Sample records for models american woodcock

  1. Radio-transmitters have no impact on survival of pre-fledged American Woodcocks (United States)

    Daly, Kyle O.; Andersen, David E.; Brininger, Wayne L.; Cooper, Thomas R.


    American Woodcocks (Scolopax minor) are a high priority species of conservation need across most of their breeding range due to long-term population declines. Survival of juveniles may be key to understanding these population declines, but there have been few direct estimates of juvenile woodcock survival rates, and no recent assessment of the possible effect of radio-tagging on juvenile survival. In 2011 and 2012, we radio-tagged 73 juvenile American Woodcocks in west-central Minnesota and compared survival rates of radio-tagged (N = 58) and non-radio-tagged (N = 82) juveniles during the period from hatching to fledging. We compared survival rates of juveniles with known fates and used logistic-exposure models to assess the potential impact of radio-transmitters on survival. We evaluated variables related to juvenile survival including age, hatch date, maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation, and year to assess the possible effects of radio-transmitters. The best-supported model of survival rate of juvenile American Woodcocks included the interaction of age and year and a negative effect of precipitation (β = −0.76, 85% CI: −1.08 to −0.43), but did not include a negative effect of transmitters. Our results suggest that radio-transmitters did not impact survival of juvenile American Woodcocks and that transmitters are a reliable tool for studying survival of juvenile American Woodcocks, and perhaps other precocial shorebirds.

  2. American woodcock (Scolopax minor) mortality associated with a reovirus (United States)

    Docherty, D.E.; Converse, K.A.; Hansen, W.R.; Norman, G.W.


    A virus isolate associated with a 1989-90 die-off in American woodcock (Scolopax minor) was identified as a reovirus. Emaciation was a consistent necropsy finding in the woodcock involved in this die-off. This reovirus infection appeared to be systemic, had the potential for fecal-oral virus transmission, and was associated with deterioration of body condition. To our knowledge this is the first report of a virus isolate from wild American woodcock. A survey conducted in 1990-92 indicated that this virus was not present at detectable levels in the woodcock breeding and wintering population. /// Un virus asociado con la mortalidad de becadas o perdices americanas (Scolopax minor) en 1989-1990-fue identificado como reovirus. La emaciaci??n fue un resultado com??n a la necropsia de las aves que murieron. Esta infecci??n por reovirus pareci?? ser sist??mica, ten?-a el potencial de transmisi??n fecal-oral y estuvo asociada con el deterioro del ave. Creemos que este sea el primer reporte de aislamiento viral a partir de becadas americanas. Una encuesta hecha entre 1990 y 1992 indic?? que este virus no estaba presente en los niveles detectables en los reproductores y en las aves invernales.

  3. Effects of hunting on survival of American woodcock in the Northeast (United States)

    McAuley, D.G.; Longcore, J.R.; Clugston, D.A.; Allen, R.B.; Weik, A.; Williamson, S.; Dunn, J.; Palmer, B.; Evans, K.; Staats, W.; Sepik, G.F.; Halteman, W.


    Numbers of American woodcock (Scolopax minor) males counted on the annual singing ground survey (SGS) have declined over the last 35 years at an average rate of 2.3% per year in the Eastern Region and 1.8% per year in the Central Region. Although hunting was not thought to be a cause of these declines, mortality caused by hunters can be controlled. Furthermore, there has been no research on effects of hunting mortality on woodcock populations at local and regional levels on the breeding grounds. We used radiotelemetry to determine survival rates and causes of mortality for 913 woodcock captured during fall 1997?2000 on 7 areas in Maine, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, and Vermont, USA. Three of 7 sites were closed to hunting. For all sites and all years combined, 176 woodcock died, and 130 were censored, of which 39 were censored mortalities. Predation was the major (n = 134, 76%) cause of mortality. Mammals accounted for 56% of the predation, raptors accounted for 25%, and 19% was attributed to unknown predators. On hunted sites, 36% of the total mortality (n = 102) was caused by hunting, 63% by predation, and 1 bird starved. Kaplan-Meier survival curves did not differ between hunted and non-hunted sites among years (P = 0.46). Overall, point estimates of survival did not differ (P = 0.217) between hunted (SR = 0.636, SE = 0.04) and nonhunted sites (SR = 0.661, SE = 0.08). We modeled hazard rates from hunting and natural mortality events using program MARK. Akaike's Information Criterion supported using a model with common constant hazards from both hunting and natural causes for groups of sites. Groupings of sites for hazard rates from natural causes were not influenced by whether a site was hunted or not. Models detected no effects of woodcock age and sex (P = 0.52) on survival. Proportional hazards models comparing hunted and nonhunted sites found no effects of age and sex (P = 0.45), interactions of age, sex, capture weight, and bill length (P > 0.269). Our data

  4. Habitat use and survival rates of wintering American woodcocks in coastal South Carolina and Georgia (United States)

    Krementz, D.G.; Seginak, J.T.; Longcore, Jerry R.; Sepik, Greg F.


    Habitat use and survival rates of radio-marked American woodcocks (Scolopax minor) were studied during the winter in coastal South Carolina (1988-89) and Georgia (1989-90). Soon after they arrived, woodcocks were captured in mist nets or in modified shorebird traps or by nightlighting. Each bird was weighed, aged, sexed, and fitted with a 4-g radio transmitter and monitored daily until it died or could not be located or until its radio failed. During the day, the woodcocks in South Carolina frequented seasonally flooded stands of gum-oak-willow (Liquidambar-Quercus-Salix) > 75% of the time and Pinus spp.) plantations during the remaining time. The predominantly used understory vegetation was switch cane (Arundinaria gigantica). In Georgia, woodcocks used bottomland hardwoods, young pine plantations (cuttings that had regenerated naturally. Wax myrtle (Myrica cerifera) dominated the used understory species at these sites. The woodcocks in South Carolina rarely made daily moves between daytime and nighttime cover, whereas the birds in Georgia made regular flights. At both sites, the daily survival rates of females were low, especially in the absence of losses from hunting. Daily survival rates of females ranged from 0.992 in adults to 0.994 in young. Daily survival rates of males ranged from 1.0 in adults to 0.996 in young. We determined no significant differences in the daily survival rates of woodcocks by age or sex in either South Carolina or Georgia. Probable predators of radio-marked woodcocks included bobcats (Lynx rufus), gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and barred owls (Strix varia).

  5. Phylogeography of the American woodcock (Scolopax minor): Are management units based on band recovery data reflected in genetically based management units? (United States)

    Rhymer, J.M.; McAuley, D.G.; Ziel, H.L.


    Information on population connectivity throughout the annual cycle has become more crucial, because populations of many migratory birds are in decline. One such species is the American Woodcock (Scolopax minor), which inhabits early-successional forests in eastern North America. Although band recoveries have proved useful for dividing populations of this game bird species into an Eastern Region and Central Region for management purposes, these data do not provide enough detail to determine the breeding population of origin of birds recovered on stopover and wintering areas. To obtain more fine-scale data, we undertook a phylogeographic study of American Woodcock populations throughout their primary breeding range in the eastern United States and Canada using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from the hypervariable control region I (CRI) and ND6 gene. Despite high haplotype diversity, nucleotide diversity was low and there was no phylogeographic structure among American Woodcock populations across the species range, with birds from many states and provinces in both management regions sharing identical haplotypes. Results suggest recent or ongoing gene flow among populations, with asymmetric movement of birds between migration flyways. As has been demonstrated for several other avian species in North America, American Woodcock appear to have undergone a rapid population expansion following the late Pleistocene glacial retreat. Thus, a combination of historical demographic factors and recent or ongoing gene flow mask any population structure based on mtDNA that might accrue from philopatry to breeding areas observed in studies of marked birds.

  6. The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities III's Cognitive Performance Model: Empirical Support for Intermediate Factors within CHC Theory (United States)

    Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.


    The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability Third Edition is developed using the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) measurement-theory test design as the instrument's theoretical blueprint. The instrument provides users with cognitive scores based on the Cognitive Performance Model (CPM); however, the CPM is not a part of CHC theory. Within the…

  7. The status and distribution of woodcock in Oklahoma (United States)

    Barclay, J.S.; Smith, R.W.; Edited by Keppie, Daniel M.; Owen, Ray B.


    The seasonal and spatial distributions of the American woodcock (Philohela minor) in Oklahoma were determined through field surveys and the collection of all known reports of woodcock sightings. Woodcock were reported in Oklahoma in all seasons and were most Jrequently sighted from 11 October to 10 January. The peak in fall migration occurred between 11 November and 10 December. Woodcock were found in 5 major areas across the eastern two-thirds of the state but 57 percent of the birds reported during the study were in the eastern one-third. A total of 148 displaying males were encountered on 25 sites in 15 of 29 counties included roadside singing ground surveys in 1975 and 1976. The peak number of displaying birds (58) was observed during the second IO-day period in February; displays occurred from January through late March. Personal observations plus data reported via volunteer survey cards, indicated that the typical site used for diurnal cover by woodcock in Oklahoma is a brushy bottomland with moist loamy soils, vegetated by oaks (Quercus spp.), elms (Ulmus spp,), bluestem grasses (Andropogon spp.), dogwoods (Cornus spp.) and green briars (Smilax spp.).

  8. Summer behavior of immature radio-equipped woodcock in central Maine (United States)

    Dunford, R.D.; Owen, R.B.


    The behavior of 15 immature American woodcock (Philohela minor) was studied in central Maine during the summers of 1969 and 1970 using radiotelemetry. The monitored birds used a variety of nocturnal sites including old fields, bogs, powerlines, highway medians, woods roads, and fore clearings. Old fields were occupied more often than any other type of opening. Second growth-hardwoods, alders, hardwood-conifers, and conifers were utilized as diurnal cover. Diurnal locations of radio-equipped woodcock averaged 15 m from major breaks in the forest canopy. Four birds were monitored continuously during the day and night to detennine periods of activity. Although the birds were active throughout the day, very little activity was recorded after they moved to nocturnal sites. No apparent difference was found in the daily patterns of movement between immature male and female woodcock. Crepuscular movements between diurnal covers and nocturnal areas averaged 332 m. A composite summer range for the 15 woodcock during 183 woodcock-days was 1060 hectares. The data suggest that immature woodcock are quite mobile during the summer and utilize most of the forest openings occurring within 1-3 km of good nesting habitat. Most of these openings are also used for singing grounds by males in the spring.

  9. Demographic Characteristics of a Maine Woodcock Population and Effects of Habitat Management (United States)

    Dwyer, T.J.; Sepik, G.F.; Derleth, E.L.; McAuley, D.G.


    A population of American woodcock (Scolopax minor) was studied on a 3,401-ha area of the Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge in northeastern Maine from 1976 through 1985. During 1976-83, from 4 to 64 clearcuts were created each year, opening up large contiguous blocks of forest. A combination of mist nets, ground traps, nightlighting techniques, and trained dogs were used to capture and band 1,884 birds during the first 5 years. Capture and recapture data (totaling 3,009 observations) were used with both demographically closed and open population models to estimate population size and, for open population models, summer survival. Flying young, especially young males, represented the greatest proportion of all captures; analysis showed that young males were more prone to capture than young females. Male courtship began about 24 March each year, usually when there was still snow in wooded areas. Males ~2 years old dominated singing grounds during April each year, but this situation changed and first-year males dominated singing grounds in May. Singing males shifted from older established singing grounds to new clearcuts soon after we initiated forest management. Many males were subdominant at singing grounds despite an abundance of unoccupied openings. Three hundred adult females were captured and, except for 1978, the majority were ~2 years old. The year in which female homing rate was lowest(1979) was preceded by the year with the largest number of l-year-old brood female captures and a summer drought. Summer survival of young was lowest in 1978 and was attributed to summer drought. The year 1979 had an abnormally cool and wet spring, and was the poorest for production of young. Capture ratios of young-to-adult females obtained by nightlighting could be used to predict production on our study area. Closed population model estimates did not seem to fit either young or adult data sets well. Instead, a partially open capture-recapture model that allowed death but no

  10. How Do Executive Functions Fit with the Cattell-Horn-Carroll Model? Some Evidence from a Joint Factor Analysis of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System and the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (United States)

    Floyd, Randy G.; Bergeron, Renee; Hamilton, Gloria; Parra, Gilbert R.


    This study investigated the relations among executive functions and cognitive abilities through a joint exploratory factor analysis and joint confirmatory factor analysis of 25 test scores from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System and the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities. Participants were 100 children and adolescents…

  11. Woodcock Bog Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 40 (United States)

    Reid Schuller; Susan J. Fritts; Mark Mousseaux


    This guidebook describes Woodcock Bog Research Natural Area (RNA), a 114-ha (281-ac) area located within the Klamath-Siskiyou ecoregion in southwestern Oregon. The RNA includes a hanging fen and stream segment on ultramafic rock and derived soils. Numerous plant species occur within the fens that are endemic to the Klamath-Siskiyou Mountains of southwestern Oregon and...

  12. Development of landscape-level habitat suitability models for ten wildlife species in the central hardwoods region (United States)

    Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; William D. Dijak; Frank R. III Thompson; Joshua J. Millspaugh


    Reports landscape-level habitat suitability models for 10 species in the Central Hardwoods Region of the Midwestern United States: American woodcock, cerulean warbler, Henslow's sparrow, Indiana bat, northern bobwhite, ruffed grouse, timber rattlesnake, wood thrush, worm-eating warbler, and yellow-breasted chat. All models included spatially explicit variables and...

  13. Effects of heptachlor-contaminated earthworms on woodcocks (United States)

    Stickel, W.H.; Hayne, D.W.; Stickel, L.F.


    The effects on woodcocks (Philohela minor) of eating heptachlor-contaminated earthworms were studied experimentally in a series of feeding trials in Louisiana in the winter of 1960--61. Six of 12 woodcocks fed worms which had been contaminated at an average of 2.86 ppm of heptachlor epoxide died within 35 days; 4 more had died by the fifty-third day, when the other 2 were killed for analysis. Worms from areas in Louisiana treated with 2 pounds of heptachlor per acre often contain more than 3 ppm of heptachlor epoxide. Eleven of 12 woodcocks fed worms contaminated at an average of 0.65 ppm survived the full 60 days of the experiment; one died on the forty-fifth day, apparently from other causes. All 11 untreated birds survived. Survivors were kept on one-quarter rations of untreated worms for 11 days. Two woodcocks, untreated previously, died during this starvation period. Five previously treated died; two were observed in spasms at death, and these contained 5.9 and 7.2 ppm heptachlor epoxide in their tissues, suggesting that the previous contaminated diet may have influenced mortality, even though the difference between two of nine dying and five of nine dying is not statistically significant. Surviving starved birds given an unrestricted supply of treated or untreated worms for 5 days survived and gained weight. Residues accumulated in their tissues in this time approached levels in birds that died of heptachlor poisoning. Residues in tissues of birds with different histories suggested residue loss at a rate of approximately 2.8 percent per day. Toxicant absorption was estimated to be in the approximate range of 16-20 percent. Residues in birds fed worms containing 0.65 ppm heptachlor epoxide were in the same general magnitude as those in field-caught birds, suggesting a similar average contamination of food supply. Weights and weight changes did not differ significantly between untreated birds and those receiving the lower level of toxicant. Among birds on one

  14. Radiocesium (137Cs) from the Chernobyl reactor in Eurasian woodcock and earthworms in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalas, J.A.; Bretten, S.; Njastad, O.; Byrkjedal, I.


    To understand the ecological effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident, we investigated radiocesium ( 137 Cs) levels in Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola), earthworms (Lambricidae), litter (dead organic materials lying on the ground), humus (beneath litter 2 cm deep), and mineral soil samples (3-6 cm deep) from a heavily effected (20-60 kBq/m 2 [1 Bq = 1 nuclear fission/sec]) area in Norway. The highest concentrations measured in earthworms (1988 median = 142 Bq/Kg) and woodcock (1986 median = 730 Bq/kg) for human food (600 Bq/kg fresh mass) only were found in woodcock during 1986. Radiocesium concentrations decreased (P < 0.001) in earthworms (40%) and woodcock (95%) from 1986 to 1990. There was no reduction in total radiocesium in soil over the same period. The relatively high radiocesium concentrations in woodcock during 1986 and the decreasing radiocesium ratio in woodcock to earthworms during the first years following fallout could have been caused by woodcock ingesting abiotic radiocesium with earthworms. The decrease in radiocesium in woodcock and earthworms during the study (1986-90) probably resulted from decreasing bioavailability of radiocesium during the first years after fallout rather than by radiocesium disappearing from the ecosystem. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  15. 50 CFR 20.104 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for rails, woodcock, and common (Wilson's) snipe. (United States)


    ... rails, woodcock, and common (Wilson's) snipe. 20.104 Section 20.104 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES... for rails, woodcock, and common (Wilson's) snipe. This section provides for the annual hunting of certain rails, woodcock, and snipe in the 48 contiguous United States. [44 FR 7148, Feb. 6, 1979...

  16. The Applicability of Olson's Circumplex Model to Native American Families. (United States)

    Herring, Roger D.; Erchul, William P.

    David H. Olson's circumplex model identifies 16 types of family systems based on the dimensions of cohesion, adaptability, and communication. This paper relates the circumplex model to Native American familial structures. The historical Native American family was a multigenerational extended family with no desire for change, a description…

  17. A Confirmatory Model for Substance Use Among Japanese American and Part-Japanese American Adolescents (United States)

    Williams, John Kino Yamaguchi; Else, 'Iwalani R. N.; Goebert, Deborah A.; Nishimura, Stephanie T.; Hishinuma, Earl S.; Andrade, Naleen N.


    Few studies have examined the effect of ethnicity and cultural identity on substance use among Asian and Pacific Islander adolescents. A cross-sequential study conducted in Hawai'i with 144 Japanese American and part-Japanese American adolescents assessed a model integrating Japanese ethnicity, cultural identity, substance use, major life events, and social support. Japanese American adolescents scored higher on the Japanese Culture Scale and on the Peers’ Social Support than the part-Japanese American adolescents. Significant associations for substance use and impairment included culturally intensified events and Japanese cultural identity- behavior subset. Models had good overall fits and suggested that conflict surrounding cultural identity may contribute to substance use. PMID:23480213

  18. North American pulp & paper model (NAPAP) (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Joseph Buongiorno


    This chapter describes the development and structure of the NAPAP model and compares it to other forest sector models. The NAPAP model was based on PELPS and adapted to describe paper and paperboard product demand, pulpwood and recovered paper supply, and production capacity and technology, with spatially dynamic market equilibria. We describe how the model predicts...

  19. Modelling chestnut biogeography for American chestnut restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fei, Songlin; Liang, Liang; Paillet, Frederick L.


    Aim Chestnuts (Castanea spp.) are ecologically and economically important species. We studied the general biology, distribution and climatic limits of seven chestnut species from around the world. We provided climatic matching of Asiatic species to North America to assist the range-wide restorati...... the restoration of other threatened or endangered species.......Aim Chestnuts (Castanea spp.) are ecologically and economically important species. We studied the general biology, distribution and climatic limits of seven chestnut species from around the world. We provided climatic matching of Asiatic species to North America to assist the range-wide restoration...... of American chestnut [C. dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.] by incorporating blight-resistant genes from Asiatic species. Location North America, Europe and East Asia. Methods General chestnut biology was reviewed on the basis of published literature and field observations. Chestnut distributions were established using...

  20. Native American Resources: A Model for Collection Development (United States)

    Taylor, Rhonda Harris; Patterson, Lotsee


    This construct for collection development as it relates to Native American resources utilizes Thomas Mann's "Library Research Methods" (1993) concepts of the Traditional Model, the Actual-Practice Model, and the Principle of Least Effort to organize recommendations for both strategies and resources. The three-pronged hierarchical approach to…

  1. Development of a bioenergetics model for age-0 American Shad (United States)

    Sauter, Sally T.


    Bioenergetics modeling can be used as a tool to investigate the impact of non-native age-0 American shad (Alosa sapidissima) on reservoir and estuary food webs. The model can increase our understanding of how these fish influence lower trophic levels as well as predatory fish populations that feed on juvenile salmonids. Bioenergetics modeling can be used to investigate ecological processes, evaluate alternative research hypotheses, provide decision support, and quantitative prediction. Bioenergetics modeling has proven to be extremely useful in fisheries research (Ney et al. 1993,Chips and Wahl 2008, Petersen et al. 2008). If growth and diet parameters are known, the bioenergetics model can be used to quantify the relative amount of zooplankton or insects consumed by age-0 American shad. When linked with spatial and temporal information on fish abundance, model output can guide inferential hypothesis development to demonstrate where the greatest impacts of age-0 American shad might occur. Bioenergetics modeling is particularly useful when research questions involve multiple species and trophic levels (e.g. plankton communities). Bioenergetics models are mass-balance equations where the energy acquired from food is partitioned between maintenance costs, waste products, and growth (Winberg 1956). Specifically, the Wisconsin bioenergetics model (Hanson et al. 1997) is widely used in fisheries science. Researchers have extensively tested, reviewed, and improved on this modeling approach for over 30 years (Petersen et al. 2008). Development of a bioenergetics model for any species requires three key components: 1) determine physiological parameters for the model through laboratory experiments or incorporate data from a closely related species, 2) corroboration of the model with growth and consumption estimates from independent research, and 3) error analysis of model parameters. Wisconsin bioenergetics models have been parameterized for many of the salmonids and

  2. The Relationship between the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery-Revised (Early Development) and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. (United States)

    Harrington, Robert G.; And Others


    Examined concurrent validity between Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery-Revised Tests of Cognitive Ability (WJ-R, COG) (Early Development) and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) by administering instruments to 30 normal 3, 4, and 5 year olds. WJ-R Broad Cognitive Ability and WPPSI-R Full Scale IQ and…

  3. The "Model Minority": Bane or Blessing for Asian Americans? (United States)

    Wong, Frieda; Halgin, Richard


    Asian Americans have been touted as the "model minority" since the 1960s. The authors examine the prevalence, accuracy, and implications of this label, and, based on a review of the literature, discuss problems associated with this characterization. The authors point out ways in which such labeling impedes rather than facilitates access to various…

  4. Bounds for perpetual American option prices in a jump diffusion model


    Ekström, Erik


    We provide bounds for perpetual American option prices in a jump diffusion model in terms of American option prices in the standard Black-Scholes model. We also investigate the dependence of the bounds on different parameters of the model.

  5. Help-seeking intentions among Asian American and White American students in psychological distress: Application of the health belief model. (United States)

    Kim, Jin E; Zane, Nolan


    Underutilization of needed mental health services continues to be the major mental health disparity affecting Asian Americans (Sue, Cheng, Saad, & Chu, 2012). The goal of this study was to apply a social psychological theoretical framework-the health belief model (Rosenstock, 1966)-to understand potential reasons why Asian Americans underutilize mental health services relative to White Americans. Using a cross-sectional online questionnaire, this study examined how perceived severity of symptoms, perceived susceptibility to mental health problems, perceived benefits of treatment, and perceived barriers to treatment influenced intentions to seek help among a sample of 395 Asian American and 261 White American students experiencing elevated levels of psychological distress. Analyses using structural equation modeling indicated that Asian Americans in distress had relatively lower intentions to seek help compared with White Americans. Perceived benefits partially accounted for differences in help-seeking intentions. Although Asian Americans perceived greater barriers to help seeking than did White Americans, this did not significantly explain racial/ethnic differences in help-seeking intentions. Perceived severity and barriers were related to help-seeking intentions in both groups. Outreach efforts that particularly emphasize the benefits of seeking mental health services may be a particularly promising approach to address underutilization. The findings have implications in help-seeking promotion and outreach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Cultural Models of Education and Academic Performance for Native American and European American Students (United States)

    Fryberg, Stephanie A.; Covarrubias, Rebecca; Burack, Jacob A.


    We examined the role of cultural representations of self (i.e., interdependence and independence) and positive relationships (i.e., trust for teachers) in academic performance (i.e., self-reported grades) for Native American ("N"?=?41) and European American ("N"?=?49) high school students. The Native American students endorsed…

  7. Psychoecological model of alcohol use in Mexican American adolescents. (United States)

    Chun, Heejung; Devall, Esther; Sandau-Beckler, Patricia


    In this study, we proposed and tested a structural model based on Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory in order to further understand alcohol use among Hispanic adolescents, who are at greater risk of alcohol use than adolescents of other racial/ethnic groups. Family cohesion, school connectedness, and peer influence were conceptualized as three primary process factors, while psychological distress was used as a mediating factor and Mexican culture orientation as a cultural factor. The sample comprised 444 Mexican American adolescents (aged 16-20) living along the U.S./Mexico border. The proposed model explained 33 % of the variance in alcohol use. Most of the hypothesized relationships in the proposed model were supported: (a) low family cohesion had significant indirect effects mediated through psychological distress, poor school connectedness, and negative peer influence; (b) poor school connectedness had significant indirect effects mediated through psychological distress and negative peer influence; (c) psychological distress had a significant direct effect as well as a significant indirect effect mediated through negative peer influence; and (d) negative peer influence had the strongest direct effect. However, contrary to the hypothesis, Mexican culture orientation was not a protective factor, but rather had a significant positive relationship with negative peer influence. Lastly, it was found that gender, school status, Anglo cultural orientation, and severity of alcohol use did not have any moderating effects. Based on the collective findings, suggestions for primary prevention programs designed to reduce underage drinking among Mexican American youth were given.

  8. Woodcock-Johnson-III, Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT), Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC), and Differential Ability Scales (DAS) support Carroll but not Cattell-Horn. (United States)

    Cucina, Jeffrey M; Howardson, Garett N


    Recently emerging evidence suggests that the dominant structural model of mental abilities-the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model-may not adequately account for observed scores for mental abilities batteries, leading scholars to call into question the model's validity. Establishing the robustness of these findings is important since CHC is the foundation for several contemporary mental abilities test batteries, such as the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ-III). Using confirmatory factor analysis, we investigated CHC's robustness across 4 archival samples of mental abilities test battery data, including the WJ-III, the Kaufman Adolescent & Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT), the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC), and the Differential Ability Scales (DAS). We computed omega hierarchical (ωH) and omega subscale (ωS) coefficients for g and the broad factors, which estimated the relationship of composite scores to g and the broad factors, respectively. Across all 4 samples, we found strong evidence for a general ability, g. We additionally found evidence for 3 to 9 residualized, orthogonal broad abilities existing independently of g, many of which also explained reliable variance in test battery scores that cannot be accounted for by g alone. The reliabilities of these broad factors, however, were less than desirable (i.e., mental abilities test battery scores, which is consistent with Carroll but not Cattell-Horn. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Anxiety Psychopathology in African American Adults: Literature Review and Development of an Empirically Informed Sociocultural Model (United States)

    Hunter, Lora Rose; Schmidt, Norman B.


    In this review, the extant literature concerning anxiety psychopathology in African American adults is summarized to develop a testable, explanatory framework with implications for future research. The model was designed to account for purported lower rates of anxiety disorders in African Americans compared to European Americans, along with other…

  10. Filipino Americans and Racism: A Multiple Mediation Model of Coping (United States)

    Alvarez, Alvin N.; Juang, Linda P.


    Although the literature on Asian Americans and racism has been emerging, few studies have examined how coping influences one's encounters with racism. To advance the literature, the present study focused on the psychological impact of Filipino Americans' experiences with racism and the role of coping as a mediator using a community-based sample of…

  11. Making Organisms Model Human Behavior: Situated Models in North-American Alcohol Research, 1950-onwards (United States)

    Leonelli, Sabina; Ankeny, Rachel A.; Nelson, Nicole C.; Ramsden, Edmund


    Argument We examine the criteria used to validate the use of nonhuman organisms in North-American alcohol addiction research from the 1950s to the present day. We argue that this field, where the similarities between behaviors in humans and non-humans are particularly difficult to assess, has addressed questions of model validity by transforming the situatedness of non-human organisms into an experimental tool. We demonstrate that model validity does not hinge on the standardization of one type of organism in isolation, as often the case with genetic model organisms. Rather, organisms are viewed as necessarily situated: they cannot be understood as a model for human behavior in isolation from their environmental conditions. Hence the environment itself is standardized as part of the modeling process; and model validity is assessed with reference to the environmental conditions under which organisms are studied. PMID:25233743

  12. Making organisms model human behavior: situated models in North-American alcohol research, since 1950. (United States)

    Ankeny, Rachel A; Leonelli, Sabina; Nelson, Nicole C; Ramsden, Edmund


    We examine the criteria used to validate the use of nonhuman organisms in North-American alcohol addiction research from the 1950s to the present day. We argue that this field, where the similarities between behaviors in humans and non-humans are particularly difficult to assess, has addressed questions of model validity by transforming the situatedness of non-human organisms into an experimental tool. We demonstrate that model validity does not hinge on the standardization of one type of organism in isolation, as often the case with genetic model organisms. Rather, organisms are viewed as necessarily situated: they cannot be understood as a model for human behavior in isolation from their environmental conditions. Hence the environment itself is standardized as part of the modeling process; and model validity is assessed with reference to the environmental conditions under which organisms are studied.

  13. Black Students, Black Colleges: An African American College Choice Model. (United States)

    McDonough, Patricia M.; Antonio, Anthony Lising; Trent, James W.


