viruses are spread and maintained in nature and how yeast cells co-evolve with viruses remains limited. We investigated these issues using a panel of 81 yeast populations belonging to three Saccharomyces sensu stricto species isolated from diverse ecological niches and geographic locations. We found that killer strains are rare among all three species. In contrast, killer toxin resistance is widespread in Saccharomyces paradoxus populations, but not in Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Saccharomyces eubayanus populations. Genetic analyses revealed that toxin resistance in S. paradoxus is often caused by dominant alleles that have independently evolved in different populations. Molecular typing identified one M28 and two types of M1 killer viruses in those killer strains. We further showed that killer viruses of the same type could lead to distinct killer phenotypes under different host backgrounds, suggesting co-evolution between the viruses and hosts in different populations. Taken together, our data suggest that killer viruses vary in their evolutionary histories even within closely related yeast species. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Wing pattern morphology of three closely related Melitaea (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae species reveals highly inaccurate external morphology-based species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Jugovic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wing morphology of the three closely related species of Melitaea – M. athalia (Rottemburg, 1775, M. aurelia (Nickerl, 1850 and M. britomartis Assmann, 1847 – co-occurring in the Balkans (SE Europe was investigated in detail through visual inspection, morphometric analysis and multivariate statistical analysis. Results are compared to recent phylogenetic studies, searching for concordant patterns and discrepancies between the two approaches. The morphology of the genitalic structures is also compared with the results of the other two approaches. The main conclusions are as follows: (1 small albeit significant differences in wing morphology exist among the three species and (2 while the structure of male genitalia and phylogenetic position of the three species are concordant, they are (3 in discordance with the wing morphology. The present study represents another example where identification based on external morphology would lead to highly unreliable determinations, hence identification based on phylogenetic studies and/or genitalia is strongly recommended not only for the three studied species but also more broadly within the genus. Furthermore, we show that some of the characters generally used in the identification of these three Melitaea species should be avoided in future.

  13. Using SSR-HRM to Identify Closely Related Species in Herbal Medicine Products: A Case Study on Licorice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjian; Xiong, Chao; He, Xia; Lu, Zhaocen; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Xiaoyang; Sun, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Traditional herbal medicines have played important roles in the ways of life of people around the world since ancient times. Despite the advanced medical technology of the modern world, herbal medicines are still used as popular alternatives to synthetic drugs. Due to the increasing demand for herbal medicines, plant species identification has become an important tool to prevent substitution and adulteration. Here we propose a method for biological assessment of the quality of prescribed species in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia by use of high resolution melting (HRM) analysis of microsatellite loci. We tested this method on licorice, a traditional herbal medicine with a long history. Results showed that nine simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers produced distinct melting curve profiles for the five licorice species investigated using HRM analysis. These results were validated by capillary electrophoresis. We applied this protocol to commercially available licorice products, thus enabling the consistent identification of 11 labels with non-declared Glycyrrhiza species. This novel strategy may thus facilitate DNA barcoding as a method of identification of closely related species in herbal medicine products. Based on this study, a brief operating procedure for using the SSR-HRM protocol for herbal authentication is provided.

  14. ATGC: a database of orthologous genes from closely related prokaryotic genomes and a research platform for microevolution of prokaryotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novichkov, Pavel S.; Ratnere, Igor; Wolf, Yuri I.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Dubchak, Inna

    2009-07-23

    The database of Alignable Tight Genomic Clusters (ATGCs) consists of closely related genomes of archaea and bacteria, and is a resource for research into prokaryotic microevolution. Construction of a data set with appropriate characteristics is a major hurdle for this type of studies. With the current rate of genome sequencing, it is difficult to follow the progress of the field and to determine which of the available genome sets meet the requirements of a given research project, in particular, with respect to the minimum and maximum levels of similarity between the included genomes. Additionally, extraction of specific content, such as genomic alignments or families of orthologs, from a selected set of genomes is a complicated and time-consuming process. The database addresses these problems by providing an intuitive and efficient web interface to browse precomputed ATGCs, select appropriate ones and access ATGC-derived data such as multiple alignments of orthologous proteins, matrices of pairwise intergenomic distances based on genome-wide analysis of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates and others. The ATGC database will be regularly updated following new releases of the NCBI RefSeq. The database is hosted by the Genomics Division at Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory and is publicly available at http://atgc.lbl.gov.

  15. Age-related changes and sex differences in postural control adaptability in children during periodic floor oscillation with eyes closed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Katsuo; Kiyota, Takeo; Mammadova, Aida; Yaguchi, Chie

    2011-01-01

    We investigated age-related changes and sex differences in adaptability of anticipatory postural control in children. Subjects comprised 449 children (4-12 years old) and 109 young adults (18-29 years old). Subjects stood with eyes closed on a force-platform fixed to a floor oscillator. We conducted five trials of 1-minute oscillation (0.5 Hz frequency, 2.5 cm amplitude) in the anteroposterior direction. Postural steadiness was quantified as the mean speed of the center of pressure in the anteroposterior direction (CoPy). In young adults, CoPy speed decreased rapidly until the third trial for both sexes. Adaptability was evaluated by changes in steadiness. The adaptability of children was categorized as "good," "moderate," and "poor," compared with a standard variation of the mean CoPy speed regression line between the first and fifth trials in young adults. Results were as follows: (1) anticipatory postural control adaptability starts to develop from age 6 in boys and 5 in girls, and greatly improves at age 7-8 in boys and 6 in girls; (2) the adaptability of children at age 11-12 (74% of boys and 63% of girls were categorized as "good") has not yet reached the same level as for young adults; (3) the adaptability at age 11-12 for girls is temporarily disturbed due to early puberty.

  16. Inverse modeling of groundwater flow in the semiarid evaporitic closed basin of Los Monegros, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samper-Calvete, F. J.; García-Vera, M. A.

    Only minor attention has been given in the past to the study of closed-basin hydrogeology in evaporitic environments, because these basins usually contain poor-quality groundwater. The motivation for hydrogeological research in the Los Monegros area in northeastern Spain was the approval in 1986 of a large irrigation project in the Ebre River basin. The irrigation of 60,000 ha is planned, partly in an evaporitic closed basin containing playa lakes. The project has given rise to environmental concerns. The evaluation of the hydrologic impacts of irrigation requires quantifying properly the hydrogeology of the area. With the available information, a conceptual hydrogeological model was formulated that identifies two main aquifers connected through a leaky aquitard. On the basis of the conceptual model, a numerical model was calibrated under steady-state conditions using the method of maximum-likelihood automatic parameter estimation (Carrera and Neuman, 1986a). The calibrated model reproduces the measured hydraulic heads fairly well and is consistent with independent information on groundwater discharge. By the solution of the inverse problem, reliable parameter estimates were obtained. It is concluded that anisotropy plays a major role in some parts of the lower aquifer. The geometric average of model conductivity is almost two orders of magnitude larger than the average conductivity derived from small-scale field tests. This scale effect in hydraulic conductivity is consistent with the findings of Neuman (1994) and Sánchez-Vila et al. (1996). Résumé Dans le passé, on s'est peu intéresséà l'hydrogéologie des bassins fermés en milieu évaporitique, parce que ces bassins possèdent en général de l'eau souterraine de qualité médiocre. L'intérêt porté aux recherches hydrogéologiques dans la région de Los Monegros, dans le nord-est de l'Espagne est dûà l'approbation en 1986 d'un vaste projet d'irrigation dans le bassin de l'Ebre. L'irrigation de 60000

  17. Chaotic Lagrangian models for turbulent relative dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacorata, Guglielmo; Vulpiani, Angelo

    2017-04-01

    A deterministic multiscale dynamical system is introduced and discussed as a prototype model for relative dispersion in stationary, homogeneous, and isotropic turbulence. Unlike stochastic diffusion models, here trajectory transport and mixing properties are entirely controlled by Lagrangian chaos. The anomalous "sweeping effect," a known drawback common to kinematic simulations, is removed through the use of quasi-Lagrangian coordinates. Lagrangian dispersion statistics of the model are accurately analyzed by computing the finite-scale Lyapunov exponent (FSLE), which is the optimal measure of the scaling properties of dispersion. FSLE scaling exponents provide a severe test to decide whether model simulations are in agreement with theoretical expectations and/or observation. The results of our numerical experiments cover a wide range of "Reynolds numbers" and show that chaotic deterministic flows can be very efficient, and numerically low-cost, models of turbulent trajectories in stationary, homogeneous, and isotropic conditions. The mathematics of the model is relatively simple, and, in a geophysical context, potential applications may regard small-scale parametrization issues in general circulation models, mixed layer, and/or boundary layer turbulence models as well as Lagrangian predictability studies.

  18. Relating business modelling and enterprise architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Meertens, Lucas Onno

    2013-01-01

    This thesis proposes a methodology for creating business models, evaluating them, and relating them to enterprise architecture. The methodology consists of several steps, leading from an organization’s current situation to a target situation, via business models and enterprise architecture. Currently, increasing amounts of businesses rely on IT systems to do their business. However, success rates of IT implementations projects are low. Difficulties exist in aligning existing IT systems with b...

  19. Numerical modeling of the flow conditions in a closed-circuit low-speed wind tunnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.; Blocken, B.J.E.; Roels, S.; Carmeliet, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    A methodology for numerically simulating the flow conditions in closed-circuit wind tunnels is developed as a contribution to the general philosophy of incorporating Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in wind tunnel design and testing and to CFD validation studies. The methodology is applied to the

  20. Higher-order corrections to the effective potential close to the jamming transition in the perceptron model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Ada

    2018-01-01

    In view of the results achieved in a previously related work [A. Altieri, S. Franz, and G. Parisi, J. Stat. Mech. (2016) 093301], 10.1088/1742-5468/2016/09/093301, regarding a Plefka-like expansion of the free energy up to the second order in the perceptron model, we improve the computation here focusing on the role of third-order corrections. The perceptron model is a simple example of constraint satisfaction problem, falling in the same universality class as hard spheres near jamming and hence allowing us to get exact results in high dimensions for more complex settings. Our method enables to define an effective potential (or Thouless-Anderson-Palmer free energy), namely a coarse-grained functional, which depends on the generalized forces and the effective gaps between particles. The analysis of the third-order corrections to the effective potential reveals that, albeit irrelevant in a mean-field framework in the thermodynamic limit, they might instead play a fundamental role in considering finite-size effects. We also study the typical behavior of generalized forces and we show that two kinds of corrections can occur. The first contribution arises since the system is analyzed at a finite distance from jamming, while the second one is due to finite-size corrections. We nevertheless show that third-order corrections in the perturbative expansion vanish in the jamming limit both for the potential and the generalized forces, in agreement with the isostaticity argument proposed by Wyart and coworkers. Finally, we analyze the relevant scaling solutions emerging close to the jamming line, which define a crossover regime connecting the control parameters of the model to an effective temperature.

  1. Modeling and performance analysis of a closed-loop supply chain using first-order hybrid Petri nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imane Outmal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Green or closed-loop supply chain had been the focus of many manufacturers during the last decade. The application of closed-loop supply chain in today’s manufacturing is not only due to growing environmental concerns and the recognition of its benefits in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption, and meeting a more strict environmental regulations but it also offers economic competitive advantages if appropriately managed. First-order hybrid Petri nets represent a powerful graphical and mathematical formalism to map and analyze the dynamics of complex systems such as closed-loop supply chain networks. This article aims at illustrating the use of first-order hybrid Petri nets to model a closed-loop supply chain network and evaluate its operational, financial, and environmental performance measures under different management policies. Actual data from auto manufacturer in the United States are used to validate network’s performance under both tactical and strategic decision-making, namely, (1 tactical decision—production policies: increase of recovered versus new components and (2 strategic decision—closed-loop supply chain network structure: manufacturer internal recovery process or recovery process done by a third-party collection and recovery center. The work presented in this article is an extension of the use of first-order hybrid Petri nets as a modeling and performance analysis tool from supply chain to closed-loop supply chain. The modularity property of first-order hybrid Petri nets has been used in the modeling process, and the simulation and analysis of the modeled network are done in MATLAB® environment. The results of the experiments depict that first-order hybrid Petri nets are a powerful modeling and analysis formalism for closed-loop supply chain networks and can be further used as an efficient decision-making tool at both tactical and strategic levels. Unlike other researches on modeling supply chain

  2. Acute effects on pulmonary function in young healthy adults exposed to traffic-related air pollution in semi-closed transport hub in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Deng, Furong; Wu, Shaowei; Zhao, Yan; Shima, Masayuki; Guo, Bin; Liu, Qichen; Guo, Xinbiao

    2016-09-01

    Transport hub is an important part of urban comprehensive transportation system. Traffic-related air pollution can reach high level because of difficulty of diffusion and increase of emission in transport hub. However, whether exposure in this semi-closed traffic micro-environment causes acute changes in pulmonary function of commuters still needs to be explored. Forty young healthy adults participated in this randomized, crossover study. Each participant underwent 2 h exposure in a designated transport hub and, on a separate occasion, in an appointed park. Personal exposures to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were assessed pre-, during and post-exposure. Mixed linear models were used to analyze the pulmonary effects of traffic-related air pollutants. Participants had significantly higher exposures to PM 2.5 , BC and CO in the transport hub than in the park. Exposure in transport hub induced significant reductions in FEV 1 and PEF compared with the park during exposure 1 and 2 h. The reductions were significant associated with traffic-related air pollutants. For instance, per 10 μg/m 3 increment in PM 2.5 was associated with -0.15 % (95 % CI -0.28, -0.02 %) reduction in FEV 1 during exposure 2 h. However, effects became attenuate after 2 h exposure. Short-term exposure in transport hub had acute reduction effects on pulmonary function. More attention should be paid to the health effects of exposure in the semi-closed traffic micro-environment.

  3. Mechanical Models of Fault-Related Folding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A. M.

    2003-01-09

    The subject of the proposed research is fault-related folding and ground deformation. The results are relevant to oil-producing structures throughout the world, to understanding of damage that has been observed along and near earthquake ruptures, and to earthquake-producing structures in California and other tectonically-active areas. The objectives of the proposed research were to provide both a unified, mechanical infrastructure for studies of fault-related foldings and to present the results in computer programs that have graphical users interfaces (GUIs) so that structural geologists and geophysicists can model a wide variety of fault-related folds (FaRFs).

  4. Mild closed head traumatic brain injury-induced changes in monoamine neurotransmitters in the trigeminal subnuclei of a rat model: mechanisms underlying orofacial allodynias and headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our recent findings have demonstrated that rodent models of closed head traumatic brain injury exhibit comprehensive evidence of progressive and enduring orofacial allodynias, a hypersensitive pain response induced by non-painful stimulation. These allodynias, tested using thermal hyperalgesia, correlated with changes in several known pain signaling receptors and molecules along the trigeminal pain pathway, especially in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. This study focused to extend our previous work to investigate the changes in monoamine neurotransmitter immunoreactivity changes in spinal trigeminal nucleus oralis, pars interpolaris and nucleus tractus solitaries following mild to moderate closed head traumatic brain injury, which are related to tactile allodynia, touch-pressure sensitivity, and visceral pain. Our results exhibited significant alterations in the excitatory monoamine, serotonin, in spinal trigeminal nucleus oralis and pars interpolaris which usually modulate tactile and mechanical sensitivity in addition to the thermal sensitivity. Moreover, we also detected a robust alteration in the expression of serotonin, and inhibitory molecule norepinephrine in the nucleus tractus solitaries, which might indicate the possibility of an alteration in visceral pain, and existence of other morbidities related to solitary nucleus dysfunction in this rodent model of mild to moderate closed head traumatic brain injury. Collectively, widespread changes in monoamine neurotransmitter may be related to orofacial allodynhias and headache after traumatic brain injury.

  5. Relating structure and dynamics in organisation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2003-01-01

    To understand how an organisational structure relates to dynamics is an interesting fundamental challenge in the area of social modelling. Specifications of organisational structure usually have a diagrammatic form that abstracts from more detailed dynamics. Dynamic properties of agent systems, on

  6. Model-independent and fast determination of optical functions in storage rings via multiturn and closed-orbit data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Riemann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiturn (or turn-by-turn data acquisition has proven to be a new source of direct measurements for Twiss parameters in storage rings. On the other hand, closed-orbit measurements are a long-known tool for analyzing closed-orbit perturbations with conventional beam position monitor (BPM systems and are necessarily available at every storage ring. This paper aims at combining the advantages of multiturn measurements and closed-orbit data. We show that only two multiturn BPMs and four correctors in one localized drift space in the storage ring (diagnostic drift are sufficient for model-independent and absolute measuring of β and φ functions at all BPMs, including the conventional ones, instead of requiring all BPMs being equipped with multiturn electronics.

  7. Model-independent and fast determination of optical functions in storage rings via multiturn and closed-orbit data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, Bernard; Grete, Patrick; Weis, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Multiturn (or turn-by-turn) data acquisition has proven to be a new source of direct measurements for Twiss parameters in storage rings. On the other hand, closed-orbit measurements are a long-known tool for analyzing closed-orbit perturbations with conventional beam position monitor (BPM) systems and are necessarily available at every storage ring. This paper aims at combining the advantages of multiturn measurements and closed-orbit data. We show that only two multiturn BPMs and four correctors in one localized drift space in the storage ring (diagnostic drift) are sufficient for model-independent and absolute measuring of β and φ functions at all BPMs, including the conventional ones, instead of requiring all BPMs being equipped with multiturn electronics.

  8. Relating Derived Relations as a Model of Analogical Reasoning: Reaction Times and Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Regan, Donal; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Commins, Sean; Walsh, Derek; Stewart, Ian; Smeets, Paul M.; Whelan, Robert; Dymond, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The current study aimed to test a Relational Frame Theory (RFT) model of analogical reasoning based on the relating of derived same and derived difference relations. Experiment 1 recorded reaction time measures of similar-similar (e.g., "apple is to orange as dog is to cat") versus different-different (e.g., "he is to his brother as…

  9. A study on some welfare-related parameters of hDAF transgenic pigs when compared with their conventional close relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, G; Sardi, L; Stancampiano, L; Govoni, N; Zannoni, A; Nannoni, E; Forni, M; Bacci, M L

    2014-05-01

    Pigs are increasingly used in medical research as transgenic laboratory animals; however, little knowledge is presently available concerning their welfare assessment. The aim of the present study was to investigate some welfare-related parameters of transgenic pigs intended for xenotrasplantation (human decay-accelerating factor (hDAF)) when compared with their conventional (i.e. not transgenic) close relatives (full sibs and half sibs). A total of 14 Large White female transgenic pigs and 10 female non-transgenic (conventional) pigs from four litters were used. All pigs were from the same conventional boar, donor of the semen treated for sperm-mediated gene transfer. During the experiment, BW ranged from 50 to about 80 kg and pigs were weighed at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. Animals were subjected to a set of behavioural tests: a human approach test (HAT), a novel object test (NOT) and an open-door test (ODT). Food preferences were tested through the offer of different foods (banana, apple, carrot, cracker and lemon). During a 4-day period, pigs were diurnally videotaped to study the prevalence of the different behaviours and social interactions (aggressive and non-aggressive interactions). At the end of the trial, cortisol level had been assessed on bristles. No significant differences (P>0.05) were observed between hDAF transgenic and conventional pigs with respect to growth traits, reactivity towards unexpected situations (HAT, NOT, ODT), food preferences, main behavioural traits, social interactions and hair cortisol.

