WorldWideScience

Sample records for models bald eagle

  1. Modeling climate change impacts on overwintering bald eagles

    OpenAIRE

    Chris J. Harvey; Moriarty, Pamela E.; Salathé Jr, Eric P

    2012-01-01

    Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) are recovering from severe population declines, and are exerting pressure on food resources in some areas. Thousands of bald eagles overwinter near Puget Sound, primarily to feed on chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) carcasses. We used modeling techniques to examine how anticipated climate changes will affect energetic demands of overwintering bald eagles. We applied a regional downscaling method to two global climate change models to obtain hourly temperat...

  2. Midwinter Bald Eagle Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Midwinter Bald Eagle survey is to monitor the status of Bald Eagle wintering populations in the contiguous United States by estimating national...

  3. Bald Eagle survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As part of its Wildlife Inventory Plan program, in 2000 the Alaska Peninsula/Becharof NWR (Refuge) initiated a program to monitor adult bald eagle population levels...

  4. 2003 Dead Bald Eagle Specimen

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The specimen report states the Bald Eagle was found along the side of the I-95 by a motorist who contacted Santee National Wildlife Refuge. The Bald Eagle was taken...

  5. Bioenergetics model output - Trophic impacts of bald eagles in the Puget Sound food web

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is developing models to examine the ecological roles of bald eagles in the Puget Sound region. It is primarily being done by NMFS FTEs, in collaboration...

  6. Food web model output - Trophic impacts of bald eagles in the Puget Sound food web

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is developing models to examine the ecological roles of bald eagles in the Puget Sound region. It is primarily being done by NMFS FTEs, in collaboration...

  7. 1980 Bald Eagle Midwinter Survey Field Form

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bald Eagle Midwinter Survey Field Form and map of survey area. Includes Bald and Golden Eagles. Each observer given area to cover and stayed in same location until...

  8. The Northern Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus alascanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    In Yellowstone National Park, eagles build nests in Engelmann spruce (Picea engel- mannii), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorts), whitebark pine (P. albi...reproductive ability, and shooting of bald eagles for sport or alleged depredations on livestock (Sprunt and Ligas, 1966, cited by Snow, 1973). All are caused...Eagles in the Mississippi and Missouri River Valleys, 1963-1967. National Audubon Society. 30 pp. Lint, J. B. 1975 The Bald Eagles of Wolf Lodge Bay

  9. Comparative productivity of six bald eagle populations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Charles L. Braley (1958) reported a drastic decline in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population during the late 1950's. He documented a marked reduction...

  10. Chesapeake Bay Bald Eagle Nesting Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Chesapeake Bay population of breeding bald eagles increased dramatically in 1981 in not only the number of breeding pairs but in the number of nests hatching...

  11. Bald eagle predation on common loon egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, Stephen; McCarthy, Kyle P.; Laskowski, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The Common Loon (Gavia immer) must defend against many potential egg predators during incubation, including corvids, Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), fisher (Martes pennanti), and mink (Neovison vison) (McIntyre 1988, Evers 2004, McCann et al. 2005). Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) have been documented as predators of both adult Common Loons and their chicks (Vliestra and Paruk 1997, Paruk et al. 1999, Erlandson et al. 2007, Piper et al. 2008). In Wisconsin, where nesting Bald Eagles are abundant (>1200 nesting pairs, >1 young/pair/year), field biologists observed four instances of eagle predation of eggs in loon nests during the period 2002–2004 (M. Meyer pers. comm.). In addition, four cases of eagle predation of incubating adult loons were inferred from evidence found at the loon nest (dozens of plucked adult loon feathers, no carcass remains) and/or loon leg, neck, and skull bones beneath two active eagle nests, including leg bones containing the bands of the nearby (<25 m) incubating adult loon. However, although loon egg predation has been associated with Bald Eagles, predation events have yet to be described in peer-reviewed literature. Here we describe a photographic observation of predation on a Common Loon egg by an immature Bald Eagle as captured by a nest surveillance video camera on Lake Umbagog, a large lake (32 km2) at Umbagog National Wildlife Refuge (UNWR) in Maine.

  12. The Food and nesting Habits of the Bald Eagle

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the observations of the author who watched a bald eagle and studied its food habits at two nests. At the time of the report, the bald eagle...

  13. Evaluation of Contaminant Residues in Delaware Bay Bald Eagle Nestlings

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bald eagle (Naliacetus leucocephalus) nesting attempts have steadily increased over the past decade in the Delaware Bay and River drainage basin; however, nesting...

  14. Bald Eagle Summary Report for New York Nesting Territories 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Observations at New York bald eagle nest sites one, three and four in Livingston, Genesee, and Seneca Counties respectively, continued during the 1991 breeding...

  15. Kodiak Island bald eagle migration and movements study: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to update the progress of the bald eagle migration and movements study begun during July 1982. The study was initiated to: (1)...

  16. Bald Eagle Summary Report for New York Nesting Territories 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Observations at New York bald eagle nest sites one, three and four in Livingston, Genesee, and Seneca Counties respectively, continued during the 1990 breeding...

  17. Environmental contaminants in two bald eagle eggs from New Hampshire

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On June 12, 2006 and June 2, 2009, non‐viable, addled bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) eggs were collected from nests at Pontook Reservoir on the Androscoggin...

  18. Liver Contaminants in Bald eagles Carcasses from Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fifty-one livers were extracted from bald eagle carcasses recovered in Maine between 2001 and 2007. Approximately 50% of the birds were collected during the spring...

  19. [1983 midwinter bald eagle survey summary : North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum containing summary data of bird observations for the fifth midwinter bald eagle survey conducted January 6-7, 1983 across North Dakota.

  20. Bald Eagle Summary Report for New York Nesting Territories 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Observations at New York bald eagle nest sites one, three and four in Livingston, Genesee, and Seneca Counties respectively, continued during the 1989 breeding...

  1. Mercury concentrations in tissues of Florida bald eagles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We designed this study to determine mercury concentrations in eagles using two sources of data. First, we collected blood and feather samples from nestling bald...

  2. 1982 Bald Eagle Nest Survey, Chesapeake Bay Region.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data refers to the 1982 nesting season for the Bald Eagle in the Chesapeake area to include Virginia, Maryland and Delaware. For the third year in succession we have...

  3. Spermatogenesis in bald eagles experimentally fed a diet containing DDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, L.N.; Chura, N.J.; Stewart, P.A.

    1966-01-01

    When Bald Eagles were fed DDT in the diet at the level of 10 ppm (dry weight basis) for periods of 60 and 120 days, there was no interference with spermatogenic activity. Degenerative testicular changes were produced only by levels of DDT that produced abnormal neurological signs and usually resulted in death. Histological examination of these testes indicates that Bald Eagles have a seasonal testicular cycle similar to that reported for many other birds of the Northern Hemisphere.

  4. Kleptoparasitism by bald eagles wintering in south-central Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorde, Dennis G.; Lingle, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Kleptoparasitism on other raptors was one means by which Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) secured food along the North Platte and Platte rivers during the winters of 1978-1980. Species kelptoparasitized were Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Red-tailed Hawk (B. jamaicensis), Rough-legged Hawk (B. lagopus), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), and Bald Eagle. Stealing of prey occurred more often during the severe winter of 1978-1979 when ice cover restricted eagles from feeding on fish than during the milder winter of 1979-1980. Kleptoparasitism occurred principally in agricultural habitats where large numbers of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were foraging. Subadults watched adults steal food and participated in food-stealing with adults, which indicated interspecific kleptoparasitism may be a learned behavior. We suggest factors that may favor interspecific kleptoparasitism as a foraging strategy of Bald Eagles in obtaining waterfowl during severe winters.

  5. Bald Eagle Movements, Distribution and Abundance on the Northern Chesapeake Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of this study was to monitor bald eagle movements and to locate bald eagle intensive use areas on the northern Chesapeake Bay. An important...

  6. Bald eagles of the Hanford National Environmental Research Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Watson, D.G.; Rickard, W.H.

    1980-06-01

    Since 1961, near-yearly aerial surveys of bald eagles along the Hanford reach of the Columbia River have been conducted. Prey resources available to the eagles have also been monitored and we have thus been able to examine predator-prey relationships in a statistical fashion. We report on a unique set of data which provides insight into one of the factors (prey availability) controlling bald eagle wintering populations. The winter distribution of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) has been reported to closely follow the availability of prey (Servheen 1975, Southern 1963, Shea 1973, Spencer 1976). Fitzner and Hanson (1979) compared twelve years of eagle winter survey data on the Hanford DOE Site with waterfowl numbers and salmon redd densities over the same period and provided some statistical evidence that eagle wintering numbers varied somewhat dependently with changing salmon redd numbers but not with changing waterfowl numbers. This report re-examines Fitzner and Hanson's (1979) twelve year data set and supplies two additional years of data for the Hanford DOE Site in order to gain additional insight into predator-prey interactions.

  7. Why Did the Bald Eagle Almost Become Extinct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Sarah J.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2012-01-01

    The activity described in this article poses a question, provides evidence needed to answer the question, and uses a cooperative learning structure within which students analyze the evidence and create their own questions. Students see how a single cause can interact with two natural systems--the water cycle and the bald eagle food chain--to…

  8. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection in a captive bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Galbreath, Elizabeth J.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Abell, John M.

    1994-01-01

    An adult bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) kept in captivity for nearly 7 yr at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, died suddenly with gross and microscopic lesions characteristic of septicemia. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae was isolated from the liver. Fish comprised part of the bird's diet and may have been the source of the organism.

  9. Final report : Albuquerque Ecological Services, interpretation of cause of death of 3 golden eagles and 1 bald eagle

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report was prepared by Environmental Contaminant Specialists on the cause of death of the 3 golden eagles and 1 bald eagle found near Folsom, New Mexico. This...

  10. Adak bald eagle study: 1983 progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Population composition and movements were monitored through routine vehicle, boat and dump surveys and by eagle banding operations in the winter and summer. Nest...

  11. Chesapeake Bay Bald Eagle Breeding Survey 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In its second year, the Chesapeake Region Eagle Group (CREG) obtained the data for this report. CREG consists of representatives of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  12. Golden eagle records from the Midwinter Bald Eagle Survey: information for wind energy management and planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakle, Wade; Haggerty, Patti; Fuller, Mark; Phillips, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this Data Series report is to provide the occasions, locations, and counts when golden eagles were recorded during the annual Midwinter Bald Eagle Surveys. Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are protected by Federal statutes including the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA) (16 USC 668-668c) and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) (16 USC 703-12). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) manages golden eagles with the goal of maintaining stable or increasing breeding populations (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009). Development for the generation of electricity from wind turbines is occurring in much of the range of the golden eagle in the western United States. Development could threaten population stability because golden eagles might be disturbed by construction and operation of facilities and they are vulnerable to mortality from collisions with wind turbines (Smallwood and Thelander, 2008). Therefore, the Service has proposed a process by which wind energy developers can collect information that could lead to Eagle Conservation Plans (ECP), mitigation, and permitting that allow for golden eagle management in areas of wind energy development (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011). The Service recommends that ECP be developed in stages, and the first stage is to learn if golden eagles occur at the landscape level where potential wind facilities might be located. Information about where eagles occur can be obtained from technical literature, agency files, and other sources of information including on-line biological databases. The broad North American distribution of golden eagles is known, but there is a paucity of readily available information about intermediate geographic scales and site-specific scales, especially during the winter season (Kochert and others, 2002).

  13. Lead and mercury levels in livers of bald eagles recovered in New England

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Between 2001 and 2012, we collected liver samples from 127 bald eagles carcasses prior to their transfer to the National Eagle Repository. We analyzed liver tissue...

  14. Effects of contaminants of reproduction of bald eagles on Green Bay, Lake Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nesting on Green Bay, Lake Michigan, have extremely low reproductive rates, in comparison to eagles nesting in inland...

  15. Final Report Bald and Golden Eagle Territory Surveys for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratanduono, M. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-11-25

    Garcia and Associates (GANDA) was contracted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to conduct surveys for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) at Site 300 and in the surrounding area out to 10-miles. The survey effort was intended to document the boundaries of eagle territories by careful observation of eagle behavior from selected viewing locations throughout the study area.

  16. Exposure of migrant bald eagles to lead in prairie Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M J; Wayland, M E; Bortolotti, G R

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of elevated exposure to lead was assessed in a migrant population of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at a waterfowl staging area in the southern portion of the Canadian prairies, from September to November, 1992-1995. Of 103 eagles, 8% exhibited blood lead (PbB) concentrations suggestive of elevated exposure to lead (> or = 0.200 microgram ml-1 wet wt.). PbB concentrations in eagles from the study area ranged from or = 1.5-year-old birds) (P > 0.05). The prevalence of elevated exposure was significantly greater in November than in October (21.7 vs. 3.8%) (all years: chi 2Y = 5.75, P = 0.017). Eagles with shotshell pellets in the digestive tract did not have accompanying high PbB concentrations. The prevalence of elevated lead exposure in this study was low in comparison to other areas in North America. Potential biases in the trapping technique as they relate to interpreting the results are addressed.

  17. Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus population increases in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland: evidence for habitat saturation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla R. Letto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Across North America, Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus populations appear to be recovering following bans of DDT. A limited number of studies from across North America have recorded a surplus of nonbreeding adult Bald Eagles in dense populations when optimal habitat and food become limited. Placentia Bay, Newfoundland is one of these. The area has one of the highest densities of Bald Eagles in eastern North America, and has recently experienced an increase in the proportion of nonbreeding adults within the population. We tested whether the observed Bald Eagle population trends in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland during the breeding seasons 1990-2009 are due to habitat saturation. We found no significant differences in habitat or food resource characteristics between occupied territories and pseudo-absence data or between nest sites with high vs. low nest activity/occupancy rates. Therefore there is no evidence for habitat saturation for Bald Eagles in Placentia Bay and alternative hypotheses for the high proportion of nonbreeding adults should be considered. The Newfoundland population provides an interesting case for examination because it did not historically appear to be affected by pollution. An understanding of Bald Eagle population dynamics in a relatively pristine area with a high density can be informative for restoration and conservation of Bald Eagle populations elsewhere.

  18. Bald Eagle Range - CWHR [ds600

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  19. A spatially-dynamic preliminary risk assessment of the bald eagle at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, G.J.; Gallegos, A.F.; Foxx, T.S.; Fresquez, P.R.; Mullen, M.A.; Pratt, L.E.; Gomez, P.E.

    1998-04-01

    The Endangered Species Act of 1973 and the Record of Decision on the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) require that the Department of Energy protect the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), a state and federally listed species, from stressors such as contaminants. A preliminary risk assessment of the bald eagle was performed using a custom FORTRAN code, ECORSK5, and the geographical information system. Estimated exposure doses to the eagle for radionuclide, inorganic metal, and organic contaminants were derived for varying ratios of aquatic vs. terrestrial simulated diet and compared against toxicity reference values to generate hazard indices (His). HI results indicate that no appreciable impact to the bald eagle is expected from contaminants at LANL from soil ingestion and food consumption pathways. This includes a measure of cumulative effects from multiple contaminants that assumes linear additive toxicity. Improving model realism by weighting simulated eagle foraging based on distance from potential roost sites increased the HI by 76%, but still to inconsequential levels. Information on risk by specific geographical location was generated, which can be used to manage contaminated areas, eagle habitat, facility siting, and/or facility operations in order to maintain risk from contaminants at low levels.

  20. Changes in productivity and environmental contaminants in bald eagles nesting along the Lower Columbia River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Numbers of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nesting along the lower Columbia River have doubled in the last six years, yet five-year running productivity...

  1. Organochlorine compounds and mercury in bald eagle eggs, Penobscot River, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Four bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) eggs from three nests on the Penobscot River, Maine, were analyzed for organochlorine contaminants and mercury. Eggs were...

  2. Ecology of Nesting Bald Eagles on the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were censused in a boreal forest region on and near the 688,000 ha Kenai National Wildlife Refuge for the first time in 1979....

  3. Bald Eagle Tracking Project Report Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this study was to learn, by use of tracking devices, the locations of bald eagle high use areas for foraging and roosting. Tracking will provide...

  4. Environmental contaminants in a crossed bill bald eagle recovered in Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On September 4, 2011, a fledgling female bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) with a crossedbill was recovered along Pine Point Beach in the town of Scarborough,...

  5. Contaminant exposure of bald eagles via prey at Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Voyageurs National Park (VNP) represents a major concentration site for nesting bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), which are currently listed in Minnesota as a...

  6. Mid-Winter Bald Eagle Survey Results for the 1990 Pennsylvania Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines the results of the 1990 Mid-winter Bald Eagle Count throughout Pennsylvania. It includes data from Erie National Wildlife Refuge in Crawford...

  7. Off‐refuge contaminant investigation : Liver contaminants in bald eagle carcasses from Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This presentation provides the results of a study done to analyze bald eagle carcasses found in Maine for mercury, lead, total polychlorinated biphenyl, and...

  8. Environmental contaminants in bald eagles nesting in Hood Canal, Washington, 1992-1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The number of bald eagle nesting territories along Hood Canal in Washington State have increased from 3 known occupied territories in 1980 to 35 in 2000....

  9. Kodiak Island bald eagle migration and movements study: Progress report, update

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to update the progress of the bald eagle migration and movements study begun during July of 1982. The study objectives are: to...

  10. Kodiak Island bald eagle migration and movements study: Progress report update

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report updates the progress of a bald eagle migration and movements study begun during July, 1982. The study objectives are: (1) to determine and compare...

  11. Physical characteristics of bald eagle eggs from Maine, 2000 to 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Between 2000 and 2012, 91 abandoned or non‐viable bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) eggs were collected from55 nest territories in inland and coastal habitats in...

  12. Investigating Bald Eagle Winter and Summer Concentrations on Cat Point Creek

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this project are: 1) document the seasonal distribution and abundance patterns of Bald Eagles along Cat Point Creek within 750 feet of the Route...

  13. Potential for Contaminant Exposure to Bald Eagles of the James River 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The James River, Virginia has one of the largest concentrations of bald eagles on the east coast of the United States. Effects of environmental contaminants upon...

  14. Assessment of blood contaminant residues in Delaware Bay bald eagle nestlings

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The bald eagle population around the lower Delaware River Basin is rebounding from near extirpation in the early 1970's to 14 active breeding pairs today....

  15. Bald Eagle Nest Observation Plan and Survey Report 1989 Elizabeth Hartwell Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To record the breeding chronology (nest initiation, egg laying, incubation, hatching, nestling period, fledging and family dispersal) of bald eagles found at Mason...

  16. Evaluation of the 100 meter protective zone for bald eagle nests in southeast Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests in southeast Alaska have been protected by a 100 m buffer zone since 1968. Nests near logging developments were surveyed...

  17. Census, nesting and productivity of bald eagles in southeast Alaska, 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A study of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in southeast Alaska was conducted during the period March 15, 1966 to July 7, 1966. The first surveys were for...

  18. The potential effects of Rocky Mountain Arsenal cleanup and Denver metropolitan transportation development on bald eagles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Army's Rocky Mountain Arsenal and Colorado's Barr Lake State Park provide habitats which support wintering and nesting bald eagles near metropolitan Denver,...

  19. 75 FR 31811 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Post-Delisting Monitoring Plan for Bald Eagle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... for Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). The Endangered Species Act (ESA) requires that we implement a system... that have been recovered and no longer need ESA protection. In 2007, we removed the bald eagle in...

  20. The capture of Alaskan bald eagles for translocation to New York and related productivity studies, 1982 / 2nd annual progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In July 1981, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) translocated 21 young bald eagles from southeast Alaska to historic bald eagle...

  1. Lead exposure in bald eagles from big game hunting, the continental implications and successful mitigation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Bryan; Craighead, Derek; Crandall, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal) is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005-2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL) during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009-2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles.

  2. Lead exposure in bald eagles from big game hunting, the continental implications and successful mitigation efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Bedrosian

    Full Text Available Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005-2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009-2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles.

  3. Lead Exposure in Bald Eagles from Big Game Hunting, the Continental Implications and Successful Mitigation Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Bryan; Craighead, Derek; Crandall, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal) is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005–2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL) during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009–2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles. PMID:23284837

  4. West Nile Virus Transmission in Winter: The 2013 Great Salt Lake Bald Eagle and Eared Grebes Mortality Event

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) infection has been reported in over 300 species of birds and mammals. Raptors such as eagles, hawks and falcons are remarkably susceptible, but reports of WNV infection in Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) are rare and reports of WNV infection in grebes (Podicipediformes) even rarer. We report an unusually large wild bird mortality event involving between 15,000-20,000 Eared Grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) and over 40 Bald Eagles around the Great Salt Lake, Utah, in N...

  5. If Animals Could Talk: Bald Eagle, Bear, Florida Panther, Gopher Tortoise, Indigo Snake, Manatee, Otter, Raccoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinellas County District School Board, Clearwater, FL.

    In this series of booklets, eight Florida animals describe their appearance, habitats, food, behavior, and relationships with humans. Each entry is written for elementary students from the animal's point of view and includes a bibliography. Contained are the life stories of the bald eagle, black bear, Florida panther, gopher tortoise, Eastern…

  6. If Animals Could Talk: Bald Eagle, Bear, Florida Panther, Gopher Tortoise, Indigo Snake, Manatee, Otter, Raccoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinellas County District School Board, Clearwater, FL.

    In this series of booklets, eight Florida animals describe their appearance, habitats, food, behavior, and relationships with humans. Each entry is written for elementary students from the animal's point of view and includes a bibliography. Contained are the life stories of the bald eagle, black bear, Florida panther, gopher tortoise, Eastern…

  7. Utilization Probability Map for Migrating Bald Eagles in Northeastern North America: A Tool for Siting Wind Energy Facilities and Other Flight Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, Elizabeth K; Watts, Bryan D; Turrin, Courtney L

    2016-01-01

    Collisions with anthropogenic structures are a significant and well documented source of mortality for avian species worldwide. The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is known to be vulnerable to collision with wind turbines and federal wind energy guidelines include an eagle risk assessment for new projects. To address the need for risk assessment, in this study, we 1) identified areas of northeastern North America utilized by migrating bald eagles, and 2) compared these with high wind-potential areas to identify potential risk of bald eagle collision with wind turbines. We captured and marked 17 resident and migrant bald eagles in the northern Chesapeake Bay between August 2007 and May 2009. We produced utilization distribution (UD) surfaces for 132 individual migration tracks using a dynamic Brownian bridge movement model and combined these to create a population wide UD surface with a 1 km cell size. We found eagle migration movements were concentrated within two main corridors along the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Coast. Of the 3,123 wind turbines ≥100 m in height in the study area, 38% were located in UD 20, and 31% in UD 40. In the United States portion of the study area, commercially viable wind power classes overlapped with only 2% of the UD category 20 (i.e., the areas of highest use by migrating eagles) and 4% of UD category 40. This is encouraging because it suggests that wind energy development can still occur in the study area at sites that are most viable from a wind power perspective and are unlikely to cause significant mortality of migrating eagles. In siting new turbines, wind energy developers should avoid the high-use migration corridors (UD categories 20 & 40) and focus new wind energy projects on lower-risk areas (UD categories 60-100).

  8. Utilization Probability Map for Migrating Bald Eagles in Northeastern North America: A Tool for Siting Wind Energy Facilities and Other Flight Hazards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K Mojica

    Full Text Available Collisions with anthropogenic structures are a significant and well documented source of mortality for avian species worldwide. The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus is known to be vulnerable to collision with wind turbines and federal wind energy guidelines include an eagle risk assessment for new projects. To address the need for risk assessment, in this study, we 1 identified areas of northeastern North America utilized by migrating bald eagles, and 2 compared these with high wind-potential areas to identify potential risk of bald eagle collision with wind turbines. We captured and marked 17 resident and migrant bald eagles in the northern Chesapeake Bay between August 2007 and May 2009. We produced utilization distribution (UD surfaces for 132 individual migration tracks using a dynamic Brownian bridge movement model and combined these to create a population wide UD surface with a 1 km cell size. We found eagle migration movements were concentrated within two main corridors along the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Coast. Of the 3,123 wind turbines ≥100 m in height in the study area, 38% were located in UD 20, and 31% in UD 40. In the United States portion of the study area, commercially viable wind power classes overlapped with only 2% of the UD category 20 (i.e., the areas of highest use by migrating eagles and 4% of UD category 40. This is encouraging because it suggests that wind energy development can still occur in the study area at sites that are most viable from a wind power perspective and are unlikely to cause significant mortality of migrating eagles. In siting new turbines, wind energy developers should avoid the high-use migration corridors (UD categories 20 & 40 and focus new wind energy projects on lower-risk areas (UD categories 60-100.

  9. The potential for contaminant exposure to bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) of the James River, Virginia: Prey contaminant studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The James River, Virginia has one of the largest concentrations of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) on the east coast of the United States. Fish constitute up...

  10. Occurrence and Habitat Use of Wintering Bald Eagles on Eastern Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River (1955-1993)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Occurrence and habitat use data for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), was compiled for use in planning a study to assess the potential effects of environmental...

  11. Provisioning rates and time budgets of adult and nestling Bald Eagles at Inland Wisconsin nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Warnke D.; Andersen, D.E.; Dykstra, C.R.; Meyer, M.W.; Karasov, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    We used a remote video recording system and direct observation to quantify provisioning rate and adult and nestling behavior at Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests in north-central Wisconsin in 1992 (N = 5) and 1993 (N = 8). Eagles nesting in this region have a high reproductive rate (??? 1.3 young/occupied territory), and the number of occupied territories has expanded nearly three-fold since 1980. The season-long provisioning rate averaged 5.2 prey deliveries/nest/d and 3.0 prey deliveries/nestling/d, and did not vary by year or with nestling number or age. Fish (Osteichthyes) made up 97% of identified prey deliveries followed by reptiles (Reptilia) (1.5%), birds (Aves) (1.2%), and mammals (Mammalia) (0.6%). Nearly 85% of prey items were >15 cm and 90% of the day and was negatively correlated with nestling age. Time adults spent feeding nestlings was negatively correlated with nestling age. Nestlings stood or sat in the nest >30% of the day, began to feed themselves, and exhibited increased mobility in the nest at 6-8 wk. We identified three stages of the nestling period and several benchmarks that may be useful when scheduling data collection for comparison of Bald Eagle nesting behavior. Our results support the hypothesis that food was not limiting this breeding population of Bald Eagles. ?? 2002 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  12. 76 FR 54711 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Bald Eagles Nesting in Sonoran Desert Area of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... will not affect the bald eagle's Appendix II status under the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). References Cited Driscoll, J.T., K.V. Jacobson, G.L... regulatory protections under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), for the bald...

  13. The Bald And Golden Eagle Protection Act, Species-Based Legal Protection And The Danger Of Misidentification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann C Knobel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act of 1940 bestows legal protection on two North American eagle species in the United States of America. The Act was originally aimed at the legal protection of only one species: the Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus, the national symbol of the USA. Later the Act was amended to extend protection also to the Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos. The Bald Eagle was an Endangered Species, but the Golden Eagle was not formally listed as Endangered nationwide in the USA. One of the reasons for extending legal protection to the Golden Eagle under the Act was to strengthen the legal protection of the Bald Eagle, because immature Bald Eagles were being misidentified as Golden Eagles and shot. Additional factors relating to Golden Eagle mortality also made legal protection of the Golden Eagle desirable. The danger that a rare and legally protected species can be misidentified and mistaken for a more common and unprotected species can therefore serve as a reason for bestowing legal protection on the more common species as well. Other factors may also indicate that legal protection of the more common species is desirable, making the case more compelling. If this line of reasoning is applied in respect of South African birds of prey, a strong case can be made in favour of extending legal protection under the national biodiversity legislation to more species than the small number of species currently enjoying such protection. Species that are listed as Vulnerable under South African national biodiversity legislation may be misidentified as species that are not subject to such protection. Additional factors are also present that make such an extension of legal protection desirable.

  14. A review of factors affecting productivity of bald eagles in the Great Lakes region: implications for recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, W W; Giesy, J P; Best, D A; Kramer, V J

    1995-05-01

    The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population in North America declined greatly after World War II due primarily to the eggshell thinning effects of p,p'-DDE, a biodegradation product of DDT. After the banning of DDT in the United States and Canada during the early 1970s, the bald eagle population started to increase. However, this population recovery has not been uniform. Eagles nesting along the shorelines of the North American Great Lakes and rivers open to spawning runs of anadromous fishes from the Great Lakes still exhibit impaired reproduction. We have explored both ecological and toxicological factors that would limit reproduction of bald eagles in the Great Lakes region. Based on our studies, the most critical factors influencing eagle populations are concentrations of environmental toxicants. While there might be some continuing effects of DDE, total PCBs and most importantly 2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ) in fishes from the Great Lakes and rivers open to spawning runs of anadromous fishes from the Great Lakes currently represent a significant hazard to bald eagles living along these shorelines or near these rivers and are most likely related to the impaired reproduction in bald eagles living there.

  15. Organochlorine concentrations in bald eagles: Brain/body lipid relations and hazard evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbehenn, K.R.; Reichel, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    Residue levels of 12 organochlorine compounds found in the brains of bald eagles can be predicted from the corresponding concentrations in the carcass when expressed on a hexane-extractable lipid basis. The compounds varied by a factor of about 3 in the degree to which they accumulated in the brain. An understanding of these relations enhances our ability to assess the toxic hazards of environmental contamination.

  16. Care, food consumption, and behavior of bald eagles used in DDT tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chura, N.J.; Stewart, P.A.

    1967-01-01

    Twenty-seven Bald Eagles captured in southeastern Alaska were used in feeding tests to determine the effects of DDT in the diet.....Trapping and housing of eagles are discussed. Various aspects of eagle behavior and handling techniques are also presented. Recommendations are made for preventing injuries and increasing the comfort of captive birds.....The 1962 test birds consumed an average of 274 grams per bird day with a range of 109 to 401 grams per day between birds. Average food intake was 254 grams per bird day for the 1963 test birds with a range of 194 to 324 grams per day between birds.....Weight losses varied from 23 to 49 per cent of normal body weight for the 7 birds which died in the 1962 tests. Tremors and death occurred first for birds on the highest dosage and progressively later for birds on the lower dosages.

  17. West nile virus transmission in winter: the 2013 great salt lake bald eagle and eared grebes mortality event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hon S; Van Wettere, Arnaud J; McFarlane, Leslie; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Dickson, Sammie Lee; Baker, Jodee; Hatch, Gary; Cavender, Kimberly; Long, Renee; Bodenstein, Barbara

    2014-04-18

    West Nile Virus (WNV) infection has been reported in over 300 species of birds and mammals. Raptors such as eagles, hawks and falcons are remarkably susceptible, but reports of WNV infection in Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) are rare and reports of WNV infection in grebes (Podicipediformes) even rarer. We report an unusually large wild bird mortality event involving between 15,000-20,000 Eared Grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) and over 40 Bald Eagles around the Great Salt Lake, Utah, in November-December 2013. Mortality in grebes was first reported in early November during a period when the area was unseasonably warm and the grebes were beginning to gather and stage prior to migration. Ten out of ten Eared Grebes collected during this period were WNV RT-PCR and/or isolation positive. This is the first report of WNV infection in Eared Grebes and the associated mortality event is matched in scale only by the combined outbreaks in American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) colonies in the north central states in 2002-2003. We cannot be sure that all of the grebes were infected by mosquito transmission; some may have become infected through contact with WNV shed orally or cloacally from other infected grebes. Beginning in early December, Bald Eagles in the Great Salt Lake area were observed to display neurological signs such as body tremors, limb paralysis and lethargy. At least 43 Bald Eagles had died by the end of the month. Nine of nine Bald Eagles examined were infected with WNV. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest single raptor mortality event since WNV became endemic in the USA. Because the majority of the eagles affected were found after onset of below-freezing temperatures, we suggest at least some of the Bald Eagles were infected with WNV via consumption of infected Eared Grebes or horizontal transmission at roost sites.

  18. Lead poisoning of bald (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden (Aquila chrysaetos) eagles in the U.S. inland Pacific northwest region--an 18-year retrospective study: 1991-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Erik; Finch, Nickol; Talcott, Patricia A; Gay, John M

    2010-12-01

    To determine risk factors and seasonal trends of lead poisoning in bald (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden (Aquila chrysaetos) eagles, blood lead levels were evaluated in eagles admitted from the inland Pacific Northwest region of the United States to the Raptor Rehabilitation Program, College of Veterinary Medicine at Washington State University from 1991 to 2008. Admissions were from Washington (32 bald eagles, 27 golden eagles), northern Idaho (21 bald eagles, 25 golden eagles), northeastern Oregon (5 bald eagles, 6 golden eagles), Montana (2 bald eagles), Alaska (1 bald eagle), and unrecorded (6 bald eagles, 5 golden eagles). In these birds, 48% (22/46) of bald and 62% (31/50) of golden eagles tested had blood lead levels considered toxic by current standards. Of the bald and golden eagles with toxic lead levels, 91% (20/22) and 58% (18/31) respectively, were admitted after the end of the general deer and elk hunting seasons in December. Coyote hunting intensifies with the end of the large game hunting seasons and coyote carcasses left in the field and contaminated with lead bullet fragments become readily available food sources, exposing scavenging bald and golden eagles to high risk of acute lead poisoning.

  19. A new species of Caryospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Accipitriformes: Accipitridae), from Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; McKown, Richard D

    2013-04-01

    Between March 1989 and February 1994, 4 bald eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) from various localities in Kansas were examined for coccidia. One (25%) of the bald eagles was found to be passing an undescribed species of Caryospora in its feces. Oocysts of Caryospora hanebrinki n. sp. are ellipsoidal to ovoidal with a bilayered wall and measure 48.1 × 42.1 μm with a shape index of 1.2. A micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule were absent. Sporocysts are spheroidal, 24.8 μm wide. Stieda, substieda, and parastieda bodies were absent; a spheroidal sporocyst residuum is present; it measures 17.5 μm and is composed of many intact homogenous globules with a few dispersed in a loose spiral around the sporocysts. This is the first caryosporan documented from the bald eagle and is the largest known Caryospora from raptors.

  20. Count trends for migratory Bald Eagles reveal differences between two populations at a spring site along the Lake Ontario shoreline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kyle R

    2016-01-01

    The recovery of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucophalus), after DDT and other organochlorine insecticides were banned in the United States, can be regarded as one of the most iconic success stories resulting from the Endangered Species Act. Interest remains high in the recovery and growth of the Bald Eagle population. Common to evaluating growth and recovery rates are counts at nesting sites and analyses of individuals fledged per season. But this is merely one snapshot that ignores survival rates as eagles grow to maturity. By analyzing indices from migration counts, we get a different snapshot better reflecting the survival of young birds. Different populations of Bald Eagles breed at different sites at different times of the year. Typical migration count analyses do not separate the populations. A separation of two distinct populations can be achieved at spring count sites by taking advantage of the tendency for northern summer breeding birds to migrate north in spring earlier than southern winter breeding birds who disperse north later in spring. In this paper I analyze migratory indices at a spring site along Lake Ontario. The analysis shows that eagles considered to be primarily of the northern summer breeding population showed an estimated growth rate of 5.3 ± 0.85% (SE) per year with 49% of eagles tallied in adult plumage, whereas the migrants considered to be primarily of the southern breeding population had an estimated growth rate of 14.0 ± 1.79% with only 22% in adult plumage. Together these results argue that the populations of southern breeding Bald Eagles are growing at a substantially higher rate than northern breeding eagles. These findings suggest that aggregate population indices for a species at migration counting sites can sometimes obscure important differences among separate populations at any given site and that separating counts by time period can be a useful way to check for differences among sub-populations.

  1. 76 FR 13446 - Nittany Bald and Eagle Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Nittany Bald and Eagle Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA- COG Joint... is owned or leased by SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority (SEDA-COG). N&BE states that the line it proposes to operate is an extension of its existing line of railroad it operates for SEDA- COG and that...

  2. Recovery distances of nestling Bald Eagles banded in Florida and implications for natal dispersal and philopatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra Bohall

    2009-01-01

    I used band recovery data to examine distances between banding and recovery locations for 154 nestling Florida Bald Eagles and discuss the implications for understanding natal dispersal and philopatry in this species. Band recoveries occurred in 23 U.S. states and five Canadian provinces between 1931–2005. Recovery distance from the natal nest averaged longer for the youngest age classes (ANOVA: F  =  3.59; df  =  5, 153; P  =  0.005), for individuals banded in earlier decades (F  =  1.94; df  =  5, 153; P  =  0.093), and for the months of May through October (F  =  3.10; df  =  12, 153;P < 0.001). Of 35 individuals classed as mature (≥3.9 yr old when recovered; range 3.9–36.5 yr), 31 were located within Florida, which suggested a strong degree of philopatry to the natal state. Among 21 mature eagles of known sex with known banding and recovery locations in Florida, females, particularly younger birds, had longer recovery distances (N  =  9, mean  =  93 km, SE  =  22.4) than did males (N  =  12, mean  =  31 km, SE  =  5.3; t  =  2.67, df  =  19, P  =  0.026). The records examined here suggest a high degree of philopatry and relatively short natal dispersal distances, particularly in male Bald Eagles.

  3. A comparison of blood lead levels in bald eagles from two regions on the great plains of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M J; Restani, M; Harmata, A R; Bortolotti, G R; Wayland, M E

    1998-10-01

    The connection between bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and the consumption of waterfowl, lead shotshell pellet ingestion, and subsequent lead exposure is well documented in the United States and is presumed also to be widespread in Canada. We compared blood lead concentrations in samples from bald eagles ranging in age from 0.5- to 1.5-yr-old at Galloway Bay, Saskatchewan, Canada (n = 97) during October-November, 1992-95 and Hauser Lake, Montana, USA (n = 81) during October-December, 1990-94, within the Great Plains region of North America. Abundant prey are available in the form of hunter-injured waterfowl in Saskatchewan and spawning salmon in Montana; both areas attract large numbers of mid-continent bald eagles during fall migration. Blood lead concentrations suggestive of recent lead exposure (> 0.201 microgram/ml) were found in 32% and 8% of eagles at Hauser Lake and Galloway Bay, respectively, when samples from each study area were analyzed independently at two laboratories. To determine if this difference was an artifact of interlaboratory variation, we determined a correction factor by reanalyzing 14 Saskatchewan blood samples at each laboratory and predicted blood lead concentrations from Hauser Lake had the samples been analyzed at the Canadian laboratory. Adjusted blood lead concentrations of samples from Hauser Lake indicated that 21% of eagles were recently exposed to lead, a proportion not significantly different from the proportion of the same exposure category at Galloway Bay. Our data do not support the supposition that a large proportion of bald eagles feeding on waterfowl in areas of high hunting pressure will be exposed to lead via consumption of lead shotshell pellets in waterfowl.

  4. Case histories of bald eagles and other raptors killed by organophosphorus insecticides topically applied to livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Kolbe, E.J.; Hill, E.F.; Blus, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1982 when secondary poisoning of a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was documented following the recommended use of famphur applied topically to cattle, the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center has tested dead birds of prey for poisoning by famphur and other pour-on organophosphorus (OP) insecticides. Brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity was first determined, then if ChE was depressed greater than or equal to 50%, stomach and/or crop contents were evaluated for anti-ChE compounds. This report presents the circumstances surrounding the OP-caused deaths of eight bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), two red-tailed hawks, and one great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) between March 1984 and March 1985. OP poisoning of raptors by pour-on insecticides in the United States is widespread, but its magnitude is unknown.

  5. Case histories of bald eagles and other raptors killed by organophosphorus insecticides topically applied to livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C J; Kolbe, E J; Hill, E F; Blus, L J

    1987-04-01

    Since 1982 when secondary poisoning of a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was documented following the recommended use of famphur applied topically to cattle, the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center has tested dead birds of prey for poisoning by famphur and other pour-on organophosphorus (OP) insecticides. Brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity was first determined, then if ChE was depressed greater than or equal to 50%, stomach and/or crop contents were evaluated for anti-ChE compounds. This report presents the circumstances surrounding the OP-caused deaths of eight bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), two red-tailed hawks, and one great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) between March 1984 and March 1985. OP poisoning of raptors by pour-on insecticides in the United States is widespread, but its magnitude is unknown.

  6. Movement and breeding biology of bald eagles on Adak Island, 01-01 81 to 11-31-81: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes activities completed during the past 11 months on the movement and breeding biology of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) on Adak Island,...

  7. Status of vegetation management activity in the Bald Eagle Management Area and other sites at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation management program for the Bald Eagle Management Area (BEMA) at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area (RMA, the Arsenal) was initiated in the...

  8. Isolation of mixed subtypes of influenza A virus from a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sagar M; Jindal, Naresh; Chander, Yogesh; Ramakrishnan, Muthanan A; Redig, Patrick T; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2010-07-28

    From April 2007 to March 2008, cloacal swabs were obtained from 246 casualty raptors recovered by various wildlife rehabilitation centers in the United States. The swabs were placed in a virus transport medium and transported to the laboratory on ice packs. At the laboratory, the samples were pooled with each pool consisting of five samples. All pools (n = 50) were screened for the presence of avian influenza virus (AIV) using a real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR); one of the pools was found positive. All five samples in this pool were tested individually by rRT-PCR; one sample from a bald eagle was found positive. This sample was inoculated in embryonated chicken eggs for virus isolation and a hemagglutinating virus was isolated. Complete genome sequencing of the isolate revealed a mixed infection with H1N1 and H2N1 subtypes. Further analysis revealed that the PB1-F2 gene sequence of H1N1 virus had the N66S virulence-associated substitution. Further studies on ecology and epidemiology of AIV in raptors are needed to help understand their role in the maintenance and evolution of AIV.

  9. Effects of the Cabinet Gorge Kokanee Hatchery on Wintering Bald Eagles in the Lower Clark Fork River and Lake Pend, Oreille, Idaho: 1986 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crenshaw, John G.

    1987-12-01

    The abundance and distribution of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) on the lower Clark Fork River, Lake Pend Oreille, and the upper Pend Oreille River, Idaho, were documented during the winters of 1985--86 and 1986--87. Peak counts of bald eagles in weekly aerial censuses were higher in 1985--86 (274) and 1986--87 (429) than previously recorded in mid-winter surveys. Differences in eagle distribution within and between years were apparently responses to changes in prey availability. Eight bald eagles were captured and equipped with radio transmitters in the winter and spring of 1986. Residencies within the study area averaged 13.9 days in 1985--86 and 58.3 days for the four eagles that returned in 1986-87. The eagles exhibited considerable daily movement throughout the study area. After departing the area, one eagle was later sighted approximately 1185 km to the southwest in northern California. Eagle behavioral activity was recorded at time budget sessions at areas of heavy use. Perching in live trees was the most common behavior observed. 34 refs., 39 figs., 17 tabs.

  10. Recent switch by the Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias fannini) in the Pacific northwest to associative nesting with Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) to gain predator protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, I.M.; Butler, R.W.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2013-01-01

    The Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias fannini Chapman, 1901) in the Pacific northwest appears to have modified nesting behaviour in response to the strong recent recovery of the Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus (L., 1766)) population. Previously undescribed, herons now often nest in close

  11. PCBs and DDE, but not PBDEs, increase with trophic level and marine input in nestling bald eagles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamish Elliott, Kyle, E-mail: haliaeetus@gmail.com [Department of Zoology, Z320 Duff Roblin Building, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Cesh, Lillian S. [Department of Biological Sciences, Centre for Wildlife Ecology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Dooley, Jessica A. [Department of Biology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States); Letcher, Robert J. [Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Elliott, John E. [Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, 5421 Robertson Road, Delta, B.C., V4K 3N2 (Canada)

    2009-06-01

    Concentrations of persistent contaminants often vary widely among individuals within a population. We hypothesized that such variation was caused mainly by differences in diet (biomagnification) and in coastal systems by the tendency of marine systems to act as contaminant sinks. We examined the relationship between contaminant concentrations and stable isotope ratios in nestling plasma from an apex predator with a particularly broad diet. Our study included freshwater, estuarine, inshore and pelagic breeding sites. Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at the pelagic marine sites showed high trophic level and marine input, eagles at the freshwater sites showed low trophic level and marine input, and eagles at the estuarine and inshore marine sites had intermediate values. The relationship between trophic level and marine input may reflect longer food chains in pelagic compared to terrestrial ecosystems. {Sigma}PCBs and DDE concentrations generally increased with trophic level and marine input, with the exception of the freshwater sites, while {Sigma}PBDEs, hydroxylated-PBDEs and hydroxylated-PCBs increased with marine input, but were independent of trophic level. The relationships for {Sigma}PCBs and DDE were often slightly stronger with marine input than trophic level, suggesting that oceanographic processes may be more important than trophic level. At freshwater locations, spatial variation may be more important than trophic level due to the heterogeneity of contaminant profiles between feeding locations (lakes, rivers, agricultural fields). Adults had similar isotopic composition to their chicks but higher contamination. Based on nests where prey composition was determined independently, isotopic enrichment values for nestling plasma were 1.6 {+-} 0.1 ({delta}{sup 15}N) and - 0.4 {+-}0.2 ({delta}{sup 13}C). We conclude that trophic level and marine influence are significant factors influencing PCB and DDE concentrations in eagles. However, trophic level in

  12. Epizootic vacuolar myelinopathy of the central nervous system of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and American coots (Fulica americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N.J.; Meteyer, C.U.; Sileo, L.

    1998-01-01

    Unprecedented mortality occurred in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at DeGray Lake, Arkansas, during the winters of 1994-1995 and 1996-1997. The first eagles were found dead during November, soon after arrival from fall migration, and deaths continued into January during both episodes. In total, 29 eagles died at or near DeGray Lake in the winter of 1994-1995 and 26 died in the winter of 1996-1997; no eagle mortality was noted during the same months of the intervening winter or in the earlier history of the lake. During the mortality events, sick eagles were observed overflying perches or colliding with rock walls. Signs of incoordination and limb paresis were also observed in American coots (Fulica americana) during the episodes of eagle mortality, but mortality in coots was minimal. No consistent abnormalities were seen on gross necropsy of either species. No microscopic findings in organs other than the central nervous system (CNS) could explain the cause of death. By light microscopy, all 26 eagles examined and 62/77 (81%) coots had striking, diffuse, spongy degeneration of the white matter of the CNS. Vacuolation occurred in all myelinated CNS tissue, including the cerebellar folia and medulla oblongata, but was most prominent in the optic tectum. In the spinal cord, vacuoles were concentrated near the gray matter, and occasional swollen axons were seen. Vacuoles were uniformly present in optic nerves but were not evident in the retina or peripheral or autonomic nerves. Cellular inflammatory response to the lesion was distinctly lacking. Vacuoles were 8-50 microns in diameter and occurred individually, in clusters, or in rows. In sections stained by luxol fast blue/periodic acid-Schiff stain, the vacuoles were delimited and transected by myelin strands. Transmission electron microscopy revealed intramyelinic vacuoles formed in the myelin sheaths by splitting of one or more myelin lamellae at the intraperiodic line. This lesion is characteristic of

  13. Bald Eagle nestling mortality associated with Argas radiatus and Argas ricei tick infestation and successful management with nest removal in Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice - Allen, Anne; Orr, Kathy; Schuler, Krysten L.; Meteyer, Carol; McCarty, Kyle; Jacobson, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Eight Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestlings heavily infested with larval ticks were found in or under a nest near the confluence of the Verde and Salt rivers in Arizona in 2009-11. The 8-12-wk-old nestlings were slow to respond to stimuli and exhibited generalized muscle weakness or paresis of the pelvic limbs. Numerous cutaneous and subcutaneous hemorrhages were associated with sites of tick attachment. Ticks were identified as Argas radiatus and Argas ricei. Treatment with acaricides and infection with West Nile virus (WNV) may have confounded the clinical presentation in 2009 and 2010. However, WNV-negative birds exhibited similar signs in 2011. One nestling recovered from paresis within 36 h after the removal of all adult and larval ticks (>350) and was released within 3 wk. The signs present in the heavily infested Bald Eagle nestlings resembled signs associated with tick paralysis, a neurotoxin-mediated paralytic syndrome described in mammals, reptiles, and wild birds (though not eagles). Removal of the infested nest and construction of a nest platform in a different tree was necessary to break the cycle of infection. The original nesting pair constructed a new nest on the man-made platform and successfully fledged two Bald Eagles in 2012.

  14. National Wildlife Federation Raptor Information Center 1981 Bald Eagle Midwinter Survey Field Form.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Observers arrived at designated areas 9:45 am and left location once plane flew same. Map for each location of each eagle counted by refuge staff members.