    Explores African Americans' college choice decisions, based on a national sample of 220,757 freshmen. Independent of gender, family income, or educational aspiration, the most powerful predictors for choosing historically black colleges and universities are geography, religion, the college's academic reputation, and relatives' desires. The top…

  14. Model Minority Stereotype: Influence on Perceived Mental Health Needs of Asian Americans. (United States)

    Cheng, Alice W; Chang, Janet; O'Brien, Janine; Budgazad, Marc S; Tsai, Jack


    This study examined the influence of the model minority stereotype on the perceived mental health functioning of Asian Americans. It was hypothesized that college students would perceive Asian Americans as having fewer mental health problems and clinical symptoms than Whites due to the model minority stereotype. Four hundred and twenty-five undergraduate students from a predominately White college campus in the American northeast were randomly exposed to one of four conditions: (1) a clinical vignette describing a White college student suffering from adjustment disorder; (2) the same vignette describing an Asian American college student; (3) a newspaper article describing a success story of Whites and the White clinical vignette; (4) the same newspaper article and clinical vignette describing an Asian American. Following exposure to one of the conditions, participants completed a memory recall task and measures of colorblindness, attitudes towards Asian Americans, attitudes towards out-group members, and perceived mental health functioning. Participants exposed to the vignettes primed with the positive/model minority stereotype perceived the target regardless of race/ethnicity as having better mental health functioning and less clinical symptoms than the condition without the stereotype. Additionally, the stereotype primer was found to be a modest predictor for the perception of mental health functioning in Asian American vignettes. Results shed light on the impact of the model minority stereotype on the misperception of Asian Americans' mental health status, contributing to the invisibility or neglect of this minority group's mental health needs.

  15. A Bilinear Multidimensional Measurement Model of Asian American Acculturation and Enculturation: Implications for Counseling Interventions (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J.


    Several unilinear and bilinear dimensional measurement models of Asian American acculturation and enculturation were tested with confirmatory factor analysis. Bilinear models of acculturation consistently outperformed the unilinear model. In addition, models that articulated multiple dimensions (i.e., values and behavior) exhibited a better fit to…

  16. Applying Ethnic Equivalence and Cultural Values Models to African-American Teens' Perceptions of Parents. (United States)

    Lamborn, Susie D.; Felbab, Amanda J.


    Study evaluated both the parenting styles and family ecologies models with interview responses from African American adolescents. Analyses contrasted each model with a joint model for predicting self esteem, self reliance, work orientation, and ethnic identity. Overall, findings suggest that a joint model that combines elements from both models…

  17. Applying ethnic equivalence and cultural values models to African-American teens' perceptions of parents. (United States)

    Lamborn, Susie D; Felbab, Amanda J


    This study evaluated both the parenting styles and family ecologies models with interview responses from 93 14- and 15-year-old African-American adolescents. The parenting styles model was more strongly represented in both open-ended and structured interview responses. Using variables from the structured interview as independent variables, regression analyses contrasted each model with a joint model for predicting self-esteem, self-reliance, work orientation, and ethnic identity. Overall, the findings suggest that a joint model that combines elements from both models provides a richer understanding of African-American families.

  18. Hierarchical modeling of genome-wide Short Tandem Repeat (STR) markers infers native American prehistory. (United States)

    Lewis, Cecil M


    This study examines a genome-wide dataset of 678 Short Tandem Repeat loci characterized in 444 individuals representing 29 Native American populations as well as the Tundra Netsi and Yakut populations from Siberia. Using these data, the study tests four current hypotheses regarding the hierarchical distribution of neutral genetic variation in native South American populations: (1) the western region of South America harbors more variation than the eastern region of South America, (2) Central American and western South American populations cluster exclusively, (3) populations speaking the Chibchan-Paezan and Equatorial-Tucanoan language stock emerge as a group within an otherwise South American clade, (4) Chibchan-Paezan populations in Central America emerge together at the tips of the Chibchan-Paezan cluster. This study finds that hierarchical models with the best fit place Central American populations, and populations speaking the Chibchan-Paezan language stock, at a basal position or separated from the South American group, which is more consistent with a serial founder effect into South America than that previously described. Western (Andean) South America is found to harbor similar levels of variation as eastern (Equatorial-Tucanoan and Ge-Pano-Carib) South America, which is inconsistent with an initial west coast migration into South America. Moreover, in all relevant models, the estimates of genetic diversity within geographic regions suggest a major bottleneck or founder effect occurring within the North American subcontinent, before the peopling of Central and South America. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Regional air quality modeling: North American and European perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steyn, D.; Builtjes, P.; Schaap, M.; Yarwood, G.


    An overview of regional-scale quality modeling practices and perspectives in North America and Europe, highlighting the differences and commonalities in how regional-scale air quality modeling systems are being used and evaluated across both continents

  20. Racism in American Education: A Model for Change. (United States)

    Sedlacek, William E.; Brooks, Glenwood C., Jr.

    This book provides a practical approach or model for eliminating racism in education. The model has been developed over several years and is based on research and direct experience in various types and levels of educational settings. This model for change is aimed primarily at whites and/or white-oriented institutions. The book deals with the…

  1. Perpetual American put options in a level-dependent volatility model


    Ekström, Erik


    We find the explicit value of perpetual American put options in the constant elasticity of variance model using the concept of smooth fit. We show that the price is increasing in the volatility and convex in the underlying stock price. Moreover, as the model converges to the standard Black and Scholes model, the value of the put is shown to approach the `correct' limit.

  2. Parental Attachment, Cognitive Working Models, and Depression among African American College Students (United States)

    Love, Keisha M.; Murdock, Tamera B.


    In an attempt to understand the cognitive mechanisms by which parental attachments predict depression among African American college students, the authors examined a mediational path model containing parental attachment, cognitive working models, and depression. The model demonstrated a close fit to the data, and several significant paths emerged.…

  3. Understanding Chinese American Adolescents' Developmental Outcomes: Insights from the Family Stress Model (United States)

    Benner, Aprile D.; Kim, Su Yeong


    In this brief report, we investigated whether the Family Stress Model could be replicated with a sample of Chinese American families. Path analyses with 444 adolescents and their parents provided support for the model's generalizability. Specifically, mothers' and fathers' reports of economic status (i.e., income, financial, and job instability)…

  4. North American Carbon Project (NACP) Regional Model-Model and Model-Data Intercomparison Project (United States)

    Huntzinger, D. N.; Post, W. M.; Jacobson, A. R.; Cook, R. B.


    Available observations are localized and widely separated in both space and time, so we depend heavily on models to characterize, understand, and predict carbon fluxes at regional and global scales. The results from each model differ because they use different approaches (forward vs. inverse), modeling strategies (detailed process, statistical, observation based), process representation, boundary conditions, initial conditions, and driver data. To investigate these differences we conducted a model-model and model-data comparison using available forward ecosystem model and atmospheric inverse output, along with regional scale inventory data. Forward or "bottom-up" models typically estimate carbon fluxes through a set of physiological relationships, and are based on our current mechanistic understanding of how carbon is exchanged within ecosystems. Inverse or "top-down" analyses use measured atmospheric concentrations of CO2, coupled with an atmospheric transport model to infer surface flux distributions. Although bottom-up models do fairly well at reproducing measured fluxes (i.e., net ecosystem exchange) at a given location, they vary considerably in their estimates of carbon flux over regional or continental scales, suggesting difficulty in scaling mechanistic relationships to large areas and/or timescales. Conversely, top-down inverse models predict fluxes that are quantitatively consistent with atmospheric measurements, suggesting that they are capturing large scale variability in flux quite well, but offer limited insights into the processes controlling this variability and how fluxes vary at fine spatial scales. The analyses focused on identifying and quantifying spatial and temporal patterns of carbon fluxes among the models; quantifying across-model variability, as well as comparing simulated or estimated surface fluxes and biomass to observed values at regional to continental scales for the period 2000-2005. The analysis focused on the following three

  5. A Labor Market Success Model of Young Male Hispanic Americans. (United States)

    Seidenstat, Paul

    The study develops a labor market success model of young male inner-city Hispanics and examines several variables influencing labor market success. A sample of inner-city Puerto Ricans who attended the eighth grade in two schools in Wilmington, Delaware, in the 1966-1971 period was chosen and interviewed. Small control groups of blacks and whites…

  6. American Option Pricing using GARCH models and the Normal Inverse Gaussian distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentoft, Lars Peter

    In this paper we propose a feasible way to price American options in a model with time varying volatility and conditional skewness and leptokurtosis using GARCH processes and the Normal Inverse Gaussian distribution. We show how the risk neutral dynamics can be obtained in this model, we interpre....... In particular, improvements are found when considering the smile in implied standard deviations.......In this paper we propose a feasible way to price American options in a model with time varying volatility and conditional skewness and leptokurtosis using GARCH processes and the Normal Inverse Gaussian distribution. We show how the risk neutral dynamics can be obtained in this model, we interpret...... the effect of the riskneutralization, and we derive approximation procedures which allow for a computationally efficient implementation of the model. When the model is estimated on financial returns data the results indicate that compared to the Gaussian case the extension is important. A study of the model...

  7. Analysis of GRI North American Regional Gas Supply-Demand Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesbitt, D.M.; Singh, J.; Pine, G.D.; Kline, D.; Barron, M.; Cheung, P.D.


    This paper summarizes the results from the GRI North American Regional Gas Supply-Demand Model using the four scenarios defined for the Energy Modeling Forum Number 9 (EMF-9) described in EMF-9 Working Paper 9.4 (1987). The analysis is designed both to showcase the GRI North American Regional model as well as to infer meaningful results about the North American natural gas system. The focus of the analysis is not R ampersand D per se; R ampersand D analysis using the model is conducted regularly by GRI and described elsewhere. Rather, the objective is to analyze some of the major uncertainties in the North American gas market, uncertainties that potentially affect all players including GRI. In particular, the authors seek to quantify the overall economic environment in which production, transmission, distribution, consumption, and R ampersand D decisions will be made and how different that overall environment might be under alternative assumptions. An attendant objective of this analysis has been to enlist economists from a range of organizations (producers, regulators, GRI, and consultants) to carefully scrutinize the GRI North American Regional model and results. In particular, the coauthors were assembled from diverse organizations to review and evaluate model outputs, applying their particular experience and perspective. The four EMF-9 scenarios upon which this paper is based are described in detail later in this document. Briefly, scenario one represents a world with a surfeit of gas and a relatively high oil price projection; scenario two considers a lower oil price forecast; scenario three assumes a pessimistic outlook for the gas resource base with the same oil prices as scenario one; and scenario four examines a higher level of demand for gas in the North American gas market. An important objective of this analysis is to illustrate the predictive power of multi-scenario comparisons (as contrasted with detailed analysis of any individual scenario)

  8. American indians and spiritual needs during hospitalization: developing a model of spiritual care. (United States)

    Hodge, David R; Wolosin, Robert J


    Although spirituality is typically intertwined with health in Native cultures, little research has examined the relationship between American Indians' spiritual needs and overall satisfaction with service provision during hospitalization. This study examined this relationship, in tandem with the effects of 8 potential mediators, to develop a model of spiritual care for older hospitalized American Indians. Structural equation modeling was used with a sample of American Indians (N = 860), aged 50 and older, who were consecutively discharged from hospitals across the United States over a 12-month period. As posited, addressing spiritual needs was positively associated with overall satisfaction with service provision. The relationship between spiritual needs and satisfaction was fully mediated by 4 variables: nursing staff, the discharge process, physicians, and visitors. As the first study to develop and test a model of spiritual care for older hospitalized American Indians, this study provides practitioners with the information to provide more effective, culturally relevant services to older American Indians. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  9. A Model of Maternal and Paternal Ethnic Socialization of Mexican-American Adolescents' Self-Views. (United States)

    Knight, George P; Carlo, Gustavo; Streit, Cara; White, Rebecca M B


    Data from a sample of 462 Mexican-American adolescents (M = 10.4 years, SD = .55; 48.1% girls), mothers, and fathers were used to test an ethnic socialization model of ethnic identity and self-efficacy that also considered mainstream parenting styles (e.g., authoritative parenting). Findings supported the ethnic socialization model: parents' endorsement of Mexican-American values were associated with ethnic socialization at fifth grade and seventh grade; maternal ethnic socialization at fifth grade and paternal ethnic socialization at seventh grade were associated with adolescents' ethnic identity exploration at 10th grade and, in turn, self-efficacy at 12th grade. The findings support ethnic socialization conceptions of how self-views of ethnicity develop from childhood across adolescence in Mexican-American children. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. A Bayesian spawning habitat suitability model for American shad in southeastern United States rivers (United States)

    Hightower, Joseph E.; Harris, Julianne E.; Raabe, Joshua K.; Brownell, Prescott; Drew, C. Ashton


    Habitat suitability index models for American shad Alosa sapidissima were developed by Stier and Crance in 1985. These models, which were based on a combination of published information and expert opinion, are often used to make decisions about hydropower dam operations and fish passage. The purpose of this study was to develop updated habitat suitability index models for spawning American shad in the southeastern United States, building on the many field and laboratory studies completed since 1985. We surveyed biologists who had knowledge about American shad spawning grounds, assembled a panel of experts to discuss important habitat variables, and used raw data from published and unpublished studies to develop new habitat suitability curves. The updated curves are based on resource selection functions, which can model habitat selectivity based on use and availability of particular habitats. Using field data collected in eight rivers from Virginia to Florida (Mattaponi, Pamunkey, Roanoke, Tar, Neuse, Cape Fear, Pee Dee, St. Johns), we obtained new curves for temperature, current velocity, and depth that were generally similar to the original models. Our new suitability function for substrate was also similar to the original pattern, except that sand (optimal in the original model) has a very low estimated suitability. The Bayesian approach that we used to develop habitat suitability curves provides an objective framework for updating the model as new studies are completed and for testing the model's applicability in other parts of the species' range.

  11. A structural equation model analysis of perceived control and psychological distress on worry among African American and European American young adults. (United States)

    Chapman, L Kevin; Kertz, Sarah J; Woodruff-Borden, Janet


    Perceived control has been identified as an important factor in the development and maintenance of mood disorders, and worry has been shown to have a unique relationship with psychological distress associated with mood disorders. The relationships between these variables have received little attention in the literature, and even less in terms of the role racial status may serve. The current study investigated the structural relationship between psychological distress and perceived control in predicting self-reported worry as well as potential differences in paths to worry in African American and European American young adults using a structural equation model. One hundred twenty-one European American and 100 African American undergraduate students completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Anxiety Control Questionnaire (ACQ), and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ). Results suggest that psychological distress and perceived control predict worry in both the African American and European American samples, however there were significant differences in terms of which construct contributed most. For African Americans, psychological distress contributed significantly more to worry than perceived control, whereas low perceived control contributed more to worry for European Americans. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  12. A physiologically based toxicokinetic model for methylmercury in female American kestrels (United States)

    Nichols, J.W.; Bennett, R.S.; Rossmann, R.; French, J.B.; Sappington, K.G.


    A physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model was developed to describe the uptake, distribution, and elimination of methylmercury (CH 3Hg) in female American kestrels. The model consists of six tissue compartments corresponding to the brain, liver, kidney, gut, red blood cells, and remaining carcass. Additional compartments describe the elimination of CH3Hg to eggs and growing feathers. Dietary uptake of CH 3Hg was modeled as a diffusion-limited process, and the distribution of CH3Hg among compartments was assumed to be mediated by the flow of blood plasma. To the extent possible, model parameters were developed using information from American kestrels. Additional parameters were based on measured values for closely related species and allometric relationships for birds. The model was calibrated using data from dietary dosing studies with American kestrels. Good agreement between model simulations and measured CH3Hg concentrations in blood and tissues during the loading phase of these studies was obtained by fitting model parameters that control dietary uptake of CH 3Hg and possible hepatic demethylation. Modeled results tended to underestimate the observed effect of egg production on circulating levels of CH3Hg. In general, however, simulations were consistent with observed patterns of CH3Hg uptake and elimination in birds, including the dominant role of feather molt. This model could be used to extrapolate CH 3Hg kinetics from American kestrels to other bird species by appropriate reassignment of parameter values. Alternatively, when combined with a bioenergetics-based description, the model could be used to simulate CH 3Hg kinetics in a long-term environmental exposure. ?? 2010 SETAC.

  13. Tests of fit of historically-informed models of African American Admixture. (United States)

    Gross, Jessica M


    African American populations in the U.S. formed primarily by mating between Africans and Europeans over the last 500 years. To date, studies of admixture have focused on either a one-time admixture event or continuous input into the African American population from Europeans only. Our goal is to gain a better understanding of the admixture process by examining models that take into account (a) assortative mating by ancestry in the African American population, (b) continuous input from both Europeans and Africans, and (c) historically informed variation in the rate of African migration over time. We used a model-based clustering method to generate distributions of African ancestry in three samples comprised of 147 African Americans from two published sources. We used a log-likelihood method to examine the fit of four models to these distributions and used a log-likelihood ratio test to compare the relative fit of each model. The mean ancestry estimates for our datasets of 77% African/23% European to 83% African/17% European ancestry are consistent with previous studies. We find admixture models that incorporate continuous gene flow from Europeans fit significantly better than one-time event models, and that a model involving continuous gene flow from Africans and Europeans fits better than one with continuous gene flow from Europeans only for two samples. Importantly, models that involve continuous input from Africans necessitate a higher level of gene flow from Europeans than previously reported. We demonstrate that models that take into account information about the rate of African migration over the past 500 years fit observed patterns of African ancestry better than alternative models. Our approach will enrich our understanding of the admixture process in extant and past populations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The Relationship of School Art Therapy and the American School Counselor National Model (United States)

    Randick, Nicole M.; Dermer, Shannon B.


    Art therapists must overcome systemic challenges in order to continue to provide art therapy services in U.S. public schools. An understanding of how art therapy programs fit within the national standards of the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) and the ASCA National Model may help in this effort. This review article compares recently…

  15. Methamphetamine Use among Rural White and Native American Adolescents: An Application of the Stress Process Model (United States)

    Eitle, David J.; Eitle, Tamela McNulty


    Methamphetamine use has been identified as having significant adverse health consequences, yet we know little about the correlates of its use. Additionally, research has found that Native Americans are at the highest risk for methamphetamine use. Our exploratory study, informed by the stress process model, examines stress and stress buffering…

  16. On the Perpetual American Put Options for Level Dependent Volatility Models with Jumps


    Bayraktar, Erhan


    We prove that the perpetual American put option price of level dependent volatility model with compound Poisson jumps is convex and is the classical solution of its associated quasi-variational inequality, that it is $C^2$ except at the stopping boundary and that it is $C^1$ everywhere (i.e. the smooth pasting condition always holds).

  17. A tree-based method to price American options in the Heston model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellekoop, M.; Nieuwenhuis, H.


    We develop an algorithm to price American options on assets that follow the stochastic volatility model defined by Heston. We use an approach which is based on a modification of a combined tree for stock prices and volatilities, where the number of nodes grows quadratically in the number of time

  18. Analysis of Bilingual Children’s Performance on the English and Spanish Versions of the Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey-R (WMLS-R) (United States)

    Sandilos, Lia E.; Lewis, Kandia; Komaroff, Eugene; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Scarpino, Shelley E.; Lopez, Lisa; Rodriguez, Barbara; Goldstein, Brian


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the way in which items on the Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey Revised (WMLS-R) Spanish and English versions function for bilingual children from different ethnic subgroups who speak different dialects of Spanish. Using data from a sample of 324 bilingual Hispanic families and their children living on the United States mainland, differential item functioning (DIF) was conducted to determine if test items in English and Spanish functioned differently for Mexican, Cuban, and Puerto Rican bilingual children. Data on child and parent language characteristics and children’s scores on Picture Vocabulary and Story Recall subtests in English and Spanish were collected. DIF was not detected for items on the Spanish subtests. Results revealed that some items on English subtests displayed statistically and practically significant DIF. The findings indicate that there are differences in the difficulty level of WMLS-R English-form test items depending on the examinees’ ethnic subgroup membership. This outcome suggests that test developers need to be mindful of potential differences in performance based on ethnic subgroup and dialect when developing standardized language assessments that may be administered to bilingual students. PMID:26705400

  19. No Habitat Selection during Spring Migration at a Meso-Scale Range across Mosaic Landscapes: A Case Study with the Woodcock (Scolopax rusticola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariñe Crespo

    Full Text Available Success of migration in birds in part depends on habitat selection. Overall, it is still poorly known whether there is habitat selection amongst landbird migrants moving across landscapes. Europe is chiefly covered by agro-forestry mosaic landscapes, so migratory species associated to either agricultural landscapes or woodland habitats should theoretically find suitable stopover sites along migration. During migration from wintering to breeding quarters, woodcocks (Scolopax rusticola tagged with PTT satellite-tracking transmitters were used to test for the hypothesis that migrants associated to agro-forest habitats have no habitat selection during migration, at a meso-scale level. Using a GIS platform we extracted at a meso-scale range habitat cover at stopover localities. Results obtained from comparisons of soil covers between points randomly selected and true stopover localities sites revealed, as expected, the species may not select for particular habitats at a meso-scale range, because the habitat (or habitats required by the species can be found virtually everywhere on their migration route. However, those birds stopping over in places richer in cropland or mosaic habitats including both cropland and forest and with proportionally less closed forest stayed for longer than in areas with lower surfaces of cropland and mosaic and more closed forest. This suggests that areas rich in cropland or mosaic habitat were optimal.

  20. Numerically pricing American options under the generalized mixed fractional Brownian motion model (United States)

    Chen, Wenting; Yan, Bowen; Lian, Guanghua; Zhang, Ying


    In this paper, we introduce a robust numerical method, based on the upwind scheme, for the pricing of American puts under the generalized mixed fractional Brownian motion (GMFBM) model. By using portfolio analysis and applying the Wick-Itô formula, a partial differential equation (PDE) governing the prices of vanilla options under the GMFBM is successfully derived for the first time. Based on this, we formulate the pricing of American puts under the current model as a linear complementarity problem (LCP). Unlike the classical Black-Scholes (B-S) model or the generalized B-S model discussed in Cen and Le (2011), the newly obtained LCP under the GMFBM model is difficult to be solved accurately because of the numerical instability which results from the degeneration of the governing PDE as time approaches zero. To overcome this difficulty, a numerical approach based on the upwind scheme is adopted. It is shown that the coefficient matrix of the current method is an M-matrix, which ensures its stability in the maximum-norm sense. Remarkably, we have managed to provide a sharp theoretic error estimate for the current method, which is further verified numerically. The results of various numerical experiments also suggest that this new approach is quite accurate, and can be easily extended to price other types of financial derivatives with an American-style exercise feature under the GMFBM model.

  1. Department of Defense Natural Resources Program: American Woodcock (Scolopax minor). Section 4.1.2. US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual (United States)


    creeper (Campsis radicans), greenbriers (3milax spp.), poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), and grapes (Vitis spp.) are 23 A I IeI I 0 f.v Figure 10. Good...well as scattered clumps of shrubs and small trees. Agricultural fields were used extensively after crops had been harvested and only the cutoff stalks

  2. The role and meaning of susto in Mexican Americans' explanatory model of type 2 diabetes. (United States)

    Poss, Jane; Jezewski, Mary Ann


    This article examines the role and meaning of susto (fright) in Mexican Americans' explanatory model (EM) of type 2 diabetes. This analysis is based on a study of the health beliefs about type 2 diabetes mellitus among Mexican Americans living in El Paso County, Texas, on the U.S.-Mexico border. Susto was described as an event that could change the bodily state, causing a susceptible person to be more vulnerable to the onset of type 2 diabetes after some unspecified time. The study results illustrate the integration of multiple etiologies into Mexican Americans' EMs of diabetes and illustrate how the environment affects the way in which these explanations are manifested. Acculturation of biomedical system beliefs into the traditional Mexican health belief system has resulted in a synthesis of both systems and a blending of the participants' explanation of type 2 diabetes.

  3. A structural model of racial discrimination, acculturative stress, and cultural resources among Arab American adolescents. (United States)

    Ahmed, Sawssan R; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Tsai, Katherine H


    Despite evidence towards the risk for discrimination and acculturative stress that Arab American adolescents may face, the link between socio-cultural adversities and psychological well-being in this population has not been established. This study examined the role of socio-cultural adversities (discrimination and acculturative stress) and cultural resources (ethnic identity, religious support and religious coping) in terms of their direct impact on psychological distress. Using structural equation modeling, the proposed model was tested with 240 Arab American adolescents. The results indicated a strong positive relationship between socio-cultural adversities and psychological distress. Furthermore, this study supported a promotive model of cultural resources, where a negative association between cultural resources and psychological distress was found. Understanding the manner in which socio-cultural adversities and resources are linked to psychological distress can inform the development of culturally appropriate interventions that can effectively mitigate mental health concerns for understudied and vulnerable populations.

  4. High Resolution 3D Models for the Teaching of American Sign Language. (United States)

    Odor, Alberto


    Millions of Americans in all age groups are affected by deafness and impaired hearing. They communicate with others using the American Sign Language (ASL). Teaching is tutorial (person-to-person) or with limited video content. We believe that high resolution 3D models and their animations can be used to effectively teach the ASL, with the following advantages over the traditional teaching approach: a) signing can be played at varying speeds and as many times as necessary, b) being 3-D constructs, models can be viewed from diverse angles, c) signing can be applied to different characters (male, female, child, elderly, etc.), d) special editing like close-ups, picture-in-picture, and phantom movements, can make learning easier, and e) clothing, surrounding environment and lighting conditions can be varied to present the student to less than ideal situations.

  5. Testing a Moderated Mediation Model of Mindfulness, Psychosocial Stress, and Alcohol Use among African American Smokers. (United States)

    Adams, Claire E; Cano, Miguel A; Heppner, Whitney L; Stewart, Diana W; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Li, Yisheng; Cinciripini, Paul M; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Wetter, David W


    Mindfulness-based strategies have received empirical support for improving coping with stress and reducing alcohol use. The present study presents a moderated mediation model to explain how mindfulness might promote healthier drinking patterns. This model posits that mindfulness reduces perceived stress, leading to less alcohol use, and also weakens the linkage between stress and alcohol use. African American smokers ( N = 399, 51% female, M age = 42) completed measures of dispositional mindfulness, perceived stress, quantity of alcohol use, frequency of binge drinking, and alcohol use disorder symptoms. Participants with higher levels of dispositional mindfulness reported less psychosocial stress and lower alcohol use on all measures. Furthermore, mindfulness moderated the relationship between perceived stress and quantity of alcohol consumption. Specifically, higher perceived stress was associated with increased alcohol use among participants low, but not high, in mindfulness. Mindfulness may be one strategy to reduce perceived stress and associated alcohol use among African American smokers.

  6. Testing a Moderated Mediation Model of Mindfulness, Psychosocial Stress, and Alcohol Use among African American Smokers (United States)

    Cano, Miguel A.; Heppner, Whitney L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Li, Yisheng; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Wetter, David W.


    Mindfulness-based strategies have received empirical support for improving coping with stress and reducing alcohol use. The present study presents a moderated mediation model to explain how mindfulness might promote healthier drinking patterns. This model posits that mindfulness reduces perceived stress, leading to less alcohol use, and also weakens the linkage between stress and alcohol use. African American smokers (N = 399, 51% female, Mage = 42) completed measures of dispositional mindfulness, perceived stress, quantity of alcohol use, frequency of binge drinking, and alcohol use disorder symptoms. Participants with higher levels of dispositional mindfulness reported less psychosocial stress and lower alcohol use on all measures. Furthermore, mindfulness moderated the relationship between perceived stress and quantity of alcohol consumption. Specifically, higher perceived stress was associated with increased alcohol use among participants low, but not high, in mindfulness. Mindfulness may be one strategy to reduce perceived stress and associated alcohol use among African American smokers. PMID:25848408

  7. «American» and «Bolognese» Models of Engineer: A Comparison of Skills


    Aleksandr Chuchalin


    The article analyzes the skill standards of engineering graduates and professional engineers formulated by various international bodies (Washington Accord, Engineers Mobility Forum, Federation Europeenne d'Associations Nationales d'Ingenieurs, European Network for Accreditation of Engineering Education). It considers the specific features of the ?American? and the ?Bolognese? models of an engineer, and discusses which of them should be taken in consideration for creating the new Federal Educa...

  8. Density heterogeneity of the North American upper mantle from satellite gravity and a regional crustal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herceg, Matija; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans


    and by introducing variations into the crustal structure which corresponds to the uncertainty of its resolution by highquality and low-quality seismic models. We examine the propagation of these uncertainties into determinations of lithospheric mantle density. Given a relatively small range of expected density......We present a regional model for the density structure of the North American upper mantle. The residual mantle gravity anomalies are based on gravity data derived from the GOCE geopotential models with crustal correction to the gravity field being calculated from a regional crustal model. We analyze...... how uncertainties and errors in the crustal model propagate from crustal densities to mantle residual gravity anomalies and the density model of the upper mantle. Uncertainties in the residual upper (lithospheric) mantle gravity anomalies result from several sources: (i) uncertainties in the velocity-density...

  9. Promoting advance directives among African Americans: a faith-based model. (United States)

    Bullock, Karen


    Studies show that African Americans are less likely than other ethnic groups to complete advance directives. However, what influences African Americans' decisions to complete or not complete advance directives is unclear. Using a faith-based promotion model, 102 African Americans aged 55 years or older were recruited from local churches and community-based agencies to participate in a pilot study to promote advance care planning. Focus groups were used to collect data on participants' preferences for care, desire to make personal choices, values and attitudes, beliefs about death and dying, and advance directives. A standardized interview was used in the focus groups, and the data were organized and analyzed using NUDIST 4 software (QRS Software, Victoria, Australia). Three fourths of the participants refused to complete advance directives. The following factors influenced the participants' decisions about end-of-life care and completion of an advance directive: spirituality; view of suffering, death, and dying; social support networks; barriers to utilization; and mistrust of the health care system. The dissemination of information apprises individuals of their right to self-determine about their care, but educational efforts may not produce a significant change in behavior toward completion of advance care planning. Thus, ongoing efforts are needed to improve the trust that African Americans have in medical and health care providers.