  10. Annickia affinis and A. chlorantha (Enantia chlorantha)--A review of two closely related medicinal plants from tropical Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, D K; Van Vuuren, S F; Moteetee, A N

    2015-12-24

    Annickia affinis (Exell) Versteegh & Sosef, closely related to A. chlorantha Setten & P.J.Maas (both species also referred to as Enantia chlorantha Oliv.), from the Annonaceae family, are multi-purpose medicinal plants used widely across tropical Africa. The two Annickia species are morphologically distinct from each other and have different distribution patterns, but are frequently confused. Furthermore, the name Enantia chlorantha is an illegitimate name, but is still used today. A review of the literature was undertaken and an in-depth analysis of previous research and future prospectives are considered. While a myriad of publications cite the species "Enantia chlorantha", this is not the case for A. affinis and A. chlorantha, and no reviews are available for any of the species to date. Consequently, a summary of their ethnobotany, phytochemistry and biological properties is presented here (for the period 1933 - November 2014) in order to substantiate their traditional importance as medicines for rural people in Africa. To this effect, these species seem to be the preferred traditional treatments for malaria in tropical Africa, an area suffering heavily under the malaria pandemic. Their chemical composition is dominated particularly by various isoquinoline alkaloids, as well as by acetogenins and sesquiterpenes, which have been isolated from the bark and leaves. All three of these classes of compounds have been reported to exhibit noteworthy biological activity. Due to their widespread use, especially of the bark, these species have already been categorized as threatened with extinction. Consequently this study further aims to identify areas where more research needs to be conducted involving these important species, and also to suggest possible means of increasing the biological activities of their extracts as a way to conserve the species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Choose Your Weaponry: Selective Storage of a Single Toxic Compound, Latrunculin A, by Closely Related Nudibranch Molluscs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Cheney

    Full Text Available Natural products play an invaluable role as a starting point in the drug discovery process, and plants and animals use many interesting biologically active natural products as a chemical defense mechanism against predators. Among marine organisms, many nudibranch gastropods are known to derive defensive metabolites from the sponges they eat. Here we investigated the putative sequestration of the toxic compound latrunculin A--a 16-membered macrolide that prevents actin polymerization within cellular processes--which has been identified from sponge sources, by five closely related nudibranch molluscs of the genus Chromodoris. Only latrunculin A was present in the rim of the mantle of these species, where storage reservoirs containing secondary metabolites are located, whilst a variety of secondary metabolites were found in their viscera. The species studied thus selectively accumulate latrunculin A in the part of the mantle that is more exposed to potential predators. This study also demonstrates that latrunculin-containing sponges are not their sole food source. Latrunculin A was found to be several times more potent than other compounds present in these species of nudibranchs when tested by in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays. Anti-feedant assays also indicated that latrunculin A was unpalatable to rock pool shrimps, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings led us to propose that this group of nudibranchs has evolved means both to protect themselves from the toxicity of latrunculin A, and to accumulate this compound in the mantle rim for defensive purposes. The precise mechanism by which the nudibranchs sequester such a potent compound from sponges without disrupting their own key physiological processes is unclear, but this work paves the way for future studies in this direction. Finally, the possible occurrence of both visual and chemosensory Müllerian mimicry in the studied species is discussed.

  12. Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov., a rapidly growing mycobacterium closely related to members of the Mycobacterium chelonae--Mycobacterium abscessus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Whipps, Christopher M; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Chimara, Erica; Droz, Sara; Tortoli, Enrico; de Freitas, Denise; Cnockaert, Margo; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi; Vandamme, Peter; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso

    2015-12-01

    Five isolates of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria were isolated from three patients and,in an earlier study, from zebrafish. Phenotypic and molecular tests confirmed that these isolates belong to the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group, but they could not be confidently assigned to any known species of this group. Phenotypic analysis and biochemical tests were not helpful for distinguishing these isolates from other members of the M. chelonae–M.abscessus group. The isolates presented higher drug resistance in comparison with other members of the group, showing susceptibility only to clarithromycin. The five isolates showed a unique PCR restriction analysis pattern of the hsp65 gene, 100 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene and hsp65 sequences and 1-2 nt differences in rpoB and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences.Phylogenetic analysis of a concatenated dataset including 16S rRNA gene, hsp65, and rpoB sequences from type strains of more closely related species placed the five isolates together, as a distinct lineage from previously described species, suggesting a sister relationship to a group consisting of M. chelonae, Mycobacterium salmoniphilum, Mycobacterium franklinii and Mycobacterium immunogenum. DNA–DNA hybridization values .70 % confirmed that the five isolates belong to the same species, while values ,70 % between one of the isolates and the type strains of M. chelonae and M. abscessus confirmed that the isolates belong to a distinct species. The polyphasic characterization of these isolates, supported by DNA–DNA hybridization results,demonstrated that they share characteristics with M. chelonae–M. abscessus members, butconstitute a different species, for which the name Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EPM10906T (5CCUG 66554T5LMG 28586T5INCQS 0733T).

  13. Parallel habitat acclimatization is realized by the expression of different genes in two closely related salamander species (genus Salamandra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedbloed, D J; Czypionka, T; Altmüller, J; Rodriguez, A; Küpfer, E; Segev, O; Blaustein, L; Templeton, A R; Nolte, A W; Steinfartz, S

    2017-12-01

    The utilization of similar habitats by different species provides an ideal opportunity to identify genes underlying adaptation and acclimatization. Here, we analysed the gene expression of two closely related salamander species: Salamandra salamandra in Central Europe and Salamandra infraimmaculata in the Near East. These species inhabit similar habitat types: 'temporary ponds' and 'permanent streams' during larval development. We developed two species-specific gene expression microarrays, each targeting over 12 000 transcripts, including an overlapping subset of 8331 orthologues. Gene expression was examined for systematic differences between temporary ponds and permanent streams in larvae from both salamander species to establish gene sets and functions associated with these two habitat types. Only 20 orthologues were associated with a habitat in both species, but these orthologues did not show parallel expression patterns across species more than expected by chance. Functional annotation of a set of 106 genes with the highest effect size for a habitat suggested four putative gene function categories associated with a habitat in both species: cell proliferation, neural development, oxygen responses and muscle capacity. Among these high effect size genes was a single orthologue (14-3-3 protein zeta/YWHAZ) that was downregulated in temporary ponds in both species. The emergence of four gene function categories combined with a lack of parallel expression of orthologues (except 14-3-3 protein zeta) suggests that parallel habitat adaptation or acclimatization by larvae from S. salamandra and S. infraimmaculata to temporary ponds and permanent streams is mainly realized by different genes with a converging functionality.

  14. Canonical quantisation via conditional symmetries of the closed FLRW model coupled to a scalar field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zampeli, Adamantia

    2015-01-01

    We study the classical, quantum and semiclassical solutions of a Robertson-Walker spacetime coupled to a massless scalar field. The Lagrangian of these minisuperspace models is singular and the application of the theory of Noether symmetries is modified to include the conditional symmetries of the corresponding (weakly vanishing) Hamiltonian. These are found to be the simultaneous symmetries of the supermetric and the superpotential. The quantisation is performed adopting the Dirac proposal for constrained systems. The innovation in the approach we use is that the integrals of motion related to the conditional symmetries are promoted to operators together with the Hamiltonian and momentum constraints. These additional conditions imposed on the wave function render the system integrable and it is possible to obtain solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Finally, we use the wave function to perform a semiclassical analysis following Bohm and make contact with the classical solution. The analysis starts with a modified Hamilton-Jacobi equation from which the semiclassical momenta are defined. The solutions of the semiclassical equations are then studied and compared to the classical ones in order to understand the nature and behaviour of the classical singularities. (paper)

  15. Animal models of age related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennesi, Mark E.; Neuringer, Martha; Courtney, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss of those over the age of 65 in the industrialized world. The prevalence and need to develop effective treatments for AMD has lead to the development of multiple animal models. AMD is a complex and heterogeneous disease that involves the interaction of both genetic and environmental factors with the unique anatomy of the human macula. Models in mice, rats, rabbits, pigs and non-human primates have recreated many of the histological features of AMD and provided much insight into the underlying pathological mechanisms of this disease. In spite of the large number of models developed, no one model yet recapitulates all of the features of human AMD. However, these models have helped reveal the roles of chronic oxidative damage, inflammation and immune dysregulation, and lipid metabolism in the development of AMD. Models for induced choroidal neovascularization have served as the backbone for testing new therapies. This article will review the diversity of animal models that exist for AMD as well as their strengths and limitations. PMID:22705444

  16. Mechanisms for integration of information models across related domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Rob

    2010-05-01

    It is well recognised that there are opportunities and challenges in cross-disciplinary data integration. A significant barrier, however, is creating a conceptual model of the combined domains and the area of integration. For example, a groundwater domain application may require information from several related domains: geology, hydrology, water policy, etc. Each domain may have its own data holdings and conceptual models, but these will share various common concepts (eg. The concept of an aquifer). These areas of semantic overlap present significant challenges, firstly to choose a single representation (model) of a concept that appears in multiple disparate models,, then to harmonise these other models with the single representation. In addition, models may exist at different levels of abstraction depending on how closely aligned they are with a particular implementation. This makes it hard for modellers in one domain to introduce elements from another domain without either introducing a specific style of implementation, or conversely dealing with a set of abstract patterns that are hard to integrate with existing implementations. Models are easier to integrate if they are broken down into small units, with common concepts implemented using common models from well-known, and predictably managed shared libraries. This vision however requires development of a set of mechanisms (tools and procedures) for implementing and exploiting libraries of model components. These mechanisms need to handle publication, discovery, subscription, versioning and implementation of models in different forms. In this presentation a coherent suite of such mechanisms is proposed, using a scenario based on re-use of geosciences models. This approach forms the basis of a comprehensive strategy to empower domain modellers to create more interoperable systems. The strategy address a range of concerns and practice, and includes methodologies, an accessible toolkit, improvements to available

  17. Modeling the interaction of ozone with chloroform and bromoform under conditions close to stratospheric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokova, N. E.; Yagodovskaya, T. V.; Savilov, S. V.; Lukhovitskaya, E. E.; Vasil'ev, E. S.; Morozov, I. I.; Lunin, V. V.

    2013-02-01

    The reactions of ozone with chloroform and bromoform are studied using a flow gas discharge vacuum unit under conditions close to stratospheric (temperature range, 77-250 K; pressure, 10-3-0.1 Torr in the presence of nitrate ice). It is shown that the reaction with bromoform begins at 160 K; the reaction with chloroform, at 190 K. The reaction products are chlorine and bromine oxides of different composition, identified by low-temperature FTIR spectroscopy. The presence of nitrate ice raises the temperature of reaction onset to 210 K.

  18. Numerical and experimental modelling of back stream flow during close-coupled gas atomization

    OpenAIRE

    Motaman, S; Mullis, AM; Borman, DJ; Cochrane, RF; McCarthy, IN

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the numerical and experimental investigation into the effects of different gas jet mis-match angles (for an external melt nozzle wall) on the back-stream flow in close coupled gas atomization. The Pulse Laser Imaging (PLI) technique was applied for visualising the back-stream melt flow phenomena with an analogue water atomizer and the associated PLI images compared with numerical results. In the investigation a Convergent–Divergent (C–D) discrete gas jet die at five differe...

  19. A time dependent mixing model to close PDF equations for transport in heterogeneous aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, L.; Suciu, N.; Knabner, P.; Attinger, S.

    2016-10-01

    Probability density function (PDF) methods are a promising alternative to predicting the transport of solutes in groundwater under uncertainty. They make it possible to derive the evolution equations of the mean concentration and the concentration variance, used in moment methods. The mixing model, describing the transport of the PDF in concentration space, is essential for both methods. Finding a satisfactory mixing model is still an open question and due to the rather elaborate PDF methods, a difficult undertaking. Both the PDF equation and the concentration variance equation depend on the same mixing model. This connection is used to find and test an improved mixing model for the much easier to handle concentration variance. Subsequently, this mixing model is transferred to the PDF equation and tested. The newly proposed mixing model yields significantly improved results for both variance modelling and PDF modelling.

  20. Relation between premorbid adjustment, duration of untreated psychosis and close interpersonal trauma in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Ulrik Helt; Larsen, Tor Ketil; Simonsen, Erik

    2018-01-01

    Trauma Survey at their 5 years follow-up interview. RESULTS: Half of the patients reported that they had experienced interpersonal trauma and one-third reported having experienced close interpersonal trauma before the age of 18. Women reported more sexual abuse, physical attacks and emotional...... different types of trauma, in particular close interpersonal traumas experienced before the age of 18, premorbid factors and baseline clinical characteristics in a sample of first-episode psychosis patients. METHODS: A total of 191 patients from the 'TIPS' cohort completed assessment with the Brief Betrayal...... and physical maltreatment than men. There were significant associations between early interpersonal trauma and premorbid adjustment and duration of untreated psychosis, but no significant associations with length of education, comorbid substance use or baseline clinical symptomatology. CONCLUSIONS: Close...

  1. Constitutive relations for multiphase flow modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, H.; Vaeth, L.; Thurnay, K. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik

    1998-01-01

    The constitutive relations that are used in the three-field fluid dynamics code IVA-KA for determining the drag in three-phase mixtures and the heat transferred by radiation are described together with some comparisons of calculational results with experiments. In these experiments (QUEOS), large quantities of solid particles are injected into water. Potential deficiencies of the present drag model are discussed. (author)

  2. Non-commutative analytic geometry and a new model for the field theory of closed bosonic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awada, M.A.

    1986-07-01

    We propose a new model for the field theory of interacting closed bosonic strings. The key ingredient in our constructions is based on the assumption that the action is written in terms of two independent states rather than one state. The first state is chiral while the second state is antichiral. The new picture of the corresponding vertex operator is not just an overlap ''δ'' functional

  3. Actor-Observer Bias in Close Relationships: The Role of Self-Knowledge and Self-Related Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Klaus; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studied attributional biases in close relationships. Found that partner attributions prevail at the abstract level of adjectives, whereas self-attributions resided at the concrete level of action verbs. Findings underscore language's importance in attributional biases and reveal how people talk in less abstract terms about the self than about…

  4. Detailed Modeling of Distillation Technologies for Closed-Loop Water Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Lange, Kevin E.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2011-01-01

    Detailed chemical process simulations are a useful tool in designing and optimizing complex systems and architectures for human life support. Dynamic and steady-state models of these systems help contrast the interactions of various operating parameters and hardware designs, which become extremely useful in trade-study analyses. NASA?s Exploration Life Support technology development project recently made use of such models to compliment a series of tests on different waste water distillation systems. This paper presents efforts to develop chemical process simulations for three technologies: the Cascade Distillation System (CDS), the Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) system and the Wiped-Film Rotating Disk (WFRD) using the Aspen Custom Modeler and Aspen Plus process simulation tools. The paper discusses system design, modeling details, and modeling results for each technology and presents some comparisons between the model results and recent test data. Following these initial comparisons, some general conclusions and forward work are discussed.

  5. An analytical model for neutral and charged particles in closed pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokar, M.Z.

    1990-01-01

    In number of modern tokamaks pump limiters are used for control of the edge plasma parameters. In thermonuclear reactor projects pump limiters are considered as a possible alternative or additional for divertor configuration of magnetic field method for unburnt fuel, helium ash and other impurity exhaust. From the point of view of limiter operation efficiency the dependence of neutral particle pressure P g in pumping system on the plasma parameters in the scrape-off layer (SOL) is of importance since an increase of P g will permit to decrease needed pump rate and facilitate solution of reactor technological problems. In connection with this the experimentally observed mode of closed pump limiter operation with strong neutral compression is of great interest. In such a mode P g sharply grows up when the SOL plasma density n s exceeds some critial level. (author) 6 refs., 2 figs

  6. Dynamic Modeling of Process Technologies for Closed-Loop Water Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Lange, Kevin E.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed chemical process simulations are a useful tool in designing and optimizing complex systems and architectures for human life support. Dynamic and steady-state models of these systems help contrast the interactions of various operating parameters and hardware designs, which become extremely useful in trade-study analyses. NASA s Exploration Life Support technology development project recently made use of such models to compliment a series of tests on different waste water distillation systems. This paper presents dynamic simulations of chemical process for primary processor technologies including: the Cascade Distillation System (CDS), the Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) system, the Wiped-Film Rotating Disk (WFRD), and post-distillation water polishing processes such as the Volatiles Removal Assembly (VRA). These dynamic models were developed using the Aspen Custom Modeler (Registered TradeMark) and Aspen Plus(Registered TradeMark) process simulation tools. The results expand upon previous work for water recovery technology models and emphasize dynamic process modeling and results. The paper discusses system design, modeling details, and model results for each technology and presents some comparisons between the model results and available test data. Following these initial comparisons, some general conclusions and forward work are discussed.

  7. A Multiscale Closed-Loop Cardiovascular Model, with Applications to Heart Pacing and Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, Daniel; Eldredge, Jeff; Chong, Kwitae; Benharash, Peyman; Dutson, Erik

    2017-11-01

    A computational tool is developed for simulating the dynamic response of the human cardiovascular system to various stressors and injuries. The tool couples zero-dimensional models of the heart, pulmonary vasculature, and peripheral vasculature to one-dimensional models of the major systemic arteries. To simulate autonomic response, this multiscale circulatory model is integrated with a feedback model of the baroreflex, allowing control of heart rate, cardiac contractility, and peripheral impedance. The performance of the tool is demonstrated in two scenarios: increasing heart rate by stimulating the sympathetic nervous system, and an acute 10 percent hemorrhage from the left femoral artery.

  8. New insights into the phylogeny and worldwide dispersion of two closely related nematode species, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Bursaphelenchus mucronatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Pereira

    Full Text Available The pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is one of the greatest threats to coniferous forests worldwide, causing severe ecological damage and economic loss. The biology of B. xylophilus is similar to that of its closest relative, B. mucronatus, as both species share food resources and insect vectors, and have very similar morphological characteristics, although little pathogenicity to conifers has been associated with B. mucronatus. Using both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we show that B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus form distinct phylogenetic groups with contrasting phylogeographic patterns. B. xylophilus presents lower levels of intraspecific diversity than B. mucronatus, as expected for a species that evolved relatively recently through geographical or reproductive isolation. Genetic diversity was particularly low in recently colonised areas, such as in southwestern Europe. By contrast, B. mucronatus displays high levels of genetic diversity and two well-differentiated clades in both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA phylogenies. The lack of correlation between genetic and geographic distances in B. mucronatus suggests intense gene flow among distant regions, a phenomenon that may have remained unnoticed due to the reduced pathogenicity of the species. Overall, our findings suggest that B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus have different demographic histories despite their morphological resemblance and ecological overlap. These results suggest that Bursaphelenchus species are a valuable model for understanding the dispersion of invasive species and the risks posed to native biodiversity and ecosystems.

  9. Modeling patterns in data using linear and related models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, M.E.

    1996-06-01

    This report considers the use of linear models for analyzing data related to reliability and safety issues of the type usually associated with nuclear power plants. The report discusses some of the general results of linear regression analysis, such as the model assumptions and properties of the estimators of the parameters. The results are motivated with examples of operational data. Results about the important case of a linear regression model with one covariate are covered in detail. This case includes analysis of time trends. The analysis is applied with two different sets of time trend data. Diagnostic procedures and tests for the adequacy of the model are discussed. Some related methods such as weighted regression and nonlinear models are also considered. A discussion of the general linear model is also included. Appendix A gives some basic SAS programs and outputs for some of the analyses discussed in the body of the report. Appendix B is a review of some of the matrix theoretic results which are useful in the development of linear models

  10. Closing the loop: integrating human impacts on water resources to advanced land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitchik, B. F.; Nie, W.; Rodell, M.; Kumar, S.; Li, B.

    2016-12-01

    Advanced Land Surface Models (LSMs), including those used in the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS), offer a physically consistent and spatially and temporally complete analysis of the distributed water balance. These models are constrained both by physically-based process representation and by observations ingested as meteorological forcing or as data assimilation updates. As such, they have become important tools for hydrological monitoring and long-term climate analysis. The representation of water management, however, is extremely limited in these models. Recent advances have brought prognostic irrigation routines into models used in NLDAS, while assimilation of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) derived estimates of terrestrial water storage anomaly has made it possible to nudge models towards observed states in water storage below the root zone. But with few exceptions these LSMs do not account for the source of irrigation water, leading to a disconnect between the simulated water balance and the observed human impact on water resources. This inconsistency is unacceptable for long-term studies of climate change and human impact on water resources in North America. Here we define the modeling challenge, review instances of models that have begun to account for water withdrawals (e.g., CLM), and present ongoing efforts to improve representation of human impacts on water storage across models through integration of irrigation routines, water withdrawal information, and GRACE Data Assimilation in NLDAS LSMs.

  11. Teaching and Reaching All Students: An Instructional Model for Closing the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Rebecca; Cantrell, Susan Chambers; Rightmyer, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a model for culturally responsive instruction (CRI) that represents a synthesis of research on effective literacy and content instruction for diverse middle grades learners.The article discusses the various elements of the Culturally Responsive Instruction Observation Protocol (CRIOP) model. It then examines these elements by…

  12. Dynamic Modeling of Process Technologies for Closed-Loop Water Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Lange, Kevin; Anderson, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Detailed chemical process simulations are a useful tool in designing and optimizing complex systems and architectures for human life support. Dynamic and steady-state models of these systems help contrast the interactions of various operating parameters and hardware designs, which become extremely useful in trade-study analyses. NASA s Exploration Life Support technology development project recently made use of such models to compliment a series of tests on different waste water distillation systems. This paper presents dynamic simulations of chemical process for primary processor technologies including: the Cascade Distillation System (CDS), the Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) system, the Wiped-Film Rotating Disk (WFRD), and post-distillation water polishing processes such as the Volatiles Removal Assembly (VRA) that were developed using the Aspen Custom Modeler and Aspen Plus process simulation tools. The results expand upon previous work for water recovery technology models and emphasize dynamic process modeling and results. The paper discusses system design, modeling details, and model results for each technology and presents some comparisons between the model results and available test data. Following these initial comparisons, some general conclusions and forward work are discussed.