  15. Accumulation profiles of parabens and their metabolites in fish, black bear, and birds, including bald eagles and albatrosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jingchuan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-09-01

    Although several studies have reported the ubiquitous occurrence of parabens in human specimens and the environment, little is known about the accumulation of these estrogenic chemicals in fish and birds. In this study, accumulation profiles of six parabens and their metabolites were determined in 254 tissue (including liver, kidney, egg, and plasma) samples from 12 species of fish and seven species of birds collected from inland, coastal, and remote aquatic ecosystems. In addition, liver and kidney tissues from black bears were analyzed. Methyl paraben (MeP) was found in a majority of the tissues, with the highest concentration (796ng/g (wet weight [wet wt])) found in the liver of a bald eagle from Michigan. 4-Hydroxy benzoate (HB) was the major metabolite, found in 91% of the tissue samples analyzed at concentrations as high as 68,600ng/g, wet wt, which was found in the liver of a white-tailed sea eagle from the Baltic Sea coast. The accumulation pattern of MeP and 4-HB varied, depending on the species. The mean concentrations of MeP measured in fishes from Michigan, New York, and Florida waters were environment.

  16. Use of whole blood lymphocyte stimulation test for immunocompetency studies in bald eagles, red-tailed hawks, and great horned owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redig, P T; Dunnette, J L; Sivanandan, V

    1984-11-01

    Mitogen-induced whole blood lymphocyte stimulation tests for immunocompetency studies in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were developed. Combinations of incubation times, blood dilutions, concentrations of [3H]thymidine and [125I]2-deoxyuridine, antibiotics, phytohemagglutinin-P, and concanavalin A were tested for their effects on the stimulation index (SI). An antibiotic combination of gentamicin plus amphotericin B yielded low SI with lymphocytes from bald eagles, but not with lymphocytes from great horned owls or red-tailed hawks. Penicillin plus streptomycin caused no such depression of SI. Lymphocytes from all 3 species yielded maximum responses with a 48-hour prelabel and 12- to- 16 hour postlabel incubation period at 41 C and 1:20 blood dilution. Optimal mitogen concentrations for lymphocytes from bald eagles, red-tailed hawks, and great horned owls were 25 micrograms, 10 micrograms, and 10 micrograms of phytohemagglutinin-P/well, respectively, and 2.5 micrograms, 10 micrograms, and 10 micrograms of concanavalin A/well, respectively. Differences in SI were not seen between the 2 radioactive labels. The optimal concentration of the [3H]thymidine label ranged from 0.06 to 0.125 microCi/well.

  17. Relation of lineaments to sulfide deposits: Bald Eagle Mountain, Centre County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); Krohn, M. D.; Gold, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Discrete areas of finely-fractured and brecciated sandstone float are present along the crest of Bald Mountain and are commonly sites of sulfide mineralization, as evidenced by the presence of barite and limonite gossans. The frequency distributions of the brecciated float as the negative binomial distribution supports the interpretation of a separate population of intensely fractured material. Such zones of concentrated breccia float have an average width of one kilometer with a range from 0.4 to 1.6 kilometers and were observed in a quarry face to have subvertical dips. Direct spatial correlation of the Landsat-derived lineaments to the fractured areas on the ridge is low; however, the mineralized and fracture zones are commonly assymetrical to the lineament positions. Such a systematic dislocation might result from an inherent bias in the float population or could be the product of the relative erosional resistance of the silicified material in the mineralized areas in relation to the erosionally weak material at the stream gaps.

  18. 50 CFR 22.26 - Permits for eagle take that is associated with, but not the purpose of, an activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... definition applies in this section: Eagle means a live bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), live golden... activity. (a) Purpose and scope. This permit authorizes take of bald eagles and golden eagles where the take is compatible with the preservation of the bald eagle and the golden eagle; necessary to protect...

  19. Poisoning of bald eagles and red-tailed hawks by carbofuran and fensulfothion in the Fraser Delta of British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J E; Langelier, K M; Mineau, P; Wilson, L K

    1996-07-01

    During the winter of 1990 in the Fraser Delta of British Columbia, Canada, nine birds of prey were found with symptoms of anticholinesterase poisoning. Immediate surgical removal of crop contents of three birds decreased mortality and recovery time. Chemical analysis was conducted on crop contents, which contained mainly duck parts. A bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) contained 200 micrograms/g and a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) 2.2 micrograms/g carbofuran, while the crop of another red-tailed hawk contained 30 micrograms/g fensulfothion. There was evidence that granular carbofuran and fensulfothion persisted long enough in the wet, low pH conditions of the Fraser Delta to kill waterfowl and cause secondary poisoning of raptors several months after application of the pesticides.

  20. 1972 American Eagle Nest Survey of the Chesapeake Bay Region.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data refers to the 1972 nesting season for the Bald Eagle in the Chesapeake area to include Virginia and Maryland. The 1972 nesting season for the Bald Eagle in the...

  1. Eagle II: A prototype for multi-resolution combat modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, D.R.; Hutchinson, J.L.

    1993-02-01

    Eagle 11 is a prototype analytic model derived from the integration of the low resolution Eagle model with the high resolution SIMNET model. This integration promises a new capability to allow for a more effective examination of proposed or existing combat systems that could not be easily evaluated using either Eagle or SIMNET alone. In essence, Eagle II becomes a multi-resolution combat model in which simulated combat units can exhibit both high and low fidelity behavior at different times during model execution. This capability allows a unit to behave in a highly manner only when required, thereby reducing the overall computational and manpower requirements for a given study. In this framework, the SIMNET portion enables a highly credible assessment of the performance of individual combat systems under consideration, encompassing both engineering performance and crew capabilities. However, when the assessment being conducted goes beyond system performance and extends to questions of force structure balance and sustainment, then SISMNET results can be used to ``calibrate`` the Eagle attrition process appropriate to the study at hand. Advancing technologies, changes in the world-wide threat, requirements for flexible response, declining defense budgets, and down-sizing of military forces motivate the development of manpower-efficient, low-cost, responsive tools for combat development studies. Eagle and SIMNET both serve as credible and useful tools. The integration of these two models promises enhanced capabilities to examine the broader, deeper, more complex battlefield of the future with higher fidelity, greater responsiveness and low overall cost.

  2. Retracted: Using bald eagles to track spatial (1999-2008) and temporal (1987-1992, 1999-2003, and 2004-2008) trends of contaminants in Michigan's aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierda, Michael R; Leith, Katherine F; Grubb, Teryl G; Sikarskie, James G; Best, David A; Bowerman, William

    2016-08-01

    Retraction: 'Using bald eagles to track spatial (1999-2008) and temporal (1987-1992, 1999-2003, and 2004-2008) trends of contaminants in Michigan's aquatic ecosystems' by Michael R. Wierda, Katherine F. Leith, Teryl G. Grubb, James G. Sikarskie, David A. Best, and William Bowerman The above article from Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, published online on 10 February 2015 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, G.A. Burton, Jr., SETAC and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed since the authors determined that some of the plasma samples run at Clemson University had failed quality assurance/quality control and were retested. The concentrations have since been corrected and validated. Reference Wierda MR, Leith KF, Grubb TG, Sikarskie JG, Best DA, Bowerman W. 2015. Using bald eagles to track spatial (1999-2008) and temporal (1987-1992, 1999-2003, and 2004-2008) trends of contaminants in Michigan's aquatic ecosystems. Environ ToxicolChem doi:10.1002/etc.2859.

  3. 77 FR 22278 - Eagle Permits; Revisions to Regulations Governing Take Necessary To Protect Interests in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 22 RIN 1018-AY30 Eagle Permits; Revisions to Regulations... revisions to regulations under the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act for permits to take eagles where the... protect eagles. DATES: We will accept comments received or postmarked by the end of the day on July...

  4. Lead and mercury in fall migrant golden eagles from western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Heiko W; Domenech, Robert; Slabe, Vincent A; Sullivan, Sean P

    2015-07-01

    Lead exposure from ingestion of bullet fragments is a serious environmental hazard to eagles. We determined blood lead levels (BLL) in 178 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) captured during fall migration along a major North American flyway. These eagles spent the breeding season distributed over a large range and are the best currently available representation of free flying golden eagles on the continent. We found 58 % of these eagles containing increased BLL > 0.1 mg/L; 10 % were clinically lead poisoned with BLL > 0.6 mg/L; and 4 % were lethally exposed with BLL > 1.2 mg/L. No statistical difference in BLL existed between golden and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Golden eagles captured on carrion had higher BLL than those captured using live bait suggesting differences in feeding habits among individuals. Median BLL increased with age class. We propose a conceptual model for the long-term increase in BLL after ingestion of lead particles. The mean blood mercury level in golden eagles was 0.023 mg/L. We evaluate a field test for BLL that is based on anodic stripping voltammetry. This cost-effective and immediate method correlated well with results from inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, although results needed to be corrected for each calibration of the test kit.

  5. Female pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alopecia in women; Baldness - female; Hair loss in women; Androgenetic alopecia in women; Hereditary balding or thinning in women ... in the skin called a follicle. In general, baldness occurs when the hair follicle shrinks over time, ...

  6. 1971 American Eagle Nest Survey of the Chesapeake Bay Region.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data refers to the 1971 nesting season for the Bald Eagle in the Chesapeake area to include Virginia and Maryland. In general, the Chesapeake Bay region nesting...

  7. 1970 American Eagle Nest Survey of the Chesapeake Bay Region.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data refers to the 1970 nesting season for the Bald Eagle in the Chesapeake area to include Virginia and Maryland. The 1970 results are most disappointing since...

  8. Galaxies in the EAGLE hydrodynamical simulation and in the Durham and Munich semi-analytical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Quan; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Guo, Qi; Schaller, Matthieu; Furlong, Michelle; Bower, Richard G.; Cole, Shaun; Crain, Robert A.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Helly, John C.; Lacey, Cedric G.; Lagos, Claudia del P.; Mitchell, Peter; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2016-10-01

    We compare global predictions from the EAGLE hydrodynamical simulation, and two semi-analytic (SA) models of galaxy formation, L-GALAXIES and GALFORM. All three models include the key physical processes for the formation and evolution of galaxies and their parameters are calibrated against a small number of observables at z ≈ 0. The two SA models have been applied to merger trees constructed from the EAGLE dark matter only simulation. We find that at z ≤ 2, both the galaxy stellar mass functions for stellar masses M* EAGLE and L-GALAXIES there are more central passive galaxies with M* EAGLE is a factor of ≈1.5 steeper than for the two SA models. The median sizes for galaxies with M* > 109.5 M⊙ differ in some instances by an order of magnitude, while the stellar mass-size relation in EAGLE is a factor of ≈2 tighter than for the two SA models. Our results suggest the need for a revision of how SA models treat the effect of baryonic self-gravity on the underlying dark matter. The treatment of gas flows in the models needs to be revised based on detailed comparison with observations to understand in particular the evolution of the stellar mass-metallicity relation.

  9. Causes of mortality in eagles submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center 1975-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian

    2014-01-01

    We summarized the cause of death for 2,980 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 1,427 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center in Madison, Wisconsin, USA, for diagnosis between 1975 and the beginning of 2013. We compared the proportion of eagles with a primary diagnosis as electrocuted, emaciated, traumatized, shot or trapped, diseased, poisoned, other, and undetermined among the 4 migratory bird flyways of the United States (Atlantic, Mississippi, Central, and Pacific). Additionally, we compared the proportion of lead-poisoned bald eagles submitted before and after the autumn 1991 ban on lead shot for waterfowl hunting. Trauma and poisonings (including lead poisoning) were the leading causes of death for bald eagles throughout the study period, and a greater proportion of bald eagles versus golden eagles were diagnosed as poisoned. For golden eagles, the major causes of mortality were trauma and electrocution. The proportion of lead poisoning diagnoses for bald eagles submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center displayed a statistically significant increase in all flyways after the autumn 1991 ban on the use of lead shot for waterfowl hunting. Thus, lead poisoning was a significant cause of mortality in our necropsied eagles, suggesting a continued need to evaluate the trade-offs of lead ammunition for use on game other than waterfowl versus the impacts of lead on wildlife populations. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Male pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...

  11. Male pattern baldness (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  12. Galaxies in the EAGLE hydrodynamical simulation and in the Durham and Munich semi-analytical models

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Quan; Guo, Qi; Schaller, Matthieu; Furlong, Michelle; Bower, Richard G; Cole, Shaun; Crain, Robert A; Frenk, Carlos S; Helly, John C; Lacey, Cedric G; Lagos, Claudia del P; Mitchell, Peter; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2015-01-01

    We compare global predictions from the EAGLE hydrodynamical simulation, and two semi-analytic (SA) models of galaxy formation, L-GALAXIES and GALFORM. All three models include the key physical processes considered to be essential for the formation and evolution of galaxies and their parameters are calibrated against a small number of observables at $z\\approx 0$. The two SA models have been applied to merger trees constructed from the EAGLE dark matter only simulation. GALFORM has been run with two prescriptions for the ram pressure stripping of hot gas from satellites: instantaneous or gradual stripping. We find that at $z\\leq 2$, both the galaxy stellar mass functions for stellar masses $M_{*} 10^{9.5} {\\rm M}_{\\odot}$ differ in some instances by an order of magnitude, while the stellar mass-size relation in EAGLE is a factor of $\\approx 2$ tighter than for the two SA models. Our results suggest the need for a revision of the galactic wind treatment in SA models and of the effect that the baryonic self-grav...

  13. Lead and eagles: demographic and pathological characteristics of poisoning, and exposure levels associated with other causes of mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Russell, Robin E.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate demographic and pathologic characteristics in 484 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 68 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) diagnosed with lead poisoning at the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center. As part of our analysis, we compared characteristics of lead poisoned eagles with those that died of other causes. Odds of lead poisoning were greater for bald eagles versus golden eagles, females versus males, adults versus juveniles, and eagles from the Mississippi and Central flyways versus the Atlantic and Pacific flyways. In addition to spatial, species, and demographic associations, we detected a distinct temporal trend in the collection date of lead poisoned bald eagle carcasses. These carcasses were found at greater frequency in late autumn and winter than spring and summer. Lesions in lead poisoned birds included emaciation, evidence of bile stasis, myocardial degeneration and necrosis, and renal tubular nephrosis and necrosis. Ingested lead ammunition or fragments were found in 14.2 % of bald eagles and 11.8 % of golden eagles. The overall mean liver lead concentration (wet weight basis) for eagles diagnosed with lead poisoning was 28.9 ± 0.69 SE mg/kg in bald eagles and 19.4 ± 1.84 SE mg/kg in golden eagles. In eagles diagnosed with collision trauma, electrocution, poisoning (other than lead), emaciation, infectious disease, trapping death, other, and undetermined causes, average liver lead concentrations were low (<1 mg/kg) and did not differ among causes of mortality. Thus, based on our data, we found no evidence that lead exposure of eagles predisposed them to other causes of mortality.

  14. 77 FR 4825 - Golden Eagles; Programmatic Take Permit Application; Draft Environmental Assessment; West Butte...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... assessment (DEA) for an application for the programmatic take of golden eagles. The DEA evaluates... our new permitting regulations under the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA). We announced receipt of the application and the availability of the DEA in our January 3, 2012, Federal Register notice...

  15. The EAGLE simulations of galaxy formation: calibration of subgrid physics and model variations

    CERN Document Server

    Crain, Robert A; Bower, Richard G; Furlong, Michelle; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Frenk, Carlos S; McCarthy, Ian G; Helly, John C; Jenkins, Adrian; Rosas-Guevara, Yetli M; White, Simon D M; Trayford, James W

    2015-01-01

    We present results from thirteen cosmological simulations that explore the parameter space of the "Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments" (EAGLE) simulation project. Four of the simulations follow the evolution of a periodic cube L = 50 cMpc on a side, and each employs a different subgrid model of the energetic feedback associated with star formation. The relevant parameters were adjusted so that the simulations each reproduce the observed galaxy stellar mass function at z = 0.1. Three of the simulations fail to form disc galaxies as extended as observed, and we show analytically that this is a consequence of numerical radiative losses that reduce the efficiency of stellar feedback in high-density gas. Such losses are greatly reduced in the fourth simulation - the EAGLE reference model - by injecting more energy in higher density gas. This model produces galaxies with the observed size distribution, and also reproduces many galaxy scaling relations. In the remaining nine simulations, a sin...

  16. Modeling with uncertain science: estimating mitigation credits from abating lead poisoning in Golden Eagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts Cochrane, Jean; Lonsdorf, Eric; Allison, Taber D; Sanders-Reed, Carol A

    2015-09-01

    Challenges arise when renewable energy development triggers "no net loss" policies for protected species, such as where wind energy facilities affect Golden Eagles in the western United States. When established mitigation approaches are insufficient to fully avoid or offset losses, conservation goals may still be achievable through experimental implementation of unproven mitigation methods provided they are analyzed within a framework that deals transparently and rigorously with uncertainty. We developed an approach to quantify and analyze compensatory mitigation that (1) relies on expert opinion elicited in a thoughtful and structured process to design the analysis (models) and supplement available data, (2) builds computational models as hypotheses about cause-effect relationships, (3) represents scientific uncertainty in stochastic model simulations, (4) provides probabilistic predictions of "relative" mortality with and without mitigation, (5) presents results in clear formats useful to applying risk management preferences (regulatory standards) and selecting strategies and levels of mitigation for immediate action, and (6) defines predictive parameters in units that could be monitored effectively, to support experimental adaptive management and reduction in uncertainty. We illustrate the approach with a case study characterized by high uncertainty about underlying biological processes and high conservation interest: estimating the quantitative effects of voluntary strategies to abate lead poisoning in Golden Eagles in Wyoming due to ingestion of spent game hunting ammunition.

  17. Eagle's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro, Thaís Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eagle's syndrome is characterized by cervicopharyngeal signs and symptoms associated with elongation of the styloid apophysis. This elongation may occur through ossification of the stylohyoid ligament, or through growth of the apophysis due to osteogenesis triggered by a factor such as trauma. Elongation of the styloid apophysis may give rise to intense facial pain, headache, dysphagia, otalgia, buzzing sensations, and trismus. Precise diagnosis of the syndrome is difficult, and it is generally confounded by other manifestations of cervicopharyngeal pain. Objective: To describe a case of Eagle's syndrome. Case Report: A 53-year-old man reported lateral pain in his neck that had been present for 30 years. Computed tomography (CT of the neck showed elongation and ossification of the styloid processes of the temporal bone, which was compatible with Eagle's syndrome. Surgery was performed for bilateral resection of the stylohyoid ligament by using a transoral and endoscopic access route. The patient continued to present pain laterally in the neck, predominantly on his left side. CT was performed again, which showed elongation of the styloid processes. The patient then underwent lateral cervicotomy with resection of the stylohyoid process, which partially resolved his painful condition. Final Comments: Patients with Eagle's syndrome generally have a history of chronic pain. Appropriate knowledge of this disease is necessary for adequate treatment to be provided. The importance of diagnosing this uncommon and often unsuspected disease should be emphasized, given that correct clinical-surgical treatment is frequently delayed. The diagnosis of Eagle's syndrome is clinical and radiographic, and the definitive treatment in cases of difficult-to-control pain is surgical.

  18. Eagle's Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Thaís Gonçalves; Soares,Vítor Yamashiro Rocha; Ferreira,Denise Bastos Lage; Raymundo,Igor Teixeira; Nascimento, Luiz Augusto; Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Costa Pires de

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Eagle's syndrome is characterized by cervicopharyngeal signs and symptoms associated with elongation of the styloid apophysis. This elongation may occur through ossification of the stylohyoid ligament, or through growth of the apophysis due to osteogenesis triggered by a factor such as trauma. Elongation of the styloid apophysis may give rise to intense facial pain, headache, dysphagia, otalgia, buzzing sensations, and trismus. Precise diagnosis of the syndrome is diffic...

  19. How to get cool in the heat: comparing analytic models of halo gas cooling with EAGLE

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, Adam R H; Contreras, Sergio; Croton, Darren J; Padilla, Nelson D; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We use the hydrodynamic, cosmological EAGLE simulations to investigate how hot gas in haloes condenses to form and grow galaxies. We select haloes from the simulations that are actively cooling and study the temperature, distribution, and metallicity of their hot, cold, and transitioning `cooling' gas, placing these in context of semi-analytic models. Our selection criteria lead us to focus on Milky Way-like haloes. We find the hot-gas density profiles of the haloes form a progressively stronger core over time, the nature of which can be captured by a beta profile that has a simple dependence on redshift. In contrast, the hot gas that actually cools is broadly consistent with a singular isothermal sphere. We find that cooling gas carries a few times the specific angular momentum of the halo and is offset in spin direction from the rest of the hot gas. The gas loses ~60% of its specific angular momentum during the cooling process, generally remaining greater than that of the halo, and is better aligned with th...

  20. Eagle Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beytholahi JM

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Eagle's syndrome is characterized by an elongated styloid process and (or calcification of"nstylohyoid ligament besides clinical symptoms. The symptoms are those related to pain when"nswallowing or rotating the neck, headacke, earache, dizziness, intermittent glossitis, sensation of"nforeign body in pharynx and transient syncope. The case which is presented can be considered a very"nrare form of the disease in which complete calcification of the ligament and it's thickening has"noccured. Also there is little relationship between the severity of calcification and severity of symptoms."nA careful and thorough evaluation of each panoramic radiography is emphasized.

  1. Baldness and myocardial infarction in men: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Eyal; Heiss, Gerardo; Rosamond, Wayne D; Szklo, Moyses

    2008-03-15

    Because hair loss may be a surrogate measure of androgenic activity-possibly a determinant of coronary atherosclerosis-several studies have explored the presence and magnitude of an association between male pattern baldness and myocardial infarction (MI). In particular, vertex baldness, but not frontal baldness alone, was strongly associated with incident MI in a large, hospital-based, case-control study. The authors examined these associations in a cross-sectional sample of 5,056 men aged 52-75 years, of whom 767 had a history of MI. The sample was derived from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (1987-1998). As compared with a baldness-free reference group, the estimated odds ratios for prevalent MI from a multivariable model were 1.28 (frontal baldness), 1.02 (mild vertex baldness), 1.40 (moderate vertex baldness), and 1.18 (severe vertex baldness). Other regression models have yielded similar results, including the absence of a monotonic "dose-response relation" between the extent of vertex baldness and prevalent MI. The authors also examined the relation of baldness pattern to carotid intimal-medial thickness, a measure of atherosclerosis, among those who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease. The estimated mean differences in carotid intimal-medial thickness between groups of men with various types of baldness and their baldness-free counterparts were all close to zero. The results of this study suggest that male pattern baldness is not a surrogate measure of an important risk factor for myocardial infarction or asymptomatic atherosclerosis.

  2. JC Knobel THE BALD AND GOLDEN EAGLE PROTECTION ACT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: species, environmental law and the danger of misidentification ... different answers to the question of whether a given population of plants or animals constitutes a ..... that it is now threatened with extinction; and. Whereas the ...

  3. A Collision Risk Model to Predict Avian Fatalities at Wind Facilities: An Example Using Golden Eagles, Aquila chrysaetos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie New

    Full Text Available Wind power is a major candidate in the search for clean, renewable energy. Beyond the technical and economic challenges of wind energy development are environmental issues that may restrict its growth. Avian fatalities due to collisions with rotating turbine blades are a leading concern and there is considerable uncertainty surrounding avian collision risk at wind facilities. This uncertainty is not reflected in many models currently used to predict the avian fatalities that would result from proposed wind developments. We introduce a method to predict fatalities at wind facilities, based on pre-construction monitoring. Our method can directly incorporate uncertainty into the estimates of avian fatalities and can be updated if information on the true number of fatalities becomes available from post-construction carcass monitoring. Our model considers only three parameters: hazardous footprint, bird exposure to turbines and collision probability. By using a Bayesian analytical framework we account for uncertainties in these values, which are then reflected in our predictions and can be reduced through subsequent data collection. The simplicity of our approach makes it accessible to ecologists concerned with the impact of wind development, as well as to managers, policy makers and industry interested in its implementation in real-world decision contexts. We demonstrate the utility of our method by predicting golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos fatalities at a wind installation in the United States. Using pre-construction data, we predicted 7.48 eagle fatalities year-1 (95% CI: (1.1, 19.81. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service uses the 80th quantile (11.0 eagle fatalities year-1 in their permitting process to ensure there is only a 20% chance a wind facility exceeds the authorized fatalities. Once data were available from two-years of post-construction monitoring, we updated the fatality estimate to 4.8 eagle fatalities year-1 (95% CI: (1.76, 9.4; 80th

  4. Predicting spatial patterns of eagle migration using a mesoscale atmospheric model: a case study associated with a mountain-ridge wind development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainslie, B; Alexander, N; Johnston, N; Bradley, J; Pomeroy, A C; Jackson, P L; Otter, K A

    2014-01-01

    High resolution numerical atmospheric modeling around a mountain ridge in Northeastern British Columbia (BC), Canada was performed in order to examine the influence of meteorology and topography on Golden Eagle migration pathways at the meso-scale (tens of km). During three eagle fall migration periods (2007-2009), local meteorological conditions on the day of peak bird counts were modeled using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) mesoscale model. Hourly local surface wind speed, wind direction, temperature, pressure and relative humidity were also monitored during these migration periods. Eagle migration flight paths were observed from the ground and converted to three-dimensional tracks using ArcGIS. The observed eagle migration flight paths were compared with the modeled vertical velocity wind fields. Flight tracks across the study area were also simulated using the modeled vertical velocity field in a migration model based on a fluid-flow analogy. It was found that both the large-scale weather conditions and the horizontal wind fields across the study area were broadly similar on each of the modeled migration days. Nonetheless, the location and density of flight tracks across the domain varied between days, with the 2007 event producing more tracks to the southwest of the observation location than the other 2 days. The modeled wind fields suggest that it is not possible for the eagles to traverse the study area without leaving updraft regions, but birds do converge on the locations of updrafts as they move through the area. Statistical associations between observed eagles positions and the vertical velocity field suggest that to the northwest (and to a lesser extent the southwest) of the main study ridge (Johnson col), eagles can always find updrafts but that they must pass through downdraft regions in the NE and SE as they make their way across the study area. Finally, the simulated flight tracks based on the fluid-flow model and the vertical

  5. Evaluation of DNA Variants Associated with Androgenetic Alopecia and Their Potential to Predict Male Pattern Baldness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcińska, Magdalena; Pośpiech, Ewelina; Abidi, Sarah;

    2015-01-01

    and an extended 20-SNP model were developed based on a discovery panel of 305 males from various European populations fitting one of two distinct phenotype categories. The first category consisted of men below 50 years of age with significant baldness and the second; men aged 50 years or older lacking baldness...

  6. Wind Energy Industry Eagle Detection and Deterrents: Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Karin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DeGeorge, Elise [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-13

    The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA) prohibits the 'take' of these birds. The act defines take as to 'pursue, shoot, shoot at, poison, wound, kill, capture, trap, collect, destroy, molest or disturb.' The 2009 Eagle Permit Rule (74 FR 46836) authorizes the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to issue nonpurposeful (i.e., incidental) take permits, and the USFWS 2013 Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance provides a voluntary framework for issuing programmatic take permits to wind facilities that incorporate scientifically supportable advanced conservation practices (ACPs). Under these rules, the Service can issue permits that authorize individual instances of take of bald and golden eagles when the take is associated with, but not the purpose of, an otherwise lawful activity, and cannot practicably be avoided. To date, the USFWS has not approved any ACPs, citing the lack of evidence for 'scientifically supportable measures.' The Eagle Detection and Deterrents Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop was convened at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in December 2015 with a goal to comprehensively assess the current state of technologies to detect and deter eagles from wind energy sites and the key gaps concerning reducing eagle fatalities and facilitating permitting under the BGEPA. During the workshop, presentations and discussions focused primarily on existing knowledge (and limitations) about the biology of eagles as well as technologies and emerging or novel ideas, including innovative applications of tools developed for use in other sectors, such as the U.S. Department of Defense and aviation. The main activity of the workshop was the breakout sessions, which focused on the current state of detection and deterrent technologies and novel concepts/applications for detecting and minimizing eagle collisions with wind turbines. Following the breakout sessions, participants were asked about their individual impressions of the

  7. Eagle syndrome: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uludağ, İrem Fatma; Öcek, Levent; Zorlu, Yaşar; Uludağ, Burhanettin

    2013-01-01

    Eagle syndrome is an aggregate of symptoms caused by an elongated styloid process, most frequently resulting in headache, facial pain, dysphagia and sensation of foreign body in throat. The proper diagnosis is not difficult with clinical history, physical examination and radiographic assessment if there is a sufficient degree of suspicion. The treatment is very effective. We report here a typical case of Eagle syndrome which was misdiagnosed as trigeminal neuralgia for many years and was treated with carbamazepine. We aim to point the place of Eagle syndrome in the differential diagnosis of facial pain. We also re-emphasize the usefulness of the three-dimensional computed tomography in the diagnosis of Eagle syndrome. Even though Eagle syndrome is a rare condition, in cases of facial pain refractory to treatment or unexplained complaints of the head and neck region, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis as it has therapeutic consequences.

  8. Prediction of male-pattern baldness from genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Liu; M.A. Hamer; S. Heilmann (S.); C. Herold (Christine); S. Moebus (Susanne); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M.M. Nöthen (Markus); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); T.E.C. Nijsten (Tamar); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe global demand for products that effectively prevent the development of male-pattern baldness (MPB) has drastically increased. However, there is currently no established genetic model for the estimation of MPB risk. We conducted a prediction analysis using single-nucleotide polymorphi

  9. Prediction of male-pattern baldness from genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Liu; M.A. Hamer; S. Heilmann (S.); C. Herold (Christine); S. Moebus (Susanne); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M.M. Nöthen (Markus); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); T.E.C. Nijsten (Tamar); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe global demand for products that effectively prevent the development of male-pattern baldness (MPB) has drastically increased. However, there is currently no established genetic model for the estimation of MPB risk. We conducted a prediction analysis using single-nucleotide polymorphi

  10. The Eagle Nebula on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jave; Cooper, Amy; Remington, Bruce; Ryutov, Dmitri; Smalyuk, Vladimir; Pound, Marc

    2011-10-01

    In one of the eight Science on NIF campaigns, dynamics of molecular clouds such as the Eagle Nebula will be studied in scaled laboratory astrophysics experiments, focusing on new hydrodynamic stabilities of ablation fronts induced by strong directionality of a sustained radiation drive, and on the formation of cometary structures as a model for the famous Eagle Pillars. The NIF Radiation Transport Platform will be adapted to drive a foam target stood off several mm from the halfraum to simulate a molecular cloud illuminated by a distant O-type star, with the drive collimated by an aperture. Pulses of length 20-100 ns generating effective radiation temperatures of 100 eV are being sought. Design of the experiment, theory of the directional radiation instabilities, and supporting astrophysical modeling will be presented. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. Warrior Model for Human Performance and Injury Prevention: Eagle Tactical Athlete Program (ETAP) Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Timothy C; Abt, John P; Crawford, Kim; Lovalekar, Mita; Nagai, Takashi; Deluzio, Jennifer B; Smalley, Brain W; McGrail, Mark A; Rowe, Russell S; Cardin, Sylvain; Lephart, Scott M

    2010-01-01

    Physical training for United States military personnel requires a combination of injury prevention and performance optimization to counter unintentional musculoskeletal injuries and maximize warrior capabilities. Determining the most effective activities and tasks to meet these goals requires a systematic, research-based approach that is population specific based on the tasks and demands of the warrior. We have modified the traditional approach to injury prevention to implement a comprehensive injury prevention and performance optimization research program with the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) at Ft. Campbell, KY. This is Part I of two papers that presents the research conducted during the first three steps of the program and includes Injury Surveillance, Task and Demand Analysis, and Predictors of Injury and Optimal Performance. Injury surveillance based on a self-report of injuries was collected on all Soldiers participating in the study. Field-based analyses of the tasks and demands of Soldiers performing typical tasks of 101st Soldiers were performed to develop 101st-specific laboratory testing and to assist with the design of the intervention (Eagle Tactical Athlete Program (ETAP)). Laboratory testing of musculoskeletal, biomechanical, physiological, and nutritional characteristics was performed on Soldiers and benchmarked to triathletes to determine predictors of injury and optimal performance and to assist with the design of ETAP. Injury surveillance demonstrated that Soldiers of the 101st are at risk for a wide range of preventable unintentional musculoskeletal injuries during physical training, tactical training, and recreational/sports activities. The field-based analyses provided quantitative data and qualitative information essential to guiding 101st specific laboratory testing and intervention design. Overall the laboratory testing revealed that Soldiers of the 101st would benefit from targeted physical training to meet the specific demands of

  12. Trauma induced eagle syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivumäki, A; Marinescu-Gava, M; Järnstedt, J; Sándor, G K; Wolff, J

    2012-03-01

    Eagle syndrome is characterized by secondary calcification and elongation of the styloid process. Eagle syndrome is often associated with sharp, intermittent pain along the path of the glossopharyngeal nerve located in the hypopharynx and at the base of the tongue. In some cases, the stylohyoid apparatus can compress the internal and/or the external carotid arteries and their perivascular sympathetic fibres, resulting in a persistent pain radiating throughout the carotid territory. The pathogenesis of the syndrome is not understood. The authors report the case of a 52-year-old woman with post traumatic Eagle syndrome-like pain and pseudoarthrosis of the stylohyoid ligament.

  13. NIF Discovery Science Eagle Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jave; Martinez, David; Pound, Marc; Heeter, Robert; Huntington, Channing; Casner, Alexis; Villette, Bruno; Mancini, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    For almost 20 years a team of astronomers, theorists and experimentalists have investigated the creation of the famous Pillars of the Eagle Nebula and similar parsec-scale structures at the boundaries of HII regions in molecular hydrogen clouds, using a combination of astronomical observations, astrophysical simulations, and recently, scaled laboratory experiments. Eagle Nebula, one of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Discovery Science programs, has completed four NIF shots to study the dense `shadowing' model of pillar formation, and been awarded more shots to study the `cometary' model. These experiments require a long-duration drive, 30 ns or longer, to generate deeply nonlinear ablative hydrodynamics. A novel x-ray source featuring multiple UV-driven hohlraums driven is used. The source directionally illuminates a science package, mimicking a cluster of stars. The first four NIF shots generated radiographs of shadowing-model pillars, and suggested that cometary structures can be generated. The velocity and column density profiles of the NIF shadowing and cometary pillars have been compared with observations of the Eagle Pillars made at millimeter observatories, and indicate cometary growth is key to matching observations. Supported in part by a Grant from the DOE OFES HEDLP program. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. "BSR Eagle" lendas Tartusse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    8. veebr. Tartus Loodusuurijate Seltsi majas toimunud seminarist "Mida Juku õues ei õpi, seda Juhan vallaametnikuna ei tea", mis toimus Läänemere-piirkonna loodusharidusprojekti "BSR Eagle" raames

  15. "BSR Eagle" lendas Tartusse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    8. veebr. Tartus Loodusuurijate Seltsi majas toimunud seminarist "Mida Juku õues ei õpi, seda Juhan vallaametnikuna ei tea", mis toimus Läänemere-piirkonna loodusharidusprojekti "BSR Eagle" raames

  16. Science on NIF Eagle Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jave; Martinez, David; Pound, Marc; Heeter, Robert; Casner, Alexis; Villette, Bruno; Mancini, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    For over fifteen years astronomers at the University of Maryland and scientists at LLNL have investigated the origin and dynamics of the famous Pillars of the Eagle Nebula and similar parsec-scale structures at the boundaries of HII regions in molecular hydrogen clouds. Eagle Nebula is one of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Science programs, and has been awarded two days of NIF shots to study the cometary model of pillar formation. The NIF shots will feature a new long-duration x-ray source prototyped at the Omega EP laser, in which multiple hohlraums mimicking a cluster of stars are driven with UV light in series for 10 ns each to create a 30 ns output x-ray pulse. The drive generates deeply nonlinear hydrodynamics in the Eagle science package, which consists of a dense layered plastic and foam core embedded in lower-density background foam. The scaled Omega EP shots validated the multi-hohlraum concept, showing that earlier time hohlraums do not degrade later time hohlraums by preheat or by ejecting ablated plumes that deflect the later beams. The Omega EP shots illuminated three 2.8 mm long by 1.4 mm diameter Cu hohlraums with 4.3 kJ per hohlraum. At NIF each hohlraum will be 4 mm long by 3 mm in diameter and will be driven with 80-100 kJ. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Eagle syndrome. A narrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Heber Arbildo; Luis Gamarra; Sandra Rojas; Edward Infantes; Hernán Vásquez

    2016-01-01

    Painful disorders in the maxillofacial region are common in dental practice. Most of these conditions are not properly diagnosed because of inadequate knowledge of craniofacial and cervico-pharyngeal syndromes such as Eagle Syndrome. The aim of this review is to describe the general aspects, diagnosis and treatment of Eagle syndrome. Eagle syndrome or stylohyoid syndrome was first described by Watt W. Eagle in 1937. It was defined as orofacial pain related to the elongation of the styloid pro...

  18. Spatial demographic models to inform conservation planning of golden eagles in renewable energy landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatial demographic models can help guide monitoring and management activities targeting at-risk species, even in cases where baseline data are lacking. Here, we provide an example of how site-specific changes in land-use and other anthropogenic stressors can be incorporated int...

  19. Brane Baldness vs. Superselection Sectors

    CERN Document Server

    Marolf, D M; Marolf, Donald; Peet, Amanda W.

    1999-01-01

    The search for intersecting brane solutions in supergravity is a large and profitable industry. Recently, attention has focused on finding localized forms of known `delocalized' solutions. However, in some cases, a localized version of the delocalized solution simply does not exist. Instead, localized separated branes necessarily delocalize as the separation is removed. This phenomenon is related to black hole no-hair theorems, i.e. `baldness.' We continue the discussion of this effect and describe how it can be understood, in the case of Dirichlet branes, in terms of the corresponding intersection field theory. When it occurs, it is associated with the quantum mixing of phases and lack of superselection sectors in low dimensional field theories. We find surprisingly wide agreement between the field theory and supergravity both with respect to which examples delocalize and with respect to the rate at which this occurs.

  20. Long-term survival despite low genetic diversity in the critically endangered Madagascar fish-eagle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.A.; Tingay, R.E.; Culver, M.; Hailer, F.; Clarke, M.L.; Mindell, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    The critically endangered Madagascar fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides) is considered to be one of the rarest birds of prey globally and at significant risk of extinction. In the most recent census, only 222 adult individuals were recorded with an estimated total breeding population of no more than 100-120 pairs. Here, levels of Madagascar fish-eagle population genetic diversity based on 47 microsatellite loci were compared with its sister species, the African fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer), and 16 of these loci were also characterized in the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Overall, extremely low genetic diversity was observed in the Madagascar fish-eagle compared to other surveyed Haliaeetus species. Determining whether this low diversity is the result of a recent bottleneck or a more historic event has important implications for their conservation. Using a Bayesian coalescent-based method, we show that Madagascar fish-eagles have maintained a small effective population size for hundreds to thousands of years and that its low level of neutral genetic diversity is not the result of a recent bottleneck. Therefore, efforts made to prevent Madagascar fish-eagle extinction should place high priority on maintenance of habitat requirements and reducing direct and indirect human persecution. Given the current rate of deforestation in Madagascar, we further recommend that the population be expanded to occupy a larger geographical distribution. This will help the population persist when exposed to stochastic factors (e.g. climate and disease) that may threaten a species consisting of only 200 adult individuals while inhabiting a rapidly changing landscape. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  1. Long-term survival despite low genetic diversity in the critically endangered Madagascar fish-eagle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeff A; Tingay, Ruth E; Culver, Melanie; Hailer, Frank; Clarke, Michèle L; Mindell, David P

    2009-01-01

    The critically endangered Madagascar fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides) is considered to be one of the rarest birds of prey globally and at significant risk of extinction. In the most recent census, only 222 adult individuals were recorded with an estimated total breeding population of no more than 100-120 pairs. Here, levels of Madagascar fish-eagle population genetic diversity based on 47 microsatellite loci were compared with its sister species, the African fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer), and 16 of these loci were also characterized in the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Overall, extremely low genetic diversity was observed in the Madagascar fish-eagle compared to other surveyed Haliaeetus species. Determining whether this low diversity is the result of a recent bottleneck or a more historic event has important implications for their conservation. Using a Bayesian coalescent-based method, we show that Madagascar fish-eagles have maintained a small effective population size for hundreds to thousands of years and that its low level of neutral genetic diversity is not the result of a recent bottleneck. Therefore, efforts made to prevent Madagascar fish-eagle extinction should place high priority on maintenance of habitat requirements and reducing direct and indirect human persecution. Given the current rate of deforestation in Madagascar, we further recommend that the population be expanded to occupy a larger geographical distribution. This will help the population persist when exposed to stochastic factors (e.g. climate and disease) that may threaten a species consisting of only 200 adult individuals while inhabiting a rapidly changing landscape.

  2. Scaled Eagle Nebula Experiments on NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, Marc

    2017-03-28

    We performed scaled laboratory experiments at the National Ignition Facility laser to assess models for the creation of pillar structures in star-forming clouds of molecular hydrogen, in particular the famous Pillars of the Eagle Nebula. Because pillars typically point towards nearby bright ultraviolet stars, sustained directional illumination appears to be critical to pillar formation. The experiments mock up illumination from a cluster of ultraviolet-emitting stars, using a novel long duration (30--60 ns), directional, laser-driven x-ray source consisting of multiple radiation cavities illuminated in series. Our pillar models are assessed using the morphology of the Eagle Pillars observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, and measurements of column density and velocity in Eagle Pillar II obtained at the BIMA and CARMA millimeter wave facilities. In the first experiments we assess a shielding model for pillar formation. The experimental data suggest that a shielding pillar can match the observed morphology of Eagle Pillar II, and the observed Pillar II column density and velocity, if augmented by late time cometary growth.

  3. Eagle's syndrome: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Chang-Sig; Lee, Baek-Soo; Kwon, Yong-Dae; Choi, Byung-Jun; Lee, Jung-Woo; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Yun, Sun-Ung; Ohe, Joo-Young

    2014-01-01

    Eagle's syndrome is a disease caused by an elongated styloid process or calcified stylohyoid ligament. Eagle defined the disorder in 1937 by describing clinical findings related to an elongated styloid process, which is one of the numerous causes of pain in the craniofacial and cervical region. The prevalence of individuals with this anatomic abnormality in the adult population is estimated to be 4% with 0.16% of these individuals reported to be symptomatic. Eagle's syndrome is usually charac...

  4. Drugs for Prostate Trouble, Balding Not Linked to Suicide Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used to treat enlarged prostate and male pattern baldness may raise an older man's risk of depression ... which include widely used drugs for male pattern baldness, such as Propecia, and Proscar, used to fight ...

  5. Use of rotation scalp flaps for treatment of occipital baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juri, J; Juri, C; Arufe, H N

    1978-01-01

    We have used 25 rotation scalp flaps to treat occipital baldness associated with fronto-parietal baldness (the third flap), and 35 such flaps for the correction of isolated occipital baldness. We have not had any flap necrosis, and our patients have been well satisfied with the results of this surgery.

  6. Unveiling the hidden eagle: Acute parotitis-induced eagle syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitipong Permpalung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: A cervicofacial pain and foreign body sensation in pharynx associated with styloid process elongation is called Eagle syndrome. Typically, this syndrome is provoked by tonsillectomy or trauma. We report the first case of acute parotitis-induced Eagle syndrome. Case Report: A 65-year-old woman presented with right facial pain. CT scan of neck revealed asymmetric enhancement of the right parotid gland compatible with acute parotitis. All inflammation was resolved with antibiotics. However, the patient complained of pain in right mandibular region out of proportion to inflammation. Review CT found to have an asymmetrically long right styloid process measures. The diagnosis of acute parotitis-induced Eagle syndrome was established. Conclusion: Physicians should have a high index of suspicion for Eagle syndrome in patients with atypical neck pain and elongated styloid process since another significant manifestation of Eagle syndrome is carotid artery compression leading to recurrent syncope or stroke.

  7. Characterization of the genome of bald cypress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wenxuan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bald cypress (Taxodium distichum var. distichum is a coniferous tree of tremendous ecological and economic importance. It is a member of the family Cupressaceae which also includes cypresses, redwoods, sequoias, thujas, and junipers. While the bald cypress genome is more than three times the size of the human genome, its 1C DNA content is amongst the smallest of any conifer. To learn more about the genome of bald cypress and gain insight into the evolution of Cupressaceae genomes, we performed a Cot analysis and used Cot filtration to study Taxodium DNA. Additionally, we constructed a 6.7 genome-equivalent BAC library that we screened with known Taxodium genes and select repeats. Results The bald cypress genome is composed of 90% repetitive DNA with most sequences being found in low to mid copy numbers. The most abundant repeats are found in fewer than 25,000 copies per genome. Approximately 7.4% of the genome is single/low-copy DNA (i.e., sequences found in 1 to 5 copies. Sequencing of highly repetitive Cot clones indicates that most Taxodium repeats are highly diverged from previously characterized plant repeat sequences. The bald cypress BAC library consists of 606,336 clones (average insert size of 113 kb and collectively provides 6.7-fold genome equivalent coverage of the bald cypress genome. Macroarray screening with known genes produced, on average, about 1.5 positive clones per probe per genome-equivalent. Library screening with Cot-1 DNA revealed that approximately 83% of BAC clones contain repetitive sequences iterated 103 to 104 times per genome. Conclusions The BAC library for bald cypress is the first to be generated for a conifer species outside of the family Pinaceae. The Taxodium BAC library was shown to be useful in gene isolation and genome characterization and should be an important tool in gymnosperm comparative genomics, physical mapping, genome sequencing, and gene/polymorphism discovery. The single

  8. Eagle Feathers, the Highest Honor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaverhead, Pete

    Following his own advice that elders of the tribe share their knowledge so that "the way of the Indians would come back to the children of today," Pete Beaverhead (1899-1975) tells of the traditions of respect and honor surrounding the eagle feather in a booklet illustrated with black and white drawings. The eagle is an Indian symbol of…

  9. Lead Levels in Utah Eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michelle

    2006-10-01

    Lead is a health hazard to most animals, causing adverse effects to the nervous and reproductive systems if in sufficient quantity. Found in most fishing jigs and sinkers, as well as some ammunition used in hunting, this metal can poison wildlife such as eagles. Eagles are raptors, or predatory birds, and their lead exposure would most likely comes from their food -- a fish which has swallowed a sinker or lead shot in carrion (dead animal matter). As part of an ongoing project to investigate the environment lead levels in Utah, the bone lead levels in the wing bones of eagles have been measured for eagle carcasses found throughout Utah. The noninvasive technique of x-ray fluorescence was used, consisting of a Cd-109 radioactive source to activate lead atoms and a HPGe detector with digital electronics to collect the gamma spectra. Preliminary results for the eagles measured to date will be presented.

  10. 78 FR 26358 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy...), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e. All local, state, and federal...

  11. 76 FR 22393 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Cancellation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy... and Wildlife Service for the proposed Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project....

  12. 77 FR 47628 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy... Management Act and the Federal Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric...

  13. 77 FR 13592 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Land...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources... Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC (transferees) filed an...) 805-1469. Transferees: Mr. Bernard H. Cherry, Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek...

  14. 75 FR 27332 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC; Eagle Creek Land...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources... Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC.... For the transferee: Mr. Paul Ho, Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC,...

  15. Unveiling The Hidden Eagle: Acute Parotitis-Induced Eagle Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Nitipong Permpalung; Promporn Suksaranjit; Daych Chongnarungsin; Hyman, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    Context: A cervicofacial pain and foreign body sensation in pharynx associated with styloid process elongation is called Eagle syndrome. Typically, this syndrome is provoked by tonsillectomy or trauma. We report the first case of acute parotitis-induced Eagle syndrome. Case Report: A 65-year-old woman presented with right facial pain. CT scan of neck revealed asymmetric enhancement of the right parotid gland compatible with acute parotitis. All inflammation was resolved with antibiotics. Howe...

  16. Eagle-i: Making Invisible Resources, Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haendel, M.; Wilson, M.; Torniai, C.; Segerdell, E.; Shaffer, C.; Frost, R.; Bourges, D.; Brownstein, J.; McInnerney, K.