  10. Explanatory models of obesity of inner-city African-American adolescent males. (United States)

    Ashcraft, Pamela F


    The purpose of this phenomenological inquiry was to construct an explanatory model of illness in inner-city African-American adolescent males using Kleinman's Explanatory Model of Illness as a framework. Thirteen males were enrolled in this study. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were used to explore adolescents' perspectives regarding the nature, cause, prevention and responses to obesity; their perception of self; and meanings they attach to obesity with particular emphasis on existing attitudes, expectations, and values. Data analysis was achieved through a process of inductive content analysis. Findings, future research and clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fabricating authenticity: modeling a whale at the American Museum of Natural History, 1906-1974. (United States)

    Rossi, Michael


    Historians of science have in recent years become increasingly attentive to the ways in which issues of process, matter, meaning, and value combine in the fabrication of scientific objects. This essay examines the techniques that went into the construction--and authentication--of one such scientific object: a model of a blue, or "sulfur-bottom," whale manufactured at the American Museum of Natural History in 1907. In producing their model, exhibitors at the American Museum employed a patchwork of overlapping discursive, procedural, and material techniques to argue that their fabrication was as authentic--as truthful, accurate, authoritative, and morally and aesthetically worthy of display--as an exhibit containing a real, preserved cetacean. Through an examination of the archival and published traces left by these exhibitors as they built their whale, I argue that the scientific meanings of authenticity at the American Museum were neither static nor timeless, but rather were subject to constant negotiation, examination, re-evaluation, and upkeep.

  12. The sociocultural health behavioral model and disparities in colorectal cancer screening among Chinese Americans. (United States)

    Ma, Grace X; Wang, Min Qi; Ma, Xiang S; Kim, Giyeon; Toubbeh, Jamil; Shive, Steven


    The purpose of this study was to validate a Sociocultural Health Behavior Model using a structural equation analysis to determine the direction and magnitude of the interdependence of model components in relation to health behavior associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among Chinese Americans. A cross-sectional design included a sample of 311 Chinese American men and women age 50 and older. The initial step involved use of confirmatory factor analysis which included the following variables: access/satisfaction with health care, enabling, predisposing, cultural, and health belief factors. Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted on factors for CRC screening. Education and health insurance status were significantly related to CRC screening. Those with less than a high school education and without health insurance were more likely to be "never screened" for CRC than those having more education and health insurance. The path analysis findings also lend support for components of the Sociocultural Health Belief Model and indicated that there was a positive and significant relationship between CRC screening and the enabling factors, between cultural factors and predisposing, enabling, and access/satisfaction with health care factors and between enabling factors and access/satisfaction with health care. The model highlights the significance that sociocultural factors play in relation to CRC screening and reinforced the need to assist Chinese with poor English proficiency in translation and awareness of the importance of CRC screening. The use of community organizations may play a role in assisting Chinese to enhance colorectal cancer screening rates.

  13. Breast cancer screening behaviors among Korean American immigrant women: findings from the Health Belief Model. (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Stange, Mia Ju; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S


    This study examined the utilization of clinical breast examinations (CBEs) and mammograms among Korean American immigrant women and investigated how the six constructs of Health Belief Model (HBM) are associated with the receipt of breast cancer screening. Using a quota sampling strategy, 202 Korean American immigrant women were recruited in metropolitan areas in the northeastern United States. Approximately 64% of the participants reported having had at least one CBE in their lifetime, and about 81% of the sample had undergone at least one mammogram in their lifetime. Women who perceived themselves to be susceptible to breast cancer were more likely to have undergone a CBE, and women who had lower barriers to screening or demonstrated a higher level of confidence were more likely than their counterparts to undergo a mammogram. Findings suggest that HBM constructs such as susceptibility, barriers, and confidence should be considered when designing interventions aimed at promoting breast cancer screening. © The Author(s) 2014.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rykova, O.V.


    Full Text Available The topicality of the research in modern linguistics is defined by the importance of studying the problem of the dynamic nature of the concept content, the need to define the connection type between the concept and discourse as well as to reveal the dependence of the concept content and verbalization means from the type of discourse. The subject of the research is dynamic properties of the verbalization of a socially marked concept in American mass media discourse. The aim is to define the dynamics of structuring and explicating the knowledge about terrorism in mass media discourse. To reach the aim the following tasks are set: to determine the corpus of linguistic units which serve as verbalizers of the concept of terrorism in American mass media discourse; to define the dynamics of the verbal representation of the concept of terrorism in American mass media discourse as exemplified by metaphoric modelling. The practical applicability of the research consists in the possibility of using its main points and results in such academic courses as general linguistics, stylistics, cultural linguistics, special courses in cognitive linguistics, theory of conceptual metaphor, discourse study and in lexicographic practice.

  15. Disordered eating among Asian American college women: A racially expanded model of objectification theory. (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Tran, Alisia G T T; Miyake, Elisa R; Kim, Helen Youngju


    Objectification theory has been applied to understand disordered eating among college women. A recent extension of objectification theory (Moradi, 2010) conceptualizes racism as a socialization experience that shapes women of color's objectification experiences, yet limited research has examined this theoretical assertion. The present study proposed and examined a racially expanded model of objectification theory that postulated perceived racial discrimination, perpetual foreigner racism, and racial/ethnic teasing as correlates of Asian American college women's (N = 516) self-objectification processes and eating disorder symptomatology. Perceived racial discrimination, perpetual foreigner racism, and racial/ethnic teasing were indirectly associated with eating disordered symptomatology through self-objectification processes of internalization of media ideals of beauty (media internalization), body surveillance, and body shame. Results support the inclusion of racial stressors as contexts of objectification for Asian American women. The present findings also underscore perceived racial discrimination, racial/ethnic teasing, and perpetual foreigner racism as group-specific risk factors with major theoretical, empirical, and clinical relevance to eating disorder research and treatment with Asian American college women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Health behavior change models and their socio-cultural relevance for breast cancer screening in African American women. (United States)

    Ashing-Giwa, K


    Models of health behavior provide the conceptual bases for most of the breast cancer screening intervention studies. These models were not designed for and have not been adequately tested with African American women. The models discussed in this paper are: The Health Belief Model, the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior, and the Transtheoretical Model. This paper will examine the socio-cultural relevance of these health behavior models, and discuss specific socio-cultural dimensions that are not accounted for by these paradigms. It is critical that researchers include socio-cultural dimensions, such as interconnectedness, health socialization, ecological factors and health care system factors into their intervention models with African American women. Comprehensive and socio-culturally based investigations are necessary to guide the scientific and policy challenge for reducing breast cancer mortality in African American women.

  17. A large-scale linear complementarity model of the North American natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, Steven A.; Jifang Zhuang; Kiet, Supat


    The North American natural gas market has seen significant changes recently due to deregulation and restructuring. For example, third party marketers can contract for transportation and purchase of gas to sell to end-users. While the intent was a more competitive market, the potential for market power exists. We analyze this market using a linear complementarity equilibrium model including producers, storage and peak gas operators, third party marketers and four end-use sectors. The marketers are depicted as Nash-Cournot players determining supply to meet end-use consumption, all other players are in perfect competition. Results based on National Petroleum Council scenarios are presented. (Author)

  18. Globalization and the American Model of Urban Development: Making the Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kantor


    Full Text Available Ce travail discute de l’argument selon lequel le modèle de développement urbain américain serait le reflet d’une pénétration du niveau local par de nouvelles forces libérées par la globalisation économique. Bien que le modèle américain contienne de nombreuses caractéristiques néo-libérales, cette analyse dévoile le rôle important joué par le gouvernement américain dans la constitution d’un système urbain radicalement décentralisé bien avant la nouvelle économie. Il montre également comment ce système est activement soutenu par une intervention croissante de l’Etat à tous les niveaux. La nouvelle économie ne saurait être confondue avec le modèle américain de développement. Au contraire, l’expérience urbaine américaine révèle bien le caractère essentiellement politique du processus de globalisation et le rôle omniprésent des politiques publiques dans son fonctionnement.This survey questions whether the American model of urban development reflects penetration of the local state by new forces unleashed by economic globalization. Although the American model incorporates many neo-liberal features, this analysis describes how government in the USA actually played a key role in erecting a radically decentralized urban system in advance of the new economy. It also surveys how this system is actively sustained through growing state intervention at all governmental levels. The new economy should not be conflated with the American model of development. Rather, the American urban experience is suggestive of the essentially political character of the globalization process and the ubiquitous role of public policy in making it work.

  19. The sociocultural health behavioral model and disparities in colorectal cancer screening among Chinese Americans (United States)

    Ma, Grace X; Wang, Min Qi; Ma, Xiang S; Kim, Giyeon; Toubbeh, Jamil; Shive, Steven


    Objective The purpose of this study was to validate a Sociocultural Health Behavior Model using a structural equation analysis to determine the direction and magnitude of the interdependence of model components in relation to health behavior associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among Chinese Americans. Methods A cross-sectional design included a sample of 311 Chinese American men and women age 50 and older. The initial step involved use of confirmatory factor analysis which included the following variables: access/satisfaction with health care, enabling, predisposing, cultural, and health belief factors. Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted on factors for CRC screening. Results Education and health insurance status were significantly related to CRC screening. Those with less than a high school education and without health insurance were more likely to be “never screened” for CRC than those having more education and health insurance. The path analysis findings also lend support for components of the Sociocultural Health Belief Model and indicated that there was a positive and significant relationship between CRC screening and the enabling factors, between cultural factors and predisposing, enabling, and access/satisfaction with health care factors and between enabling factors and access/satisfaction with health care. Conclusions The model highlights the significance that sociocultural factors play in relation to CRC screening and reinforced the need to assist Chinese with poor English proficiency in translation and awareness of the importance of CRC screening. The use of community organizations may play a role in assisting Chinese to enhance colorectal cancer screening rates. PMID:25364475

  20. Comparisons of patch-use models for wintering American tree sparrows (United States)

    Tome, M.W.


    Optimal foraging theory has stimulated numerous theoretical and empirical studies of foraging behavior for >20 years. These models provide a valuable tool for studying the foraging behavior of an organism. As with any other tool, the models are most effective when properly used. For example, to obtain a robust test of a foraging model, Stephens and Krebs (1986) recommend experimental designs in which four questions are answered in the affirmative. First, do the foragers play the same "game" as the model? Sec- ond, are the assumptions of the model met? Third, does the test rule out alternative possibilities? Finally, are the appropriate variables measured? Negative an- swers to any of these questions could invalidate the model and lead to confusion over the usefulness of foraging theory in conducting ecological studies. Gaines (1989) attempted to determine whether American Tree Sparrows (Spizella arborea) foraged by a time (Krebs 1973) or number expectation rule (Gibb 1962), or in a manner consistent with the predictions of Charnov's (1976) marginal value theorem (MVT). Gaines (1989: 118) noted appropriately that field tests of foraging models frequently involve uncontrollable circumstances; thus, it is often difficult to meet the assumptions of the models. Gaines also states (1989: 118) that "violations of the assumptions are also in- formative but do not constitute robust tests of predicted hypotheses," and that "the problem can be avoided by experimental analyses which concurrently test mutually exclusive hypotheses so that alter- native predictions will be eliminated if falsified." There is a problem with this approach because, when major assumptions of models are not satisfied, it is not justifiable to compare a predator's foraging behavior with the model's predictions. I submit that failing to follow the advice offered by Stephens and Krebs (1986) can invalidate tests of foraging models.

  1. Consequences of shoaling of the Central American Seaway determined from modeling Nd isotopes (United States)

    Sepulchre, P.; Arsouze, T.; Donnadieu, Y.; Dutay, J.-C.; Jaramillo, C.; Le Bras, J.; Martin, E.; Montes, C.; Waite, A. J.


    The Central American Seaway played a pivotal role in shaping global climate throughout the late Cenozoic. Recent geological surveys have provided new constraints on timing of the seaway shoaling, while neodymium isotopic (ɛNd) data measured on fossil teeth, debris, and ferromanganese crusts have helped define the history of water masses in the region. Here we provide the first 3-D simulations of ɛNd responses to the shoaling seaway. Our model suggests that a narrow and shallow seaway is sufficient to affect interoceanic circulation, that inflow/outflow balance between the Caribbean and the Antilles responds nonlinearly to sill depth, and that a seaway narrower than 400 km is consistent with an active Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the late Miocene. Simulated ɛNd values in the Caribbean confirm that inputs from radiogenic Pacific waters in the Caribbean decrease as the seaway shoals. Despite model limitations, a comparison between our results and ɛNd values recorded in the Caribbean helps constrain the depth of the Central American Seaway through time, and we infer that a depth between 50 and 200 m could have been reached 10 Ma ago.

  2. Simulating North American mesoscale convective systems with a convection-permitting climate model (United States)

    Prein, Andreas F.; Liu, Changhai; Ikeda, Kyoko; Bullock, Randy; Rasmussen, Roy M.; Holland, Greg J.; Clark, Martyn


    Deep convection is a key process in the climate system and the main source of precipitation in the tropics, subtropics, and mid-latitudes during summer. Furthermore, it is related to high impact weather causing floods, hail, tornadoes, landslides, and other hazards. State-of-the-art climate models have to parameterize deep convection due to their coarse grid spacing. These parameterizations are a major source of uncertainty and long-standing model biases. We present a North American scale convection-permitting climate simulation that is able to explicitly simulate deep convection due to its 4-km grid spacing. We apply a feature-tracking algorithm to detect hourly precipitation from Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) in the model and compare it with radar-based precipitation estimates east of the US Continental Divide. The simulation is able to capture the main characteristics of the observed MCSs such as their size, precipitation rate, propagation speed, and lifetime within observational uncertainties. In particular, the model is able to produce realistically propagating MCSs, which was a long-standing challenge in climate modeling. However, the MCS frequency is significantly underestimated in the central US during late summer. We discuss the origin of this frequency biases and suggest strategies for model improvements.

  3. Conceptual Model of Weight Management in Overweight and Obese African-American Females. (United States)

    Sutton, Suzanne M; Magwood, Gayenell S; Nemeth, Lynne S; Jenkins, Carolyn M


    Weight management of overweight and obese (OWO) African-American females (AAFs) is a poorly defined concept, leading to ineffective treatment of overweight and obesity, prevention of health sequelae, and risk reduction. A conceptual model of the phenomenon of weight management in OWO AAFs was developed through dimensional analysis of the literature. Constructs were identified and sorted into the dimensions of perspective, context, conditions, process, and consequences and integrated into an explanatory matrix. Through dimensional analysis, weight management in OWO AAFs was characterized as a multidimensional concept, defined from the perspective of weight loss in community-dwelling AAFs. Behaviors associated with weight management are strongly influenced by intrinsic factors and extrinsic conditions, which influence engagement in the processes and consequences of weight management. The resulting conceptual model of weight management in OWO AAFs provides a framework for research interventions applicable in a variety of settings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Gas analysis modeling system forecast for the Energy Modeling Forum North American Natural Gas Market Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariner-Volpe, B.; Trapmann, W.


    The Gas Analysis Modeling System is a large computer-based model for analyzing the complex US natural gas industry, including production, transportation, and consumption activities. The model was developed and first used in 1982 after the passage of the NGPA, which initiated a phased decontrol of most natural gas prices at the wellhead. The categorization of gas under the NGPA and the contractual nature of the natural gas market, which existed at the time, were primary factors in the development of the basic structure of the model. As laws and regulations concerning the natural gas market have changed, the model has evolved accordingly. Recent increases in competition in the wellhead market have also led to changes in the model. GAMS produces forecasts of natural gas production, consumption, and prices annually through 2010. It is an engineering-economic model that incorporates several different mathematical structures in order to represent the interaction of the key groups involved in the natural gas market. GAMS has separate supply and demand components that are equilibrated for each year of the forecast by means of a detailed transaction network

  5. Understanding the sociocultural context of coping for African American family members of homicide victims: a conceptual model. (United States)

    Sharpe, Tanya L


    The disproportionate representation of African American survivors of homicide victims places them at greater risk for compromised mental health. However, an examination of factors that influence how this population copes with this traumatic event is absent from the literature. This article elucidates the importance of sociocultural factors that influence coping resources and strategies for African Americans surviving the homicide of a loved one. A socioculturally responsive model of coping is presented that can be utilized in furthering the development of research and practice that is culturally responsive to the needs of African American survivors of homicide victims. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Native South American genetic structure and prehistory inferred from hierarchical modeling of mtDNA. (United States)

    Lewis, Cecil M; Long, Jeffrey C


    Genetic diversity in Native South Americans forms a complex pattern at both the continental and local levels. In comparing the West to the East, there is more variation within groups and smaller genetic distances between groups. From this pattern, researchers have proposed that there is more variation in the West and that a larger, more genetically diverse, founding population entered the West than the East. Here, we question this characterization of South American genetic variation and its interpretation. Our concern arises because others have inferred regional variation from the mean variation within local populations without taking into account the variation among local populations within the same region. This failure produces a biased view of the actual variation in the East. In this study, we analyze the mitochondrial DNA sequence between positions 16040 and 16322 of the Cambridge reference sequence. Our sample represents a total of 886 people from 27 indigenous populations from South (22), Central (3), and North America (2). The basic unit of our analyses is nucleotide identity by descent, which is easily modeled and proportional to nucleotide diversity. We use a forward modeling strategy to fit a series of nested models to identity by descent within and between all pairs of local populations. This method provides estimates of identity by descent at different levels of population hierarchy without assuming homogeneity within populations, regions, or continents. Our main discovery is that Eastern South America harbors more genetic variation than has been recognized. We find no evidence that there is increased identity by descent in the East relative to the total for South America. By contrast, we discovered that populations in the Western region, as a group, harbor more identity by descent than has been previously recognized, despite the fact that average identity by descent within groups is lower. In this light, there is no need to postulate separate founding

  7. American = Independent? (United States)

    Markus, Hazel Rose


    U.S. American cultures and psyches reflect and promote independence. Devos and Banaji (2005) asked, does American equal White? This article asks, does American equal independent? The answer is that when compared to people in East Asian or South Asian contexts, people in American contexts tend to show an independent psychological signature-a sense of self as individual, separate, influencing others and the world, free from influence, and equal to, if not better than, others (Markus & Conner, 2013). Independence is a reasonable description of the selves of people in the White, middle-class American mainstream. Yet it is a less good characterization of the selves of the majority of Americans who are working-class and/or people of color. A cultural psychological approach reveals that much of North American psychology is still grounded in an independent model of the self and, as such, neglects social contexts and the psychologies of a majority of Americans. Given the prominence of independence in American ideas and institutions, the interdependent tendencies that arise from intersections of national culture with social class, race, and ethnicity go unrecognized and are often misunderstood and stigmatized. This unseen clash of independence and interdependence is a significant factor in many challenges, including those of education, employment, health, immigration, criminal justice, and political polarization.

  8. Preventing baby bottle tooth decay in American Indian and Alaska native communities: a model for planning. (United States)

    Bruerd, B; Kinney, M B; Bothwell, E


    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a preventable dental disease which surveys have shown affects more than 50 percent of Native American children. An experimental program to prevent BBTD was implemented in 12 Native American communities. The project represented a cooperative effort by three Department of Health and Human Service agencies: Administration for Children, Youth, and Families, Head Start Bureau; Indian Health Service, Dental Program; and Centers for Disease Control, Dental Disease Prevention Activity. Intervention strategies included the training of parent volunteers, health professionals, and the tribal employees who counseled caretakers of young children and made group presentations. There was also a media campaign in each community that ran for a 3-year period. Numerous educational materials were developed including training manuals, counseling booklets, tippee cups, posters, and bumper stickers. The BBTD project's planners encouraged tailoring the education materials and strategies to fit each community. Preliminary results documented statistically significant decreases in the prevalence of BBTD at the pilot sites. This multidisciplinary, comprehensive intervention offers a model for organizing members of minority communities to prevent health problems. Images p634-a p635-a p635-b PMID:2511598

  9. Modeling anuran detection and site occupancy on North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) routes in Maryland (United States)

    Weir, L.A.; Royle, J. Andrew; Nanjappa, P.; Jung, R.E.


    One of the most fundamental problems in monitoring animal populations is that of imperfect detection. Although imperfect detection can be modeled, studies examining patterns in occurrence often ignore detection and thus fail to properly partition variation in detection from that of occurrence. In this study, we used anuran calling survey data collected on North American Amphibian Monitoring Program routes in eastern Maryland to investigate factors that influence detection probability and site occupancy for 10 anuran species. In 2002, 17 calling survey routes in eastern Maryland were surveyed to collect environmental and species data nine or more times. To analyze these data, we developed models incorporating detection probability and site occupancy. The results suggest that, for more than half of the 10 species, detection probabilities vary most with season (i.e., day-of-year), air temperature, time, and moon illumination, whereas site occupancy may vary by the amount of palustrine forested wetland habitat. Our results suggest anuran calling surveys should document air temperature, time of night, moon illumination, observer skill, and habitat change over time, as these factors can be important to model-adjusted estimates of site occupancy. Our study represents the first formal modeling effort aimed at developing an analytic assessment framework for NAAMP calling survey data.

  10. Modeling the North American vertical datum of 1988 errors in the conterminous United States (United States)

    Li, X.


    A large systematic difference (ranging from -20 cm to +130 cm) was found between NAVD 88 (North AmericanVertical Datum of 1988) and the pure gravimetric geoid models. This difference not only makes it very difficult to augment the local geoid model by directly using the vast NAVD 88 network with state-of-the-art technologies recently developed in geodesy, but also limits the ability of researchers to effectively demonstrate the geoid model improvements on the NAVD 88 network. Here, both conventional regression analyses based on various predefined basis functions such as polynomials, B-splines, and Legendre functions and the Latent Variable Analysis (LVA) such as the Factor Analysis (FA) are used to analyze the systematic difference. Besides giving a mathematical model, the regression results do not reveal a great deal about the physical reasons that caused the large differences in NAVD 88, which may be of interest to various researchers. Furthermore, there is still a significant amount of no-Gaussian signals left in the residuals of the conventional regression models. On the other side, the FA method not only provides a better not of the data, but also offers possible explanations of the error sources. Without requiring extra hypothesis tests on the model coefficients, the results from FA are more efficient in terms of capturing the systematic difference. Furthermore, without using a covariance model, a novel interpolating method based on the relationship between the loading matrix and the factor scores is developed for predictive purposes. The prediction error analysis shows that about 3-7 cm precision is expected in NAVD 88 after removing the systematic difference.

  11. Modeling the North American vertical datum of 1988 errors in the conterminous United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X.


    Full Text Available A large systematic difference (ranging from −20 cm to +130 cm was found between NAVD 88 (North AmericanVertical Datum of 1988 and the pure gravimetric geoid models. This difference not only makes it very difficult to augment the local geoid model by directly using the vast NAVD 88 network with state-of-the-art technologies recently developed in geodesy, but also limits the ability of researchers to effectively demonstrate the geoid model improvements on the NAVD 88 network. Here, both conventional regression analyses based on various predefined basis functions such as polynomials, B-splines, and Legendre functions and the Latent Variable Analysis (LVA such as the Factor Analysis (FA are used to analyze the systematic difference. Besides giving a mathematical model, the regression results do not reveal a great deal about the physical reasons that caused the large differences in NAVD 88, which may be of interest to various researchers. Furthermore, there is still a significant amount of no-Gaussian signals left in the residuals of the conventional regression models. On the other side, the FA method not only provides a better not of the data, but also offers possible explanations of the error sources. Without requiring extra hypothesis tests on the model coefficients, the results from FA are more efficient in terms of capturing the systematic difference. Furthermore, without using a covariance model, a novel interpolating method based on the relationship between the loading matrix and the factor scores is developed for predictive purposes. The prediction error analysis shows that about 3-7 cm precision is expected in NAVD 88 after removing the systematic difference.

  12. Abstracts and program proceedings of the 1994 meeting of the International Society for Ecological Modelling North American Chapter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercher, J.R.


    This document contains information about the 1994 meeting of the International Society for Ecological Modelling North American Chapter. The topics discussed include: extinction risk assessment modelling, ecological risk analysis of uranium mining, impacts of pesticides, demography, habitats, atmospheric deposition, and climate change.

  13. Training the Next Generation of Scientists: System Dynamics Modeling of Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis) transmission. (United States)

    Goff, P.; Hulse, A.; Harder, H. R.; Pierce, L. A.; Rizzo, D.; Hanley, J.; Orantes, L.; Stevens, L.; Justi, S.; Monroy, C.


    A computational simulation has been designed as an investigative case study by high school students to introduce system dynamics modeling into high school curriculum. This case study approach leads users through the forensics necessary to diagnose an unknown disease in a Central American village. This disease, Chagas, is endemic to 21 Latin American countries. The CDC estimates that of the 110 million people living in areas with the disease, 8 million are infected, with as many as 300,000 US cases. Chagas is caused by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, and is spread via blood feeding insect (vectors), that feed on vertebrates and live in crevasses in the walls and roofs of adobe homes. One-third of the infected people will develop chronic Chagas who are asymptomatic for years before their heart or GI tract become enlarged resulting in death. The case study has three parts. Students play the role of WHO field investigators and work collaboratively to: 1) use genetics to identify the host(s) and vector of the disease 2) use a STELLA™ SIR (Susceptible, Infected, Recovered) system dynamics model to study Chagas at the village scale and 3) develop management strategies. The simulations identify mitigation strategies known as Ecohealth Interventions (e.g., home improvements using local materials) to help stakeholders test and compare multiple optima. High school students collaborated with researchers from the University of Vermont, Loyola University and Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, working in labs, interviewing researchers, and incorporating mulitple field data as part of a NSF-funded multiyear grant. The model displays stable equilibria of hosts, vectors, and disease-states. Sensitivity analyses show measures of household condition and presence of vertebrates were significant leverage points, supporting other findings by the University research team. The village-scale model explores multiple solutions to disease mitigation for the purpose of producing

  14. Eastern North American finite-frequency, compressional and shear tomographic models (United States)

    Savage, B.; Shen, Y.


    The Eastern North American margin and continental interior is imaged using a finite-frequency, tomographic method. Each of the P and S teleseismic body wave date sets consists of over 80,000 usable measurements recorded on the Transportable Array (TA). Sensitivity kernels are computed from a 1D model with grid spacing of 50 x 50 x 25 km. Measurements are performed automatically at three individual frequency bands, allowing a more effective use of the available broadband data. Imaged shear and compressional wave speeds show similar long-wavelength features of reduced wave speeds along the continent-ocean margin and increased wave speeds within the stable interior. Wave speeds throughout the model are highly variable at the scale of 100 to 200 km. Large wave speed reductions are present near New England, the Mid-Atlantic states, and the Gulf Coast states; these variations are present in previous models. Interestingly, the strongly reduced wave speeds near South Carolina are absent at depths greater than of 150 km within this model and recent teleseismic body-wave models. This result is contrary to a variety of surface wave models which contain an intense, reduced wave speed anomaly extending past 250 km depth and interpreted as a mantle upwelling associated with edge driven convection. An anomaly along the West Virginia-Virginia border, associated with volcanism and mantle upwelling, is also present, tightly constrained, and extends to 200 km depth. Moreover, the interior of the continent contains significant, regional wave speed variations. Variation of this style is present in other surface and body wave models and is not consistent with a massive, homogeneous continent with no internal variations. These internal continental variations suggest a compositional influence as temperature, melt and water are thought to have minimal effect. Unlike surface wave models that include a distinct continental base around 175 km, teleseismic body wave models, including this one

  15. A Synthetic Population for Modelling the Dynamics of Infectious Disease Transmission in American Samoa. (United States)

    Xu, Zhijing; Glass, Kathryn; Lau, Colleen L; Geard, Nicholas; Graves, Patricia; Clements, Archie


    Agent-based modelling is a useful approach for capturing heterogeneity in disease transmission. In this study, a synthetic population was developed for American Samoa using an iterative approach based on population census, questionnaire survey and land use data. The population will be used as the basis for a new agent-based model, intended specifically to fill the knowledge gaps about lymphatic filariasis transmission and elimination, but also to be readily adaptable to model other infectious diseases. The synthetic population was characterized by the statistically realistic population and household structure, and high-resolution geographic locations of households. The population was simulated over 40 years from 2010 to 2050. The simulated population was compared to estimates and projections of the U.S. Census Bureau. The results showed the total population would continuously decrease due to the observed large number of emigrants. Population ageing was observed, which was consistent with the latest two population censuses and the Bureau's projections. The sex ratios by age groups were analysed and indicated an increase in the proportion of males in age groups 0-14 and 15-64. The household size followed a Gaussian distribution with an average size of around 5.0 throughout the simulation, slightly less than the initial average size 5.6.

  16. Addressing obesity and diabetes among African American men: examination of a community-based model of prevention. (United States)

    Treadwell, Henrie; Holden, Kisha; Hubbard, Richard; Harper, Forest; Wright, Fred; Ferrer, Michael; Blanks, Starla Hairston; Villani, Gina; Thomas, Aaron; Washington, Florence; Kim, Edward K


    The Save Our Sons study is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific intervention aimed at reducing obesity and diabetes among a small sample (n = 42) of African American men. The goals of the study were to: (1) test the feasibility of implementing a group health education and intervention model to reduce the incidence of diabetes and obesity among African American men; (2) improve regular access to and utilization of health care services and community supportive resources to promote healthy lifestyles among African American men; and (3) build community networks and capacity for advocacy and addressing some of the health needs of African American men residing in Lorain County, Ohio. Trained community health workers facilitated activities to achieve program aims. Following the 6-week intervention, results indicated that participant's had greater knowledge about strategies for prevention and management of obesity and diabetes; increased engagement in exercise and fitness activities; decreased blood pressure, weight, and body mass index levels; and visited a primary care doctor more frequently. Also, local residents elevated African American men's health and identified it as a priority in their community. This model of prevention appears to be a substantial, robust, and replicable approach for improving the health and wellbeing of African American men.