  13. A Step Forward to Closing the Loop between Static and Dynamic Reservoir Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cancelliere M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current trend for history matching is to find multiple calibrated models instead of a single set of model parameters that match the historical data. The advantage of several current workflows involving assisted history matching techniques, particularly those based on heuristic optimizers or direct search, is that they lead to a number of calibrated models that partially address the problem of the non-uniqueness of the solutions. The importance of achieving multiple solutions is that calibrated models can be used for a true quantification of the uncertainty affecting the production forecasts, which represent the basis for technical and economic risk analysis. In this paper, the importance of incorporating the geological uncertainties in a reservoir study is demonstrated. A workflow, which includes the analysis of the uncertainty associated with the facies distribution for a fluvial depositional environment in the calibration of the numerical dynamic models and, consequently, in the production forecast, is presented. The first step in the workflow was to generate a set of facies realizations starting from different conceptual models. After facies modeling, the petrophysical properties were assigned to the simulation domains. Then, each facies realization was calibrated separately by varying permeability and porosity fields. Data assimilation techniques were used to calibrate the models in a reasonable span of time. Results showed that even the adoption of a conceptual model for facies distribution clearly representative of the reservoir internal geometry might not guarantee reliable results in terms of production forecast. Furthermore, results also showed that realizations which seem fully acceptable after calibration were not representative of the true reservoir internal configuration and provided wrong production forecasts; conversely, realizations which did not show a good fit of the production data could reliably predict the reservoir

  14. Reduced material model for closed cell metal foam infiltrated with phase change material based on high resolution numerical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsenbrügge, Christoph; Marth, Wieland; Navarro y de Sosa, Iñaki; Drossel, Welf-Guntram; Voigt, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Closed cell metal foam sandwich structures were investigated. • High resolution numerical studies were conducted using CT scan data. • A reduced model for use in commercial FE software reduces needed degrees of freedom. • Thermal inertia is increased about 4 to 5 times in PCM filled structures. • The reduced material model was verified using experimental data. - Abstract: The thermal behaviour of closed cell metal foam infiltrated with paraffin wax as latent heat storage for application in high precision tool machines was examined. Aluminium foam sandwiches with metallically bound cover layers were prepared in a powder metallurgical process and cross-sectional images of the structures were generated with X-ray computed tomography. Based on the image data a three dimensional highly detailed model was derived and prepared for simulation with the adaptive FE-library AMDiS. The pores were assumed to be filled with paraffin wax. The thermal conductivity and the transient thermal behaviour in the phase-change region were investigated. Based on the results from the highly detailed simulations a reduced model for use in commercial FE-software (ANSYS) was derived. It incorporates the properties of the matrix and the phase change material into a homogenized material. A sandwich-structure with and without paraffin was investigated experimentally under constant thermal load. The results were used to verify the reduced material model in ANSYS.

  15. Phytophthora megakarya and Phytophthora palmivora, Closely Related Causal Agents of Cacao Black Pod Rot, Underwent Increases in Genome Sizes and Gene Numbers by Different Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S.; Shao, Jonathan; Lary, David J.; Kronmiller, Brent A.; Shen, Danyu; Strem, Mary D.; Amoako-Attah, Ishmael; Akrofi, Andrew Yaw; Begoude, B.A. Didier; ten Hoopen, G. Martijn; Coulibaly, Klotioloma; Kebe, Boubacar Ismaël; Melnick, Rachel L.; Guiltinan, Mark J.; Tyler, Brett M.; Meinhardt, Lyndel W.

    2017-01-01

    Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and Phytophthora palmivora (Ppal) are closely related species causing cacao black pod rot. Although Ppal is a cosmopolitan pathogen, cacao is the only known host of economic importance for Pmeg. Pmeg is more virulent on cacao than Ppal. We sequenced and compared the Pmeg and Ppal genomes and identified virulence-related putative gene models (PGeneM) that may be responsible for their differences in host specificities and virulence. Pmeg and Ppal have estimated genome sizes of 126.88 and 151.23 Mb and PGeneM numbers of 42,036 and 44,327, respectively. The evolutionary histories of Pmeg and Ppal appear quite different. Postspeciation, Ppal underwent whole-genome duplication whereas Pmeg has undergone selective increases in PGeneM numbers, likely through accelerated transposable element-driven duplications. Many PGeneMs in both species failed to match transcripts and may represent pseudogenes or cryptic genetic reservoirs. Pmeg appears to have amplified specific gene families, some of which are virulence-related. Analysis of mycelium, zoospore, and in planta transcriptome expression profiles using neural network self-organizing map analysis generated 24 multivariate and nonlinear self-organizing map classes. Many members of the RxLR, necrosis-inducing phytophthora protein, and pectinase genes families were specifically induced in planta. Pmeg displays a diverse virulence-related gene complement similar in size to and potentially of greater diversity than Ppal but it remains likely that the specific functions of the genes determine each species’ unique characteristics as pathogens. PMID:28186564

  16. On open and closed field line regions in Tsyganenko's field model and their possible associations with horse collar auroras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn, J.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Craven, J. D.; Frank, L. A.; Elphinstone, R. D.; Stern, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    The boundary between open and closed field lines is investigated in the empirical Tsyganenko (1987) magnetic field model. All field lines extending to distances beyond -70 R(E), the tailward velocity limit of the Tsyganenko model are defined as open, while all other field lines, which cross the equatorial plane earthward of -70 R(E) and are connected with the earth at both ends, are assumed closed. It is found that this boundary at the surface of the earth, identified as the polar cap boundary, can exhibit the arrowhead shape, pointed toward the sun, which is found in horse collar auroras. For increasing activity levels, the polar cap increases in area and becomes rounder, so that the arrowhead shape is less pronounced. The presence of a net B(y) component can also lead to considerable rounding of the open flux region. The arrowhead shape is found to be closely associated with the increase of B(z) from the midnight region to the flanks of the tail, consistent with a similar increase of the plasma sheet thickness.

  17. Lattice Boltzmann model for numerical relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilseven, E; Mendoza, M

    2016-02-01

    In the Z4 formulation, Einstein equations are written as a set of flux conservative first-order hyperbolic equations that resemble fluid dynamics equations. Based on this formulation, we construct a lattice Boltzmann model for numerical relativity and validate it with well-established tests, also known as "apples with apples." Furthermore, we find that by increasing the relaxation time, we gain stability at the cost of losing accuracy, and by decreasing the lattice spacings while keeping a constant numerical diffusivity, the accuracy and stability of our simulations improve. Finally, in order to show the potential of our approach, a linear scaling law for parallelization with respect to number of CPU cores is demonstrated. Our model represents the first step in using lattice kinetic theory to solve gravitational problems.

  18. Probabilistic delay differential equation modeling of event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostwald, Dirk; Starke, Ludger

    2016-08-01

    "Dynamic causal models" (DCMs) are a promising approach in the analysis of functional neuroimaging data due to their biophysical interpretability and their consolidation of functional-segregative and functional-integrative propositions. In this theoretical note we are concerned with the DCM framework for electroencephalographically recorded event-related potentials (ERP-DCM). Intuitively, ERP-DCM combines deterministic dynamical neural mass models with dipole-based EEG forward models to describe the event-related scalp potential time-series over the entire electrode space. Since its inception, ERP-DCM has been successfully employed to capture the neural underpinnings of a wide range of neurocognitive phenomena. However, in spite of its empirical popularity, the technical literature on ERP-DCM remains somewhat patchy. A number of previous communications have detailed certain aspects of the approach, but no unified and coherent documentation exists. With this technical note, we aim to close this gap and to increase the technical accessibility of ERP-DCM. Specifically, this note makes the following novel contributions: firstly, we provide a unified and coherent review of the mathematical machinery of the latent and forward models constituting ERP-DCM by formulating the approach as a probabilistic latent delay differential equation model. Secondly, we emphasize the probabilistic nature of the model and its variational Bayesian inversion scheme by explicitly deriving the variational free energy function in terms of both the likelihood expectation and variance parameters. Thirdly, we detail and validate the estimation of the model with a special focus on the explicit form of the variational free energy function and introduce a conventional nonlinear optimization scheme for its maximization. Finally, we identify and discuss a number of computational issues which may be addressed in the future development of the approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cosmological model with Einstein - De Sitter metric and closed spatial section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichoski, U.F.

    1987-03-01

    From the hypotesis that our Galaxy, in an early stage of its evolution, was a quasar, our model expects that images of this stage can still be observed in the sky. Thus, we look in a quasar catalogue for the ones that can possibly be interpreted as images of our Galaxy in that stage, with a view to determine the parameters of the model. (author) [pt

  20. Closed-loop model: An optimization of integrated thin-film magnetic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ghazaly, Amal, E-mail: amale@stanford.edu [Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Sato, Noriyuki [Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); White, Robert M. [Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Wang, Shan X. [Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • An analytical model for inductance of thin-film magnetic devices was developed. • Different device topologies and magnetic permeabilities were addressed. • Inductance of various topologies were calculated and compared with simulation. • The model predicts simulated values with excellent accuracy. - Abstract: A generic analytical model has been developed to fully describe the flux closure through magnetic inductors. The model was applied to multiple device topologies including solenoidal single return path and dual return path inductors as well as spiral magnetic inductors for a variety of permeabilities and dimensions. The calculated inductance values from the analytical model were compared with simulated results for each of the analyzed device topologies and found to agree within 0.1 nH for the range of typical thin-film magnetic permeabilities (∼10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3}). Furthermore, the model can be used to evaluate behavior in other integrated or discrete magnetic devices with either non-isotropic or isotropic permeability and used to produce more efficient device designs in the future.

  1. Testing of advanced technique for linear lattice and closed orbit correction by modeling its application for iota ring at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, A. [Fermilab

    2016-10-09

    Many modern and most future accelerators rely on precise configuration of lattice and trajectory. The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) at Fermilab that is coming to final stages of construction will be used to test advanced approaches of control over particles dynamics. Various experiments planned at IOTA require high flexibility of lattice configuration as well as high precision of lattice and closed orbit control. Dense element placement does not allow to have ideal configuration of diagnostics and correctors for all planned experiments. To overcome this limitations advanced method of lattice an beneficial for other machines. Developed algorithm is based on LOCO approach, extended with various sets of other experimental data, such as dispersion, BPM BPM phase advances, beam shape information from synchrotron light monitors, responses of closed orbit bumps to variations of focusing elements and other. Extensive modeling of corrections for a big number of random seed errors is used to illustrate benefits from developed approach.

  2. Cross-species comparison of the gut: Differential gene expression sheds light on biological differences in closely related tenebrionids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppert, Brenda; Perkin, Lindsey; Martynov, Alexander G; Elpidina, Elena N

    2018-04-01

    The gut is one of the primary interfaces between an insect and its environment. Understanding gene expression profiles in the insect gut can provide insight into interactions with the environment as well as identify potential control methods for pests. We compared the expression profiles of transcripts from the gut of larval stages of two coleopteran insects, Tenebrio molitor and Tribolium castaneum. These tenebrionids have different life cycles, varying in the duration and number of larval instars. T. castaneum has a sequenced genome and has been a model for coleopterans, and we recently obtained a draft genome for T. molitor. We assembled gut transcriptome reads from each insect to their respective genomes and filtered mapped reads to RPKM>1, yielding 11,521 and 17,871 genes in the T. castaneum and T. molitor datasets, respectively. There were identical GO terms in each dataset, and enrichment analyses also identified shared GO terms. From these datasets, we compiled an ortholog list of 6907 genes; 45% of the total assembled reads from T. castaneum were found in the top 25 orthologs, but only 27% of assembled reads were found in the top 25 T. molitor orthologs. There were 2281 genes unique to T. castaneum, and 2088 predicted genes unique to T. molitor, although improvements to the T. molitor genome will likely reduce these numbers as more orthologs are identified. We highlight a few unique genes in T. castaneum or T. molitor that may relate to distinct biological functions. A large number of putative genes expressed in the larval gut with uncharacterized functions (36 and 68% from T. castaneum and T. molitor, respectively) support the need for further research. These data are the first step in building a comprehensive understanding of the physiology of the gut in tenebrionid insects, illustrating commonalities and differences that may be related to speciation and environmental adaptation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Developmental dysplasia of the hip: A computational biomechanical model of the path of least energy for closed reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwawi, Mohammed A; Moslehy, Faissal A; Rose, Christopher; Huayamave, Victor; Kassab, Alain J; Divo, Eduardo; Jones, Brendan J; Price, Charles T

    2017-08-01

    This study utilized a computational biomechanical model and applied the least energy path principle to investigate two pathways for closed reduction of high grade infantile hip dislocation. The principle of least energy when applied to moving the femoral head from an initial to a final position considers all possible paths that connect them and identifies the path of least resistance. Clinical reports of severe hip dysplasia have concluded that reduction of the femoral head into the acetabulum may occur by a direct pathway over the posterior rim of the acetabulum when using the Pavlik harness, or by an indirect pathway with reduction through the acetabular notch when using the modified Hoffman-Daimler method. This computational study also compared the energy requirements for both pathways. The anatomical and muscular aspects of the model were derived using a combination of MRI and OpenSim data. Results of this study indicate that the path of least energy closely approximates the indirect pathway of the modified Hoffman-Daimler method. The direct pathway over the posterior rim of the acetabulum required more energy for reduction. This biomechanical analysis confirms the clinical observations of the two pathways for closed reduction of severe hip dysplasia. The path of least energy closely approximated the modified Hoffman-Daimler method. Further study of the modified Hoffman-Daimler method for reduction of severe hip dysplasia may be warranted based on this computational biomechanical analysis. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Orthopaedic Research Society. J Orthop Res 35:1799-1805, 2017. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Orthopaedic Research Society.

  4. Educational tool for modeling and simulation of a closed regenerative life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Tatsuya; Fanchiang, Christine; Aoki, Hirofumi; Newman, Dava J.

    For long term missions on the moon and Mars, regenerative life support systems emerge as a promising key technology for sustaining successful explorations with reduced re-supply logistics and cost. The purpose of this study was to create a simple model of a regenerative life support system which allows preliminary investigation of system responses. A simplified regenerative life support system was made with MATLAB Simulink ™. Mass flows in the system were simplified to carbon, water, oxygen and carbon dioxide. The subsystems included crew members, animals, a plant module, and a waste processor, which exchanged mass into and out of mass reservoirs. Preliminary numerical simulations were carried out to observe system responses. The simplified life support system model allowed preliminary investigation of the system response to perturbations such as increased or decreased number of crew members. The model is simple and flexible enough to add new components, and also possible to numerically predict non-linear subsystem functions and responses. Future work includes practical issues such as energy efficiency, air leakage, nutrition, and plant growth modeling. The model functions as an effective teaching tool about how a regenerative advanced life support system works.

  5. Ecology and distribution of two sympatric, closely related sponge species, Halichondria panicea (Pallas, 1766) and H. bowerbanki Burton, 1930 (Porifera, Demospongiae), with remarks on their speciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vethaak, A.D.; Cronie, R.J.A.; Soest, van R.W.M.

    1982-01-01

    North Atlantic coastal waters harbour two closely related sympatric sponges belonging to the genus Halichondria, viz. H. panicea and H. bowerbanki. From the study of their littoral and sublittoral microdistribution and ecology in the Oosterschelde area (= Eastern Scheldt, S.W. part of The

  6. Niche segregation in two closely related species of stickleback along a physiological axis: explaining multidecadel changes in fish distribution from iron-induced respiratory impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, W.C.E.P.; Munckhof, van den P.J.J.; Pollux, B.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Acute exposure to iron can be lethal to fish, but long-term sublethal impacts of iron require further study. Here we investigated whether the spatial and temporal distribution (1967–2004) of two closely related species of stickleback matched the spatial distribution of iron concentrations in the

  7. Phytophthora megakarya and P. palmivora, closely related causal agents of cacao black pod rot, underwent increases in genome sizes and gene numbers by different mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and P. palmivora (Ppal) are closely related species causing black pod rot of cacao. While Ppal is a cosmopolitan plant pathogen, cacao is the only known host of importance for Pmeg. Pmeg is more virulent on cacao than Ppal. Therefore, we have sequenced both the Pmeg and...

  8. A pathway closely related to the (D)-tagatose pathway of gram-negative enterobacteria identified in the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heiden, Edwige; Delmarcelle, Michaël; Lebrun, Sarah; Freichels, Régine; Brans, Alain; Vastenavond, Christian M; Galleni, Moreno; Joris, Bernard

    2013-06-01

    We report the first identification of a gene cluster involved in d-tagatose catabolism in Bacillus licheniformis. The pathway is closely related to the d-tagatose pathway of the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca, in contrast to the d-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway described in the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus.

  9. A Pathway Closely Related to the d-Tagatose Pathway of Gram-Negative Enterobacteria Identified in the Gram-Positive Bacterium Bacillus licheniformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heiden, Edwige; Lebrun, Sarah; Freichels, Régine; Brans, Alain; Vastenavond, Christian M.; Galleni, Moreno; Joris, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    We report the first identification of a gene cluster involved in d-tagatose catabolism in Bacillus licheniformis. The pathway is closely related to the d-tagatose pathway of the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca, in contrast to the d-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway described in the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:23524682

  10. A Pathway Closely Related to the d-Tagatose Pathway of Gram-Negative Enterobacteria Identified in the Gram-Positive Bacterium Bacillus licheniformis

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Heiden, Edwige; Delmarcelle, Michaël; Lebrun, Sarah; Freichels, Régine; Brans, Alain; Vastenavond, Christian M.; Galleni, Moreno; Joris, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    We report the first identification of a gene cluster involved in d-tagatose catabolism in Bacillus licheniformis. The pathway is closely related to the d-tagatose pathway of the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca, in contrast to the d-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway described in the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus.

  11. [Identification and analysis of Corydalis boweri, Meconopsis horridula and their close related species of the same genus by using ITS2 DNA barcode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Rong-kun; Bi, Zhen-fei; Bai, Rui-xue; Ren, Yao-yao; Tan, Rui; Song, Liang-ke; Li, Di-qiang; Mao, Can-quan

    2015-04-01

    The study is aimed to ensure the quality and safety of medicinal plants by using ITS2 DNA barcode technology to identify Corydalis boweri, Meconopsis horridula and their close related species. The DNA of 13 herb samples including C. boweri and M. horridula from Lhasa of Tibet was extracted, ITS PCR were amplified and sequenced. Both assembled and web downloaded 71 ITS2 sequences were removed of 5. 8S and 28S. Multiple sequence alignment was completed and the intraspecific and interspecific genetic distances were calculated by MEGA 5.0, while the neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees were constructed. We also predicted the ITS2 secondary structure of C. boweri, M. horridula and their close related species. The results showed that ITS2 as DNA barcode was able to identify C. boweri, M. horridula as well as well as their close related species effectively. The established based on ITS2 barcode method provides the regular and safe detection technology for identification of C. boweri, M. horridula and their close related species, adulterants and counterfeits, in order to ensure their quality control, safe medication, reasonable development and utilization.

  12. Distinctive Features of Oral Cancer in Changhua County: High Incidence, Buccal Mucosa Preponderance, and a Close Relation to Betel Quid Chewing Habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Chun Su

    2007-01-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that the high incidence and buccal mucosa preponderance of oral cancer in Changhua may have an exceptionally close relation with patients' betel quid chewing habit, and other unknown etiologic factors may also be present locally. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(3:225-233

  13. Transcription factor fos-related antigen-2 induces progressive peripheral vasculopathy in mice closely resembling human systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Britta; Busch, Nicole; Jüngel, Astrid; Pileckyte, Margarita; Gay, Renate E; Michel, Beat A; Schett, Georg; Gay, Steffen; Distler, Jörg; Distler, Oliver

    2009-12-08

    Microvascular damage is one of the first pathological changes in systemic sclerosis. In this study, we investigated the role of Fos-related antigen-2 (Fra-2), a transcription factor of the activator protein-1 family, in the peripheral vasculopathy of systemic sclerosis and examined the underlying mechanisms. Expression of Fra-2 protein was significantly increased in skin biopsies of systemic sclerosis patients compared with healthy controls, especially in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. Fra-2 transgenic mice developed a severe loss of small blood vessels in the skin that was paralleled by progressive skin fibrosis at 12 weeks of age. The reduction in capillary density was preceded by a significant increase in apoptosis in endothelial cells at week 9 as detected by immunohistochemistry. Similarly, suppression of Fra-2 by small interfering RNA prevented human microvascular endothelial cells from staurosporine-induced apoptosis and improved both the number of tubes and the cumulative tube lengths in the tube formation assay. In addition, cell migration in the scratch assay and vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent chemotaxis in a modified Boyden chamber assay were increased after transfection of human microvascular endothelial cells with Fra-2 small interfering RNA, whereas proliferation was not affected. Fra-2 is present in human systemic sclerosis and may contribute to the development of microvasculopathy by inducing endothelial cell apoptosis and by reducing endothelial cell migration and chemotaxis. Fra-2 transgenic mice are a promising preclinical model to study the mechanisms and therapeutic approaches of the peripheral vasculopathy in systemic sclerosis.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of blood brain/nerve barrier dysfunction and leukocyte infiltration: closely related or discordant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa eWeise

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other organs the nervous system is secluded from the rest of the organism by the blood brain (BBB or blood nerve barrier (BNB preventing passive influx of fluids from the circulation. Similarly, leukocyte entry to the nervous system is tightly controlled. Breakdown of these barriers and cellular inflammation are hallmarks of inflammatory as well as ischemic neurological diseases and thus represent potential therapeutic targets. The spatiotemporal relationship between BBB/BNB disruption and leukocyte infiltration has been a matter of debate. We here review contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI as a non-invasive tool to depict barrier dysfunction and its relation to macrophage infiltration in the central and peripheral nervous system under pathological conditions. Novel experimental contrast agents like Gadofluorine M (Gf allow more sensitive assessment of BBB dysfunction than conventional Gadolinium (Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI. In addition, Gf facilitates visualization of functional and transient alterations of the BBB remote from lesions. Cellular contrast agents such as superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO and perfluorocarbons (PFC enable assessment of leukocyte (mainly macrophage infiltration by MR technology. Combined use of these MR contrast agents disclosed that leukocytes can enter the nervous system independent from a disturbance of the BBB, and vice versa, a dysfunctional BBB/BNB by itself is not sufficient to attract inflammatory cells from the circulation. We will illustrate these basic imaging findings in animal models of multiple sclerosis (MS, cerebral ischemia and traumatic nerve injury and review corresponding findings in patients.