    2010-01-01

    RP-134 The eagle-i Consortium – Dartmouth College, Harvard Medical School, Jackson State University, Morehouse School of Medicine, Montana State University, Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU), the University of Alaska, the University of Hawaii, and the University of Puerto Rico – aims to make invisible resources for scientific research visible by developing a searchable network of resource repositories at research institutions nationwide. Now in early development, it is hoped that the system will scale beyond the consortium at the end of the two-year pilot. Data Model & Ontology: The eagle-i ontology development team at the OHSU Library is generating the data model and ontologies necessary for resource indexing and querying. Our indexing system will enable cores and research labs to represent resources within a defined vocabulary, leading to more effective searches and better linkage between data types. This effort is being guided by active discussions within the ontology community (http://RRontology.tk) bringing together relevant preexisting ontologies in a logical framework. The goal of these discussions is to provide context for interoperability and domain-wide standards for resource types used throughout biomedical research. Research community feedback is welcomed. Architecture Development, led by a team at Harvard, includes four main components: tools for data collection, management and curation; an institutional resource repository; a federated network; and a central search application. Each participating institution will populate and manage their repository locally, using data collection and curation tools. To help improve search performance, data tools will support the semi-automatic annotation of resources. A central search application will use a federated protocol to broadcast queries to all repositories and display aggregated results. The search application will leverage the eagle-i ontologies to help guide users to valid queries via auto

  17. Eagle syndrome. A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heber Arbildo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Painful disorders in the maxillofacial region are common in dental practice. Most of these conditions are not properly diagnosed because of inadequate knowledge of craniofacial and cervico-pharyngeal syndromes such as Eagle Syndrome. The aim of this review is to describe the general aspects, diagnosis and treatment of Eagle syndrome. Eagle syndrome or stylohyoid syndrome was first described by Watt W. Eagle in 1937. It was defined as orofacial pain related to the elongation of the styloid process and ligament stylohyoid calcification. The condition is accompanied by symptoms such as dysphonia, dysphagia, sore throat, glossitis, earache, tonsillitis, facial pain, headache, pain in the temporomandibular joint and inability to perform lateral movements of the neck. Diagnosis and treatment of Eagle syndrome based on symptoms and radiographic examination of the patient will determine the need for surgical or nonsurgical treatment. Eagle syndrome is a complex disorder demanding a thorough knowledge of its signs and symptoms to make a correct diagnosis and provide an appropriate subsequent treatment. Disseminating information about this syndrome among medical-dental professionals is essential to provide adequate dental care to patients.

  18. The eagle concept-framework for a future land monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Stephan; Hazeu, Gerard; Sanz, Nuria Valcarcel

    2016-01-01

    The EAGLE concept embodies a new approach for land monitoring initiatives following an object-oriented approach in landscape modelling. It aims at providing a basis for an integrated European Land Monitoring Framework. Once implemented, the EAGLE concept with its data model and tools can help to

  19. Validity of self reported male balding patterns in epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leavy Justine E

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated the association between male pattern baldness and disease such as prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease. Limitations in the lack of standardized instruments to measure male pattern baldness have resulted in researchers measuring balding patterns in a variety of ways. This paper examines the accuracy and reliability of assessment of balding patterns by both trained observers and men themselves, using the Hamilton-Norwood classification system. Methods An observational study was carried out in Western Australia with 105 male volunteers aged between 30 and 70 years. Participants completed a short questionnaire and selected a picture that best represented their balding pattern. Two trained data collectors also independently assessed the participant's balding pattern using the same system and the men's self assessment was compared with the trained observer's assessment. In a substudy, observers assessed the balding pattern in a photo of the man aged 35 years while the man independently rated his balding at that age. Results Observers were very reliable in their assessment of balding pattern (85% exact agreement, κ = 0.83. Compared to trained observers, men were moderately accurate in their self-assessment of their balding status (48–55% exact agreement, κ = 0.39–0.46. For the substudy the exact agreement between the men and the observers was 67% and the agreement within balding groups was 87%. Conclusions We recommend that male balding patterns be assessed by trained personnel using the Hamilton-Norwood classification system. Where the use of trained personnel is not feasible, men's self assessment both currently and retrospectively has been shown to be adequate.

  20. Assessment of mercury in Maine’s interior bald eagle population

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — High mercury burdens have been linked to negative effects on behavior, physiology, and fledging success in birds. In this study, mercury exposure and the potential...

  1. Bald Eagle Nesting Disturbance Information 1974 Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a series of excerpts from various researchers discussing the impact that human disturbances have on the eagle’s ability to successfully nest, incubate...

  2. 凯斯与白头鹰%CASE and the Bald Eagle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛学伟; 谷雨檀

    2007-01-01

    在2O07年12月广州“CONEXPO ASIA 2007”的凯斯公司展台上,细心的观众会发现:展台上除凯斯精良的设备外,还有两个特殊的一直默默无闻的“迎宾者”——白头鹰雕像。

  3. 1985 National Wildlife Federation Raptor Information Center Bald Eagle Midwinter Survey Field Form. Blackwater NWR.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Observers arrived at designated areas 9:50 am, started count at 10:00 am and stayed at locations until 10:30 am. No aerial survey. See location on attached map for...

  4. How to get cool in the heat: comparing analytic models of hot, cold, and cooling gas in haloes and galaxies with EAGLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Adam R. H.; del P. Lagos, Claudia; Contreras, Sergio; Croton, Darren J.; Padilla, Nelson D.; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2017-01-01

    We use the hydrodynamic, cosmological EAGLE simulations to investigate how hot gas in haloes condenses to form and grow galaxies. We select haloes from the simulations that are actively cooling and study the temperature, distribution, and metallicity of their hot, cold, and transitioning `cooling' gas, placing these in context of semi-analytic models. Our selection criteria lead us to focus on Milky Way-like haloes. We find the hot-gas density profiles of the haloes form a progressively stronger core over time, the nature of which can be captured by a β profile that has a simple dependence on redshift. In contrast, the hot gas that will cool over a time-step is broadly consistent with a singular isothermal sphere. We find that cooling gas carries a few times the specific angular momentum of the halo and is offset in spin direction from the rest of the hot gas. The gas loses ˜60% of its specific angular momentum during the cooling process, generally remaining greater than that of the halo, and it precesses to become aligned with the cold gas already in the disc. We find tentative evidence that angular-momentum losses are slightly larger when gas cools onto dispersion-supported galaxies. We show that an exponential surface density profile for gas arriving on a disc remains a reasonable approximation, but a cusp containing ˜20% of the mass is always present, and disc scale radii are larger than predicted by a vanilla Fall & Efstathiou model. These scale radii are still closely correlated with the halo spin parameter, for which we suggest an updated prescription for galaxy formation models.

  5. Eagle syndrome revisited: cerebrovascular complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todo, Tsuyoshi; Alexander, Michael; Stokol, Colin; Lyden, Patrick; Braunstein, Glenn; Gewertz, Bruce

    2012-07-01

    Cervical pain caused by the elongation of the styloid process (Eagle syndrome) is well known to otolaryngologists but is rarely considered by vascular surgeons. We report two patients with cerebrovascular symptoms of Eagle syndrome treated in our medical center in the past year. Case 1: an 80-year-old man with acromegaly presented with dizziness and syncope with neck rotation. The patient was noted to have bilateral elongated styloid processes impinging on the internal carotid arteries. After staged resections of the styloid processes through cervical approaches, the symptoms resolved completely. Case 2: a 57-year-old man presented with acute-onset left-sided neck pain radiating to his head immediately after a vigorous neck massage. Hospital course was complicated by a 15-minute transient ischemic attack resulting in aphasia. Angiography revealed bilateral dissections of his internal carotid arteries, with a dissecting aneurysm on the right. Both injuries were immediately adjacent to the bilateral elongated styloid processes. Despite immediate anticoagulation therapy, he experienced aphasia and right hemiparesis associated with an occlusion of his left carotid artery. He underwent emergent catheter thrombectomy and carotid stent placement, with near-complete resolution of his symptoms. Elongated styloid processes characteristic of Eagle syndrome can result in both temporary impingement and permanent injury to the extracranial carotid arteries. Although rare, Eagle syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with cerebrovascular symptoms, especially those induced by positional change.

  6. Landscapes for Energy and Wildlife: Conservation Prioritization for Golden Eagles across Large Spatial Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Jason D; Fedy, Bradley C

    2015-01-01

    Proactive conservation planning for species requires the identification of important spatial attributes across ecologically relevant scales in a model-based framework. However, it is often difficult to develop predictive models, as the explanatory data required for model development across regional management scales is rarely available. Golden eagles are a large-ranging predator of conservation concern in the United States that may be negatively affected by wind energy development. Thus, identifying landscapes least likely to pose conflict between eagles and wind development via shared space prior to development will be critical for conserving populations in the face of imposing development. We used publically available data on golden eagle nests to generate predictive models of golden eagle nesting sites in Wyoming, USA, using a suite of environmental and anthropogenic variables. By overlaying predictive models of golden eagle nesting habitat with wind energy resource maps, we highlight areas of potential conflict among eagle nesting habitat and wind development. However, our results suggest that wind potential and the relative probability of golden eagle nesting are not necessarily spatially correlated. Indeed, the majority of our sample frame includes areas with disparate predictions between suitable nesting habitat and potential for developing wind energy resources. Map predictions cannot replace on-the-ground monitoring for potential risk of wind turbines on wildlife populations, though they provide industry and managers a useful framework to first assess potential development.

  7. 50 CFR 22.27 - Removal of eagle nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Removal of eagle nests. 22.27 Section 22... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS Eagle Permits § 22.27 Removal of eagle nests. (a) Purpose and... active or inactive nest where necessary to alleviate a safety emergency; (ii) An inactive eagle nest...

  8. Genetic prediction of male pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sarah E.; Ritchie, Stuart J.; Davies, Gail; Gale, Catharine R.; Porteous, David J.; Deary, Ian J.; Marioni, Riccardo E.

    2017-01-01

    Male pattern baldness can have substantial psychosocial effects, and it has been phenotypically linked to adverse health outcomes such as prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease. We explored the genetic architecture of the trait using data from over 52,000 male participants of UK Biobank, aged 40–69 years. We identified over 250 independent genetic loci associated with severe hair loss (P<5x10-8). By splitting the cohort into a discovery sample of 40,000 and target sample of 12,000, we developed a prediction algorithm based entirely on common genetic variants that discriminated (AUC = 0.78, sensitivity = 0.74, specificity = 0.69, PPV = 59%, NPV = 82%) those with no hair loss from those with severe hair loss. The results of this study might help identify those at greatest risk of hair loss, and also potential genetic targets for intervention. PMID:28196072

  9. Avian top predator and the landscape of fear: responses of mammalian mesopredators to risk imposed by the golden eagle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyly, Mari S; Villers, Alexandre; Koivisto, Elina; Helle, Pekka; Ollila, Tuomo; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2015-01-01

    Top predators may induce extensive cascading effects on lower trophic levels, for example, through intraguild predation (IGP). The impacts of both mammalian and avian top predators on species of the same class have been extensively studied, but the effects of the latter upon mammalian mesopredators are not yet as well known. We examined the impact of the predation risk imposed by a large avian predator, the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, L.), on its potential mammalian mesopredator prey, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes, L.), and the pine marten (Martes martes, L.). The study combined 23 years of countrywide data from nesting records of eagles and wildlife track counts of mesopredators in Finland, northern Europe. The predation risk of the golden eagle was modeled as a function of territory density, density of fledglings produced, and distance to nearest active eagle territory, with the expectation that a high predation risk would reduce the abundances of smaller sized pine martens in particular. Red foxes appeared not to suffer from eagle predation, being in fact most numerous close to eagle nests and in areas with more eagle territories. This is likely due to similar prey preferences of the two predators and the larger size of foxes enabling them to escape eagle predation risk. Somewhat contrary to our prediction, the abundance of pine martens increased from low to intermediate territory density and at close proximity to eagle nests, possibly because of similar habitat preferences of martens and eagles. We found a slightly decreasing trend of marten abundance at high territory density, which could indicate that the response in marten populations is dependent on eagle density. However, more research is needed to better establish whether mesopredators are intimidated or predated by golden eagles, and whether such effects could in turn cascade to lower trophic levels, benefitting herbivorous species.

  10. Davis Pond Freshwater Prediversion Biomonitoring Study: Freshwater Fisheries and Eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Bourgeois, E. Beth; Jeske, Clint W.

    2008-01-01

    In January 2001, the construction of the Davis Pond freshwater diversion structure was completed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The diversion of freshwater from the Mississippi River is intended to mitigate saltwater intrusion from the Gulf of Mexico and to lessen the concomitant loss of wetland areas. In addition to the freshwater inflow, Barataria Bay basin would receive nutrients, increased flows of sediments, and water-borne and sediment-bound compounds. The purpose of this biomonitoring study was, therefore, to serve as a baseline for prediversion concentrations of selected contaminants in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestlings (hereafter referred to as eaglets), representative freshwater fish, and bivalves. Samples were collected from January through June 2001. Two similarly designed postdiversion studies, as described in the biological monitoring program, are planned. Active bald eagle nests targeted for sampling eaglet blood (n = 6) were generally located southwest and south of the diversion structure. The designated sites for aquatic animal sampling were at Lake Salvador, at Lake Cataouatche, at Bayou Couba, and along the Mississippi River. Aquatic animals representative of eagle prey were collected. Fish were from three different trophic levels and have varying feeding strategies and life histories. These included herbivorous striped mullet (Mugil cephalus), omnivorous blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), and carnivorous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Three individuals per species were collected at each of the four sampling sites. Freshwater Atlantic rangia clams (Rangia cuneata) were collected at the downstream marsh sites, and zebra mussels (Dreissena spp.) were collected on the Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) protocols served as guides for fish sampling and health assessments. Fish are useful for monitoring aquatic ecosystems because they accumulate

  11. Evaluation of DNA Variants Associated with Androgenetic Alopecia and Their Potential to Predict Male Pattern Baldness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcińska, Magdalena; Pośpiech, Ewelina; Abidi, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia, known in men as male pattern baldness (MPB), is a very conspicuous condition that is particularly frequent among European men and thus contributes markedly to variation in physical appearance traits amongst Europeans. Recent studies have revealed multiple genes and polymorp......Androgenetic alopecia, known in men as male pattern baldness (MPB), is a very conspicuous condition that is particularly frequent among European men and thus contributes markedly to variation in physical appearance traits amongst Europeans. Recent studies have revealed multiple genes...... and polymorphisms to be associated with susceptibility to MPB. In this study, 50 candidate SNPs for androgenetic alopecia were analyzed in order to verify their potential to predict MPB. Significant associations were confirmed for 29 SNPs from chromosomes X, 1, 5, 7, 18 and 20. A simple 5-SNP prediction model...

  12. Eagle syndrome: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Nilüfer Ersan; Mehmet İlgüy; Dilhan İlgüy

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Eagle syndrome, an uncommon sequela of elongation of the styloid process or calcification of the stylohyoid ligament, can manifest as pain in the face and the anterolateral neck, often with referred pain to the ear and the temporomandibular joint area. CASE REPORT: A 43-year-old female patient presented to the Dentomaxillofacial Radiology Department with complaints of unremitting unilateral facial and neck pain, limitation in the movement of the neck, sensation of foreign bo...

  13. 78 FR 25263 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy... Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e. All local, state, and...

  14. 76 FR 15971 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy... Eagle Crest Energy as part of its on-going Section 7 Endangered Species Act consultation efforts. e....

  15. 77 FR 43280 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy... Management Act and the Federal Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e....

  16. 76 FR 22699 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy... Eagle Crest Energy as part of its on-going Section 7 Endangered Species Act consultation efforts. e....

  17. 77 FR 22267 - Eagle Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Eagle Permitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Parts 13 and 22 RIN 1018-AX91 Eagle Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Eagle Permitting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: We propose to revise the regulations for permits for nonpurposeful take of golden eagles...

  18. Eagle syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer Ersan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Eagle syndrome, an uncommon sequela of elongation of the styloid process or calcification of the stylohyoid ligament, can manifest as pain in the face and the anterolateral neck, often with referred pain to the ear and the temporomandibular joint area. CASE REPORT: A 43-year-old female patient presented to the Dentomaxillofacial Radiology Department with complaints of unremitting unilateral facial and neck pain, limitation in the movement of the neck, sensation of foreign body in the throat, dysphagia, and otalgia for a year. Systemic anamnesis of the patient was unremarkable. In the clinical examination, digital palpation of the tonsillar fossa aggravated the pain. The patient was being treated for temporomandibular joint disorder. A panoramic radiograph taken after the clinical examination revealed bilateral styloid process elongation. Cone-beam computed tomography also revealed bilateral ossification of the stylohyoid ligament which was measured as 71.5 mm and 69.6 mm on the right and the left side, respectively; and the patient was diagnosed as having Eagle syndrome. The patient was referred to the otolaryngology clinic for surgical treatment. Surgical shortening of the structure provided definitive relief in the patient's symptoms. CONCLUSION: In cases of unexplained complaints in the head and neck region Eagle syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis as it may change the treatment approach.

  19. ASBO Eagle Institute: A Leadership Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, James

    2012-01-01

    Each summer, ASBO International conducts an Eagle Institute leadership session in the Washington, D.C., area that provides a group of about 25 participants, including Eagle Award recipients, an opportunity to network with and learn from exemplary leaders inside and outside the field of school business management. Each year, the focus of the…

  20. Baldness and testicular cancer: the EPSAM case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moirano, G; Zugna, D; Grasso, C; Lista, P; Ciuffreda, L; Segnan, N; Merletti, F; Richiardi, L

    2016-03-01

    The etiology of testicular cancer is largely unexplained. Research has mainly focused on prenatal exposures, especially to sex hormones, while less attention has been paid to exposures that may act also postnatally. As baldness has been previously associated with testicular cancer risk we focused on baldness and body hairiness, which are both associated with androgen activity. We used data of the Postnatal Exposures and Male Health (EPSAM) study, a case-control study on testicular cancer conducted in the Province of Turin, Italy, involving cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. Information was collected using mailed questionnaires. Analyses included 255 cases and 459 controls. We calculated ORs and 95% CIs to estimate testicular cancer risk among those who developed baldness and among those with body hairiness. We found an inverse association between testicular cancer and baldness (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.46-0.98) and body hairiness (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.53-1.16), although the latter had wider CIs. The inverse association between baldness and testicular cancer is consistent with the results from previous studies. These results suggest that androgens activity may influence testicular cancer risk.

  1. Phylogeny and new taxonomy of the Booted Eagles (Accipitriformes: Aquilinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Heather; Christidis, Les; Gamauf, Anita; Griffiths, Carole; Haring, Elisabeth; Huddleston, Christopher J; Kabra, Sonia; Kocum, Annett; Krosby, Meade; Kvaløy, Kirsti; Mindell, David; Rasmussen, Pamela; Røv, Nils; Wadleigh, Rachel; Wink, Michael; Gjershaug, Jan Ove

    2017-01-09

    We present a phylogeny of all booted eagles (38 extant and one extinct species) based on analysis of published sequences from seven loci. We find molecular support for five major clades within the booted eagles: Nisaetus (10 species), Spizaetus (4 species), Clanga (3 species), Hieraaetus (6 species) and Aquila (11 species), requiring generic changes for 14 taxa. Additionally, we recommend that the Long-crested Eagle (Lophaetus occipitalis) and the Black Eagle (Ictinaetus malaiensis) remain in their monotypic genera, due to their distinctive morphology. We apply the recently resurrected genus Clanga for the spotted eagles (previously Aquila spp.) to resolve the paraphyly of the genus Aquila such that the clade including the Booted Eagle (H. pennatus), Little Eagle (H. morphnoides), Pygmy Eagle (H. weiskei), Ayres's Eagle (H. ayresii) and Wahlberg's Eagle (H. wahlbergi) can remain in the genus Hieraaetus. The Rufous-bellied Eagle should be retained in the genus Lophotriorchis. For consistency in English names, we recommend that the term "hawk-eagles" be used only for the species in the genera Nisaetus and Spizaetus. We suggest following new or modified English names: Cassin's Eagle (Aquila africana), Bonaparte's Eagle (A. spilogaster), Ayres's Eagle (Hieraaetus ayresii), and Black-and-chestnut Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus isidori).

  2. the conservation status of eagles in south african law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    expressions of human admiration of eagles include the deifying of eagles in ancient .... Eagles breed in Europe and Asia, while the Ayres's Hawk-Eagle breeds in .... Conflicts between national and provincial legislation are dealt with in s 146. .... 3.1.4 The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals.

  3. 75 FR 53266 - United States Army Restricted Area, Designated Portions of Eagle Bay and Eagle River, Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... Portions of Eagle Bay and Eagle River, Fort Richardson, AK AGENCY: United States Army Corps of Engineers... status of a portion of Eagle River within the boundaries of Fort Richardson, Alaska as well as an adjacent portion of Eagle Bay in the Knik Arm. More specifically, the restricted area is to include...

  4. Subcutaneous blood flow in early male pattern baldness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemp, P.; Peters, K.; Hansted, B.

    1989-05-01

    The subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) was measured by the /sup 133/Xe washout method in the scalp of 14 patients with early male pattern baldness. Control experiments were performed in 14 normal haired men matched for age. The SBF in the scalp of the normal individuals was about 10 times higher than previously reported SBF values in other anatomical regions. In patients with early male pattern baldness, SBF was 2.6 times lower than the values found in the normal individuals (13.7 +/- 9.6 vs 35.7 +/- 10.5 ml/100 g/min-1). This difference was statistically significant (p much less than 0.001). A reduced nutritive blood flow to the hair follicles might be a significant event in the pathogenesis of early male pattern baldness.

  5. Through the Eyes of the Eagle

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  6. Guardian or threat: does golden eagle predation risk have cascading effects on forest grouse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyly, Mari S; Villers, Alexandre; Koivisto, Elina; Helle, Pekka; Ollila, Tuomo; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies on intraguild predation have mainly focused on within-class assemblages, even though avian top predators may also influence mammalian mesopredator prey. By using nation-wide long-term data from Finland, northern Europe, we examined the impacts of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) together with red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and pine martens (Martes martes) on forest-dwelling herbivores, black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) and hazel grouse (Tetrastes bonasia). We hypothesized that eagles may alleviate the overall predation pressure on grouse by imposing intraguild predation risk on mesopredators. The predation impact of eagle was modelled using eagle density estimates and distance to eagle nest. Wildlife triangle counts were used as predation impact proxies of mammalian mesopredators and as measures of response in grouse. Our results show that eagle density correlated negatively with black grouse abundance indices while being positively associated with the proportion of juveniles in both grouse species, irrespective of the abundance of mesopredators. Yet, foxes and martens alone had a negative effect on the abundance indices and the proportion of young in the two grouse species. This suggests that the possible cascading effects of eagles are not mediated by decreased mesopredator numbers, but instead by fear effects. Alternatively, they may be mediated by other species than fox or marten studied here. In conclusion, we found support for the hypothesis that eagles provide protection for juvenile black and hazel grouse, whereas they are a threat for adult grouse. This important information helps us to better understand the role of avian top predators in terrestrial ecosystems.

  7. Evaluation of DNA variants associated with androgenetic alopecia and their potential to predict male pattern baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcińska, Magdalena; Pośpiech, Ewelina; Abidi, Sarah; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg; van den Berge, Margreet; Carracedo, Ángel; Eduardoff, Mayra; Marczakiewicz-Lustig, Anna; Morling, Niels; Sijen, Titia; Skowron, Małgorzata; Söchtig, Jens; Syndercombe-Court, Denise; Weiler, Natalie; Schneider, Peter M; Ballard, David; Børsting, Claus; Parson, Walther; Phillips, Chris; Branicki, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia, known in men as male pattern baldness (MPB), is a very conspicuous condition that is particularly frequent among European men and thus contributes markedly to variation in physical appearance traits amongst Europeans. Recent studies have revealed multiple genes and polymorphisms to be associated with susceptibility to MPB. In this study, 50 candidate SNPs for androgenetic alopecia were analyzed in order to verify their potential to predict MPB. Significant associations were confirmed for 29 SNPs from chromosomes X, 1, 5, 7, 18 and 20. A simple 5-SNP prediction model and an extended 20-SNP model were developed based on a discovery panel of 305 males from various European populations fitting one of two distinct phenotype categories. The first category consisted of men below 50 years of age with significant baldness and the second; men aged 50 years or older lacking baldness. The simple model comprised the five best predictors: rs5919324 near AR, rs1998076 in the 20p11 region, rs929626 in EBF1, rs12565727 in TARDBP and rs756853 in HDAC9. The extended prediction model added 15 SNPs from five genomic regions that improved overall prevalence-adjusted predictive accuracy measured by area under the receiver characteristic operating curve (AUC). Both models were evaluated for predictive accuracy using a test set of 300 males reflecting the general European population. Applying a 65% probability threshold, high prediction sensitivity of 87.1% but low specificity of 42.4% was obtained in men aged <50 years. In men aged ≥50, prediction sensitivity was slightly lower at 67.7% while specificity reached 90%. Overall, the AUC=0.761 calculated for men at or above 50 years of age indicates these SNPs offer considerable potential for the application of genetic tests to predict MPB patterns, adding a highly informative predictive system to the emerging field of forensic analysis of externally visible characteristics.

  8. Evaluation of DNA variants associated with androgenetic alopecia and their potential to predict male pattern baldness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Marcińska

    Full Text Available Androgenetic alopecia, known in men as male pattern baldness (MPB, is a very conspicuous condition that is particularly frequent among European men and thus contributes markedly to variation in physical appearance traits amongst Europeans. Recent studies have revealed multiple genes and polymorphisms to be associated with susceptibility to MPB. In this study, 50 candidate SNPs for androgenetic alopecia were analyzed in order to verify their potential to predict MPB. Significant associations were confirmed for 29 SNPs from chromosomes X, 1, 5, 7, 18 and 20. A simple 5-SNP prediction model and an extended 20-SNP model were developed based on a discovery panel of 305 males from various European populations fitting one of two distinct phenotype categories. The first category consisted of men below 50 years of age with significant baldness and the second; men aged 50 years or older lacking baldness. The simple model comprised the five best predictors: rs5919324 near AR, rs1998076 in the 20p11 region, rs929626 in EBF1, rs12565727 in TARDBP and rs756853 in HDAC9. The extended prediction model added 15 SNPs from five genomic regions that improved overall prevalence-adjusted predictive accuracy measured by area under the receiver characteristic operating curve (AUC. Both models were evaluated for predictive accuracy using a test set of 300 males reflecting the general European population. Applying a 65% probability threshold, high prediction sensitivity of 87.1% but low specificity of 42.4% was obtained in men aged <50 years. In men aged ≥50, prediction sensitivity was slightly lower at 67.7% while specificity reached 90%. Overall, the AUC=0.761 calculated for men at or above 50 years of age indicates these SNPs offer considerable potential for the application of genetic tests to predict MPB patterns, adding a highly informative predictive system to the emerging field of forensic analysis of externally visible characteristics.

  9. An Eagle of Cosmic Proportions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Today ESO has released a new and stunning image of the sky around the Eagle Nebula, a stellar nursery where infant star clusters carve out monster columns of dust and gas. Located 7000 light-years away, towards the constellation of Serpens (the Snake), the Eagle Nebula is a dazzling stellar nursery, a region of gas and dust where young stars are currently being formed and where a cluster of massive, hot stars, NGC 6611, has just been born. The powerful light and strong winds from these massive new arrivals are shaping light-year long pillars, seen in the image partly silhouetted against the bright background of the nebula. The nebula itself has a shape vaguely reminiscent of an eagle, with the central pillars being the "talons". The star cluster was discovered by the Swiss astronomer, Jean Philippe Loys de Chéseaux, in 1745-46. It was independently rediscovered about twenty years later by the French comet hunter, Charles Messier, who included it as number 16 in his famous catalogue, and remarked that the stars were surrounded by a faint glow. The Eagle Nebula achieved iconic status in 1995, when its central pillars were depicted in a famous image obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. In 2001, ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) captured another breathtaking image of the nebula in the near-infrared, giving astronomers a penetrating view through the obscuring dust, and clearly showing stars being formed in the pillars. The newly released image, obtained with the Wide-Field Imager camera attached to the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at La Silla, Chile, covers an area on the sky as large as the full Moon, and is about 15 times more extensive than the previous VLT image, and more than 200 times more extensive than the iconic Hubble visible-light image. The whole region around the pillars can now be seen in exquisite detail. The "Pillars of Creation" are in the middle of the image, with the cluster of young stars, NGC 6611, lying above and to the right. The

  10. A Stylistic Analysis of The Eagle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to make a general analysis of the famous poem The Eagle from stylistic perspective.By analyzing its phonological,lexical and grammatical feature,the poet’s intention and emotional effect can be thoroughly understood.

  11. Prevalence and Characteristics of Eagle Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suheyl Haytoglu

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: In patients with inconsistency in complaints and physical examination, Eagle syndrome as one of the causes of secondary otalgia, must be considered beside the primer otalgia.. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(4.000: 654-660

  12. Like an eagle carries its young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Georg Wünch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The picture of an eagle carrying its young on its wings (Dt 32:11 is a powerful and encouraging image of trust and security in God. It is particularly relevant for Western culture, where the eagle is a prominent symbol of power and strength. In recent years, though, the translation of the Hebrew term רֶשֶׁנ as ‘eagle’ has come into question and modern exegetes claim that it is more accurately translated as ‘vulture’. But can this really be a symbol of comfort? Furthermore, do eagles (or vultures even carry their young on their wings? This article intends to shed some light on these questions.Keywords: Old Testament; Deuteronomy; Eagle; Vulture

  13. Restoration of sea eagle population: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef RAJCHARD

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The population density of the white-tailed sea eagle Haliaeetus albicilla is very low in many countries. In last twenty years, the sea eagle population in South Bohemia was restored by strict protection subsidized by reintroduction. The active help consisted of feeding during winter and building of artificial nests. A new sea eagle breeding population arose in the Třeboň basin area in the early 1980’s. Until this time sea eagles had used former breeding places only for wintering, probably coming from the Baltic. The South Bohemian sea eagle population is very unique: it exists in a densely man-occupied landscape, mainly in areas with very intensive carp breeding in artificial fishponds and was partly artficially (help to wintering birds and reintroduction of some individuals restored. The experience from South Bohemia may have importance for populations of the sea eagle in other areas of its occurence, primarily in the continental conditions [Current Zoology 55 (5:–2009].

  14. Restoration of sea eagle population: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Josef RAJCHARD; Jan PROCH(A)ZKA

    2009-01-01

    The population density of the white-tailed sea eagle Haliaeetus albicilla is very low in many countries. In last twenty years, the sea eagle population in South Bohemia was restored by strict protection subsidized by reintroduction. The active help consisted of feeding during winter and building of artificial nests. A new sea eagle breeding population arose in the T(r)ebo(n) basin area in the early 1980' s. Until this time sea eagles had used former breeding places only for wintering, probably coming from the Baltic. The South Bohemian sea eagle population is very unique: it exists in a densely man-occupied landscape, mainly in areas with very intensive carp breeding in artificial fishponds and was partly artficially (help to wintering birds and reintroduction of some individuals) restored. The experience from South Bohemia may have importance for populations of the sea eagle in other areas of its occurence, primarily in the continental conditions [Current Zoology 55 (5):315-318,2009].

  15. Hair-raising. The latest news on male-pattern baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, P H

    1999-04-01

    The initiating event in balding seems to be an abnormal sensitivity to the male sex hormones. In addition, a multifactorial model is emerging in which hormones affect the hair follicle in a way that causes it to be perceived as a foreign body by the immune system, which then mounts an attack. Several new classes of agents have the potential to treat hair loss. More than 40 U.S. and several hundred foreign patents have been issued for hair-loss treatment agents. As is common in dermatology, no single agent works universally against hair loss, so the treatment process is often one of trial and error.

  16. Baryon effects on void statistics in the EAGLE simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Paillas, Enrique; Padilla, Nelson; Tissera, Patricia; Helly, John; Schaller, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic voids are promising tools for cosmological tests due to their sensitivity to dark energy, modified gravity and alternative cosmological scenarios. Most previous studies in the literature of void properties use cosmological N-body simulations of dark matter (DM) particles that ignore the potential effect of baryonic physics. We analyse voids in the mass and subhalo density field in the EAGLE simulations, which follow the evolution of galaxies in a Lambda cold dark matter Universe with state-of-the-art subgrid models for baryonic processes. We study the effect of baryons on void statistics by comparing results with simulations that only follow the evolution of DM, but use the same initial conditions as EAGLE. When using the mass in the simulation, we find that a DM-only simulation produces 24 per cent more voids than a hydrodynamical one, but this difference comes mainly from voids with radii smaller than 5 Mpc. We do not find significant differences in the density profiles between voids in EAGLE and its...

  17. 77 FR 27174 - Eagle Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Eagle Permitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Parts 13 and 22 RIN 1018-AX91 Eagle Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Eagle Permitting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule... 13, 2012, proposed rule to revise the regulations for permits for nonpurposeful take of golden...

  18. Coexistence in a multispecies assemblage of eagles in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzner, T.E.; Bragin, E.A.; Knick, S.T.; Smith, A.T.

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated factors that permit species coexistence in an exceptional assemblage of similar raptor species at the Naurzum Zapovednik (a national nature reserve) in north-central Kazakhstan. White-tailed Sea-Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca), Golden Eagle (A. chrysaetos), and Steppe Eagle (A. nipalensis) all breed at the Zapovednik. Steppe Eagle use of nesting resources was distinct from that of tree-nesting species. We evaluated differences in nest tree and nest habitat characteristics, nest dimensions and positions, and nest spacing among the three forest-dwelling eagle species to distinguish between the effects of inter- and intraspecific resource limitations on species coexistence. Although the different species bred in similar habitat and sometimes reused other species' nests, the dimensions, positions and locations of their nests often differed. These differences did not appear to result from interspecific competition. Nest spacing trends were also species specific; Imperial Eagles generally nested farther from other eagle nests than did Golden Eagles and White-tailed Sea-Eagles. Intraspecific variation in habitat, physical characteristics, and spacing patterns of Imperial Eagle nests was extensive throughout the nature reserve. Although interspecific partitioning of nesting habitat may allow coexistence of ground-nesting Steppe Eagles, interspecific competition did not appear to be a primary determinant of the use of nest habitat, space, or nests by tree-nesting species. Rather, interspecific effects appeared secondary to intraspecific effects in determining coexistence of tree-nesting eagles at this site.

  19. Searching for a major locus for male pattern baldness (MPB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anker, R.; Eisen, A.Z.; Donis-Keller, H. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Male pattern baldness (MPB) is a common trait in post-pubertal males. Approximately 50% of adult males present some degree of MPB by age 50. According to the classification provided by Hamilton in 1951 and modified by Norwood in 1975, the trait itself is a continuum that ranges from mild (Type I) to severe (Type VII) cases. In addition, there is extensive variability for the age of onset. The role of androgens in allowing the expression of this trait in males has been well established. This phenotype is uncommonly expressed in females. The high prevalence of the trait, the distribution of MPB as a continuous trait, and several non-allelic mutations identified in the mouse capable of affecting hair pattern, suggest that MPB is genetically heterogeneous. In order to reduce the probability of multiple non-allelic MPB genes within a pedigree, we selected 9 families in which MPB appears to segregate exclusively through the paternal lineage as compared to bilineal pedigrees. There are 32 males expressing this phenotype and females are treated as phenotype unknown. In general, affected individuals expressed the trait before 30 years of age with a severity of at least Type III or IV. We assumed an autosomal dominant model, with a gene frequency of 1/20 for the affected allele, and 90% penetrance. Simulation studies using the SLINK program with these pedigrees showed that these families would be sufficient to detect linkage under the assumption of a single major locus. If heterogeneity is present, the current resource does not have sufficient power to detect linkage at a statistically significant level, although candidate regions of the genome could be identified for further studies with additional pedigrees. Using 53 highly informative microsatellite markers, and a subset of 7 families, we have screened 30% of the genome. This search included several regions where candidate genes for MPB are located.

  20. Eagle river flats bird dieoff: A summary of findings 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Since 1982, periodic waterfowl die-offs have been documented at Ft. Richardson Army Base, Anchorage, Alaska in an area at the mouth of Eagle River known as Eagle...

  1. Increased flight altitudes among migrating golden eagles suggest turbine avoidance at a Rocky Mountain wind installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Naira N; Bradley, James E; Otter, Ken A

    2014-01-01

    Potential wind-energy development in the eastern Rocky Mountain foothills of British Columbia, Canada, raises concerns due to its overlap with a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) migration corridor. The Dokie 1 Wind Energy Project is the first development in this area and stands as a model for other projects in the area because of regional consistency in topographic orientation and weather patterns. We visually tracked golden eagles over three fall migration seasons (2009-2011), one pre- and two post-construction, to document eagle flight behaviour in relation to a ridge-top wind energy development. We estimated three-dimensional positions of eagles in space as they migrated through our study site. Flight tracks were then incorporated into GIS to ascertain flight altitudes for eagles that flew over the ridge-top area (or turbine string). Individual flight paths were designated to a category of collision-risk based on flight altitude (e.g. flights within rotor-swept height; ≤150 m above ground) and wind speed (winds sufficient for the spinning of turbines; >6.8 km/h at ground level). Eagles were less likely to fly over the ridge-top area within rotor-swept height (risk zone) as wind speed increased, but were more likely to make such crosses under headwinds and tailwinds compared to western crosswinds. Most importantly, we observed a smaller proportion of flights within the risk zone at wind speeds sufficient for the spinning of turbines (higher-risk flights) during post-construction compared to pre-construction, suggesting that eagles showed detection and avoidance of turbines during migration.

  2. Increased flight altitudes among migrating golden eagles suggest turbine avoidance at a Rocky Mountain wind installation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naira N Johnston

    Full Text Available Potential wind-energy development in the eastern Rocky Mountain foothills of British Columbia, Canada, raises concerns due to its overlap with a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos migration corridor. The Dokie 1 Wind Energy Project is the first development in this area and stands as a model for other projects in the area because of regional consistency in topographic orientation and weather patterns. We visually tracked golden eagles over three fall migration seasons (2009-2011, one pre- and two post-construction, to document eagle flight behaviour in relation to a ridge-top wind energy development. We estimated three-dimensional positions of eagles in space as they migrated through our study site. Flight tracks were then incorporated into GIS to ascertain flight altitudes for eagles that flew over the ridge-top area (or turbine string. Individual flight paths were designated to a category of collision-risk based on flight altitude (e.g. flights within rotor-swept height; ≤150 m above ground and wind speed (winds sufficient for the spinning of turbines; >6.8 km/h at ground level. Eagles were less likely to fly over the ridge-top area within rotor-swept height (risk zone as wind speed increased, but were more likely to make such crosses under headwinds and tailwinds compared to western crosswinds. Most importantly, we observed a smaller proportion of flights within the risk zone at wind speeds sufficient for the spinning of turbines (higher-risk flights during post-construction compared to pre-construction, suggesting that eagles showed detection and avoidance of turbines during migration.

  3. 36 CFR 71.5 - Golden Eagle Passport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Golden Eagle Passport. 71.5... RECREATION FEES § 71.5 Golden Eagle Passport. (a) The Golden Eagle Passport is an annual permit, valid on a calendar-year basis, for admission to any Designated Entrance Fee Area. The charge for the Golden...

  4. Involvement of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in the New York State Bald Eagle Reintroduction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In July, 1981, Region 7 of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service issued the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC), a permit to take 21 young...

  5. 78 FR 72926 - Bald and Golden Eagles; Migratory Birds; Phase I Development of the Chokecherry-Sierra Madre Wind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ...), announce our intent to prepare a draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Phase I of the Chokecherry-Sierra Madre Wind Energy Project. Our draft EIS will analyze the environmental impacts associated with... Chokecherry-Sierra Madre Wind Energy Project AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice...

  6. Contaminant assessment of coastal bald eagles at Maine Coastal Islands National Wildlife Refuge and Acadia National Park

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Environmental contaminants including organochlorine compounds (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE)), polybrominated...

  7. The population size and age structure of the bald eagle on Homer Spit, Homer, Alaska during the winter 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes baseline data that was collected on the population size, age structure, intra-specific behavior or aggressiveness, and the frequency in which...

  8. Organochlorine compounds in bald eagle and common loon eggs from Androscoggin Lake and the Androscoggin River watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Reduced productivity has been documented in fish‐eating birds inhabiting Androscoggin Lake in west‐central Maine. The cause of reduced productivity of fish‐eating...

  9. Ahmad's NPRT System: A Practical Innovation for Documenting Male Pattern Baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Various classifications for male pattern baldness are mentioned in the literature. The 'Norwood's classification is the most commonly used but it has certain limitations. The new system has included 'three' extra features which were not mentioned in any other classification. It provides an opportunity to document the full and correct picture while documenting male pattern baldness. It also aids in assessing the treatment for various degrees of baldness.

  10. Ahmad's NPRT System: A Practical Innovation for Documenting Male Pattern Baldness

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Various classifications for male pattern baldness are mentioned in the literature. The 'Norwood's classification is the most commonly used but it has certain limitations. The new system has included 'three' extra features which were not mentioned in any other classification. It provides an opportunity to document the full and correct picture while documenting male pattern baldness. It also aids in assessing the treatment for various degrees of baldness.

  11. Ahmad's NPRT system: A practical innovation for documenting male pattern baldness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various classifications for male pattern baldness are mentioned in the literature. The 'Norwood's classification is the most commonly used but it has certain limitations. The new system has included 'three' extra features which were not mentioned in any other classification. It provides an opportunity to document the full and correct picture while documenting male pattern baldness. It also aids in assessing the treatment for various degrees of baldness.

  12. Ahmad's NPRT System: A Practical Innovation for Documenting Male Pattern Baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Various classifications for male pattern baldness are mentioned in the literature. The ‘Norwood's classification is the most commonly used but it has certain limitations. The new system has included ‘three’ extra features which were not mentioned in any other classification. It provides an opportunity to document the full and correct picture while documenting male pattern baldness. It also aids in assessing the treatment for various degrees of baldness.

  13. The EAGLE Concept-Framework for a Future Land Morning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Stephan; Hezeu, Gerard; Valcarcel Sanz, Nuria

    2016-08-01

    The EAGLE concept embodies a new approach for land monitoring initiatives following an object-oriented approach in landscape modelling. It aims at providing a basis for an integrated European Land Monitoring Framework. Once implemented, the EAGLE concept with its data model and tools can help to harmonize and make comparable different LC/LU classification systems on national and European level. Also, it can provide guidance for mapping initiatives and field campaigns to describe landscape in an application- neutral manner by the descriptive decomposition of the landscape instead of classification. The EAGLE concept ´s target is after all the pan-European dimension, but also can be broadened up to be check on the dimension of global test beds.

  14. [Unilateral atypical neck pain in Eagle syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonka, Matilde Mia; Schousboe, Lars Peter

    2012-04-30

    This article is an introduction to Eagle syndrome as a differential diagnosis in patients with lateral neck pain, a symptom, which is often difficult to diagnose and where the accepted treatment covers a variety of forms. This was the case for a 51 year-old man with lateral neck pain and a crunchy sensation/sound when he turned his head. After years of pain, the right examination and a computed tomography finally suggested Eagle syndrome. The patient had severe symptoms and was treated with an operation by which part of the ossificated stylohyoid ligament was removed. The operation relieved him of all his symptoms.

  15. EAGLE: 'EAGLE'Is an' Algorithmic Graph Library for Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-16

    The Resource Description Framework (RDF) and SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL) were introduced about a decade ago to enable flexible schema-free data interchange on the Semantic Web. Today data scientists use the framework as a scalable graph representation for integrating, querying, exploring and analyzing data sets hosted at different sources. With increasing adoption, the need for graph mining capabilities for the Semantic Web has emerged. Today there is no tools to conduct "graph mining" on RDF standard data sets. We address that need through implementation of popular iterative Graph Mining algorithms (Triangle count, Connected component analysis, degree distribution, diversity degree, PageRank, etc.). We implement these algorithms as SPARQL queries, wrapped within Python scripts and call our software tool as EAGLE. In RDF style, EAGLE stands for "EAGLE 'Is an' algorithmic graph library for exploration. EAGLE is like 'MATLAB' for 'Linked Data.'

  16. Male Pattern Baldness in Relation to Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality: A Prospective Analysis in the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cindy Ke; Levine, Paul H; Cleary, Sean D; Hoffman, Heather J; Graubard, Barry I; Cook, Michael B

    2016-02-01

    We used male pattern baldness as a proxy for long-term androgen exposure and investigated the association of dermatologist-assessed hair loss with prostate cancer-specific mortality in the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. From the baseline survey (1971-1974), we included 4,316 men who were 25-74 years of age and had no prior cancer diagnosis. We estimated hazard ratios and used Cox proportional hazards regressions with age as the time metric and baseline hazard stratified by baseline age. A hybrid framework was used to account for stratification and clustering of the sample design, with adjustment for the variables used to calculate sample weights. During follow-up (median, 21 years), 3,284 deaths occurred; prostate cancer was the underlying cause of 107. In multivariable models, compared with no balding, any baldness was associated with a 56% higher risk of fatal prostate cancer (hazard ratio = 1.56; 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 2.37), and moderate balding specifically was associated with an 83% higher risk (hazard ratio = 1.83; 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 2.92). Conversely, patterned hair loss was not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality. Our analysis suggests that patterned hair loss is associated with a higher risk of fatal prostate cancer and supports the hypothesis of overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms.

  17. Like an eagle carries its young

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-15

    Jul 15, 2016 ... which human beings were restricted to their own physical abilities. The only way for a .... Micah 1:16: 'Shave your head in mourning for the children in whom you delight; make ..... of no consequence. Since the eagle – as ...

  18. 78 FR 65238 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Eagle, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Eagle, AK...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Eagle Airport, Eagle, AK. Controlled airspace is... management of aircraft operations at Eagle Airport, Eagle, AK. DATES: Comments must be received on or...

  19. Far-infrared and dust properties of present-day galaxies in the EAGLE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Peter; Trayford, James W.; Baes, Maarten; Theuns, Tom; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2016-10-01

    The Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) cosmological simulations reproduce the observed galaxy stellar mass function and many galaxy properties. In this work, we study the dust-related properties of present-day EAGLE galaxies through mock observations in the far-infrared and submm wavelength ranges obtained with the 3D dust radiative transfer code SKIRT. To prepare an EAGLE galaxy for radiative transfer processing, we derive a diffuse dust distribution from the gas particles and we re-sample the star-forming gas particles and the youngest star particles into star-forming regions that are assigned dedicated emission templates. We select a set of redshift-zero EAGLE galaxies that matches the K-band luminosity distribution of the galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS), a volume-limited sample of about 300 normal galaxies in the Local Universe. We find overall agreement of the EAGLE dust scaling relations with those observed in the HRS, such as the dust-to-stellar mass ratio versus stellar mass and versus NUV-r colour relations. A discrepancy in the f250/f350 versus f350/f500 submm colour-colour relation implies that part of the simulated dust is insufficiently heated, likely because of limitations in our sub-grid model for star-forming regions. We also investigate the effect of adjusting the metal-to-dust ratio and the covering factor of the photodissociation regions surrounding the star-forming cores. We are able to constrain the important dust-related parameters in our method, informing the calculation of dust attenuation for EAGLE galaxies in the UV and optical domain.

  20. Assessing the vegetation history of three Southern Appalachian balds through soil organic matter analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; Larry L. Tieszen; Glen G. Fredlund

    1998-01-01

    The history of Southern Appalachian grassy balds has long been a topic of speculation. Two types have been identified: those completely covered by grass and those occupied by a mixed-hardwood overstory with a grassy herbaceous layer. Three areas historically known as balds were identified in the Wine Spring Ecosystem Project Area. Each is currently under a different...

  1. Estimation of occupancy, breeding success, and predicted abundance of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the Diablo Range, California, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, J. David; Kolar, Patrick S.; Fuller, Mark R.; Hunt, W. Grainger; Hunt, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    We used a multistate occupancy sampling design to estimate occupancy, breeding success, and abundance of territorial pairs of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the Diablo Range, California, in 2014. This method uses the spatial pattern of detections and non-detections over repeated visits to survey sites to estimate probabilities of occupancy and successful reproduction while accounting for imperfect detection of golden eagles and their young during surveys. The estimated probability of detecting territorial pairs of golden eagles and their young was less than 1 and varied with time of the breeding season, as did the probability of correctly classifying a pair’s breeding status. Imperfect detection and breeding classification led to a sizeable difference between the uncorrected, naïve estimate of the proportion of occupied sites where successful reproduction was observed (0.20) and the model-based estimate (0.30). The analysis further indicated a relatively high overall probability of landscape occupancy by pairs of golden eagles (0.67, standard error = 0.06), but that areas with the greatest occupancy and reproductive potential were patchily distributed. We documented a total of 138 territorial pairs of golden eagles during surveys completed in the 2014 breeding season, which represented about one-half of the 280 pairs we estimated to occur in the broader 5,169-square kilometer region sampled. The study results emphasize the importance of accounting for imperfect detection and spatial heterogeneity in studies of site occupancy, breeding success, and abundance of golden eagles.