  17. Filling Gaps in the Acculturation Gap-Distress Model: Heritage Cultural Maintenance and Adjustment in Mexican-American Families. (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Yuen, Cynthia; Gonzales, Nancy; Fuligni, Andrew J


    The acculturation gap-distress model purports that immigrant children acculturate faster than do their parents, resulting in an acculturation gap that leads to family and youth maladjustment. However, empirical support for the acculturation gap-distress model has been inconclusive. In the current study, 428 Mexican-American adolescents (50.2 % female) and their primary caregivers independently completed questionnaires assessing their levels of American and Mexican cultural orientation, family functioning, and youth adjustment. Contrary to the acculturation gap-distress model, acculturation gaps were not associated with poorer family or youth functioning. Rather, adolescents with higher levels of Mexican cultural orientations showed positive outcomes, regardless of their parents' orientations to either American or Mexican cultures. Findings suggest that youths' heritage cultural maintenance may be most important for their adjustment.

  18. From Forever Foreigners to Model Minority: Asian American Men in Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yomee


    Full Text Available Despite their long history in the United States, relatively little scholarly attention has been paid to Asian Americans and their lived experience in sports. The purpose of this study was to give voices to Asian American men by focusing on their experiences in sports. In particular, this study examined the experiences of East Asian and Southeast Asian American male college students who were often perceived as “foreign” and “pejoratively feminine” racialized minority yet participated in sports that were associated with dominant masculinity in the U.S. The setting of the study was as a predominately White institution located in Upstate New York where Asian Americans make up about one percent of the total student population. Qualitative research method was employed for the study. Six Asian American male students were recruited through snowball and purposeful sampling methods. In-depth interviews were conducted to reveal the rich stories of these Asian American men. The research showed that the stories of Asian American male college students were much nuanced and complicated. Specifically, this study revealed that Asian American men were constantly otherized as “forever foreigners” who did not have a legitimate citizenship in the United States. Also, Asian Americans faced unique ideas about their manhood that either highlighted emasculated and feminized masculinity or hyper-masculinity. In dealing with these situations, Asian American men employed unique cultural strategies to challenge and resist racial stereotypes through sports.

  19. The Canadian health care system: a model for American to emulate? (United States)

    Naylor, C D


    Canadian model has important advantages, it does not offer a panacea for American health care woes.

  20. Reconciling migration models to the Americas with the variation of North American native mitogenomes. (United States)

    Achilli, Alessandro; Perego, Ugo A; Lancioni, Hovirag; Olivieri, Anna; Gandini, Francesca; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Battaglia, Vincenza; Grugni, Viola; Angerhofer, Norman; Rogers, Mary P; Herrera, Rene J; Woodward, Scott R; Labuda, Damian; Smith, David Glenn; Cybulski, Jerome S; Semino, Ornella; Malhi, Ripan S; Torroni, Antonio


    In this study we evaluated migration models to the Americas by using the information contained in native mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from North America. Molecular and phylogeographic analyses of B2a mitogenomes, which are absent in Eskimo-Aleut and northern Na-Dene speakers, revealed that this haplogroup arose in North America ∼11-13 ka from one of the founder Paleo-Indian B2 mitogenomes. In contrast, haplogroup A2a, which is typical of Eskimo-Aleuts and Na-Dene, but also present in the easternmost Siberian groups, originated only 4-7 ka in Alaska, led to the first Paleo-Eskimo settlement of northern Canada and Greenland, and contributed to the formation of the Na-Dene gene pool. However, mitogenomes also show that Amerindians from northern North America, without any distinction between Na-Dene and non-Na-Dene, were heavily affected by an additional and distinctive Beringian genetic input. In conclusion, most mtDNA variation (along the double-continent) stems from the first wave from Beringia, which followed the Pacific coastal route. This was accompanied or followed by a second inland migratory event, marked by haplogroups X2a and C4c, which affected all Amerindian groups of Northern North America. Much later, the ancestral A2a carriers spread from Alaska, undertaking both a westward migration to Asia and an eastward expansion into the circumpolar regions of Canada. Thus, the first American founders left the greatest genetic mark but the original maternal makeup of North American Natives was subsequently reshaped by additional streams of gene flow and local population dynamics, making a three-wave view too simplistic.

  1. North American Tropical Cyclone Landfall and SST: A Statistical Model Study (United States)

    Hall, Timothy; Yonekura, Emmi


    A statistical-stochastic model of the complete life cycle of North Atlantic (NA) tropical cyclones (TCs) is used to examine the relationship between climate and landfall rates along the North American Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. The model draws on archived data of TCs throughout the North Atlantic to estimate landfall rates at high geographic resolution as a function of the ENSO state and one of two different measures of sea surface temperature (SST): 1) SST averaged over the NA subtropics and the hurricane season and 2) this SST relative to the seasonal global subtropical mean SST (termed relSST). Here, the authors focus on SST by holding ENSO to a neutral state. Jackknife uncertainty tests are employed to test the significance of SST and relSST landfall relationships. There are more TC and major hurricane landfalls overall in warm years than cold, using either SST or relSST, primarily due to a basinwide increase in the number of storms. The signal along the coast, however, is complex. Some regions have large and significant sensitivity (e.g., an approximate doubling of annual major hurricane landfall probability on Texas from -2 to +2 standard deviations in relSST), while other regions have no significant sensitivity (e.g., the U.S. mid-Atlantic and Northeast coasts). This geographic structure is due to both shifts in the regions of primary TC genesis and shifts in TC propagation.

  2. Modeling participation duration, with application to the North American Breeding Bird Survey (United States)

    Link, William; Sauer, John


    We consider “participation histories,” binary sequences consisting of alternating finite sequences of 1s and 0s, ending with an infinite sequence of 0s. Our work is motivated by a study of observer tenure in the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS). In our analysis, j indexes an observer’s years of service and Xj is an indicator of participation in the survey; 0s interspersed among 1s correspond to years when observers did not participate, but subsequently returned to service. Of interest is the observer’s duration D = max {j: Xj = 1}. Because observed records X = (X1, X2,..., Xn)1 are of finite length, all that we can directly infer about duration is that D ⩾ max {j ⩽n: Xj = 1}; model-based analysis is required for inference about D. We propose models in which lengths of 0s and 1s sequences have distributions determined by the index j at which they begin; 0s sequences are infinite with positive probability, an estimable parameter. We found that BBS observers’ lengths of service vary greatly, with 25.3% participating for only a single year, 49.5% serving for 4 or fewer years, and an average duration of 8.7 years, producing an average of 7.7 counts.

  3. The American Meteorological Society Education Program Model for Climate Science Education (United States)

    Weinbeck, R. S.; Moran, J. M.; Geer, I. W.; Hopkins, E. J.


    A guiding principle of the American Meteorological Society (AMS) Education Program is that public scientific literacy is most effectively achieved through systemic change in the classroom. The AMS, partnering with NOAA, NSF, NASA, the US Navy, and SUNY Brockport, aims for greater public scientific literacy through its successful distance learning programs that convey to pre-college teachers and undergraduates the fundamentals of meteorology, oceanography, and hydrology. The AMS DataStreme teacher-enhancement courses (Atmosphere, Water in the Earth System, and Ocean) have changed the way thousands of pre-college teachers teach and hundreds of thousands of students learn. Furthermore, teachers trained in this program are positioned to contribute to local and statewide curriculum reform. The AMS Online Weather Studies and Online Ocean Studies courses are providing tens of thousands of college undergraduates with engaging and highly motivational learning experiences. DataStreme courses are offered locally and feature mentoring of teacher participants whereas Online undergraduate courses are licensed by AMS for offering by colleges and universities. Integrated components of the AMS model are course website, investigations manual, and customized textbook. A portion of twice-weekly investigations is written to a near real-time situation and posted on the course website. Through its extensive experience with the DataStreme/Online programs, the AMS Education Program is now uniquely poised to assume a national leadership role in climate education by applying its proven teaching/learning model to climate education at the pre-college and undergraduate levels. The AMS model is ideally suited for delivering to teachers and students nationwide the basic understandings and enduring ideas of climate science and the role of the individual and society in climate variability and change. The AMS teaching/learning model incorporates an Earth system perspective, is problem focused, and

  4. Cultivating Native American scientists: an application of an Indigenous model to an undergraduate research experience (United States)

    McMahon, Tracey R.; Griese, Emily R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete


    With growing evidence demonstrating the impact of undergraduate research experiences on educational persistence, efforts are currently being made to expand these opportunities within universities and research institutions throughout the United States. Recruiting underrepresented students into these programs has become an increasingly popular method of promoting diversity in science. Given the low matriculation into postsecondary education and completion rates among Native Americans, there is a great need for Native American undergraduate research internships. Although research has shown that Western education models tend to be less effective with Native populations, the implementation of indigenous epistemologies and pedagogies within higher education, including research experiences, is rare. This study explores the applicability of a cognitive apprenticeship merged with an indigenous approach, the Circle of Courage, to build a scientific learning environment and enhance the academic and professional development of Native students engaged in an undergraduate research experience in the health sciences. Data were drawn from focus groups with 20 students who participated in this program in 2012-2014. Questions explored the extent to which relational bonds between students and mentors were cultivated as well as the impact of this experience on the development of research skills, intellectual growth, academic and professional self-determination, and the attachment of meaning to their research experiences. Data were analyzed via deductive content analysis, allowing for an assessment of how the theoretical constructs inherent to this model (belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity) impacted students. Findings suggest that engaging Native students in research experiences that prioritize the needs of belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity can be a successful means of fostering a positive learning environment, in which students felt like significant members

  5. Science Majors and Degrees among Asian-American Students: Influences of Race and Sex in "model Minority" Experiences (United States)

    Meng, Yu; Hanson, Sandra L.

    Both race and sex continue to be factors that stratify entry into science education and occupations in the United States. Asian-Americans (men and women) have experienced considerable success in the sciences and have earned the label of "model minority." The complexities and patterns involved in this success remain elusive. We use several concepts coming out of the status attainment framework and a multicultural gender perspective to explore the way in which race and sex come together to influence choices of science major and degree. Our sample consists of Asian-American and white students in the National Educational Longitudinal Study. Findings suggest that being male and being Asian-American are both associated with higher chances of pursuing majors and degrees in science. The male advantage is greater than the Asian-American advantage. Findings also suggest that race and sex interact in the science decision. For example, race differences (with an Asian-American advantage) in choice of science major are significant for women but not men. Sex differences (with a male advantage) in choice of science major are significant in the white, but not the Asian-American sample. A different set of race and sex patterns is revealed in the science degree models. Processes associated with family socioeconomic status and student characteristics help to explain race and sex patterns. Findings suggest that when Asian-American youths have closer ties to the Asian culture, they are more likely to choose science majors and degrees. Implications for policy, practice, and research in science education are discussed.

  6. Identification and synthetic modeling of factors affecting American black duck populations (United States)

    Conroy, Michael J.; Miller, Mark W.; Hines, James E.


    We reviewed the literature on factors potentially affecting the population status of American black ducks (Anas rupribes). Our review suggests that there is some support for the influence of 4 major, continental-scope factors in limiting or regulating black duck populations: 1) loss in the quantity or quality of breeding habitats; 2) loss in the quantity or quality of wintering habitats; 3) harvest, and 4) interactions (competition, hybridization) with mallards (Anas platyrhychos) during the breeding and/or wintering periods. These factors were used as the basis of an annual life cycle model in which reproduction rates and survival rates were modeled as functions of the above factors, with parameters of the model describing the strength of these relationships. Variation in the model parameter values allows for consideration of scientific uncertainty as to the degree each of these factors may be contributing to declines in black duck populations, and thus allows for the investigation of the possible effects of management (e.g., habitat improvement, harvest reductions) under different assumptions. We then used available, historical data on black duck populations (abundance, annual reproduction rates, and survival rates) and possible driving factors (trends in breeding and wintering habitats, harvest rates, and abundance of mallards) to estimate model parameters. Our estimated reproduction submodel included parameters describing negative density feedback of black ducks, positive influence of breeding habitat, and negative influence of mallard densities; our survival submodel included terms for positive influence of winter habitat on reproduction rates, and negative influences of black duck density (i.e., compensation to harvest mortality). Individual models within each group (reproduction, survival) involved various combinations of these factors, and each was given an information theoretic weight for use in subsequent prediction. The reproduction model with highest

  7. Common Sense Model Factors Affecting African Americans' Willingness to Consult a Healthcare Provider Regarding Symptoms of Mild Cognitive Impairment. (United States)

    Gleason, Carey E; Dowling, N Maritza; Benton, Susan Flowers; Kaseroff, Ashley; Gunn, Wade; Edwards, Dorothy Farrar


    Although at increased risk for developing dementia compared with white patients, older African Americans are diagnosed later in the course of dementia. Using the common sense model (CSM) of illness perception, we sought to clarify processes promoting timely diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) for African American patients. In-person, cross-sectional survey data were obtained from 187 African American (mean age: 60.44 years). Data were collected at social and health-focused community events in three southern Wisconsin cities. The survey represented a compilation of published surveys querying CSM constructs focused on early detection of memory disorders, and willingness to discuss concerns about memory loss with healthcare providers. Derived CSM variables measuring perceived causes, consequences, and controllability of MCI were included in a structural equation model predicting the primary outcome: Willingness to discuss symptoms of MCI with a provider. Two CSM factors influenced willingness to discuss symptoms of MCI with providers: Anticipation of beneficial consequences and perception of low harm associated with an MCI diagnosis predicted participants' willingness to discuss concerns about cognitive changes. No association was found between perceived controllability and causes of MCI, and willingness to discuss symptoms with providers. These data suggest that allaying concerns about the deleterious effects of a diagnosis, and raising awareness of potential benefits, couldinfluence an African American patient's willingness to discuss symptoms of MCI with a provider. The findings offer guidance to designers of culturally congruent MCI education materials, and healthcare providers caring for older African Americans. . Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. A Critical Review of the Model Minority Myth in Selected Literature on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Higher Education (United States)

    Poon, OiYan; Squire, Dian; Kodama, Corinne; Byrd, Ajani; Chan, Jason; Manzano, Lester; Furr, Sara; Bishundat, Devita


    This article presents a critical review of 112 works of research on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) in higher education. It focuses on ways previous scholarship framed AAPIs in higher education, and specifically on how those works engaged in a sustained project of countering the model minority myth (MMM). Many publications on AAPIs…

  9. Developing and testing a landscape habitat suitability model for the American marten (Martes americana) in the Cascades mountains of California (United States)

    Thomas A. Kirk; William J. Zielinski


    We used field surveys and Geographic Information System data to identify landscape-scale habitat associations of American martens (Martes americana) and to develop a model to predict their occurrence in northeastern California. Systematic surveys using primarily enclosed track plates, with 10-km spacing, were conducted across a 27,700 km

  10. The Utility of the Prototype/Willingness Model in Predicting Alcohol Use among North American Indigenous Adolescents (United States)

    Armenta, Brian E.; Hautala, Dane S.; Whitbeck, Les B.


    In the present study, we considered the utility of the prototype/willingness model in predicting alcohol use among North-American Indigenous adolescents. Specifically, using longitudinal data, we examined the associations among subjective drinking norms, positive drinker prototypes, drinking expectations (as a proxy of drinking willingness), and…

  11. Viscosity Solutions and American Option Pricing in a Stochastic Volatility Model of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre F. Roch


    Full Text Available We study the valuation of American-type derivatives in the stochastic volatility model of Barndorff-Nielsen and Shephard (2001. We characterize the value of such derivatives as the unique viscosity solution of an integral-partial differential equation when the payoff function satisfies a Lipschitz condition.

  12. Student Satisfaction with Canadian Music Programmes: The Application of the American Customer Satisfaction Model in Higher Education (United States)

    Serenko, Alexander


    The purpose of this project is to empirically investigate several antecedents and consequences of student satisfaction (SS) with Canadian university music programmes as well as to measure students' level of programme satisfaction. For this, the American Customer Satisfaction Model was tested through a survey of 276 current Canadian music students.…

  13. The Examination of Factors Influencing Social Media Usage by African American Small Business Owners Using the UTAUT Model (United States)

    Serben, Dion F.


    The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model has demonstrated the influencing factors for various business technology uses within the organizational system. However, in the context of African American small businesses (AASB), there was very little evidence of research to determine factors affecting the intention to use…

  14. Beyond Black and White: The Model Minority Myth and the Invisibility of Asian American Students (United States)

    Wing, Jean Yonemura


    This study of diverse Asian American students at a racially integrated public high school illustrates that the achievement gap is a multi-racial problem that cannot be well understood solely in terms of the trajectories of Black and white students. Asian American students demonstrated a high academic profile on average, but faced difficulties and…

  15. An Interdisciplinary Outreach Model of African American Recruitment for Alzheimer's Disease Research (United States)

    Williams, Monique M.; Meisel, Marie M.; Williams, James; Morris, John C.


    Purpose: The African American Outreach Satellite (Satellite) provides educational outreach to facilitate African American recruitment for longitudinal studies at the Washington University Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (ADRC). This descriptive article characterizes the Satellite's recruitment methods, plan for community engagement, results of…

  16. Implementation of the REACH model of dementia caregiver support in American Indian and Alaska Native communities. (United States)

    Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Tah, Tina; Finke, Bruce; LaCounte, Cynthia; Higgins, Barbara J; Nichols, Linda O


    The Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregivers Health in the VA (REACH VA) dementia caregiving intervention has been implemented in the VA, in community agencies, and internationally. As identified in the 2013 and 2015 National Plan to Address Alzheimer's Disease, REACH is being made available to American Indian and Alaska Native communities. Implementation activities are carried out by local Public Health Nursing programs operated by Indian Health Service and Tribal Health programs, and Administration for Community Living/Administration on Aging funded Tribal Aging program staff already working in each community. The implementation is described using the Fixsen and Blasé implementation process model. Cultural, community, health system, and tribe-specific adaptations occur during the six implementation stages of exploration and adoption, program installation, initial implementation, full operation, innovation, and sustainability. Adaptations are made by local staff delivering the program. Implementation challenges in serving AI/AN dementia caregivers include the need to adapt the program to fit the unique communities and the cultural perceptions of dementia and caregiving. Lessons learned highlight the importance of using a clinically successful intervention, the need for support and buy-in from leadership and staff, the fit of the intervention into ongoing routines and practices, the critical role of modifications based on caregiver, staff, and organization needs and feedback, the need for a simple and easily learned intervention, and the critical importance of community receptivity to the services offered.

  17. Evaluation and modeling of synergy to pheromone and plant kairomone in American palm weevil. (United States)

    Saïd, Imen; Kaabi, Belhassen; Rochat, Didier


    Many behavioral responses to odors are synergistic, particularly in insects. In beetles, synergy often involves a pheromone and a plant odor, and pest management relies on them for the use of combined lures. To investigate olfactory synergy mechanisms, we need to distinguish synergistic effects from additive ones, when all components of the mixture are active. As versatile tools and procedures were not available, we developed a bioassay, and a mathematical model to evaluate synergy between aggregation pheromone (P) and host plant odors (kairomone: K) in the American palm weevil, a pest insect showing enhanced responses to P+K mixtures. Responses to synthetic P and natural K were obtained using a 4-arm olfactometer coupled to a controlled volatile delivery system. We showed that: (1) Response thresholds were ca. 10 and 100 pg/s respectively for P and K. (2) Both stimuli induced similar maximum response. (3) Increasing the dose decreased the response for P to the point of repellence and maintained a maximum response for K. (4) P and K were synergistic over a 100-fold range of doses with experimental responses to P+K mixtures greater than the ones predicted assuming additive effects. Responses close to maximum were associated with the mixture amounts below the response threshold for both P and K. These results confirm the role of olfactory synergy in optimizing active host-plant localization by phytophagous insects. Our evaluation procedure can be generalized to test synergistic or inhibitory integrated responses of various odor mixtures for various insects.

  18. Spatial and stage-structured population model of the American crocodile for comparison of comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) alternatives (United States)

    Green, Timothy W.; Slone, Daniel H.; Swain, Eric D.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Lohmann, Melinda; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Rice, Kenneth G.


    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey Priority Ecosystems Science (PES) initiative to provide the ecological science required during Everglades restoration, we have integrated current regional hydrologic models with American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) research and monitoring data to create a model that assesses the potential impact of Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) efforts on the American crocodile. A list of indicators was created by the Restoration Coordination and Verification (RECOVER) component of CERP to help determine the success of interim restoration goals. The American crocodile was established as an indicator of the ecological condition of mangrove estuaries due to its reliance upon estuarine environments characterized by low salinity and adequate freshwater inflow. To gain a better understanding of the potential impact of CERP restoration efforts on the American crocodile, a spatially explicit crocodile population model has been created that has the ability to simulate the response of crocodiles to various management strategies for the South Florida ecosystem. The crocodile model uses output from the Tides and Inflows in the Mangroves of the Everglades (TIME) model, an application of the Flow and Transport in a Linked Overland/Aquifer Density Dependent System (FTLOADDS) simulator. TIME has the capability to link to the South Florida Water Management Model (SFWMM), which is the primary regional tool used to assess CERP restoration scenarios. A crocodile habitat suitability index and spatial parameter maps that reflect salinity, water depth, habitat, and nesting locations are used as driving functions to construct crocodile finite rate of increase maps under different management scenarios. Local stage-structured models are integrated with a spatial landscape grid to display crocodile movement behavior in response to changing environmental conditions. Restoration efforts are expected to affect salinity levels throughout the habitat of

  19. Demographic population model for American shad: will access to additional habitat upstream of dams increase population sizes? (United States)

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, Joseph E.


    American shad Alosa sapidissima are in decline in their native range, and modeling possible management scenarios could help guide their restoration. We developed a density-dependent, deterministic, stage-based matrix model to predict the population-level results of transporting American shad to suitable spawning habitat upstream of dams on the Roanoke River, North Carolina and Virginia. We used data on sonic-tagged adult American shad and oxytetracycline-marked American shad fry both above and below dams on the Roanoke River with information from other systems to estimate a starting population size and vital rates. We modeled the adult female population over 30 years under plausible scenarios of adult transport, effective fecundity (egg production), and survival of adults (i.e., to return to spawn the next year) and juveniles (from spawned egg to age 1). We also evaluated the potential effects of increased survival for adults and juveniles. The adult female population size in the Roanoke River was estimated to be 5,224. With no transport, the model predicted a slow population increase over the next 30 years. Predicted population increases were highest when survival was improved during the first year of life. Transport was predicted to benefit the population only if high rates of effective fecundity and juvenile survival could be achieved. Currently, transported adults and young are less likely to successfully out-migrate than individuals below the dams, and the estimated adult population size is much smaller than either of two assumed values of carrying capacity for the lower river; therefore, transport is not predicted to help restore the stock under present conditions. Research on survival rates, density-dependent processes, and the impacts of structures to increase out-migration success would improve evaluation of the potential benefits of access to additional spawning habitat for American shad.

  20. Evaluation and modeling of synergy to pheromone and plant kairomone in American palm weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochat Didier


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many behavioral responses to odors are synergistic, particularly in insects. In beetles, synergy often involves a pheromone and a plant odor, and pest management relies on them for the use of combined lures. To investigate olfactory synergy mechanisms, we need to distinguish synergistic effects from additive ones, when all components of the mixture are active. Results As versatile tools and procedures were not available, we developed a bioassay, and a mathematical model to evaluate synergy between aggregation pheromone (P and host plant odors (kairomone: K in the American palm weevil, a pest insect showing enhanced responses to P+K mixtures. Responses to synthetic P and natural K were obtained using a 4-arm olfactometer coupled to a controlled volatile delivery system. We showed that: (1 Response thresholds were ca. 10 and 100 pg/s respectively for P and K. (2 Both stimuli induced similar maximum response. (3 Increasing the dose decreased the response for P to the point of repellence and maintained a maximum response for K. (4 P and K were synergistic over a 100-fold range of doses with experimental responses to P+K mixtures greater than the ones predicted assuming additive effects. Responses close to maximum were associated with the mixture amounts below the response threshold for both P and K. Conclusion These results confirm the role of olfactory synergy in optimizing active host-plant localization by phytophagous insects. Our evaluation procedure can be generalized to test synergistic or inhibitory integrated responses of various odor mixtures for various insects.

  1. Model estimation of energy flow in North American grassland bird communities. (United States)

    Wiens, John A


    The energy demands and general food consumption rates of bird populations breeding in North American grasslands are estimated using a simulation model which employs information on population natural history and individual metabolism gathered from several study locations. The total breeding season energy demand of the grassland/shrub-steppe avifaunas ranged from 0.89 kcal m -2 season -1 in arid shrub-steppe to 2.92 kcal m -2 season -1 in a mesic tallgrass prairie. There was substantial variation between years and between census plots, however, and in general the average avian community energy demands did not differ significantly over the range of locations. Production accounted for 0.9 to 1.5% of the total seasonal energy demand. Roughly 11 to 18% of the seasonal energy flow was required in the production of eggs and maintenance and growth of nestlings and fledglings.On the average, between 209 and 386 kg dry wt km -2 of prey were consumed by the bird communities breeding in the grassland locations. Seeds contributed more to the total biomass consumed at the drier plots, but in general, animal prey types comprised roughly 80% of the total biomass eaten. Phytophagous insects were the major component of the animal prey.These low magnitudes of energy flow and biomass consumption attest to the relatively minor role of birds in the processing of energy and biomass in grassland ecosystems. If these populations do play an 'importnat' role in the functioning of grassland ecosystems, it must be quite subtle and indirect.

  2. Watershed characterization for precipitation-runoff modeling system, north fork, American River and east fork, Carson River watersheds, California (United States)

    Smith, J. LaRue; Reece, Brian D.


    As part of its Global Change Hydrology Program, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating the potential effects of climate change on the water resources of several river basins in the United States. The American River Basin in California represents the windward slope of the north-central Sierra Nevada, and the California part of the Carson River Basin, most of which is in Nevada, represents the leeward slope. Parts of the American River and Carson River Basins—the North Fork American River and East Fork Carson River watersheds, both in California—were studied to determine the sensitivity of water resources to potential climate change. The water resources of both basins are derived primarily from snowmelt. A geographic information system (GIS) data base has been created to facilitate paired-basin analysis. The GIS data base incorporates (1) land-surface data, which include elevation, land use and land cover, soil type, and geology; (2) hydrologic data, such as stream networks and streamflow-gaging stations; and (3) climatic data, such as snow-course, snow-telemetry, radiosonde, and meteorological data. Precipitation-runoff models were developed and calibrated for the North Fork watershed within the American River Basin and for the East Fork watershed within the Carson River Basin. (These watersheds were selected to represent the climatic and physiographic variability of the two larger basins.) Synthesized climate scenarios then were used in the model to predict potential effects of climate change.

  3. Using the health belief model to develop culturally appropriate weight-management materials for African-American women. (United States)

    James, Delores C S; Pobee, Joseph W; Oxidine, D'lauren; Brown, Latonya; Joshi, Gungeet


    African-American women have the highest prevalence of adult obesity in the United States. They are less likely to participate in weight-loss programs and tend to have a low success rate when they do so. The goal of this project was to explore the use of the Health Belief Model in developing culturally appropriate weight-management programs for African-American women. Seven focus groups were conducted with 50 African-American women. The Health Belief Model was used as the study's theoretical framework. Participants made a clear delineation between the terms healthy weight, overweight, and obese. Sexy, flirtatious words, such as thick, stacked, and curvy were often used to describe their extra weight. Participants accurately described the health risks of obesity. Most believed that culture and genetics made them more susceptible to obesity. The perceived benefits of losing weight included reduced risk for health problems, improved physical appearance, and living life to the fullest. Perceived barriers included a lack of motivation, reliable dieting information, and social support. Motivators to lose weight included being diagnosed with a health problem, physical appearance, and saving money on clothes. Self-efficacy was primarily affected by a frustrated history of dieting. The data themes suggest areas that should be addressed when developing culturally appropriate weight-loss messages, programs, and materials for African-American women. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Applying the socio-ecological model to improving fruit and vegetable intake among low-income African Americans. (United States)

    Robinson, Tanya


    Despite the growing body of literature that provides evidence of the health benefits of a diet high in fruits and vegetables, most Americans eat much less than the recommended amounts of this food group. Among those who are least likely to meet the USDA guidelines for the recommended daily servings of fruits and vegetables are non-Hispanic Blacks and individuals with lower incomes. The purpose of this literature review is to examine the dietary behaviors, focusing on fruit and vegetable intake, of low-income African Americans from a socio-ecological perspective, and to offer rationale for and guidance on integrating socio-ecological concepts into health promoting programs intended to improve dietary behaviors among this population. Based on the 12 descriptive studies retrieved in the review, dietary behaviors and fruit and vegetable intake among African Americans are the result of a complex interplay of personal, cultural, and environmental factors that can be categorized and described using the five levels of influence conceptualized by the socio-ecological model: Intrapersonal level (taste preferences, habits, and nutritional knowledge and skills), Interpersonal level/social environment (processes whereby culture, social traditions, and role expectations impact eating practices; and patterns within peer groups, friends and family), and Organizational, Community, and Public Policy levels/physical environment (environmental factors that affect food access and availability). The socio-ecological model provides a useful framework for achieving a better understanding of the multiple factors and barriers that impact dietary behaviors, and therefore can provide guidance for developing culturally appropriate and sensitive intervention strategies for African Americans. It is an integrative framework that shows great promise in moving the field closer to attaining the goal of improving dietary behaviors and nutritional status among African Americans.