  15. Numerical modelling of the dehydration of waste concrete fines : An attempt to close the recycling loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklay, Abraham; Vahidi, A.; Lotfi, Somayeh; Di Maio, F.; Rem, P.C.; Di Maio, F.; Lotfi, S.; Bakker, M.; Hu, M.; Vahidi, A.

    2017-01-01

    The ever-increasing interest on sustainable raw materials has urged the quest for recycled materials that can be used as a partial or total replacement of fine fractions in the production of concrete. This paper demonstrates a modelling study of recycled concrete waste fines and the possibility of

  16. 3D MODELLING OF A HISTORICAL BUILDING USING CLOSE-RANGE PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND REMOTELY PILOTED AIRCRAFT SYSTEM (RPAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lo Brutto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The photogrammetric survey of architectural Cultural Heritage is a very useful and standard process in order to obtain accurate 3D data for the documentation and visualization of historical buildings. In particular, the integration of terrestrial close-range photogrammetry and Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPASs photogrammetry allows to create accurate and reliable 3D models of buildings and to monitor their state of conservation. The use of RPASs has indeed become more popular in Cultural Heritage survey to measure and detect areas that cannot normally be covered using terrestrial photogrammetry or terrestrial laser scanner. The paper presents the results of a photogrammetric survey executed to document the monumental complex of Villa Lampedusa ai Colli in Palermo (Italy, one of the most important historical buildings of the town. An integrated survey by close-range photogrammetry and RPAS photogrammetry was planned and carried out to reconstruct the 3D digital model of the monumental complex. Different images configurations (terrestrial, aerial nadiral, aerial parallel and oblique to the façades have been acquired; data have been processed to verify the accuracy of the photogrammetric survey as regards the camera calibration parameters and the number of Ground Control Points (GCPs measured on building façades. A very detailed 3D digital model and high-resolution ortho-images of the façades were obtained in order to carry out further analysis for historical studies, conservation and restoration project. The final 3D model of Villa Lampedusa ai Colli has been compared with a laser scanner 3D model to evaluate the quality of the photogrammetric approach. Beyond a purely metric assessment, 3D textured model has employed to generate 2D representations, useful for documentation purpose and to highlight the most significant damaged areas. 3D digital models and 2D representations can effectively contribute to monitor the state of conservation

  17. D Modelling of a Historical Building Using Close-Range Photogrammetry and Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (rpas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Brutto, M.; Ebolese, D.; Dardanelli, G.

    2018-05-01

    The photogrammetric survey of architectural Cultural Heritage is a very useful and standard process in order to obtain accurate 3D data for the documentation and visualization of historical buildings. In particular, the integration of terrestrial close-range photogrammetry and Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPASs) photogrammetry allows to create accurate and reliable 3D models of buildings and to monitor their state of conservation. The use of RPASs has indeed become more popular in Cultural Heritage survey to measure and detect areas that cannot normally be covered using terrestrial photogrammetry or terrestrial laser scanner. The paper presents the results of a photogrammetric survey executed to document the monumental complex of Villa Lampedusa ai Colli in Palermo (Italy), one of the most important historical buildings of the town. An integrated survey by close-range photogrammetry and RPAS photogrammetry was planned and carried out to reconstruct the 3D digital model of the monumental complex. Different images configurations (terrestrial, aerial nadiral, aerial parallel and oblique to the façades) have been acquired; data have been processed to verify the accuracy of the photogrammetric survey as regards the camera calibration parameters and the number of Ground Control Points (GCPs) measured on building façades. A very detailed 3D digital model and high-resolution ortho-images of the façades were obtained in order to carry out further analysis for historical studies, conservation and restoration project. The final 3D model of Villa Lampedusa ai Colli has been compared with a laser scanner 3D model to evaluate the quality of the photogrammetric approach. Beyond a purely metric assessment, 3D textured model has employed to generate 2D representations, useful for documentation purpose and to highlight the most significant damaged areas. 3D digital models and 2D representations can effectively contribute to monitor the state of conservation of historical

  18. Dragging effect on the inertial frame and the contribution of matter to the gravitational ''constant'' in a closed cosmological model of the Brans-Dicke theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, A.

    1979-01-01

    The perturbation by a spherical rotating shell is investigated in a closed homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model of the Brans-Dicke theory to first order in an angular velocity of the shell. This model has a negative coupling parameter of the scalar field and satisfies the relation G (t) M/c 2 a (t) = π. The inertial frame at the origin is dragged completely with the same angular velocity when the rotating shell covers the whole universe. By a similar perturbation method, the distance dependence of the contribution from matter to the scalar field at the origin is obtained in this model. The contribution from nearby matter is negative because of the negative coupling constant, but the contribution from the whole universe is positive. The gravitational ''constant'' is almost determined by matter in the distant region

  19. A Two-Stage Algorithm for the Closed-Loop Location-Inventory Problem Model Considering Returns in E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Facility location and inventory control are critical and highly related problems in the design of logistics system for e-commerce. Meanwhile, the return ratio in Internet sales was significantly higher than in the traditional business. Focusing on the existing problem in e-commerce logistics system, we formulate a closed-loop location-inventory problem model considering returned merchandise to minimize the total cost which is produced in both forward and reverse logistics networks. To solve this nonlinear mixed programming model, an effective two-stage heuristic algorithm named LRCAC is designed by combining Lagrangian relaxation with ant colony algorithm (AC. Results of numerical examples show that LRCAC outperforms ant colony algorithm (AC on optimal solution and computing stability. The proposed model is able to help managers make the right decisions under e-commerce environment.

  20. Relating derived relations as a model of analogical reasoning: reaction times and event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Regan, Donal; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Commins, Sean; Walsh, Derek; Stewart, Ian; Smeets, Paul M; Whelan, Robert; Dymond, Simon

    2005-11-01

    The current study aimed to test a Relational Frame Theory (RFT) model of analogical reasoning based on the relating of derived same and derived difference relations. Experiment 1 recorded reaction time measures of similar-similar (e.g., "apple is to orange as dog is to cat") versus different-different (e.g., "he is to his brother as chalk is to cheese") derived relational responding, in both speed-contingent and speed-noncontingent conditions. Experiment 2 examined the event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with these two response patterns. Both experiments showed similar-similar responding to be significantly faster than different-different responding. Experiment 2 revealed significant differences between the waveforms of the two response patterns in the left-hemispheric prefrontal regions; different-different waveforms were significantly more negative than similar-similar waveforms. The behavioral and neurophysiological data support the RFT prediction that, all things being equal, similar-similar responding is relationally "simpler" than, and functionally distinct from, different-different analogical responding. The ERP data were fully consistent with findings in the neurocognitive literature on analogy. These findings strengthen the validity of the RFT model of analogical reasoning and supplement the behavior-analytic approach to analogy based on the relating of derived relations.

  1. Representation and Incorporation of Close Others' Responses: The RICOR Model of Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eliot R; Mackie, Diane M

    2015-08-03

    We propose a new model of social influence, which can occur spontaneously and in the absence of typically assumed motives. We assume that perceivers routinely construct representations of other people's experiences and responses (beliefs, attitudes, emotions, and behaviors), when observing others' responses or simulating the responses of unobserved others. Like representations made accessible by priming, these representations may then influence the process that generates perceivers' own responses, without intention or awareness, especially when there is a strong social connection to the other. We describe evidence for the basic properties and important moderators of this process, which distinguish it from other mechanisms such as informational, normative, or social identity influence. The model offers new perspectives on the role of others' values in producing cultural differences, the persistence and power of stereotypes, the adaptive reasons for being influenced by others' responses, and the impact of others' views about the self. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  2. Sodium oxide aerosol behavior in a closed vessel. Comparison of computer modeling with aerosol experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermandjian, Jean.

    1979-08-01

    Fast breeder reactor safety needs models validated to predict the behavior of sodium aerosols in the different reactor compartments during hypothetical sodium accident. Besides their chemical toxicity, the sodium aerosols are a transfer vector of radioactivity during a contaminated sodium fire. The purpose of this work is to validate models (HAARM 2 and PARDISEKO 3) with tests of sodium pool fires in a 400 m 3 concrete vessel in a confined atmosphere (CASSANDRE tests). The comparison between calculations and experimental results reveals that difficulties still exist, especially as to the selection of the values to be given to some input parameters (physical data of experimental origin, in particular the aerosols source function, the characteristics of the distribution of the emitted particles and the form factor of the agglomerated particles) [fr

  3. Numerical Field Model Simulation of Full Scale Fire Tests in a Closed Spherical/Cylindrical Vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    the behavior of an actual fire on board a ship. The computer model will be verified by the experimental data obtained in Fire-l. It is important to... behavior in simulations where convection is important. The upwind differencing scheme takes into account the unsymmetrical phenomenon of convection by using...TANK CELL ON THE NORTH SIDE) FOR A * * PARTICULAR FIRE CELL * * COSUMS (I,J) = THE ARRAY TO STORE THE SIMILIAR VALUE FOR THE FIRE * * CELL TO THE SOUTH

  4. Mimetic Muscles in a Despotic Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Differ from Those in a Closely Related Tolerant Macaque (M. nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; Micheletta, Jérôme

    2016-10-01

    Facial displays (or expressions) are a primary means of visual communication among conspecifics in many mammalian orders. Macaques are an ideal model among primates for investigating the co-evolution of facial musculature, facial displays, and social group size/behavior under the umbrella of "ecomorphology". While all macaque species share some social behaviors, dietary, and ecological parameters, they display a range of social dominance styles from despotic to tolerant. A previous study found a larger repertoire of facial displays in tolerant macaque species relative to despotic species. The present study was designed to further explore this finding by comparing the gross morphological features of mimetic muscles between the Sulawesi macaque (Macaca nigra), a tolerant species, and the rhesus macaque (M. mulatta), a despotic species. Five adult M. nigra heads were dissected and mimetic musculature was compared to those from M. mulatta. Results showed that there was general similarity in muscle presence/absence between the species as well as muscle form except for musculature around the external ear. M. mulatta had more musculature around the external ear than M. nigra. In addition, M. nigra lacked a zygomaticus minor while M. mulatta is reported to have one. These morphological differences match behavioral observations documenting a limited range of ear movements used by M. nigra during facial displays. Future studies focusing on a wider phylogenetic range of macaques with varying dominance styles may further elucidate the roles of phylogeny, ecology, and social variables in the evolution of mimetic muscles within Macaca Anat Rec, 299:1317-1324, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Validation of the close-to-delivery prediction model for vaginal birth after cesarean delivery in a Middle Eastern cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Aziz, Ahmed; Abd Rabbo, Amal; Sayed Ahmed, Waleed A; Khamees, Rasha E; Atwa, Khaled A

    2016-07-01

    To validate a prediction model for vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) that incorporates variables available at admission for delivery among Middle Eastern women. The present prospective cohort study enrolled women at 37weeks of pregnancy or more with cephalic presentation who were willing to attempt a trial of labor (TOL) after a single prior low transverse cesarean delivery at Al-Jahra Hospital, Kuwait, between June 2013 and June 2014. The predicted success rate of VBAC determined via the close-to-delivery prediction model of Grobman et al. was compared between participants whose TOL was and was not successful. Among 203 enrolled women, 140 (69.0%) had successful VBAC. The predicted VBAC success rate was higher among women with successful TOL (82.4%±13.1%) than among those with failed TOL (67.7%±18.3%; P30%-40% to >90%-100%, the actual success rate was 20%, 30.7%, 38.5%, 59.1%, 71.4%, 76%, and 84.5%, respectively (r=0.98, P=0.013). The close-to-delivery prediction model was found to be applicable to Middle Eastern women and might predict VBAC success rates, thereby decreasing morbidities associated with failed TOL. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The stomatogastric nervous system as a model for studying sensorimotor interactions in real-time closed-loop conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly eDaur

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The perception of proprioceptive signals that report the internal state of the body is one of the essential tasks of the nervous system and helps to continuously adapt body movements to changing circumstances. Despite the impact of proprioceptive feedback on motor activity it has rarely been studied in conditions in which motor output and sensory activity interact as they do in behaving animals, i.e. in closed-loop conditions. The interaction of motor and sensory activities, however, can create emergent properties that may govern the functional characteristics of the system. We here demonstrate the use of a well-characterized model system for central pattern generation, the stomatogastric nervous system, for studying these properties in vitro. We created a real-time computer model of a single-cell muscle tendon organ in the gastric mill of the crab foregut that uses intracellular current injections to control the activity of the biological proprioceptor. The resulting motor output of a gastric mill motor neuron is then recorded intracellularly and fed into a simple muscle model consisting of a series of low-pass filters. The muscle output is used to activate a one-dimensional Hodgkin-Huxley type model of the muscle tendon organ in real-time, allowing closed-loop conditions. Model properties were either hand-tuned to achieve the best match with data from semi-intact muscle preparations, or an exhaustive search was performed to determine the best set of parameters. We report the real-time capabilities of our models, its performance and its interaction with the biological motor system.

  7. Coupling of transverse and longitudinal collective motions due to closed orbit distortion and dispersion in a two-particle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin Yongho.

    1986-09-01

    In order to explain the large discrepancy between the measured transverse coherent tune shifts and analytical ones in a short bunch in PETRA, the effects of the closed orbit distortion y co and the dispersion η on a beam instability is studied with a two-particle model. It follows the result which supports Kohaupt's previous results; they hardly contribute to real tune shift, while the momentum dependence of the wake force can make a beam unstable, with the growth rate which is proportional to the product of y co and η. (orig.)

  8. Melatonin Does Not Affect Oxidative/Inflammatory Biomarkers in a Closed-Chest Porcine Model of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halladin, Natalie L.; Ekelof, Sarah; Jensen, Svend Eggert

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To test whether melatonin reduces oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers in a closed-chest porcine model of acute myocardial infarction. Materials and Methods: Twenty pigs were randomized to receive a total dosage of 200 mg (0.4 mg/ml) of melatonin, or placebo immediately prior to reperfusion....... There was an increase in hs-TnT, but no significant difference between the melatonin-treated and placebo-treated groups. There were no significant differences in development of any of the circulating plasma markers between the two groups. Conclusion: Melatonin treatment did not result in reduction of inflammatory...

  9. Closed-form estimates of the domain of attraction for nonlinear systems via fuzzy-polynomial models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarch, José Luis; Sala, Antonio; Ariño, Carlos Vicente

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the domain of attraction of the origin of a nonlinear system is estimated in closed form via level sets with polynomial boundaries, iteratively computed. In particular, the domain of attraction is expanded from a previous estimate, such as a classical Lyapunov level set. With the use of fuzzy-polynomial models, the domain of attraction analysis can be carried out via sum of squares optimization and an iterative algorithm. The result is a function that bounds the domain of attraction, free from the usual restriction of being positive and decrescent in all the interior of its level sets.

  10. Which model of truth and reconciliation applies to former Yugoslavia?: Some thoughts on the closing panel discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Jelena

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a reflection on the final panel discussion of the conference "Which Model of Truth and Reconciliation applies to ex-Yugoslavia?". By the means of sequential and hierarchical analysis of the argumentative structure of the discussion, the author «extracts» key dimensions of the expert discourse on truth and reconciliation using the case of the mentioned panel discussion. By identifying the points of consensus the author seeks to describe the notion of truth and reconciliation as it emerged in the closing panel discussion of the conference.

  11. Code package {open_quotes}SVECHA{close_quotes}: Modeling of core degradation phenomena at severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veshchunov, M.S.; Kisselev, A.E.; Palagin, A.V. [Nuclear Safety Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The code package SVECHA for the modeling of in-vessel core degradation (CD) phenomena in severe accidents is being developed in the Nuclear Safety Institute, Russian Academy of Science (NSI RAS). The code package presents a detailed mechanistic description of the phenomenology of severe accidents in a reactor core. The modules of the package were developed and validated on separate effect test data. These modules were then successfully implemented in the ICARE2 code and validated against a wide range of integral tests. Validation results have shown good agreement with separate effect tests data and with the integral tests CORA-W1/W2, CORA-13, PHEBUS-B9+.

  12. Closing the phosphorus cycle in a food system: insights from a modelling exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kernebeek, H R J; Oosting, S J; van Ittersum, M K; Ripoll-Bosch, R; de Boer, I J M

    2018-05-21

    Mineral phosphorus (P) used to fertilise crops is derived from phosphate rock, which is a finite resource. Preventing and recycling mineral P waste in the food system, therefore, are essential to sustain future food security and long-term availability of mineral P. The aim of our modelling exercise was to assess the potential of preventing and recycling P waste in a food system, in order to reduce the dependency on phosphate rock. To this end, we modelled a hypothetical food system designed to produce sufficient food for a fixed population with a minimum input requirement of mineral P. This model included representative crop and animal production systems, and was parameterised using data from the Netherlands. We assumed no import or export of feed and food. We furthermore assumed small P soil losses and no net P accumulation in soils, which is typical for northwest European conditions. We first assessed the minimum P requirement in a baseline situation, that is 42% of crop waste is recycled, and humans derived 60% of their dietary protein from animals (PA). Results showed that about 60% of the P waste in this food system resulted from wasting P in human excreta. We subsequently evaluated P input for alternative situations to assess the (combined) effect of: (1) preventing waste of crop and animal products, (2) fully recycling waste of crop products, (3) fully recycling waste of animal products and (4) fully recycling human excreta and industrial processing water. Recycling of human excreta showed most potential to reduce P waste from the food system, followed by prevention and finally recycling of agricultural waste. Fully recycling P could reduce mineral P input by 90%. Finally, for each situation, we studied the impact of consumption of PA in the human diet from 0% to 80%. The optimal amount of animal protein in the diet depended on whether P waste from animal products was prevented or fully recycled: if it was, then a small amount of animal protein in the human

  13. Modelling bacterial behaviour close to a no-slip plane boundary: the influence of bacterial geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Shum, H.; Gaffney, E. A.; Smith, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a boundary-element method used to model the hydrodynamics of a bacterium propelled by a single helical flagellum. Using this model, we optimize the power efficiency of swimming with respect to cell body and flagellum geometrical parameters, and find that optima for swimming in unbounded fluid and near a no-slip plane boundary are nearly indistinguishable. We also consider the novel optimization objective of torque efficiency and find a very different optimal shape. Excluding effects such as Brownian motion and electrostatic interactions, it is demonstrated that hydrodynamic forces may trap the bacterium in a stable, circular orbit near the boundary, leading to the empirically observable surface accumulation of bacteria. Furthermore, the details and even the existence of this stable orbit depend on geometrical parameters of the bacterium, as described in this article. These results shed some light on the phenomenon of surface accumulation of micro-organisms and offer hydrodynamic explanations as to why some bacteria may accumulate more readily than others based on morphology. © 2010 The Royal Society.

  14. Modelling bacterial behaviour close to a no-slip plane boundary: the influence of bacterial geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Shum, H.

    2010-01-13

    We describe a boundary-element method used to model the hydrodynamics of a bacterium propelled by a single helical flagellum. Using this model, we optimize the power efficiency of swimming with respect to cell body and flagellum geometrical parameters, and find that optima for swimming in unbounded fluid and near a no-slip plane boundary are nearly indistinguishable. We also consider the novel optimization objective of torque efficiency and find a very different optimal shape. Excluding effects such as Brownian motion and electrostatic interactions, it is demonstrated that hydrodynamic forces may trap the bacterium in a stable, circular orbit near the boundary, leading to the empirically observable surface accumulation of bacteria. Furthermore, the details and even the existence of this stable orbit depend on geometrical parameters of the bacterium, as described in this article. These results shed some light on the phenomenon of surface accumulation of micro-organisms and offer hydrodynamic explanations as to why some bacteria may accumulate more readily than others based on morphology. © 2010 The Royal Society.