  2. Characterizing the Dense Gas in the Eagle and Pelican Pillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Erin; Pound, M. W.; Mundy, L. G.

    2014-01-01

    We observed two regions with molecular pillars, the Eagle and the Pelican, in order to understand the morphology of dense gas in these structures. Molecular pillars are formed in HII regions at the boundary between ionized gas and molecular clouds through the effects of photoionization, ablation, and recombination. Two sets of models exist for the formation mechanism of the pillars: (1) the growth of radiative hydrodynamic instabilities and (2) shadowing of the ionization front due to clumps in the molecular cloud. We have CARMA observations of the two sources in HCN J=1-0, N2H+ J=1-0, HCO+ J=1-0 and CS J=2-1 with resolutions of 9x6’’ for the Eagle and 4x4’’ for the Pelican. The dense gas follows the structure outlined in the optical images and seen in CO emission, throughout the pillars, with an increase in emission in the heads of the pillars. The differencing morphologies among the molecules are consistent with typical photo-disassociation region behavior. The velocity field shows a distinct gradient from head-to-tail for the majority of the pillars. We find that the morphology and the kinematics of the pillars are consistent with the shadowing model.

  3. The conservation status of eagles in South African law

    OpenAIRE

    JC Knobel

    2013-01-01

    This contribution is an introductory survey and preliminary evaluation of the conservation status of eagles in South African law. The methodology is primarily an interdisciplinary literature study of legal texts and texts from the natural sciences. Eagles are some of the largest and most powerful avian predators, and the human response to their presence is dualistic and polarised. At the one extreme, many people admire eagles, while at the other extreme they are perceived as a threat to econo...

  4. Golden Eagle fatalities and the continental-scale consequences of local wind-energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzner, Todd E; Nelson, David M; Braham, Melissa A; Doyle, Jacqueline M; Fernandez, Nadia B; Duerr, Adam E; Bloom, Peter H; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C; Miller, Tricia A; Culver, Renee C E; Braswell, Loan; DeWoody, J Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Renewable energy production is expanding rapidly despite mostly unknown environmental effects on wildlife and habitats. We used genetic and stable isotope data collected from Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) killed at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) in California in demographic models to test hypotheses about the geographic extent and demographic consequences of fatalities caused by renewable energy facilities. Geospatial analyses of δ(2) H values obtained from feathers showed that ≥25% of these APWRA-killed eagles were recent immigrants to the population, most from long distances away (>100 km). Data from nuclear genes indicated this subset of immigrant eagles was genetically similar to birds identified as locals from the δ(2) H data. Demographic models implied that in the face of this mortality, the apparent stability of the local Golden Eagle population was maintained by continental-scale immigration. These analyses demonstrate that ecosystem management decisions concerning the effects of local-scale renewable energy can have continental-scale consequences.

  5. Golden Eagle fatalities and the continental-scale consequences of local wind-energy generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzner, Todd E.; Nelson, David M.; Braham, Melissa; Doyle, Jacqueline M.; Fernandez, Nadia B.; Duerr, Adam E.; Bloom, Peter H.; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C.; Miller, Tricia A.; Culver, Renee C. E.; Braswell, Loan; DeWoody, J. Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy production is expanding rapidly despite mostly unknown environmental effects on wildlife and habitats. We used genetic and stable isotope data collected from Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) killed at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) in California in demographic models to test hypotheses about the geographic extent and demographic consequences of fatalities caused by renewable energy facilities. Geospatial analyses of δ2H values obtained from feathers showed that ≥25% of these APWRA-killed eagles were recent immigrants to the population, most from long distances away (>100 km). Data from nuclear genes indicated this subset of immigrant eagles was genetically similar to birds identified as locals from the δ2H data. Demographic models implied that in the face of this mortality, the apparent stability of the local Golden Eagle population was maintained by continental-scale immigration. These analyses demonstrate that ecosystem management decisions concerning the effects of local-scale renewable energy can have continental-scale consequences.

  6. Golden Eagle Territories and Ecology at Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratanduono, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-29

    Garcia and Associates (GANDA) was contracted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to collect information on golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) use of Site 300. During 2014, we conducted surveys at Site 300 and for an area including a 10-mile radius of Site 300. Those surveys documented 42 golden eagle territories including two territories that overlapped with Site 300. These were named ‘Tesla’ and ‘Linac Road’. In 2015, we conducted surveys to refine the territory boundaries of golden eagle territories that overlapped with Site 300 and to document eagle activity at Site 300.

  7. Golden eagle population trends in the western United States: 1968-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsap, Brian A.; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.; Sauer, John R.; Nielson, Ryan M.; Otto, Mark; Bjerre, Emily; Murphy, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service promulgated permit regulations for the unintentional lethal take (anthropogenic mortality) and disturbance of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Accurate population trend and size information for golden eagles are needed so agency biologists can make informed decisions when eagle take permits are requested. To address this need with available data, we used a log-linear hierarchical model to average data from a late-summer aerial-line-transect distance-sampling survey (WGES) of golden eagles in the United States portions of Bird Conservation Region (BCR) 9 (Great Basin), BCR 10 (Northern Rockies), BCR 16 (Southern Rockies/Colorado Plateau), and BCR 17 (Badlands and Prairies) from 2006 to 2010 with late-spring, early summer Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data for the same BCRs and years to estimate summer golden eagle population size and trends in these BCRs. We used the ratio of the density estimates from the WGES to the BBS index to calculate a BCR-specific adjustment factor that scaled the BBS index (i.e., birds per route) to a density estimate. Our results indicated golden eagle populations were generally stable from 2006 to 2010 in the 4 BCRs, with an estimated average rate of population change of −0.41% (95% credible interval [CI]: −4.17% to 3.40%) per year. For the 4 BCRs and years, we estimated annual golden eagle population size to range from 28,220 (95% CI: 23,250–35,110) in 2007 to 26,490 (95% CI: 21,760–32,680) in 2008. We found a general correspondence in trends between WGES and BBS data for these 4 BCRs, which suggested BBS data were providing useful trend information. We used the overall adjustment factor calculated from the 4 BCRs and years to scale BBS golden eagle counts from 1968 to 2005 for the 4 BCRs and for 1968 to 2010 for the 8 other BCRs (without WGES data) to estimate golden eagle population size and trends across the western United States for the period 1968 to 2010. In general, we

  8. Odynophagia and cervicobrachialgia in Eagle`s Syndrome. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SANCHEZ-LEGAZA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eagle syndrome is a rare entity, in which the styloid process or stylohyoid ligament is elongated and / or calcified. Description: We present the case of a male patient with odynophagia and cervical pain radiating to both arms. Discussion: Usually it is asymptomatic and unilateral, although it may be bilateral and give different symptoms, depending on the compressed structure, such as dysphagia, sore throat, pharyngeal foreign body sensation, headache, earache. The diagnosis is based on a good clinical examination confirmed with imaging studies. Conclusions: Eagle´s syndrome should be included in the differential diagnosis of cervico-facial pain and pathology of the temporomandibular joint.

  9. Knemidocoptic Mange in Wild Golden Eagles, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Nicole; Rogers, Krysta; Hawkins, Michelle G.; Sadar, Miranda; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Bell, Douglas A.; Smallwood, Kenneth S.; Wells, Amy; Shipman, Jessica; Foley, Janet

    2014-01-01

    During 2012–2013 in California, USA, 3 wild golden eagles were found with severe skin disease; 2 died. The cause was a rare mite, most closely related to Knemidocoptes derooi mites. Cautionary monitoring of eagle populations, habitats, and diseases is warranted. PMID:25271842

  10. The Analysis of The Eagle by the Systemic Functional Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏

    2006-01-01

    The eagle is an excellent English poem written by Alfred Tennyson. Though it is short and simple, it gives us a vivid picture of an eagle. My paper aims to analyze thispoem using Halliday's systemic functional grammar to demonstrate Alfred's unique writing and talents in poetry.

  11. West Nile virus in the endangered Spanish imperial eagle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfle, Ursula; Blanco, Juan M; Crespo, Elena; Naranjo, Victoria; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel; Sanchez, Azucena; de la Fuente, José; Gortazar, Christian

    2008-05-25

    The Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) is considered to be the most endangered European eagle. The species is an endemic resident in the Southwestern Iberian Peninsula. We used RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and seroneutralization to test samples from 13 wild and 18 captive eagles. WNV was detected by RT-PCR in tissues and/or oropharyngeal swabs of eight of 10 (80%) imperial eagles analyzed, and both in apparently clinically healthy birds, and in animals that died due to secondary infections but had symptoms/lesions compatible with WNV. Immunohistochemistry detected WNV antigen in Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, epithelial cells of the gizzard and duodenum, perivascular inflammatory cells, and in Kupffer-cells and hepatocytes. Serum antibodies against WNV were detected in a total of five out of 21 imperial eagles (23.8%), including free-living nestlings (two out of nine samples, 22.2%) and captive adult eagles (three out of 12 samples, 25%). Our results evidence WNV circulation among free-living and captive Spanish imperial eagles in South-central Spain, a dry inland region with no previous WNV evidence, throughout 6 consecutive years. They also indicate the need for further research into this important zoonosis in order to better understand its epidemiology in the Mediterranean ecosystem and in order to understand the role of WNV in the population dynamics of the critically endangered Spanish imperial eagle.

  12. Leaders Hit the Battlefield for Education's Future: 2009 Eagle Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verardi, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    More than 40 esteemed school business officials traveled to Washington, D.C., for the 2009 Eagle Institute which was held on July 14-17. They examined the past and the future to uncover leadership insights. Eagle Institute participants shared a powerful experience of camaraderie, reflection, and optimism for the future. This article describes the…

  13. Evaluation of DNA variants associated with androgenetic alopecia and their potential to predict male pattern baldness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcińska, Magdalena; Pośpiech, Ewelina; Abidi, Sarah; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg; van den Berge, Margreet; Carracedo, Ángel; Eduardoff, Mayra; Marczakiewicz-Lustig, Anna; Morling, Niels; Sijen, Titia; Skowron, Małgorzata; Söchtig, Jens; Syndercombe-Court, Denise; Weiler, Natalie; Schneider, Peter M; Ballard, David; Børsting, Claus; Parson, Walther; Phillips, Chris; Branicki, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia, known in men as male pattern baldness (MPB), is a very conspicuous condition that is particularly frequent among European men and thus contributes markedly to variation in physical appearance traits amongst Europeans...

  14. UNKNOWN SYNDROME - MENTAL-RETARDATION WITH DYSMORPHIC FEATURES, EARLY BALDING, PATELLA LUXATIONS, ACROMICRIA, AND HYPOGONADISM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHOLTE, FA; BEGEER, JH; VANESSEN, AJ

    A patient is described with severe mental retardation, a peculiar face with small palpebral fissures and premature balding, habitual patella luxations, small hands and feet, and hypogonadism, a combination which appears to represent a new syndrome.

  15. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012 to 2015 - Bald Knob National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Bald Knob NWR in 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version...

  16. Prevalence and Characteristics of Eagle Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Suheyl Haytoglu; Soner Kadikoylu; Ozgur Surmelioglu; Abdurrahman Bozkurtan; Gokhan Soker; ilhami Yildirim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine the epidemiology of the Eagles syndrome among patients presenting with a long-term complaint of pain in the ear. Material and Methods: In this prospective study, 48 patients with a complaint of otalgia lasting for 6 months, admitted to our clinic between June 2012 and December 2012 were included. All patients underwent to a maxillofacial CT scan, to detect the length of the styloid process. Patients with a length of more than 30 mm of styloid ...

  17. Angular momentum evolution of galaxies in EAGLE

    CERN Document Server

    Lagos, Claudia del P; Stevens, Adam R H; Cortese, Luca; Padilla, Nelson D; Davis, Timothy A; Contreras, Sergio; Croton, Darren

    2016-01-01

    We use EAGLE to study the specific angular momentum of galaxies, j, at z1.2, and then increase as lstars~a. Galaxy mergers reduce lstars by a factor of 2-3. These tracks are driven by both the evolution of the total jstars but also its radial distribution. Regardless of the aperture used to measure j, two distinct channels leading to low jstars in galaxies at z=0 are identified: (i) galaxy mergers, and (ii) early formation of most of the stars.

  18. Male pattern baldness and risk of incident skin cancer in a cohort of men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Qing; Cho, Eunyoung; Han, Jiali; Weinstock, Martin A; Qureshi, Abrar A

    2016-12-15

    We examined the association between male-pattern baldness and risk of incident skin cancer, including invasive melanoma, invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in a prospective analysis, based on 36,032 participants from the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study. In 1992, participants reported their status of male-pattern baldness at age 45 years by choosing from five crown-view pictograms based on Norwood's classification. Diagnosis of skin cancers was reported biennially and information on melanoma and SCC was pathologically confirmed. We identified 327 melanoma cases, 1324 SCC cases, and 8438 BCC cases during the follow-up. Male-pattern baldness was not significantly associated with risk of incident melanoma, but was significantly associated with increased risk of SCC and BCC. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval, CI) for the highest category of baldness (frontal plus severe vertex baldness) was 1.33 (1.06-1.68) for SCC (ptrend  = 0.001) and 1.23 (1.12-1.35) for BCC (ptrend  baldness. Analyses by body sites found significant associations between frontal plus moderate to severe vertex baldness and risk of melanoma (HR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.01-3.34) and SCC (HR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.02-1.66) at head and neck. The associations were particularly stronger for scalp melanoma (HR = 7.15, 95% CI: 1.29-39.42) and scalp SCC (HR = 7.09, 95% CI: 3.84-13.08), but not for non-scalp head and neck sites. Information on body sites was not available for BCC. In conclusion, male pattern baldness may be associated with increased risk of skin cancer, but the associations may only exist for those occurring at head and neck, particularly at scalp.

  19. Baryon effects on void statistics in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillas, Enrique; Lagos, Claudia D. P.; Padilla, Nelson; Tissera, Patricia; Helly, John; Schaller, Matthieu

    2017-10-01

    Cosmic voids are promising tools for cosmological tests due to their sensitivity to dark energy, modified gravity and alternative cosmological scenarios. Most previous studies in the literature of void properties use cosmological N-body simulations of dark matter (DM) particles that ignore the potential effect of baryonic physics. Using a spherical underdensity finder, we analyse voids using the mass field and subhalo tracers in the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environment (EAGLE) simulations, which follow the evolution of galaxies in a Λ cold dark matter universe with state-of-the-art subgrid models for baryonic processes in a (100 cMpc)3 volume. We study the effect of baryons on void statistics by comparing results with DM-only simulations that use the same initial conditions as EAGLE. When identifying voids in the mass field, we find that a DM-only simulation produces 24 per cent more voids than a hydrodynamical one due to the action of galaxy feedback polluting void regions with hot gas, specially for small voids with rvoid ≤ 10 Mpc. We find that the way in which galaxy tracers are selected has a strong impact on the inferred void properties. Voids identified using galaxies selected by their stellar mass are larger and have cuspier density profiles than those identified by galaxies selected by their total mass. Overall, baryons have minimal effects on void statistics, as void properties are well captured by DM-only simulations, but it is important to account for how galaxies populate DM haloes to estimate the observational effect of different cosmological models on the statistics of voids.

  20. 75 FR 3217 - Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental... filed: June 23, 2009. d. Applicant: Eagle Crest Energy Company. e. Name of Project: Eagle Mountain... Eagle Mountain Mine in Riverside County, California, near the Town of Desert Center, California,...

  1. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... permits to take golden eagle nests? 22.25 Section 22.25 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND..., BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS Eagle Permits § 22.25 What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? The Director may,...

  2. Davis Pond freshwater prediversion biomonitoring study: freshwater fisheries and eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Bourgeois, E. Beth; Jeske, Clint W.

    2008-01-01

    In January 2001, the construction of the Davis Pond freshwater diversion structure was completed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The diversion of freshwater from the Mississippi River is intended to mitigate saltwater intrusion from the Gulf of Mexico and to lessen the concomitant loss of wetland areas. In addition to the freshwater inflow, Barataria Bay basin would receive nutrients, increased flows of sediments, and water-borne and sediment-bound compounds. The purpose of this biomonitoring study was, therefore, to serve as a baseline for prediversion concentrations of selected contaminants in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestlings (hereafter referred to as eaglets), representative freshwater fish, and bivalves. Samples were collected from January through June 2001. Two similarly designed postdiversion studies, as described in the biological monitoring program, are planned. Active bald eagle nests targeted for sampling eaglet blood (n = 6) were generally located southwest and south of the diversion structure. The designated sites for aquatic animal sampling were at Lake Salvador, at Lake Cataouatche, at Bayou Couba, and along the Mississippi River. Aquatic animals representative of eagle prey were collected. Fish were from three different trophic levels and have varying feeding strategies and life histories. These included herbivorous striped mullet (Mugil cephalus), omnivorous blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), and carnivorous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Three individuals per species were collected at each of the four sampling sites. Freshwater Atlantic rangia clams (Rangia cuneata) were collected at the downstream marsh sites, and zebra mussels (Dreissena spp.) were collected on the Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) protocols served as guides for fish sampling and health assessments. Fish are useful for monitoring aquatic ecosystems because they accumulate

  3. The Eagle Nebula Science on NIF experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jave; Heeter, Robert; Martinez, David; Pound, Marc; Remington, Bruce; Ryutov, Dmitri; Smalyuk, Vladimir

    2012-10-01

    The Eagle Nebula NIF experiment was one of nine selected for laser time through the Science on NIF program. The goal of this scale laboratory experiment is to study the dynamic evolution of distinctive structures in star forming regions of astrophysical molecular clouds such as the Pillars of the Eagle Nebula. That evolution is driven by photoionizing radiation from nearby stars. A critical aspect of the radiation is its very directional nature at the photoionization front. The long duration of the drive and its directionality can generate new classes of instabilities and dynamic flows at the front that may be responsible for the shapes of Pillars and other structures. The experiment will leverage and modify the existing NIF Radiation Transport platform, replacing the target at the back end of the halfraum with a collimating aperture, and extending the existing 20 ns drive to longer times, using a combination of gas fill and other new design features. The apertured, quasi-collimated drive will be used to drive a target placed 2 mm away from the aperture. The astrophysical background and the status of the experimental design will be presented.

  4. Colours and luminosities of z=0.1 simulated galaxies in the EAGLE simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Trayford, James W; Bower, Richard G; Schaye, Joop; Furlong, Michelle; Schaller, Matthieu; Frenk, Carlos S; Crain, Robert A; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; McCarthy, Ian G

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the colours and luminosities of redshift z = 0.1 galaxies from the EAGLE simulation suite using the GALAXEV population synthesis models. We take into account obscuration by dust in birth clouds and diffuse ISM using a two-component screen model, following the prescription of Charlot and Fall. We compare models in which the dust optical depth is constant to models where it depends on gas metallicity, gas fraction and orientation. The colours of EAGLE galaxies for the more sophisticated models are in broad agreement with those of observed galaxies. In particular, EAGLE produces a red sequence of passive galaxies and a blue cloud of star forming galaxies, with approximately the correct fraction of galaxies in each population and with g-r colours within 0.1 magnitudes of those observed. Luminosity functions from UV to NIR wavelengths differ from observations at a level comparable to systematic shifts resulting from a choice between Petrosian and Kron photometric apertures. Despite the generally good ...

  5. Study of hydrodynamic characteristics of a Sharp Eagle wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-qun; Sheng, Song-wei; You, Ya-ge; Huang, Zhen-xin; Wang, Wen-sheng

    2017-06-01

    According to Newton's Second Law and the microwave theory, mechanical analysis of multiple buoys which form Sharp Eagle wave energy converter (WEC) is carried out. The movements of every buoy in three modes couple each other when they are affected with incident waves. Based on the above, mechanical models of the WEC are established, which are concerned with fluid forces, damping forces, hinge forces, and so on. Hydrodynamic parameters of one buoy are obtained by taking the other moving buoy as boundary conditions. Then, by taking those hydrodynamic parameters into the mechanical models, the optimum external damping and optimal capture width ratio are calculated out. Under the condition of the optimum external damping, a plenty of data are obtained, such as the displacements amplitude of each buoy in three modes (sway, heave, pitch), damping forces, hinge forces, and speed of the hydraulic cylinder. Research results provide theoretical references and basis for Sharp Eagle WECs in the design and manufacture.

  6. The Conservation Status of Eagles in South African Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Knobel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is an introductory survey and preliminary evaluation of the conservation status of eagles in South African law. The methodology is primarily an interdisciplinary literature study of legal texts and texts from the natural sciences. Eagles are some of the largest and most powerful avian predators, and the human response to their presence is dualistic and polarised. At the one extreme, many people admire eagles, while at the other extreme they are perceived as a threat to economic and other interests, and may even be actively persecuted in a conviction that they are vermin. This duality in the human perception of eagles is also prevalent in South Africa and complicates their conservation. The mobility of eagles and other birds of prey means that they cannot be restrained by fencing national parks and other protected areas, and this heightens the likelihood of their entering into conflict with human interests. The conservation problems faced by eagles in South Africa can broadly be divided into direct and indirect threats. Direct threats include the intentional killing of eagles, and trade in eagles and their eggs. Indirect threats include non-targeted poisoning (where poisoned bait is used to control other predators, but eagles find the bait, feed on it, and succumb; habitat loss; mortality induced by dangerous structures; and disturbance. The legal status of eagles is influenced by a large body of legislative provisions, ranging from international and regional legal instruments, through national legislation, to provincial legislative measures. An overview of these provisions is given, with concise explanations of how they apply to the legal status of eagles and other birds of prey in South Africa. The conservation status of eagles in South African law is subsequently evaluated by considering the contribution of the applicable laws to three main types of conservation interventions. In respect of the first, habitat preservation

  7. Probability of Elevated Nitrate Concentrations in Groundwater in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of elevated nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle...

  8. Doctors and baldness: a five thousand year old challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Daniele; D'Acunzo, Valeria

    2016-02-01

    The history of trichology follows a thread that continually intersects with that of the history of medicine in general. Even Hippocrates believed that the approach to baldness should be of a medical nature. This confrontation between doctors and hair loss, which has lasted for five thousand years, begins with the invocations of the head physicians in the Egyptian era and ends with the recent institution of postgraduate Master's degrees at Faculties of Medicine and Surgery. The biggest names in medicine concerned themselves with trichology beginning with Hippocrates, who dealt with the topic in his most famous work: the Aphorisms. Even the most celebrated doctors of the Roman era, such as Galen and Pliny the Elder, did not disdain considering hair loss, leaving important scientific contributions before passing on the baton to their distinguished colleagues of the Byzantine Empire. The narrative then flows through the most prestigious institutions of the Middle Ages, such as the Salerno School of Medicine and the Siena Accademia del Fisiocritici where, at the end of the 1600s, the distinguished anatomical describer Marcello Malpighi also taught trichology, and left his contribution to "Hair Science" with a fine description of the hair follicle in the pages of his Opera Posthuma. At the turn of the late Middle Ages and the early modern era, barbers formed the primordial nucleus of surgery and at the same time became the ones to concern themselves with hair loss. In the 1800s, several doctors published the first texts dealing with the anatomy and physiology of the hair and taking into account the principal forms of alopecia, but at the therapeutic level did not yet propose anything scientifically valid. Until a few decades ago trichology still lent itself to various commercial speculations. It was not until the twentieth century that the pathogenetic mechanisms of baldness were clarified in a scientific manner. With this knowledge, the pharmaceutical industry has been

  9. Music from the heavens - Gravitational waves from supermassive black hole mergers in the EAGLE simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Salcido, Jaime; Theuns, Tom; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A; Schaye, Joop; Regan, John

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the expected event rate of gravitational wave signals from mergers of supermassive black holes that could be resolved by a space-based interferometer, such as the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), utilising cosmological hydrodynamical simulations from the EAGLE suite. These simulations assume a $\\Lambda$CDM cosmogony with state-of-the-art subgrid models for radiative cooling, star formation, stellar mass loss, and feedback from stars and accreting black holes. They have been shown to reproduce the observed galaxy population with unprecedented fidelity. We combine the merger rates of supermassive black holes in EAGLE with a model to calculate the gravitational waves signals from the intrinsic parameters of the black holes. The EAGLE models predict $\\sim2$ detections per year by a gravitational wave detector such as eLISA. We find that these signals are largely dominated by mergers between $10^5 \\textrm{M}_{\\odot} h^{-1}$ seed mass black holes merging at redshifts between $z\\sim2.5...

  10. Eagle syndrome; radiological evaluation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Ahmed; Nazir, Rashed; Usman, Muhammad; Salam, Badar-us-; Sana, Farah

    2014-11-01

    Eagle syndrome is a rare condition where elongated temporal styloid processes, or calcified stylohyoid ligaments, are in conflict with the adjacent anatomical structures giving rise to a complex range of symptoms including otalgia, dysphagia, foreign body sensation in throat, pain along carotid artery distribution and others. Commonly, the syndrome is documented to be unilateral. However, bilateral cases are also reported though rarely. Multislice computed tomography scan with 3D reconstruction can be really helpful in diagnosing the elongated styloid processes and their mass effect on the surrounding adjacent anatomical structures. Scan is also helpful in deciding further management and guides the surgeon on how and from where to approach the surgery. We present here a case of a 37-years-old man with significantly enlarged and thickened bilateral styloid process causing significant characteristic symptoms.

  11. Star Formation in the Eagle Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Joana M

    2008-01-01

    M16 (the Eagle Nebula) is a striking star forming region, with a complex morphology of gas and dust sculpted by the massive stars in NGC 6611. Detailed studies of the famous ``elephant trunks'' dramatically increased our understanding of the massive star feedback into the parent molecular cloud. A rich young stellar population (2 - 3 Myr) has been identified, from massive O-stars down to substellar masses. Deep into the remnant molecular material, embedded protostars, Herbig-Haro objects and maser sources bear evidence of ongoing star formation in the nebula, possibly triggered by the massive cluster members. M 16 is a excellent template for the study of star formation under the hostile environment created by massive O-stars. This review aims at providing an observational overview not only of the young stellar population but also of the gas remnant of the star formation process.

  12. The Eagle's EGGs fertile or sterile?

    CERN Document Server

    McCaughrean, M J; Caughrean, Mark J. Mc; Andersen, Morten

    2002-01-01

    We present a deep, high spatial resolution (0.35 arcsec FWHM), near-infrared (1-2.5 micron) imaging survey of the Eagle Nebula, M16, made with the VLT, centred on the famous elephant trunks. We compare these data with the existing HST optical images to search for evidence of ongoing or recent star formation in the trunks, and in particular in the 73 small evaporating gaseous globules (EGGs) on their surface. We find that two of the three HST trunks have relatively massive YSOs in their tips. Most of the EGGs appear to be empty, but some 15% of them do show evidence for associated young low-mass stars or brown dwarfs: in particular, there is a small cluster of such sources seen at the head of the largest trunk.

  13. Bathymetric Contours for Nine Eagles Lake, Decatur County, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital bathymetry contours for Nine Eagles Lake in Decatur Co., Iowa. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a bathymetric survey of Nine...

  14. [1980 Midwinter waterfowl and eagle survey summary : North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum containing summary data of bird observations for the midwinter waterfowl and eagle survey conducted January 2-8, 1980 across North Dakota.

  15. Predator-prey relationships in a Mediterranean vertebrate system: Bonelli's eagles, rabbits and partridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleón, Marcos; Sánchez-Zapata, José A; Gil-Sánchez, José M; Ballesteros-Duperón, Elena; Barea-Azcón, José M; Virgós, Emilio

    2012-03-01

    How predators impact on prey population dynamics is still an unsolved issue for most wild predator-prey communities. When considering vertebrates, important concerns constrain a comprehensive understanding of the functioning of predator-prey relationships worldwide; e.g. studies simultaneously quantifying 'functional' and 'numerical responses' (i.e., the 'total response') are rare. The functional, the numerical, and the resulting total response (i.e., how the predator per capita intake, the population of predators and the total of prey eaten by the total predators vary with prey densities) are fundamental as they reveal the predator's ability to regulate prey population dynamics. Here, we used a multi-spatio-temporal scale approach to simultaneously explore the functional and numerical responses of a territorial predator (Bonelli's eagle Hieraaetus fasciatus) to its two main prey species (the rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus and the red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa) during the breeding period in a Mediterranean system of south Spain. Bonelli's eagle responded functionally, but not numerically, to rabbit/partridge density changes. Type II, non-regulatory, functional responses (typical of specialist predators) offered the best fitting models for both prey. In the absence of a numerical response, Bonelli's eagle role as a regulating factor of rabbit and partridge populations seems to be weak in our study area. Simple (prey density-dependent) functional response models may well describe the short-term variation in a territorial predator's consumption rate in complex ecosystems.

  16. Blowout Jets and Impulsive Eruptive Flare in a Bald-Patch Topology

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, R; Schmieder, B; Joshi, B; Cristiani, G D; Cremades, H; Pariat, E; Nuevo, F A; Srivastava, A K; Uddin, W

    2016-01-01

    Context: A subclass of broad EUV and X-ray jets, called blowout jets, have become a topic of research since they could be the link between standard collimated jets and CMEs.} Aim: Our aim is to understand the origin of a series of broad jets, some accompanied by flares and associated with narrow and jet-like CMEs. Methods: We analyze observations of a series of recurrent broad jets observed in AR 10484 on 21-24 October 2003. In particular, one of them occurred simultaneously with an M2.4 flare on 23 October at 02:41 UT (SOLA2003-10-23). Both events were observed by ARIES H-alpha Solar Tower-Telescope, TRACE, SOHO, and RHESSI instruments. The flare was very impulsive and followed by a narrow CME. A local force-free model of AR 10484 is the basis to compute its topology. We find bald patches (BPs) at the flare site. This BP topology is present for at least two days before. Large-scale field lines, associated with the BPs, represent open loops. This is confirmed by a global PFSS model. Following the brightest le...

  17. Nonsurgical treatment of stylohyoid (Eagle) syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Arman; Firouzi-Marani, Shahram; Khoshbin, Masoud

    2014-10-01

    Eagle syndrome is a rare condition caused by elongation of the styloid process or calcification of the stylohyoid ligament. Patients with Eagle syndrome typically present with dysphagia, dysphonia, cough, voice changes, otalgia, sore throat, facial pain, foreign body sensation, headache, vertigo, and neck pain. Here we report a case in which the patient initially presented with sore throat, left-sided facial pain, and cough. This case report provides a brief review of the diagnosis and nonsurgical management of this rare syndrome.

  18. Correlates of immune defenses in golden eagle nestlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacColl, Elisabeth; Vanesky, Kris; Buck, Jeremy A.; Dudek, Benjamin; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Heath, Julie A.; Herring, Garth; Vennum, Chris; Downs, Cynthia J.

    2017-01-01

    An individual's investment in constitutive immune defenses depends on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. We examined how Leucocytozoon parasite presence, body condition (scaled mass), heterophil-to-lymphocyte (H:L) ratio, sex, and age affected immune defenses in golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nestlings from three regions: California, Oregon, and Idaho. We quantified hemolytic-complement activity and bacterial killing ability, two measures of constitutive immunity. Body condition and age did not affect immune defenses. However, eagles with lower H:L ratios had lower complement activity, corroborating other findings that animals in better condition sometimes invest less in constitutive immunity. In addition, eagles with Leucocytozoon infections had higher concentrations of circulating complement proteins but not elevated opsonizing proteins for all microbes, and eagles from Oregon had significantly higher constitutive immunity than those from California or Idaho. We posit that Oregon eagles might have elevated immune defenses because they are exposed to more endoparasites than eagles from California or Idaho, and our results confirmed that the OR region has the highest rate of Leucocytozoon infections. Our study examined immune function in a free-living, long-lived raptor species, whereas most avian ecoimmunological research focuses on passerines. Thus, our research informs a broad perspective regarding the evolutionary and environmental pressures on immune function in birds.

  19. Boundary of the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This vector data set delineates the approximate boundary of the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer (ERWVFA). This data set was developed by a cooperative...

  20. 78 FR 47004 - Change in Dates of Seasonal Closure of Public Land in the Bald Ridge Area, Park County, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... Bureau of Land Management Change in Dates of Seasonal Closure of Public Land in the Bald Ridge Area, Park County, WY AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given to change the dates of the seasonal closure of public land in the Bald Ridge Area that was...

  1. Boundary of the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    This vector data set delineates the approximate boundary of the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer (ERWVFA). This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. The boundary of the ERWVFA was developed by combining information from two data sources. The first data source was a 1:250,000-scale geologic map of the Leadville quadrangle developed by Day and others (1999). The location of Quaternary sediments was used as a first approximation of the ERWVFA. The boundary of the ERWVFA was further refined by overlaying the geologic map with Digital Raster Graphic (DRG) scanned images of 1:24,000 topographic maps (U.S. Geological Survey, 2001). Where appropriate, the boundary of the ERWVFA was remapped to correspond with the edge of the valley-fill aquifer marked by an abrupt change in topography at the edge of the valley floor throughout the Eagle River watershed. The boundary of the ERWVFA more closely resembles a hydrogeomorphic region presented by Rupert (2003, p. 8) because it is based upon general geographic extents of geologic materials and not on an actual aquifer location as would be determined through a rigorous hydrogeologic investigation.

  2. Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Chlamydophila in bald ibis (Geronticus eremita) feces in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel, Osman Yaşar; Bozkaya, Faruk; Keskin, Oktay

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Chlamydophila psittaci in fecal samples of bald ibises (Geronticus eremita) housed in a conservation facility in Turkey. A total of 82 fecal samples were collected from cages and evaluated by bacteriologic methods and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. and by PCR for C. psittaci. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 24 of 82 fecal samples (29.2%). Of these 18 (75%), 4 (16.7%) and 2 (8.3%) were Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and other Campylobacter spp., respectively. Salmonella spp. were detected in 8 fecal specimens.(9.7%) by PCR. The presence of C. psittaci was not detected in the bald ibises studied. The results suggested that the bald ibises in this present study might be at a higher risk of infection with Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp.

  3. Embedded Star Formation in the Eagle Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, R I; Hester, J J; Thompson, Rodger I.; Smith, Bradford A.

    2002-01-01

    M16=NGC 6611, the Eagle Nebula, is a well studied region of star formation and the source of a widely recognized Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image. High spatial resolution infrared observations with the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) on HST reveal the detailed morphology of two embedded star formation regions that are heavily obscured at optical wavelengths. It is striking that only limited portions of the visually obscured areas are opaque at 2.2 microns. Although the optical images imply substantial columns of material, the infrared images show only isolated clumps of dense gas and dust. Rather than being an active factory of star production, only a few regions are capable of sustaining current star formation. Most of the volume in the columns may be molecular gas and dust, protected by capstones of dense dust. Two active regions of star formation are located at the tips of the optical northern and central large ``elephant trunk'' features shown in the WFPC2 images. They are em...

  4. Data-Collection Points Along Transects and Around Perimeter of Nine Eagles Lake, Decatur County, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Point coverage of bathymetry data for Nine Eagles Lake in Decatur Co., Iowa. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a bathymetric survey of Nine Eagles Lake in 2004.

  5. Individual Target Data-Collection Points for Nine Eagles Lake, Decatur County, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Point coverage of bathymetry target points for Nine Eagles Lake in Decatur Co., Iowa. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a bathymetric survey of Nine Eagles Lake...

  6. Music from the heavens - gravitational waves from supermassive black hole mergers in the EAGLE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcido, Jaime; Bower, Richard G.; Theuns, Tom; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop; Regan, John

    2016-11-01

    We estimate the expected event rate of gravitational wave signals from mergers of supermassive black holes that could be resolved by a space-based interferometer, such as the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), utilizing the reference cosmological hydrodynamical simulation from the EAGLE suite. These simulations assume a Lambda cold dark matter cosmogony with state-of-the-art subgrid models for radiative cooling, star formation, stellar mass loss, and feedback from stars and accreting black holes. They have been shown to reproduce the observed galaxy population with unprecedented fidelity. We combine the merger rates of supermassive black holes in EAGLE with the latest phenomenological waveform models to calculate the gravitational waves signals from the intrinsic parameters of the merging black holes. The EAGLE models predict ˜2 detections per year by a gravitational wave detector such as eLISA. We find that these signals are largely dominated by mergers between seed mass black holes merging at redshifts between z ˜ 2 and z ˜ 1. In order to investigate the dependence on the assumed black hole seed mass, we introduce an additional model with a black hole seed mass an order of magnitude smaller than in our reference model. We also consider a variation of the reference model where a prescription for the expected delays in the black hole merger time-scale has been included after their host galaxies merge. We find that the merger rate is similar in all models, but that the initial black hole seed mass could be distinguished through their detected gravitational waveforms. Hence, the characteristic gravitational wave signals detected by eLISA will provide profound insight into the origin of supermassive black holes and the initial mass distribution of black hole seeds.

  7. Conservation significance of alternative nests of golden eagles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Millsap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos are long-lived raptors that maintain nesting territories that may be occupied for a century or longer. Within occupied nesting territories there is one nest in which eagles lay their eggs in a given year (i.e., the used nest, but there are usually other nests (i.e., alternative nests. Conservation plans often protect used nests, but not alternative nests or nesting territories that appear vacant. Our objective is to review literature on golden eagle use of alternative nests and occupancy of nesting territories to determine if alternative nests are biologically significant and warrant greater conservation consideration. Our review shows that: (1 alternative nests or their associated habitat are most often in core areas of golden eagle nesting territories; (2 alternative nests likely will become used in the future; (3 probability of an alternative nest becoming used is greatest where prey availability is high and alternative nest sites are limited; (4 likelihood of annual occupancy or reoccupancy of golden eagle nesting territories is high; and (5 prey availability is the most important determinant of nesting territory occupancy and breeding activity. We recommend alternative nests be treated with the same deference as used nests in land use planning.

  8. Preventing Philippine Eagle hunting: what are we missing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayson Ibanez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Two pieces of information are minimally required to conserve endangered raptor species — (i an estimate of its remaining global population, and (ii the main factors responsible for its decline. Data suggest that no more than 400 adult pairs of the Critically Endangered Philippine Eagle could remain in the wild. As to what is causing population decline, shooting and hunting continue to be the primary factor while forest habitat loss is another. This paper reflects on the growing incident of human-caused deaths in Philippine Eagles, prominently on Mindanao Island where estimates suggest more than half of the eagle’s wild population exists. By analyzing data from eagle rescues, surveys, and field monitoring through radio and satellite tracking techniques, this paper shows that shooting and trapping is a “clear and present” danger which may potentially drive the population to extinction even when suitable forest habitats still exist. Cases of death within the last decade show that the nature and/or extent of law enforcement, conservation education, and population and habitat monitoring fall short of being effective deterrents to eagle persecution in the wild. We review emerging theories on wildlife crime and cases of community-based species conservation to justify a holistic and grounded approach to preventing eagle poaching as an alternative to the conservation status quo. 

  9. Eagle RTS: A design of a regional transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryer, Paul; Buckles, Jon; Lemke, Paul; Peake, Kirk

    1992-01-01

    The Eagle RTS (Regional Transport System) is a 66-passenger aircraft designed to satisfy the need for accessible and economical regional travel. The first design objective for the Eagle RTS is safety. Safety results primarily from avoidance of the hub airport air traffic, implementation of anti-stall characteristics by tailoring the canard, and proper positioning of the engines for blade shedding. To provide the most economical aircraft, the Eagle RTS will use existing technology to lower production and maintenance costs by decreasing the amount of new training required. In selecting the propulsion system, the effects on the environment were a main consideration. Two advantages of turbo-prop engines are the high fuel efficiency and low noise levels produced by this type of engine. This ensures the aircraft's usage during times of rising fuel costs and growing aircraft noise restrictions. The design of the Eagle RTS is for spoke-to-spoke transportation. It must be capable of landing on shorter runways and have speeds comparable to that of the larger aircraft to make its service beneficial to the airlines. With the use of turbo-prop engines and high lift devices, the Eagle RTS is highly adaptable to regional airports. The design topics discussed include: aerodynamics, stability, structures and materials, propulsion, and cost.

  10. Subhalo abundance matching and assembly bias in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-Montero, Jonás; Angulo, Raul E.; Schaye, Joop; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A.; Furlong, Michelle; Theuns, Tom

    2016-08-01

    Subhalo abundance matching (SHAM) is a widely used method to connect galaxies with dark matter structures in numerical simulations. SHAM predictions agree remarkably well with observations, yet they still lack strong theoretical support. We examine the performance, implementation, and assumptions of SHAM using the `Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environment' (EAGLE) project simulations. We find that Vrelax, the highest value of the circular velocity attained by a subhalo while it satisfies a relaxation criterion, is the subhalo property that correlates most strongly with galaxy stellar mass (Mstar). Using this parameter in SHAM, we retrieve the real-space clustering of EAGLE to within our statistical uncertainties on scales greater than 2 Mpc for galaxies with 8.77 EAGLE. The agreement is even better in redshift space, where the clustering is recovered to within our statistical uncertainties for all masses and separations. Additionally, we analyse the dependence of galaxy clustering on properties other than halo mass, i.e. the assembly bias. We demonstrate assembly bias alters the clustering in EAGLE by 20 per cent and Vrelax captures its effect to within 15 per cent. We trace small differences in the clustering to the failure of SHAM as typically implemented, i.e. the Mstar assigned to a subhalo does not depend on (i) its host halo mass, (ii) whether it is a central or a satellite. In EAGLE, we find that these assumptions are not completely satisfied.

  11. Evaluation of landscape level habitat characteristics of golden eagle habitat in Northwestern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo Vinaja, Maria Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis Linnaeus 1758) are declining in some areas throughout their Nearctic range (Sauer et al. 2011). This reduction is linked to changes in their habitat caused by human activities. Golden eagles inhabit an extensive range of environments (Watson 1997, Kochert et al. 2002). In the American Continent, the golden eagleâ s range encompasses Alaska, Canada, the United States and the Northern and Central portions of Mexico. Northern golden eagle populations...

  12. Persistent pollutants in the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in the Federal Republic of Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeman, J.H.; Hadderingh, R.H.; Bijleveld, M.F.I.J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the possible relationship between persistent pollutants and the decline in reproductive success of the White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Schleswig Holstein, Federal Republic of Germany. Chemical analyses were made of Eagle's eggs, of one adult Eagle which was found dea

  13. 78 FR 924 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Alaska: Eagle River PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ...: Eagle River PM 10 Nonattainment Area Limited Maintenance Plan and Redesignation Request AGENCY... Maintenance Plan (LMP) submitted by the State of Alaska on September 29, 2010, for the Eagle River nonattainment area (Eagle River NAA) and the State's request to redesignate the area to attainment for...

  14. From the inside out: Eagle Rock School Producing a New Generation of CES Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Dan

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author gives an overview of Eagle Rock School's Teaching Fellowship Program which he founded in collaboration with Public Allies, Inc. and under the auspices of Eagle Rock's Professional Development Center. Eagle Rock's Teaching Fellowship has two perspectives: (1) local; and (2) global. Locally, Fellows contribute skills,…

  15. 77 FR 5505 - Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project In accordance with... of Energy Projects has reviewed the application for license for the Eagle Mountain Pumped...

  16. 76 FR 1149 - Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project and Notice of Public... for the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project (FERC No. 13123), located on the site...

  17. Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Changes of Free-Flying Migrating Northern Bald Ibis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bairlein, Franz; Fritz, Johannes; Scope, Alexandra; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanclova, Gabriela; van Dijk, Gertjan; Meijer, Harro A J; Verhulst, Simon; Dittami, John

    2015-01-01

    Many migrating birds undertake extraordinary long flights. How birds are able to perform such endurance flights of over 100-hour durations is still poorly understood. We examined energy expenditure and physiological changes in Northern Bald Ibis Geronticus eremite during natural flights using birds

  18. The EAGLE simulations: atomic hydrogen associated with galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Crain, Robert A; Lagos, Claudia del P; Rahmati, Alireza; Schaye, Joop; McCarthy, Ian G; Marasco, Antonino; Bower, Richard G; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom; van der Hulst, Thijs

    2016-01-01

    We examine the properties of atomic hydrogen (HI) associated with galaxies in the EAGLE simulations of galaxy formation. EAGLE's feedback parameters were calibrated to reproduce the stellar mass function and galaxy sizes at $z=0.1$, and we assess whether this calibration also yields realistic HI properties. We estimate the self-shielding density with a fitting function calibrated using radiation transport simulations, and correct for molecular hydrogen with empirical or theoretical relations. The `standard-resolution' simulations systematically underestimate HI column densities, leading to an HI deficiency in low-mass ($M_\\star < 10^{10}M_\\odot$) galaxies and poor reproduction of the observed HI mass function. These shortcomings are largely absent from EAGLE simulations featuring a factor of 8 (2) better mass (spatial) resolution, within which the HI mass of galaxies evolves more mildly from $z=1$ to $0$ than in the standard-resolution simulations. The largest-volume simulation reproduces the observed clus...

  19. Small-scale galaxy clustering in the EAGLE simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Artale, M Celeste; Trayford, James W; Theuns, Tom; Farrow, Daniel J; Norberg, Peder; Zehavi, Idit; Bower, Richard G; Schaller, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    We study present-day galaxy clustering in the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. EAGLE's galaxy formation parameters were calibrated to reproduce the redshift $z = 0.1$ galaxy stellar mass function, and the simulation also reproduces galaxy colours well. The simulation volume is too small to correctly sample large-scale fluctuations and we therefore concentrate on scales smaller than a few megaparsecs. We find very good agreement with observed clustering measurements from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, when galaxies are binned by stellar mass, colour, or luminosity. However, low-mass red-galaxies are clustered too strongly, which is at least partly due to limited numerical resolution. Apart from this limitation, we conclude that EAGLE galaxies inhabit similar dark matter haloes as observed GAMA galaxies, and that the radial distribution of satellite galaxies as function of stellar mass and colour is similar to that observed as well.

  20. A Rare Cause for Cervical Pain: Eagle's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Politi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with pharyngodynia and neck pain symptoms can lead to an extensive differential diagnosis. Eagle's syndrome must be taken in account. Eagle defined “stylalgia” as an autonomous entity related to abnormal length of the styloid process or to mineralization of the stylohyoid ligament complex. The stylohyoid complex derives from Reichert's cartilage of the second branchial arch. The styloyd process is an elongated conical projection of the temporal bone that lies anteriorly to the mastoid process. The incidence of Eagle's syndrome varies among population. Usually asymptomatic, it occurs in adult patients. It is characterized by pharyngodynia localized in the tonsillar fossa and sometimes accompanied by disphagia, odynophagia, foreign body sensation, and temporary voice changes. In some cases, the stylohyoid apparatus compresses the internal and/or the external carotid arteries and their perivascular sympathetic fibers, resulting in a persistent pain irradiating in the carotid territory. The pathogenesis of the syndrome is still under discussion.

  1. Small-scale galaxy clustering in the eagle simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artale, M. Celeste; Pedrosa, Susana E.; Trayford, James W.; Theuns, Tom; Farrow, Daniel J.; Norberg, Peder; Zehavi, Idit; Bower, Richard G.; Schaller, Matthieu

    2017-09-01

    We study present-day galaxy clustering in the eagle cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. eagle's galaxy formation parameters were calibrated to reproduce the redshift z = 0.1 galaxy stellar mass function, and the simulation also reproduces galaxy colours well. The simulation volume is too small to correctly sample large-scale fluctuations and we therefore concentrate on scales smaller than a few mega parsecs. We find very good agreement with observed clustering measurements from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, when galaxies are binned by stellar mass, colour or luminosity. However, low-mass red galaxies are clustered too strongly, which is at least partly due to limited numerical resolution. Apart from this limitation, we conclude that eagle galaxies inhabit similar dark matter haloes as observed GAMA galaxies, and that the radial distribution of satellite galaxies, as a function of stellar mass and colour, is similar to that observed as well.