  5. A cost comparison of travel models and behavioural telemedicine for rural, Native American populations in New Mexico. (United States)

    Horn, Brady P; Barragan, Gary N; Fore, Chis; Bonham, Caroline A


    The purpose of this study was to model the cost of delivering behavioural health services to rural Native American populations using telecommunications and compare these costs with the travel costs associated with providing equivalent care. Behavioural telehealth costs were modelled using equipment, transmission, administrative and IT costs from an established telecommunications centre. Two types of travel models were estimated: a patient travel model and a physician travel model. These costs were modelled using the New Mexico resource geographic information system program (RGIS) and ArcGIS software and unit costs (e.g. fuel prices, vehicle depreciation, lodging, physician wages, and patient wages) that were obtained from the literature and US government agencies. The average per-patient cost of providing behavioural healthcare via telehealth was US$138.34, and the average per-patient travel cost was US$169.76 for physicians and US$333.52 for patients. Sensitivity analysis found these results to be rather robust to changes in imputed parameters and preliminary evidence of economies of scale was found. Besides the obvious benefits of increased access to healthcare and reduced health disparities, providing behavioural telehealth for rural Native American populations was estimated to be less costly than modelled equivalent care provided by travelling. Additionally, as administrative and coordination costs are a major component of telehealth costs, as programmes grow to serve more patients, the relative costs of these initial infrastructure as well as overall per-patient costs should decrease. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Imported family models? Cohabitation patterns of Latin American women in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available During the last decade, international immigration flows have undergone a dramatic growth in Spain. In this particular context, the purpose of this article is to analyze whether Latin American female migrants residing in Spain largely maintain nuptial and reproductive patterns from their countries of origin. To analyze the prevalence of consensual unions we use three different databases: the Spanish Immigration Survey, the Spanish Labour Force Survey and birth records, all of them corresponding to 2007 and collected by the Spanish Statistical Institute. The study documents the high prevalence of consensual unions among Latin American migrants. Regarding the socio-demographic factors influencing cohabitation, our results show important similarities between Spanish and Latin American women, except for educational attainment.

  7. On perpetual American put valuation and first-passage in a regime-switching model with jumps


    Jiang, Z.; Pistorius, M. R.


    In this paper we consider the problem of pricing a perpetual American put option in an exponential regime-switching L\\'{e}vy model. For the case of the (dense) class of phase-type jumps and finitely many regimes we derive an explicit expression for the value function. The solution of the corresponding first passage problem under a state-dependent level rests on a path transformation and a new matrix Wiener-Hopf factorization result for this class of processes.

  8. West Nile Virus Infection in American Singer Canaries: An Experimental Model in a Highly Susceptible Avian Species. (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K; Lund, Melissa; Shearn Bochsler, Valerie


    This study investigated the susceptibility of American singer canaries ( Serinus canaria) to West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Adult canaries were inoculated with 10 5 , 10 2 , and 10 1 plaque forming units (PFU) of WNV. All birds became infected and mortality occurred by 5 days postinoculation. The load of viral RNA as determined by RT-qPCR was dose dependent, and was higher at all doses than the level of viral RNA detected in American crows ( Corvus brachyrhynchos) challenged with 10 5 PFU of WNV. In a subset of birds, viremia was detected by virus isolation; canaries inoculated with 10 1 PFU of WNV developed viremia exceeding 10 10 PFU/mL serum, a log higher than American crows inoculated with 10 5 PFU of virus. In canaries euthanized at 3 days postinoculation, WNV was isolated at >10 7 PFU of virus/100 mg of lung, liver, heart, spleen, and kidney tissues. Pallor of the liver and splenomegaly were the most common macroscopic observations and histologic lesions were most severe in liver, spleen, and kidney, particularly in canaries challenged with 10 2 and 10 1 PFU. Immunoreactivity to WNV was pronounced in the liver and spleen. IgG antibodies to WNV were detected in serum by enzyme immunoassay in 11 of 21 (52%) challenged canaries and, in 4 of 5 (20%) of these sera, neutralization antibodies were detected at a titer ≥ 1:20. American singer canaries provide a useful model as this bird species is highly susceptible to WNV infection.

  9. Stable isotopes in precipitation recording South American summer monsoon and ENSO variability: observations and model results (United States)

    Vuille, M.; Werner, M.


    The South American Summer Monsoon (SASM) is a prominent feature of summertime climate over South America and has been identified in a number of paleoclimatic records from across the continent, including records based on stable isotopes. The relationship between the stable isotopic composition of precipitation and interannual variations in monsoon strength, however, has received little attention so far. Here we investigate how variations in the intensity of the SASM influence δ18O in precipitation based on both observational data and Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) simulations. An index of vertical wind shear over the SASM entrance (low level) and exit (upper level) region over the western equatorial Atlantic is used to define interannual variations in summer monsoon strength. This index is closely correlated with variations in deep convection over tropical and subtropical South America during the mature stage of the SASM. Observational data from the International Atomic Energy Agency-Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (IAEA-GNIP) and from tropical ice cores show a significant negative association between δ18O and SASM strength over the Amazon basin, SE South America and the central Andes. The more depleted stable isotopic values during intense monsoon seasons are consistent with the so-called ’‘amount effect‘’, often observed in tropical regions. In many locations, however, our results indicate that the moisture transport history and the degree of rainout upstream may be more important factors explaining interannual variations in δ18O. In many locations the stable isotopic composition is closely related to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), even though the moisture source is located over the tropical Atlantic and precipitation is the result of the southward expansion and intensification of the SASM during austral summer. ENSO induces significant atmospheric circulation anomalies over tropical South America, which affect both SASM

  10. The refractive development of the eye of the American kestrel (Falco sparverius): a new avian model. (United States)

    Andison, M E; Sivak, J G; Bird, D M


    Most measures of avian visual performance are carried out on commonly available domestic species such as the chicken, and most of the data on avian induced refractive error deals with chickens. Raptors are predatory birds in which good visual resolving ability is particularly important. Behavioral studies indicate that the eyes of raptors have two to three times the resolving ability of the human eye. The domestic chicken is precocial at hatching whereas most raptors are semi-altricial. This study was an effort to determine if the effect of early visual deprivation on the refractive development of the chicken eye can be reproduced in the American kestrel, a species which is not domesticated and in which the need for acute vision is particularly important. Visual deprivation was achieved by unilaterally applying translucent plastic goggles over the eyes of kestrels two days after hatching. Refractive error was measured using a retinoscope and trial lenses. Ocular growth was monitored by A-scan ultrasonography, and frozen ocular sections of sacrificed birds. The effect of the experimental manipulation on the contralateral control eye and body weight was evaluated each day over a 42-day period. The goggles did not significantly affect the normal changes in body weight or the normal pattern of ocular growth and refractive development in the untreated eyes. An analysis of the refractive state changes as a result of form deprivation was made each week for 6 weeks after hatching on both the treated and untreated eyes in a separate group of experimental birds. Visual form deprivation caused a significant myopic shift in refractive error and a significant increase in the vitreous chamber depth in the treated eyes at 3 and 6 weeks of age. However, the amount of myopia produced is much less than that induced in chicks, and in certain cases hyperopia is produced. The kestrels recover from myopia and hyperopia within 10 days of goggle removal, after 3 to 4 weeks of deprivation

  11. Population trends for North American winter birds based on hierarchical models (United States)

    Soykan, Candan U.; Sauer, John; Schuetz, Justin G.; LeBaron, Geoffrey S.; Dale, Kathy; Langham, Gary M.


    Managing widespread and persistent threats to birds requires knowledge of population dynamics at large spatial and temporal scales. For over 100 yrs, the Audubon Christmas Bird Count (CBC) has enlisted volunteers in bird monitoring efforts that span the Americas, especially southern Canada and the United States. We employed a Bayesian hierarchical model to control for variation in survey effort among CBC circles and, using CBC data from 1966 to 2013, generated early-winter population trend estimates for 551 species of birds. Selecting a subset of species that do not frequent bird feeders and have ≥25% range overlap with the distribution of CBC circles (228 species) we further estimated aggregate (i.e., across species) trends for the entire study region and at the level of states/provinces, Bird Conservation Regions, and Landscape Conservation Cooperatives. Moreover, we examined the relationship between ten biological traits—range size, population size, migratory strategy, habitat affiliation, body size, diet, number of eggs per clutch, age at sexual maturity, lifespan, and tolerance of urban/suburban settings—and CBC trend estimates. Our results indicate that 68% of the 551 species had increasing trends within the study area over the interval 1966–2013. When trends were examined across the subset of 228 species, the median population trend for the group was 0.9% per year at the continental level. At the regional level, aggregate trends were positive in all but a few areas. Negative population trends were evident in lower latitudes, whereas the largest increases were at higher latitudes, a pattern consistent with range shifts due to climate change. Nine of 10 biological traits were significantly associated with median population trend; however, none of the traits explained >34% of the deviance in the data, reflecting the indirect relationships between population trend estimates and species traits. Trend estimates based on the CBC are broadly congruent with

  12. Using group model building to develop a culturally grounded model of breastfeeding for low-income African American women in the USA. (United States)

    Reno, Rebecca


    To identify barriers and supporting factors for breastfeeding, and the dynamic interactions between them, as identified by low-income African American women and lactation peer helpers. Stark breastfeeding disparities exist between African American mothers and their White counterparts in the USA. This pattern is often replicated across the globe, with marginalised populations demonstrating decreased breastfeeding rates. While breastfeeding research focused on sociocultural factors for different populations has been conducted, a more dynamic model of the factors impacting breastfeeding may help identify effective leverage points for change. Group model building was used as a grounded theoretical approach, to build and validate a model representing factors impacting breastfeeding and the relationships between them. Low-income African American women (n = 21) and lactation peer helpers (n = 3) were engaged in model building sessions to identify factors impacting breastfeeding. A two-cycle process was used for analysis, in vivo and axial coding. The final factors and model were validated with a subgroup of participants. The participants generated 82 factors that make breastfeeding easier, and 86 factors that make breastfeeding more challenging. These were grouped into 10 and 14 themes, respectively. A final model was constructed identifying three domains impacting breastfeeding: a mother's return to work or school, her knowledge, support and persistence, and the social acceptance of breastfeeding. This study documented the sociocultural context within which low-income African American women are situated by identifying factors impacting breastfeeding, and the dynamic interactions between them. The model also provided various leverage points from which breastfeeding women can be supported. Postpartum nurses are critical in supporting breastfeeding practices. To be most effective, they must be aware of the factors impacting breastfeeding, some of which may be unique to

  13. The Marginalized "Model" Minority: An Empirical Examination of the Racial Triangulation of Asian Americans (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Lee, Jennifer C.


    In this article, we propose a shift in race research from a one-dimensional hierarchical approach to a multidimensional system of racial stratification. Building upon Claire Kim's (1999) racial triangulation theory, we examine how the American public rates Asians relative to blacks and whites along two dimensions of racial stratification: racial…

  14. A Structural Equation Model for the School Reinforcement Survey Schedule: Italian and American Early Adolescents (United States)

    Holmes, George R.; Galeazzi, Aldo; Franceschina, Emilio; McNulty, George F.; Forand, Angela Q.; Stader, Sandra R.; Myers, deRosset, Jr.; Wright, Harry H.


    The School Reinforcement Survey Schedule (SRSS) was administered to 2,828 boys and girls in middle schools in the United States and an Italian translation was administered to 342 boys and girls in middle schools in Northern Italy. An exploratory factor analysis using half the American data set was performed using maximum likelihood estimation with…

  15. Breaking the Model Minority Stereotype: An Exploration of Asian American and Pacific Islander Student Substance Abuse (United States)

    Sabato, Todd


    Objective: To compare alcohol, tobacco, and illicit or nonmedical drug use behaviors and self-reported consequences of Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) students to cross-ethnic peers. Participants: A sample of 114,816 undergraduates between 18 and 24 completing the National College Health Assessment between 2011 and 2014 were used.…

  16. African American Youth and the Artist's Identity: Cultural Models and Aspirational Foreclosure (United States)

    Charland, William


    The decision to participate in visual arts studies in college and visual arts professions in adult life is the product of multiple factors, including the influences of family, community, peer group, mass culture, and K-12 schooling. Recognizing African American underrepresentation in visual arts studies and professions, this article explores how…

  17. Model comparisons for estimating carbon emissions from North American wildland fire (United States)

    Nancy H.F. French; William J. de Groot; Liza K. Jenkins; Brendan M. Rogers; Ernesto Alvarado; Brian Amiro; Bernardus De Jong; Scott Goetz; Elizabeth Hoy; Edward Hyer; Robert Keane; B.E. Law; Donald McKenzie; Steven G. McNulty; Roger Ottmar; Diego R. Perez-Salicrup; James Randerson; Kevin M. Robertson; Merritt. Turetsky


    Research activities focused on estimating the direct emissions of carbon from wildland fires across North America are reviewed as part of the North American Carbon Program disturbance synthesis. A comparison of methods to estimate the loss of carbon from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere from wildland fires is presented. Published studies on emissions from...

  18. Retrospective estimation of breeding phenology of American Goldfinch (Carduelis tristis) using pattern oriented modeling (United States)

    Avian seasonal productivity is often modeled as a time-limited stochastic process. Many mathematical formulations have been proposed, including individual based models, continuous-time differential equations, and discrete Markov models. All such models typically include paramete...

  19. A test of the social development model during the transition to junior high with Mexican American adolescents. (United States)

    Roosa, Mark W; Zeiders, Katharine H; Knight, George P; Gonzales, Nancy A; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Saenz, Delia; O'Donnell, Megan; Berkel, Cady


    Mexican American adolescents have higher rates of externalizing problems than their peers from other ethnic and racial groups. To begin the process of understanding factors related to externalizing problems in this population, this study used the social development model (SDM) and prospective data across the transition to junior high school from 750 diverse Mexican American families. In addition, the authors examined whether familism values provided a protective effect for relations within the model. Results showed that the SDM worked well for this sample. As expected, association with deviant peers was the primary predictor of externalizing behaviors. There was support for a protective effect in that adolescents with higher familism values had slower rates of increase in association with deviant peers from 5th to 7th grades than those with lower familism values. Future research needs to determine whether additional culturally appropriate modifications of the SDM would increase its usefulness for Mexican American adolescents. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Schooling in American Sign Language: A Paradigm Shift from a Deficit Model to a Bilingual Model in Deaf Education (United States)

    Humphries, Tom


    Deaf people have long held the belief that American Sign Language (ASL) plays a significant role in the academic development of deaf children. Despite this, the education of deaf children has historically been exclusive of ASL and constructed as an English-only, deficit-based pedagogy. Newer research, however, finds a strong correlation between…

  1. Stock market integration in the Latin American markets: further evidence from nonlinear modeling


    Fredj Jawadi; Nicolas Million; Mohamed El Hedi Arouri


    International audience; This article studies the financial integration between the six main Latin American markets and the US market in a nonlinear framework. Using the threshold cointegration techniques of Hansen and Seo (2002), we show significant threshold stock market linkages between Mexico, Chile and the US. Thus, the dynamics of these markets depends simultaneously on local and global risk factors. More importantly, our results show an on-off threshold financial integration process tha...

  2. Imported family models? Cohabitation patterns of Latin American women in Spain




    During the last decade, international immigration flows have undergone a dramatic growth in Spain. In this particular context, the purpose of this article is to analyze whether Latin American female migrants residing in Spain largely maintain nuptial and reproductive patterns from their countries of origin. To analyze the prevalence of consensual unions we use three different databases: the Spanish Immigration Survey, the Spanish Labour Force Survey and birth records, all of them correspondin...

  3. Numerical Methods for Pricing American Options with Time-Fractional PDE Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Zhou


    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a Laplace transform method and a finite difference method for solving American option pricing problem when the change of the option price with time is considered as a fractal transmission system. In this scenario, the option price is governed by a time-fractional partial differential equation (PDE with free boundary. The Laplace transform method is applied to the time-fractional PDE. It then leads to a nonlinear equation for the free boundary (i.e., optimal early exercise boundary function in Laplace space. After numerically finding the solution of the nonlinear equation, the Laplace inversion is used to transform the approximate early exercise boundary into the time space. Finally the approximate price of the American option is obtained. A boundary-searching finite difference method is also proposed to solve the free-boundary time-fractional PDEs for pricing the American options. Numerical examples are carried out to compare the Laplace approach with the finite difference method and it is confirmed that the former approach is much faster than the latter one.

  4. Understanding the cultural health belief model influencing health behaviors and health-related quality of life between Latina and Asian-American breast cancer survivors. (United States)

    Lim, Jung-won; Gonzalez, Patricia; Wang-Letzkus, Ming F; Ashing-Giwa, Kimlin T


    The purpose of this study was to (1) describe health behaviors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of Latina and Asian-American breast cancer survivors (BCS), (2) estimate possible culturally driven predictors of health behaviors and HRQOL, and (3) compare pathways for predicting health behaviors and HRQOL between the two groups. Secondary data were used to investigate health behaviors and HRQOL among 183 Latina and 206 Asian Americans diagnosed with breast cancer. The study methodology was guided by the health belief model and the contextual model of HRQOL. Structural equation modeling was used to test cultural predictors on health behaviors of BCS. Asian Americans reported higher emotional and physical well-being scores than Latina-Americans. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated the adequacy of the two-factor model ("powerful others" and "sociocultural factors") in the cultural health belief construct for Latina and Asian-American BCS. In the structural model, Latinas and Asian Americans showed different pathways in the predicted relationships among the variables. For Latina-Americans, doctor-patient relationship was positively related to exercise, and in turn, influenced physical and emotional well-being. For Asian Americans, treatment decisions and the "sociocultural factor" were significantly related to stress management. This study adds to the existing literature in that no study has focused on cultural health beliefs and health behaviors between Latina and Asian-American BCS. Evidence that Latinas and Asian Americans varied in the patterns of cultural factors influencing health behaviors and HRQOL might lead to the development of culturally sensitive breast cancer interventions for promoting positive health behavior and ultimately increasing HRQOL.

  5. Improvement in the Modeled Representation of North American Monsoon Precipitation Using a Modified Kain–Fritsch Convective Parameterization Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thang M. Luong


    Full Text Available A commonly noted problem in the simulation of warm season convection in the North American monsoon region has been the inability of atmospheric models at the meso-β scales (10 s to 100 s of kilometers to simulate organized convection, principally mesoscale convective systems. With the use of convective parameterization, high precipitation biases in model simulations are typically observed over the peaks of mountain ranges. To address this issue, the Kain–Fritsch (KF cumulus parameterization scheme has been modified with new diagnostic equations to compute the updraft velocity, the convective available potential energy closure assumption, and the convective trigger function. The scheme has been adapted for use in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF. A numerical weather prediction-type simulation is conducted for the North American Monsoon Experiment Intensive Observing Period 2 and a regional climate simulation is performed, by dynamically downscaling. In both of these applications, there are notable improvements in the WRF model-simulated precipitation due to the better representation of organized, propagating convection. The use of the modified KF scheme for atmospheric model simulations may provide a more computationally economical alternative to improve the representation of organized convection, as compared to convective-permitting simulations at the kilometer scale or a super-parameterization approach.

  6. Improvement in the Modeled Representation of North American Monsoon Precipitation Using a Modified Kain–Fritsch Convective Parameterization Scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Luong, Thang


    A commonly noted problem in the simulation of warm season convection in the North American monsoon region has been the inability of atmospheric models at the meso-β scales (10 s to 100 s of kilometers) to simulate organized convection, principally mesoscale convective systems. With the use of convective parameterization, high precipitation biases in model simulations are typically observed over the peaks of mountain ranges. To address this issue, the Kain–Fritsch (KF) cumulus parameterization scheme has been modified with new diagnostic equations to compute the updraft velocity, the convective available potential energy closure assumption, and the convective trigger function. The scheme has been adapted for use in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF). A numerical weather prediction-type simulation is conducted for the North American Monsoon Experiment Intensive Observing Period 2 and a regional climate simulation is performed, by dynamically downscaling. In both of these applications, there are notable improvements in the WRF model-simulated precipitation due to the better representation of organized, propagating convection. The use of the modified KF scheme for atmospheric model simulations may provide a more computationally economical alternative to improve the representation of organized convection, as compared to convective-permitting simulations at the kilometer scale or a super-parameterization approach.

  7. North American CO2 fluxes for 2007-2015 from NOAA's CarbonTracker-Lagrange Regional Inverse Modeling Framework (United States)

    Andrews, A. E.; Hu, L.; Thoning, K. W.; Nehrkorn, T.; Mountain, M. E.; Jacobson, A. R.; Michalak, A.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Sweeney, C.; Worthy, D. E. J.; Miller, J. B.; Fischer, M. L.; Biraud, S.; van der Velde, I. R.; Basu, S.; Tans, P. P.


    CarbonTracker-Lagrange (CT-L) is a new high-resolution regional inverse modeling system for improved estimation of North American CO2 fluxes. CT-L uses footprints from the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model driven by high-resolution (10 to 30 km) meteorological fields from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We performed a suite of synthetic-data experiments to evaluate a variety of inversion configurations, including (1) solving for scaling factors to an a priori flux versus additive corrections, (2) solving for fluxes at 3-hrly resolution versus at coarser temporal resolution, (3) solving for fluxes at 1o × 1o resolution versus at large eco-regional scales. Our framework explicitly and objectively solves for the optimal solution with a full error covariance matrix with maximum likelihood estimation, thereby enabling rigorous uncertainty estimates for the derived fluxes. In the synthetic-data inversions, we find that solving for weekly scaling factors of a priori Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) at 1o × 1o resolution with optimization of diurnal cycles of CO2 fluxes yields faithful retrieval of the specified "true" fluxes as those solved at 3-hrly resolution. In contrast, a scheme that does not allow for optimization of diurnal cycles of CO2 fluxes suffered from larger aggregation errors. We then applied the optimal inversion setup to estimate North American fluxes for 2007-2015 using real atmospheric CO2 observations, multiple prior estimates of NEE, and multiple boundary values estimated from the NOAA's global Eulerian CarbonTracker (CarbonTracker) and from an empirical approach. Our derived North American land CO2 fluxes show larger seasonal amplitude than those estimated from the CarbonTracker, removing seasonal biases in the CarbonTracker's simulated CO2 mole fractions. Independent evaluations using in-situ CO2 eddy covariance flux measurements and independent aircraft profiles also suggest an improved estimation on North

  8. The North American Carbon Program Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project Part 1: Overview and experimental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntzinger, D.N. [Northern Arizona University; Schwalm, C. [Northern Arizona University; Michalak, A.M [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford; Schaefer, K. [National Snow and Ice Data Center; King, A.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Wei, Y. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Jacobson, A. [National Snow and Ice Data Center; Liu, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Cook, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Post, W.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Berthier, G. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement (LSCE); Hayes, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Huang, M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Ito, A. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan; Lei, H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Lu, C. [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research and School of Forestry and Wildlife Sci.; Mao, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Peng, C.H. [University of Quebec at Montreal, Institute of Environment Sciences; Peng, S. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement (LSCE); Poulter, B. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement (LSCE); Riccuito, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Shi, X. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Tian, H. [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research and School of Forestry and Wildlife Sci.; Wang, W. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Ames Research Center, Moffett Field; Zeng, N. [University of Maryland; Zhao, F. [University of Maryland; Zhu, Q. [Laboratory for Ecological Forecasting and Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University


    Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding of land-atmosphere carbon exchange to larger regions. The North American Carbon Program (NACP) Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) is a formal model intercomparison and evaluation effort focused on improving the diagnosis and attribution of carbon exchange at regional and global scales. MsTMIP builds upon current and past synthesis activities, and has a unique framework designed to isolate, interpret, and inform understanding of how model structural differences impact estimates of carbon uptake and release. Here we provide an overview of the MsTMIP effort and describe how the MsTMIP experimental design enables the assessment and quantification of TBM structural uncertainty. Model structure refers to the types of processes considered (e.g. nutrient cycling, disturbance, lateral transport of carbon), and how these processes are represented (e.g. photosynthetic formulation, temperature sensitivity, respiration) in the models. By prescribing a common experimental protocol with standard spin-up procedures and driver data sets, we isolate any biases and variability in TBM estimates of regional and global carbon budgets resulting from differences in the models themselves (i.e. model structure) and model-specific parameter values. An initial intercomparison of model structural differences is represented using hierarchical cluster diagrams (a.k.a. dendrograms), which highlight similarities and differences in how models account for carbon cycle, vegetation, energy, and nitrogen cycle dynamics. We show that, despite the standardized protocol used to derive initial conditions, models show a high degree of variation for GPP, total living biomass, and total soil carbon, underscoring the influence of differences in model structure and parameterization on model estimates.

  9. Assessment of Domestic Goats as Models for Experimental and Natural Infection with the North American Isolate of Rickettsia slovaca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Lukovsky-Akhsanov

    Full Text Available Rickettsia slovaca is a tick-borne human pathogen that is associated with scalp eschars and neck lymphadenopathy known as tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA or Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL. Originally, R. slovaca was described in Eastern Europe, but since recognition of its pathogenicity, human cases have been reported throughout Europe. European vertebrate reservoirs of R. slovaca remain unknown, but feral swine and domestic goats have been found infected or seropositive for this pathogen. Recently, a rickettsial pathogen identical to R. slovaca was identified in, and isolated from, the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis. In previous experimental studies, this organism was found infectious to guinea pigs and transovarially transmissible in ticks. In this study, domestic goats (Capra hircus were experimentally inoculated with the North American isolate of this R. slovaca-like agent to assess their reservoir competence-the ability to acquire the pathogens and maintain transmission between infected and uninfected ticks. Goats were susceptible to infection as demonstrated by detection of the pathogen in skin biopsies and multiple internal tissues, but the only clinical sign of illness was transient fever noted in three out of four goats, and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. On average, less than 5% of uninfected ticks acquired the pathogen while feeding upon infected goats. Although domestic goats are susceptible to the newly described North American isolate of R. slovaca, they are likely to play a minor role in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. Our results suggest that goats do not propagate the North American isolate of R. slovaca in peridomestic environments and clinical diagnosis of infection could be difficult due to the brevity and mildness of clinical signs. Further research is needed to elucidate the natural transmission cycle of R. slovaca both in Europe and North America, as well as

  10. The American Foreign Exchange Option in Time-Dependent One-Dimensional Diffusion Model for Exchange Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Nasir; Shashiashvili, Malkhaz


    The classical Garman-Kohlhagen model for the currency exchange assumes that the domestic and foreign currency risk-free interest rates are constant and the exchange rate follows a log-normal diffusion process.In this paper we consider the general case, when exchange rate evolves according to arbitrary one-dimensional diffusion process with local volatility that is the function of time and the current exchange rate and where the domestic and foreign currency risk-free interest rates may be arbitrary continuous functions of time. First non-trivial problem we encounter in time-dependent case is the continuity in time argument of the value function of the American put option and the regularity properties of the optimal exercise boundary. We establish these properties based on systematic use of the monotonicity in volatility for the value functions of the American as well as European options with convex payoffs together with the Dynamic Programming Principle and we obtain certain type of comparison result for the value functions and corresponding exercise boundaries for the American puts with different strikes, maturities and volatilities.Starting from the latter fact that the optimal exercise boundary curve is left continuous with right-hand limits we give a mathematically rigorous and transparent derivation of the significant early exercise premium representation for the value function of the American foreign exchange put option as the sum of the European put option value function and the early exercise premium.The proof essentially relies on the particular property of the stochastic integral with respect to arbitrary continuous semimartingale over the predictable subsets of its zeros. We derive from the latter the nonlinear integral equation for the optimal exercise boundary which can be studied by numerical methods

  11. West Nile virus infection in American singer canaries: An experimental model in a highly susceptible avian species (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Lund, Melissa; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.


    This study investigated the susceptibility of American singer canaries (Serinus canaria) to West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Adult canaries were inoculated with 105, 102, and 101plaque forming units (PFU) of WNV. All birds became infected and mortality occurred by 5 days postinoculation. The load of viral RNA as determined by RT-qPCR was dose dependent, and was higher at all doses than the level of viral RNA detected in American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) challenged with 105 PFU of WNV. In a subset of birds, viremia was detected by virus isolation; canaries inoculated with 101 PFU of WNV developed viremia exceeding 1010 PFU/mL serum, a log higher than American crows inoculated with 105 PFU of virus. In canaries euthanized at 3 days postinoculation, WNV was isolated at >107 PFU of virus/100 mg of lung, liver, heart, spleen, and kidney tissues. Pallor of the liver and splenomegaly were the most common macroscopic observations and histologic lesions were most severe in liver, spleen, and kidney, particularly in canaries challenged with 102 and 101 PFU. Immunoreactivity to WNV was pronounced in the liver and spleen. IgG antibodies to WNV were detected in serum by enzyme immunoassay in 11 of 21 (52%) challenged canaries and, in 4 of 5 (20%) of these sera, neutralization antibodies were detected at a titer ≥ 1:20. American singer canaries provide a useful model as this bird species is highly susceptible to WNV infection.