  15. 3D Modeling of Building Indoor Spaces and Closed Doors from Imagery and Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Díaz-Vilariño

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available 3D models of indoor environments are increasingly gaining importance due to the wide range of applications to which they can be subjected: from redesign and visualization to monitoring and simulation. These models usually exist only for newly constructed buildings; therefore, the development of automatic approaches for reconstructing 3D indoors from imagery and/or point clouds can make the process easier, faster and cheaper. Among the constructive elements defining a building interior, doors are very common elements and their detection can be very useful either for knowing the environment structure, to perform an efficient navigation or to plan appropriate evacuation routes. The fact that doors are topologically connected to walls by being coplanar, together with the unavoidable presence of clutter and occlusions indoors, increases the inherent complexity of the automation of the recognition process. In this work, we present a pipeline of techniques used for the reconstruction and interpretation of building interiors based on point clouds and images. The methodology analyses the visibility problem of indoor environments and goes in depth with door candidate detection. The presented approach is tested in real data sets showing its potential with a high door detection rate and applicability for robust and efficient envelope reconstruction.

  16. Risk considerations related to lung modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, R.; Cross, F.T.

    1989-01-01

    Improved lung models provide a more accurate assessment of dose from inhalation exposures and, therefore, more accurate dose-response relationships for risk evaluation and exposure limitation. Epidemiological data for externally irradiated persons indicate that the numbers of excess respiratory tract carcinomas differ in the upper airways, bronchi, and distal lung. Neither their histogenesis and anatomical location nor their progenitor cells are known with sufficient accuracy for accurate assessment of the microdosimetry. The nuclei of sensitive cells generally can be assumed to be distributed at random in the epithelium, beneath the mucus and tips of the beating cilia and cells. In stratified epithelia, basal cells may be considered the only cells at risk. Upper-airway tumors have been observed in both therapeutically irradiated patients and in Hiroshima-Nagasaki survivors. The current International Commission on Radiological Protection Lung-Model Task Group proposes that the upper airways and lung have a similar relative risk coefficient for cancer induction. The partition of the risk weighting factor, therefore, will be proportional to the spontaneous death rate from tumors, and 80% of the weighting factor for the respiratory tract should be attributed to the lung. For Weibel lung-model branching generations 0 to 16 and 17 to 23, the Task Group proposes an 80/20 partition of the risk, i.e., 64% and 16%, respectively, of the total risk. Regarding risk in animals, recent data in rats indicate a significantly lower effectiveness for lung-cancer induction at low doses from insoluble long-lived alpha-emitters than from Rn daughters. These findings are due, in part, to the fact that different regions of the lung are irradiated. Tumors in the lymph nodes are rare in people and animals exposed to radiation.44 references

  17. Model of discontinuous plastic flow at temperature close to absolute zero

    CERN Document Server

    Marcinek, Dawid Jarosław; Sgobba, Stefano

    In the present study cryogenic tensile tests performed on different materials (316LN, JK2LB) were used. The discontinuous plastic flow phenomenon was analysed, in order to develop a constitutive model of serrated yielding as a support for analysis of structural materials at low temperatures. Devices and structures, cooled be means of liquid helium, operate at the temperatures equal or lower than 4.2 K, which for the examined materials is below the transition threshold between screw and edge dislocations. It is considered a threshold for the appearance of DPF consisting in cyclic drop of load followed by deformation jumps and generation of heat. Temperature oscillations resulting from the thermodynamic instability in stainless steel can be of the order of dT = 40 K, which is exceptionally dangerous for superconducting cables. Suitably calibrated numerical algorithm allows prediction of the behaviour of the material subjected to deformation at low temperatures. The issues presented in the present study are curr...

  18. Designing Closed-Loop Brain-Machine Interfaces Using Model Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs are broadly defined as systems that establish direct communications between living brain tissue and external devices, such as artificial arms. By sensing and interpreting neuronal activities to actuate an external device, BMI-based neuroprostheses hold great promise in rehabilitating motor disabled subjects, such as amputees. In this paper, we develop a control-theoretic analysis of a BMI-based neuroprosthetic system for voluntary single joint reaching task in the absence of visual feedback. Using synthetic data obtained through the simulation of an experimentally validated psycho-physiological cortical circuit model, both the Wiener filter and the Kalman filter based linear decoders are developed. We analyze the performance of both decoders in the presence and in the absence of natural proprioceptive feedback information. By performing simulations, we show that the performance of both decoders degrades significantly in the absence of the natural proprioception. To recover the performance of these decoders, we propose two problems, namely tracking the desired position trajectory and tracking the firing rate trajectory of neurons which encode the proprioception, in the model predictive control framework to design optimal artificial sensory feedback. Our results indicate that while the position trajectory based design can only recover the position and velocity trajectories, the firing rate trajectory based design can recover the performance of the motor task along with the recovery of firing rates in other cortical regions. Finally, we extend our design by incorporating a network of spiking neurons and designing artificial sensory feedback in the form of a charged balanced biphasic stimulating current.

  19. Identification of distinct quantitative trait loci associated with defence against the closely related aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum and A. kondoi in Medicago truncatula

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Su-Min

    2012-03-21

    Aphids are a major family of plant insect pests. Medicago truncatula and Acyrthosiphon pisum (pea aphid, PA) are model species with a suite of resources available to help dissect the mechanism underlying plant-aphid interactions. A previous study focused on monogenic and relatively strong resistance in M. truncatula to PA and other aphid species. In this study a moderate resistance to PA was characterized in detail in the M. truncatula line A17 and compared with the highly susceptible line A20 and the more resistant line Jester. The results show that PA resistance in A17 involves both antibiosis and tolerance, and that resistance is phloem based. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population (n=114) from a cross between A17 and A20 revealed that one locus, which co-segregated with AIN (Acyrthosiphon-induced necrosis) on chromosome 3, is responsible for the reduction of aphid biomass (indicator of antibiosis) for both PA and bluegreen aphid (BGA, A. kondoi), albeit to a lesser degree for PA than BGA. Interestingly, two independent loci on chromosomes 5 and 3 were identified for the plant biomass reduction (indicator of plant tolerance) by PA and BGA, respectively, demonstrating that the plant\\'s tolerance response to these two closely related aphid species is distinct. Together with previously identified major resistant (R) genes, the QTLs identified in this study are powerful tools to understand fully the spectrum of plant defence against sap-sucking insects and provide opportunities for breeders to generate effective and sustainable strategies for aphid control. 2012 The Author.

  20. Nanoscale phase transition behavior of shape memory alloys — closed form solution of 1D effective modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. P.; Sun, Q. P.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the roles of grain size (lg) and grain boundary thickness (lb) on the stress-induced phase transition (PT) behaviors of nanocrystalline shape memory alloys (SMAs) by using a Core-shell type "crystallite-amorphous composite" model. A non-dimensionalized length scale lbarg(=lg /lb) is identified as the governing parameter which is indicative of the energy competition between the crystallite and the grain boundary. Closed form analytical solutions of a reduced effective 1D model with embedded microstructure length scales of lg and lb are presented in this paper. It is shown that, with lbarg reduction, the energy of the elastic non-transformable grain boundary will gradually become dominant in the phase transition process, and eventually bring fundamental changes of the deformation behaviors: breakdown of two-phase coexistence and vanishing of superelastic hysteresis. The predictions are supported by experimental data of nanocrystalline NiTi SMAs.

  1. Closing the nuclear fuel cycle in the U.S., economics and business models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratti, Stefano; Hanson, Alan; Shakir, Sam; Louvet, Thibault

    2007-01-01

    There are different strategies available for managing used nuclear fuel. Some countries recycle used fuel to re-utilize valuable material, while others store used fuel for future disposal in geologic repositories ('once-through' fuel cycle). For the last twenty years, the U.S. has adopted the once-through cycle and has begun the development of a geologic repository for used fuel disposal at Yucca Mountain. Several factors have emerged in the last few years and have started to re-open the debate on what is the appropriate used fuel management strategy in the U.S. Most notably, cost estimates for the development of a geologic repository have escalated and are expected to keep increasing in the near future. At the same time, the U.S. is seeing a renewed interest in nuclear energy and significant nuclear power generation capacity is expected to be added to the current base. Moreover, price of uranium have experience a dramatic rise, as much as a seven-fold increase, in the last two years. Finally, the recycling strategy has proven to be operationally effective in countries other than the U.S. and a solid industrial experience base has accumulated. Recycling as part of a comprehensive nuclear waste management strategy and complementary to an exclusive once-through strategy appear to be a viable option that requires serious consideration. Several questions need to be addressed to determine the viability of recycling in the U.S. What are the underlying economics and how does recycling compare with alternative options? What approach for technology and funding has the highest success rate for such a capital-intensive project? What kind of infrastructure (recycling plant, transportation, process, etc.) is needed? What is the most appropriate development schedule? Several scenarios have been evaluated through economic modeling and analyses of system dynamics. Results indicate that a recycling approach that includes a commercially-developed integrated recycling facility

  2. A Closed-Loop Model of Operator Visual Attention, Situation Awareness, and Performance Across Automation Mode Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aaron W; Duda, Kevin R; Sheridan, Thomas B; Oman, Charles M

    2017-03-01

    This article describes a closed-loop, integrated human-vehicle model designed to help understand the underlying cognitive processes that influenced changes in subject visual attention, mental workload, and situation awareness across control mode transitions in a simulated human-in-the-loop lunar landing experiment. Control mode transitions from autopilot to manual flight may cause total attentional demands to exceed operator capacity. Attentional resources must be reallocated and reprioritized, which can increase the average uncertainty in the operator's estimates of low-priority system states. We define this increase in uncertainty as a reduction in situation awareness. We present a model built upon the optimal control model for state estimation, the crossover model for manual control, and the SEEV (salience, effort, expectancy, value) model for visual attention. We modify the SEEV attention executive to direct visual attention based, in part, on the uncertainty in the operator's estimates of system states. The model was validated using the simulated lunar landing experimental data, demonstrating an average difference in the percentage of attention ≤3.6% for all simulator instruments. The model's predictions of mental workload and situation awareness, measured by task performance and system state uncertainty, also mimicked the experimental data. Our model supports the hypothesis that visual attention is influenced by the uncertainty in system state estimates. Conceptualizing situation awareness around the metric of system state uncertainty is a valuable way for system designers to understand and predict how reallocations in the operator's visual attention during control mode transitions can produce reallocations in situation awareness of certain states.

  3. Handbook of latent variable and related models

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sik-Yum

    2011-01-01

    This Handbook covers latent variable models, which are a flexible class of models for modeling multivariate data to explore relationships among observed and latent variables.- Covers a wide class of important models- Models and statistical methods described provide tools for analyzing a wide spectrum of complicated data- Includes illustrative examples with real data sets from business, education, medicine, public health and sociology.- Demonstrates the use of a wide variety of statistical, computational, and mathematical techniques.

  4. Closed-form solution of a two-dimensional fuel temperature model for TRIGA-type reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, J B [Sandia Laboratories (United States)

    1974-07-01

    If azimuthal power density variations are ignored, the steady-state temperature distribution within a TRIGA-type fuel element is given by the solution of the Poisson equation in two dimensions (r and z) . This paper presents a closed-form solution of this equation as a function of the axial and radial power density profiles, the conductivity of the U-ZrH, the inlet temperature, specific heat and flow rate of the coolant, and the overall heat transfer coefficient. The method begins with the development of a system of linear ordinary differential equations describing mass and energy balances in the fuel and coolant. From the solution of this system, an expression for the second derivative of the fuel temperature distribution in the axial (z) direction is found. Substitution of this expression into the Poisson equation for T(r,z) reduces it from a partial differential equation to an ordinary differential equation in r, which is subsequently solved in closed-form. The results of typical calculations using the model are presented. (author)

  5. Reliable design of a closed loop supply chain network under uncertainty: An interval fuzzy possibilistic chance-constrained model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahdani, Behnam; Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, Reza; Jolai, Fariborz; Baboli, Arman

    2013-06-01

    This article seeks to offer a systematic approach to establishing a reliable network of facilities in closed loop supply chains (CLSCs) under uncertainties. Facilities that are located in this article concurrently satisfy both traditional objective functions and reliability considerations in CLSC network designs. To attack this problem, a novel mathematical model is developed that integrates the network design decisions in both forward and reverse supply chain networks. The model also utilizes an effective reliability approach to find a robust network design. In order to make the results of this article more realistic, a CLSC for a case study in the iron and steel industry has been explored. The considered CLSC is multi-echelon, multi-facility, multi-product and multi-supplier. Furthermore, multiple facilities exist in the reverse logistics network leading to high complexities. Since the collection centres play an important role in this network, the reliability concept of these facilities is taken into consideration. To solve the proposed model, a novel interactive hybrid solution methodology is developed by combining a number of efficient solution approaches from the recent literature. The proposed solution methodology is a bi-objective interval fuzzy possibilistic chance-constraint mixed integer linear programming (BOIFPCCMILP). Finally, computational experiments are provided to demonstrate the applicability and suitability of the proposed model in a supply chain environment and to help decision makers facilitate their analyses.

  6. Closed Form Representations of Some Series in Darling’s Model for Squeeze Film Damping with a Rectangular Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gugat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Compressible squeeze film damping is a phenomenon of great importance for micromachines. For example, for the optimal design of an electrostatically actuated micro-cantilever mass sensor that operates in air, it is essential to have a model for the system behavior that can be evaluated efficiently. An analytical model that is based upon a solution of the linearized Reynolds equation has been given by R.B. Darling. In this paper we explain how some infinite sums that appear in Darling’s model can be evaluated analytically. As an example of applications of these closed form representations, we compute an approximation for the critical frequency where the spring component of the reaction force on the microplate, due to the motion through the air, is equal to a certain given multiple of the damping component. We also show how some double series that appear in the model can be reduced to a single infinite series that can be approximated efficiently.

  7. The Relationship between Instructor Misbehaviors and Student Antisocial Behavioral Alteration Techniques: The Roles of Instructor Attractiveness, Humor, and Relational Closeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Christopher J.; Booth-Butterfield, Melanie; Chory, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    Using rhetorical/relational goal theory as a guiding frame, we examined relationships between instructor misbehaviors (i.e., indolence, incompetence, and offensiveness) and the likelihood of students communicating antisocial behavioral alteration techniques (BATs). More specifically, the study focused on whether students' perceptions of instructor…

  8. A Validated Set of MIDAS V5 Task Network Model Scenarios to Evaluate Nextgen Closely Spaced Parallel Operations Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Brian Francis; Hooey, Becky Lee; Haan, Nancy; Socash, Connie; Mahlstedt, Eric; Foyle, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The Closely Spaced Parallel Operations (CSPO) scenario is a complex, human performance model scenario that tested alternate operator roles and responsibilities to a series of off-nominal operations on approach and landing (see Gore, Hooey, Mahlstedt, Foyle, 2013). The model links together the procedures, equipment, crewstation, and external environment to produce predictions of operator performance in response to Next Generation system designs, like those expected in the National Airspaces NextGen concepts. The task analysis that is contained in the present report comes from the task analysis window in the MIDAS software. These tasks link definitions and states for equipment components, environmental features as well as operational contexts. The current task analysis culminated in 3300 tasks that included over 1000 Subject Matter Expert (SME)-vetted, re-usable procedural sets for three critical phases of flight; the Descent, Approach, and Land procedural sets (see Gore et al., 2011 for a description of the development of the tasks included in the model; Gore, Hooey, Mahlstedt, Foyle, 2013 for a description of the model, and its results; Hooey, Gore, Mahlstedt, Foyle, 2013 for a description of the guidelines that were generated from the models results; Gore, Hooey, Foyle, 2012 for a description of the models implementation and its settings). The rollout, after landing checks, taxi to gate and arrive at gate illustrated in Figure 1 were not used in the approach and divert scenarios exercised. The other networks in Figure 1 set up appropriate context settings for the flight deck.The current report presents the models task decomposition from the tophighest level and decomposes it to finer-grained levels. The first task that is completed by the model is to set all of the initial settings for the scenario runs included in the model (network 75 in Figure 1). This initialization process also resets the CAD graphic files contained with MIDAS, as well as the embedded

  9. Three novel rice genes closely related to the Arabidopsis IRX9, IRX9L, and IRX14 genes and their roles in xylan biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn eChiniquy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Xylan is the second most abundant polysaccharide on Earth, and represents a major component of both dicot wood and the cell walls of grasses. Much knowledge has been gained from studies of xylan biosynthesis in the model plant, Arabidopsis. In particular, the irregular xylem (irx mutants, named for their collapsed xylem cells, have been essential in gaining a greater understanding of the genes involved in xylan biosynthesis. In contrast, xylan biosynthesis in grass cell walls is poorly understood. We identified three rice genes Os07g49370 (OsIRX9, Os01g48440 (OsIRX9L, and Os06g47340 (OsIRX14, from glycosyltransferase family 43 as putative orthologs to the putative β-1,4-xylan backbone elongating Arabidopsis IRX9, IRX9L, and IRX14 genes, respectively. We demonstrate that the overexpression of the closely related rice genes, in full or partly complement the two well-characterized Arabidopsis irregular xylem (irx mutants: irx9 and irx14. Complementation was assessed by measuring dwarfed phenotypes, irregular xylem cells in stem cross sections, xylose content of stems, xylosyltransferase activity of stems, and stem strength. The expression of OsIRX9 in the irx9 mutant resulted in xylosyltransferase activity of stems that was over double that of wild type plants, and the stem strength of this line increased to 124% above that of wild type. Taken together, our results suggest that OsIRX9/OsIRX9L, and OsIRX14, have similar functions to the Arabidopsis IRX9 and IRX14 genes, respectively. Furthermore, our expression data indicate that OsIRX9 and OsIRX9L may function in building the xylan backbone in the secondary and primary cell walls, respectively. Our results provide insight into xylan biosynthesis in rice and how expression of a xylan synthesis gene may be modified to increase stem strength.

  10. Masticatory function and oral health-related quality of life in patients after partial maxillectomies with closed or open defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Mohamed M; Otomaru, Takafumi; Yeerken, Yesiboli; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    2017-07-01

    The healing pattern after surgical resection of tumors of the oral cavity involving the maxilla may vary from one patient to another. The result may be open communication between the oral and nasal cavities (open defect) or complete oronasal separation after healing of the defect area (closed defect). The purpose of this clinical study was to compare masticatory function and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) between patients with closed and open defects who had undergone a partial maxillectomy and were wearing dentomaxillary prostheses. Thirty-eight participants who had undergone a partial maxillectomy and who were wearing dentomaxillary prostheses were enrolled between September 2014 and April 2016. Participants were assigned to 2 groups according to the type of defect after healing: 19 participants had a closed defect, and 19 participants had an open defect. Masticatory function was evaluated objectively and subjectively. The objective measurement was food-mixing ability, which was assessed using color-changeable chewing gum. The subjective measurement was perceived mastication ability, rated as a masticatory score based on the patient's responses to a 35-item food intake questionnaire. OHRQoL was assessed using the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). The GOHAI questionnaire consists of 12 items reflecting 3 hypothesized domains of the impact of oral disease: physical function, psychosocial function, and pain or discomfort. Differences in the scores obtained by the 3 measurements were compared between the 2 groups, using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (α=.05). No significant differences were seen between the 2 groups in objective mixing ability, subjective masticatory score, or GOHAI (P>.05). Regarding the GOHAI physical function domain, only the swallowing item was significantly lower (P=.025) in participants with an open defect than in participants with a closed defect. Regarding the GOHAI psychological function domain, the item related to

  11. Transcription factor Fos-Related Antigen-2 induces progressive peripheral vasculopathy in mice closely resembling human systemic sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, B; Busch, N; Jüngel, A; Pileckyte, M; Gay, R E; Michel, B A; Schett, G; Gay, S; Distler, J; Distler, O

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -Microvascular damage is one of the first pathological changes in systemic sclerosis. In this study, we investigated the role of Fos-related antigen-2 (Fra-2), a transcription factor of the activator protein-1 family, in the peripheral vasculopathy of systemic sclerosis and examined the underlying mechanisms. Methods and Results-Expression of Fra-2 protein was significantly increased in skin biopsies of systemic sclerosis patients compared with healthy controls, especially in endo...

  12. COMMUNICATION: Toward closed-loop optimization of deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease: concepts and lessons from a computational model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiao-jiang; Greenwald, Brian; Rabitz, Herschel; Shea-Brown, Eric; Kosut, Robert

    2007-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus with periodic, high-frequency pulse trains is an increasingly standard therapy for advanced Parkinson's disease. Here, we propose that a closed-loop global optimization algorithm may identify novel DBS waveforms that could be more effective than their high-frequency counterparts. We use results from a computational model of the Parkinsonian basal ganglia to illustrate general issues relevant to eventual clinical or experimental tests of such an algorithm. Specifically, while the relationship between DBS characteristics and performance is highly complex, global search methods appear able to identify novel and effective waveforms with convergence rates that are acceptably fast to merit further investigation in laboratory or clinical settings.