  2. Evaluation Of The Coincidence Of Male Pattern Baldness And Pityrosporum Group Of Fungus In Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javanbakht Arash

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aetilogy of male pattern baldness (MPB is not clearly found yet. The present study has been designed to determine if three is a significant statistical coincidence between MPB and pityrosporm group of fungal infection. This cross-sectional study covers 50 men with the diagnosis of MPB who visited the dermatology clinic of Qaem hospital of Mashhad Medical University as the case group and 43 men with no evidence of MPB as the control group. A questionnaire was filled out for each person of the two groups and mycological sampling was done from three parts of the case group scalp (bald, balding, intact areas and two parts of the control group scalp (vertex and parietal. All the data were analysed using the software SPSS 10.00 and Chi-square, Pearson Chi-square and Friedman tests. Results showed that there was no difference between different degrees of infection in the intact area (p>0.05. Among the three parts of the case group scalp, bald area had the highest degree of infection (p<0.001. The degree of infection in the bald area of the case group scalp was higher than that of the vertex area of the control group scalp (p<0.001, while there was no difference between the degrees of infection in the intact area of the case group scalp and the parietal area of the control group scalp (p>0.05. This study supports some previous studies that claimed that there might be coincidence between MPB and pityrosporum fungal infection.

  3. 50 CFR 22.31 - Golden eagle depredations control order on request of Governor of a State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Golden eagle depredations control order on..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS Depredation Control Orders on Golden Eagles § 22.31 Golden eagle depredations control order on request of Governor of a State. (a...

  4. 75 FR 56093 - Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, LP; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, LP; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline September 8, 2010. Take notice that on September 8, 2010, Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P. (Eagle Rock) filed a request to extend the date for filing its next rate case to May 1, 2012. Eagle...

  5. 76 FR 5580 - Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Applicant-Proposed Water Pipeline Route for the Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Applicant-Proposed Water Pipeline Route for the Proposed Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project and Notice of Public Meetings January 21, 2011. On June 22, 2009, Eagle Crest Energy Company (Eagle Crest or applicant) filed...

  6. Assessment of surface-water quantity and quality, Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 1947-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cory A.; Moore, Jennifer L.; Richards, Rodney J.

    2011-01-01

    From the early mining days to the current tourism-based economy, the Eagle River watershed (ERW) in central Colorado has undergone a sequence of land-use changes that has affected the hydrology, habitat, and water quality of the area. In 2000, the USGS, in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, City of Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs Utilities, and Denver Water, initiated a retrospective analysis of surface-water quantity and quality in the ERW.

  7. Photographic images captured while sampling for bald eagles near the Davis Pond freshwater diversion structure in Barataria Bay, Louisiana (2009-10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Jeske, Clinton W.; Allain, Larry K.

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of freshwater diversions in large-scale coastal restoration schemes presents several scientific and management considerations. Large-scale environmental restructuring necessitates aquatic biomonitoring, and during such field studies, photographs that document animals and habitat may be captured. Among the biomonitoring studies performed in conjunction with the Davis Pond freshwater diversion structure south of New Orleans, Louisiana, only postdiversion study images are readily available, and these are presented here.

  8. 76 FR 9529 - Migratory Birds; Draft Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 22 RIN 1018-AX53 Migratory Birds; Draft Eagle Conservation Plan...; Division of Migratory Bird Management; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; 4401 North Fairfax Drive, Mail Stop... Protection Act (BGEPA), the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, and the Endangered Species Act. BGEPA prohibits...

  9. Knemidocoptic Mange in Wild Golden Eagles, California, USA

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-09-21

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Knemidocoptic Mange in Wild Golden Eagles, California, USA .  Created: 9/21/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/15/2014.

  10. AN INTERESTING CASE OF STROKE DUE TO EAGLE SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eagle Syndrome (ES is a rare syndrome characterized by a specific orofacial pain due to a calcified stylohyoid ligament or an elongated styloid process. The ‘Classic’ Eagle Syndrome typically occurs after pharyngeal trauma or tonsillectomy. The second form, ‘Stylocarotid Syndrome’ is characterized by compression of internal or external carotid artery. Here, we present a case of acute dysphagia in a 48years old male due to Eagle Syndrome. The patient presented with acute onset dysphagia of 1 week duration to both solid and liquid foods, associated with odynophagia and pain in the right oropharynx. Patient had a past history of left hemiparesis with facial palsy due to right sided cerebrovascular accident (CVA 3years ago, which had subsequently improved. Patient was investigated with Barium swallow, X-ray skull lateral view, MR Angiogram of neck and brain, Carotid Doppler study and finally Orthopantomogram (OPG. OPG showed an elongated styloid process measuring 3.8cms on the right side. Incidentally, MR Angiogram of neck and brain showed absent intracranial part of internal carotid artery on the right side (the main stem of the artery, starting from 2mms from the common carotid bifurcation until the junction with anterior cerebral artery was missing.Rest all investigations were normal. Hence, the case was diagnosed as right sided Eagle syndrome, possibly of the stylocarotid variety

  11. Isolated Horner Syndrome From an Elongated Styloid Process (Eagle Syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Caitlin A; Lin, Tony; Fung, Kevin; Sharma, Manas; Fraser, J Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Eagle syndrome occurs when an elongated styloid process causes otolaryngological or neurological symptoms or signs. We report a patient who had an isolated asymptomatic Horner syndrome that resulted from a pinned internal carotid artery being dynamically injured by an elongated styloid process during chiropractic neck manipulation. There was no evidence of arterial dissection.

  12. Haematological values for captive harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos J. Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing of harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja populations in natural environments, mainly in non-preserved areas, makes captive population management an important contribution to genetic diversity conservation. The aim of this study is to evaluate hematological parameters for captive harpy eagles maintained at the wild animals breeding center of Itaipu Binacional, Paraná State, Brazil. Fourteen blood samples from nine harpy eagles were collected from animals of both sexes, of different ages and with no clinical signs of disease. Significant variations were found in haematological values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte, a relative number of heterophils, absolute and relative number of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and plasma protein between groups of young (less than six months old and adult birds. Comparing males and females there was variation in the values of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH on heterophils, absolute and relative number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils. There was also variation in the values of red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte count, absolute number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils among birds that study compared to another reference birds. Due to the limited information available on harpy eagle hematology, this study will be useful to the clinical assessment of birds maintained in captivity.

  13. Eagles, Otters, and Unicorns: An Anatomy of Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Stephen R.; King, Margaret J.

    1990-01-01

    This article describes three archetypal workers: eagles who innovate by improvements, otters who innovate by extension, and unicorns who innovate by paradigm. Each of these innovators is discussed in terms of domain-relevant skills, manipulative skills, and motivation. Needs of each type in terms of business culture are discussed. (PB)

  14. The "Oklahoma Eagle": A Study of Black Press Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Karen F.

    Analyzing the history of the "Oklahoma Eagle" provides insight into the problems and the opportunities involved in operating a black newspaper and reveals the factors responsible for the paper's longevity. The paper has been owned and operated by members of the Edward Lawrence Goodwin family since 1938 and has been staffed by excellent…

  15. The Javan Hawk-eagle : misconceptions about rareness and threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balen, van S.; Nijman, V.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2000-01-01

    The Javan hawk-eagle (Spizaetus bartelsi) is a threatened raptor endemic to the densely populated island of Java. Historically very little is known about its biology. Recent surveys showed that the population size has been underestimated in the past. The breeding population is estimated to be

  16. Macroinvertebrate-based assessment of biological condition at selected sites in the Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 2000-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.; Healy, Brian D.; Williams, Cory A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, Colorado Springs Utilities, Denver Water, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (FS), compiled macroinvertebrate (73 sites, 124 samples) data previously collected in the Eagle River watershed from selected USGS and FS studies, 2000-07. These data were analyzed to assess the biological condition (that is, biologically ?degraded? or ?good?) at selected sites in the Eagle River watershed and determine if site class (for example, urban or undeveloped) described biological condition. An independently developed predictive model was applied to calculate a site-specific measure of taxonomic completeness for macroinvertebrate communities, where taxonomic completeness was expressed as the ratio of observed (O) taxa to those expected (E) to occur at each site. Macroinvertebrate communities were considered degraded at sites were O/E values were less than 0.80, indicating that at least 20 percent of expected taxa were not observed. Sites were classified into one of four classes (undeveloped, adjacent road or highway or both, mixed, urban) using a combination of riparian land-cover characteristics, examination of topographic maps and aerial imagery, screening for exceedances in water-quality standards, and best professional judgment. Analysis of variance was used to determine if site class accounted for variability in mean macroinvertebrate O/E values. Finally, macroinvertebrate taxa observed more or less frequently than expected at urban sites were indentified. This study represents the first standardized assessment of biological condition of selected sites distributed across the Eagle River watershed. Of the 73 sites evaluated, just over

  17. Lack of efficacy of polysorbate 60 in the treatment of male pattern baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groveman, H D; Ganiats, T; Klauber, M R

    1985-08-01

    Anecdotal reports have indicated that the nonionic detergent polysorbate 60 may be of some value in male pattern baldness. In this double-blind placebo-controlled trial, a photographic and objective scalp measurement system was developed to assess new hair growth. No significant difference was detected between subjects treated for 16 weeks with polysorbate 60 and control subjects treated with glycerin, indicating that polysorbate 60 is ineffective. Of the 141 subjects who completed the trial, 25% perceived that they grew new hair, 67% said they did not, and 8% were uncertain. Subject-reported new hair growth did not correlate with measurements, indicating that the placebo effect may be a major factor in reports of baldness "cures".

  18. MicroRNAs take part in pathophysiology and pathogenesis of Male Pattern Baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Hamed R; Abbasi, Ali; Saffari, Mojtaba; Tabei, Mohammad B; Noori Daloii, Mohammad R

    2010-07-01

    Male Pattern Baldness (MPB) or androgenetic alopecia is a common form of hair loss with androgens and genetics having etiological significance. Androgens are thought to pathophysiologically power on cascades of chronically dramatic alterations in genetically susceptible scalp dermal papillas, specialized cells in hair follicles in which androgens react, and finally resulting in a patterned alopecia. However, the exact mechanisms through which androgens, positive regulators of growth and anabolism in most body sites, paradoxically exert their effects on balding hair follicles, are not yet known. The role of microRNAs, a recently discovered class of non-coding RNAs, with a wide range of regulatory functions, has been documented in hair follicle formation and their deregulation in cancer of prostate, a target organ of androgens has also been delineated. Yet, there is a lack of knowledge in agreement with microRNAs' contribution in pathophysiology of MPB. To investigate the role of microRNAs in pathogenesis of MPB, we selected seven microRNAs, predicted bioinformatically on a reverse engineering basis, from previously published microarray gene expression data and analyzed their expression in balding relative to non-balding dermal papillas. We found for the first time upregulation of four microRNAs (miR-221, miR-125b, miR-106b and miR-410) that could participate in pathogenesis of MPB. Regarding microRNAs' therapeutic potential and accessibility of hair follicles for gene therapy, these microRNAs can be considered as good candidates for a new revolutionized generation of treatments.

  19. President Abdoulaye Balde of Association of Mayors of Senegal in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Amayoral delegation headed by Abdoulaye Balde, President of the Association of Mayors of Senegal and concurrently Minister of State, and Minister of Mines, Industry, Agro-Industry and Small and Medium Enterprises, paid a visit to Beijing, Tianjin, Xiamen, Guangzhou and Hainan in mid-July. The group visited the Tianjin Dongjiang Bonded Area, Xiaman Golden Dragon Bus Co., Ltd., Hainan Ecological Software Park, Boao Forum for Asia, and Guangzhou Industrial Famous & Excellent Products Exhibition & Sales Center.

  20. Supermassive black holes in the EAGLE Universe. Revealing the observables of their growth

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, Rosas-Guevara Y M; Schaye, Joop; McAlpine, Stuart; Dalla-Vecchia, Claudio; Frenk, S Carlos; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of supermassive black holes in the `Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments' (EAGLE) cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. The largest of the EAGLE volumes covers a $(100 \\,\\rm cMpc)^3$ and includes state-of-the-art physical models for star formation and black hole growth that depend only on local gas properties. We focus on the black hole mass function, Eddington ratio distribution and the implied duty cycle of nuclear activity. The simulation is broadly consistent with observational constraints on these quantities. In order to make a more direct comparison with observational data, we calculate the soft and hard X-ray luminosity functions of the active galactic nuclei (AGN). Between redshifts $0$ and $1$, the simulation is in agreement with data. At higher redshifts, the simulation tends to underpredict the luminosities of the brightest observed AGN. This may be due to the limited volume of the simulation, or a fundamental deficiency of the underlying model. It...

  1. Supermassive black holes in the EAGLE Universe. Revealing the observables of their growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Guevara, Yetli; Bower, Richard G.; Schaye, Joop; McAlpine, Stuart; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Frenk, Carlos S.; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the evolution of supermassive black holes in the `Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments' (EAGLE) cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. The largest of the EAGLE volumes covers a (100 cMpc)3 and includes state-of-the-art physical models for star formation and black hole growth that depend only on local gas properties. We focus on the black hole mass function, Eddington ratio distribution and the implied duty cycle of nuclear activity. The simulation is broadly consistent with observational constraints on these quantities. In order to make a more direct comparison with observational data, we calculate the soft and hard X-ray luminosity functions of the active galactic nuclei (AGN). Between redshifts 0 and 1, the simulation is in agreement with data. At higher redshifts, the simulation tends to underpredict the luminosities of the brightest observed AGN. This may be due to the limited volume of the simulation, or a fundamental deficiency of the underlying model. It seems unlikely that additional unresolved variability can account for this difference. The simulation shows a similar `downsizing' of the AGN population as seen in observational surveys.

  2. Blowout jets and impulsive eruptive flares in a bald-patch topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, R.; Mandrini, C. H.; Schmieder, B.; Joshi, B.; Cristiani, G. D.; Cremades, H.; Pariat, E.; Nuevo, F. A.; Srivastava, A. K.; Uddin, W.

    2017-01-01

    Context. A subclass of broad extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and X-ray jets, called blowout jets, have become a topic of research since they could be the link between standard collimated jets and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Aims: Our aim is to understand the origin of a series of broad jets, some of which are accompanied by flares and associated with narrow and jet-like CMEs. Methods: We analyze observations of a series of recurrent broad jets observed in AR 10484 on 21-24 October 2003. In particular, one of them occurred simultaneously with an M2.4 flare on 23 October at 02:41 UT (SOLA2003-10-23). Both events were observed by the ARIES Hα Solar Tower-Telescope, TRACE, SOHO, and RHESSI instruments. The flare was very impulsive and followed by a narrow CME. A local force-free model of AR 10484 is the basis to compute its topology. We find bald patches (BPs) at the flare site. This BP topology is present for at least two days before to events. Large-scale field lines, associated with the BPs, represent open loops. This is confirmed by a global potential free source surface (PFSS) model. Following the brightest leading edge of the Hα and EUV jet emission, we can temporarily associate these emissions with a narrow CME. Results: Considering their characteristics, the observed broad jets appear to be of the blowout class. As the most plausible scenario, we propose that magnetic reconnection could occur at the BP separatrices forced by the destabilization of a continuously reformed flux rope underlying them. The reconnection process could bring the cool flux-rope material into the reconnected open field lines driving the series of recurrent blowout jets and accompanying CMEs. Conclusions: Based on a model of the coronal field, we compute the AR 10484 topology at the location where flaring and blowout jets occurred from 21 to 24 October 2003. This topology can consistently explain the origin of these events. The movie associated to Fig. 1 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  3. A patient with Eagle syndrome: radiological and scintigraphic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiray, Sisman; Cumali, Gokce; Ismail, Ciftci; Elif, Tarim Ertas

    2012-01-01

    A 42-year-old man who had been having otalgia and facial and neck pain for 6 months presented for a routine dental examination. He had suffered two head traumas, the first 20 years ago and the second 4 years ago. A panoramic radiograph (PR) was taken as a screening film after the clinical examination. Bilateral styloid process elongation (SPE) was detected, and the patient was diagnosed as having Eagle syndrome. The styloid process (SP) length was 78 mm on the right and 74 mm on the left on multislice computed tomography (MSCT). Bone scan of the cranium showed normal uptake of radiotracer in the cranial bones and some little activity was detected as a silhouette in the localization of SPE in planar and SPECT images. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case investigating SPE by bone scintigraphy in a patient with Eagle syndrome.

  4. Sudden death due to Eagle syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Rayamane, Anand P; Subbaramaiah, Mouna

    2013-09-01

    Eagle syndrome represents symptoms manifested by compression of regional structures by elongation of the styloid process or ossification of the stylohyoid membrane. Various theories have been put forward toward the development of Eagle syndrome. Depending on the underlying pathogenetic mechanism and the anatomical structures compressed or irritated by the elongated styloid process, symptoms vary greatly, ranging from cervicofacial pain to cerebral ischemia. Because the symptoms are variable and nonspecific, patients land up in different clinics for treatment. In the present case, the victim had previous episode of unconsciousness along with frequent headache for which she visited various clinics on numerous occasions. The elongated styloid process was appreciated during the postmortem examination, and the diagnosis of sudden death due to mechanical irritation of the carotid sinus by elongated styloid process was made as the sign of acute cardiovascular failure was present and upon exclusion of other causes of death.

  5. A patient with Eagle syndrome: Radiological and scintigraphic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisman Yildiray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old man who had been having otalgia and facial and neck pain for 6 months presented for a routine dental examination. He had suffered two head traumas, the first 20 years ago and the second 4 years ago. A panoramic radiograph (PR was taken as a screening film after the clinical examination. Bilateral styloid process elongation (SPE was detected, and the patient was diagnosed as having Eagle syndrome. The styloid process (SP length was 78 mm on the right and 74 mm on the left on multislice computed tomography (MSCT. Bone scan of the cranium showed normal uptake of radiotracer in the cranial bones and some little activity was detected as a silhouette in the localization of SPE in planar and SPECT images. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case investigating SPE by bone scintigraphy in a patient with Eagle syndrome.

  6. Incidence of galactic outflows: EAGLE simulations vs SAMI observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tescari, E.

    2016-06-01

    I presented the results of the joint SAMI-EAGLE project on outflows I lead at the University of Melbourne. We use the highest resolution EAGLE cosmological simulations to study the incidence of supernova driven winds ejected from galaxies on the main sequence. We produce synthetic SAMI observations of outflows that we compare directly with real data. While winds are observed in only a fraction of SAMI galaxies, they appear ubiquitous among simulated star forming objects. Moreover, the velocity dispersion distribution is only weakly dependent on stellar mass (M*) and sSFR (SFR/M*). I presented additional analyses and discuss the implications of these results and how they provide important constraints to ongoing and future IFS surveys.

  7. Size matters: abundance matching, galaxy sizes, and the Tully-Fisher relation in EAGLE

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrero, Ismael; Abadi, Mario G; Sales, Laura V; Bower, Richard G; Crain, Robert A; Frenk, Carlos S; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The Tully-Fisher relation (TFR) links the stellar mass of a disk galaxy, $M_{\\rm str}$, to its rotation speed: it is well approximated by a power law, shows little scatter, and evolves weakly with redshift. The relation has been interpreted as reflecting the mass-velocity scaling ($M\\propto V^3$) of dark matter halos, but this interpretation has been called into question by abundance-matching (AM) models, which predict the galaxy-halo mass relation to be non-monotonic and rapidy evolving. We study the TFR of luminous spirals and its relation to AM using the EAGLE set of $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological simulations. Matching both relations requires disk sizes to satisfy constraints given by the concentration of halos and their response to galaxy assembly. EAGLE galaxies approximately match these constraints and show a tight mass-velocity scaling that compares favourably with the observed TFR. The TFR is degenerate to changes in galaxy formation efficiency and the mass-size relation; simulations that fail to match the...

  8. The EAGLE simulations of galaxy formation: the importance of the hydrodynamics scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Bower, Richard G; Theuns, Tom; Crain, Robert A; Furlong, Michelle; McCarthy, Ian G

    2015-01-01

    We present results from a subset of simulations from the "Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments" (EAGLE) suite in which the formulation of the hydrodynamics scheme is varied. We compare simulations that use the same subgrid models without re-calibration of the parameters but employing the standard GADGET flavour of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) instead of the more recent state-of-the-art ANARCHY formulation of SPH that was used in the fiducial EAGLE runs. We find that the properties of most galaxies, including their masses and sizes, are not significantly affected by the details of the hydrodynamics solver. However, the star formation rates of the most massive objects are affected by the lack of phase mixing due to spurious surface tension in the simulation using standard SPH. This affects the efficiency with which AGN activity can quench star formation in these galaxies and it also leads to differences in the intragroup medium that affect the X-ray emission from these objects. The...

  9. The environmental dependence of HI in galaxies in the EAGLE simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Marasco, Antonino; Schaye, Joop; Bahé, Yannick M; van der Hulst, Thijs; Theuns, Tom; Bower, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    We use the EAGLE suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to study how the HI content of present-day galaxies depends on their environment. We show that EAGLE reproduces observed HI mass-environment trends very well, while semi-analytic models typically overpredict the average HI masses in dense environments. The environmental processes act primarily as an on/off switch for the HI content of satellites with stellar mass Mstar>10^9 Msun. At a fixed Mstar, the fraction of HI-depleted satellites increases with increasing host halo mass M200 in response to stronger environmental effects, while at a fixed M200 it decreases with increasing satellite Mstar as the gas is confined by deeper gravitational potentials. HI-depleted satellites reside mostly, but not exclusively, within the virial radius r200 of their host halo. We investigate the origin of these trends by focussing on three environmental mechanisms: ram pressure stripping by the intra-group medium, tidal stripping by the host halo, and satellite-sa...

  10. Army’s Management of Gray Eagle Spare Parts Needs Improvement (REDACTED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    Brief Army’s Management of Gray Eagle Spare Parts Needs Improvement Recommendations (cont’d) located at DoD-fielded locations when forecasting spare...spare parts for Gray Eagle. Review of Internal Controls DoD Instruction 5010.40, “ Managers ’ Internal Control Program Procedures,” May 30, 2013...intended and to evaluate the effectiveness of the controls . We identified internal control weaknesses within the Army’s management of Gray Eagle

  11. On Themes of the Eagle by Alfred Tennyson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓庆

    2009-01-01

    Theme is significant to poetry.Not only music but also theme is related to poetry since its birth.Usually great poems have more than one theme.Nowadays different approaches of literary analysis are on stage.The different approaches are employed to expound the rich themes of The Eagle-in memorial of Hallam,in praise of Britain's colonial expansion and in eulogy of nature.

  12. Osteogenetic changes in elongated styloid processes of Eagle syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soung Min; Seo, Mi Hyun; Myoung, Hoon; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Yeon Sook; Lee, Suk Keun

    2014-07-01

    Abnormal elongation of the styloid process, or Eagle syndrome, can be painful, and is associated with differential diagnoses including cranio-facial malformations and vasculo-neurological disturbances. The precise molecular mechanism leading to styloid process elongation is unknown. In this study, elongated styloid processes with periosteal fibrous ligament tissue were obtained from three patients with Eagle syndrome and examined by immunohistochemical methods using different antisera. In all cases, marked bony deposition was found at the apex of the styloid process. The osteogenetic proteins, such as osteonectin, osteocalcin, BMP-2, BMP-4, and RANKL were strongly positive by immunohistochemistry in both the ligament fibers and the periosteal membrane attached to the styloid process apex. Staining for protective proteins, HO-1, HSP-70, and HSP-90 was also positive. These results suggest that styloid process elongation is related to increased expression of osteogenetic and protective proteins. Therefore, we propose that Eagle syndrome results from a protective response to increased tensile stress in the ligament attached to the styloid process, which could also signal osteogenetic protein expression in the periosteal fibrous tissue.

  13. Baldness and the androgen receptor: the AR polyglycine repeat polymorphism does not confer susceptibility to androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Justine A; Scurrah, Katrina J; Cobb, Joanna E; Zaloumis, Sophie G; Duncan, Anna E; Harrap, Stephen B

    2007-05-01

    Androgenetic alopecia, or male pattern baldness, is a complex condition with a strong heritable component. In 2001, we published the first significant evidence of a genetic association between baldness and a synonymous coding SNP (rs6152) in the androgen receptor gene, AR. Recently, this finding was replicated in three independent studies, confirming an important role for AR in the baldness phenotype. In one such replication study, it was claimed that the causative variant underlying the association was likely to be the polyglycine (GGN) repeat polymorphism, one of two apparently functional triplet repeat polymorphisms located in the exon 1 transactivating domain of the gene. Here, we extend our original association finding and present comprehensive evidence from approximately 1,200 fathers and sons drawn from 703 families of the Victorian Family Heart Study, a general population Caucasian cohort, that neither exon 1 triplet repeat polymorphism is causative in this condition. Seventy-eight percent of fathers (531/683) and 30% of sons (157/520) were affected to some degree with AGA. We utilised statistical methods appropriate for the categorical nature of the phenotype and familial structure of the cohort, and determined that whilst SNP rs6152 was strongly associated with baldness (P baldness, but also for the many other complex conditions that have thus far been linked to AR.

  14. Biotelemetery data for golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) captured in coastal southern California, February 2016–February 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Jeff A.; Madden, Melanie C.; Sebes, Jeremy B.; Bloom, Peter H.; Katzner, Todd E.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2017-05-12

    Because of a lack of clarity about the status of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in coastal southern California, the USGS, in collaboration with local, State, and other Federal agencies, began a multi-year survey and tracking program of golden eagles to address questions regarding habitat use, movement behavior, nest occupancy, genetic population structure, and human impacts on eagles. Golden eagle trapping and tracking efforts began in September 2014. During trapping efforts from September 29, 2014, to February 23, 2016, 27 golden eagles were captured. During trapping efforts from February 24, 2016, to February 23, 2017, an additional 10 golden eagles (7 females and 3 males) were captured in San Diego, Orange, and western Riverside Counties. Biotelemetry data for 26 of the 37 golden eagles that were transmitting data from February 24, 2016, to February 23, 2017 are presented. These eagles ranged as far north as northern Nevada and southern Wyoming, and as far south as La Paz, Baja California, Mexico.

  15. Application of threshold concepts to ecological management problems: occupancy of Golden Eagles in Denali National Park, Alaska: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Mitchell J.; Martin, Julien; Nichols, James D.; McIntyre, Carol; McCluskie, Maggie C.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Lubow, Bruce L.; Runge, Michael C.; Edited by Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we demonstrate the application of the various classes of thresholds, detailed in earlier chapters and elsewhere, via an actual but simplified natural resource management case study. We intend our example to provide the reader with the ability to recognize and apply the theoretical concepts of utility, ecological and decision thresholds to management problems through a formalized decision-analytic process. Our case study concerns the management of human recreational activities in Alaska’s Denali National Park, USA, and the possible impacts of such activities on nesting Golden Eagles, Aquila chrysaetos. Managers desire to allow visitors the greatest amount of access to park lands, provided that eagle nesting-site occupancy is maintained at a level determined to be acceptable by the managers themselves. As these two management objectives are potentially at odds, we treat minimum desired occupancy level as a utility threshold which, then, serves to guide the selection of annual management alternatives in the decision process. As human disturbance is not the only factor influencing eagle occupancy, we model nesting-site dynamics as a function of both disturbance and prey availability. We incorporate uncertainty in these dynamics by considering several hypotheses, including a hypothesis that site occupancy is affected only at a threshold level of prey abundance (i.e., an ecological threshold effect). By considering competing management objectives and accounting for two forms of thresholds in the decision process, we are able to determine the optimal number of annual nesting-site restrictions that will produce the greatest long-term benefits for both eagles and humans. Setting a utility threshold of 75 occupied sites, out of a total of 90 potential nesting sites, the optimization specified a decision threshold at approximately 80 occupied sites. At the point that current occupancy falls below 80 sites, the recommended decision is to begin restricting

  16. BALD 4203 RD5型可调式气动扭力扳手

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚利明

    2007-01-01

    法国CH-MAIR公司生产的BALD 4203 RD5型可调式气动扭力扳手在神龙汽车有限公司武汉工厂的轿车总装配线上,起着不可替代的作用。它的力矩为15~65Nm,能根据工艺要求调整到任意扭力点上,以满足不同工位的装配工艺要求,如图1所示。

  17. Methane emissions from bald cypress tree trunks in a bottomland forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schile, L. M.; Pitz, S.; Megonigal, P.

    2013-12-01

    Studies on natural methane emissions predominantly have occurred on wetland soils with herbaceous plant species. Less attention, however, has been placed on the role of woody wetland plant species in the methane cycle. Recent studies on methane emissions from tree trunks document that they are a significant source of emissions that previously has been not accounted for. In this study, we examine methane emissions from trunks of mature bald cypress (Taxodium distichum), which is a dominant tree species in bottomland hardwood forests of the Southeastern United States. To date, little is known about soil methane emissions in these systems, and published tree emissions have been limited to a single study conducted on bald cypress knees. In May 2013, we established a plot in a monospecific bald cypress stand planted approximately 70 years ago on the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland and are monitoring methane emissions on 12 tree trunks, soil chambers, and pore-water over the course of a year. Custom-made 30 cm tall open face rectangular tree chambers were constructed out of white acrylic sheets and secured on each tree at a midpoint of 45 cm above the soil surface. Chambers were lined with neoprene along the tree surface and sealed with an epoxy. On three trees that varied in trunk diameter, chambers were placed at average heights of 95, 145, 195, and 345 cm from the soil surface in order to calculate a decay curve of methane emissions. Once a month, chambers were sealed with lids and head-space samples were collected over the course of an hour. Methane flux was calculated and compared to emissions from soil chambers. Average cypress trunk methane fluxes ranged from 17.7 μmole m-2 hr-1 in May to 49.5 and 116.5 μmole m-2 hr-1 in June and July, respectively. Soil fluxes averaged 28.5 μmole m-2 hr-1 in May and June, and decreased to 13.7 μmole m-2 hr-1 in July. Methane emissions decreased exponentially up the tree trunk, with fluxes of 2 μmole m-2 hr-1 and less calculated

  18. Hair biology and its comprehensive sequence in female pattern baldness: diagnosis and treatment modalities--Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Srivastava, Govind; Aggarwal, Ashok K; Midha, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Hair may be a source of concern for patients when there is a change in its texture, amount, or thickness. It can present in women as androgenic alopecia also called female pattern baldness, and in men as adrogenic alopecia, also called male pattern baldness. Thinning/rarefaction affecting the vertex is a progressive condition, and hair loss in women has been interpreted and classified differently from that in men. The Ludwig classification for women's hair loss seems to be the most accepted assessment, which will be outlined in this review, along with the hair growth cycle that encompasses anagen, catagen, telogen, exogen, and kenogen.

  19. Rotura em "alça de balde" simultânea dos meniscos no mesmo joelho

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes,Andre Francisco; Paganella,Vinicius Chissini; Zapparoli, Maurício; Zanoni,Emerson Kleber; Lucaski,Fabiano Ferrari; Aguiar,Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Rotura em "alça de balde" de ambos os meniscos do mesmo joelho é um fenômeno raro. Apresentamos o caso de um paciente em que a ressonância magnética demonstrou rotura em "alça de balde" dos meniscos medial e lateral do mesmo joelho, associada a rotura do ligamento cruzado anterior, confirmado por videoartroscopia. A ressonância magnética demonstra sinais que permitem o diagnóstico preciso.

  20. 78 FR 57629 - Eagle Valley Clean Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Valley Clean Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 9, 2013, Eagle Valley Clean Energy, LLC filed Form 556 and a petition for certification as a...

  1. 75 FR 62895 - Notice of Availability of Safety Evaluation Report; AREVA Enrichment Services LLC, Eagle Rock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Notice of Availability of Safety Evaluation Report; AREVA Enrichment Services LLC, Eagle Rock... special nuclear material. This proposed facility is known as the Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility (EREF)...

  2. 77 FR 28375 - Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on May 1, 2012, Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P. (Desoto) filed a Rate Election pursuant...

  3. 78 FR 24816 - Pricing for the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set AGENCY: United... the price of the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set. The coin set will be offered...

  4. 76 FR 27182 - Pricing for American Eagle and American Buffalo Bullion Presentation Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... United States Mint Pricing for American Eagle and American Buffalo Bullion Presentation Cases AGENCY... announcing the price increase of the American Eagle/Buffalo Bullion Presentation Cases. A lot of 100 presentation cases will be offered for sale at a price of $299.95. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: B. B....

  5. 76 FR 53717 - Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coin AGENCY: United States... pricing of the 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coin. The price of the coin will be $60.45....

  6. 76 FR 65563 - Pricing for 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof and Uncirculated Coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof and Uncirculated Coins AGENCY: United... the re-pricing of the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof and Uncirculated Coins. The price of the...

  7. 75 FR 27774 - Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Rate Election

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 95 (Tuesday, May 18, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 27774] [FR Doc No: 2010-11793] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-22-000] Eagle..., Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P., (Desoto) filed a Notice of Rate Election pursuant to section...

  8. The endemic Bawean Serpent-eagle Spilornis baweanus: habitat use, abundance and conservation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, V.

    2006-01-01

    The Bawean Serpent-eagle Spilornis bawearius is endemic to the 190 km(2) island of Bawean in the Java Sea (Indonesia) where it is the only resident diurnal raptor. A 15 day study in 2002 revealed that the species is present in small numbers throughout the island. The eagle's abundance was assessed b

  9. 76 FR 20971 - Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on April 7, 2011, Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P. filed a revised Statement of Operating Conditions...

  10. 76 FR 27753 - American Eagle Savings Bank, Boothwyn, PA; Approval of Conversion Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision American Eagle Savings Bank, Boothwyn, PA; Approval of Conversion... application of American Eagle Savings Bank, Boothwyn, Pennsylvania, to convert to the stock form...

  11. 78 FR 57444 - Eagle Fund III, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Eagle Fund III, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Eagle Fund III, L.P., 101 S. Hanley Road, Suite 1250, St... Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations. Eagle Fund III, L.P., provided debt and...

  12. 78 FR 57444 - Eagle Fund III-A, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Eagle Fund III-A, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Eagle Fund III-A, L.P., 101 S. Hanley Road, Suite 1250, St... Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations. Eagle Fund III-A, L.P., provided debt and...

  13. 75 FR 66745 - Eagle and Phenix Hydro Company, Inc. and UPtown Columbus, Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle and Phenix Hydro Company, Inc. and UPtown Columbus, Inc.; Notice of.... Applicants: Eagle and Phenix Hydro Company, Inc. and UPtown Columbus Inc., respectively. e. Name of Projects: Eagle and Phenix Mills and City Mills Hydroelectric Projects. f. Location: Lower Chattahoochee...

  14. Probability of Elevated Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Concentrations in Groundwater in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of elevated volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed...

  15. Application of surgical navigation in styloidectomy for treating Eagle's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Geng; Zhang, Yu; Zong, Chunlin; Chen, Yuanli; Guo, Yuxuan; Tian, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility, accuracy, and clinical effect of intraoperative navigation for resection of elongated styloid process (ESP) in Eagle's syndrome. Twelve patients with Eagle's syndrome with clinically and radiologically established diagnoses of ESP were included in this study. Preoperatively, all patients accepted three-dimensional computed tomography scan, and their skulls' digital imaging and communications in medicine data were inputed into the navigation system workstation to make a virtual surgical plan in advance. During surgery, the intraoperative navigation was performed to excise the ESP accurately for both intraoral (without tonsillectomy) and extraoral approaches following the virtual plan. Postoperatively, the amount of bleeding, duration of operation and hospitalization, and the length of resected styloid process (SP) were measured and compared with those cases that had traditional styloidectomy without the help of surgical navigation (SN). A simple visual analog scale questionnaire was also used to assess patients' satisfaction and the surgery effect after 3 months. In total, 17 SPs from 12 patients were precisely resected by intraoral parapharyngeal approach and small cervical approach with the aid of SN. No severe complications occurred in any patients. The length of resected SPs was 21.93±14.26 mm. The average amount of bleeding and duration of operation were 22.50±8.54 mL and 40.35±11.81 minutes, respectively, which were all less than with traditional styloidectomy. The visual analog scale analysis showed that the discomfort in all patients was relieved, while ten patients' symptoms were improved greatly, and two patients had some improvement. The higher accuracy of surgery, lesser amount of bleeding, decreased duration of surgery and hospitalization, absence of complications, and improved subjective symptoms indicated that SN is an effective and minimally invasive surgical procedure suitable for resection of

  16. Flight Testing of Guidance, Navigation and Control Systems on the Mighty Eagle Robotic Lander Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Mike; Rickman, Doug; Chavers, Greg; Adam, Jason; Becker, Chris; Eliser, Joshua; Gunter, Dan; Kennedy, Logan; O'Leary, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    During 2011 a series of progressively more challenging flight tests of the Mighty Eagle autonomous terrestrial lander testbed were conducted primarily to validate the GNC system for a proposed lunar lander. With the successful completion of this GNC validation objective the opportunity existed to utilize the Mighty Eagle as a flying testbed for a variety of technologies. In 2012 an Autonomous Rendezvous and Capture (AR&C) algorithm was implemented in flight software and demonstrated in a series of flight tests. In 2012 a hazard avoidance system was developed and flight tested on the Mighty Eagle. Additionally, GNC algorithms from Moon Express and a MEMs IMU were tested in 2012. All of the testing described herein was above and beyond the original charter for the Mighty Eagle. In addition to being an excellent testbed for a wide variety of systems the Mighty Eagle also provided a great learning opportunity for many engineers and technicians to work a flight program.

  17. Free radical scavenging activity of Eagle tea and their flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Meng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an online HPLC-DAD-MS coupled with 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS assay was employed for evaluating free radical scavenging activity of Eagle tea and their active components. Twenty-three chromatographic peaks were detected, and nineteen components had free radical scavenging activity. Among them, eight compounds were identified as flavonoids (hyperin, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, kaempferol, catechins, chlorogenic acid and epicatechin based on MS data and standard chromatographic characters.

  18. A case of unilateral atypical orofacial pain with Eagle's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G V Sowmya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eagle's syndrome is not an uncommon condition, but less known to physicians, where an elongated styloid process or calcified stylohyoid ligament compresses the adjacent anatomical structures leading to orofacial pain. Diagnosis is made with appropriate radiological examination. Nonsurgical treatment options include reassurance, analgesia, and anti.inflammatory medications; and the surgical option includes a transoral or external approach. Here, we present a case report of a male patient, of age38 years, with a chief complaint of unilateral atypical orofacial pain on the right side of his face radiating to the neck region, for the last two months.

  19. Two-Stage Eagle Strategy with Differential Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency of an optimization process is largely determined by the search algorithm and its fundamental characteristics. In a given optimization, a single type of algorithm is used in most applications. In this paper, we will investigate the Eagle Strategy recently developed for global optimization, which uses a two-stage strategy by combing two different algorithms to improve the overall search efficiency. We will discuss this strategy with differential evolution and then evaluate their performance by solving real-world optimization problems such as pressure vessel and speed reducer design. Results suggest that we can reduce the computing effort by a factor of up to 10 in many applications.

  20. The EAGLE simulation of galaxy formation: public release of halo and galaxy catalogues

    CERN Document Server

    McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Trayford, James W; Qu, Yan; Furlong, Michelle; Bower, Richard G; Crain, Robert A; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Frenk, Carlos S; McCarthy, Ian G; Jenkins, Adrian; Rosas-Guevara, Yetli; White, Simon D M; Baes, Maarten; Camps, Peter; Lemson, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    We present the public data release of halo and galaxy catalogues extracted from the EAGLE suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation. These simulations were performed with an enhanced version of the GADGET code that includes a modified hydrodynamics solver, time-step limiter and subgrid treatments of baryonic physics, such as stellar mass loss, element-by-element radiative cooling, star formation and feedback from star formation and black hole accretion. The simulation suite includes runs performed in volumes ranging from 25 to 100 comoving megaparsecs per side, with numerical resolution chosen to marginally resolve the Jeans mass of the gas at the star formation threshold. The free parameters of the subgrid models for feedback are calibrated to the redshift z=0 galaxy stellar mass function, galaxy sizes and black hole mass - stellar mass relation. The simulations have been shown to match a wide range of observations for present-day and higher-redshift galaxies. The raw particle data...

  1. Evolution of galaxy stellar masses and star formation rates in the EAGLE simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Furlong, M; Theuns, T; Schaye, J; Crain, R A; Schaller, M; Vecchia, C Dalla; Frenk, C S; McCarthy, I G; Helly, J; Jenkins, A; Rosas-Guevara, Y M

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of galaxy masses and star formation rates in the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environment (EAGLE) simulations. These comprise a suite of hydrodynamical simulations in a $\\Lambda$CDM cosmogony with subgrid models for radiative cooling, star formation, stellar mass loss, and feedback from stars and accreting black holes. The subgrid feedback was calibrated to reproduce the observed present-day galaxy stellar mass function and galaxy sizes. Here we demonstrate that the simulations reproduce the observed growth of the stellar mass density to within 20 per cent. The simulation also tracks the observed evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function out to redshift z = 7, with differences comparable to the plausible uncertainties in the interpretation of the data. Just as with observed galaxies, the specific star formation rates of simulated galaxies are bimodal, with distinct star forming and passive sequences. The specific star formation rates of star forming galaxies ar...

  2. Eagle i-Bot: An Eye-controlled System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onindita Afrin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of millions of people in the world are hand impaired in some way, and for many, there is no absolute solution. Operation of computers by physically disabled people; especially with hand impairment was quite impossible till now because use of hands plays a vital role in the use of mouse, touch pad and keyboard. We proposed a new system named as “Eagle i-Bot - An eye-controlled system” which has come with a feasible solution for this scenario. With this system, computers and robots can be controlled by the pair of eyes’ movement or iris movement and voice commands control all the mouse events. This system works with image processing system based on Voila-Jones algorithm and modified Ada-boost algorithms along with java robot class and sphinx-4 frameworks. In this paper, this system is described including software and hardware aspects, algorithms that are used and scopes where Eagle i-Bot can be used.

  3. The normal electrocardiogram of conscious golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Hossein; Moghaddam, Abdol Karim Zamani; Bashi, Mehdi Cheraghchi

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the normal electrocardiographic patterns and values in conscious golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). The standard bipolar and augmented unipolar limb leads' electrocardiograms were recorded in the golden eagles. The waveforms were analyzed in all leads at 50 mm/sec and at 10 mm = 1 mV to determine P, PR (segment and interval), QRS, ST, and QT durations and P, net QRS complex, and T amplitudes. The polarity of each waveform was tabulated in all leads. The mean electrical axis for the frontal plane was calculated using standard bipolar leads II and III. The mean heart rate was 346.7 +/- 14.29 beats/min. The P wave was predominantly positive in standard bipolar leads I and II and augmented unipolar limb leads aVL and aVF. The dominant pattern ofwaveforms of the QRS complexes were QS in leads I, II, III, and aVF, whereas in leads aVR and aVL, the pattern was always R. The T wave was slightly positive in leads I, II, and aVF. The average value of the heart mean electrical axis was -85.9 +/- 7.50 degrees. Establishment of normal electrocardiogram values will facilitate a better understanding of electrocardiographic changes seen in many avian diseases.

  4. Subhalo abundance matching and assembly bias in the EAGLE simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Chaves-Montero, Jonás; Schaye, Joop; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A; Furlong, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Subhalo abundance matching (SHAM) is a widely-used method to connect galaxies with dark matter structures in numerical simulations. SHAM predictions agree remarkably well with observations, yet they still lack strong theoretical support. Here we examine the performance, search for the best implementation, and analyse the key assumptions of SHAM using cosmological simulations from the EAGLE project. We find that $V_{\\rm relax}$, the highest value of the circular velocity attained by a subhalo while it satisfies a relaxation criterion, is the subhalo property that correlates most strongly with galaxy stellar mass ($M_{\\rm star}$). Using this parameter in SHAM, we retrieve the real-space clustering of EAGLE to within our statistical uncertainties on scales greater than $2$ Mpc for galaxies with $8.77<\\log_{10}(M_{\\rm star}[M_\\odot])<10.77$. On the other hand, clustering is overestimated by $30\\%$ on scales below $2$ Mpc because SHAM slightly overpredicts the fraction of satellites in massive haloes. The ag...

  5. Manejo estatal de baldíos: factor de crecimiento en el Departamento del Valle del Cauca, 1910-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Quejada Camacho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone dar una mirada al papel de la intervención estatal en la transferencia de baldíos en el Departamento del Valle del Cauca, entre 1910 y 1920. Aunque existen estudios de baldíos sobre la legislación y los conflictos por derechos de propiedad, con un carácter nacional, es necesario aportar al tema estudiando cómo fue el manejo estatal en el momento de repartir y utilizar los baldíos en una región específica. Consecuentemente, la tierra es tomada como factor desde un postulado neoinstitucionalista (mercado de factores, siendo susceptible de transferencia en el marco de los estímulos del mercado interno y externo. El análisis permite identificar que el manejo regional de los baldíos se dio por varios mecanismos de trasferencia y diversos usos, en los que la agencia del Estado resultó decisiva.

  6. Baldness may be caused by the weight of the scalp: gravity as a proposed mechanism for hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustuner, E Tuncay

    2008-10-01

    Available theories on the etiology and pathogenesis of male pattern baldness have not been satisfactory. Nonetheless, the most widely adopted theory today is the androgenetic theory. The current article introduces a new theory. According to the new theory the pressure created by the weight of the scalp is the cause of the baldness. The weight of the whole scalp over the loose areolar tissue is the operative weight. Hair follicles are pressed between the scalp skin and the cranial bones. The soft tissues around the hair follicles work as a buffer against the pressure. When the buffer decreases and becomes inadequate with age the effective pressure on the hair follicles increases. Unlike the existing theories, the new theory is able to explain every feature of male and female pattern baldness and agrees completely with all scientifically established facts and produced data. The new theory promises a radical change in how baldness is conceived and treated. Notice by the author: The materials and methods that utilize the new theory described in this article for prevention and treatment of hair loss are in patent pending status.

  7. Manejo estatal de baldíos: factor de crecimiento en el Departamento del Valle del Cauca, 1910-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Quejada Camacho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone dar una mirada al papel de la intervención estatal en la transferencia de baldíos en el Departamento del Valle del Cauca, entre 1910 y 1920. Aunque existen estudios de baldíos sobre la legislación y los conflictos por derechos de propiedad, con un carácter nacional, es necesario aportar al tema estudiando cómo fue el manejo estatal en el momento de repartir y utilizar los baldíos en una región específica. Consecuentemente, la tierra es tomada como factor desde un postulado neoinstitucionalista (mercado de factores, siendo susceptible de transferencia en el marco de los estímulos del mercado interno y externo. El análisis permite identificar que el manejo regional de los baldíos se dio por varios mecanismos de trasferencia y diversos usos, en los que la agencia del Estado resultó decisiva.

  8. Meta-analysis identifies novel risk loci and yields systematic insights into the biology of male-pattern baldness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heilmann-Heimbach, S.; Herold, C.; Hochfeld, L.M.; Hillmer, A.M.; Nyholt, D.R.; Hecker, J.; Javed, A.; Chew, E.G.; Pechlivanis, S.; Drichel, D.; Heng, X.T.; Rosario, R.C. Del; Fier, H.L.; Paus, R.; Rueedi, R.; Galesloot, T.E.; Moebus, S.; Anhalt, T.; Prabhakar, S.; Li, R.; Kanoni, S.; Papanikolaou, G.; Kutalik, Z.; Deloukas, P.; Philpott, M.P.; Waeber, G.; Spector, T.D.; Vollenweider, P.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Dedoussis, G.; Richards, J.B.; Nothnagel, M.; Martin, N.G.; Becker, T.; Hinds, D.A.; Nothen, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Male-pattern baldness (MPB) is a common and highly heritable trait characterized by androgen-dependent, progressive hair loss from the scalp. Here, we carry out the largest GWAS meta-analysis of MPB to date, comprising 10,846 early-onset cases and 11,672 controls from eight independent cohorts. We i

  9. Air Quality at a Ranch Site in the Western Part of the Eagle Ford shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, G. S.; Schade, G. W.; Brooks, S. D.; Zenker, J.

    2015-12-01

    The booming unconventional oil and gas industry in the Eagle Ford shale in southern Texas continues to grow. Modeling studies of the air quality impacts of the Eagle Ford rely on emission inventories that may underestimate emissions from such operations, and air quality monitoring in the area remains limited. We conducted an air quality study on a ranch in Dimmit County, Texas, which was ranked 6th in Texas for natural gas production and 10th in Texas for oil production as of April 2015. An automated GC-FID was used to measure the concentration of hydrocarbons (C3 - C14), with concurrent measurements of CO, CO2, H2O, O3, NO/NOx. In addition, the concentration and sizing of aerosols ranging from 0.6 to 20 µm aerodynamic diameter were measured with a GRIMM aerosol spectrometer (GRIMM 1.108), and meteorological variables including wind speed, direction, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and insolation were recorded. We report on local air quality and changes during the process as observed during the measurement campaign. Local drilling on the ranch began in May 2015 and production started in June 2015, at a site approximately 5 km southeast of the air quality trailer. Local air quality showed typically low, near background abundances of CO and NOx early during the campaign, and more frequent local NOx plumes during the drilling and production phases. Aerosol mass measurements were also relatively low and well within attainment of NAAQS particulate matter standards. We assess OH radical reactivity of individual and/or groups of VOCs using observed concentrations and their reaction rate coefficient with OH, the dominant VOC sink in the troposphere.