  12. Shaping a Stories of Resilience Model from urban American Indian elders' narratives of historical trauma and resilience. (United States)

    Reinschmidt, Kerstin M; Attakai, Agnes; Kahn, Carmella B; Whitewater, Shannon; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette


    American Indians (AIs) have experienced traumatizing events but practice remarkable resilience to large-scale and long-term adversities. Qualitative, community-based participatory research served to collect urban AI elders' life narratives on historical trauma and resilience strategies. A consensus group of 15 elders helped finalize open-ended questions that guided 13 elders in telling their stories. Elders shared multifaceted personal stories that revealed the interconnectedness between historical trauma and resilience, and between traditional perceptions connecting past and present, and individuals, families, and communities. Based on the elders' narratives, and supported by the literature, an explanatory Stories of Resilience Model was developed.

  13. An empirical evaluation of landscape energetic models: Mallard and American black duck space use during the non-breeding period (United States)

    Beatty, William S.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Naylor, Luke W.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Humburg, Dale D.; Coluccy, John M.; Soulliere, G.


    Bird conservation Joint Ventures are collaborative partnerships between public agencies and private organizations that facilitate habitat management to support waterfowl and other bird populations. A subset of Joint Ventures has developed energetic carrying capacity models (ECCs) to translate regional waterfowl population goals into habitat objectives during the non-breeding period. Energetic carrying capacity models consider food biomass, metabolism, and available habitat to estimate waterfowl carrying capacity within an area. To evaluate Joint Venture ECCs in the context of waterfowl space use, we monitored 33 female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 55 female American black ducks (A. rubripes) using global positioning system satellite telemetry in the central and eastern United States. To quantify space use, we measured first-passage time (FPT: time required for an individual to transit across a circle of a given radius) at biologically relevant spatial scales for mallards (3.46 km) and American black ducks (2.30 km) during the non-breeding period, which included autumn migration, winter, and spring migration. We developed a series of models to predict FPT using Joint Venture ECCs and compared them to a biological null model that quantified habitat composition and a statistical null model, which included intercept and random terms. Energetic carrying capacity models predicted mallard space use more efficiently during autumn and spring migrations, but the statistical null was the top model for winter. For American black ducks, ECCs did not improve predictions of space use; the biological null was top ranked for winter and the statistical null was top ranked for spring migration. Thus, ECCs provided limited insight into predicting waterfowl space use during the non-breeding season. Refined estimates of spatial and temporal variation in food abundance, habitat conditions, and anthropogenic disturbance will likely improve ECCs and benefit conservation planners

  14. Evaluation of NLDAS-2 Multi-Model Simulated Soil Moisture Using the Observations from North American Soil Moisture Dataset (NASMD) (United States)

    Xia, Y.; Ek, M. B.; Wu, Y.; Ford, T.; Quiring, S. M.


    The North American Land Data Assimilation System phase 2 (NLDAS-2, has generated 35-years (1979-2013) of hydrometeorological products from four state-of-the-art land surface models (Noah, Mosaic, SAC, VIC). These products include energy fluxes, water fluxes, and state variables. Soil moisture is one of the most important state variables in NLDAS-2 as it plays a key role in land-atmosphere interaction, regional climate and ecological model simulation, water resource management, and other study areas. The soil moisture data from these models have been used for US operational drought monitoring activities, water resources management and planning, initialization of regional weather and climate models, and other meteorological and hydrological research purposes. However, these data have not yet been comprehensively evaluated due to the lack of extensive soil moisture observations. In this study, observations from over 1200 sites in the North America compiled from 27 observational networks in the North American Soil Moisture Database (NASMD, were used to evaluate the model-simulated daily soil moisture for different vegetation cover varying from grassland to forest, and different soil texture varying from sand to clay. Seven states in the United States from NASMD were selected based on known measurement error estimates for the evaluation. Statistical metrics, such as anomaly correlation, root-mean-square errors (RMSE), and bias are computed to assess NLDAS-2 soil moisture products. Three sensitivity tests were performed using the Noah model to examine the effect of soil texture and vegetation type mismatch on NLDAS-2 soil moisture simulation. In the first test, site observed soil texture was used. In the second test, site observed vegetation type/land cover was used. In the third test, both site observed soil texture and vegetation type were used. The results from three sensitivity tests will be

  15. Simple intake and pharmacokinetic modeling to characterize exposure of Americans to perfluoroctanoic acid, PFOA. (United States)

    Lorber, Matthew; Egeghy, Peter P


    Models for assessing intakes of perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA, are described and applied. One model is based on exposure media concentrations and contact rates. This model is applied to general population exposures for adults and 2-year old children. The other model is a simple one-compartment, first-order pharmacokinetic (PK) model. Parameters for this model include a rate of elimination of PFOA and a blood volume of distribution. The model was applied to data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, NHANES, to backcalculate intakes. The central tendency intake estimate for adults and children based on exposure media concentrations and contact rates were 70 and 26 ng/day, respectively. The central tendency adult intake derived from NHANES data was 56 and 37 ng/day for males and females, respectively. Variability and uncertainty discussions regarding the intake modeling focus on lack of data on direct exposure to PFOA used in consumer products, precursor compounds, and food. Discussions regarding PK modeling focus on the range of blood measurements in NHANES, the appropriateness of the simple PK model, and the uncertainties associated with model parameters. Using the PK model, the 10th and 95th percentile long-term average adult intakes of PFOA are 15 and 130 ng/day.

  16. A Preliminary Report on a New Measure: Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4) and Its Psychological Correlates among Asian American College Students (United States)

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Burrola, Kimberly S.; Steger, Michael F.


    This investigation is a preliminary report on a new measure of internalization of the model minority myth. In 3 studies, there was evidence for the validation of the 15-item Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4), with 2 subscales. The Model Minority Myth of Achievement Orientation referred to the myth of Asian Americans'…

  17. Structure and Evolution of the North American Upper Mantle: Insight from Integrative Modeling of Gravity, Topography and Seismic Tomography Data (United States)

    Mooney, W. D.; Kaban, M. K.; Tesauro, M.


    A limitation on the application of geophysical methods for the study of the upper mantle is the effect of lateral variations in the structure of the overlying crust that obscure the signal from the mantle. However, the North American upper mantle is particularly well-suited for geophysical study because crustal corrections can be made based on the results from numerous active- and passive-source seismic investigations that have determined lateral variations in crustal properties, including crustal thickness, P- and S-wave velocities, and crustal density estimated from empirical velocity-density relations. We exploit this knowledge of the crust of North America to construct an integrated 3D model of variations in density, temperature and composition within the upper mantle to a depth of 250 km. Our model is based on a joint analysis of topography, gravity, and seismic tomography data, coupled with mineral physics constraints. In the first step we remove the effect of the laterally-varying crust from the observed gravity field and topography (assuming Airy isostasy) using our crustal model NACr2014 (Tesauro et al., submitted). In the second step the residual mantle gravity field and residual topography (obtained in the first step) are inverted to obtain a 3D density model of the upper mantle. Thermal effects dominate this initial density model. To compensate for the thermal effects we invert for mantle temperatures based on the S-wave velocities determined by two seismic tomography models (S40RTS and NA2007). After removing the thermal effect from the mantle gravity anomalies we are left with the upper mantle density variations that are due to compositional variations. We recover two long-wavelength (5°-10°) features in the upper mantle compositional density model that are not evident in seismic tomography models: (1) a strong (+200 mgal) positive compositional anomaly beneath the Gulf of Mexico, perhaps due to eclogite in the uppermost mantle, and (2) a NE

  18. American Thyroid Association Guide to investigating thyroid hormone economy and action in rodent and cell models. (United States)

    Bianco, Antonio C; Anderson, Grant; Forrest, Douglas; Galton, Valerie Anne; Gereben, Balázs; Kim, Brian W; Kopp, Peter A; Liao, Xiao Hui; Obregon, Maria Jesus; Peeters, Robin P; Refetoff, Samuel; Sharlin, David S; Simonides, Warner S; Weiss, Roy E; Williams, Graham R


    An in-depth understanding of the fundamental principles that regulate thyroid hormone homeostasis is critical for the development of new diagnostic and treatment approaches for patients with thyroid disease. Important clinical practices in use today for the treatment of patients with hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, or thyroid cancer are the result of laboratory discoveries made by scientists investigating the most basic aspects of thyroid structure and molecular biology. In this document, a panel of experts commissioned by the American Thyroid Association makes a series of recommendations related to the study of thyroid hormone economy and action. These recommendations are intended to promote standardization of study design, which should in turn increase the comparability and reproducibility of experimental findings. It is expected that adherence to these recommendations by investigators in the field will facilitate progress towards a better understanding of the thyroid gland and thyroid hormone dependent processes.

  19. American Thyroid Association Guide to Investigating Thyroid Hormone Economy and Action in Rodent and Cell Models (United States)

    Anderson, Grant; Forrest, Douglas; Galton, Valerie Anne; Gereben, Balázs; Kim, Brian W.; Kopp, Peter A.; Liao, Xiao Hui; Obregon, Maria Jesus; Peeters, Robin P.; Refetoff, Samuel; Sharlin, David S.; Simonides, Warner S.; Weiss, Roy E.; Williams, Graham R.


    Background: An in-depth understanding of the fundamental principles that regulate thyroid hormone homeostasis is critical for the development of new diagnostic and treatment approaches for patients with thyroid disease. Summary: Important clinical practices in use today for the treatment of patients with hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, or thyroid cancer are the result of laboratory discoveries made by scientists investigating the most basic aspects of thyroid structure and molecular biology. In this document, a panel of experts commissioned by the American Thyroid Association makes a series of recommendations related to the study of thyroid hormone economy and action. These recommendations are intended to promote standardization of study design, which should in turn increase the comparability and reproducibility of experimental findings. Conclusions: It is expected that adherence to these recommendations by investigators in the field will facilitate progress towards a better understanding of the thyroid gland and thyroid hormone dependent processes. PMID:24001133

  20. Examining a Dual-Process Model of Desensitization and Hypersensitization to Community Violence in African American Male Adolescents. (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K; Bai, Grace J; Simic, Dusan


    The purpose of the current study was to examine a dual-process model of reactivity to community violence exposure in African American male adolescents from urban communities. The model focused on desensitization and hypersensitization effects as well as desensitization and hypersensitization as predictors of aggressive behavior. Participants were 133 African American male high school students, mean age = 15.17 years, SD = 0.96. Participants completed measures of exposure to community violence, depressive symptoms, hyperarousal symptoms, aggressive beliefs, and aggressive behaviors at two time points. Community violence exposure predicted changes in aggression, β = .25, p = .004, and physiological arousal, β = .22, p = .010, over time, but not aggressive beliefs. The curvilinear association between community violence exposure and changes in depression over time was not significant, β = .42, p = .083, but there was a significant linear association between the exposure to community violence (ECV) and changes in levels of depression over time, β = .21, p = .014. Results indicated a significant mediation effect for hyperarousal on the association between community violence exposure and aggressive behavior, B = 0.20, 95% CI = [0.04, 0.54]. Results showed support for physiological hypersensitization, with hypersensitization increasing the risk for aggressive behavior. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  1. Measurement Invariance and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: Asian International and Euro American Cultural Groups. (United States)

    Rollock, David; Lui, P Priscilla


    This study examined measurement invariance of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), assessing the five-factor model (FFM) of personality among Euro American (N = 290) and Asian international (N = 301) students (47.8% women, Mage = 19.69 years). The full 60-item NEO-FFI data fit the expected five-factor structure for both groups using exploratory structural equation modeling, and achieved configural invariance. Only 37 items significantly loaded onto the FFM-theorized factors for both groups and demonstrated metric invariance. Threshold invariance was not supported with this reduced item set. Groups differed the most in the item-factor relationships for Extraversion and Agreeableness, as well as in response styles. Asian internationals were more likely to use midpoint responses than Euro Americans. While the FFM can characterize broad nomothetic patterns of personality traits, metric invariance with only the subset of NEO-FFI items identified limits direct group comparisons of correlation coefficients among personality domains and with other constructs, and of mean differences on personality domains. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Positive Adjustment Among American Repatriated Prisoners of the Vietnam War: Modeling the Long-Term Effects of Captivity. (United States)

    King, Daniel W; King, Lynda A; Park, Crystal L; Lee, Lewina O; Kaiser, Anica Pless; Spiro, Avron; Moore, Jeffrey L; Kaloupek, Danny G; Keane, Terence M


    A longitudinal lifespan model of factors contributing to later-life positive adjustment was tested on 567 American repatriated prisoners from the Vietnam War. This model encompassed demographics at time of capture and attributes assessed after return to the U.S. (reports of torture and mental distress) and approximately 3 decades later (later-life stressors, perceived social support, positive appraisal of military experiences, and positive adjustment). Age and education at time of capture and physical torture were associated with repatriation mental distress, which directly predicted poorer adjustment 30 years later. Physical torture also had a salutary effect, enhancing later-life positive appraisals of military experiences. Later-life events were directly and indirectly (through concerns about retirement) associated with positive adjustment. Results suggest that the personal resources of older age and more education and early-life adverse experiences can have cascading effects over the lifespan to impact well-being in both positive and negative ways.

  3. Simulation model of mammographic calcifications based on the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System, or BIRADS. (United States)

    Kallergi, M; Gavrielides, M A; He, L; Berman, C G; Kim, J J; Clark, R A


    The authors developed and evaluated a method for the simulation of calcification clusters based on the guidelines of the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System of the American College of Radiology. They aimed to reproduce accurately the relative and absolute size, shape, location, number, and intensity of real calcifications associated with both benign and malignant disease. Thirty calcification clusters were simulated by using the proposed model and were superimposed on real, negative mammograms digitized at 30 microns and 16 bits per pixel. The accuracy of the simulation was evaluated by three radiologists in a blinded study. No statistically significant difference was observed in the observers' evaluation of the simulated clusters and the real clusters. The observers' classification of the cluster types seemed to be a good approximation of the intended types from the simulation design. This model can provide simulated calcification clusters with well-defined morphologic, distributional, and contrast characteristics for a variety of applications in digital mammography.

  4. Nitrogen and Carbon Cycle Modeling of the Northeast North American Shelf: Nesting ROMS within HYCOM (United States)


    Phytoplankton NH4 Mineralization Uptake Nitrification Nitrification Grazing Mortality Zooplankton Small detritus Aerobic mineralization Denitrification Fennel, K...INTEGRATION OF MODELING AND OBSERVING SYSTEMS BIO-PHYSICAL MODELING ATMOSPHERE-OCEAN INTERACTION DATA ASSIMILATION MODEL COUPLING AND ADAPTIVE...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey,Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences,New Brunswick,NJ,08901 8

  5. Modeling Latin-American stock markets volatility: Varying probabilities and mean reversion in a random level shift model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Following Xu and Perron (2014, I applied the extended RLS model to the daily stock market returns of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Peru. This model replaces the constant probability of level shifts for the entire sample with varying probabilities that record periods with extremely negative returns. Furthermore, it incorporates a mean reversion mechanism with which the magnitude and the sign of the level shift component vary in accordance with past level shifts that deviate from the long-term mean. Therefore, four RLS models are estimated: the Basic RLS, the RLS with varying probabilities, the RLS with mean reversion, and a combined RLS model with mean reversion and varying probabilities. The results show that the estimated parameters are highly significant, especially that of the mean reversion model. An analysis of ARFIMA and GARCH models is also performed in the presence of level shifts, which shows that once these shifts are taken into account in the modeling, the long memory characteristics and GARCH effects disappear. Also, I find that the performance prediction of the RLS models is superior to the classic models involving long memory as the ARFIMA(p,d,q models, the GARCH and the FIGARCH models. The evidence indicates that except in rare exceptions, the RLS models (in all its variants are showing the best performance or belong to the 10% of the Model Confidence Set (MCS. On rare occasions the GARCH and the ARFIMA models appear to dominate but they are rare exceptions. When the volatility is measured by the squared returns, the great exception is Argentina where a dominance of GARCH and FIGARCH models is appreciated.

  6. Mechanistic variables can enhance predictive models of endotherm distributions: The American pika under current, past, and future climates (United States)

    Mathewson, Paul; Moyer-Horner, Lucas; Beever, Erik; Briscoe, Natalie; Kearney, Michael T.; Yahn, Jeremiah; Porter, Warren P.


    How climate constrains species’ distributions through time and space is an important question in the context of conservation planning for climate change. Despite increasing awareness of the need to incorporate mechanism into species distribution models (SDMs), mechanistic modeling of endotherm distributions remains limited in this literature. Using the American pika (Ochotona princeps) as an example, we present a framework whereby mechanism can be incorporated into endotherm SDMs. Pika distribution has repeatedly been found to be constrained by warm temperatures, so we used Niche Mapper, a mechanistic heat-balance model, to convert macroclimate data to pika-specific surface activity time in summer across the western United States. We then explored the difference between using a macroclimate predictor (summer temperature) and using a mechanistic predictor (predicted surface activity time) in SDMs. Both approaches accurately predicted pika presences in current and past climate regimes. However, the activity models predicted 8–19% less habitat loss in response to annual temperature increases of ~3–5 °C predicted in the region by 2070, suggesting that pikas may be able to buffer some climate change effects through behavioral thermoregulation that can be captured by mechanistic modeling. Incorporating mechanism added value to the modeling by providing increased confidence in areas where different modeling approaches agreed and providing a range of outcomes in areas of disagreement. It also provided a more proximate variable relating animal distribution to climate, allowing investigations into how unique habitat characteristics and intraspecific phenotypic variation may allow pikas to exist in areas outside those predicted by generic SDMs. Only a small number of easily obtainable data are required to parameterize this mechanistic model for any endotherm, and its use can improve SDM predictions by explicitly modeling a widely applicable direct physiological effect

  7. A data-calibrated distribution of deglacial chronologies for the North American ice complex from glaciological modeling (United States)

    Tarasov, Lev; Dyke, Arthur S.; Neal, Radford M.; Peltier, W. R.


    Past deglacial ice sheet reconstructions have generally relied upon discipline-specific constraints with no attention given to the determination of objective confidence intervals. Reconstructions based on geophysical inversion of relative sea level (RSL) data have the advantage of large sets of proxy data but lack ice-mechanical constraints. Conversely, reconstructions based on dynamical ice sheet models are glaciologically self-consistent, but depend on poorly constrained climate forcings and sub-glacial processes. As an example of a much better constrained methodology that computes explicit error bars, we present a distribution of high-resolution glaciologically-self-consistent deglacial histories for the North American ice complex calibrated against a large set of RSL, marine limit, and geodetic data. The history is derived from ensemble-based analyses using the 3D MUN glacial systems model and a high-resolution ice-margin chronology derived from geological and geomorphological observations. Isostatic response is computed with the VM5a viscosity structure. Bayesian calibration of the model is carried out using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods in combination with artificial neural networks trained to the model results. The calibration provides a posterior distribution for model parameters (and thereby modeled glacial histories) given the observational data sets that takes data uncertainty into account. Final ensemble results also account for fits between computed and observed strandlines and marine limits. Given the model (including choice of calibration parameters), input and constraint data sets, and VM5a earth rheology, we find the North American contribution to mwp1a was likely between 9.4 and 13.2 m eustatic over a 500 year interval. This is more than half of the total 16 to 26 m meltwater pulse over 500 to 700 years (with lower values being more probable) indicated by the Barbados coral record (Fairbanks, 1989; Peltier and Fairbanks, 2006) if one assumes a

  8. An examination of the cross-cultural validity of the Identity Capital Model: American and Japanese students compared. (United States)

    Côté, James E; Mizokami, Shinichi; Roberts, Sharon E; Nakama, Reiko


    The Identity Capital Model proposes that forms of personal agency are associated with identity development as part of the transition to adulthood. This model was examined in two cultural contexts, taking into account age and gender, among college and university students aged 18 to 24 (N = 995). Confirmatory Factor Analyses verified cultural, age, and gender invariance of the two key operationalizations of the model. A Structural Equation Model path analysis confirmed that the model applies in both cultures with minor variations-types of personal agency are associated with the formation of adult- and societal-identities as part of the resolution of the identity stage. It was concluded that forms of personal agency providing the most effective ways of dealing with "individualization" (e.g., internal locus of control) are more important in the transition to adulthood among American students, whereas types of personal agency most effective in dealing with "individualistic collectivism" (e.g., ego strength) are more important among Japanese students. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A cultural model of infidelity among African American and Puerto Rican young adults. (United States)

    Macauda, Mark M; Erickson, Pamela I; Singer, Merrill C; Santelices, Claudia C


    Having concurrent sexual partners is a risk factor for STIs and HIV/AIDS, yet few studies have investigated the cultural meanings and functions of concurrency. A multi-method qualitative/quantitative study of sexual ideas, attitudes, and behaviors among inner-city Puerto Rican and African American emergent adults (age 18-25) in Hartford, Connecticut, USA, suggests that having concurrent partners is common in this population. Using data from 12 focus groups and 40 participants in systematic data collection techniques (e.g., pile sorts), the underlying cognitive structure of concurrency and cheating/infidelity are explored. Results suggest that participants are less tolerant of multiple partners in more committed relationships, but that very few relationships can be considered committed. Furthermore, participants see cheating as inevitable even in committed relationships. Sexual transgressions are considered the most severe form of cheating. Having an outside partner for emotional reasons or to have access to one's child were seen as more acceptable/forgivable than doing so for sexual satisfaction, social status or material goods. Multiple partnerships must be seen in the context of the inner city where resources and opportunities are scarce and young adults attempt to protect themselves from emotional injury. Documenting new and changing social constructions of infidelity is important for understanding the social context of sexual behavior in our global world and for designing culturally appropriate health interventions.

  10. Cytoprotective Effect of American Ginseng in a Rat Ethanol Gastric Ulcer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Huang


    Full Text Available Panax quinquefolium L. (American Ginseng, AG is one of the most popular herbal medicines in the World. We aimed to investigate whether chronic (28-day supplementation with AG could protect against ethanol-induced ulcer in gastric tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the possible molecular mechanisms leading to AG-mediated gastric mucosal protection. We randomized 32 male Wistar rats into four groups for treatment (n = 8 per group: supplementation with water (vehicle and low-dose (AG-1X, medium-dose (AG-2X and high-dose (AG-5X AG at 0, 250, 500, and 1250 mg/kg, respectively. In the first experiment, animals were fed vehicle or AG treatments for 4 weeks. At day 29, 75% ethanol was given orally to each animal at 10 mL/kg to induce gastric ulceration for 2 h. In a second experiment, animals were pretreated orally with each treatment for 1 hr before a single oral administration of ethanol (70%, 10 mL/kg. Trend analysis revealed that AG treatments inhibited ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. AG supplementation dose-dependently decreased the pro-inflammatory levels of interleukin 1β and cyclooxygenase 2 and the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins tBid, cytochrome C, and caspases-9 and -3 and increased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p-Bad. AG could have pharmacological potential for treating gastric ulcer.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Andriichuk


    Full Text Available The article deals with a comparative description of inclusive and special systems of education. On the basis of American and British studies are shown that modern scientists, voluntary organizations and parents of the disabled kids meet two problems: to prove that inclusion is necessary for children with special needs as the alternative to special education and to illustrate the real ways of inclusive education implementation into general educational process. The main goal of inclusive education is defined – to educate an absolutely full member of society by attracting all participants of education process to the general school activities. The author of the article points out that the professionals in the sphere of special education created and worked out a great amount of forms, methods and techniques of teaching which work with particular categories of children with special educational needs. This potential is useful and valuable from the point of view of inclusion which cannot succeed without the professional participation of specialists in different fields of pedagogy, psychology and rehabilitology.

  12. The housing, geography, and mobility of Latin American urban poor: the prevailing model and the case of Quito, Ecuador. (United States)

    Klak, T; Holtzclaw, M


    In this study of the constraints of low-income migrants in securing decent housing in Quito, Ecuador (a rapidly growing city), there is a literature review of Latin American intraurban mobility and housing, the development of a theoretical model, and a bivariate analysis. John Turner's model of the three stages in the life cycle of migrants and the three concentric zones of urbanization provides the initial framework for examining Quito migration. Quito differs from other Third World and Latin American cities in that its origins are pre-Colombian, and physical barriers surround the city. Data were obtained from housing data collected independently in 1990 and 1991 and survey data on households living in 1000 inadequate housing units in 1989. 35.5% of Quito's population live in inadequate housing (poor building materials, poor construction, deterioration, or lack of basic services). Three concentric and elongated zones are constructed based on distance from the center city and periphery and are representative of shelter types (rented rooms, shanty, house, and apartment). Shelter improves with type of ownership status. The attitudes of local officials influences the proportion of the poor living in rental or self-help housing. 36% of Quito's low-income residents live in rented rooms, and 38% live in shanties and houses. Bridgeheaders (new migrants who are usually young single males) tend to live in rented rooms for under five years and to move over time to shanties and then houses. Colonial preservation in central Quito and landlords' incentives for encouraging migrants to stay in rental housing interferes with the third phase of the model. Mixed housing throughout the city fits the third phase. Local laws prevent squatters and self-help housing. Rented rooms are primarily in the central city. Occupant income increases with shifts from rented rooms, to shanties, to houses. Shelter, geographic, and mobility patterns that do not fit the model are identified. Urban

  13. Diagnosing sea ice from the north american multi model ensemble and implications on mid-latitude winter climate (United States)

    Elders, Akiko; Pegion, Kathy


    Arctic sea ice plays an important role in the climate system, moderating the exchange of energy and moisture between the ocean and the atmosphere. An emerging area of research investigates how changes, particularly declines, in sea ice extent (SIE) impact climate in regions local to and remote from the Arctic. Therefore, both observations and model estimates of sea ice become important. This study investigates the skill of sea ice predictions from models participating in the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) project. Three of the models in this project provide sea-ice predictions. The ensemble average of these models is used to determine seasonal climate impacts on surface air temperature (SAT) and sea level pressure (SLP) in remote regions such as the mid-latitudes. It is found that declines in fall SIE are associated with cold temperatures in the mid-latitudes and pressure patterns across the Arctic and mid-latitudes similar to the negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO). These findings are consistent with other studies that have investigated the relationship between declines in SIE and mid-latitude weather and climate. In an attempt to include additional NMME models for sea-ice predictions, a proxy for SIE is used to estimate ice extent in the remaining models, using sea surface temperature (SST). It is found that SST is a reasonable proxy for SIE estimation when compared to model SIE forecasts and observations. The proxy sea-ice estimates also show similar relationships to mid-latitude temperature and pressure as the actual sea-ice predictions.

  14. A diagnostic evaluation model for complex research partnerships with community engagement: the partnership for Native American Cancer Prevention (NACP) model. (United States)

    Trotter, Robert T; Laurila, Kelly; Alberts, David; Huenneke, Laura F


    Complex community oriented health care prevention and intervention partnerships fail or only partially succeed at alarming rates. In light of the current rapid expansion of critically needed programs targeted at health disparities in minority populations, we have designed and are testing an "logic model plus" evaluation model that combines classic logic model and query based evaluation designs (CDC, NIH, Kellogg Foundation) with advances in community engaged designs derived from industry-university partnership models. These approaches support the application of a "near real time" feedback system (diagnosis and intervention) based on organizational theory, social network theory, and logic model metrics directed at partnership dynamics, combined with logic model metrics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A diagnostic evaluation model for complex research partnerships with community engagement: The partnership for Native American Cancer Prevention (NACP) model (United States)

    Trotter, Robert T.; Laurila, Kelly; Alberts, David; Huenneke, Laura F.


    Complex community oriented health care prevention and intervention partnerships fail or only partially succeed at alarming rates. In light of the current rapid expansion of critically needed programs targeted at health disparities in minority populations, we have designed and are testing an “logic model plus” evaluation model that combines classic logic model and query based evaluation designs (CDC, NIH, Kellogg Foundation) with advances in community engaged designs derived from industry-university partnership models. These approaches support the application of a “near real time” feedback system (diagnosis and intervention) based on organizational theory, social network theory, and logic model metrics directed at partnership dynamics, combined with logic model metrics. PMID:25265164

  16. NACP MsTMIP: Global and North American Driver Data for Multi-Model Intercomparison (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides environmental data that have been standardized and aggregated for use as input to carbon cycle models at global (0.5-degree resolution) and...

  17. NACP MsTMIP: Global and North American Driver Data for Multi-Model Intercomparison (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides environmental data that have been standardized and aggregated for use as input to carbon cycle models at global (0.5-degree...

  18. Pago Pago, American Samoa 3 Arc-second MWH Coastal Digital Elevation Model (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. Pago Pago, American Samoa 1/3 Arc-second MWH Coastal Digital Elevation Model (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  20. Tutuila, American Samoa 1/3 arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  1. A diagnostic evaluation model for complex research partnerships with community engagement: The partnership for Native American Cancer Prevention (NACP) model


    Trotter, Robert T.; Laurila, Kelly; Alberts, David; Huenneke, Laura F.


    Complex community oriented health care prevention and intervention partnerships fail or only partially succeed at alarming rates. In light of the current rapid expansion of critically needed programs targeted at health disparities in minority populations, we have designed and are testing an “logic model plus” evaluation model that combines classic logic model and query based evaluation designs (CDC, NIH, Kellogg Foundation) with advances in community engaged designs derived from industry-univ...