  13. Predominance of new G9P[8] rotaviruses closely related to Turkish strains in Nizhny Novgorod (Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashina, T A; Morozova, O V; Epifanova, N V; Novikova, N A

    2017-08-01

    Genotype G9P[8] rotaviruses are rare in the territory of Russia. They were found in Nizhny Novgorod only in 2011-2012 for the first time, when their proportion was 25.9%. During the next two seasons, G9P[8] strains were detected in only 1.8% of cases. Their proportion substantially increased again in 2014, and they became predominant in the city by 2016. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of gene VP7 nucleotide sequences showed that this increase was accompanied by the emergence of new strains in the population. These isolates were related to Turkish strains, but not to Russian ones detected earlier.

  14. Resolution of an uncertain closed-loop logistics model: an application to fuzzy linear programs with risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Fan; Hsu, Hsin-Wei

    2010-11-01

    With the urgency of global warming, green supply chain management, logistics in particular, has drawn the attention of researchers. Although there are closed-loop green logistics models in the literature, most of them do not consider the uncertain environment in general terms. In this study, a generalized model is proposed where the uncertainty is expressed by fuzzy numbers. An interval programming model is proposed by the defined means and mean square imprecision index obtained from the integrated information of all the level cuts of fuzzy numbers. The resolution for interval programming is based on the decision maker (DM)'s preference. The resulting solution provides useful information on the expected solutions under a confidence level containing a degree of risk. The results suggest that the more optimistic the DM is, the better is the resulting solution. However, a higher risk of violation of the resource constraints is also present. By defining this probable risk, a solution procedure was developed with numerical illustrations. This provides a DM trade-off mechanism between logistic cost and the risk. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Relation between nonlinear models and gauge ambiguities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, A.P.; Ramachandran, R.; Rupertsberger, H.; Skagerstam, B.S.

    1980-01-01

    We show that the solutions of a class of nonlinear models also generate gauge ambiguities in the vacuum sector of Yang-Mills theories. Our results extend known connections between gauge ambiguities and certain nonlinear sigma-models, and clarify the underlying group theory. For many nonlinear models, we also give a simple, intrinsic parametrization of physical fields (which have values in a homogeneous space of a group). (orig.)

  16. A Multiple-Plasticity Spiking Neural Network Embedded in a Closed-Loop Control System to Model Cerebellar Pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geminiani, Alice; Casellato, Claudia; Antonietti, Alberto; D'Angelo, Egidio; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2018-06-01

    The cerebellum plays a crucial role in sensorimotor control and cerebellar disorders compromise adaptation and learning of motor responses. However, the link between alterations at network level and cerebellar dysfunction is still unclear. In principle, this understanding would benefit of the development of an artificial system embedding the salient neuronal and plastic properties of the cerebellum and operating in closed-loop. To this aim, we have exploited a realistic spiking computational model of the cerebellum to analyze the network correlates of cerebellar impairment. The model was modified to reproduce three different damages of the cerebellar cortex: (i) a loss of the main output neurons (Purkinje Cells), (ii) a lesion to the main cerebellar afferents (Mossy Fibers), and (iii) a damage to a major mechanism of synaptic plasticity (Long Term Depression). The modified network models were challenged with an Eye-Blink Classical Conditioning test, a standard learning paradigm used to evaluate cerebellar impairment, in which the outcome was compared to reference results obtained in human or animal experiments. In all cases, the model reproduced the partial and delayed conditioning typical of the pathologies, indicating that an intact cerebellar cortex functionality is required to accelerate learning by transferring acquired information to the cerebellar nuclei. Interestingly, depending on the type of lesion, the redistribution of synaptic plasticity and response timing varied greatly generating specific adaptation patterns. Thus, not only the present work extends the generalization capabilities of the cerebellar spiking model to pathological cases, but also predicts how changes at the neuronal level are distributed across the network, making it usable to infer cerebellar circuit alterations occurring in cerebellar pathologies.

  17. How closely does stem growth of adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) relate to net carbon gain under experimentally enhanced ozone stress?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Winkler, J. Barbro; Löw, Markus; Nunn, Angela J.; Kuptz, Daniel; Häberle, Karl-Heinz; Reiter, Ilja M.; Matyssek, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that O 3 -induced changes in leaf-level photosynthetic parameters have the capacity of limiting the seasonal photosynthetic carbon gain of adult beech trees. To this end, canopy-level photosynthetic carbon gain and respiratory carbon loss were assessed in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) by using a physiologically based model, integrating environmental and photosynthetic parameters. The latter were derived from leaves at various canopy positions under the ambient O 3 regime, as prevailing at the forest site (control), or under an experimental twice-ambient O 3 regime (elevated O 3 ), as released through a free-air canopy O 3 fumigation system. Gross carbon gain at the canopy-level declined by 1.7%, while respiratory carbon loss increased by 4.6% under elevated O 3 . As this outcome only partly accounts for the decline in stem growth, O 3 -induced changes in allocation are referred to and discussed as crucial in quantitatively linking carbon gain with stem growth. - Highlights: ► We model O 3 -induced changes in the photosynthetic carbon gain of adult beech trees. ► Elevated O 3 decreases gross carbon gain but increases respiratory carbon loss. ► Reduction in net carbon gain only partly accounts for the decline in stem growth. ► O 3 effects on the whole-tree allocation is crucial in addition to carbon gains. - Reduction in net carbon gain at the canopy level only partly accounts for the decline in stem growth under elevated ozone.

  18. [Beginnings of the study of Western sciences, "Rangaku," in Kyoto and Osaka in close relations with the Edo school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, T

    2001-01-01

    Beginnings of the study of Western sciences, "Rangaku," in Kyoto and Osaka in the late 18th century are reviewed. Profiles and achievements of several active learners are briefly described; they include Koishi Genzui (Osaka-Kyoto), Tsuji Ranshitsu (Kyoto), Kimura Kenkadō (Osaka), and Hashimoto Sōkichi (Osaka). Genzui, after having successfully made good relations with Sugita Genpaku and Ohtsuki Gentaku, leading masters of the Edo school, played a role of an advocator for promoting "Rangaku" in Osaka and Kyoto. As a result, Kenkadō attained the publication of his book "Ikkaku Sankō," a monograph of the Western crude drug unicorn, with the help of Gentaku, who had translated a Dutch reference into Japanese for him. Ranshitsu and Sōkichi were taught the Dutch language by Gentaku; Sōkichi is known as the founder of "Rangaku" in Osaka.

  19. Hypocrea rufa/Trichoderma viride: a reassessment, and description of five closely related species with and without warted conidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaklitsch, Walter M; Samuels, Gary J; Dodd, Sarah L; Lu, Bing-Sheng; Druzhinina, Irina S

    2006-01-01

    The type species of the genus Hypocrea (Hypocreaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Fungi), H. rufa, is re-defined and epitypified using a combination of phenotype (morphology of teleomorphs and anamorphs, and characteristics in culture) and phylogenetic analyses of the translation-elongation factor 1alpha gene. Its anamorph, T. viride, the type species of Trichoderma, is re-described and epitypified. Eidamia viridescens is combined as Trichoderma viridescens and is recognised as one of the most morphologically and phylogenetically similar relatives of T. viride. Its teleomorph is newly described as Hypocrea viridescens. Contrary to frequent citations of H. rufa and T. viride in the literature, this species is relatively rare. Although both T. viride and T. viridescens have a wide geographic distribution, their greatest genetic diversity appears to be in Europe and North America. Hypocrea vinosa is characterised and its anamorph, T. vinosum sp. nov., is described. Conidia of T. vinosum are subglobose and warted. The new species T. gamsii is proposed. It shares eidamia-like morphology of conidiophores with T. viridescens, but it has smooth, ellipsoidal conidia that have the longest L/W ratio that we have seen in Trichoderma. Trichoderma scalesiae, an endophyte of trunks of Scalesia pedunculata in the Galapagos Islands, is described as new. It only produces conidia on a low-nutrient agar to which filter paper has been added. Additional phylogenetically distinct clades are recognised and provisionally delimited from the species here described. Trichoderma neokoningii, a T. koningii-like species, is described from a collection made in Peru on a fruit of Theobroma cacao infected with Moniliophthora roreri.

  20. Recent speciation in three closely related sympatric specialists: inferences using multi-locus sequence, post-mating isolation and endosymbiont data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Jun Xue

    Full Text Available Shifting between unrelated host plants is relatively rare for phytophagous insects, and distinct host specificity may play crucial roles in reproductive isolation. However, the isolation status and the relationship between parental divergence and post-mating isolation among closely related sympatric specialists are still poorly understood. Here, multi-locus sequence were used to estimate the relationship among three host plant-specific closely related flea beetles, Altica cirsicola, A. fragariae and A. viridicyanea (abbreviated as AC, AF and AV respectively. The tree topologies were inconsistent using different gene or different combinations of gene fragments. The relationship of AF+(AC+AV was supported, however, by both gene tree and species tree based on concatenated data. Post-mating reproductive data on the results of crossing these three species are best interpreted in the light of a well established phylogeny. Nuclear-induced but not Wolbachia-induced unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility, which was detected in AC-AF and AF-AV but not in AC-AV, may also suggest more close genetic affinity between AC and AV. Prevalence of Wolbachia in these three beetles, and the endosymbiont in most individuals of AV and AC sharing a same wsp haplotype may give another evidence of AF+(AC+AV. Our study also suggested that these three flea beetles diverged in a relative short time (0.94 My, which may be the result of shifting between unrelated host plants and distinct host specificity. Incomplete post-mating isolation while almost complete lineage sorting indicated that effective pre-mating isolation among these three species should have evolved.

  1. Genomic resources for wild populations of the house mouse, Mus musculus and its close relative Mus spretus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Bettina; Karakoc, Emre; Neme, Rafik; Teschke, Meike; Pfeifle, Christine; Pezer, Željka; Babiker, Hiba; Linnenbrink, Miriam; Montero, Inka; Scavetta, Rick; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Molins, Marta Puente; Schlegel, Mathias; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Altmüller, Janine; Franitza, Marek; Büntge, Anna; Künzel, Sven; Tautz, Diethard

    2016-01-01

    Wild populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus) represent the raw genetic material for the classical inbred strains in biomedical research and are a major model system for evolutionary biology. We provide whole genome sequencing data of individuals representing natural populations of M. m. domesticus (24 individuals from 3 populations), M. m. helgolandicus (3 individuals), M. m. musculus (22 individuals from 3 populations) and M. spretus (8 individuals from one population). We use a single pipeline to map and call variants for these individuals and also include 10 additional individuals of M. m. castaneus for which genomic data are publically available. In addition, RNAseq data were obtained from 10 tissues of up to eight adult individuals from each of the three M. m. domesticus populations for which genomic data were collected. Data and analyses are presented via tracks viewable in the UCSC or IGV genome browsers. We also provide information on available outbred stocks and instructions on how to keep them in the laboratory. PMID:27622383

  2. Similar local, but different systemic, metabolomics responses of closely related pine subspecies to folivory by caterpillars of the processionary moth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas-Ubach, A. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia Spain; Cerdanyola del Vallès, CREAF, Catalonia Spain; Sardans, J. [CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia Spain; Cerdanyola del Vallès, CREAF, Catalonia Spain; Hódar, J. A. [Grupo de Ecología Terrestre, Departamento de Biología Animal y Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada Spain; Garcia-Porta, J. [Institute of Evolutionary Biology, CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona Spain; Guenther, A. [Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine CA USA; Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno Czech Republic; Oravec, M. [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno Czech Republic; Urban, O. [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno Czech Republic; Peñuelas, J. [CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia Spain; Cerdanyola del Vallès, CREAF, Catalonia Spain; Leiss, K.

    2016-05-16

    Plants respond locally and systemically to herbivore attack. Most of the research conducted on plant-herbivore relationships at elemental and molecular levels have focused on nutrients or/and certain molecular compounds or specific families of defensive metabolites showing that herbivores tend to select plant individuals or species with higher nutrient concentrations and to avoid those with higher levels of phenolics and terpenes. Unfortunately, the defensive role of phenolics in conifers is still unclear. We performed stoichiometric and metabolomics, local and systemic, analyses in two subspecies of Pinus sylvestris under the herbivorous attack by the caterpillars of the pine processionary moth, an important pest in the Mediterranean Basin. Herbivorous attack was not associated with any of the elements analyzed. Both pine subspecies responded locally to folivory mainly by increasing the concentrations of various terpenes and phenolics. Systemic responses differed between subspecies and most of the metabolites presented intermediate concentrations between those of the affected parts and unattacked trees. Contrary as usually thought, foliar nutrient concentrations did not show to be a main factor of an alleged plant selection by adult female processionary moths for oviposition. Local increases in phenolics were more associated with antioxidant function for protection against oxidative damage produced by folivory. On the other hand, terpenes were directly related to defense against herbivores. Herbivory attack produced a general systemic shift in pines, including both primary and secondary metabolisms, that was, however, less intense and chemically different from the local responses. Subspecies responded similarly locally but differently to folivory at systemic level.

  3. Aedeagus morphology as a discriminant marker in two closely related Cactophilic species of Drosophila (Diptera; Drosophilidae in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Fernando F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila serido and D. antonietae are sibling species belonging to the Drosophila buzzatii cluster. Morphologically, they can only be discriminated by quantitative traits. In this paper we analyze the length and equalized average curvature of four regions of the aedeagus of D. antonietae and D. serido. Specimens of D. serido and D. antonietae were classified correctly 96.74% of the time. Based only on the variable that most contributed to the discrimination of the groups (equalized average curvature of the arch IV of the aedeagus, we observed significant intraspecific morphological divergence in D. serido in relation to the D. antonietae, in agreement with other markers. The high morphological divergence in equalized average curvature of the arch IV of the aedeagus shows that this region evolved faster than others, since the divergence of the two species. The importance of the present study to the understanding of the genetic basis that controls the formation of the aedeagus, in the species of the Drosophila buzzatii cluster, is discussed.

  4. Mycobacterium franklinii sp. nov., a species closely related to members of the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço Nogueira, Christiane; Simmon, Keith E; Chimara, Erica; Cnockaert, Margo; Carlos Palomino, Juan; Martin, Anandi; Vandamme, Peter; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wallace, Richard; Cardoso Leão, Sylvia

    2015-07-01

    Two isolates from water, D16Q19 and D16R27, were shown to be highly similar in their 16S rRNA, 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS), hsp65 and rpoB gene sequences to 'Mycobacterium franklinii' DSM 45524, described in 2011 but with the name not validly published. They are all nonpigmented rapid growers and are related phenotypically and genetically to the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group. Extensive characterization by phenotypic analysis, biochemical tests, drug susceptibility testing, PCR restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene and ITS, DNA sequencing of housekeeping genes and DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated that 'M. franklinii' DSM 45524, D16Q19 and D16R27 belong to a single species that is separated from other members of the M. chelonae-M. abscessus group. On the basis of these results we propose the formal recognition of Mycobacterium franklinii sp. nov. Strain DSM 45524(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2149(T)) is the type strain.

  5. The function of the yeast molecular chaperone Sse1 is mechanistically distinct from the closely related hsp70 family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Lance; Trott, Amy; Goeckeler, Jennifer L; Brodsky, Jeffrey L; Morano, Kevin A

    2004-05-21

    The Sse1/Hsp110 molecular chaperones are a poorly understood subgroup of the Hsp70 chaperone family. Hsp70 can refold denatured polypeptides via a C-terminal peptide binding domain (PBD), which is regulated by nucleotide cycling in an N-terminal ATPase domain. However, unlike Hsp70, both Sse1 and mammalian Hsp110 bind unfolded peptide substrates but cannot refold them. To test the in vivo requirement for interdomain communication, SSE1 alleles carrying amino acid substitutions in the ATPase domain were assayed for their ability to complement sse1Delta yeast. Surprisingly, all mutants predicted to abolish ATP hydrolysis (D8N, K69Q, D174N, D203N) complemented the temperature sensitivity of sse1Delta and lethality of sse1Deltasse2Delta cells, whereas mutations in predicted ATP binding residues (G205D, G233D) were non-functional. Complementation ability correlated well with ATP binding assessed in vitro. The extreme C terminus of the Hsp70 family is required for substrate targeting and heterocomplex formation with other chaperones, but mutant Sse1 proteins with a truncation of up to 44 C-terminal residues that were not included in the PBD were active. Remarkably, the two domains of Sse1, when expressed in trans, functionally complement the sse1Delta growth phenotype and interact by coimmunoprecipitation analysis. In addition, a functional PBD was required to stabilize the Sse1 ATPase domain, and stabilization also occurred in trans. These data represent the first structure-function analysis of this abundant but ill defined chaperone, and establish several novel aspects of Sse1/Hsp110 function relative to Hsp70.

  6. Are sympatrically speciating Midas cichlid fish special? Patterns of morphological and genetic variation in the closely related species Archocentrus centrarchus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruciano, Carmelo; Franchini, Paolo; Raffini, Francesca; Fan, Shaohua; Meyer, Axel

    2016-06-01

    Established empirical cases of sympatric speciation are scarce, although there is an increasing consensus that sympatric speciation might be more common than previously thought. Midas cichlid fish are one of the few substantiated cases of sympatric speciation, and they formed repeated radiations in crater lakes. In contrast, in the same environment, such radiation patterns have not been observed in other species of cichlids and other families of fish. We analyze morphological and genetic variation in a cichlid species (Archocentrus centrarchus) that co-inhabits several crater lakes with the Midas species complex. In particular, we analyze variation in body and pharyngeal jaw shape (two ecologically important traits in sympatrically divergent Midas cichlids) and relate that to genetic variation in mitochondrial control region and microsatellites. Using these four datasets, we analyze variation between and within two Nicaraguan lakes: a crater lake where multiple Midas cichlids have been described and a lake where the source population lives. We do not observe any within-lake clustering consistent across morphological traits and genetic markers, suggesting the absence of sympatric divergence in A. centrarchus. Genetic differentiation between lakes was low and morphological divergence absent. Such morphological similarity between lakes is found not only in average morphology, but also when analyzing covariation between traits and degree of morphospace occupation. A combined analysis of the mitochondrial control region in A. centrarchus and Midas cichlids suggests that a difference between lineages in the timing of crater lake colonization cannot be invoked as an explanation for the difference in their levels of diversification. In light of our results, A. centrarchus represents the ideal candidate to study the genomic differences between these two lineages that might explain why some lineages are more likely to speciate and diverge in sympatry than others.

  7. Genetic rescue of an endangered domestic animal through outcrossing with closely related breeds: A case study of the Norwegian Lundehund.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid V Stronen

    Full Text Available Genetic rescue, outcrossing with individuals from a related population, is used to augment genetic diversity in populations threatened by severe inbreeding and extinction. The endangered Norwegian Lundehund dog underwent at least two severe bottlenecks in the 1940s and 1960s that each left only five inbred dogs, and the approximately 1500 dogs remaining world-wide today appear to descend from only two individuals. The Lundehund has a high prevalence of a gastrointestinal disease, to which all remaining dogs may be predisposed. Outcrossing is currently performed with three Nordic Spitz breeds: Norwegian Buhund, Icelandic Sheepdog, and Norrbottenspets. Examination of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotypes based on 165K loci in 48 dogs from the four breeds revealed substantially lower genetic diversity for the Lundehund (HE 0.035 than for other breeds (HE 0.209-0.284. Analyses of genetic structure with > 15K linkage disequilibrium-pruned SNPs showed four distinct genetic clusters. Pairwise FST values between Lundehund and the candidate breeds were highest for Icelandic Sheepdog, followed by Buhund and Norrbottenspets. We assessed the presence of outlier loci among candidate breeds and examined flanking genome regions (1 megabase for genes under possible selection to identify potential adaptive differences among breeds; outliers were observed in flanking regions of genes associated with key functions including the immune system, metabolism, cognition and physical development. We suggest crossbreeding with multiple breeds as the best strategy to increase genetic diversity for the Lundehund and to reduce the incidence of health problems. For this project, the three candidate breeds were first selected based on phenotypes and then subjected to genetic investigation. Because phenotypes are often paramount for domestic breed owners, such a strategy could provide a helpful approach for genetic rescue and restoration of other domestic populations at

  8. Semi-empirical model to determine pure β--emitters in closed waste packages using Bremsstrahlung radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, S.; Hermanne, A.