  10. The environmental dependence of H I in galaxies in the EAGLE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Antonino; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop; Bahé, Yannick M.; van der Hulst, Thijs; Theuns, Tom; Bower, Richard G.

    2016-09-01

    We use the EAGLE suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to study how the H I content of present-day galaxies depends on their environment. We show that EAGLE reproduces observed H I mass-environment trends very well, while semi-analytic models typically overpredict the average H I masses in dense environments. The environmental processes act primarily as an on/off switch for the H I content of satellites with M* > 109 M⊙. At a fixed M*, the fraction of H I-depleted satellites increase with increasing host halo mass M200 in response to stronger environmental effects, while at a fixed M200 it decreases with increasing satellite M* as the gas is confined by deeper gravitational potentials. H I-depleted satellites reside mostly, but not exclusively, within the virial radius r200 of their host halo. We investigate the origin of these trends by focusing on three environmental mechanisms: ram pressure stripping by the intragroup medium, tidal stripping by the host halo and satellite-satellite encounters. By tracking back in time the evolution of the H I-depleted satellites, we find that the most common cause of H I removal is satellite encounters. The time-scale for H I removal is typically less than 0.5 Gyr. Tidal stripping occurs in haloes of M200 < 1014 M⊙ within 0.5 × r200, while the other processes act also in more massive haloes, generally within r200. Conversely, we find that ram pressure stripping is the most common mechanism that disturbs the H I morphology of galaxies at redshift z = 0. This implies that H I removal due to satellite-satellite interactions occurs on shorter time-scales than the other processes.

  11. Quantifying alkane emissions in the Eagle Ford Shale using boundary layer enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Roest

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Eagle Ford Shale in southern Texas is home to a booming unconventional oil and gas industry, the climate and air quality impacts of which remain poorly quantified due to uncertain emission estimates. We used the atmospheric enhancement of alkanes from Texas Commission on Environmental Quality volatile organic compound monitors across the shale, in combination with back trajectory and dispersion modeling, to quantify C2–C4 alkane emissions for a region in southern Texas, including the core of the Eagle Ford, for a set of 68 days from July 2013 to December 2015. Emissions were partitioned into raw natural gas and liquid storage tank sources using gas and headspace composition data, respectively, and observed enhancement ratios. We also estimate methane emissions based on typical ethane-to-methane ratios in gaseous emissions. The median emission rate from raw natural gas sources in the shale, calculated as a percentage of the total produced natural gas in the upwind region, was 0.7 % with an interquartile range (IQR of 0.5–1.3 %, below the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA current estimates. However, storage tanks contributed 17 % of methane emissions, 55 % of ethane, 82 % percent of propane, 90 % of n-butane, and 83 % of isobutane emissions. The inclusion of liquid storage tank emissions results in a median emission rate of 1.0 % (IQR of 0.7–1.6 % relative to produced natural gas, overlapping the current EPA estimate of roughly 1.6 %. We conclude that emissions from liquid storage tanks are likely a major source for the observed non-methane hydrocarbon enhancements in the Northern Hemisphere.

  12. Quantifying alkane emissions in the Eagle Ford Shale using boundary layer enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, Geoffrey; Schade, Gunnar

    2017-09-01

    The Eagle Ford Shale in southern Texas is home to a booming unconventional oil and gas industry, the climate and air quality impacts of which remain poorly quantified due to uncertain emission estimates. We used the atmospheric enhancement of alkanes from Texas Commission on Environmental Quality volatile organic compound monitors across the shale, in combination with back trajectory and dispersion modeling, to quantify C2-C4 alkane emissions for a region in southern Texas, including the core of the Eagle Ford, for a set of 68 days from July 2013 to December 2015. Emissions were partitioned into raw natural gas and liquid storage tank sources using gas and headspace composition data, respectively, and observed enhancement ratios. We also estimate methane emissions based on typical ethane-to-methane ratios in gaseous emissions. The median emission rate from raw natural gas sources in the shale, calculated as a percentage of the total produced natural gas in the upwind region, was 0.7 % with an interquartile range (IQR) of 0.5-1.3 %, below the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) current estimates. However, storage tanks contributed 17 % of methane emissions, 55 % of ethane, 82 % percent of propane, 90 % of n-butane, and 83 % of isobutane emissions. The inclusion of liquid storage tank emissions results in a median emission rate of 1.0 % (IQR of 0.7-1.6 %) relative to produced natural gas, overlapping the current EPA estimate of roughly 1.6 %. We conclude that emissions from liquid storage tanks are likely a major source for the observed non-methane hydrocarbon enhancements in the Northern Hemisphere.

  13. Lead, mercury, selenium, and other trace elements in tissues of golden eagles from southwestern Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmata, Alan R; Restani, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Lead-based rifle bullets, used in game hunting and recreational shooting, fragment when striking bone and soft tissues. Lead fragments may be ingested by birds scavenging offal piles or nonretrieved carcasses and therefore pose a poisoning risk. We captured and sampled 74 Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in southwestern Montana, USA, from 2008 to 2010 to evaluate levels of lead, mercury, selenium, and 13 other trace elements in blood and feathers. Lead was detected in blood of most (97%, n=70) eagles; mean blood level was 0.26 parts per million (ppm). Most eagles (65%) had background levels (1.0 ppm) in blood. Lead in blood decreased from winter to spring. Resident eagles had higher lead levels than eagles of unknown residency. Mercury was detected in few eagles, whereas selenium was detected in all, but at a low level (0.36 ppm). Other chemical elements in blood were at low or biologically appropriate levels. Lead in feathers (n=29) was correlated with blood lead (P=0.010), as was mercury in blood and feathers (n=48; P=0.003). Concentrations of lead and mercury in feathers were higher in adults than in juveniles and immatures (Pelements tended to increase with age. Selenium in feathers (n=48) appeared stable across plumage classes. Although detection rates of lead in blood of eagles captured in spring increased from 1985-1993 to 2008-2010, mean levels decreased (P0.2 ppm; P<0.02).

  14. Optical colours and spectral indices of z = 0.1 eagle galaxies with the 3D dust radiative transfer code skirt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trayford, James W.; Camps, Peter; Theuns, Tom; Baes, Maarten; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Gunawardhana, Madusha L. P.; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2017-09-01

    We present mock optical images, broad-band and H α fluxes, and D4000 spectral indices for 30 145 galaxies from the eagle hydrodynamical simulation at redshift z = 0.1, modelling dust with the skirt Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. The modelling includes a subgrid prescription for dusty star-forming regions, with both the subgrid obscuration of these regions and the fraction of metals in diffuse interstellar dust calibrated against far-infrared fluxes of local galaxies. The predicted optical colours as a function of stellar mass agree well with observation, with the skirt model showing marked improvement over a simple dust-screen model. The orientation dependence of attenuation is weaker than observed because eagle galaxies are generally puffier than real galaxies, due to the pressure floor imposed on the interstellar medium (ISM). The mock H α luminosity function agrees reasonably well with the data, and we quantify the extent to which dust obscuration affects observed H α fluxes. The distribution of D4000 break values is bimodal, as observed. In the simulation, 20 per cent of galaxies deemed 'passive' for the skirt model, i.e. exhibiting D4000 >1.8, are classified 'active' when ISM dust attenuation is not included. The fraction of galaxies with stellar mass greater than 1010 M⊙ that are deemed passive is slightly smaller than observed, which is due to low levels of residual star formation in these simulated galaxies. Colour images, fluxes and spectra of eagle galaxies are to be made available through the public eagle data base.

  15. Ossification of the stylohyoid chain on computed tomograms - Eagle syndrome; Die Ossifikation der stylohyoidalen Kette im Computertomogramm - Eagle-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugmayr, H.; Krennmair, G. [Krankenhaus St. Franziskus, Grieskirchen (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Lenglinger, F. [Allgemeines Krankenhaus, Wels (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    1997-11-01

    The computed tomographic morphology of a typical Eagle syndrome is presented on the basis of a case history. In a 40-year-old female patient presenting with bilateral tinnitus, globus hystericus, and increasing hoarseness computed tomography revealed bilateral ossification of the stylohyoid ligament. The incidence of stylalgia is very low in comparison to the occurrence of a elongated styloid process or an ossified stylohyoid ligament. However, in cases of unexplained complaints in the head and neck region it should be considered in the differential diagnosis as it has therapeutic consequences. (orig.) [Deutsch] Anhand einer Kasuistik wird die computertomographische Morphologie eines typischen Eagle-Syndroms vorgestellt: Bei einem 40jaehrigen Patienten, der an beidseitigem Tinnitus, Globusgefuehl und zunehmender Heiserkeit litt, wurde computertomographisch eine beidseitige Ossifikation des Ligamentum stylohoideum nachgewiesen. Die Inzidenz einer Stylalgie ist verglichen mit der Praevalenz eines elongierten Processus styloideus oder einem verknoecherten Ligamentum stylochyoideum sehr selten. Sie sollte jedoch bei ungeklaerten Beschwerden im Kopf-Halsbereich differentialdiagnostisch in Erwaegung gezogen werden, da sie therapeutische Konsequenzen nach sich zieht. (orig.)

  16. Does the order of invasive species removal matter? The case of the eagle and the pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W Collins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Invasive species are recognized as a primary driver of native species endangerment and their removal is often a key component of a conservation strategy. Removing invasive species is not always a straightforward task, however, especially when they interact with other species in complex ways to negatively influence native species. Because unintended consequences may arise if all invasive species cannot be removed simultaneously, the order of their removal is of paramount importance to ecological restoration. In the mid-1990s, three subspecies of the island fox Urocyon littoralis were driven to near extinction on the northern California Channel Islands owing to heightened predation by golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos. Eagles were lured to the islands by an abundant supply of feral pigs Sus scrofa and through the process of apparent competition pigs indirectly facilitated the decline in foxes. As a consequence, both pigs and eagles had to be removed to recover the critically endangered fox. Complete removal of pigs was problematic: removing pigs first could force eagles to concentrate on the remaining foxes, increasing their probability of extinction. Removing eagles first was difficult: eagles are not easily captured and lethal removal was politically distasteful. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using prey remains collected from eagle nests both before and after the eradication of pigs, we show that one pair of eagles that eluded capture did indeed focus more on foxes. These results support the premise that if the threat of eagle predation had not been mitigated prior to pig removal, fox extinction would have been a more likely outcome. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: If complete eradication of all interacting invasive species is not possible, the order in which they are removed requires careful consideration. If overlooked, unexpected consequences may result that could impede restoration.

  17. A controlled study of the effects of RU58841, a non-steroidal antiandrogen, on human hair production by balding scalp grafts maintained on testosterone-conditioned nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brouwer, B; Tételin, C; Leroy, T; Bonfils, A; Van Neste, D

    1997-11-01

    Human hair growth can be monitored for several months after the transplantation of scalp samples from men with androgen-dependent alopecia on to female nude mice. Hair production from balding sites has been shown to be inhibited in testosterone-conditioned nude mice. We used this recently reported model to study the effect of a new non-steroidal antiandrogen-RU58841-on human hair growth. Twenty productive scalp grafts from balding men were maintained for 8 months after grafting on to nude mice, and hair production was monitored monthly for 6 months. All mice were conditioned by the topical application of testosterone (testosterone propionate, 300 micrograms in 10 microL; 5 days/week) on the non-grafted flank. The scalp samples were divided equally according to the estimated hair production potential, which was based on the amount of hair present on the scalp samples before grafting. Each of the two equal groups of grafts was further allocated at random to be treated topically (5 days/week) with blinded solutions of either RU58841 1% in ethanol, or ethanol as a control. Twenty-eight active follicles appeared on the 10 control grafts. Among them only two follicles (7%) initiated a second hair cycle. However, the 10 RU58841-treated grafts bore a total of 29 active follicles, and eight of them (28%) showed a second cycle. The values for the linear hair growth rates (LHGR) were significantly (P Recycling and increased LHGR indicate a positive action for RU58841 on human hair growth from balding samples grafted on to testosterone-conditioned nude mice, and encourage a clinical trial to evaluate its potential in the treatment of androgen-dependent alopecia.

  18. Reduction of Genetic Diversity of the Harpy Eagle in Brazilian Tropical Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo Banhos

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and fragmentation intensify the effects of genetic drift and endogamy, reducing genetic variability of populations with serious consequences for wildlife conservation. The Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja is a forest dwelling species that is considered near threatened and suffers from habitat loss in the forests of the Neotropical region. In this study, 72 historical and current samples were assessed using eight autosomal microsatellite markers to investigate the distribution of genetic diversity of the Harpy Eagle of the Amazonian and Atlantic forests in Brazil. The results showed that the genetic diversity of Harpy Eagle decreased in the regions where deforestation is intense in the southern Amazon and Atlantic Forest.

  19. Through the Eyes of the Eagle (American Indian translation in Shoshone)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders (Listen to the American Indian translation in Shoshone).  Created: 4/9/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  20. Through the Eyes of the Eagle (American Indian translation in Paiute)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders (Listen to the American Indian translation in Paiute).  Created: 4/9/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  1. Through the Eyes of the Eagle (American Indian translation in Chickasaw)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders (American Indian translation in Chickasaw).  Created: 4/9/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  2. Geologic map of the Vail West quadrangle, Eagle County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert B.; Lidke, David J.; Grunwald, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    This new 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Vail West 7.5' quadrangle, as part of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic hazards in the area on the southwest flank of the Gore Range. Bedrock strata include Miocene tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic and upper Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, and undivided Early(?) Proterozoic metasedimentary and igneous rocks. Tuffaceous rocks are found in fault-tilted blocks. Only small outliers of the Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Entrada Sandstone, and Chinle Formation exist above the redbeds of the Permian-Pennsylvanian Maroon Formation and Pennsylvanian Minturn Formation, which were derived during erosion of the Ancestral Front Range east of the Gore fault zone. In the southwestern area of the map, the proximal Minturn facies change to distal Eagle Valley Formation and the Eagle Valley Evaporite basin facies. The Jacque Mountain Limestone Member, previously defined as the top of the Minturn Formation, cannot be traced to the facies change to the southwest. Abundant surficial deposits include Pinedale and Bull Lake Tills, periglacial deposits, earth-flow deposits, common diamicton deposits, common Quaternary landslide deposits, and an extensive, possibly late Pliocene landslide deposit. Landscaping has so extensively modified the land surface in the town of Vail that a modified land-surface unit was created to represent the surface unit. Laramide movement renewed activity along the Gore fault zone, producing a series of northwest-trending open anticlines and synclines in Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata, parallel to the trend of the fault zone. Tertiary down-to-the-northeast normal faults are evident and are parallel to similar faults in both the Gore Range and the Blue River valley to the northeast; presumably these are related to extensional deformation that occurred during formation of the northern end of the

  3. Cosmic Baldness

    CERN Document Server

    Boucher, W

    2011-01-01

    We elucidate the mechanism where by gravitational fluctuations are frozen in during a period of inflation but nevertheless within the past horizon of any geodesic observer the spacetime settles down exponentially fast to the de-Sitter metric.

  4. Acne tarda and male-pattern baldness unmasking primary ovarian insufficiency: a case and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouboulis, Christos C; Achenbach, Alexander; Makrantonaki, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    A 30-year-old woman presented with recurrent acne lesions and progressing male-pattern baldness. Furthermore, she reported amenorrhea, weight loss, mucosal xerosis and dyspareunia since discontinuation of hormonal contraception 6 months earlier in order to conceive. Acne tarda and androgenetic alopecia of female pattern were diagnosed. Hormonal and immunologic serological and ultrasound examinations revealed an autoimmune hypergonadotropic primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) with no ovarian cysts but ovarian fibrosis with marked reduced follicle pool. Immediate ovarian stimulation and in vitro fertilization led to pregnancy and the patient gave birth to a healthy child. Though presenting with clinical findings similar to menopause, 50% of patients with POI exhibit varying and unpredictable ovarian function, and only 5-10% are able to accomplish pregnancy. Genetic disorders affect the X chromosome. In 14-30% of cases POI has been associated with autoimmunity. POI may occur after discontinuation of hormonal contraception, like in our case.

  5. Geochemistry of highly aluminiferous Vendian-Cambrian sediments of the Tunka Bald Mountains, East Sayan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkol'Nik, S. I.; Barash, I. G.; Belichenko, V. G.; Letnikova, E. F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents comprehensive geochemical characteristics of highly aluminiferous schists discovered in the Tunka Bald Mountains and associated with the Vendian-Cambrian cover of the Tuva-Mongolian Microcontinent. The Al2O3 content varies within a wide range, the maximum being up to 36.11 wt. %. A specific feature of the geochemical composition of these rocks is the simultaneously high contents of Cr (up to 1400 ppm), V (up to 2700 ppm), and Zr (up to 800 ppm). The origin has been interpreted, and the conditions in which the highly aluminiferous rocks formed have been considered. Based on geochemical data, it is assumed that the main origin could be weathering crusts formed after ultramafic and mafic rocks, with a felsic source playing a secondary role.

  6. Does prostaglandin D2 hold the cure to male pattern baldness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves, Ashley; Garza, Luis A

    2014-04-01

    Lipids in the skin are the most diverse in the entire human body. Their bioactivity in health and disease is underexplored. Prostaglandin D2 has recently been identified as a factor which is elevated in the bald scalp of men with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and has the capacity to decrease hair lengthening. An enzyme which synthesizes it, prostaglandin D2 synthase (PTGDS or lipocalin-PGDS), is hormone responsive in multiple other organs. PGD2 has two known receptors, GPR44 and PTGDR. GPR44 was found to be necessary for the decrease in hair growth by PGD2 . This creates an exciting opportunity to perhaps create novel treatments for AGA, which inhibit the activity of PTGDS, PGD2 or GPR44. This review discusses the current knowledge surrounding PGD2 , and future steps needed to translate these findings into novel therapies for patients with AGA.

  7. Polarized Dust Emission in the Eagle Nebula Pillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Marc

    We propose the measure the magnetic field morphology in the Eagle Nebula pillars using HAWC+ to map total and polarized dust emission at 63, 89, 154, and 214 microns. We will couple these new measurements with existing measurements of CO, CS, HCN, HCO+, and N2H+ to compare with our simulations pillar formation in the presence of magnetic fields. These simulations provide projected column density maps, position-velocity diagrams, and plane-of-sky magnetic field maps for a variety of field configurations and strengths. With such analysis we can not only determine the most probable three-dimensional B-field morphology, but estimate its strength without recourse to observationally expensive Zeeman measurements. This would represent the first time magnetic field measurements have been made in any molecular pillar system and provide insight on the importance of magnetic fields in the stellar feedback process in star-forming molecular clouds.

  8. CERN's eagle-eyed movement hunters in action

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Vibrations, movements, strains - nothing escapes the eagle eyes of CERN's Mechanical Measurements Laboratory, which helps groups needing mechanical testing and delicate transport operations. Graphical representation of the natural mode shape of one of the end-caps of the ATLAS inner detector, determined through experimentation.After installation of sensors on one of the end-caps of the ATLAS inner detector, CERN's Mechanical Measurements team performs remote checks to ensure the sensors are working properly before transport. They are on the look-out for anything that moves, shakes or changes shape. The slightest movement, however minute, will attract their attention. The Mechanical Measurements team, which is part of the Installation Coordination Group (TS-IC), specialises in all kinds of vibration studies, for design projects as well as for the transport of fragile objects. The Mechanical Measurements Laboratory was created in 1973 and, after a lull at the end of the century, was given a new lease of life ...

  9. Modified evisceration technique in a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, D Dustin; Knollinger, Amy M; MacLaren, Nicole E

    2011-09-01

    Two different modified techniques have been described for enucleation in raptors, including the transaural approach and the globe-collapsing procedure. This case report describes an alternative, modified evisceration procedure in a mature female Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). The advantages of this procedure are decreased anesthetic time, ease of procedure, decreased risk of excessive traction of the optic nerve, decreased intraoperative orbital trauma, and preservation of the natural symmetry of the head. The major disadvantage of this procedure is that it does not allow complete histologic examination of the globe. Patients with intraocular infection or neoplasia, or significant orbital disease may be poor candidates for this technique. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  10. Hair follicle growth by stromal vascular fraction-enhanced adipose transplantation in baldness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez-Meza D

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available David Perez-Meza,1 Craig Ziering,2 Marcos Sforza,3 Ganesh Krishnan,4 Edward Ball,5 Eric Daniels6 1Ziering Medical, Marbella, Spain; 2Ziering Medical, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3The Hospital Group, Bromsgrove, Worcestershire, 4Ziering Medical, Birmingham, 5Ziering Medical, London, UK; 6Kerastem Technologies, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: Great interest remains in finding new and emerging therapies for the treatment of male and female pattern hair loss. The autologous fat grafting technique is >100 years old, with a recent and dramatic increase in clinical experience over the past 10–15 years. Recently, in 2001, Zuk et al published the presence of adipose-derived stem cells, and abundant research has shown that adipose is a complex, biological active, and important tissue. Festa et al, in 2011, reported that adipocyte lineage cells support the stem cell niche and help drive the complex hair growth cycle. Adipose-derived regenerative cells (also known as stromal vascular fraction [SVF] is a heterogeneous group of noncultured cells that can be reliably extracted from adipose by using automated systems, and these cells work largely by paracrine mechanisms to support adipocyte viability. While, today, autologous fat is transplanted primarily for esthetic and reconstructive volume, surgeons have previously reported positive skin and hair changes posttransplantation. This follicular regenerative approach is intriguing and raises the possibility that one can drive or restore the hair cycle in male and female pattern baldness by stimulating the niche with autologous fat enriched with SVF. In this first of a kind patient series, the authors report on the safety, tolerability, and quantitative, as well as photographic changes, in a group of patients with early genetic alopecia treated with subcutaneous scalp injection of enriched adipose tissue. The findings suggest that scalp stem cell-enriched fat grafting may represent a promising alternative approach to

  11. The EAGLE simulations: atomic hydrogen associated with galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert A.; Bahé, Yannick M.; Lagos, Claudia del P.; Rahmati, Alireza; Schaye, Joop; McCarthy, Ian G.; Marasco, Antonino; Bower, Richard G.; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom; van der Hulst, Thijs

    2017-02-01

    We examine the properties of atomic hydrogen (H I) associated with galaxies in the Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) simulations of galaxy formation. EAGLE's feedback parameters were calibrated to reproduce the stellar mass function and galaxy sizes at z = 0.1, and we assess whether this calibration also yields realistic H I properties. We estimate the self-shielding density with a fitting function calibrated using radiation transport simulations, and correct for molecular hydrogen with empirical or theoretical relations. The `standard-resolution' simulations systematically underestimate H I column densities, leading to an H I deficiency in low-mass (M⋆ standard-resolution simulations. The largest volume simulation reproduces the observed clustering of H I systems, and its dependence on H I richness. At fixed M⋆, galaxies acquire more H I in simulations with stronger feedback, as they become associated with more massive haloes and higher infall rates. They acquire less H I in simulations with a greater star formation efficiency, since the star formation and feedback necessary to balance the infall rate is produced by smaller gas reservoirs. The simulations indicate that the H I of present-day galaxies was acquired primarily by the smooth accretion of ionized, intergalactic gas at z ≃ 1, which later self-shields, and that only a small fraction is contributed by the reincorporation of gas previously heated strongly by feedback. H I reservoirs are highly dynamic: over 40 per cent of H I associated with z = 0.1 galaxies is converted to stars or ejected by z = 0.

  12. Source apportionment of hydrocarbons measured in the Eagle Ford shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, G. S.; Schade, G. W.

    2016-12-01

    The rapid development of unconventional oil and gas in the US has led to hydrocarbon emissions that are yet to be accurately quantified. Emissions from the Eagle Ford Shale in southern Texas, one of the most productive shale plays in the U.S., have received little attention due to a sparse air quality monitoring network, thereby limiting studies of air quality within the region. We use hourly atmospheric hydrocarbon and meteorological data from three locations in the Eagle Ford Shale to assess their sources. Data are available from the Texas commission of environmental quality (TCEQ) air quality monitors in Floresville, a small town southeast of San Antonio and just north of the shale area; and Karnes city, a midsize rural city in the center of the shale. Our own measurements were carried out at a private ranch in rural Dimmit County in southern Texas from April to November of 2015. Air quality monitor data from the TCEQ were selected for the same time period. Non-negative matrix factorization in R (package NMF) was used to determine likely sources and their contributions above background. While the TCEQ monitor data consisted mostly of hydrocarbons, our own data include both CO, CO2, O3, and NOx. We find that rural Dimmit County hydrocarbons are dominated by oil and gas development sources, while central shale hydrocarbons at the TCEQ monitoring sites have a mix of sources including car traffic. However, oil and gas sources also dominate hydrocarbons at Floresville and Karnes City. Toxic benzene is nearly exclusively due to oil and gas development sources, including flaring, which NMF identifies as a major hydrocarbon source in Karnes City. Other major sources include emissions of light weight alkanes (C2-C5) from raw natural gas emissions and a larger set of alkanes (C2-C10) from oil sources, including liquid storage tanks.

  13. Ancient DNA provides new insights into the evolutionary history of New Zealand's extinct giant eagle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bunce

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior to human settlement 700 years ago New Zealand had no terrestrial mammals--apart from three species of bats--instead, approximately 250 avian species dominated the ecosystem. At the top of the food chain was the extinct Haast's eagle, Harpagornis moorei. H. moorei (10-15 kg; 2-3 m wingspan was 30%-40% heavier than the largest extant eagle (the harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja, and hunted moa up to 15 times its weight. In a dramatic example of morphological plasticity and rapid size increase, we show that the H. moorei was very closely related to one of the world's smallest extant eagles, which is one-tenth its mass. This spectacular evolutionary change illustrates the potential speed of size alteration within lineages of vertebrates, especially in island ecosystems.

  14. Golden Eagle food habits in the Mojave Desert: Regional information for a changing landscape

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Expansion of renewable energy development is rapidly transforming the Mojave Desert landscape and has the potential to impact Golden Eagles through loss of foraging...

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, state plane central zone surve, Published in unknown, Eagle County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'state plane central zone surve'. The extent of these data is generally Eagle County, CO....

  16. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Conservation Elements - Terrestrial Species: Golden Eagle

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows the potential current distribution of Golden Eagle, in the context of current and near-term terrestrial intactness and long-term potential for climate...

  17. Common Raven (Corvus corax) kleptoparasitism at a Golden Eagle (Aquila chyrsaetos) nest in southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simes, Matthew; Johnson, Diego R.; Streit, Justin; Longshore, Kathleen; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Esque, Todd C.

    2017-01-01

    The Common Raven (Corvus corax) is a ubiquitous species in the Mojave Desert of southern Nevada and California. From 5 to 24 May 2014, using remote trail cameras, we observed ravens repeatedly kleptoparasitizing food resources from the nest of a pair of Golden Eagles (Aquila chyrsaetos) in the Spring Mountains of southern Nevada. The ravens fed on nine (30%) of the 30 prey items delivered to the nest during the chick rearing period. Kleptoparasitic behavior by the ravens decreased as the eagle nestling matured to seven weeks of age, suggesting a narrow temporal window in which ravens can successfully engage in kleptoparasitic behavior at eagle nests. The observation of kleptoparasitism by Common Ravens at the nest suggests potential risks to young Golden Eagles from Common Ravens.

  18. Documentation of the Ecological Risk Assessment Computer Model ECORSK.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony F. Gallegos; Gilbert J. Gonzales

    1999-06-01

    The FORTRAN77 ecological risk computer model--ECORSK.5--has been used to estimate the potential toxicity of surficial deposits of radioactive and non-radioactive contaminants to several threatened and endangered (T and E) species at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). These analyses to date include preliminary toxicity estimates for the Mexican spotted owl, the American peregrine falcon, the bald eagle, and the southwestern willow flycatcher. This work has been performed as required for the Record of Decision for the construction of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility at LANL as part of the Environmental Impact Statement. The model is dependent on the use of the geographic information system and associated software--ARC/INFO--and has been used in conjunction with LANL's Facility for Information Management and Display (FIMAD) contaminant database. The integration of FIMAD data and ARC/INFO using ECORSK.5 allows the generation of spatial information from a gridded area of potential exposure called an Ecological Exposure Unit. ECORSK.5 was used to simulate exposures using a modified Environmental Protection Agency Quotient Method. The model can handle a large number of contaminants within the home range of T and E species. This integration results in the production of hazard indices which, when compared to risk evaluation criteria, estimate the potential for impact from consumption of contaminants in food and ingestion of soil. The assessment is considered a Tier-2 type of analysis. This report summarizes and documents the ECORSK.5 code, the mathematical models used in the development of ECORSK.5, and the input and other requirements for its operation. Other auxiliary FORTRAN 77 codes used for processing and graphing output from ECORSK.5 are also discussed. The reader may refer to reports cited in the introduction to obtain greater detail on past applications of ECORSK.5 and assumptions used in deriving model parameters.

  19. Diet of Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug and Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca from Central Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedko Nedyalkov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present results from a study on the diet of Saker falcon (n = 15 nests and Eastern imperial eagle (n = 2 nests from south Kazakhstan, on the basis of food remains and pellets collected during the 2009 breeding season. The main prey for Saker falcon was predominantly rodents living in middle-size colonies – Spermophilus erytrogenys and Rhombomys opimus. We also present the results from the diet of two pairs of Eastern imperial eagles nesting close to Balkhash Lake.

  20. Surgical treatment of bumblefoot in a captive golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Nazifi; Moosa Javdani,; Seyedeh Leila Poorbaghi

    2012-01-01

    The golden eagle is one of the world's largest living birds. Footpad dermatitis, also known as plantar pododermatitis or bumblefoot, is a condition characterized by lesions due to contact with unhealthy "perching" conditions, such as plastic perches, sharp-cornered perches on the ventral footpad of birds. A young female golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) in Fars province of Iran was presented to veterinary clinics of Shiraz University with clinical signs of lameness. The bird was examined clini...

  1. Species variation in osmotic, cryoprotectant, and cooling rate tolerance in poultry, eagle, and Peregrine Falcon spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, J.M.; Gee, G.; Wildt, D.E.; Donoghue, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Potential factors influencing spermatozoa survival to cryopreservation and thawing were analyzed across a range of the following avian species: domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), Bonelli's eagle (Hieraaetus fasciatus), imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), and peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). Studies focused on spermatozoa tolerance to the following: 1) osmotic stress, 2) different extracellular concentrations of the cryoprotectant dimethylacetamide (DMA), 3) equilibration times of 1 versus 4 h, 4) equilibration temperature of 4 versus 21 degrees C, and 5) rapid versus slow cooling before cryopreservation and standard thawing. Sperm viability was assessed with the live/dead stain (SYBR14/ propidium iodine). Sperm viability at osmolalities >/=800 mOsm was higher (P: /=2.06 M), experienced decreased (P: < 0.05) spermatozoa survival in all species, except the golden eagle and peregrine falcon. Number of surviving spermatozoa diminished progressively with increasing DMA concentrations in all species. Increased equilibration temperature (from 4 to 21 degrees C) markedly reduced (P: < 0.05) spermatozoa survival in all species except the Bonelli's eagle and turkey. Rapid cooling was detrimental (P: < 0.05) to spermatozoa from all species except the imperial eagle and the chicken. These results demonstrate that avian spermatozoa differ remarkably in response to osmotic changes, DMA concentrations, equilibration time, temperature, and survival after fast or slow freezing. These differences emphasize the need for species-specific studies in the development and enhancement of assisted breeding for poultry and endangered species.

  2. Piezoelectric surgery and navigation: a safe approach for complex cases of Eagle syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalthoff, S; Zimmerer, R; Dittmann, O; Tavassol, F; Dittmann, J; Gellrich, N-C; Jehn, P

    2016-10-01

    Eagle syndrome was first described by Eagle in 1937. It is associated with an elongated styloid process and/or calcification of the stylohyoid ligament, mainly resulting in pain in the orofacial region. The treatment of Eagle syndrome includes conservative treatment with physical therapy supported by medication, or surgical removal of the styloid process. Two different surgical approaches are described in the literature: the transoral and transcervical approaches. Both have their limitations and specific intraoperative risks. A modification of the transcervical approach that adds an extra security measure to the treatment of complex cases of Eagle syndrome is presented herein. The styloid process was removed by combining piezoelectric surgery, preoperative digital planning, and surgical navigation. No complication was noted, and the patient recovered quickly after surgery. A follow-up visit 2 months later showed no remaining symptoms of Eagle syndrome on the treated side. Therefore, digital planning and surgical navigation could add valuable safety measures to the treatment of complex cases of Eagle syndrome.

  3. Unilateral neck pain: a case of Eagle syndrome with associated nontraumatic styloid fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlik, Kseniya; Griffin, Gregory D; Zoumberakis, Erick

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of Eagle syndrome in a 77-year-old woman with associated aneurysm and nontraumatic styloid process fracture, without history of tonsillectomy, who presented to the emergency department. The first set of symptoms associated with the elongation of the temporal styloid process and/or the calcification of the stylomandibular or stylohyoid ligaments was described by Eagle in 1937. Classically, unilateral pain in the oropharynx radiating to the neck and face that is exacerbated by head turning and neck rotation is characteristic of Eagle syndrome. However, styloid process elongation and stylohyoid calcification found in Eagle syndrome may also present with vascular symptomsthrough impingement and injury of the carotid arteries. Eagle syndrome is a rare but important differential that the emergency physician must consider in a patient with unilateral neck pain and positional neurological symptoms with head turning and in posttonsillectomy patients. Patients with medical history of Eagle syndrome presenting with neck pain and especially neurological symptomsmust be thoroughly evaluated for carotid and jugular venous injury. Specifically, the decision to obtain computed tomography and computed tomographic angiography to evaluate for carotid artery injury is important for patient management and disposition.

  4. Characterizing Golden Eagle risk to lead and anticoagulant rodenticide exposure: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Buck, Jeremy A.

    2017-01-01

    Contaminant exposure is among the many threats to Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) populations throughout North America, particularly lead poisoning and anticoagulant rodenticides (AR). These threats may act in concert with others (e.g., lead poisoning and trauma associated with striking objects) to exacerbate risk. Golden Eagles are skilled hunters but also exploit scavenging opportunities, making them particularly susceptible to contaminant exposure from ingesting tissues of poisoned or shot animals. Lead poisoning has long been recognized as an important source of mortality for Golden Eagles throughout North America. More recently, ARs have been associated with both sublethal and lethal effects in raptor species worldwide. In this review, we examine the current state of knowledge for lead and AR exposure in Golden Eagles, drawing from the broader raptor contaminant ecology literature. We examine lead and AR sources within Golden Eagle habitats, exposure routes and toxicity, effects on individuals and populations, synergistic effects, and data and information needs. Continued research addressing data needs and information gaps will help with Golden Eagle conservation planning.

  5. Síndrome de Eagle: avaliação do tratamento cirúrgico Eagle Syndrome: surgical treatment evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualdo Suzano Louzeiro Tiago

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A apófise estilóide é uma projeção óssea que se origina na porção timpânica do osso temporal. O aumento desta ou a ossificação do ligamento estilohióideo pode originar uma série de sintomas como disfagia, odinofagia, dor facial, otalgia, cefaléia, zumbido e trismo. Este conjunto de sintomas associado à presença da apófise estilóide alongada é conhecido como Síndrome de Eagle. Objetivo: Relatar um grupo de quatro pacientes com Síndrome de Eagle, bem como discutir a apresentação clínica e o tratamento mais adequado desta doença. Forma de estudo: Clínico retrospectivo. Material e método: Realizado estudo clínico retrospectivo de quatro pacientes, operados no HSPE-FMO e HSPM de São Paulo, no período de junho de 1998 a junho de 2001. O tratamento cirúrgico foi a opção terapêutica escolhida, com a retirada da apófise estilóide alongada. Foi avaliada a evolução clínica no pós-operatório. Resultados: Dos quatro pacientes, três eram do sexo feminino e um do sexo masculino, com idade variando de 38 a 68 anos e com média etária de 57,25 anos. A apófise estilóide alongada foi encontrada e operada em ambos os lados em 50% dos casos. Houve remissão completa dos sintomas em três pacientes, com melhora parcial no outro paciente. Conclusão: Esta doença deve ser considerada em pacientes com sintomas de disfagia, odinofagia, dor facial, otalgia, cefaléia, zumbido e trismo. O tratamento cirúrgico para pacientes que apresentam a apófise estilóide alongada com sintomas compatíveis com a Síndrome de Eagle é a melhor forma de conduzir estes casos, sendo a via de abordagem externa a que oferece mais segurança e que possibilita uma ressecção mais completa.Introduction: The styloid apophysis is an osseous outgrowth originating in the tympanum portion of the temporal bone. Its growth, or the ossification of the stylohyoid ligament, may cause a series of symptoms, such as dysphagia, odynophagia

  6. Hair transplantation in women: treating female pattern baldness and repairing distortion and scarring from prior cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jeffrey S

    2003-01-01

    The role of hair transplantation in men is well established. In women, the procedure is much less common, but has a definite role in the management of female pattern baldness and the repair of alopecic scarring and hairline distortion as a result of prior facial plastic surgery. When performing hair transplantation in women, there are differences in technique from that used in men to consistently achieve excellent results and minimize complications. Over the past 3 years, I have performed 86 hair transplant procedures on women. Most of these cases were for female pattern baldness. The techniques used and typical results are presented herein. When performed properly for the appropriate indications, hair transplantation is an effective procedure with a very high level of patient satisfaction.

  7. Hair biology and its comprehensive sequence in female pattern baldness: clinical connotation diagnosis and differential diagnosis--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Srivastava, Govind; Aggarwal, Ashok K; Midha, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Hair can become a source of concern when there is a change in its texture, number, and thinning. Although female pattern baldness is common, it has received little attention compared with male pattern baldness. Thinning that affects the vertex is insidious and progressive. Hair loss in women has accordingly been interpreted and classified differently than that in men. The Ludwig scale is the most accepted classification. The gross anatomy and the general microanatomy of the hair follicle, including that of the anagen, catagen, and telogen phase, are presented. The hair growth cycle, encompassing anagen, catagen, telogen, exogen, and kenogen, is also discussed to address pattern hair loss in women and provide therapeutic options that are currently available.

  8. Efficient use of information in adaptive management with an application to managing recreation near golden eagle nesting sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L Fackler

    Full Text Available It is generally the case that a significant degree of uncertainty exists concerning the behavior of ecological systems. Adaptive management has been developed to address such structural uncertainty, while recognizing that decisions must be made without full knowledge of how a system behaves. This paradigm attempts to use new information that develops during the course of management to learn how the system works. To date, however, adaptive management has used a very limited information set to characterize the learning that is possible. This paper uses an extension of the Partial Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP framework to expand the information set used to update belief in competing models. This feature can potentially increase the speed of learning through adaptive management, and lead to better management in the future. We apply this framework to a case study wherein interest lies in managing recreational restrictions around golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos nesting sites. The ultimate management objective is to maintain an abundant eagle population in Denali National Park while minimizing the regulatory burden on park visitors. In order to capture this objective, we developed a utility function that trades off expected breeding success with hiker access. Our work is relevant to the management of human activities in protected areas, but more generally demonstrates some of the benefits of POMDP in the context of adaptive management.

  9. Efficient use of information in adaptive management with an application to managing recreation near golden eagle nesting sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fackler, Paul L; Pacifici, Krishna; Martin, Julien; McIntyre, Carol

    2014-01-01

    It is generally the case that a significant degree of uncertainty exists concerning the behavior of ecological systems. Adaptive management has been developed to address such structural uncertainty, while recognizing that decisions must be made without full knowledge of how a system behaves. This paradigm attempts to use new information that develops during the course of management to learn how the system works. To date, however, adaptive management has used a very limited information set to characterize the learning that is possible. This paper uses an extension of the Partial Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) framework to expand the information set used to update belief in competing models. This feature can potentially increase the speed of learning through adaptive management, and lead to better management in the future. We apply this framework to a case study wherein interest lies in managing recreational restrictions around golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nesting sites. The ultimate management objective is to maintain an abundant eagle population in Denali National Park while minimizing the regulatory burden on park visitors. In order to capture this objective, we developed a utility function that trades off expected breeding success with hiker access. Our work is relevant to the management of human activities in protected areas, but more generally demonstrates some of the benefits of POMDP in the context of adaptive management.

  10. Potential habitat of Javan Hawk-Eagle based on multi-scale approach and its implication for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurfatimah, C.; Syartinilia; Mulyani, Y. A.

    2017-01-01

    In Indonesia the Javan Hawk-Eagle has been designated as one of the 25 top priority protected species to be increased by 10% of current population number. Lack of suitable habitat is most likely the reason for the decline of the species in landscapes subject to major human modification. Central part of Java Island has suffered the most severe forest damage and fragmentation compared to the western part and eastern part of the island. This study presents the number of predicted suitable habitats for Javan Hawk-Eagle in the central part of Java Island based on habitat probability model. Multi-scale approach was being used to determine the accuracy level of patches reading between different image resolutions. 38 patches were detected at 30 m2, 28 patches at 90 m2, and 19 patches were detected at 250 m2 images resolutions. Higher reading implied more landscape structures within different regions should be considered during management of habitat conservation. Therefore, larger scale of conservation management application should be conducted as well.

  11. New records and range expansion of the white bald uakari (Cacajao calvus calvus, I. Geoffroy, 1847) in Central Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alcântara Cardoso, Nayara; Valsecchi, João; Vieira, Tatiana; Queiroz, Helder Lima

    2014-04-01

    The white bald uakari (Cacajao calvus calvus) is among the least studied of the Amazonian primates and is found exclusively in remote areas of the central Amazon. The geographic distribution of this subspecies is still uncertain, and information on current threats and its conservation status is sparse. In this paper, we identify new locations of occurrence and propose range expansion of the Cacajao calvus calvus. Between 2008 and 2010, six field expeditions were undertaken in the middle Solimões region to search for the subspecies and to conduct interviews with local residents regarding its presence. The presence of the white bald uakari was confirmed in the lower courses of the Juruá and lower Jutaí rivers, in addition to areas inside the Mamirauá Reserve, where its presence was expected. Results indicate an expansion and new limits on the geographic range of the subspecies, including its detection in areas in which it had not previously been reported and its exclusion from areas where white bald uakaris were assumed to occur. The new information provided by this study and the remaining shortcomings regarding the distribution of the calvus group point to the urgent need for further research on the geographic distribution and habitat use of this group, especially along the lower courses of the Juruá and Jutaí rivers, which remain little explored.

  12. Experimental investigation of Eagle nebula pillars using a multiple hohlraum array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, David; Kane, Jave; Villette, Bruno; Pound, Mark; Casner, Alexis; Heeter, Robert; Mancini, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    The ``pillars of creation'' are stunningly beautiful and physically puzzling molecular cloud structure in the Eagle nebula. Formation of these pillars has been subject of debate since their observation. Although extensive observation and modeling have attempted to answer the creation of the observed pillars, experiments have not adequately tested the theoretical models surrounding the photoevaporation of the molecular clouds. Recent Omega EP experiments at the LLE developed a 30 ns x-ray drive using a multiple hohlraum array (``Gatling gun'' approach) to drive the photoevaporation process and test pillar formation. This proof of principle experiment imaged the initial stages of a pillar using Ti area backlighter through a driven 50 mg/cc R/F foam with an embedded solid density CH ball. This presentation will give an overview of the experimental design and results from the experiment. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-656872.

  13. Molecular hydrogen abundances of galaxies in the EAGLE simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Lagos, Claudia del P; Schaye, Joop; Furlong, Michelle; Frenk, Carlos S; Bower, Richard G; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom; Trayford, James W; Bahe, Yannick M; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the abundance of galactic molecular hydrogen (H$_2$) in the "Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments" (EAGLE) cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We assign H$_2$ masses to gas particles in the simulations in post-processing using two different prescriptions that depend on the local dust-to-gas ratio and the interstellar radiation field. Both result in H$_2$ galaxy mass functions that agree well with observations in the local and high-redshift Universe. The simulations reproduce the observed scaling relations between the mass of H$_2$ and the stellar mass, star formation rate and stellar surface density. Towards high edshifts, galaxies in the simulations display larger H$_2$ mass fractions, and correspondingly lower H$_2$ depletion timescales, also in good agreement with observations. The comoving mass density of H$_2$ in units of the critical density, $\\Omega_{\\rm H_2}$, peaks at $z\\approx 1.2-1.5$, later than the predicted peak of the cosmic star formation rate activity, a...

  14. A chronicle of galaxy mass assembly in the EAGLE simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Qu, Yan; Bower, Richard G; Theuns, Tom; Crain, Robert A; Frenk, Carlos S; Furlong, Michelle; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; White, Simon D M

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the mass assembly of central galaxies in the EAGLE hydrodynamical simulations. We build merger trees to connect galaxies to their progenitors at different redshifts and characterize their assembly histories by focusing on the time when half of the galaxy stellar mass was assembled into the main progenitor. We show that galaxies with stellar mass $M_*<10^{10.5}M_{\\odot}$ assemble most of their stellar mass through star formation in the main progenitor (`in-situ' star formation). This can be understood as a consequence of the steep rise in star formation efficiency with halo mass for these galaxies. For more massive galaxies, however, an increasing fraction of their stellar mass is formed outside the main progenitor and subsequently accreted. Consequently, while for low-mass galaxies the assembly time is close to the stellar formation time, the stars in high-mass galaxies typically formed long before half of the present-day stellar mass was assembled into a single object, giving rise to the observ...

  15. Barred galaxies in the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Algorry, David G; Abadi, Mario G; Sales, Laura V; Bower, Richard G; Crain, Robert A; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Frenk, Carlos S; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We examine the properties of barred disc galaxies in a LCDM cosmological hydrodynamical simulation from the EAGLE project. Our study follows the formation of 269 discs identified at z = 0 in the stellar mass range 10.6 < log Mstr /M < 11. These discs show a wide range of bar strengths, from unbarred discs to weak bars to strongly barred systems (= 20%). Bars in these systems develop after redshift = 1.3, on timescales that depend sen- sitively on the strength of the pattern. Strong bars develop relatively quickly (in a few Gyr, = 10 disc rotation periods) in systems that are disc dominated, gas poor, and have declining rotation curves. Weak bars develop more slowly in systems where the disc is less gravitation- ally important, and are still growing at z = 0. Unbarred galaxies are comparatively gas-rich discs whose rotation speeds do not exceed the maximum circular velocity of the halos they inhabit. Bar lengths compare favourably with observations, ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 times the radius containing 90%...

  16. Early-type objects in NGC6611 and Eagle Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Martayan, Christophe; Hubert, Anne-Marie; Neiner, Coralie; Fremat, Yves; Baade, Dietrich; Fabregat, Juan

    2008-01-01

    An important question about Be stars is whether Be stars are born as Be stars or not. It is necessary to observe young clusters to answer this question. Observations of stars in NGC6611 and the star-formation region of Eagle Nebula have been carried out with the ESO-WFI in slitless spectroscopic mode and at the VLT-GIRAFFE. The targets for the GIRAFFE observations were pre-selected from the literature and our catalogue of emission-line stars (ELS) based on the WFI study. GIRAFFE observations allowed us to study accurately the population of the early-type stars with and without emission lines. For this study, we determined the fundamental parameters of OBA stars. We also studied the status of the objects (main sequence or pre-main sequence stars) by using IR data, membership probabilities, and location in HR diagrams. The nature of the early-type ELS in M16 is derived. The slitless observations with the WFI clearly indicate a small number of ELS in M16. We observed with GIRAFFE 101 OBA stars, among them 9 are ...