  2. Projected vegetation changes for the American Southwest: combined dynamic modeling and bioclimatic-envelope approach. (United States)

    Notaro, Michael; Mauss, Adrien; Williams, John W


    This study focuses on potential impacts of 21st century climate change on vegetation in the Southwest United States, based on debiased and interpolated climate projections from 17 global climate models used in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Among these models a warming trend is universal, but projected changes in precipitation vary in sign and magnitude. Two independent methods are applied: a dynamic global vegetation model to assess changes in plant functional types and bioclimatic envelope modeling to assess changes in individual tree and shrub species and biodiversity. The former approach investigates broad responses of plant functional types to climate change, while considering competition, disturbances, and carbon fertilization, while the latter approach focuses on the response of individual plant species, and net biodiversity, to climate change. The dynamic model simulates a region-wide reduction in vegetation cover during the 21st century, with a partial replacement of evergreen trees with grasses in the mountains of Colorado and Utah, except at the highest elevations, where tree cover increases. Across southern Arizona, central New Mexico, and eastern Colorado, grass cover declines, in some cases abruptly. Due to the prevalent warming trend among all 17 climate models, vegetation cover declines in the 21st century, with the greatest vegetation losses associated with models that project a drying trend. The inclusion of the carbon fertilization effect largely ameliorates the projected vegetation loss. Based on bioclimatic envelope modeling for the 21st century, the number of tree and shrub species that are expected to experience robust declines in range likely outweighs the number of species that are expected to expand in range. Dramatic shifts in plant species richness are projected, with declines in the high-elevation evergreen forests, increases in the eastern New Mexico prairies, and a northward shift of the

  3. The role of acculturation in the mentoring-career satisfaction model for Asian/Pacific Islander American university faculty. (United States)

    Nguyen, Angela-MinhTu D; Huynh, Que-Lam; Lonergan-Garwick, Jennifer


    This study aimed to test the generalizability of the mentoring-career satisfaction relationship from European Americans to Asian/Pacific Islander American (APIA) faculty and to examine acculturation as a possible moderator. Faculty (N = 139) from four large public universities in California completed self-report surveys on mentoring, career satisfaction, and acculturation. Results suggest that the relationship generalizes to APIA faculty and that acculturation plays a role in the model, though not as hypothesized. Although acculturation did not moderate the relationship between mentoring and career satisfaction, it predicted mentoring (via an interaction) and career satisfaction (for participants born overseas) individually. Protégés using particular acculturation strategies reported a greater extent of mentoring from mentors of certain ethnic groups. In addition, participants who were born overseas and are more oriented to their API culture reported greater career satisfaction. Our results suggest that researchers should consider cultural variables, such as acculturation, when studying APIAs or when working with APIAs. 2007 APA

  4. Modeling the South American regional smoke plume: aerosol optical depth variability and surface shortwave flux perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Rosário


    Full Text Available Intra-seasonal variability of smoke aerosol optical depth (AOD and downwelling solar irradiance at the surface during the 2002 biomass burning season in South America was modeled using the Coupled Chemistry-Aerosol-Tracers Transport model with the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CCATT-BRAMS. Measurements of total and fine mode fraction (FMF AOD from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET and solar irradiance at the surface from the Solar Radiation Network (SolRad-NET were used to evaluate model results. In general, the major features associated with AOD evolution over the southern part of the Amazon basin and cerrado ecosystem are captured by the model. The main discrepancies were found for high aerosol loading events. In the northeastern portion of the Amazon basin the model systematically underestimated total AOD, as expected, since smoke contribution is not dominant as it is in the southern portion and emissions other than smoke were not considered in the simulation. Better agreement was obtained comparing the model results with observed FMF AOD, which pointed out the relevance of coarse mode aerosol emission in that region. Likewise, major discrepancies over cerrado during high AOD events were found to be associated with coarse mode aerosol omission in our model. The issue of high aerosol loading events in the southern part of the Amazon was related to difficulties in predicting the smoke AOD field, which was discussed in the context of emissions shortcomings. The Cuiabá cerrado site was the only one where the highest quality AERONET data were unavailable for both total and FMF AOD. Thus, lower quality data were used. Root-mean-square error (RMSE between the model and observed FMF AOD decreased from 0.34 to 0.19 when extreme AOD events (FMF AOD550 nm ≥ 1.0 and Cuiabá were excluded from the analysis. Downward surface solar irradiance comparisons also followed similar trends when extreme AOD were excluded

  5. Using the PEN-3 Model to Plan Culturally Competent Domestic Violence Intervention and Prevention Services in Chinese American and Immigrant Communities (United States)

    Yick, Alice G.; Oomen-Early, Jody


    Purpose: The purpose of this article is two-fold. First, it applies the PEN-3 model to the topic of domestic violence within the Chinese American and Chinese immigrant community. The PEN-3 model was developed by Collins Airhihenbuwa, and it focuses on placing culture at the forefront of health promotion. It consists of three dimensions: cultural…

  6. Modeling the oxygen-isotopic composition of the North American Ice Sheet and its effect on the isotopic composition of the ocean during the last glacial cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sima, A.; Paul, A.; Schulz, M.; Oerlemans, J.


    We used a 2.5-dimensional thermomechanical icesheet model including the oxygen-isotope ratio 18O/16O as a passive tracer to simulate the isotopic composition (d18O) of the North American Ice Sheet (NAIS) during the last glacial cycle. This model allowed us to estimate the NAIS contribution to the

  7. A comparative review between the updated models of Brazilian, United Kingdom and American eye banks and lamellar transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Victor


    Full Text Available The corneal transplantation (CT is the most commonly performed type of transplant in the world and the Eye Banks are organizations whose capture, evaluate, preserve, store and distribute ocular tissues. With the evolution of surgical techniques and equipment for CT, the BOs had to evolve to keep up with these requirements. This evolution goes from tissues capture techniques, donating money and clarification to the patient (e.g. internet-based, use of current equipment for more adequate tissues supply for the most current surgical techniques, integration of BOs of certain country and real-time management of stocks of ocular tissues, and adequacy of laws that manage the entire process. This review aims to make a comparative review between the updated models of Brazilian, United Kingdon and American Eye Banks. Like, check what the trend towards lamellar transplants in these three countries.

  8. The Schumpeterian Model of the Cyclical Process in the Evolution of American Capitalism, 1786-1939. (United States)

    Hawley, John B.

    This paper describes the Schumpeterian schema of capitalist business cycles. The creator of the model, Joseph A. Schumpeter (1883-1950), was a Czech-born and Viennese-educated theoretical economist who emigrated to the United States in the 1930s and taught at Harvard University for 18 years. He is particularly remembered in economic circles for…

  9. Culture and Youth Psychopathology: Testing the Syndromal Sensitivity Model in Thai and American Adolescents (United States)

    Weisz, John R.; Weiss, Bahr; Suwanlert, Somsong; Chaiyasit, Wanchai


    Current widespread use of the same youth assessment measures and scales across different nations assumes that youth psychopathology syndromes do not differ meaningfully across nations. By contrast, the authors' syndromal sensitivity model posits 3 processes through which cultural differences can lead to cross-national differences in…

  10. Relations of Transtheoretical Model Stage, Self-Efficacy, and Voluntary Physical Activity in African American Preadolescents (United States)

    Annesi, James J.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Westcott, Wayne L.


    The transtheoretical model (TTM; Prochaska, DiClemente, & Norcross, 1992) suggests that, at any point, an individual is in one of five stages-of-change related to adopting a behavior. People sequentially advance in stage but may also maintain or even regress, based on personal and environmental factors (Nigg, 2005). A classic study published in…

  11. Energy contribution to Latin American INDCs: Analyzing sub-regional trends with a TIMES model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postic, Sebastien; Selosse, Sandrine; Maïzi, Nadia


    Central and South America and the Caribbean countries share energy and climate features that are quite different from the rest of the world, including a highly renewable energy mix and very high renewable energy potentials, along with high deforestation and degradation rates which call for regional answers to regional issues. This paper assesses the impact of national contributions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change using an energy prospective model from the MarkAl/TIMES family. This approach enables a bottom-up comparison between past pledges (Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions) and the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) agreed on at COP21. Long-term economic optimization leads to decarbonizing the power sector even in the absence of climate constraints. Stringent climate policies as modeled here achieve emission reductions of 40% below the current baseline by 2050. NDCs produce stronger emission reductions than NAMAs at regional scale; however, the first contributor to emission reductions in absolute terms in Latin America is the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land-Use (AFOLU) sector, not energy. - Highlights: • We analyze energy-bound climate mitigation in Latin America with a bottom-up model. • We derive five policy scenarios based on past and current pledges to the UNFCCC. • Despite a clean BAU power mix, the region can cut emissions by up to 40% by 2050. • INDCs lead to stronger emission reductions than former NAMAs. • Energy-only measures would overlook significant abatement potential in AFOLU.

  12. Drought on the North American High Plains: Modeling Effects of Vegetation, Temperature, and Rainfall Perturbations on Regional Hydrology (United States)

    Hein, A. E.; Condon, L. E.; Maxwell, R. M.


    Large scale droughts can disrupt the water supply for agriculture, municipalities and industrial use worldwide. For example, the Dustbowl drought of the 1930s severely damaged agriculture on the North American High Plains. The Dustbowl is generally attributed to three major factors: increased temperature, decreased precipitation, and a change from native grasses that might have tolerated these climate perturbations to dryland wheat farming, which did not. This study explores the individual importance of each of these factors and the feedbacks between them. Previous modeling studies have explored how the High Plains system responds to changes in precipitation or temperature, but these models often depend on simplified or lumped parameter approaches. These approaches may not fully represent all the relevant physical processes, especially those related to energy balance changes due to increased temperature. For this study, we built a high-resolution model of the High Plains using ParFlow-CLM, an integrated hydrologic model that solves both energy and water balances from the subsurface to the top of vegetation. Model inputs including geology and climate forcing, together with representative precipitation and temperature changes for a major drought were assembled from public data. Numerical experiments were run to perturb vegetation, precipitation and temperature separately, as well as a baseline scenario with no changes and a worst-case scenario with all three simultaneously. The impact of each factor on High Plains hydrology and water resources was examined by comparing soil moisture, stream flow and water table levels between the runs. The one-factor experiments were used to show which of these outputs was the most sensitive and responded most quickly to each change. The worst-case scenario revealed interactions between the three factors.

  13. Encouraging Sustainable Transport Choices in American Households: Results from an Empirically Grounded Agent-Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Natalini


    Full Text Available The transport sector needs to go through an extended process of decarbonisation to counter the threat of climate change. Unfortunately, the International Energy Agency forecasts an enormous growth in the number of cars and greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Two issues can thus be identified: (1 the need for a new methodology that could evaluate the policy performances ex-ante and (2 the need for more effective policies. To help address these issues, we developed an Agent-Based Model called Mobility USA aimed at: (1 testing whether this could be an effective approach in analysing ex-ante policy implementation in the transport sector; and (2 evaluating the effects of alternative policy scenarios on commuting behaviours in the USA. Particularly, we tested the effects of two sets of policies, namely market-based and preference-change ones. The model results suggest that this type of agent-based approach will provide a useful tool for testing policy interventions and their effectiveness.

  14. Investigating added value of regional climate modeling in North American winter storm track simulations (United States)

    Poan, E. D.; Gachon, P.; Laprise, R.; Aider, R.; Dueymes, G.


    Extratropical Cyclone (EC) characteristics depend on a combination of large-scale factors and regional processes. However, the latter are considered to be poorly represented in global climate models (GCMs), partly because their resolution is too coarse. This paper describes a framework using possibilities given by regional climate models (RCMs) to gain insight into storm activity during winter over North America (NA). Recent past climate period (1981-2005) is considered to assess EC activity over NA using the NCEP regional reanalysis (NARR) as a reference, along with the European reanalysis ERA-Interim (ERAI) and two CMIP5 GCMs used to drive the Canadian Regional Climate Model—version 5 (CRCM5) and the corresponding regional-scale simulations. While ERAI and GCM simulations show basic agreement with NARR in terms of climatological storm track patterns, detailed bias analyses show that, on the one hand, ERAI presents statistically significant positive biases in terms of EC genesis and therefore occurrence while capturing their intensity fairly well. On the other hand, GCMs present large negative intensity biases in the overall NA domain and particularly over NA eastern coast. In addition, storm occurrence over the northwestern topographic regions is highly overestimated. When the CRCM5 is driven by ERAI, no significant skill deterioration arises and, more importantly, all storm characteristics near areas with marked relief and over regions with large water masses are significantly improved with respect to ERAI. Conversely, in GCM-driven simulations, the added value contributed by CRCM5 is less prominent and systematic, except over western NA areas with high topography and over the Western Atlantic coastlines where the most frequent and intense ECs are located. Despite this significant added-value on seasonal-mean characteristics, a caveat is raised on the RCM ability to handle storm temporal `seriality', as a measure of their temporal variability at a given

  15. American College Football Division I Team Attachment: A Model for Sponsorship Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chung Chen


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine sponsorship effectiveness at the Division I level, including the relationship between fans and sponsors. To collect the necessary data, the 13-item questionnaire was disseminated at two college football games by volunteer sampling at three Division I universities in the United States. With a total of 407 respondents, LISREL 8.52 and SPSS 17.0 were used to analyze the data for descriptive statistics, CFA, and SEM. By utilizing SEM, the variables of team attachment, sponsor image, word of mouth, and purchase intentions fit the proposed model.  Pragmatically, the significance of team attachment can be understated in its role as an initial construct to begin the sponsorship process. Considering the construct of sponsor image as a mediating variable, sponsor image played an important role to anticipate an increase in positive word of mouth or an increase in consumer purchase intentions.

  16. Modeling Dynamics of South American Rangelands to Climate Variability and Human Impact (United States)

    Stanimirova, R.; Arevalo, P. A.; Kaufmann, R.; Maus, V.; Lesiv, M.; Havlik, P.; Friedl, M. A.


    The combined pressures of climate change and shifting dietary preferences are creating an urgent need to improve understanding of how climate and land management are jointly affecting the sustainability of rangelands. In particular, our ability to effectively manage rangelands in a manner that satisfies increasing demand for meat and dairy while reducing environmental impact depends on the sensitivity of rangelands to perturbations from both climate (e.g., drought) and land use (e.g., grazing). To characterize the sensitivity of rangeland vegetation to variation in climate, we analyzed gridded time series of satellite and climate data at 0.5-degree spatial resolution from 2003 to 2016 for rangeland ecosystems in South America. We used panel regression and canonical correlation to analyze the relationship between time series of enhanced vegetation index (EVI) derived from NASA's Moderate Spatial Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and gridded precipitation and air temperature data from the University of East Anglia's Climate Research Unit. To quantify the degree to which livestock management explains geographic variation of EVI, we used global livestock distribution (FAO) and feed requirements data from the Global Biosphere Management Model (GLOBIOM). Because rangeland ecosystems are sensitive to changes in meteorological variables at different time scales, we evaluated the strength of coupling between anomalies in EVI and anomalies in temperature and standardized precipitation index (SPI) data at 1-6 month lags. Our results show statistically significant relationships between EVI and precipitation during summer, fall, and winter in both tropical and subtropical agroecological zones of South America. Further, lagged precipitation effects, which reflect memory in the system, explain significant variance in winter EVI anomalies. While precipitation emerges as the dominant driver of variability in rangeland greenness, we find evidence of a management

  17. Emerging ecological datasets with application for modeling North American dust emissions (United States)

    McCord, S.; Stauffer, N. G.; Garman, S.; Webb, N.


    In 2011 the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) established the Assessment, Inventory and Monitoring (AIM) program to monitor the condition of BLM land and to provide data to support evidence-based management of multi-use public lands. The monitoring program shares core data collection methods with the Natural Resources Conservation Service's (NRCS) National Resources Inventory (NRI), implemented on private lands nationally. Combined, the two programs have sampled >30,000 locations since 2003 to provide vegetation composition, vegetation canopy height, the size distribution of inter-canopy gaps, soil texture and crusting information on rangelands and pasture lands across North America. The BLM implements AIM on more than 247.3 million acres of land across the western US, encompassing major dust source regions of the Chihuahuan, Sonoran, Mojave and Great Basin deserts, the Colorado Plateau, and potential high-latitude dust sources in Alaska. The AIM data are publicly available and can be used to support modeling of land surface and boundary-layer processes, including dust emission. While understanding US dust source regions and emission processes has been of national interest since the 1930s Dust Bowl, most attention has been directed to the croplands of the Great Plains and emission hot spots like Owens Lake, California. The magnitude, spatial extent and temporal dynamics of dust emissions from western dust source areas remain highly uncertain. Here, we use ensemble modeling with empirical and physically-based dust emission schemes applied to AIM monitoring data to assess regional-scale patterns of aeolian sediment mass fluxes and dust emissions. The analysis enables connections to be made between dust emission rates at source and other indicators of ecosystem function at the landscape scale. Emerging ecological datasets like AIM provide new opportunities to evaluate aeolian sediment transport responses to land surface conditions, potential interactions with

  18. Modeling ecodevelopmental context of sexually transmitted disease/HIV risk and protective behaviors among African-American adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Y


    Full Text Available Ya-Huei Li,1 Osaro Mgbere,1,2 Susan Abughosh,1 Hua Chen,1 Paula Cuccaro,3 Ekere James Essien1,3 1Department of Pharmaceutical Health Outcomes and Policy, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Texas Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA; 2Houston Health Department, Houston, TX, USA; 3Department of Health Promotion and Behavioral Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Risk and protective processes are integrated developmental processes that directly or indirectly affect behavioral outcomes. A better understanding of these processes is needed, in order to gauge their contribution to sexual risk behaviors. This retrospective cross-sectional study modeled the ecodevelopmental chain of relationships to examine the social contexts of African-American (AA adolescents associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD- and HIV-risk behaviors. We used data from 1,619 AA adolescents with an average age of 16±1.8 years obtained from the first wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health for this study. Confirmatory factor analysis followed by structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the latent constructs that reflect the social–interactional components of the ecodevelopmental theory. Among contextual factors, findings indicated that a feeling of love from father, school, religion, and parent attitudes toward adolescent sexual behavior were all factors that played significant roles in the sexual behavior of AA adolescents. AA adolescents who reported feeling love from their father, feeling a strong negative attitude from their parents toward having sex at a very young age, and having a strong bond with school personnel were associated with better health statuses. The level of parents’ involvement in their children’s lives was reflected in the adolescents’ feeling of love from parents and moderated by their socioeconomic status. Being male, attaining

  19. High-resolution modeling of the western North American power system demonstrates low-cost and low-carbon futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, James; Johnston, Josiah; Mileva, Ana; Fripp, Matthias; Hoffman, Ian; Petros-Good, Autumn; Blanco, Christian; Kammen, Daniel M.


    Decarbonizing electricity production is central to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Exploiting intermittent renewable energy resources demands power system planning models with high temporal and spatial resolution. We use a mixed-integer linear programming model – SWITCH – to analyze least-cost generation, storage, and transmission capacity expansion for western North America under various policy and cost scenarios. Current renewable portfolio standards are shown to be insufficient to meet emission reduction targets by 2030 without new policy. With stronger carbon policy consistent with a 450 ppm climate stabilization scenario, power sector emissions can be reduced to 54% of 1990 levels by 2030 using different portfolios of existing generation technologies. Under a range of resource cost scenarios, most coal power plants would be replaced by solar, wind, gas, and/or nuclear generation, with intermittent renewable sources providing at least 17% and as much as 29% of total power by 2030. The carbon price to induce these deep carbon emission reductions is high, but, assuming carbon price revenues are reinvested in the power sector, the cost of power is found to increase by at most 20% relative to business-as-usual projections. - Highlights: ► Intermittent generation necessitates high-resolution electric power system models. ► We apply the SWITCH planning model to the western North American grid. ► We explore carbon policy and resource cost scenarios through 2030. ► As the carbon price rises, coal generation is replaced with solar, wind, gas and/or nuclear generation ► A 450 ppm climate stabilization target can be met at a 20% or lower cost increase.

  20. Understanding the influence of topography on the dynamics of the North American monsoon in climate model simulations (United States)

    Varuolo-Clarke, A. M.; Medeiros, B.; Reed, K. A.


    This project examines the influence of topography on the dynamics of the North American monsoon (NAM), including the genesis, peak, and demise of the monsoon. The monsoon season occurs from July to September in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico and is characterized by an increase in rainfall that accounts for 40-80% of the total annual rainfall. We use a simple "monsoon index" and show that simulations with the Community Atmosphere model capture the essential nature of the NAM. Comparing standard low-resolution (1o latitude x 1o longitude) simulations where the topography over North America is either retained or removed we evaluate the models' representations of the NAM. To understand the origin of differences between the simulations we analyze the moist static energy budget in the monsoon region. Our preliminary results from simulations with realistic topography indicate that the simulated NAM is driven by locally-generated convection, with advection processes being secondary; this is consistent with the NAM being a result of the thermal contrast between the hot, summertime continent and relatively cool ocean. When topography is removed the simulated NAM will be relatively weak and be driven primarily by locally-generated convection. A better understanding of the monsoon dynamics and the impact topography has on these dynamics will allow for a more accurate representation of the monsoon in projections of future climate.

  1. Joint American Nuclear Society and Health Physics Society Conference: Applicability of Radiation Response Models to Low Dose Protection Standards. (United States)

    Glines, Wayne M; Markham, Anna


    Seventy-five years after the Hanford Site was initially created as the primary plutonium production site for atomic weapons development under the Manhattan Project, the American Nuclear Society and the Health Physics Society are sponsoring a conference from 30 September through 3 October 2018, in Pasco, Washington, titled "Applicability of Radiation Response Models to Low Dose Protection Standards." The goal of this conference is to use current scientific data to update the approach to regulating low-level radiation doses; i.e., to answer a quintessential question of radiation protection-how to best develop radiation protection standards that protect human populations against detrimental effects while allowing the beneficial uses of radiation and radioactive materials. Previous conferences (e.g., "Wingspread Conference," "Arlie Conference") have attempted to address this question; but now, almost 20 y later, the key issues, goals, conclusions, and recommendations of those two conferences remain and are as relevant as they were then. Despite the best efforts of the conference participants and increased knowledge and understanding of the science underlying radiation effects in human populations, the bases of current radiation protection standards have evolved little. This 2018 conference seeks to provide a basis and path forward for evolving radiation protection standards to be more reflective of current knowledge and understanding of low dose response models.

  2. Role of religious involvement and spirituality in functioning among African Americans with cancer: testing a mediational model (United States)

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Wang, Min Qi; Caplan, Lee; Schulz, Emily; Blake, Victor; Southward, Vivian L.


    The present study tested a mediational model of the role of religious involvement, spirituality, and physical/emotional functioning in a sample of African American men and women with cancer. Several mediators were proposed based on theory and previous research, including sense of meaning, positive and negative affect, and positive and negative religious coping. One hundred patients were recruited through oncologist offices, key community leaders and community organizations, and interviewed by telephone. Participants completed an established measure of religious involvement, the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT-SP-12 version 4), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Meaning in Life Scale, the Brief RCOPE, and the SF-12, which assesses physical and emotional functioning. Positive affect completely mediated the relationship between religious behaviors and emotional functioning. Though several other constructs showed relationships with study variables, evidence of mediation was not supported. Mediational models were not significant for the physical functioning outcome, nor were there significant main effects of religious involvement or spirituality for this outcome. Implications for cancer survivorship interventions are discussed. PMID:21222026

  3. Arab American college students' physical activity and body composition: reconciling Middle East-West differences using the socioecological model. (United States)

    Kahan, David


    In this study, I conducted focus group interviews with 21 Arab American college students (9 men, 12 women; 9 Muslims, 12 non-Muslims), who were selected for extreme manifestation of religiosity or acculturation, to explore their beliefs and attitudes toward socioecological (SE) factors that facilitated and hindered their individual physical activity (PA) and body composition (I also considered body image and food and eating behavior). To analyze responses, I used a combination of deductive coding, which used levels of the SE model and demographic variable groupings, and inductive coding, to search for common themes among participants within and between research questions. Results revealed that (a) the context of physical activity participation differed by gender; (b) ideal body image was conflicted and varied by gender; and (c) consumption of cultural foods diminished along with Arab social customs related to eating. Interpersonal and cultural/community levels of the SE model were identified as primary influences, with parents regulating and instilling values backed by cultural norms to preserve Arab identity, especially in women. Finally, I identified an indeterminate adjustment period, during which immigrants transitioned between physical activity purpose/form in the Middle East and the United States.

  4. Partner violence victimization and unintended pregnancy in Latina and Asian American women: Analysis using structural equation modeling. (United States)

    Cha, Susan; Masho, Saba W; Heh, Victor


    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive public health problem in the U.S., affecting nearly one in every three women over their lifetimes. Using structural equation modeling, we evaluated the association between IPV and unintended pregnancy, mediated by condom use and perceived spousal/partner support among Latina and Asian women. Data came from the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS). The analysis was restricted to married or cohabiting female respondents aged 18+ years (n = 1,595). Dependent variables included unintended pregnancy, condom use, and perceived partner support. Independent variables included physical abuse or threats by current partner and primary decision-maker. Weighted least squares was used to fit path models to data comprising dichotomous and ordinal variables. More than 13% of women reported IPV during their relationship with their partner/spouse. Abused women were twice as likely as non-abused women to have had an unintended pregnancy. This association was partially mediated by perceived partner support. Condom use had a positive, but non-significant association with unintended pregnancy, and IPV had a negative, but non-significant association with condom use. Results highlight the importance of IPV screening for minority women. Efforts to combine family planning and violence prevention services may help reduce unintended pregnancy.

  5. Modeling migratory energetics of Connecticut River American shad (Alosa sapidissima): implications for the conservation of an iteroparous anadromous fish (United States)

    Castro-Santos, Theodore; Letcher, Benjamin H.


    We present a simulation model in which individual adult migrant American shad (Alosa sapidissima) ascend the Connecticut River and spawn, and survivors return to the marine environment. Our approach synthesizes bioenergetics, reproductive biology, and behavior to estimate the effects of migratory distance and delays incurred at dams on spawning success and survival. We quantified both the magnitude of effects and the consequences of uncertainty in the estimates of input variables. Behavior, physiology, and energetics strongly affected both the distribution of spawning effort and survival to the marine environment. Delays to both upstream and downstream movements had dramatic effects on spawning success, determining total fecundity and spatial extent of spawning. Delays, combined with cues for migratory reversal, also determined the likelihood of survival. Spawning was concentrated in the immediate vicinity of dams and increased with greater migratory distance and delays to downstream migration. More research is needed on reproductive biology, behavior, energetics, and barrier effects to adequately understand the interplay of the various components of this model; it does provide a framework, however, that suggests that provision of upstream passage at dams in the absence of expeditious downstream passage may increase spawning success — but at the expense of reduced iteroparity. 

  6. Owls, larks, swifts, woodcocks and they are not alone: A historical review of methodology for multidimensional self-assessment of individual differences in sleep-wake pattern. (United States)

    Putilov, Arcady A


    Differences between the so-called larks and owls representing the opposite poles of morningness-eveningness dimension are widely known. However, scientific consensus has not yet been reached on the methodology for ranking and typing people along other dimensions of individual variation in their sleep-wake pattern. This review focused on the history and state-of-the-art of the methodology for self-assessment of individual differences in more than one trait or adaptability of the human sleep-wake cycle. The differences between this and other methodologies for the self-assessment of trait- and state-like variation in the perceived characteristics of daily rhythms were discussed and the critical issues that remained to be addressed in future studies were highlighted. These issues include a) a failure to develop a unidimensional scale for scoring chronotypological differences, b) the inconclusive results of the long-lasting search for objective markers of chronotype, c) a disagreement on both number and content of scales required for multidimensional self-assessment of chronobiological differences, d) a lack of evidence for the reliability and/or external validity of most of the proposed scales and e) an insufficient development of conceptualizations, models and model-based quantitative simulations linking the differences between people in their sleep-wake pattern with the differences in the basic parameters of underlying chronoregulatory processes. It seems that, in the nearest future, the wide implementation of portable actigraphic and somnographic devices might lead to the development of objective methodologies for multidimensional assessment and classification of sleep-wake traits and adaptabilities.

  7. Haitian Americans. (United States)

    Catanese, Anthony V.