    2001-01-01

    unsealed pure β - -emitting isotopes are applied. The 3 H, 35 S, 32 P and 33 P are widely used for DNA sequencing studies. Also large amount of 3 H and 14 C are used in organic compound synthesis resulting in long-lived low-level radioactive waste. The β - -particles can be detected by beta counter but it is not applicable in the case of closed waste packages, since the β - - particles loss their energy quickly and they are not capable to escape from the sealed waste package. The emitted β - -particles have continuous energy spectrum and no direct gamma radiation follow the decay. The only means of detection of these β - -particles is through the Bremsstrahlung radiation produced while the particle slows down. The cross section of the Bremsstrahlung generation process depends on the initial energy of the slowing down β - - particles and is proportional to the atomic density n and the average Z 2 of the waste matrix. The probability of this process is much lower than that of the ionisation process for beta particles but it is still high enough to produce measurable amounts of photons. We studied the 35 S and 32 P pure β - -emitter sources in sealed waste packages. The continuous nature of the Bremsstrahlung radiation prevents us using the 'full-energy photo peak area' method. Instead a Region of Interest (ROI) was defined. Unlike for the full-energy photo peak method where the detector efficiency is calculated in the function of energy, for pure β - - emitters an optimised ROI was defined in the spectrum and a special efficiency, eps*beta(E) was determined. The used geometry and the nature of the waste matrix requires time consuming efficiency calibrations of the detector system to be able to establish an efficiency - (matrix density, geometry, matrix composition, activity distribution) function. We studied experimentally the possible deviations of the eps*beta(E) function in case of non uniform activity distribution in order to be able to model the associated error

  9. A multi-objective model for closed-loop supply chain optimization and efficient supplier selection in a competitive environment considering quantity discount policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangoshai Rezaee, Mustafa; Yousefi, Samuel; Hayati, Jamileh

    2017-06-01

    Supplier selection and allocation of optimal order quantity are two of the most important processes in closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) and reverse logistic (RL). So that providing high quality raw material is considered as a basic requirement for a manufacturer to produce popular products, as well as achieve more market shares. On the other hand, considering the existence of competitive environment, suppliers have to offer customers incentives like discounts and enhance the quality of their products in a competition with other manufacturers. Therefore, in this study, a model is presented for CLSC optimization, efficient supplier selection, as well as orders allocation considering quantity discount policy. It is modeled using multi-objective programming based on the integrated simultaneous data envelopment analysis-Nash bargaining game. In this study, maximizing profit and efficiency and minimizing defective and functions of delivery delay rate are taken into accounts. Beside supplier selection, the suggested model selects refurbishing sites, as well as determining the number of products and parts in each network's sector. The suggested model's solution is carried out using global criteria method. Furthermore, based on related studies, a numerical example is examined to validate it.

  10. 2D and 3D imaging of the gas phase close to an operating model catalyst by planar laser induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomberg, Sara; Gustafson, Johan; Lundgren, Edvin; Zhou, Jianfeng; Zetterberg, Johan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, efforts have been made in catalysis related surface science studies to explore the possibilities to perform experiments at conditions closer to those of a technical catalyst, in particular at increased pressures. Techniques such as high pressure scanning tunneling/atomic force microscopy (HPSTM/AFM), near ambient pressure x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (NAPXPS), surface x-ray diffraction (SXRD) and polarization-modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRAS) at semi-realistic conditions have been used to study the surface structure of model catalysts under reaction conditions, combined with simultaneous mass spectrometry (MS). These studies have provided an increased understanding of the surface dynamics and the structure of the active phase of surfaces and nano particles as a reaction occurs, providing novel information on the structure/activity relationship. However, the surface structure detected during the reaction is sensitive to the composition of the gas phase close to the catalyst surface. Therefore, the catalytic activity of the sample itself will act as a gas-source or gas-sink, and will affect the surface structure, which in turn may complicate the assignment of the active phase. For this reason, we have applied planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) to the gas phase in the vicinity of an active model catalysts. Our measurements demonstrate that the gas composition differs significantly close to the catalyst and at the position of the MS, which indeed should have a profound effect on the surface structure. However, PLIF applied to catalytic reactions presents several beneficial properties in addition to investigate the effect of the catalyst on the effective gas composition close to the model catalyst. The high spatial and temporal resolution of PLIF provides a unique tool to visualize the on-set of catalytic reactions and to compare different model catalysts in the same reactive environment. The technique can be

  11. 2D and 3D imaging of the gas phase close to an operating model catalyst by planar laser induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, Sara; Zhou, Jianfeng; Gustafson, Johan; Zetterberg, Johan; Lundgren, Edvin

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, efforts have been made in catalysis related surface science studies to explore the possibilities to perform experiments at conditions closer to those of a technical catalyst, in particular at increased pressures. Techniques such as high pressure scanning tunneling/atomic force microscopy (HPSTM/AFM), near ambient pressure x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (NAPXPS), surface x-ray diffraction (SXRD) and polarization-modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRAS) at semi-realistic conditions have been used to study the surface structure of model catalysts under reaction conditions, combined with simultaneous mass spectrometry (MS). These studies have provided an increased understanding of the surface dynamics and the structure of the active phase of surfaces and nano particles as a reaction occurs, providing novel information on the structure/activity relationship. However, the surface structure detected during the reaction is sensitive to the composition of the gas phase close to the catalyst surface. Therefore, the catalytic activity of the sample itself will act as a gas-source or gas-sink, and will affect the surface structure, which in turn may complicate the assignment of the active phase. For this reason, we have applied planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) to the gas phase in the vicinity of an active model catalysts. Our measurements demonstrate that the gas composition differs significantly close to the catalyst and at the position of the MS, which indeed should have a profound effect on the surface structure. However, PLIF applied to catalytic reactions presents several beneficial properties in addition to investigate the effect of the catalyst on the effective gas composition close to the model catalyst. The high spatial and temporal resolution of PLIF provides a unique tool to visualize the on-set of catalytic reactions and to compare different model catalysts in the same reactive environment. The technique can be

  12. Temperature as an ecological factor in the distribution of two closely related freshwater Triclads: an experimental study. [Polycelis tenuis, polycelis nigra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascombe, C.; Pattee, E.; Bornard, C.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the ecophysiology of two closely related limnophilic Triclads, Polycelis tenuis and P. nigra, in the Lyons region was investigated. Both species have the same physiological rate in the middle zone of the temperature range, but P. tenuis prevails at both ends of the range. It tolerates higher temperatures and its reproduction rate is greater in the cold. Also, because of the existence of physiological races, it seems adapted to a greater diversity of situations. It appears as a real eurytherm. These different points contribute to the explanation of the habitat of both species in the region.

  13. On the flow of groundwater in closed tunnels. Generic hydrogeological modelling of nuclear waste repository, SFL 3-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmen, J.G.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose is to study the flow of groundwater in closed tunnels by use of mathematical models. The calculations were based on three dimensional models, presuming steady state conditions. The stochastic continuum approach was used for representation of a heterogeneous rock mass. The size of the calculated flow is given as a multiple of an unknown regional groundwater flow. The size of the flow in a tunnel has been studied, as regards: Direction of the regional groundwater flow, Tunnel length, width and conductivity; Heterogeneity of the surrounding rock mass; Flow barriers and encapsulation inside a tunnel. The study includes a model of the planned repository for nuclear waste (SFL 3-5). The flow through the tunnels is estimated for different scenarios. The stochastic continuum approach has been investigated, as regards the representation of a scale dependent heterogeneous conductivity. An analytical method is proposed for the scaling of measured conductivity values, the method is consistent with the stochastic continuum approach. Some general conclusions from the work are: The larger the amount of heterogeneity, the larger the expected flow; The effects of the heterogeneity will decrease with increased tunnel length; If the conductivity of the tunnel is smaller than a threshold value, the tunnel conductivity is the most important parameter; If the tunnel conductivity is large and the tunnel is long, the most important parameter is the direction of the regional flow; Given a heterogeneous rock mass, if the tunnel length is shorter than about 500 m, the heterogeneity will be an important parameter, for lengths shorter than about 250 m, probably the most important; The flow through an encapsulation surrounded by a flow barrier is mainly dependent on the conductivity of the barrier. 70 refs, 110 figs, 10 tabs

  14. On the flow of groundwater in closed tunnels. Generic hydrogeological modelling of nuclear waste repository, SFL 3-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmen, J.G. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Earth Sciences]|[Golder Associates AB (Sweden)

    1997-06-01

    The purpose is to study the flow of groundwater in closed tunnels by use of mathematical models. The calculations were based on three dimensional models, presuming steady state conditions. The stochastic continuum approach was used for representation of a heterogeneous rock mass. The size of the calculated flow is given as a multiple of an unknown regional groundwater flow. The size of the flow in a tunnel has been studied, as regards: Direction of the regional groundwater flow, Tunnel length, width and conductivity; Heterogeneity of the surrounding rock mass; Flow barriers and encapsulation inside a tunnel. The study includes a model of the planned repository for nuclear waste (SFL 3-5). The flow through the tunnels is estimated for different scenarios. The stochastic continuum approach has been investigated, as regards the representation of a scale dependent heterogeneous conductivity. An analytical method is proposed for the scaling of measured conductivity values, the method is consistent with the stochastic continuum approach. Some general conclusions from the work are: The larger the amount of heterogeneity, the larger the expected flow; The effects of the heterogeneity will decrease with increased tunnel length; If the conductivity of the tunnel is smaller than a threshold value, the tunnel conductivity is the most important parameter; If the tunnel conductivity is large and the tunnel is long, the most important parameter is the direction of the regional flow; Given a heterogeneous rock mass, if the tunnel length is shorter than about 500 m, the heterogeneity will be an important parameter, for lengths shorter than about 250 m, probably the most important; The flow through an encapsulation surrounded by a flow barrier is mainly dependent on the conductivity of the barrier. 70 refs, 110 figs, 10 tabs.

  15. Estimation of emissions of nonmethane organic compounds from a closed landfill site using a landfill gas emission model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwachukwu, A.N. [Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Sciences, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Science, University of Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Diya, A.W. [Health Sciences Research Group, School of Medicine, University of Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Nonmethane organic compounds (NMOC) emissions from landfills often constitute significant risks both to human health and the general environment. To date very little work has been done on tracking the emissions of NMOC from landfills. To this end, a concerted effort was made to investigate the total annual mass emission rate of NMOC from a closed landfill site in South Manchester, United Kingdom. This was done by using field estimates of NMOC concentration and the landfill parameters into the Landfill Gas Emission Model embedded in ACTS and RISK software. Two results were obtained: (i) a deterministic outcome of 1.7218 x 10-7 kg/year, which was calculated from mean values of the field estimates of NMOC concentration and the landfill parameters, and (ii) a probabilistic outcome of 1.66 x 10-7 - 1.78 x 10-7 kg/year, which is a range of value obtained after Monte Carlo simulation of the uncertain parameters of the landfill including NMOC concentration. A comparison between these two results suggests that the probabilistic outcome is a more representative and reliable estimate of the total annual mass emission of NMOC especially given the variability of the parameters of the model. Moreover, a comparison of the model result and the safety standard of 5.0 x 10-5 kg/year indicate that the mass emission of NMOC from the studied landfill is significantly less than previously thought. However, given that this can accumulate to a dangerous level over a long period of time (such as the age of this landfill site); it may have started affecting the health of the people living within the vicinity of the landfill. A case is therefore made for more studies to be carried out on the emissions of other gases such as CH4 and CO2 from the studied landfill site, as this would help to understand the synergistic effect of the various gases being emitted from the landfill.

  16. Modeling and control of fuel distribution in a dual-fuel internal combustion engine leveraging late intake valve closings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassa, Mateos [Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA; Hall, Carrie [Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA; Ickes, Andrew [Fuels, Engine and Aftertreatment Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA; Wallner, Thomas [Fuels, Engine and Aftertreatment Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA

    2016-10-07

    Advanced internal combustion engines, although generally more efficient than conventional combustion engines, often encounter limitations in multi-cylinder applications due to variations in the combustion process encountered across cylinders and between cycles. This study leverages experimental data from an inline 6-cylinder heavy-duty dual fuel engine equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), a variable geometry turbocharger, and a fully-flexible variable intake valve actuation system to study cylinder-to-cylinder variations in power production and the underlying uneven fuel distribution that causes these variations. The engine is operated with late intake valve closure timings in a dual-fuel combustion mode in which a high reactivity fuel is directly injected into the cylinders and a low reactivity fuel is port injected into the cylinders. Both dual fuel implementation and late intake valve closing (IVC) timings have been shown to improve thermal efficiency. However, experimental data from this study reveal that when late IVC timings are used on a multi-cylinder dual fuel engine a significant variation in IMEP across cylinders results and as such, leads to efficiency losses. The difference in IMEP between the different cylinders ranges from 9% at an IVC of 570°ATDC to 38% at an IVC of 610°ATDC and indicates an increasingly uneven fuel distribution. These experimental observations along with engine simulation models developed using GT-Power have been used to better understand the distribution of the port injected fuel across cylinders under various operating conditions on such dual fuel engines. This study revealed that the fuel distribution across cylinders in this dual fuel application is significantly affected by changes in the effective compression ratio as determined by the intake valve close timing as well as the design of the intake system (specifically the length of the intake runners). Late intake valve closures allow a portion of the trapped air

  17. Bead-probe complex capture a couple of SINE and LINE family from genomes of two closely related species of East Asian cyprinid directly using magnetic separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Chaobo; Guo, Baocheng; He, Shunping

    2009-01-01

    Background Short and long interspersed elements (SINEs and LINEs, respectively), two types of retroposons, are active in shaping the architecture of genomes and powerful tools for studies of phylogeny and population biology. Here we developed special protocol to apply biotin-streptavidin bead system into isolation of interspersed repeated sequences rapidly and efficiently, in which SINEs and LINEs were captured directly from digested genomic DNA by hybridization to bead-probe complex in solution instead of traditional strategy including genomic library construction and screening. Results A new couple of SINEs and LINEs that shared an almost identical 3'tail was isolated and characterized in silver carp and bighead carp of two closely related species. These SINEs (34 members), designated HAmo SINE family, were little divergent in sequence and flanked by obvious TSD indicated that HAmo SINE was very young family. The copy numbers of this family was estimated to 2 × 105 and 1.7 × 105 per haploid genome by Real-Time qPCR, respectively. The LINEs, identified as the homologs of LINE2 in other fishes, had a conserved primary sequence and secondary structures of the 3'tail region that was almost identical to that of HAmo SINE. These evidences suggest that HAmo SINEs are active and amplified recently utilizing the enzymatic machinery for retroposition of HAmoL2 through the recognition of higher-order structures of the conserved 42-tail region. We analyzed the possible structures of HAmo SINE that lead to successful amplification in genome and then deduced that HAmo SINE, SmaI SINE and FokI SINE that were similar in sequence each other, were probably generated independently and created by LINE family within the same lineage of a LINE phylogeny in the genomes of different hosts. Conclusion The presented results show the advantage of the novel method for retroposons isolation and a pair of young SINE family and its partner LINE family in two carp fishes, which strengthened

  18. Bead-probe complex capture a couple of SINE and LINE family from genomes of two closely related species of East Asian cyprinid directly using magnetic separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Baocheng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short and long interspersed elements (SINEs and LINEs, respectively, two types of retroposons, are active in shaping the architecture of genomes and powerful tools for studies of phylogeny and population biology. Here we developed special protocol to apply biotin-streptavidin bead system into isolation of interspersed repeated sequences rapidly and efficiently, in which SINEs and LINEs were captured directly from digested genomic DNA by hybridization to bead-probe complex in solution instead of traditional strategy including genomic library construction and screening. Results A new couple of SINEs and LINEs that shared an almost identical 3'tail was isolated and characterized in silver carp and bighead carp of two closely related species. These SINEs (34 members, designated HAmo SINE family, were little divergent in sequence and flanked by obvious TSD indicated that HAmo SINE was very young family. The copy numbers of this family was estimated to 2 × 105 and 1.7 × 105 per haploid genome by Real-Time qPCR, respectively. The LINEs, identified as the homologs of LINE2 in other fishes, had a conserved primary sequence and secondary structures of the 3'tail region that was almost identical to that of HAmo SINE. These evidences suggest that HAmo SINEs are active and amplified recently utilizing the enzymatic machinery for retroposition of HAmoL2 through the recognition of higher-order structures of the conserved 42-tail region. We analyzed the possible structures of HAmo SINE that lead to successful amplification in genome and then deduced that HAmo SINE, SmaI SINE and FokI SINE that were similar in sequence each other, were probably generated independently and created by LINE family within the same lineage of a LINE phylogeny in the genomes of different hosts. Conclusion The presented results show the advantage of the novel method for retroposons isolation and a pair of young SINE family and its partner LINE family in two carp

  19. Efficient Matrix Models for Relational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    base learners and h1:r is the ensemble learner. For example, consider the case where h1, . . . , hr are linear discriminants. The weighted vote of...a multilinear form naturally leads one to consider tensor factorization: e.g., UAV T is a special case of Tucker decomposition [129] on a 2D- tensor , a...matrix. Our five modeling choices can also be used to differentiate tensor factorizations, but the choices may be subtler for tensors than for

  20. Reduced Order Modeling in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiglio, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Reduced Order Modeling is an emerging yet fast developing filed in gravitational wave physics. The main goals are to enable fast modeling and parameter estimation of any detected signal, along with rapid matched filtering detecting. I will focus on the first two. Some accomplishments include being able to replace, with essentially no lost of physical accuracy, the original models with surrogate ones (which are not effective ones, that is, they do not simplify the physics but go on a very different track, exploiting the particulars of the waveform family under consideration and state of the art dimensional reduction techniques) which are very fast to evaluate. For example, for EOB models they are at least around 3 orders of magnitude faster than solving the original equations, with physically equivalent results. For numerical simulations the speedup is at least 11 orders of magnitude. For parameter estimation our current numbers are about bringing ~100 days for a single SPA inspiral binary neutron star Bayesian parameter estimation analysis to under a day. More recently, it has been shown that the full precessing problem for, say, 200 cycles, can be represented, through some new ideas, by a remarkably compact set of carefully chosen reduced basis waveforms (~10-100, depending on the accuracy requirements). I will highlight what I personally believe are the challenges to face next in this subarea of GW physics and where efforts should be directed. This talk will summarize work in collaboration with: Harbir Antil (GMU), Jonathan Blackman (Caltech), Priscila Canizares (IoA, Cambridge, UK), Sarah Caudill (UWM), Jonathan Gair (IoA. Cambridge. UK), Scott Field (UMD), Chad R. Galley (Caltech), Frank Herrmann (Germany), Han Hestahven (EPFL, Switzerland), Jason Kaye (Brown, Stanford & Courant). Evan Ochsner (UWM), Ricardo Nochetto (UMD), Vivien Raymond (LIGO, Caltech), Rory Smith (LIGO, Caltech) Bela Ssilagyi (Caltech) and MT (UMD & Caltech).

  1. A new model mimicking persistent HBV e antigen-negative infection using covalently closed circular DNA in immunocompetent mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    Full Text Available Despite the availability of an effective vaccine, hepatitis B virus (HBV infection remains a major health problem. HBV e antigen (HBeAg-negative strains have become prevalent. Previously, no animal model mimicked the clinical course of HBeAg-negative HBV infection. To establish an HBeAg-negative HBV infection model, the 3.2-kb full-length genome of HBeAg-negative HBV was cloned from a clinical sample and then circularized to form covalently closed circular (cccDNA. The resulting cccDNA was introduced into the liver of C57BL/6J mice through hydrodynamic injection. Persistence of the HBeAg-negative infection was monitored at predetermined time points using HBV-specific markers including HBV surface antigen (HBsAg, HBeAg, and HBV core antigen (HBcAg as well as DNA copies. Throughout the study, pAAV-HBV1.2 was used as a control. In mice injected with HBeAg-negative cccDNA, the HBV infection rate was 100% at the initial stage. HBsAg levels increased up to 1 week, at which point levels peaked and dropped quickly thereafter. In 60% of injected mice, HBsAg and HBcAg persisted for more than 10 weeks. High numbers of HBV DNA copies were detected in the serum and liver. Moreover, cccDNA persisted in the liver tissue of HBeAg-negative mice. In contrast to the pAAV-HBV 1.2 injected mice, no HBeAg was found in mice injected with HBeAg-negative HBV throughout the study period. These results demonstrate the first successful establishment of a model of HBeAg-negative HBV-persistent infection in immunocompetent mice. Compared to pAAV-HBV1.2-injected mice, the infection persistence and levels of serum virological and biochemical markers were approximately equal in the model mice. This model will be useful for mechanistic studies on HBeAg-negative HBV infection and will facilitate the evaluation of new antiviral drugs.