  17. The distribution of atomic hydrogen in EAGLE galaxies: morphologies, profiles, and H I holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahé, Yannick M.; Crain, Robert A.; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Bower, Richard G.; Schaye, Joop; Furlong, Michelle; Lagos, Claudia; Schaller, Matthieu; Trayford, James W.; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Theuns, Tom

    2016-02-01

    We compare the mass and internal distribution of atomic hydrogen (H I) in 2200 present-day central galaxies with Mstar > 1010 M⊙ from the 100 Mpc EAGLE `Reference' simulation to observational data. Atomic hydrogen fractions are corrected for self-shielding using a fitting formula from radiative transfer simulations and for the presence of molecular hydrogen using an empirical or a theoretical prescription from the literature. The resulting neutral hydrogen fractions, M_{H_I+H_2} / M_star, agree with observations to better than 0.1 dex for galaxies with Mstar between 1010 and 1011 M⊙. Our fiducial, empirical H2 model based on gas pressure results in galactic H I mass fractions, M_{H I/ M_star, that agree with observations from the GASS survey to better than 0.3 dex, but the alternative theoretical H2 formula from high-resolution simulations leads to a negative offset in M_{H I}/ M_star of up to 0.5 dex. Visual inspection of mock H I images reveals that most H I discs in simulated H I-rich galaxies are vertically disturbed, plausibly due to recent accretion events. Many galaxies (up to 80 per cent) contain spuriously large H I holes, which are likely formed as a consequence of the feedback implementation in EAGLE. The H I mass-size relation of all simulated galaxies is close to (but 16 per cent steeper than) observed, and when only galaxies without large holes in the H I disc are considered, the agreement becomes excellent (better than 0.1 dex). The presence of large H I holes also makes the radial H I surface density profiles somewhat too low in the centre, at Σ _{H I} > 1 M_{⊙} pc^{-2} (by a factor of ≲ 2 compared to data from the Bluedisk survey). In the outer region (Σ _{H I} 10^{9.8} M_{⊙}) and control galaxies (10^{9.1} M_{⊙}> M_{H I} > 10^{9.8} M_{⊙}) follow each other closely, as observed.

  18. Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Changes of Free-Flying Migrating Northern Bald Ibis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Bairlein

    Full Text Available Many migrating birds undertake extraordinary long flights. How birds are able to perform such endurance flights of over 100-hour durations is still poorly understood. We examined energy expenditure and physiological changes in Northern Bald Ibis Geronticus eremite during natural flights using birds trained to follow an ultra-light aircraft. Because these birds were tame, with foster parents, we were able to bleed them immediately prior to and after each flight. Flight duration was experimentally designed ranging between one and almost four hours continuous flights. Energy expenditure during flight was estimated using doubly-labelled-water while physiological properties were assessed through blood chemistry including plasma metabolites, enzymes, electrolytes, blood gases, and reactive oxygen compounds. Instantaneous energy expenditure decreased with flight duration, and the birds appeared to balance aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, using fat, carbohydrate and protein as fuel. This made flight both economic and tolerable. The observed effects resemble classical exercise adaptations that can limit duration of exercise while reducing energetic output. There were also in-flight benefits that enable power output variation from cruising to manoeuvring. These adaptations share characteristics with physiological processes that have facilitated other athletic feats in nature and might enable the extraordinary long flights of migratory birds as well.

  19. Far-infrared and dust properties of present-day galaxies in the EAGLE simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Camps, Peter; Baes, Maarten; Theuns, Tom; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2016-01-01

    The EAGLE cosmological simulations reproduce the observed galaxy stellar mass function and many galaxy properties. In this work, we study the dust-related properties of present-day EAGLE galaxies through mock observations in the far-infrared and submm wavelength ranges obtained with the 3D dust radiative transfer code SKIRT. To prepare an EAGLE galaxy for radiative transfer processing, we derive a diffuse dust distribution from the gas particles and we re-sample the star-forming gas particles and the youngest star particles into star-forming regions that are assigned dedicated emission templates. We select a set of redshift-zero EAGLE galaxies that matches the K-band luminosity distribution of the galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS), a volume-limited sample of about 300 normal galaxies in the Local Universe. We find overall agreement of the EAGLE dust scaling relations with those observed in the HRS, such as the dust-to-stellar mass ratio versus stellar mass and versus NUV-r colour relations. A di...

  20. Trigeminal neuralgia post-styloidectomy in Eagle syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blackett John

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Eagle syndrome is a condition characterized by an elongated (>3cm styloid process with associated symptoms of recurrent facial or throat pain. In this report we present a case of Eagle syndrome exhibiting the typical findings of glossopharyngeal nerve involvement, as well as unusual involvement of the trigeminal nerve. Notably, this patient developed a classical trigeminal neuralgia post-styloidectomy. Case presentation A 68-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a 25-year history of dull pain along the right side of her throat, lateral neck, and jaw. Her symptoms were poorly controlled with medication until 15 years ago when she was diagnosed with Eagle syndrome, and underwent a manual fracture of her styloid process. This provided symptomatic relief until 5 years ago when the pain recurred and progressed. She underwent a styloidectomy via a lateral neck approach, which resolved the pain once again. However, 6 months ago a new onset of triggerable, electric shock-like facial pain began within the right V1 and V2 distributions. Conclusions Eagle syndrome is distressing to patients and often difficult to diagnose due to its wide variability in symptoms. It is easily confused with dental pain or temporomandibular joint disorder, leading to missed diagnoses and unnecessary procedures. Pain along the jaw and temple is an unusual but possible consequence of Eagle syndrome. An elongated styloid process should be considered a possible etiology of dull facial pain in the trigeminal distributions, in particular V3.

  1. Solar Eagle 2. Final technical report, 15 September 1992-15 November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberto, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    During a 22-month period from February 1991 to December 1993, a dedicated group of students, faculty, and staff at California State University, Los Angeles completed a project to design, build, and race their second world class solar-powered electric vehicle, the Solar Eagle 2. This is the final report of that project. As a continuation of the momentum created by the success of the GM-sponsored Sunrayce USA in 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) picked up the banner from General Motors as sponsors of Sunrayce 93. In February 1991, the DOE sent a request for proposals to all universities in North America inviting them to submit a proposal outlining how they would design, build, and test a solar-powered electric vehicle for a seven-day race from Arlington, Texas to Minneapolis, Minnesota, to be held in June 1993. Some 70 universities responded. At the end of a proposal evaluation process, 36 universities including CSLA were chosen to compete. This report documents the Solar Eagle 2 project--the approaches taken, what was learned, and how the experience from the first Solar Eagle was incorporated into Solar Eagle 2. The intent is to provide a document that would assist those who may wish to take up the challenge to build Solar Eagle 3.

  2. The distribution of atomic hydrogen in EAGLE galaxies: morphologies, profiles, and HI holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bahe, Yannick M; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Bower, Richard G; Schaye, Joop; Furlong, Michelle; Lagos, Claudia; Schaller, Matthieu; Trayford, James W; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Theuns, Tom

    2015-01-01

    We compare the mass and internal distribution of atomic hydrogen (HI) in 2200 present-day central galaxies with M_star > 10^10 M_Sun from the 100 Mpc EAGLE Reference simulation to observational data. Atomic hydrogen fractions are corrected for self-shielding using a fitting formula from radiative transfer simulations and for the presence of molecular hydrogen using an empirical or a theoretical prescription from the literature. The resulting neutral hydrogen fractions, M_(HI+H2)/M_star, agree with observations to better than 0.1 dex for galaxies with M_star between 10^10 and 10^11 M_Sun. Our fiducial, empirical H2 model based on gas pressure results in galactic HI mass fractions, M_HI/M_star, that agree with observations from the GASS survey to better than 0.3 dex, but the alternative theoretical H2 formula leads to a negative offset in M_HI/M_star of up to 0.5 dex. Visual inspection reveals that most HI disks in simulated HI-rich galaxies are vertically disturbed, plausibly due to recent accretion events. Ma...

  3. Non-equilibrium EAGLE zoom simulations of oxygen in the low-redshift circumgalactic medium

    CERN Document Server

    Oppenheimer, Benjamin D; Schaye, Joop; Rahmati, Alireza; Richings, Alexander J; Trayford, James W; Tumlinson, Jason; Bower, Richard G; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a series of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of Lstar (M_200 =10^11.7 - 10^12.3 Msol) and group-sized (M_200 = 10^12.7 - 10^13.3 Msol) haloes run with the model used for the EAGLE project, which additionally includes a non-equilibrium ionization and cooling module that follows 136 ions. The simulations reproduce the observed correlation, revealed by COS-Halos at z~0.2, between O VI column density at impact parameters b 10^6 K) promotes oxygen to higher ionization states, suppressing the O VI column density. The observed NO VI-sSFR correlation therefore does not imply a causal link, but reflects the changing characteristic ionization state of oxygen as halo mass is increased. In spite of the mass-dependence of the oxygen ionization state, the most abundant circumgalactic oxygen ion in both Lstar and group haloes is O VII; O VI accounts for only 0.1% of the oxygen in group haloes and 0.9-1.3% with Lstar haloes. Nonetheless, the metals traced by O VI absorbers represent a fossil record of th...

  4. Pre-main sequence stars with disks in the Eagle Nebula observed in scattered light

    CERN Document Server

    Guarcello, M G; Micela, G; Peres, G; Prisinzano, L; Sciortino, S

    2010-01-01

    NGC6611 and its parental cloud, the Eagle Nebula (M16), are well-studied star-forming regions, thanks to their large content of both OB stars and stars with disks and the observed ongoing star formation. We identified 834 disk-bearing stars associated with the cloud, after detecting their excesses in NIR bands from J band to 8.0 micron. In this paper, we study in detail the nature of a subsample of disk-bearing stars that show peculiar characteristics. They appear older than the other members in the V vs. V-I diagram, and/or they have one or more IRAC colors at pure photospheric values, despite showing NIR excesses, when optical and infrared colors are compared. We confirm the membership of these stars to M16 by a spectroscopic analysis. The physical properties of these stars with disks are studied by comparing their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with the SEDs predicted by models of T-Tauri stars with disks and envelopes. We show that the age of these stars estimated from the V vs. V-I diagram is unrel...

  5. Pre-main sequence stars older than 8 Myr in the Eagle Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    De Marchi, Guido; Guarcello, M G; Bonito, Rosaria

    2013-01-01

    Attention is given to a population of 110 stars in the NGC 6611 cluster of the Eagle Nebula that have prominent near-infrared (NIR) excess and optical colours typical of pre-main sequence (PMS) stars older than 8 Myr. At least half of those for which spectroscopy exists have a Halpha emission line profile revealing active accretion. In principle, the V-I colours of all these stars would be consistent with those of young PMS objects (< 1 Myr) whose radiation is heavily obscured by a circumstellar disc seen at high inclination and in small part scattered towards the observer by the back side of the disc. However, using theoretical models it is shown here that objects of this type can only account for a few percent of this population. In fact, the spatial distribution of these objects, their X-ray luminosities, their optical brightness, their positions in the colour-magnitude diagram and the weak Li absorption lines of the stars studied spectroscopically suggest that most of them are at least 8 times older th...

  6. 77 FR 840 - Pricing for 2012 America the Beautiful Quarters® Products and American Eagle Silver Dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2012 America the Beautiful Quarters Products and American Eagle Silver... Mint is announcing 2012 pricing for America the Beautiful Quarters products and American Eagle...

  7. 75 FR 35018 - Eagle Industrial Power Services (IL), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Industrial Power Services (IL), LLC; Supplemental Notice That.... This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Eagle Industrial Power Services...

  8. 75 FR 74038 - Twin Eagle Resource Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Twin Eagle Resource Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Twin Eagle Resource Management, LLC's ]...

  9. 75 FR 62808 - Eagle Power Authority, Inc; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Power Authority, Inc; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Eagle Power Authority, Inc.'s application for...

  10. 75 FR 25235 - Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC's application for...

  11. 77 FR 74544 - Eagle Fund III, L.P., License No. 07/07-0116; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Eagle Fund III, L.P., License No. 07/07-0116; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Eagle Fund III, L.P... interest, of the Small Business Administration Rules and Regulations (13 CFR part 107). Eagle Fund III,...

  12. 77 FR 74545 - Eagle Fund III-A, L.P.; License No. 07/07-0117: Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Eagle Fund III-A, L.P.; License No. 07/07-0117: Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Eagle Fund III-A, L.P... interest, of the Small Business Administration Rules and Regulations (13 CFR part 107). Eagle Fund III-...

  13. Transoral endoscopic-assisted styloidectomy: How should Eagle syndrome be managed surgically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Weteid, A S; Miloro, M

    2015-09-01

    Eagle syndrome, or calcification of the stylohyoid ligament, is a rare condition that may present a clinical diagnostic dilemma for those unfamiliar with its existence and its typical presenting signs and symptoms. Management of this disease process may involve either non-surgical or surgical treatment options. When surgery is indicated, the choice of a specific surgical modality is highly variable and is generally dependent upon individual surgeon preference and experience, since the location of the styloid process is consistent between patients, and the required surgical access is also similar depending upon the specific surgical plan. This paper reports a case of Eagle syndrome managed with a transoral endoscopic-assisted approach, explores the advantages and disadvantages of each surgical approach, and reviews the literature regarding surgical management options for Eagle syndrome.

  14. Internal carotid dissection caused by an elongated styloid process (Eagle syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsson, Olafur; Kostulas, Nikolaos; Herrman, Lars

    2013-06-11

    Eagle syndrome (symptoms associated with an elongated styloid process (SP)) is commonly divided into two presentations. First, the so-called classic Eagle syndrome where patients can present with unilateral sore throat, dysphagia, tinnitus, unilateral facial and neck pain and otalgia. Second, there is the vascular or stylocarotid form of Eagle syndrome in which the elongated SP is in contact with the extracranial internal carotid artery. We describe two cases of internal carotid artery dissection associated with an elongated SP. One is a patient with ischaemic stroke and another with transient ischaemic attacks caused by an elongated SP. A surgical resection of the SP was performed on the former patient. Both patients were treated with anticoagulation and recovered well. A literature search only revealed two prior descriptions of carotid dissection in the context of an elongated SP.

  15. Resurrection of the family Aetobatidae (Myliobatiformes) for the pelagic eagle rays, genus Aetobatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, William T; Naylor, Gavin J P

    2016-07-21

    Molecular and morphological data show that the pelagic eagle rays of the genus Aetobatus form a distinct family-level grouping separate from the true eagle rays, Aetomylaeus and Myliobatis (family Myliobatidae). The family Aetobatidae is herein resurrected to include the pelagic eagle rays and definitions are provided for this family and for the Myliobatidae. The key characters separating Aetobatidae from Myliobatidae are: pectoral fins joining head at level of eyes (vs. below level of eyes), internasal flap deeply notched (vs. nearly straight), free rear tip of pectoral fins broadly rounded (vs. angular), spiracles dorsolateral on head and visible in dorsal view (spiracles lateral on head and not visible in dorsal view), dorsal fin with obvious free rear tip (vs. no free rear tip evident, posterior margin joining dorsal surface of tail).

  16. Completion evaluation of the Eagle Ford formation with heterogeneous proppant placement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, A.; Altman, R.; Oussoltsev, D.; Kanneganti, K.; Xu, J.; Grant, D.; Indriati, S.; Pena, A.; Loayza, M.; Kirkham, B.; Rhein, T. [Society of Petroleum Engineers (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    With the major developments of the Eagle Ford shale in Texas, there has been an increasing focus on the optimization of stimulation techniques. Many techniques have already been implemented in order to improve productivity across Eagle Ford. This paper analyzes completion techniques currently in place through the Hawkville field with the goal of determining key parameters and their impact on the well. The paper focuses mainly on channel fracturing based on a heterogeneous proppant placement technique and evaluates it against current slickwater and hybrid stimulation treatments. The evaluation described in the paper was conducted by first collecting data from 51 horizontal wells in the Eagle Ford formation. It then follows through the evaluation completing a normalized production comparison, a productivity index analysis, neural network trained self-organizing maps, and numerical simulations. Through evaluations and comparisons the paper shows that channel fracturing can allow for a significant improvement in production of dry gas wells.

  17. A chronicle of galaxy mass assembly in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yan; Helly, John C.; Bower, Richard G.; Theuns, Tom; Crain, Robert A.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Furlong, Michelle; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; White, Simon D. M.

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the mass assembly of central galaxies in the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) hydrodynamical simulations. We build merger trees to connect galaxies to their progenitors at different redshifts and characterize their assembly histories by focusing on the time when half of the galaxy stellar mass was assembled into the main progenitor. We show that galaxies with stellar mass M* < 1010.5 M⊙ assemble most of their stellar mass through star formation in the main progenitor (`in situ' star formation). This can be understood as a consequence of the steep rise in star formation efficiency with halo mass for these galaxies. For more massive galaxies, however, an increasing fraction of their stellar mass is formed outside the main progenitor and subsequently accreted. Consequently, while for low-mass galaxies, the assembly time is close to the stellar formation time, the stars in high-mass galaxies typically formed long before half of the present-day stellar mass was assembled into a single object, giving rise to the observed antihierarchical downsizing trend. In a typical present-day M* ≥ 1011 M⊙ galaxy, around 20 per cent of the stellar mass has an external origin. This fraction decreases with increasing redshift. Bearing in mind that mergers only make an important contribution to the stellar mass growth of massive galaxies, we find that the dominant contribution comes from mergers with galaxies of mass greater than one-tenth of the main progenitor's mass. The galaxy merger fraction derived from our simulations agrees with recent observational estimates.

  18. Satellite tracking of two lesser spotted eagles Aquila pomarina, migrating from Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyburg, B.-U.; Ellis, D.H.; Meyburg, C.; Mendelsohn, J.; Scheller, W.

    2001-01-01

    One immature and one subadult Lesser Spotted Eagle, Aquila pomarina, were followed by satellite telemetry from their non-breeding areas in Namibia. Both birds were fitted with transmitters (PTTs) in February 1994 and tracked, the immature for six months and two weeks, over distances of 10084 and 16773 km, respectively. During their time in Namibia both birds? movements were in response to good local rainfall. The immature eagle left Namibia at the end of February, the subadult at the end of March. They flew to their respective summer quarters in Hungary and the Ukraine, arriving there 2.5 and 1.5 months later than the breeding adults. The immature eagle took over two months longer on the homeward journey than a breeding male followed by telemetry in a previous study. On returning, the immature eagle followed the narrow flightpath through Africa used by other Lesser Spotted Eagles on their outward migration. It reached this corridor, which runs roughly between longitudes 31? and 36? East from Suez to Lake Tanganyika, veering from the shortest route in a direction east-northeast through Angola and Zambia to the southern end of Lake Tanganyika. The route taken by the subadult bird on its return migration differed markedly from that of all Lesser Spotted Eagles tracked to date, running further west through the Democratic Republic of Congo where, level with the equator, it flew over the eastern rainforest of that country. The outward migration, however, followed the same corridor and coincided in time with the migration of adults.

  19. Water and streambed-material data, Eagle Creek watershed, Indiana, August 1980-December 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsness, David J.

    1983-01-01

    Water quality studies within the Eagle Creek watershed, Indiana, were done by the U.S. Geological Survey in August 1980, October 1982, and December 1982 in cooperation with the city of Indianapolis, Department of Public Works. Streambed-material and water samples were collected from Finley and Eagle Creeks at various flow rates and were analyzed for selected metals, non-metals, insecticides, and acid-extractable and base-neutral-extractable compounds. Water samples also were analyzed for volatile organics. This report lists all the data collected and analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey during the 1980 and 1982 surveys but does not interpret the data. (Author 's abstract)

  20. The effect of baryons on redshift space distortions and cosmic density and velocity fields in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Frenk, Carlos S.; Theuns, Tom; Schaye, Joop; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.

    2016-09-01

    We use the Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) galaxy formation simulation to study the effects of baryons on the power spectrum of the total matter and dark matter distributions and on the velocity fields of dark matter and galaxies. On scales k ≳ 4 h Mpc-1 the effect of baryons on the amplitude of the total matter power spectrum is greater than 1 per cent. The back-reaction of baryons affects the density field of the dark matter at the level of ˜3 per cent on scales of 1 ≤ k/( h Mpc-1) ≤ 5. The dark matter velocity divergence power spectrum at k ≲ 0.5 h Mpc-1 is changed by less than 1 per cent. The 2D redshift space power spectrum is affected at the level of ˜6 per cent at |k|≳ 1 h Mpc^{-1} (for μ > 0.5), but for |k|≤ 0.4 h Mpc^{-1} it differs by less than 1 per cent. We report vanishingly small baryonic velocity bias for haloes: the peculiar velocities of haloes with M200 > 3 × 1011 M⊙ (hosting galaxies with M* > 109 M⊙) are affected at the level of at most 1 km s-1, which is negligible for 1 per cent-precision cosmology. We caution that since EAGLE overestimates cluster gas fractions it may also underestimate the impact of baryons, particularly for the total matter power spectrum. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that for theoretical modelling of redshift space distortions and galaxy velocity-based statistics, baryons and their back-reaction can be safely ignored at the current level of observational accuracy. However, we confirm that the modelling of the total matter power spectrum in weak lensing studies needs to include realistic galaxy formation physics in order to achieve the accuracy required in the precision cosmology era.

  1. 三星资源公司在加拿大Bald Hill矿区发现新的锑矿化带

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    三星资源公司近日表示,在其位于加拿大新布伦瑞克省的Bald Hill锑矿勘探过程中,发现了新的锑矿化带,看到了该锑矿显著的潜力。该公司称,今年5-6月份在Bald Hill锑矿勘探时,在距离主矿床1000米处发现了一个锑矿化带,含锑品位在9%。

  2. The EAGLE simulations of galaxy formation: Public release of halo and galaxy catalogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, S.; Helly, J. C.; Schaller, M.; Trayford, J. W.; Qu, Y.; Furlong, M.; Bower, R. G.; Crain, R. A.; Schaye, J.; Theuns, T.; Dalla Vecchia, C.; Frenk, C. S.; McCarthy, I. G.; Jenkins, A.; Rosas-Guevara, Y.; White, S. D. M.; Baes, M.; Camps, P.; Lemson, G.

    2016-04-01

    We present the public data release of halo and galaxy catalogues extracted from the EAGLE suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation. These simulations were performed with an enhanced version of the GADGET code that includes a modified hydrodynamics solver, time-step limiter and subgrid treatments of baryonic physics, such as stellar mass loss, element-by-element radiative cooling, star formation and feedback from star formation and black hole accretion. The simulation suite includes runs performed in volumes ranging from 25 to 100 comoving megaparsecs per side, with numerical resolution chosen to marginally resolve the Jeans mass of the gas at the star formation threshold. The free parameters of the subgrid models for feedback are calibrated to the redshift z = 0 galaxy stellar mass function, galaxy sizes and black hole mass-stellar mass relation. The simulations have been shown to match a wide range of observations for present-day and higher-redshift galaxies. The raw particle data have been used to link galaxies across redshifts by creating merger trees. The indexing of the tree produces a simple way to connect a galaxy at one redshift to its progenitors at higher redshift and to identify its descendants at lower redshift. In this paper we present a relational database which we are making available for general use. A large number of properties of haloes and galaxies and their merger trees are stored in the database, including stellar masses, star formation rates, metallicities, photometric measurements and mock gri images. Complex queries can be created to explore the evolution of more than 105 galaxies, examples of which are provided in the Appendix. The relatively good and broad agreement of the simulations with a wide range of observational datasets makes the database an ideal resource for the analysis of model galaxies through time, and for connecting and interpreting observational datasets.

  3. Biotelemetry data for golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) captured in coastal southern California, November 2014–February 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Jeff A.; Madden, Melanie C.; Sebes, Jeremy B.; Bloom, Peter H.; Katzner, Todd E.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2016-04-21

    The status of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in coastal southern California is unclear. To address this knowledge gap, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with local, State, and other Federal agencies began a multi-year survey and tracking program of golden eagles to address questions regarding habitat use, movement behavior, nest occupancy, genetic population structure, and human impacts on eagles. Golden eagle trapping and tracking efforts began in October 2014 and continued until early March 2015. During the first trapping season that focused on San Diego County, we captured 13 golden eagles (8 females and 5 males). During the second trapping season that began in November 2015, we focused on trapping sites in San Diego, Orange, and western Riverside Counties. By February 23, 2016, we captured an additional 14 golden eagles (7 females and 7 males). In this report, biotelemetry data were collected between November 22, 2014, and February 23, 2016. The location data for eagles ranged as far north as San Luis Obispo, California, and as far south as La Paz, Baja California, Mexico.

  4. Operation EAGLE CLAW: Pioneer of Modern Aviation Tactics, Techniques and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    The Iran Hostage Rescue Mission," Air & Space Power Journal- Espanol , Fall 2006. Kyle, James H., and John Robert Edison. The Guts to Try: The Untold...Kamps, "Operation EAGLE CLAW: The Iran Hostage Rescue Mission," Air & Space Power Journal- Espanol , (Fall 2006), 1. 5 Rapid Ground Refueling is the

  5. The genome sequence of a widespread apex predator, the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Doyle

    Full Text Available Biologists routinely use molecular markers to identify conservation units, to quantify genetic connectivity, to estimate population sizes, and to identify targets of selection. Many imperiled eagle populations require such efforts and would benefit from enhanced genomic resources. We sequenced, assembled, and annotated the first eagle genome using DNA from a male golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos captured in western North America. We constructed genomic libraries that were sequenced using Illumina technology and assembled the high-quality data to a depth of ∼40x coverage. The genome assembly includes 2,552 scaffolds >10 Kb and 415 scaffolds >1.2 Mb. We annotated 16,571 genes that are involved in myriad biological processes, including such disparate traits as beak formation and color vision. We also identified repetitive regions spanning 92 Mb (∼6% of the assembly, including LINES, SINES, LTR-RTs and DNA transposons. The mitochondrial genome encompasses 17,332 bp and is ∼91% identical to the Mountain Hawk-Eagle (Nisaetus nipalensis. Finally, the data reveal that several anonymous microsatellites commonly used for population studies are embedded within protein-coding genes and thus may not have evolved in a neutral fashion. Because the genome sequence includes ∼800,000 novel polymorphisms, markers can now be chosen based on their proximity to functional genes involved in migration, carnivory, and other biological processes.

  6. Curriculum Development at Pretty Eagle School: Some Success and Some Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrest, Henry N.

    The curriculum development project at Pretty Eagle School (a private school on the Crow Indian Reservation in southeastern Montana serving 100 students, prekindergarten through grade 8) was started in the fall 1980 with funding acquired from federal and private sources. A comprehensive program of curriculum development and staff development was…

  7. Behavioural ecology, distribution and conservation of the Javan Hawk-eagle Spizaetus bartelsi Stresemann, 1924

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sözer, Resit; Nijman, Vincent

    1995-01-01

    In the period December 1993 – January 1995 research on the behavioural ecology, distribution and conservation of the Javan Hawk-eagle Spizaetus bartelsi was carried out by R. Sözer and V. Nijman, under supervision of BirdLife International / PHPA – Indonesia Programme. This research was part of the

  8. Contrasting feeding strategies among wintering common eiders linked to white-tailed sea eagle predation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merkel, Flemming Ravn; Mosbech, Anders; Sonne, Christian

    activity of the eiders indicated that predation by white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla groenlandicus) was the key to understand the segregation between the fjord habitats and coastal habitats. We found that eiders in the fjords were feeding along the shoreline, but only during twilight...

  9. 76 FR 6114 - Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico, North Fork Eagle Creek Wells Special Use Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Forest Service Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico, North Fork Eagle Creek Wells Special Use... Ruidoso (the applicant) for continued operation of their municipal water supply wells on the North Fork of... portion of their water rights for these wells to locations off of National Forest System land; and...

  10. 77 FR 839 - Pricing for 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coins Agency: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the re-pricing...

  11. 76 FR 33026 - Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of...

  12. 76 FR 53717 - Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the re-pricing...

  13. 77 FR 15457 - Pricing for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of...

  14. 76 FR 67799 - Pricing for the American Eagle 25th Anniversary Silver Coin Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the American Eagle 25th Anniversary Silver Coin Set AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing...

  15. CHARACTERIZATION AND FATE OF PAH-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS AT THE WYCKOFF/EAGLE HARBOR SUPERFUND SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle Harbor is a shallow marine embayment of Bainbridge Island, WA and formerly the site of the Wyckoff wood-treatment facility. The facility became operational in the early 1900s and used large quantities of creosote in its wood-treating processes. Creosote percolated through t...

  16. 75 FR 11937 - Eagle Sportswear, Inc.; New York, NY; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Eagle Sportswear, Inc.; New York, NY; Notice of Termination of... response to a petition filed on December 4, 2009 by a company official on behalf of workers of...

  17. Solving Man-Induced Large-Scale Conservation Problems: The Spanish Imperial Eagle and Power Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Pascual; Ferrer, Miguel; Madero, Agustín; Casado, Eva; McGrady, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Man-induced mortality of birds caused by electrocution with poorly-designed pylons and power lines has been reported to be an important mortality factor that could become a major cause of population decline of one of the world rarest raptors, the Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti). Consequently it has resulted in an increasing awareness of this problem amongst land managers and the public at large, as well as increased research into the distribution of electrocution events and likely mitigation measures. Methodology/Principal Findings We provide information of how mitigation measures implemented on a regional level under the conservation program of the Spanish imperial eagle have resulted in a positive shift of demographic trends in Spain. A 35 years temporal data set (1974–2009) on mortality of Spanish imperial eagle was recorded, including population censuses, and data on electrocution and non-electrocution of birds. Additional information was obtained from 32 radio-tracked young eagles and specific field surveys. Data were divided into two periods, before and after the approval of a regional regulation of power line design in 1990 which established mandatory rules aimed at minimizing or eliminating the negative impacts of power lines facilities on avian populations. Our results show how population size and the average annual percentage of population change have increased between the two periods, whereas the number of electrocuted birds has been reduced in spite of the continuous growing of the wiring network. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that solving bird electrocution is an affordable problem if political interest is shown and financial investment is made. The combination of an adequate spatial planning with a sustainable development of human infrastructures will contribute positively to the conservation of the Spanish imperial eagle and may underpin population growth and range expansion, with positive side effects on other endangered

  18. The Utility of AISA Eagle Hyperspectral Data and Random Forest Classifier for Flower Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfatih M. Abdel-Rahman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the floral cycle and the spatial distribution and abundance of flowering plants is important for bee health studies to understand the relationship between landscape and bee hive productivity and honey flow. The key objective of this study was to show how AISA Eagle hyperspectral data and random forest (RF can be optimally utilized to produce flowering and spatially explicit land use/land cover (LULC maps for a study site in Kenya. AISA Eagle imagery was captured at the early flowering period (January 2014 and at the peak flowering season (February 2013. Data on white and yellow flowering trees as well as LULC classes in the study area were collected and used as ground-truth points. We utilized all 64 AISA Eagle bands and also used variable importance in RF to identify the most important bands in both AISA Eagle data sets. The results showed that flowering was most accurately mapped using the AISA Eagle data from the peak flowering period (85.71%–88.15% overall accuracy for the peak flowering season imagery versus 80.82%–83.67% for the early flowering season. The variable optimization (i.e., variable selection analysis showed that less than half of the AISA bands (n = 26 for the February 2013 data and n = 21 for the January 2014 data were important to attain relatively reliable classification accuracies. Our study is an important first step towards the development of operational flower mapping routines and for understanding the relationship between flowering and bees’ foraging behavior.

  19. Bimodality of low-redshift circumgalactic O VI in non-equilibrium EAGLE zoom simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop; Rahmati, Alireza; Richings, Alexander J.; Trayford, James W.; Tumlinson, Jason; Bower, Richard G.; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a series of 20 cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of L* (M200 = 1011.7-1012.3 M⊙) and group-sized (M200 = 1012.7-1013.3 M⊙) haloes run with the model used for the EAGLE project, which additionally includes a non-equilibrium ionization and cooling module that follows 136 ions. The simulations reproduce the observed correlation, revealed by COS-Halos at z ˜ 0.2, between {O {VI}} column density at impact parameters b 106 K) promotes oxygen to higher ionization states, suppressing the {O {VI}} column density. The observed N_{O {VI}}-sSFR correlation therefore does not imply a causal link, but reflects the changing characteristic ionization state of oxygen as halo mass is increased. In spite of the mass dependence of the oxygen ionization state, the most abundant circumgalactic oxygen ion in both L* and group haloes is {O VII}; {O {VI}} accounts for only 0.1 per cent of the oxygen in group haloes and 0.9-1.3 per cent with L* haloes. Nonetheless, the metals traced by {O {VI}} absorbers represent a fossil record of the feedback history of galaxies over a Hubble time; their characteristic epoch of ejection corresponds to z > 1 and much of the ejected metal mass resides beyond the virial radius of galaxies. For both L* and group galaxies, more of the oxygen produced and released by stars in the circumgalactic medium (within twice the virial radius) than in the stars and interstellar medium of the galaxy.

  20. EAGLE 2006 – Multi-purpose, multi-angle and multi-sensor in-situ and airborne campaigns over grassland and forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Su

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available EAGLE2006 – an intensive field campaign for the advances in land surface hydrometeorological processes – was carried out in the Netherlands from 8th to 18th June 2006, involving 16 institutions with in total 67 people from 16 different countries. In addition to the acquisition of multi-angle and multi-sensor satellite data, several airborne instruments – an optical imaging sensor, an imaging microwave radiometer, and a flux airplane – were deployed and extensive ground measurements were conducted over one grassland site at Cabauw and two forest sites at Loobos and Speulderbos in the central part of the Netherlands. The generated data set is both unique and urgently needed for the development and validation of models and inversion algorithms for quantitative land surface parameter estimation and land surface hydrometeorological process studies. EAGLE2006 was led by the Department of Water Resources of the International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC and originated from the combination of a number of initiatives supported by different funding agencies. The objectives of the EAGLE2006 campaign were closely related to the objectives of other European Space Agency (ESA campaign activities (SPARC2004, SEN2FLEX2005 and especially AGRISAR2006. However, one important objective of the EAGLE2006 campaign is to build up a data base for the investigation and validation of the retrieval of bio-geophysical parameters, obtained at different radar frequencies (X-, C- and L-Band and at hyperspectral optical and thermal bands acquired simultaneously over contrasting vegetated fields (forest and grassland. As such, all activities were related to algorithm development for future satellite missions such as the Sentinels and for validation of retrievals of land surface parameters with optical and thermal and microwave sensors onboard current and future satellite missions. This contribution describes the campaign objectives and

  1. Nine Eagles Lake Boundary (polygon) - Edge of water at lake-surface elevation, 937.0 ft above NAVD 88

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital polygon coverage that defines the shoreline of Nine Eagles Lake in Decatur Co., Iowa. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a...

  2. Fort Niobrara Easement Refuges: Lake Andes, Lake Arconge, Carr, Eagle Creek: May 1, 1942 to August 31, 1942

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report summarizes activities on Lake Andes NWR between May and August of 1942. Lake Arconge Refuge, Carr Refuge, and Eagle Creek Refuge are also...

  3. Age of the youngest volcanism at Eagle Lake, northeastern California—40Ar/39Ar and paleomagnetic results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clynne, Michael A.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Champion, Duane E.; Muffler, L.J.P.; Sawlan, Michael G.; Downs, Drew T.

    2017-03-22

    The age of the youngest volcanism at Eagle Lake, California, was investigated using stratigraphic, paleomagnetic, and 40Ar/39Ar techniques. The three youngest volcanic lava flows at Eagle Lake yielded ages of 130.0±5.1, 127.5±3.2 and 123.6±18.7 ka, and are statistically indistinguishable. Paleomagnetic results demonstrate that two of the lava flows are very closely spaced in time, whereas the third is different by centuries to at most a few millennia. These results indicate that the basalt lava flows at Eagle Lake are not Holocene in age, and were erupted during an episode of volcanism at about 130–125 ka that is unlikely to have spanned more than a few thousand years. Thus, the short-term potential for subsequent volcanism at Eagle Lake is considered low. 

  4. Fort Niobrara Easement Refuges: Lake Andes, Lake Arconge, Carr, Eagle Creek: Narrative report: Sept. to Dec. 1943

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report summarizes activities on Lake Andes, Lake Arconge, Carr, and Eagle Creek Refuges between September and December of 1943. Weather conditions,...

  5. Quantitative and qualitative morphologic, cytochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of blood cells in the Crested Serpent eagle and Shikra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salakij, Chaleow; Kasorndorkbua, Chaiyan; Salakij, Jarernsak; Suwannasaeng, Pimsuda; Jakthong, Pattarapong

    2015-08-01

    The Crested Serpent eagle (Spilornis cheela) is a bird of prey found in the tropical rain forest in Thailand. The Shikra (Accipiter badius) is a sparrow hawk and common resident in Thailand. Blood samples from 9 Crested Serpent eagles and 12 Shikras were obtained from September 2010 to November 2014. They were clinically healthy and negative for blood parasites detectable by light microscopy and molecular techniques (partial cytochrome b gene for avian malaria and partial 18S rRNA gene for trypanosome). Cytochemical staining (Sudan black B, peroxidase, α-naphthyl acetate esterase, and β-glucuronidase) and transmission electron microscopy were performed. Hematological results were reported as the mean ± standard deviation and median. Heterophils were the most prevalent leukocytes in the Crested Serpent eagle, but in the Shikra, lymphocytes were the most prevalent leukocytes. In the Shikra, some vacuoles were observed in the cytoplasm of the eosinophils. All blood cells in both types of raptors stained positively for β-glucuronidase but negatively for peroxidase. The ultrastructure of heterophils showed more clearly differentiate long rod granules in Crested Serpent eagle and spindle-shaped granules in Shikra. The ultrastructure of the eosinophils in the Crested Serpent eagle revealed varied electron-dense, round-shaped granules with round, different electron-dense areas in the centers of some granules, which differed from the structure reported for other raptors. These quantitative results may be useful for clinical evaluations of Crested Serpent eagles and Shikras that are undergoing rehabilitation for release.

  6. Cosmic distribution of highly ionized metals and their physical conditions in the EAGLE simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Rahmati, Alireza; Crain, Robert A; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom

    2015-01-01

    We study the distribution and evolution of highly ionised intergalactic metals in the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environment (EAGLE) cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations. EAGLE has been shown to reproduce a wide range of galaxy properties while its subgrid feedback was calibrated without considering gas properties. We compare the predictions for the column density distribution functions (CDDFs) and cosmic densities of SiIV, CIV, NV, OVI and NeVIII absorbers with observations at redshift z = 0 to ~ 6 and find reasonable agreement, although there are some differences. We show that the typical physical densities of the absorbing gas increase with column density and redshift, but decrease with the ionization energy of the absorbing ion. The typical metallicity increases with both column density and time. The fraction of collisionally ionized metal absorbers increases with time and ionization energy. While our results show little sensitivity to the presence or absence of AGN feedback, increas...

  7. Post-fledging movements of white-tailed eagles: Conservation implications for wind-energy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balotari-Chiebao, Fabio; Villers, Alexandre; Ijäs, Asko; Ovaskainen, Otso; Repka, Sari; Laaksonen, Toni

    2016-11-01

    The presence of poorly sited wind farms raises concerns for wildlife, including birds of prey. Therefore, there is a need to extend the knowledge of the potential human-wildlife conflicts associated with wind energy. Here, we report on the movements and habitat use of post-fledging satellite-tagged white-tailed eagles in Finland, where wind-energy development is expected to increase in the near future. In particular, we examine the probability of a fledgling approaching a hypothetical turbine that is placed at different distances from the nest. We found that this probability is high at short distances but considerably decreases with increasing distances to the nest. A utilisation-availability analysis showed that the coast was the preferred habitat. We argue that avoiding construction between active nests and the shoreline, as well as adopting the currently 2-km buffer zone for turbine deployment, can avoid or minimise potential impacts on post-fledging white-tailed eagles.

  8. Golden Eagle mortality at a utility-scale wind energy facility near Palm Springs, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) mortality associated with wind energy turbines and infrastructure is under-reported and weakly substantiated in the published literature. I report two cases of mortality at a utility-scale renewable energy facility near Palm Springs, California. The facility has been in operation since 1984 and included 460 65KW turbines mounted on 24.4 m or 42.7 m lattice-style towers with 8 m rotor diameters. One mortality event involved a juvenile eagle that was struck and killed by a spinning turbine blade on 31 August, 1995. The tower was 24.4 m high. The other involved an immature female that was struck by a spinning blade on another 24.4 m tower on 17 April, 1997 and was later euthanized due to the extent of internal injuries. Other raptor mortalities incidentally observed at the site, and likely attributable to turbines, included three Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) found near turbines.

  9. Avian pox infection in a free-living crested serpent eagle (Spilornis cheela) in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C C; Pei, K J C; Lee, F R; Tzeng, M P; Chang, T C

    2011-03-01

    Avian pox viruses (APVs) have been reported to cause infection in diverse avian species worldwide. Herein we report the first case of APV infection in a free-living bird, a subadult crested serpent eagle (Spilornis cheela), in Taiwan. In addition to the typical wart-like lesions distributed on the cere, eyelid, and face, there were also yellowish nodules below the tongue and on the hard palate. Phylogenetic analysis of the 4b core protein gene showed that the APV is very close to that found in white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Japan recently. Because both cases are located on the same major flyway for migratory birds, the impact of this virus with regard to the wild and migratory raptor species along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway and West Pacific Flyway requires immediate investigation.

  10. Diet of the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos (Aves: Accipitridae in Sarnena Sredna Gora Mountains (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilian G. Georgiev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The material of pellets and food remains (as bone and shell fragments, hair, and feathers was collected after the breeding season from below and within one nest of Golden Eagles on rocks at Sarnena Sredna Gora Mts., north-east of Stara Zagora town. Our study was carried out during a three year period (1999, 2000 and 2002. Total 65 specimens from minimum 10 species of preys were identified among the food remains from which the reptiles dominated. Mostly preyed by the Golden Eagles couple were the tortoises (Testudo sp. with 55.4% from all registered individual preys. The most common prey from mammals was the hedgehog (Erinaceus roumanicus with 13.8%. Interesting fact was and the relatively high percentage of the cats with 7.7% (possibly most of them domestic ones.

  11. Breeding of the White-Tailed Eagle in the Omsk Region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Yu. Kassal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla in the Omsk region prefers to breed within the Irtysh River floodplain and its tributaries, as well as along Rahtovo lake and large lake systems (Bolshie Krutinskie, Tyukalinskie, Ilyinskie. Its nests are built mainly on silver birch, aspen, Scots and Siberian pines, white willow and poplars, at a height of 6–15 m with zonal.

  12. Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of Styloid Process and Eagle Syndrome in Shiraz: Prevalence, Morphology and Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Mokhtare

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eagle syndrome, which can be a source of craniofacial pain, is caused by elongation of styloid process more than 25 mm. The present study aimed to assess the structural characteristics and prevalence of elongated styloid process (ESP, Eagle syndrome and the related symptoms in the adults aged above 20 years in Shiraz. Methods: In this cross- sectional study, 500 panoramic radiographs were evaluated in regard with styloid process length and morphology. In the presence of any symptoms in patients with ESP, they were clinically evaluated. Those symptoms reproduced by tonsillar fossa palpation were regarded relevant to ESP. Results: The prevalence of ESP was 35.2%, which  was proved not to be sex-dependent. Individuals aged 40-60 years and those with more than 60 years had respectively 1.76 (1.16-2.66, CR: 95% and 2.01 (1.10-3.66, CR: 95% times greater chance for ESP compared to those aged below 40. The most and the least prevalent structural morphologies were continuous calcification and multiple pseudo articulation respectively. Eagle syndrome was observed in 1.8% of the study population. Moreover, headache, dizziness, and foreign body sensation were respectively reported as the most evaluated symptoms. Conclusion: ESP was demonstrated to occur commonly in the study population which can get more prevalent by increasing age. With respect to avoiding unnecessary treatments, clinical examination of patients seem to be essential in order to differentiate Eagle syndrome from other sources with the same complications.

  13. Evidence for Neandertal jewelry: modified white-tailed eagle claws at Krapina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorka Radovčić

    Full Text Available We describe eight, mostly complete white-tailed eagle (Haliaëtus [Haliaeetus] albicilla talons from the Krapina Neandertal site in present-day Croatia, dating to approximately 130 kyrs ago. Four talons bear multiple, edge-smoothed cut marks; eight show polishing facets and/or abrasion. Three of the largest talons have small notches at roughly the same place along the plantar surface, interrupting the proximal margin of the talon blade. These features suggest they were part of a jewelry assemblage, --- the manipulations a consequence of mounting the talons in a necklace or bracelet. An associated phalanx articulates with one of the talons and has numerous cut marks, some of which are smoothed. These white-tailed eagle bones, discovered more than 100 years ago, all derive from a single level at Krapina and represent more talons than found in the entire European Mousterian period. Presence of eight talons indicates that the Krapina Neandertals acquired and curated eagle talons for some kind of symbolic purpose. Some have argued that Neandertals lacked symbolic ability or copied this behavior from modern humans. These remains clearly show that the Krapina Neandertals made jewelry well before the appearance of modern humans in Europe, extending ornament production and symbolic activity early into the European Mousterian.

  14. Evidence for Neandertal jewelry: modified white-tailed eagle claws at Krapina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovčić, Davorka; Sršen, Ankica Oros; Radovčić, Jakov; Frayer, David W

    2015-01-01

    We describe eight, mostly complete white-tailed eagle (Haliaëtus [Haliaeetus] albicilla) talons from the Krapina Neandertal site in present-day Croatia, dating to approximately 130 kyrs ago. Four talons bear multiple, edge-smoothed cut marks; eight show polishing facets and/or abrasion. Three of the largest talons have small notches at roughly the same place along the plantar surface, interrupting the proximal margin of the talon blade. These features suggest they were part of a jewelry assemblage, --- the manipulations a consequence of mounting the talons in a necklace or bracelet. An associated phalanx articulates with one of the talons and has numerous cut marks, some of which are smoothed. These white-tailed eagle bones, discovered more than 100 years ago, all derive from a single level at Krapina and represent more talons than found in the entire European Mousterian period. Presence of eight talons indicates that the Krapina Neandertals acquired and curated eagle talons for some kind of symbolic purpose. Some have argued that Neandertals lacked symbolic ability or copied this behavior from modern humans. These remains clearly show that the Krapina Neandertals made jewelry well before the appearance of modern humans in Europe, extending ornament production and symbolic activity early into the European Mousterian.

  15. Linking density, productivity and trends of an endangered species: The Bonelli's eagle in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascal, Luis M.; Seoane, Javier

    2009-05-01

    Whether regional population density is a good indicator of environmental quality according to demographic variables such as breeding success or short-term population trends is controversial. In this paper we analyze the interrelationships among regional population density, breeding success and recent population trends of an endangered species, Bonelli's eagle in the Iberian Peninsula. We also analyze the different influence of geographical, climatic, landscape structure and human impact variables on regional variation in those demographic variables. Breeding success was higher and population decrease was lower in those areas where the population density of Bonelli's eagle was greater. Breeding success, density and recent population trends of Bonelli's eagle were tightly related, increasing from northern to southern Iberian Peninsula (with highest figures at intermediate latitudes), and as sun radiation increased, and altitude decreased. Breeding success and population density were significantly lower in the periphery of the distribution range than in core areas in the Iberian Peninsula. Population trends between 2000 and 2005 were also more negative (decreasing) in the periphery. Overall, these results suggest that population density in this endangered species of large home-range is a good indicator of environmental quality and reproductive output, and that peripheral populations occupy low-suitability areas with lower breeding success, where negative short-term population trends are more likely.

  16. Baryon effects on the internal structure of ΛCDM haloes in the EAGLE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Matthieu; Frenk, Carlos S.; Bower, Richard G.; Theuns, Tom; Jenkins, Adrian; Schaye, Joop; Crain, Robert A.; Furlong, Michelle; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; McCarthy, I. G.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the internal structure and density profiles of haloes of mass 1010-1014 M⊙ in the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environment (EAGLE) simulations. These follow the formation of galaxies in a Λ cold dark matter Universe and include a treatment of the baryon physics thought to be relevant. The EAGLE simulations reproduce the observed present-day galaxy stellar mass function, as well as many other properties of the galaxy population as a function of time. We find significant differences between the masses of haloes in the EAGLE simulations and in simulations that follow only the dark matter component. Nevertheless, haloes are well described by the Navarro-Frenk-White density profile at radii larger than ˜5 per cent of the virial radius but, closer to the centre, the presence of stars can produce cuspier profiles. Central enhancements in the total mass profile are most important in haloes of mass 1012-1013 M⊙, where the stellar fraction peaks. Over the radial range where they are well resolved, the resulting galaxy rotation curves are in very good agreement with observational data for galaxies with stellar mass M* < 5 × 1010 M⊙. We present an empirical fitting function that describes the total mass profiles and show that its parameters are strongly correlated with halo mass.