  2. MODELING OF MOVING DEFORMABLE CONTINENTS BY ACTIVE TRACERS: CLOSING AND OPENING OF OCEANS, RECIRCULATION OF OCEANIC CRUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bobrov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the ‘mantle – moving deformable continents’ system has been studied by numerical experiments. The continents move self-consistently with the mantle flows of thermo-compositional convection. Our model (two-dimensional mantle convection, non-Newtonian rheology, the presence of deformable continents demonstrates the main features of global geodynamics: convergence and divergence of continents; appearance and disappearance of subduction zones; backrolling of subduction zones; restructuring of mantle flows; stretching, breakup and divergence of continents; opening and closing of oceans; oceanic crust recirculation in the mantle, and overriding of hot mantle plumes by continents. In our study, the continental crust is modeled by active markers which transfer additional viscosity and buoyancy, while the continental lithosphere is marked only by increased viscosity with neutral buoyancy. The oceanic crust, in its turn, is modeled by active markers that have only an additional buoyancy. The principal result of our modeling is a consistency between the numerical calculations and the bimodal dynamics of the real Earth: the oceanic crust, despite its positive buoyancy near the surface, submerges in subduction zones and sinks deep into the mantle. (Some part of the oceanic crust remains attached to the continental margins for a long time. In contrast to the oceanic crust, the continental crust does not sink in subduction zones. The continental lithosphere, despite its neutral buoyancy, also remains on the surface due to its viscosity and coupling with the continental crust. It should be noted that when a continent overrides a subduction zone, the subduction zone disappears, and the flows in the mantle are locally reorganized. The effect of basalt-eclogite transition in the oceanic crust on the mantle flow pattern and on the motion of continents has been studied. Our numerical experiments show that the inclusion of this effect in the

  3. Relative Motion Modeling and Autonomous Navigation Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    74-79. [39] T. Carter and M. Humi, “Clohessy-Wiltshire Equations Modified to Include Quadratic Drag,” Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics...the effect of the absolute and differential effects of the equatorial bulge term, J2, in the linearized equations for the relative motion of...perturbation equations up to third-order used for separating the secular and periodic effects can be written as where , , , and are the Kamiltonians of

  4. [Analysis of literature citations in original articles published in Spanish and international nursing journals and journals in 2 closely related disciplines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Soler, Verónica; Flores-López, María José; Cabañero-Martínez, María José; Richart-Martínez, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    To compare Spanish nursing journals with 2 English-language standard journals, as well as Spanish journals in closely related disciplines, to identify possible quantitative and qualitative shortcomings in scientific documentation. We performed a descriptive, cross-sectional study of the references contained in 796 articles from 6 Spanish journals from 3 health disciplines (2000-2002) and 2 English-language nursing journals (2000-2001). The number of references, type of publication cited, and language of the document cited were compared in individual journals, and in journals grouped by discipline and according to language. Spanish-language nursing journals had the lowest mean number of references per article (X- = 16.20) when compared with psychology journals (X- = 31.24), medical journals (X- = 31.39) and international nursing journals (X- = 37.11). Among Spanish journals, citation of English-language publications was most frequent in medical journals (X- = 26.28) and least frequent in nursing journals (X- = 6.04). In contrast, citation of Spanish documents was most frequent in nursing journals (X- = 9.79) and least frequent in medical journals (X- = 4.43). Although scientific publication of Spanish nursing has improved, it is not comparable to publication of closely related disciplines and international nursing. The low citation of English documents clearly reveals the risk of scientific insularity.

  5. Co-evolution in a landrace meta-population: two closely related pathogens interacting with the same host can lead to different adaptive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Domenico; Rodriguez, Monica; Leonarda Murgia, Maria; Balmas, Virgilio; Bitocchi, Elena; Bellucci, Elisa; Nanni, Laura; Attene, Giovanna; Papa, Roberto

    2015-08-07

    We examined the local adaptation patterns in a system comprising several interconnected heterogeneous plant populations from which populations of two phylogenetically closely related pathogens were also sampled. The host is Hordeum vulgare (cultivated barley); the pathogens are Pyrenophora teres f. teres (net form) and Pyrenophora teres f. maculata (spot form), the causal agents of barley net blotch. We integrated two approaches, the comparison between the population structures of the host and the pathogens, and a cross-inoculation test. We demonstrated that two closely related pathogens with very similar niche specialisation and life-styles can give rise to different co-evolutionary outcomes on the same host. Indeed, we detected local adaptation for the net form of the pathogen but not for the spot form. We also provided evidence that an a-priori well-known resistance quantitative-trait-locus on barley chromosome 6H is involved in the co-evolutionary 'arms race' between the plant and the net-form pathogen. Moreover, data suggested latitudinal clines of host resistance and that different ecological conditions can result in differential selective pressures at different sites. Our data are of interest for on-farm conservation of plant genetic resources, as also in establishing efficient breeding programs and strategies for deployment of resistance genes of P. teres.

  6. Genomics of Sponge-Associated Streptomyces spp. Closely Related to Streptomyces albus J1074: Insights into Marine Adaptation and Secondary Metabolite Biosynthesis Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian, Elena; Malko, Dmitry B.; Sekurova, Olga N.; Bredholt, Harald; Rückert, Christian; Borisova, Marina E.; Albersmeier, Andreas; Kalinowski, Jörn; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Zotchev, Sergey B.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 74 actinomycete isolates were cultivated from two marine sponges, Geodia barretti and Phakellia ventilabrum collected at the same spot at the bottom of the Trondheim fjord (Norway). Phylogenetic analyses of sponge-associated actinomycetes based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated the presence of species belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, Rhodococcus, Pseudonocardia and Micromonospora. Most isolates required sea water for growth, suggesting them being adapted to the marine environment. Phylogenetic analysis of Streptomyces spp. revealed two isolates that originated from different sponges and had 99.7% identity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences, indicating that they represent very closely related strains. Sequencing, annotation, and analyses of the genomes of these Streptomyces isolates demonstrated that they are sister organisms closely related to terrestrial Streptomyces albus J1074. Unlike S. albus J1074, the two sponge streptomycetes grew and differentiated faster on the medium containing sea water. Comparative genomics revealed several genes presumably responsible for partial marine adaptation of these isolates. Genome mining targeted to secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters identified several of those, which were not present in S. albus J1074, and likely to have been retained from a common ancestor, or acquired from other actinomycetes. Certain genes and gene clusters were shown to be differentially acquired or lost, supporting the hypothesis of divergent evolution of the two Streptomyces species in different sponge hosts. PMID:24819608

  7. R7T7 glass alteration mechanism in an aqueous closed system: understanding and modelling the long term alteration kinetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chave, T.

    2007-10-01

    The long term alteration rate of the French R7T7 nuclear glass has been investigated since many years because it will define the overall resistance of the radionuclide containment matrix. Recent studies have shown that the final rate remains constant or is slightly decreasing with time. It never reaches zero. Though this residual rate is very low, only 5 nm per year at 50 C, it would be the dominant alteration phenomenon in a geological repository. Two mechanisms are suggested for explaining such behaviour: diffusion in solution of elements from glass through an amorphous altered layer and precipitation of neo-formed phases. The diffusion processes are in agreement with a solid state diffusion mechanism and can lead to secondary phase precipitation due to solution concentration increases. Observed phases are mainly phyllosilicates and zeolites, in specific conditions. Phyllosilicates are expected to maintain the residual kinetic rate whereas alteration resumption could be observed in presence of zeolites at very high pH or temperature (10.5 at 90 C or temperature above 150 C). Both diffusion and neo-formed phase precipitation have been investigated in order to better understand their impact on the residual alteration rate and have then been modelled by a calculation code, coupling chemistry and transport, in order to be able to better anticipate the long term behaviour of the glass R7T7 in an aqueous closed system. (author)

  8. The effect of collateral flow and myocardial viability on the distribution of technetium-99m sestamibi in a closed-chest model of coronary occlusion and reperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chareonthaitawee, P.; O'Connor, M.K.; Gibbons, R.J.; Christian, T.F.; Ritman, E.L.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of myocardial viability and the degree of collateral blood flow on the uptake and retention of 99m Tc-sestamibi by examining three animal models of coronary occlusion and reperfusion, each reflecting a different state of viability and collateral blood flow. Three closed-chest animal models were studied: canine (high collateral flow, preserved viability), porcine (low collateral flow, absent viability) and porcine with slowly occlusive coronary stents producing infarction and enhanced collateral blood flow (high collateral flow, absent viability). There were seven dogs, seven pigs and six pigs, respectively, in each animal model. Animals from all three models were subjected to a 40-min total left anterior descending artery (LAD) occlusion followed by 2 h of reperfusion. 99m Tc-sestamibi and radiolabelled microspheres were injected during LAD occlusion 10 min prior to reperfusion. Animals were sacrificed after 2 h of reperfusion flow. Ex situ heart slice imaging to determine risk area was followed by viability staining to determine infarct size. Slices were subsequently sectioned into equally sized radial segments and placed in a gamma well counter. Risk area as determined by ex situ 99m Tc-sestamibi imaging was not significantly different by model. Pathological infarct size differed significantly by model [canine = 1%±1% of the left ventricle (LV); porcine = 13%±8% LV; porcine with stent = 14%±7% LV; P=0.002]. Collateral blood flow by microspheres during occlusion tended to differ among models (overall P=0.08), with the canine and porcine with stent models having relatively high flow rates compared with the acute porcine model. 99m Tc-sestamibi activity correlated with microsphere blood flow in all three models, with r values for individual animals (n=20) ranging from 0.86 to 0.96 (all P 99m Tc-sestamibi uptake with myocardial blood flow. 99m Tc-sestamibi uptake overestimated blood flow to a greater extent

  9. Antenna modeling considerations for accurate SAR calculations in human phantoms in close proximity to GSM cellular base station antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Marnus J; Bingle, Marianne; Meyer, Frans J C

    2005-09-01

    International bodies such as International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineering (IEEE) make provision for human exposure assessment based on SAR calculations (or measurements) and basic restrictions. In the case of base station exposure this is mostly applicable to occupational exposure scenarios in the very near field of these antennas where the conservative reference level criteria could be unnecessarily restrictive. This study presents a variety of critical aspects that need to be considered when calculating SAR in a human body close to a mobile phone base station antenna. A hybrid FEM/MoM technique is proposed as a suitable numerical method to obtain accurate results. The verification of the FEM/MoM implementation has been presented in a previous publication; the focus of this study is an investigation into the detail that must be included in a numerical model of the antenna, to accurately represent the real-world scenario. This is accomplished by comparing numerical results to measurements for a generic GSM base station antenna and appropriate, representative canonical and human phantoms. The results show that it is critical to take the disturbance effect of the human phantom (a large conductive body) on the base station antenna into account when the antenna-phantom spacing is less than 300 mm. For these small spacings, the antenna structure must be modeled in detail. The conclusion is that it is feasible to calculate, using the proposed techniques and methodology, accurate occupational compliance zones around base station antennas based on a SAR profile and basic restriction guidelines. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Relating masses and mixing angles. A model-independent model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollik, Wolfgang Gregor [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Saldana-Salazar, Ulises Jesus [CINVESTAV (Mexico)

    2016-07-01

    In general, mixing angles and fermion masses are seen to be independent parameters of the Standard Model. However, exploiting the observed hierarchy in the masses, it is viable to construct the mixing matrices for both quarks and leptons in terms of the corresponding mass ratios only. A closer view on the symmetry properties leads to potential realizations of that approach in extensions of the Standard Model. We discuss the application in the context of flavored multi-Higgs models.

  11. Modeling patterns in count data using loglinear and related models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, C.L.

    1995-12-01

    This report explains the use of loglinear and logit models, for analyzing Poisson and binomial counts in the presence of explanatory variables. The explanatory variables may be unordered categorical variables or numerical variables, or both. The report shows how to construct models to fit data, and how to test whether a model is too simple or too complex. The appropriateness of the methods with small data sets is discussed. Several example analyses, using the SAS computer package, illustrate the methods

  12. Star-Triangle Relation of the Chiral Potts Model Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Horibe, M.; Shigemoto, K.

    2001-01-01

    We give the simple proof of the star-triangle relation of the chiral Potts model. We also give the constructive way to understand the star-triangle relation of the chiral Potts model, which may give the hint to give the new integrable models.

  13. Close correlation of herpes zoster-induced voiding dysfunction with severity of zoster-related pain: A single faculty retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Mizue; Takahashi, Ichiro; Honma, Masaru; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi

    2015-11-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ), a common vesiculo-erythematous skin disease associated with reactivation of varicella zoster virus in the cranial nerve, dorsal root, and autonomic ganglia, is accompanied by several related symptoms represented by postherpetic neuralgia. Among them, involvement of vesicorectal dysfunction is relatively rare. The vesicorectal symptom can usually be recovered in transient course, but is quite important in terms of impaired quality of life. Male individuals affected with HZ and skin lesions on sacral dermatome have been reported as independent risk factors of zoster-related voiding dysfunction. In this study, urinary symptoms were focused upon and six patients with zoster-related voiding dysfunction at a single faculty of dermatology in Japan from 2009 to 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients showed HZ lesions on the sacral area and the urinary symptom recovered in approximately 2 months (14 days to 7 months). The term of treatment for zoster-associated urinary dysfunction was positively correlated with that for zoster-related pain without significance (r = 0.661, P = 0.153). Average treatment term for pain relief of sacral HZ accompanied by voiding dysfunction (91.3 ± 76.44 days) was significantly longer than that of sacral HZ without urinary symptom (18.9 ± 20.42 days) (P = 0.032). These results suggested that zoster-related voiding dysfunction would mainly be involved in sacral HZ and closely associated with severity of zoster-related pain. Dermatologists should be aware that severe zoster-related pain accompanied by sacral HZ, which is related to prolonged treatment of pain relief, can be a predictive factor of voiding dysfunction. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  14. A semi-automatic image-based close range 3D modeling pipeline using a multi-camera configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Jiann-Yeou; Yeh, Po-Chia

    2012-01-01

    The generation of photo-realistic 3D models is an important task for digital recording of cultural heritage objects. This study proposes an image-based 3D modeling pipeline which takes advantage of a multi-camera configuration and multi-image matching technique that does not require any markers on or around the object. Multiple digital single lens reflex (DSLR) cameras are adopted and fixed with invariant relative orientations. Instead of photo-triangulation after image acquisition, calibration is performed to estimate the exterior orientation parameters of the multi-camera configuration which can be processed fully automatically using coded targets. The calibrated orientation parameters of all cameras are applied to images taken using the same camera configuration. This means that when performing multi-image matching for surface point cloud generation, the orientation parameters will remain the same as the calibrated results, even when the target has changed. Base on this invariant character, the whole 3D modeling pipeline can be performed completely automatically, once the whole system has been calibrated and the software was seamlessly integrated. Several experiments were conducted to prove the feasibility of the proposed system. Images observed include that of a human being, eight Buddhist statues, and a stone sculpture. The results for the stone sculpture, obtained with several multi-camera configurations were compared with a reference model acquired by an ATOS-I 2M active scanner. The best result has an absolute accuracy of 0.26 mm and a relative accuracy of 1:17,333. It demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed low-cost image-based 3D modeling pipeline and its applicability to a large quantity of antiques stored in a museum.

  15. The relationship between relational models and individualism and collectivism: evidence from culturally diverse work groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodosek, Markus

    2009-04-01

    Relational models theory (Fiske, 1991 ) proposes that all thinking about social relationships is based on four elementary mental models: communal sharing, authority ranking, equality matching, and market pricing. Triandis and his colleagues (e.g., Triandis, Kurowski, & Gelfand, 1994 ) have suggested a relationship between the constructs of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism and Fiske's relational models. However, no previous research has examined this proposed relationship empirically. The objective of the current study was to test the association between the two frameworks in order to further our understanding of why members of culturally diverse groups may prefer different relational models in interactions with other group members. Findings from this study support a relationship between Triandis' constructs and Fiske's four relational models and uphold Fiske's ( 1991 ) claim that the use of the relational models is culturally dependent. As hypothesized, horizontal collectivism was associated with a preference for equality matching and communal sharing, vertical individualism was related to a preference for authority ranking, and vertical collectivism was related to a preference for authority ranking and communal sharing. However, contrary to expectations, horizontal individualism was not related to a preference for equality matching and market pricing, and vertical individualism was not associated with market pricing. By showing that there is a relationship between Triandis' and Fiske's frameworks, this study closes a gap in relational models theory, namely how culture relates to people's preferences for relational models. Thus, the findings from this study will enable future researchers to explain and predict what relational models are likely to be used in a certain cultural context.

  16. Genome-wide Identification and Expression Analysis of Calcium-dependent Protein Kinase and Its Closely Related Kinase Genes in Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hanyang ecai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As Ca2+ sensors and effectors, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs play important roles in regulating the downstream components of calcium signaling, which are ubiquitously involved in plant growth, development, and response to environmental cues. However, no CDPKs have been characterized in Capsicum annuum thus far. Herein, a comprehensive analysis of genes encoding pepper CDPKs and CDPK-related protein kinases (CRKs was performed, and 31 CDPK genes and five closely related kinase genes were identified, which were phylogenetically divided into four distinct subfamilies and unevenly distributed across nine chromosomes. Conserved sequence and exon-intron structures were found to be shared by pepper CDPKs within the same subfamily, and the expansion of the CaCPK family in pepper was found to be due to segmental duplication events. Five CDPKs in the Capsicum annuum variety CM334 were found to be mutated in the Chiltepin variety, and one CDPK present in CM334 was lost in Chiltepin. The majority of CDPK and CRK genes were expressed in different pepper tissues and developmental stages, and 10, 12, and eight CDPK genes were transcriptionally modified by salt, heat, and Ralstonia solanacearum stresses, respectively. Furthermore, these genes were found to respond specifically to one stress as well as respond synergistically to two stresses or three stresses, suggesting that these CDPK genes might be involved in the specific or synergistic response of pepper to salt, heat, and R. solanacearum. Our results lay the foundation for future functional characterization of pepper CDPK and its closely related gene families.

  17. The semiotics of control and modeling relations in complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslyn, C

    2001-01-01

    We provide a conceptual analysis of ideas and principles from the systems theory discourse which underlie Pattee's semantic or semiotic closure, which is itself foundational for a school of theoretical biology derived from systems theory and cybernetics, and is now being related to biological semiotics and explicated in the relational biological school of Rashevsky and Rosen. Atomic control systems and models are described as the canonical forms of semiotic organization, sharing measurement relations, but differing topologically in that control systems are circularly and models linearly related to their environments. Computation in control systems is introduced, motivating hierarchical decomposition, hybrid modeling and control systems, and anticipatory or model-based control. The semiotic relations in complex control systems are described in terms of relational constraints, and rules and laws are distinguished as contingent and necessary functional entailments, respectively. Finally, selection as a meta-level of constraint is introduced as the necessary condition for semantic relations in control systems and models.

  18. Pipe closing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klahn, F.C.; Nolan, J.H.; Wills, C.

    1979-01-01

    The closing device closes the upper end of a support tube for monitoring samples. It meshes with the upper connecting piece of the monitorung sample capsule, and loads the capsule within the bore of the support tube, so that it is fixed but can be released. The closing device consists of an interlocking component with a chamber and several ratchets which hang down. The interlocking component surrounds the actuating component for positioning the ratchets. The interlocking and actuating components are movable axially relative to each other. (DG) [de

  19. Use cases and related business models for smart cities infrastructures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available related business model is described. A business model describes the value proposition, market segment, and cost structure, position in the network of competitors, the competitive advantage and the infrastructure of a business entity. This research started...

  20. Infection with a Hepatozoon sp. closely related to Hepatozoon felis in a wild Pampas gray fox (Lycalopex -Pseudalopex -gymnocercus) co-infected with canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitti, Federico; Diab, Santiago S; Uzal, Francisco A; Fresneda, Karina; Rossi, Daniel; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Baneth, Gad

    2012-05-25

    A species of Hepatozoon closely related to Hepatozoon felis found in the skeletal and cardiac muscle of a wild Pampas gray fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) is described. The fox was euthanized after showing severe incoordination. On necropsy and histopathology there was bilateral, diffuse, severe, sub-acute, necrotizing bronchointerstitial pneumonia, with intracytoplasmic and intranuclear eosinophilic inclusion bodies. Canine distemper virus was detected by immunohistochemistry in the bronchiolar epithelium, syncytial cells, alveolar macrophages and pneumocytes. The skeletal muscle and myocardium contained multiple round to oval protozoan cysts ranging from 64 μm × 75 μm to 98 μm × 122 μm, with a central eosinophilic meront-like core surrounded by concentric rings of mucinous material resembling Hepatozoon americanum cysts but smaller in size. Macrophages within rare pyogranulomas and monocytes/macrophages in adjacent sinusoidal blood vessels in the skeletal muscle contained intracytoplasmic round protozoa consistent with merozoites or developing gamonts of Hepatozoon. Hepatozoon sp. infection was confirmed by PCR of skeletal muscle and the sequenced 18S rRNA PCR product was found to be 99% identical to H. felis by BLAST analysis and deposited in GenBank as accession number HQ020489. It clustered together in the phylogenetic analysis with published H. felis sequences and separately from H. canis, H. americanum and other Hepatozoon species. However, the close relatedness of the fox Hepatozoon to H. felis does not rule out infection with a different and possibly unknown Hepatozoon species. Published by Elsevier B.V.