  17. The White-Bellied Sea Eagle at Kepulauan Seribu National Park, Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Gunawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the remaining habitats of The White-Bellied Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus leucogaster in Java is The National Marine Park of Kepulauan Seribu (TNKpS. Administratively, the park includes Regency of Seribu Islands (Kepulauan Seribu, Jakarta Province. The area is 107,489 hectares, and geographically lies on 05º23’ – 05º40’ S and 106º25’ – 106º37’ E. The area is among 78 islands of 110 islands spreading from the north to the south which forms a group of island with similar morphology and oceanography. For field survey we use direct observation method, semi structured interview with local people. Finding of nests on 7 islands and data compilation of entering eagle to the rehabilitation center in Kepulauan Seribu in Kotok Besar island. Based on our survey result, the population of White-Bellied Sea Eagle in Kepulauan Seribu National park was estimated on 28–32 individual. Study on home range was conducted intensively by using polygon method on breeding pair of this species at Yu Island. Based on current results, the home range of this species was estimated on 13.9 km2.

  18. Geochemistry of Eagle Ford group source rocks and oils from the first shot field area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Janell D.; Pitman, Janet K.; Hammes, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Total organic carbon, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and vitrinite reflectance analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group core and cuttings samples from the First Shot field area, Texas demonstrate these samples have sufficient quantity, quality, and maturity of organic matter to have generated oil. Furthermore, gas chromatography and biomarker analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group oils and source rock extracts as well as weight percent sulfur analyses on the oils indicate the source rock facies for most of the oils are fairly similar. Specifically, these source rock facies vary in lithology from shales to marls, contain elevated levels of sulfur, and were deposited in a marine environment under anoxic conditions. It is these First Shot Eagle Ford source facies that have generated the oils in the First Shot Field. However, in contrast to the generally similar source rock facies and organic matter, maturity varies from early oil window to late oil window in the study area, and these maturity variations have a pronounced effect on both the source rock and oil characteristics. Finally, most of the oils appear to have been generated locally and have not experienced long distance migration. 

  19. Laying the foundations for a human-predator conflict solution: assessing the impact of Bonelli's eagle on rabbits and partridges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Moleón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Predation may potentially lead to negative effects on both prey (directly via predators and predators (indirectly via human persecution. Predation pressure studies are, therefore, of major interest in the fields of theoretical knowledge and conservation of prey or predator species, with wide ramifications and profound implications in human-wildlife conflicts. However, detailed works on this issue in highly valuable--in conservation terms--Mediterranean ecosystems are virtually absent. This paper explores the predator-hunting conflict by examining a paradigmatic, Mediterranean-wide (endangered predator-two prey (small game system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We estimated the predation impact ('kill rate' and 'predation rate', i.e., number of prey and proportion of the prey population eaten, respectively of Bonelli's eagle Aquila fasciata on rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus and red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa populations in two seasons (the eagle's breeding and non-breeding periods, 100 days each in SE Spain. The mean estimated kill rate by the seven eagle reproductive units in the study area was c. 304 rabbits and c. 262 partridges in the breeding season, and c. 237 rabbits and c. 121 partridges in the non-breeding period. This resulted in very low predation rates (range: 0.3-2.5% for both prey and seasons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The potential role of Bonelli's eagles as a limiting factor for rabbits and partridges at the population scale was very poor. The conflict between game profitability and conservation interest of either prey or predators is apparently very localised, and eagles, quarry species and game interests seem compatible in most of the study area. Currently, both the persecution and negative perception of Bonelli's eagle (the 'partridge-eating eagle' in Spanish have a null theoretical basis in most of this area.

  20. Abundance of Harpy and Crested Eagles from a reservoir-impact area in the Low- and Mid-Xingu River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TM. Sanaiotti

    Full Text Available Abstract In the Brazilian Amazon, two monospecific genera, the Harpy Eagle and Crested Eagle have low densities and are classified by IUCN as Near Threatened due to habitat loss, deforestation, habitat degradation and hunting. In this study, we evaluate occurrence of these large raptors using the environmental surveys database from Belo Monte Hydroelectric Power Plant. Integrating the dataset from two methods, we plotted a distribution map along the Xingu River, including records over a 276-km stretch of river. Terrestrial surveys (RAPELD method were more efficient for detecting large raptors than standardized aquatic surveys, although the latter were complementary in areas without modules. About 53% of the records were obtained during activities of wildlife rescue/flushing, vegetation suppression or in transit. Between 2012 and 2014, four Harpy Eagles were removed from the wild; two shooting victims, one injured by collision with power lines and one hit by a vehicle. Also, seven nests were mapped. The mean distance between Harpy Eagle records was 15 km along the river channel, with a mean of 20 km between nests near the channel, which allowed us to estimate 20 possible pairs using the alluvial forest, riverine forest and forest fragments. Territories of another ten pairs will probably be affected by inundation of the Volta Grande channel, which is far from the main river. The average distance between Crested Eagle records was 16 km along the river channel. The only nest found was 1.3 km away from a Harpy Eagle nest. The remnant forests are under threat of being replaced by cattle pastures, so we recommend that permanently protected riparian vegetation borders (APP be guaranteed, and that forest fragments within 5 km of the river be conserved to maintain eagle populations.

  1. 关于西夏秃发令及发式问题%On the Rules of Baldness in Xixia and Hair Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景永时

    2013-01-01

    根据文献资料和考古资料,对西夏秃发令颁布的时间、执行的期限、流行的范围以及发式等问题进行了逐一探讨,认为元昊下秃发令的时间只能是其继位至景祐元年十月之间,而且秃发现象遍及西夏全境。不过秃发令实行的时间并不太长,很可能在元昊死后不久,就不再为人们所遵从。至于发式则是模仿了契丹族的发式,并非是模仿或恢复鲜卑发式。%In this article , the author , based on literature and archaeology data , probed into the delivering date ,imple-mentation period , the epidemic range and hair styles of bald policy of Xixia .The conclusion is , Yuanhao ’ s order of bald hair was executed during his succession around the Xixia empire .Shortly after his death , the policy of bald hair was can-celed soon after his death , and no one followed suit .The hair style was not the imitation of Xianbei ethnic group , but the the Qidan.

  2. Genetic structure and viability selection in the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), a vagile raptor with a Holarctic distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Jacqueline M.; Katzner, Todd Eli; Roemer, Gary; Cain, James W.; Millsap, Brian; McIntyre, Carol; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Fernandez, Nadia B.; Wheeler, Maria; Bulut, Zafer; Bloom, Peter; DeWoody, J. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Molecular markers can reveal interesting aspects of organismal ecology and evolution, especially when surveyed in rare or elusive species. Herein, we provide a preliminary assessment of golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) population structure in North America using novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). These SNPs included one molecular sexing marker, two mitochondrial markers, 85 putatively neutral markers that were derived from noncoding regions within large intergenic intervals, and 74 putatively nonneutral markers found in or very near protein-coding genes. We genotyped 523 eagle samples at these 162 SNPs and quantified genotyping error rates and variability at each marker. Our samples corresponded to 344 individual golden eagles as assessed by unique multilocus genotypes. Observed heterozygosity of known adults was significantly higher than of chicks, as was the number of heterozygous loci, indicating that mean zygosity measured across all 159 autosomal markers was an indicator of fitness as it is associated with eagle survival to adulthood. Finally, we used chick samples of known provenance to test for population differentiation across portions of North America and found pronounced structure among geographic sampling sites. These data indicate that cryptic genetic population structure is likely widespread in the golden eagle gene pool, and that extensive field sampling and genotyping will be required to more clearly delineate management units within North America and elsewhere.

  3. Home in the heat: dramatic seasonal variation in home range of desert golden eagles informs management for renewable energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braham, Melissa; Miller, Tricia A.; Duerr, Adam E.; Lanzone, Michael; Fesnock, Amy; LaPre, Larry; Driscoll, Daniel; Katzner, Todd Eli

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy is expanding quickly with sometimes dramatic impacts to species and ecosystems. To understand the degree to which sensitive species may be impacted by renewable energy projects, it is informative to know how much space individuals use and how that space may overlap with planned development. We used global positioning system–global system for mobile communications (GPS-GSM) telemetry to measure year-round movements of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from the Mojave Desert of California, USA. We estimated monthly space use with adaptive local convex hulls to identify the temporal and spatial scales at which eagles may encounter renewable energy projects in the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan area. Mean size of home ranges was lowest and least variable from November through January and greatest in February–March and May–August. These monthly home range patterns coincided with seasonal variation in breeding ecology, habitat associations, and temperature. The expanded home ranges in hot summer months included movements to cooler, prey-dense, mountainous areas characterized by forest, grasslands, and scrublands. Breeding-season home ranges (October–May) included more lowland semi-desert and rock vegetation. Overlap of eagle home ranges and focus areas for renewable energy development was greatest when eagle home ranges were smallest, during the breeding season. Golden eagles in the Mojave Desert used more space and a wider range of habitat types than expected and renewable energy projects could affect a larger section of the regional population than was previously thought.

  4. Environmental contaminants in freshwater fish and their risk to piscivorous wildlife based on a national monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, J.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Chojnacki, K.A.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorine chemical residues and elemental concentrations were measured in piscivorous and benthivorous fish at 111 sites from large U.S. river basins. Potential contaminant sources such as urban and agricultural runoff, industrial discharges, mine drainage, and irrigation varied among the sampling sites. Our objectives were to provide summary statistics for chemical contaminants and to determine if contaminant concentrations in the fish were a risk to wildlife that forage at these sites. Concentrations of dieldrin, total DDT, total PCBs, toxaphene, TCDD-EQ, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium, and zinc exceeded toxicity thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife in samples from at least one site; most exceedences were for total PCBs, mercury, and zinc. Chemical concentrations in fish from the Mississippi River Basin exceeded the greatest number of toxicity thresholds. Screening level wildlife risk analysis models were developed for bald eagle and mink using no adverse effect levels (NOAELs), which were derived from adult dietary exposure or tissue concentration studies and based primarily on reproductive endpoints. No effect hazard concentrations (NEHC) were calculated by comparing the NOAEL to the food ingestion rate (dietary-based NOAEL) or biomagnification factor (tissue-based NOAEL) of each receptor. Piscivorous wildlife may be at risk from a contaminant if the measured concentration in fish exceeds the NEHC. Concentrations of most organochlorine residues and elemental contaminants represented no to low risk to bald eagle and mink at most sites. The risk associated with pentachloroanisole, aldrin, Dacthal, methoxychlor, mirex, and toxaphene was unknown because NOAELs for these contaminants were not available for bald eagle or mink. Risk differed among modeled species and sites. Our screening level analysis indicates that the greatest risk to piscivorous wildlife was from total DDT, total PCBs, TCDD-EQ, mercury, and selenium. Bald eagles

  5. Observations of metals in the $z\\approx3.5$ intergalactic medium and comparison to the EAGLE simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Monica L; Crain, Robert A; Theuns, Tom; Wendt, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We study the $z\\approx3.5$ intergalactic medium (IGM) by comparing new, very high-quality absorption spectra of eight QSOs with $\\langle z_{\\rm QSO} \\rangle=3.75$, to virtual observations of the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. We employ the pixel optical depth method to study how the absorption of one ion varies as a function of another, and uncover strong correlations between various combinations of HI, CIII, CIV, SiIII, SiIV, and OVI. We find good agreement between the simulated and observed median optical depth relations of OVI(HI), CIII(CIV) and SiIII(SiIV). However, the observed median optical depths for the CIV(HI) and SiIV(HI) relations are higher than those measured from the mock spectra. The discrepancy increases from up to $\\approx0.1$ dex at $\\tau_{\\rm HI}=1$ to $\\approx1$ dex at $\\tau_{\\rm HI}=10^2$, where we are likely probing dense regions at small galactocentric distances. To try to uncover the origin of this discrepancy, we invoke (a) different models for the ionizing background...

  6. Alongamento do processo estilóide (síndrome de Eagle: relato de dois casos Elongated styloid process (Eagle syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Domingues de Sá

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O alongamento do processo estilóide, ou síndrome de Eagle, representa uma afecção multifatorial com características inespecíficas na análise do quadro clínico e no estudo por imagem. A utilização dos métodos de imagem, em associação aos sinais e sintomas, é de grande utilidade na confirmação diagnóstica, mostrando a extensão do complexo estilóide, os músculos e ligamentos que o compõem e as estruturas adjacentes. O diagnóstico é firmado quando se tem a associação das informações clínicas com os exames de imagem. Os autores descrevem dois casos de alongamento do processo estilóide e seus aspectos de imagem, principalmente por meio da tomografia computadorizada.Elongated styloid process or Eagle's syndrome is a multifactorial disease with unspecific characteristics on clinical and imaging examinations. The use of imaging methods in combination with the signs and symptoms are valuable in the confirmation of the diagnosis since they show the extension of the styloid complex, the muscles and ligaments, and adjacent structures. The diagnosis can be established when there is an association of clinical information and imaging findings. The authors report two cases of elongated styloid process including the imaging findings, mainly obtained using computed tomography.

  7. Scalp expanding in the treatment of large cicatricial baldness%头皮扩张术治疗大面积瘢痕性秃发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张博; 胥学冰; 宋振涛; 王家贵; 王立军; 张桂全

    2012-01-01

    目的:总结扩张术治疗大面积瘢痕性秃发的临床经验.方法:自2005年1月~2010年12月,应用皮肤软组织扩张术治疗因火焰烧伤、化学烧伤、撕脱伤愈合后遗留的大面积瘢痕性秃发,共18例.根据秃发及正常头皮的面积选择扩张器大小,将扩张器置入帽状腱膜下,放置引流管,3天后开始向扩张囊注液,注液总量据瘢痕秃发面积而定,一般修复1cm头皮,需要注水4.0 ~ 4.5ml.行扩张器取出、瘢痕秃发切除、头皮皮瓣转移术.结果:临床治疗18例大面积瘢痕性秃发病人,均取得满意效果.结论:皮肤软组织扩张术是修复大面积瘢痕性秃发的理想方法.%Objective To summary the experience in clinical application of scalp expanding technique for treatment of large cicatricial baldness. Methods From January 2005 to December 2010,18 patients with large cicatricial baldness were admitted to our department for treatment. The causes were burns, chemical or avulsion.Right choice of expanders depend on baldness and normal scalp area.ln the first stage,a tissue expander was inplanted into the subgaleal. After a sufficient skin expansion was made by the routine water affusion, cicatricial baldness resection and the expanded scalp fiap graft was operated. Results All the 18 cases were treated with a satisfactory therapeutic result. Conclusion Skin soft tissue expansion is an ideal method to repair cicatricia! baldness with large area.

  8. Hematocrit and plasma chemistry values in adult collared scops owls (Otus lettia) and crested serpent eagles (Spilornis cheela hoya).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Fang-Tse; Lin, Pei-I; Chang, Geng-Ruei; Wang, Hsien-Chi; Hsu, Tien-Huan

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we report hematocrit and plasma chemistry values for adult captive collared scops owls (Otus lettia) and crested serpent eagles (Spilornis cheela hoya). In particular, we address the gender-specific differences within these values. We measured hematocrit (HCT) and plasma chemistry values for uric acid (UA), plasma urea nitrogen (BUN), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), glucose (GLU), cholesterol (CHO), triglyceride (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TBIL), creatine (CRE), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), amylase (AMY), calcium (CA), ionic phosphorous (IP) and sodium (NA), potassium (K) and chloride ions (CL) in 37 adult captive collared scops owls and 39 adult captive crested serpent eagles. Significant differences between the sexes were found for UA, GLU and CPK in the collared scope owls. UA and GLU concentrations were significantly higher (Pscops owls and crested serpent eagles, making them a potentially useful complementary diagnostic tool for veterinary care of individuals for both species in captivity.

  9. BUY NOW! BUY HERE!: THE RISE AND FALL OF THE PATRIOTIC BLUE EAGLE EMBLEM, 1933—1 935

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Taylor

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Blue Eagle emblem was created by the Roosevelt Administration in July of 1933 to give firms an incentive to comply with the provisions of the National Industrial Recovery Act. Members of the Administration, including Roosevelt himself encouraged consumers to go on a nationwide shopping spree at Blue Eagle firms and to essentially boycott non-complying firms who were not allowed to display the emblem. While the Blue Eagle has received little attention from economists, most historical accounts of the New Deal, at minimum, make reference to the emblem’s attempt to modify economic behavior. This paper outlines the rise and fall of the emblem as an economic tool. It concludes that the emblem initially had economic meaning, but this began to fade in the late fall of 1933 and the emblem became largely meaningless by the spring of 1934. This conclusion is supported by an analysis of the emblem's presence in newspaper advertisements between 1933 and 1935.

  10. Influence of boat noises on escape behaviour of white-spotted eagle ray Aetobatus ocellatus at Moorea Island (French Polynesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthe, Cecile; Lecchini, David

    2016-02-01

    The present study tested different sounds that could disturb eagle rays (Aetobatus ocellatus) during their foraging activities at Moorea, French Polynesia. Results showed that artificial white sound and single-frequency tones (40 Hz, 600 Hz or 1 kHz) did not have an effect on rays (at least 90% of rays continued to forage over sand), while playbacks of boat motor sound significantly disturbed rays during foraging activity (60% exhibited an escape behaviour). Overall, our study highlighted the negative effect of boat noises on the foraging activity of eagle rays. These noises produced by boat traffic could, however, have some positive effects for marine aquaculture if they could be used as a deterrent to repel the eagle rays, main predators of the pearl oysters.

  11. Laying the Foundations for a Human-Predator Conflict Solution: Assessing the Impact of Bonelli's Eagle on Rabbits and Partridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleón, Marcos; Sánchez-Zapata, José A.; Gil-Sánchez, José M.; Barea-Azcón, José M.; Ballesteros-Duperón, Elena; Virgós, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Background Predation may potentially lead to negative effects on both prey (directly via predators) and predators (indirectly via human persecution). Predation pressure studies are, therefore, of major interest in the fields of theoretical knowledge and conservation of prey or predator species, with wide ramifications and profound implications in human-wildlife conflicts. However, detailed works on this issue in highly valuable –in conservation terms– Mediterranean ecosystems are virtually absent. This paper explores the predator-hunting conflict by examining a paradigmatic, Mediterranean-wide (endangered) predator-two prey (small game) system. Methodology/Principal Findings We estimated the predation impact (‘kill rate’ and ‘predation rate’, i.e., number of prey and proportion of the prey population eaten, respectively) of Bonelli's eagle Aquila fasciata on rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus and red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa populations in two seasons (the eagle's breeding and non-breeding periods, 100 days each) in SE Spain. The mean estimated kill rate by the seven eagle reproductive units in the study area was c. 304 rabbits and c. 262 partridges in the breeding season, and c. 237 rabbits and c. 121 partridges in the non-breeding period. This resulted in very low predation rates (range: 0.3–2.5%) for both prey and seasons. Conclusions/Significance The potential role of Bonelli's eagles as a limiting factor for rabbits and partridges at the population scale was very poor. The conflict between game profitability and conservation interest of either prey or predators is apparently very localised, and eagles, quarry species and game interests seem compatible in most of the study area. Currently, both the persecution and negative perception of Bonelli's eagle (the ‘partridge-eating eagle’ in Spanish) have a null theoretical basis in most of this area. PMID:21818399

  12. Operation Noble Eagle and the Use of Combat Air Patrols for Homeland Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    hit the north tower of the World Trade Center ( WTC ).66 The Otis AFB, Eagles were in the air by 08:53 and inbound to New York City when United...Airlines Flight 175 hit the south tower of the WTC at 09:03:11.67 Cape Cod, MA is approximately 200 miles from New York City and Hampton, VA is about... destruction of the aircraft and the death of everyone on board, an undoubted calamity by any standard, but not the sort of event that could be

  13. Heterotopic Ossification Secondary to Gunshot and Fragment Wounds in a Golden Eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javdani, Moosa; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Nikousefat, Zahra

    2016-03-01

    Heterotopic ossification is the process of pathologic bone formation in soft tissue structures that usually do not form bone. An immature golden eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos ) was examined 2 months after a gunshot wound in the right wing. A solid oval mass with a gun pellet at its core was found attached to the ulna by a bony pedicle and was surgically excised. Heterotopic ossification secondary to gunshot and fragment wounds in the right ulna was diagnosed based on clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic findings. This report is the first to describe heterotopic ossification occurring around a gun pellet in a bird.

  14. PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RIBOFLAVIN BINDING PROTEIN FROM THE EGG WHITE OF EAGLE (AQUILA HASTATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhkar Rao Kudle et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Riboflavin binding protein (RfBP was isolated from the eggs of Aquila hastate (eagle. The protein was purified in two steps, DEAE – Sepharose ion exchange chromatography and gelfilteration on Sephadex G-100. The holoprotein had an absorption spectrum characteristic of flavoproteins. The purity of the protein was judged by SDS-PAGE technique. A single band on the slab and cylindrical gel revealed that the protein was pure comparison of the mobility of RfBP with that of the standard molecular weight marker proteins suggested that RfBP from the egg white of Aquila hastate had a molecular weight close to 29 Kd.

  15. Groundwater Quality, Age, and Probability of Contamination, Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    The Eagle River watershed is located near the destination resort town of Vail, Colorado. The area has a fastgrowing permanent population, and the resort industry is rapidly expanding. A large percentage of the land undergoing development to support that growth overlies the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer (ERWVFA), which likely has a high predisposition to groundwater contamination. As development continues, local organizations need tools to evaluate potential land-development effects on ground- and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. To help develop these tools, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, conducted a study in 2006-2007 of the groundwater quality, age, and probability of contamination in the ERWVFA, north-central Colorado. Ground- and surface-water quality samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, tritium, dissolved gases, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) determined with very low-level laboratory methods. The major-ion data indicate that groundwaters in the ERWVFA can be classified into two major groups: groundwater that was recharged by infiltration of surface water, and groundwater that had less immediate recharge from surface water and had elevated sulfate concentrations. Sulfate concentrations exceeded the USEPA National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations (250 milligrams per liter) in many wells near Eagle, Gypsum, and Dotsero. The predominant source of sulfate to groundwater in the Eagle River watershed is the Eagle Valley Evaporite, which is a gypsum deposit of Pennsylvanian age located predominantly in the western one-half of Eagle County.

  16. Water and streambed-material data, Eagle Creek watershed, Indiana, August 1980 and October and December 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangsness, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Water quality studies within the Eagle Creek watershed, Indiana, were done by the US Geological Survey in august 1980, October 1982, and December 1982 in cooperation with the city of Indianapolis, Department of Public Works. Streambed-material and water samples were collected from Finley and Eagle Creeks at various flow rates and were analyzed for volatile organics. This report lists all the data collected and analyzed by the US Geological Survey during the 1980 and 1982 surveys but does not interpret the data. 4 refs., 2 figs. 19 tabs.

  17. Meta-analysis identifies novel risk loci and yields systematic insights into the biology of male-pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann-Heimbach, Stefanie; Herold, Christine; Hochfeld, Lara M.; Hillmer, Axel M.; Nyholt, Dale R.; Hecker, Julian; Javed, Asif; Chew, Elaine G. Y.; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Drichel, Dmitriy; Heng, Xiu Ting; del Rosario, Ricardo C. -H.; Fier, Heide L.; Paus, Ralf; Rueedi, Rico; Galesloot, Tessel E.; Moebus, Susanne; Anhalt, Thomas; Prabhakar, Shyam; Li, Rui; Kanoni, Stavroula; Papanikolaou, George; Kutalik, Zoltán; Deloukas, Panos; Philpott, Michael P.; Waeber, Gérard; Spector, Tim D.; Vollenweider, Peter; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M.; Dedoussis, George; Richards, J. Brent; Nothnagel, Michael; Martin, Nicholas G.; Becker, Tim; Hinds, David A.; Nöthen, Markus M.

    2017-01-01

    Male-pattern baldness (MPB) is a common and highly heritable trait characterized by androgen-dependent, progressive hair loss from the scalp. Here, we carry out the largest GWAS meta-analysis of MPB to date, comprising 10,846 early-onset cases and 11,672 controls from eight independent cohorts. We identify 63 MPB-associated loci (P<5 × 10−8, METAL) of which 23 have not been reported previously. The 63 loci explain ∼39% of the phenotypic variance in MPB and highlight several plausible candidate genes (FGF5, IRF4, DKK2) and pathways (melatonin signalling, adipogenesis) that are likely to be implicated in the key-pathophysiological features of MPB and may represent promising targets for the development of novel therapeutic options. The data provide molecular evidence that rather than being an isolated trait, MPB shares a substantial biological basis with numerous other human phenotypes and may deserve evaluation as an early prognostic marker, for example, for prostate cancer, sudden cardiac arrest and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:28272467

  18. Commercial tree species discrimination using airborne AISA Eagle hyperspectral imagery and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peerbhay, Kabir Yunus; Mutanga, Onisimo; Ismail, Riyad

    2013-05-01

    Discriminating commercial tree species using hyperspectral remote sensing techniques is critical in monitoring the spatial distributions and compositions of commercial forests. However, issues related to data dimensionality and multicollinearity limit the successful application of the technology. The aim of this study was to examine the utility of the partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) technique in accurately classifying six exotic commercial forest species (Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus smithii, Pinus patula, Pinus elliotii and Acacia mearnsii) using airborne AISA Eagle hyperspectral imagery (393-900 nm). Additionally, the variable importance in the projection (VIP) method was used to identify subsets of bands that could successfully discriminate the forest species. Results indicated that the PLS-DA model that used all the AISA Eagle bands (n = 230) produced an overall accuracy of 80.61% and a kappa value of 0.77, with user's and producer's accuracies ranging from 50% to 100%. In comparison, incorporating the optimal subset of VIP selected wavebands (n = 78) in the PLS-DA model resulted in an improved overall accuracy of 88.78% and a kappa value of 0.87, with user's and producer's accuracies ranging from 70% to 100%. Bands located predominantly within the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum (393-723 nm) showed the most capability in terms of discriminating between the six commercial forest species. Overall, the research has demonstrated the potential of using PLS-DA for reducing the dimensionality of hyperspectral datasets as well as determining the optimal subset of bands to produce the highest classification accuracies.

  19. Baseflow recession analysis across the Eagle Ford shale play (Texas, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega, Saul; Brena-Naranjo, Agustin; Hernandez-Espriu, Jose Antonio; Pedrozo-Acuña, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Baseflow is an important process of the hydrological cycle as it can be related to aquatic ecosystem health and groundwater recharge. The temporal and spatial dynamics of baseflow are typically governed by fluctuations in the water table of shallow aquifers hence groundwater pumping and return flow can greatly modify baseflow patterns. More recently, in some regions of the world the exploitation of gas trapped in shale formations by means of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) has raised major concerns on the quantitative and qualitative groundwater impacts. Although fracking implies massive amounts of groundwater withdrawals, its contribution on baseflow decline has not yet been fully investigated. Furthermore, its impact with respect to other human activities or climate extremes such as irrigation or extreme droughts, respectively, remain largely unknown. This work analyzes baseflow recession time-space patterns for a set of watersheds located across the largest shale producer in the world, the Eagle Ford shale play in Texas (USA). The period of study (1985-2014) includes a pre-development and post-development period. The dataset includes 56 hydrometric time series located inside and outside the shale play. Results show that during the development and expansion of the Eagle Ford play, around 70 % of the time series displayed a significant decline wheras no decline was observed during the pre-development)

  20. Breeding Status and Population Trends of Golden Eagles in Northeastern Québec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior A. Tremblay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In North America, it is hypothesized that the Golden Eagle's (Aquila chrysaetos eastern population declined during the period 1946-1973 because of organochlorine pesticides and other anthropogenic causes of mortality. Since 1970, upward trends for the species have been observed at most eastern hawkwatches. To determine whether such positive trends can be observed on breeding grounds, Golden Eagle counts were performed to monitor nesting territory occupancy between 1994 and 2007 in the Moisie and Sainte-Marguerite River valleys, northeastern Québec. Aerial surveys were conducted during seven of the 14 years. During this period, the number of known nesting territories in the study area increased from 10 to 20, while the number of pairs rose from six to 14. The increase is attributed mostly to investigators' improved experience in finding nests and to their greater familiarity with the study area, and possibly to the growth of the regional population. Occupancy of nesting territories by pairs was very stable over the years. Annual mean % of laying pairs (or laying rate was 48.0 (SD = 19.9, and productivity (mean number of fledglings per pair was 0.49 (SD = 0.35.

  1. Assessment of lead exposure in Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) from spent ammunition in central Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Hofle, Ursula; Mateo, Rafael; de Francisco, Olga Nicolas; Abbott, Rachel; Acevedo, Pelayo; Blanco, Juan-Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) is found only in the Iberian Peninsula and is considered one of the most threatened birds of prey in Europe. Here we analyze lead concentrations in bones (n = 84), livers (n = 15), primary feathers (n = 69), secondary feathers (n = 71) and blood feathers (n = 14) of 85 individuals collected between 1997 and 2008 in central Spain. Three birds (3.6%) had bone lead concentration > 20 (mu or u)g/g and all livers were within background lead concentration. Bone lead concentrations increased with the age of the birds and were correlated with lead concentration in rachis of secondary feathers. Spatial aggregation of elevated bone lead concentration was found in some areas of Montes de Toledo. Lead concentrations in feathers were positively associated with the density of large game animals in the area where birds were found dead or injured. Discontinuous lead exposure in eagles was evidenced by differences in lead concentration in longitudinal portions of the rachis of feathers.

  2. Where eagles nest, the wind also blows: consolidating habitat and energy needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, J.; Wilson, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Energy development is rapidly escalating in resource-rich Wyoming, and with it the risks posed to raptor populations. These risks are of increasing concern to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which is responsible for protecting the persistence of protected species, including raptors. In support of a Federal mandate to protect trust species and the wind energy industry’s need to find suitable sites on which to build wind farms, scientists at the USGS Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) and their partners are conducting research to help reduce impacts to raptor species from wind energy operations. Potential impacts include collision with the turbine blades and habitat disruption and disturbance from construction and operations. This feature describes a science-based tool—a quantitative predictive model—being developed and tested by FORT scientists to potentially avoid or reduce such impacts. This tool will provide industry and resource managers with the biological basis for decisions related to sustainably siting wind turbines in a way that also conserves important habitats for nesting golden eagles. Because of the availability of comprehensive data on nesting sites, golden eagles in Wyoming are the prototype species (and location) for the first phase of this investigation.

  3. Heptachlor seed treatment contaminates hawks, owls, and eagles of Columbia Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Blus, L.J.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    We evaluated organochlorine residues in 12 species of hawks. owls, and eagles from the Columbia Basin of Oregon between 1978 and 1981. Companion studies showed that heptachlor epoxide (HE) induced adult mortality and reduced productivity of the Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) and American Kestrel (Falco sparverius).ln this study, brain tissue from raptors found dead and sample eggs from 90 nests were analyzed for organochlorines. The primary concern was HE that entered raptor food chains through the ingestion of heptachlor-treated seed by their prey. HE residues were detected in eggs from 9 of 10 species and ranged as high as 4.75 ppm (wet wt), but no definite effects of HE on productivity were readily apparent from the limited series of nests. However, the hazard of heptachlor seed treatments to birds of prey was demonstrated by the occurrence of lethal residues of HE in brain tissue of 3 Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) and 1 Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus). Other organochlorine pesticides were present in the eggs and significant relationships were found between DDE and eggshell thickness for the Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni) and Western Screech-Owl (Otus kennicotti), although shell thinning (9.6% and 7.4%) was below the generally accepted range where reproductive problems have been known to occur.

  4. Surgical treatment of bumblefoot in a captive golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Nazifi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The golden eagle is one of the world's largest living birds. Footpad dermatitis, also known as plantar pododermatitis or bumblefoot, is a condition characterized by lesions due to contact with unhealthy "perching" conditions, such as plastic perches, sharp-cornered perches on the ventral footpad of birds. A young female golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos in Fars province of Iran was presented to veterinary clinics of Shiraz University with clinical signs of lameness. The bird was examined clinically and a variety of complementary diagnostic procedures such as blood analysis, X-ray and bacteriological culture were performed. Then a surgical method was pick out for removing of scab, pus and necrotic tissues from abscess on the plantar aspect of bird's feet and healing the skin of area. After surgery, specific bandage, systemic antibiotics and vitamins were used. Corynebacterium, a gram negative bacterium, was isolated in the pus from the abscess. After the surgical operation, swelling in the digital pad reduced, the skin of pad healed and the signs of lameness vanished. To prevent developing bumblefoot, good bedding for proper "perching" conditions is necessary. Additionally, vitamin therapy to promote a healthy integument is advised.

  5. Surgical treatment of bumblefoot in a captive golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorbaghi, Seyedeh Leila; Javdani, Moosa; Nazifi, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    The golden eagle is one of the world's largest living birds. Footpad dermatitis, also known as plantar pododermatitis or bumblefoot, is a condition characterized by lesions due to contact with unhealthy "perching" conditions, such as plastic perches, sharp-cornered perches on the ventral footpad of birds. A young female golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) in Fars province of Iran was presented to veterinary clinics of Shiraz University with clinical signs of lameness. The bird was examined clinically and a variety of complementary diagnostic procedures such as blood analysis, X-ray and bacteriological culture were performed. Then a surgical method was pick out for removing of scab, pus and necrotic tissues from abscess on the plantar aspect of bird's feet and healing the skin of area. After surgery, specific bandage, systemic antibiotics and vitamins were used. Corynebacterium, a gram negative bacterium, was isolated in the pus from the abscess. After the surgical operation, swelling in the digital pad reduced, the skin of pad healed and the signs of lameness vanished. To prevent developing bumblefoot, good bedding for proper "perching" conditions is necessary. Additionally, vitamin therapy to promote a healthy integument is advised.

  6. The Fundamental Plane of star formation in galaxies revealed by the EAGLE hydrodynamical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Claudia del P.; Theuns, Tom; Schaye, Joop; Furlong, Michelle; Bower, Richard G.; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A.; Trayford, James W.; Matthee, Jorryt

    2016-07-01

    We investigate correlations between different physical properties of star-forming galaxies in the `Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments' (EAGLE) cosmological hydrodynamical simulation suite over the redshift range 0 ≤ z ≤ 4.5. A principal component analysis reveals that neutral gas fraction (fgas,neutral), stellar mass (Mstellar) and star formation rate (SFR) account for most of the variance seen in the population, with galaxies tracing a two-dimensional, nearly flat, surface in the three-dimensional space of fgas, neutral-Mstellar-SFR with little scatter. The location of this plane varies little with redshift, whereas galaxies themselves move along the plane as their fgas, neutral and SFR drop with redshift. The positions of galaxies along the plane are highly correlated with gas metallicity. The metallicity can therefore be robustly predicted from fgas, neutral, or from the Mstellar and SFR. We argue that the appearance of this `Fundamental Plane of star formation' is a consequence of self-regulation, with the plane's curvature set by the dependence of the SFR on gas density and metallicity. We analyse a large compilation of observations spanning the redshift range 0 ≲ z ≲ 3, and find that such a plane is also present in the data. The properties of the observed Fundamental Plane of star formation are in good agreement with EAGLE's predictions.

  7. Cosmic distribution of highly ionized metals and their physical conditions in the EAGLE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Alireza; Schaye, Joop; Crain, Robert A.; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom

    2016-06-01

    We study the distribution and evolution of highly ionized intergalactic metals in the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environment (EAGLE) cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations. EAGLE has been shown to reproduce a wide range of galaxy properties while its subgrid feedback was calibrated without considering gas properties. We compare the predictions for the column density distribution functions (CDDFs) and cosmic densities of Si IV, C IV, N V, O VI and Ne VIII absorbers with observations at redshift z = 0 to ˜6 and find reasonable agreement, although there are some differences. We show that the typical physical densities of the absorbing gas increase with column density and redshift, but decrease with the ionization energy of the absorbing ion. The typical metallicity increases with both column density and time. The fraction of collisionally ionized metal absorbers increases with time and ionization energy. While our results show little sensitivity to the presence or absence of AGN feedback, increasing/decreasing the efficiency of stellar feedback by a factor of 2 substantially decreases/increases the CDDFs and the cosmic densities of the metal ions. We show that the impact of the efficiency of stellar feedback on the CDDFs and cosmic densities is largely due to its effect on the metal production rate. However, the temperatures of the metal absorbers, particularly those of strong O VI, are directly sensitive to the strength of the feedback.

  8. Hydrology of Eagle Creek Basin and effects of groundwater pumping on streamflow, 1969-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matherne, Anne Marie; Myers, Nathan C.; McCoy, Kurt J.

    2010-01-01

    Urban and resort development and drought conditions have placed increasing demands on the surface-water and groundwater resources of the Eagle Creek Basin, in southcentral New Mexico. The Village of Ruidoso, New Mexico, obtains 60-70 percent of its water from the Eagle Creek Basin. The village drilled four production wells on Forest Service land along North Fork Eagle Creek; three of the four wells were put into service in 1988 and remain in use. Local citizens have raised questions as to the effects of North Fork well pumping on flow in Eagle Creek. In response to these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Village of Ruidoso, conducted a hydrologic investigation from 2007 through 2009 of the potential effect of the North Fork well field on streamflow in North Fork Eagle Creek. Mean annual precipitation for the period of record (1942-2008) at the Ruidoso climate station is 22.21 inches per year with a range from 12.27 inches in 1970 to 34.81 inches in 1965. Base-flow analysis indicates that the 1970-80 mean annual discharge, direct runoff, and base flow were 2,260, 1,440, and 819 acre-ft/yr, respectively, and for 1989-2008 were 1,290, 871, and 417 acre-ft/yr, respectively. These results indicate that mean annual discharge, direct runoff, and base flow were less during the 1989-2008 period than during the 1970-80 period. Mean annual precipitation volume for the study area was estimated to be 12,200 acre-feet. Estimated annual evapotranspiration for the study area ranged from 8,730 to 8,890 acre-feet. Estimated annual basin yield for the study area was 3,390 acre-ft or about 28 percent of precipitation. On the basis of basin-yield computations, annual recharge was estimated to be 1,950 acre-ft, about 16 percent of precipitation. Using a chloride mass-balance method, groundwater recharge over the study area was estimated to average 490 acre-ft, about 4.0 percent of precipitation. Because the North Fork wells began pumping in 1988, 1969

  9. Observations of metals in the z ≈ 3.5 intergalactic medium and comparison to the EAGLE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Monica L.; Schaye, Joop; Crain, Robert A.; Theuns, Tom; Wendt, Martin

    2016-11-01

    We study the z ≈ 3.5 intergalactic medium (IGM) by comparing new, high-quality absorption spectra of eight QSOs with = 3.75, to virtual observations of the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. We employ the pixel optical depth method and uncover strong correlations between various combinations of H I, C III, C IV, Si III, Si IV, and O VI. We find good agreement between many of the simulated and observed correlations, including τ_{O VI}(τ_{H I}). However, the observed median optical depths for the τ_{C IV}}(τ_{H I}) and τ_{Si IV}(τ_{H I}) relations are higher than those measured from the mock spectra. The discrepancy increases from up to ≈0.1 dex at τ_{H I}=1 to ≈1 dex at τ_{H I}=10^2, where we are likely probing dense regions at small galactocentric distances. As possible solutions, we invoke (a) models of ionizing radiation softened above 4 Ryd to account for delayed completion of He II reionization; (b) simulations run at higher resolution; (c) the inclusion of additional line broadening due to unresolved turbulence; and (d) increased elemental abundances; however, none of these factors can fully explain the observed differences. Enhanced photoionization of H I by local sources, which was not modelled, could offer a solution. However, the much better agreement with the observed O VI(H I) relation, which we find probes a hot and likely collisionally ionized gas phase, indicates that the simulations are not in tension with the hot phase of the IGM, and suggests that the simulated outflows may entrain insufficient cool gas.

  10. Macroinvertebrate and algal community sample collection methods and data collected at selected sites in the Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 2000-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.

    2010-01-01

    State and local agencies are concerned about the effects of increasing urban development and human population growth on water quality and the biological condition of regional streams in the Eagle River watershed. In response to these needs, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a study in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, Colorado Springs Utilities, Denver Water, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. As part of this study, previously collected macroinvertebrate and algal data from the Eagle River watershed were compiled. This report includes macroinvertebrate data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and(or) the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service from 73 sites from 2000 to 2007 and algal data collected from up to 26 sites between 2000 and 2001 in the Eagle River watershed. Additionally, a brief description of the sample collection methods and data processing procedures are presented.

  11. Oxford SWIFT IFS and multi-wavelength observations of the Eagle galaxy at z=0.77

    CERN Document Server

    Kassin, Susan A; Goodsall, T; Clarke, F J; Houghton, R W C; Salter, G; Thatte, N; Tecza, M; Davies, Roger L; Weiner, Benjamin J; Willmer, C N A; Salim, Samir; Cooper, Michael C; Newman, Jeffrey A; Bundy, Kevin; Conselice, C J; Koekemoer, A M; Lin, Lihwai; Moustakas, Leonidas A; Wang, Tao

    2011-01-01

    The `Eagle' galaxy at a redshift of 0.77 is studied with the Oxford Short Wavelength Integral Field Spectrograph (SWIFT) and multi-wavelength data from the All-wavelength Extended Groth strip International Survey (AEGIS). It was chosen from AEGIS because of the bright and extended emission in its slit spectrum. Three dimensional kinematic maps of the Eagle reveal a gradient in velocity dispersion which spans 35-75 +/- 10 km/s and a rotation velocity of 25 +/- 5 km/s uncorrected for inclination. Hubble Space Telescope images suggest it is close to face-on. In comparison with galaxies from AEGIS at similar redshifts, the Eagle is extremely bright and blue in the rest-frame optical, highly star-forming, dominated by unobscured star-formation, and has a low metallicity for its size. This is consistent with its selection. The Eagle is likely undergoing a major merger and is caught in the early stage of a star-burst when it has not yet experienced metal enrichment or formed the mass of dust typically found in star-...

  12. Declaration of the Javan hawk eagle Spizaetus bartelsi as Indonesia's National Rare Animal impedes conservation of the species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, V.; Shepherd, C.R.; van Balen, S.

    2009-01-01

    The endangered Javan hawk eagle Spizaetus bartelsi is threatened in part by the illegal pet trade. In 1993 the species was declared Indonesia's National Rare/Precious Animal, by former President Soeharto. Trade in the species and keeping it as a pet are illegal. We consolidated data about the

  13. Declaration of the Javan hawk eagle Spizaetus bartelsi as Indonesia's National Rare Animal impedes conservation of the species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, V.; Shepherd, C.R.; van Balen, S.

    2009-01-01

    The endangered Javan hawk eagle Spizaetus bartelsi is threatened in part by the illegal pet trade. In 1993 the species was declared Indonesia's National Rare/Precious Animal, by former President Soeharto. Trade in the species and keeping it as a pet are illegal. We consolidated data about the specie

  14. Diet of the White-Tailed Eagle During the Breeding Season in the Polesski State Radiation-Ecological Reserve, Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri V. Yurko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents data on the diet of the White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla collected during breeding seasons of 2006–2015 in the Polesski State Radiation-Ecological Reserve. The data included 127 records of prey remains belonging to 27 species of vertebrates collected in and under the nests. We discovered that the diet of the White-Tailed Eagle mainly consists of vertebrates of three classes: fishes (Pisces 48.1 %, birds (Aves 41.7 % and mammals (Mammalia 10.2 %. At the present, the main prey species in the diet of the White-Tailed Eagle in the breeding season are: Bream (Abramis brama – 22.0 %, Black Stork (Ciconia nigra – 12.6 %, Northern Pike (Esox lucius – 10.2 %, Wild Boar (Sus scrofa – 7.1 %, White Stork (Ciconia ciconia – 6.3 %, Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos – 5.5 % and Eurasian Coot (Fulica atra – 5.5 %. Together these species makes up 69.2 % or 2/3 of the diet of this raptor. We also established that cannibalism is a character feature of the local population of White-Tailed Eagle, and its proportion is 2.4 %.

  15. 78 FR 25758 - Migratory Birds; Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance: Module 1-Land-Based Wind Energy, Version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ...-- Land-Based Wind Energy, Version 2 AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... Guidance: Module 1--Land-based Wind Energy, Version 2 is available. The guidance provides recommendations... issued a draft of The Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance: Module 1-- Land-based Wind Energy for...

  16. Eagle Adventure: School-Based Type 2 Diabetes Prevention Program Results in Improved Outcomes Related to Food and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall-Amos, Angelina; Parker, Stephany; Mata, Sara; Fox, Jill; Jackson, Teresa; Miracle, Sarah; Hermann, Janice

    2014-01-01

    The Eagle Adventure program was designed as a semester-long, SNAP-Ed program to address food and physical activity choices important for prevention of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and other chronic diseases. The program was developed for implementation in Grades 1-3. This article presents findings from two participating grade centers inclusive of…

  17. Declaration of the Javan hawk eagle Spizaetus bartelsi as Indonesia's National Rare Animal impedes conservation of the species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, V.; Shepherd, C.R.; van Balen, S.

    2009-01-01

    The endangered Javan hawk eagle Spizaetus bartelsi is threatened in part by the illegal pet trade. In 1993 the species was declared Indonesia's National Rare/Precious Animal, by former President Soeharto. Trade in the species and keeping it as a pet are illegal. We consolidated data about the specie

  18. Project EAGLE (Early Academic Gifted Learning Experience): A Program for Gifted and Talented Students (Grades K-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkoski, Kay

    This manual is intended to guide the development of a primary grade gifted and talented program called Project EAGLE. The program focuses on lateral enrichment, higher level cognitive domain skills, creative thinking, self-directed learning, self-awareness and acceptance, and interpersonal relationships. Students complete assignments in…

  19. Eagle Adventure: School-Based Type 2 Diabetes Prevention Program Results in Improved Outcomes Related to Food and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall-Amos, Angelina; Parker, Stephany; Mata, Sara; Fox, Jill; Jackson, Teresa; Miracle, Sarah; Hermann, Janice

    2014-01-01

    The Eagle Adventure program was designed as a semester-long, SNAP-Ed program to address food and physical activity choices important for prevention of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and other chronic diseases. The program was developed for implementation in Grades 1-3. This article presents findings from two participating grade centers inclusive of…

  20. The significance of the golden eagles domestic areas, the habitat and movements for wind power establishment; Betydelsen av kungsoernars hemomraaden, biotopval och roerelser foer vindkraftsetablering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hipkiss, Tim; Dettki, Holger; Moss, Edward; Hoernfeldt, Birger [Inst. foer vilt, fisk och miljoe, Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Uppsala (Sweden); Ecke, Frauke [Inst. foer vilt, fisk och miljoe, Sveriges Lantbruksuniv., Uppsala (Sweden); Inst. foer vatten och miljoe, Sveriges Lantbruksuniv., Uppsala (Sweden); Sandgren, Carolin [Inst. foer vilt, fisk och miljoe, Sveriges Lantbruksuniv., Uppsala (Sweden); Naturvaardsenheten, Laensstyrelsen i Jaemtlands laen, Oestersund (Sweden)

    2013-10-15

    There is a need for developing methods for reliable environmental impact assessment of wind farms in Sweden, and to facilitate the establishment of 'eagle friendly' wind farms. During 2010 and 2011 a total of 43 adult and juvenile golden eagles in northern Sweden were marked with GPS transmitters, to provide information on the species home range, habitat selection and ranging behaviour. These transmitters have so far provided more than 100 000 valid GPS positions. Individual eagles fitted with the most effective type of transmitter provided on average more than 2,000 positions during the 2012 breeding season. The home ranges of adult golden eagles covered an average area of over 200 km{sup 2} during the breeding season, although there was considerable variation among eagles. Fledged juvenile eagles used a smaller area within their parents home range, until they left their natal area and their parents in October. Within their home ranges juvenile and adult eagles showed a particular preference for clear cuts, but also for coniferous forest on lichen-dominated bedrock, while dense, young forest and mires were avoided. Steep slopes were preferred over flatter areas. Adult golden eagles occasionally undertook long-distance movements during both summer and winter. Juveniles migrated south and spent their first winter in southern and central Sweden, and migrated north the following spring to the Scandinavian mountain region. The results in this report are largely based on one breeding season, and should thus be treated with some degree of caution. However, this also highlights the need for the project to continue, so that incoming transmitter data can continue to be processed and analysed, and that annual variation can be assessed. Nevertheless, we do not suspect that the results for e.g. habitat selection are in any way unusual, since they generally agree with what is known from other parts of the world, that golden eagles require open habitats for hunting and