    Uses 1990 U.S. Census data to show the changing demographic profile of Haitian Americans. Haitian Americans are likely to live along the Atlantic seaboard and to have relatively low, although not the lowest, incomes. However, the demographic mosaic of Haitian Americans is diverse, showing the effects of Haitian national and ethnic history. (SLD)

  8. Regional-scale geostatistical inverse modeling of North American CO2 fluxes: a synthetic data study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Michalak


    Full Text Available A series of synthetic data experiments is performed to investigate the ability of a regional atmospheric inversion to estimate grid-scale CO2 fluxes during the growing season over North America. The inversions are performed within a geostatistical framework without the use of any prior flux estimates or auxiliary variables, in order to focus on the atmospheric constraint provided by the nine towers collecting continuous, calibrated CO2 measurements in 2004. Using synthetic measurements and their associated concentration footprints, flux and model-data mismatch covariance parameters are first optimized, and then fluxes and their uncertainties are estimated at three different temporal resolutions. These temporal resolutions, which include a four-day average, a four-day-average diurnal cycle with 3-hourly increments, and 3-hourly fluxes, are chosen to help assess the impact of temporal aggregation errors on the estimated fluxes and covariance parameters. Estimating fluxes at a temporal resolution that can adjust the diurnal variability is found to be critical both for recovering covariance parameters directly from the atmospheric data, and for inferring accurate ecoregion-scale fluxes. Accounting for both spatial and temporal a priori covariance in the flux distribution is also found to be necessary for recovering accurate a posteriori uncertainty bounds on the estimated fluxes. Overall, the results suggest that even a fairly sparse network of 9 towers collecting continuous CO2 measurements across the continent, used with no auxiliary information or prior estimates of the flux distribution in time or space, can be used to infer relatively accurate monthly ecoregion scale CO2 surface fluxes over North America within estimated uncertainty bounds. Simulated random transport error is shown to decrease the quality of flux estimates in under-constrained areas at the ecoregion scale, although the uncertainty bounds remain realistic. While these synthetic

  9. An Examination of the Tripartite Model of Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in African American Youth: Stressors and Coping Strategies as Common and Specific Correlates (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Elmore, Corinn A.; Campbell, Cynthya L.; Wethington, Anna


    The purpose of the current study was to examine the tripartite model of depression and anxiety in a community-based sample of 278 African American adolescents (M age = 12.89) from low-income communities and to identify stressors and coping strategies that were associated with the specific features of each disorder. Participants reported on…

  10. How African American and Hispanic High School Students in an Urban Charter High School May Benefit from the Early College High School Model of Receiving College Credits? (United States)

    Pitchford-Nicholas, Gloria Jean


    The preparedness of students to enter college is an ongoing issue of national concern. The purpose of the study was to conduct a mixed method descriptive case study to answer the question: "How African-American and Hispanic High School Students in an Urban Charter High School may benefit from the Early College High School Model of receiving…

  11. The Family Festival Prevention Model: Findings from a Pilot of a Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Programme Conceptualised by and for Mexican American Communities (United States)

    Murphy-Erby, Yvette; Stauss, Kim; Koh, Eun


    Despite an overall reduction in teenage pregnancy rates in the USA, the decrease for young women of Mexican heritage in the USA has been less significant than the decrease for their White and African-American peers. Furthermore, the availability of teenage pregnancy prevention models that are conceptualised specifically for people of Mexican…

  12. Creating a Pipeline for African American Computing Science Faculty: An Innovative Faculty/Research Mentoring Program Model (United States)

    Charleston, LaVar J.; Gilbert, Juan E.; Escobar, Barbara; Jackson, Jerlando F. L.


    African Americans represent 1.3% of all computing sciences faculty in PhD-granting departments, underscoring the severe underrepresentation of Black/African American tenure-track faculty in computing (CRA, 2012). The Future Faculty/Research Scientist Mentoring (FFRM) program, funded by the National Science Foundation, was found to be an effective…

  13. Applying plant functional types to construct biome maps from eastern North American pollen data: comparisons with model results (United States)

    Williams, John W.; Summers, Robert L.; Webb, Thompson, III

    Global biome models like BIOME1 convert climate-model simulations of past climates into biome distributions and thus facilitate comparison of both climate and biome model results with biomes estimate from paleoecological data. We adapted a biomization method, recently developed for European pollen data, for use with pollen data in eastern North America and then compared its estimated biomes with those derived from applying BIOME1 to the climate simulations from the NCAR CCM1 (National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model, Version 1) for 6000 years ago (6 ka). We first tested the biomization method by seeing how well the biomes inferred from modern pollen data match observed biomes. We found that modifications to the method were necessary in part to account for physiological differences between North American and European taxa, and in part to cope with our choice of using just 23 major pollen taxa. Our modifications significantly improved the match between observed modern biomes and pollen-derived biomes, as measured by the kappa statistic. We tested our tuning of the biomization method by matching its inferred 6 ka biomes to biomes estimated from pollen data using the modern analog technique. The degree of agreement at 6 ka is close to that for today, showing that (1) the biomization method and modern analog technique, when applied to the same pollen data, produce consistent results, and (2) the modifications made to the biomization method are robust back to 6 ka. We then used the results of the biomization method to test the biome maps simulated by BIOME1, which derives biome distributions from observed climate values for today and from the climatic simulations of the CCM1 for 6 ka. Only a fair agreement is seen, and significant offsets exist in the placement of biomes by BIOME1. For today BIOME1 simulates the boundary between the temperate deciduous and cool mixed forests to be too far south and the steppe-forest boundary to be too far west

  14. The role of the humanities in the Bologna idea of a university: learning from the American model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Eckhardt Larsen


    Full Text Available The Humboldtian idea of a university has, for better or for worse, served as a blueprint for the past two centuries of university development in large parts of Europe. It entails the idea of a unity between research and personal cultivation (Bildung that indeed has its shortcomings. Since the advent of a strong specialization and theorization the humanities have largely abandoned the more educational function, Bildung in its educational and ethical sense.The American liberal arts college- and university tradition on the other hand,particularly at the bachelor level, has traditionally separated the purely educational readings of a humanities ‘canon’ from the more scholarly pursuits of the humanities. Recent debates on the humanities show these differences across the Atlantic. While the highly specialized humanities in Europe have great problems proving their relevance in a modern society and job-market, the humanities in America are mostly discussed in terms of their educational accountability. Could the Bologna process be an occasionfor the European bachelor to be remodelled along the lines of the American liberal arts model? Could the humanities prove their relevance to non specialists in European higher education?La idea humboldtiana de la universidad ha sido, para bien o para mal, una referencia para el desarrollo universitario en una gran parte de Europa durante los dos siglos pasados. Implica un concepto de unión entre investigación y formación (Bildung que, efectivamente, tiene sus defectos. Desde la llegada de una fuerte especialización y teorización, las Humanidades han abandonado, en su mayor medida, la función educacional, Bildung en su sentido ético. Por otra parte, la tradición universitaria de las Artes Liberales americanas, particularmente a nivel de Licenciatura, ha diferenciado la lectura puramente educacional del «canon», del meramente académico. Debates recientes han mostrado la existencia de esta diferenciaci

  15. Stable Isotopes in the American Rivers, near Sacramento California: Application and Relevance to Sierra Nevada Paleoelevation Models (United States)

    Sowers, T.; Davidson, E.; Wagner, A. J.; Shimabukuro, D.


    Recent models have attempted to estimate paleoelevations in the Sierra Nevada using δ18O and δ2H values from kaolinitized granite clasts and hydration rinds in volcanic glass. These models require calculation of fluvial stable isotope composition, usually considered to be a function of elevation and source isotope composition at sea-level, applied to the hypsometric curve of the upstream drainage basin. However these relationships were initially determined in mountain ranges with different hydrologic patterns. Furthermore, they relied heavily on precipitation and groundwater oxygen isotope data, incorporating little to no surface water data. Since surface waters are a combination of groundwater and overland flow, it is unclear if these theoretical relationships hold true for the modern or ancestral Sierra Nevada. To test this relationship between oxygen isotopes, elevation, and hypsometry along a transect in the Northern Sierra, water was collected from the North and South Forks of the American River from their respective headwaters to their convergence with the Sacramento River. The stable isotope data from these rivers are presented here along with the average relationship between δ18O, δ2H, and elevation. Initial results suggest that δ18O values of surface waters vary by less than 1.0‰ and δ2H by less than 3‰ above 1300 meters elevation with δ18O and δ2H values at 1325 meters of -13.3‰ and -93.2‰ and -13.6‰ and -95.8‰ at 2200 meters. These new data could be used to modify the global isotope-elevation relationship for the Sierra Nevada.

  16. Validation of the internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4) and its link to academic performance and psychological adjustment among Asian American adolescents. (United States)

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Miller, Matthew J; Yip, Pansy


    There is limited research examining psychological correlates of a uniquely racialized experience of the model minority stereotype faced by Asian Americans. The present study examined the factor structure and fit of the only published measure of the internalization of the model minority myth, the Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4; Yoo et al., 2010), with a sample of 155 Asian American high school adolescents. We also examined the link between internalization of the model minority myth types (i.e., myth associated with achievement and myth associated with unrestricted mobility) and psychological adjustment (i.e., affective distress, somatic distress, performance difficulty, academic expectations stress), and the potential moderating effect of academic performance (cumulative grade point average). Results suggested the 2-factor model of the IM-4 had an acceptable fit to the data and supported the factor structure using confirmatory factor analyses. Internalizing the model minority myth of achievement related positively to academic expectations stress; however, internalizing the model minority myth of unrestricted mobility related negatively to academic expectations stress, both controlling for gender and academic performance. Finally, academic performance moderated the model minority myth associated with unrestricted mobility and affective distress link and the model minority myth associated with achievement and performance difficulty link. These findings highlight the complex ways in which the model minority myth relates to psychological outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Stigma, sexual risks, and the war on drugs: Examining drug policy and HIV/AIDS inequities among African Americans using the Drug War HIV/AIDS Inequities Model. (United States)

    Kerr, Jelani; Jackson, Trinidad


    The relationship between drug policy and HIV vulnerability is well documented. However, little research examines the links between racial/ethnic HIV disparities via the Drug War, sexual risk, and stigma. The Drug War HIV/AIDS Inequities Model has been developed to address this dearth. This model contends that inequitable policing and sentencing promotes sexual risks, resource deprivation, and ultimately greater HIV risk for African-Americans. The Drug War also socially marginalizes African Americans and compounds stigma for incarcerated and formerly incarcerated persons living with HIV/AIDS. This marginalization has implications for sexual risk-taking, access to health-promoting resources, and continuum of care participation. The Drug War HIV/AIDS Inequities Model may help illuminate mechanisms that promote increased HIV vulnerability as well as inform structural intervention development and targeting to address racial/ethnic disparities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Language of administration and neuropsychological test performance in neurologically intact Hispanic American bilingual adults. (United States)

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard; Croyle, Kristin L; Cavazos-Gonzalez, Cynthia; Sandoval, Omar


    This study compared the performance of Hispanic American bilingual adults on Spanish and English language versions of a neuropsychological test battery. Language achievement test scores were used to divide 36 bilingual, neurologically intact, Hispanic Americans from south Texas into Spanish-dominant, balanced, and English-dominant bilingual groups. They were administered the eight subtests of the Bateria Neuropsicologica and the Matrix Reasoning subtest of the WAIS-III in Spanish and English. Half the participants were tested in Spanish first. Balanced bilinguals showed no significant differences in test scores between Spanish and English language administrations. Spanish and/or English dominant bilinguals showed significant effects of language of administration on tests with higher language compared to visual perceptual weighting (Woodcock-Munoz Language Survey-Revised, Letter Fluency, Story Memory, and Stroop Color and Word Test). Scores on tests with higher visual-perceptual weighting (Matrix Reasoning, Figure Memory, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Spatial Span), were not significantly affected by language of administration, nor were scores on the Spanish/California Verbal Learning Test, and Digit Span. A problem was encountered in comparing false positive rates in each language, as Spanish norms fell below English norms, resulting in a much higher false positive rate in English across all bilingual groupings. Use of a comparison standard (picture vocabulary score) reduced false positive rates in both languages, but the higher false positive rate in English persisted.

  19. An evaluation of hepatitis C knowledge and correlations with health belief model constructs among African American "baby boomers". (United States)

    Rashrash, Mohamed E; Maneno, Mary K; Wutoh, Anthony K; Ettienne, Earl B; Daftary, Monika N


    Baby boomers (people born between 1945 and 1965) are responsible for three-quarters of Hepatitis C (HCV) infections in the US; however, HCV testing is distinctly underused by them. To assess the status, predictors, and correlates of HCV knowledge among African-American baby boomers (AABBs) in Washington, DC. A cross-sectional survey among persons aged 46-69 was conducted using audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI). Data on HCV knowledge, socio-demographics, prior history of HCV testing, health-related characteristics, HCV vulnerability and HCV treatment perceptions were collected. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the study population. Pearson correlations were used to examine linear associations between HCV knowledge and Health Belief Model constructs related to HCV. Linear regression analysis was conducted to assess the predictors of knowledge. Out of the 137 participants, about sixty percent (60.6%) were females, mean age 59±6.40; 44.8% had at least a college education. The average knowledge score was low (48.7%). HCV knowledge was significantly correlated with constructs of perceived severity and perceived benefits. Age (β=-0.10; p=0.003), and level of education (β=0.93, p=0.027) were significant predictors. Overall, respondents have a low level of knowledge. The lower level of education and older age were significant predictors of inadequate HCV knowledge. Thus, HCV education among these people may be a vital component in reducing the gaps in HCV knowledge. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Field Assessment and Groundwater Modeling of Pesticide Distribution in the Faga`alu Watershed in Tutuila, American Samoa (United States)

    Welch, E.; Dulai, H.; El-Kadi, A. I.; Shuler, C. K.


    To examine contaminant transport paths, groundwater and surface water interactions were investigated as a vector of pesticide migration on the island Tutuila in American Samoa. During a field campaign in summer 2016, water from wells, springs, and streams was collected across the island to analyze for selected pesticides. In addition, a detailed watershed-study, involving sampling along the mountain to ocean gradient was conducted in Faga`alu, a U.S. Coral Reef Task Force priority watershed that drains into the Pago Pago Harbor. Samples were screened at the University of Hawai`i for multiple agricultural chemicals using the ELISA method. The pesticides analyzed include glyphosate, azoxystrobin, imidacloprid and DDT/DDE. Field data was integrated into a MODFLOW-based groundwater model of the Faga`alu watershed to reconstruct flow paths, solute concentrations, and dispersion of the analytes. In combination with land-use maps, these tools were used to identify potential pesticide sources and their contaminant contributions. Across the island, pesticide concentrations were well below EPA regulated limits and azoxystrobin was absent. Glyphosate had detectable amounts in 56% of collected groundwater and 62% of collected stream samples. Respectively, 72% and 36% had imidacloprid detected and 98% and 97% had DDT/DDE detected. The highest observed concentration of glyphosate was 0.3 ppb, of imidacloprid was 0.17 ppb, and of DDT was 3.7 ppb. The persistence and ubiquity of DDT/DDE in surface and groundwater since its last island-wide application decades ago is notable. Groundwater flow paths modeled by MODFLOW imply that glyphosate sources match documented agricultural land-use areas. Groundwater-derived pesticide fluxes to the reef in Faga`alu are 977 mg/d of glyphosate and 1642 mg/d of DDT/DDE. Our study shows that pesticides are transported not only via surface runoff, but also via groundwater through the stream's base flow and are exiting the aquifer via submarine

  1. Ethnic related variations from the cass model of homosexual identity formation: the experiences of two-spirit, lesbian and gay Native Americans. (United States)

    Adams, Heather L; Phillips, Layli


    Synthesis of current research with the self-stories of Native American two-spirit, lesbian and gay people suggests differences in social locations that may produce sexual orientation identity development processes absent from the current literature. We employed a modified form of grounded theory analysis to explore the identity experiences of six self-identified two-spirit, lesbian or gay Native Americans recounted during in-depth interviews. The resulting five themes are presented with quotes from participants for clarification and support, along with a discussion of their fit with the Cass Model of Homosexual Identity Development and interpersonal congruency theory. Results suggest two developmental pathways, one following the course of Cass' model and a second path notable for its absence of many of the key experiences specified by Cass.

  2. Modelling fortification of corn masa flour with folic acid and the potential impact on Mexican-American women with lower acculturation. (United States)

    Hamner, Heather C; Tinker, Sarah C; Flores, Alina L; Mulinare, Joe; Weakland, Aliki P; Dowling, Nicole F


    Hispanics with lower acculturation may be at higher risk for neural tube defects compared with those with higher acculturation due to lower total folic acid intake or other undetermined factors. Modelling has indicated that fortification of corn masa flour with folic acid could selectively target Mexican Americans more than other race/ethnicities. We assessed whether fortification of corn masa flour with folic acid could selectively increase folic acid intake among Mexican-American women with lower acculturation, as indicated by specific factors (language preference, country of origin, time living in the USA). We used dietary intake and dietary supplement data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008, to estimate the amount of additional total folic acid that could be consumed if products considered to contain corn masa flour were fortified at 140 μg of folic acid per 100 g of corn masa flour. USA. Non-pregnant women aged 15-44 years (n 5369). Mexican-American women who reported speaking Spanish had a relative percentage change in usual daily total folic acid intake of 30·5 (95 % CI 27·8, 33·4) %, compared with 8·3 (95 % CI 7·3, 9·4) % for Mexican-American women who reported speaking English. We observed similar results for other acculturation factors. An increase of 6·0 percentage points in the number of Mexican-American women who would achieve the recommended intake of ≥400 μg folic acid/d occurred with fortification of corn masa flour; compared with increases of 1·1 percentage points for non-Hispanic whites and 1·3 percentage points for non-Hispanic blacks. An even greater percentage point increase was observed among Mexican-American women who reported speaking Spanish (8·2). Fortification of corn masa flour could selectively increase total folic acid intake among Mexican-American women, especially targeting Mexican-American women with lower acculturation, and result in a decrease in the number of pregnancies affected by

  3. A research experience for American Indian undergraduates: Utilizing an actor-partner interdependence model to examine the student-mentor dyad. (United States)

    Griese, Emily R; McMahon, Tracey R; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete


    The majority of research examining Undergraduate Research Experiences focuses singularly on student-reported outcomes, often overlooking assessment of the mentor role in student learning and outcomes following these experiences. The goal of the current study was to examine the student-mentor dyad at the beginning and end of a 10-week summer research experience for American Indian undergraduates utilizing a series of actor-partner interdependence models within SEM. Participants included 26 undergraduate interns (50% American Indian; 50% American Indian and White; M age = 24) and 27 mentors (89% White; M age = 47). Findings indicated that in accounting for all potential paths between students and mentors, the partner path between mentor beliefs at the beginning of the program and students' skills related to autonomy (β =.59, p = .01) and academic resilience (β =.44, p = .03) at the end of the program were significant. These findings suggest the important impact of mentor beliefs on student outcomes, a relationship that should be adequately assessed and continue to be important focus of undergraduate research experiences. Findings further indicate the important role of mentors for American Indian undergraduates.

  4. American Ginseng (United States)

    ... and inflammation of the lining of the stomach (gastritis). American ginseng is also used for low iron in the blood (anemia), diabetes, insulin resistance related to HIV treatments, cancer-related fatigue, high blood pressure, trouble sleeping (insomnia), ...

  5. Arab American College Students' Physical Activity and Body Composition: Reconciling Middle East-West Differences Using the Socioecological Model (United States)

    Kahan, David


    In this study, I conducted focus group interviews with 21 Arab American college students (9 men, 12 women; 9 Muslims, 12 non-Muslims), who were selected for extreme manifestation of religiosity or acculturation, to explore their beliefs and attitudes toward socioecological (SE) factors that facilitated and hindered their individual physical…

  6. Unpacking the Gender Gap in Postsecondary Participation among African Americans and Caucasians Using Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling (United States)

    Tekleselassie, Abebayehu; Mallery, Coretta; Choi, Jaehwa


    National reports recognize a growing gender gap in postsecondary enrollment as a major challenge impacting the lives of young men, particularly African Americans. Previous gender and race specific research is largely inconclusive. It is, for example, unclear from previous research how persistent the gender gap is across various school contexts,…

  7. North American vegetation model for land-use planning in a changing climate: A solution to large classification problems (United States)

    Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Nicholas L. Crookston; Cuauhtemoc Saenz-Romero; Elizabeth M. Campbell


    Data points intensively sampling 46 North American biomes were used to predict the geographic distribution of biomes from climate variables using the Random Forests classification tree. Techniques were incorporated to accommodate a large number of classes and to predict the future occurrence of climates beyond the contemporary climatic range of the biomes. Errors of...

  8. Residency Training in Emergency Psychiatry: A Model Curriculum Developed by the Education Committee of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry (United States)

    Brasch, Jennifer; Glick, Rachel Lipson; Cobb, Thomas G.; Richmond, Janet


    Objective: Describe training goals, objectives and requirements in emergency psychiatry to assist residency programs in developing comprehensive training programs to ensure psychiatric residents acquire the necessary skills and knowledge to competently assess and manage patients with psychiatric emergencies. Methods: The American Association for…

  9. Discrete-Time Pricing and Optimal Exercise of American Perpetual Warrants in the Geometric Random Walk Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderbei, Robert J.; Pınar, Mustafa Ç.; Bozkaya, Efe B.


    An American option (or, warrant) is the right, but not the obligation, to purchase or sell an underlying equity at any time up to a predetermined expiration date for a predetermined amount. A perpetual American option differs from a plain American option in that it does not expire. In this study, we solve the optimal stopping problem of a perpetual American option (both call and put) in discrete time using linear programming duality. Under the assumption that the underlying stock price follows a discrete time and discrete state Markov process, namely a geometric random walk, we formulate the pricing problem as an infinite dimensional linear programming (LP) problem using the excessive-majorant property of the value function. This formulation allows us to solve complementary slackness conditions in closed-form, revealing an optimal stopping strategy which highlights the set of stock-prices where the option should be exercised. The analysis for the call option reveals that such a critical value exists only in some cases, depending on a combination of state-transition probabilities and the economic discount factor (i.e., the prevailing interest rate) whereas it ceases to be an issue for the put.

  10. Discrete-Time Pricing and Optimal Exercise of American Perpetual Warrants in the Geometric Random Walk Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderbei, Robert J., E-mail: [Princeton University, Department of Operations Research and Financial Engineering (United States); P Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I nar, Mustafa C., E-mail: [Bilkent University, Department of Industrial Engineering (Turkey); Bozkaya, Efe B. [Sabanc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I University, Faculty of Administrative Sciences (Turkey)


    An American option (or, warrant) is the right, but not the obligation, to purchase or sell an underlying equity at any time up to a predetermined expiration date for a predetermined amount. A perpetual American option differs from a plain American option in that it does not expire. In this study, we solve the optimal stopping problem of a perpetual American option (both call and put) in discrete time using linear programming duality. Under the assumption that the underlying stock price follows a discrete time and discrete state Markov process, namely a geometric random walk, we formulate the pricing problem as an infinite dimensional linear programming (LP) problem using the excessive-majorant property of the value function. This formulation allows us to solve complementary slackness conditions in closed-form, revealing an optimal stopping strategy which highlights the set of stock-prices where the option should be exercised. The analysis for the call option reveals that such a critical value exists only in some cases, depending on a combination of state-transition probabilities and the economic discount factor (i.e., the prevailing interest rate) whereas it ceases to be an issue for the put.

  11. The Significance of Learning Nicknames of Public Figures in Modern English and American Language Models of the World (United States)

    Garayeva, Almira K.; Akhmetzyanov, Ildar G.; Khismatullina, Lutsia G.


    The importance of the topic of this study is determined by several factors: increased interest of linguists to the problem of interaction between language and culture; the need to study the onomastic units as body language. The purpose of this article is to identify the types of motivational nick names of famous American and English public…

  12. Circles of Care: Development and Initial Evaluation of a Peer Support Model for African Americans with Advanced Cancer (United States)

    Hanson, Laura C.; Armstrong, Tonya D.; Green, Melissa A.; Hayes, Michelle; Peacock, Stacie; Elliot-Bynum, Sharon; Goldmon, Moses V.; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Earp, Jo Anne


    Peer support interventions extend care and health information to underserved populations yet rarely address serious illness. Investigators from a well-defined academic-community partnership developed and evaluated a peer support intervention for African Americans facing advanced cancer. Evaluation methods used the Reach, Efficacy, Adoption,…

  13. Maternal Models of Risk: Links between Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in African American Female Caregivers and Daughters (United States)

    Brakefield, Tiffany; Wilson, Helen; Donenberg, Geri


    African American (AA) adolescent girls are at heightened risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and thus knowledge of factors related to risky sexual behavior in this population is crucial. Using Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977), this paper examines pathways from female caregivers' risky sexual behavior and substance use to…

  14. Asian American Preferences for Counselor Characteristics: Application of the Bradley-Terry-Luce Model in Paired Comparison Data. (United States)

    Atkinson, Donald R.; Wampold, Bruce E.; Lowe, Susana M.; Matthews, Linda; Ahn, Hyun-nie


    Using a paired comparison format, surveyed ethnic minorities' (N=193) preferences for counselor characteristics. Employed a statistical procedure for paired comparison data, which revealed that Asian Americans looked for similar attitudes and values in counselors. Counselor preferences were also related to problem type and other variables. (RJM)

  15. A reevaluation of the Native American mtDNA genome diversity and its bearing on the models of early colonization of Beringia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson J R Fagundes

    Full Text Available The Americas were the last continents to be populated by humans, and their colonization represents a very interesting chapter in our species' evolution in which important issues are still contentious or largely unknown. One difficult topic concerns the details of the early peopling of Beringia, such as for how long it was colonized before people moved into the Americas and the demography of this occupation. A recent work using mitochondrial genome (mtDNA data presented evidence for a so called "three-stage model" consisting of a very early expansion into Beringia followed by approximately 20,000 years of population stability before the final entry into the Americas. However, these results are in disagreement with other recent studies using similar data and methods. Here, we reanalyze their data to check the robustness of this model and test the ability of Native American mtDNA to discriminate details of the early colonization of Beringia. We apply the Bayesian Skyline Plot approach to recover the past demographic dynamic underpinning these events using different mtDNA data sets. Our results refute the specific details of the "three-stage model", since the early stage of expansion into Beringia followed by a long period of stasis could not be reproduced in any mtDNA data set cleaned from non-Native American haplotypes. Nevertheless, they are consistent with a moderate population bottleneck in Beringia associated with the Last Glacial Maximum followed by a strong population growth around 18,000 years ago as suggested by other recent studies. We suggest that this bottleneck erased the signals of ancient demographic history from recent Native American mtDNA pool, and conclude that the proposed early expansion and occupation of Beringia is an artifact caused by the misincorporation of non-Native American haplotypes.

  16. The Proportionality Test in the Case Law of Inter-American Court of Human Rights: an Integrated Model Between Control and Deference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Paredes


    Full Text Available The research analyzes the development of a systematic understanding about how the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACHR has understood the proportionality test (PT. In Comparative Law, there is different versions of PT, and for this reason is important determine what model the IACHR has in mind to control the violation of the American Convention on Human Rights. The hypothesis is that the IACHR, in most cases, is nothing deferential with the States Parties. However, it is impossible that the system works without with a degree of discretion in the interpretation and application of the Convention. This means that, although traditionally the IACHR has expressly stated otherwise, it is necessary to incorporate deference as a criterion of interpretation for the application of the conventionality examination. For this reason, the TP should be applied with a variable criterion in some areas.

  17. Helminth parasites of South American fishes: current status and characterization as a model for studies of biodiversity. (United States)

    Luque, J L; Pereira, F B; Alves, P V; Oliva, M E; Timi, J T


    The South American subcontinent supports one of the world's most diverse and commercially very important ichthyofauna. In this context, the study of South American fish parasites is of increased relevance in understanding their key roles in ecosystems, regulating the abundance or density of host populations, stabilizing food webs and structuring host communities. It is hard to estimate the number of fish parasites in South America. The number of fish species studied for parasites is still low (less than 10%), although the total number of host-parasite associations (HPAs) found in the present study was 3971. Monogeneans, with 835 species (1123 HPAs, 28.5%), and trematodes, with 662 species (1127 HPAs, 30.9%), are the more diverse groups. Data gathered from the literature are useful to roughly estimate species richness of helminths from South American fish, even though there are some associated problems: the reliability of information depends on accurate species identification; the lack of knowledge about life cycles; the increasing number of discoveries of cryptic species and the geographically biased number of studies. Therefore, the closest true estimations of species diversity and distribution will rely on further studies combining both molecular and morphological approaches with ecological data such as host specificity, geographical distribution and life-cycle data. Research on biodiversity of fish parasites in South America is influenced by problems such as funding, taxonomic impediments and dispersion of research groups. Increasing collaboration, interchange and research networks in the context of globalization will enable a promising future for fish parasitology in South America.

  18. Replacing American snacks with tree nuts increases consumption of key nutrients among US children and adults: results of an NHANES modeling study. (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam


    Replacing typical American snacks with tree nuts may be an effective way to improve diet quality and compliance with the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs). To assess and quantify the impact of replacing typical snacks with composite tree nuts or almonds on diet metrics, including empty calories (i.e., added sugars and solid fats), individual fatty acids, macronutrients, nutrients of public health concern, including sodium, fiber and potassium, and summary measures of diet quality. Food pattern modeling was implemented in the nationally representative 2009-2012 National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES) in a population of 17,444 children and adults. All between-meal snacks, excluding beverages, were replaced on a per calorie basis with a weighted tree nut composite, reflecting consumption patterns in the population. Model 1 replaced all snacks with tree nuts, while Model 2 exempted whole fruits, non-starchy vegetables, and whole grains (>50% of total grain content). Additional analyses were conducted using almonds only. Outcomes of interest were empty calories (i.e., solid fats and added sugars), saturated and mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, fiber, protein, sodium, potassium and magnesium. The Healthy Eating Index-2010, which measures adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, was used as a summary measure of diet quality. Compared to observed diets, modeled food patterns were significantly lower in empty calories (-20.1% and -18.7% in Model 1 and Model 2, respectively), added sugars (-17.8% and -16.9%), solid fats (-21.0% and -19.3%), saturated fat (-6.6% and -7.1%)., and sodium (-12.3% and -11.2%). Modeled patterns were higher in oils (65.3% and 55.2%), monounsaturated (35.4% and 26.9%) and polyunsaturated fats (42.0% and 35.7%), plant omega 3 s (53.1% and 44.7%), dietary fiber (11.1% and 14.8%), and magnesium (29.9% and 27.0%), and were modestly higher in potassium (1.5% and 2.9%). HEI-2010 scores were significantly

  19. A hierarchical model for regional analysis of population change using Christmas Bird Count data, with application to the American Black Duck (United States)

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.; Niven, D.K.


    Analysis of Christmas Bird Count (CBC) data is complicated by the need to account for variation in effort on counts and to provide summaries over large geographic regions. We describe a hierarchical model for analysis of population change using CBC data that addresses these needs. The effect of effort is modeled parametrically, with parameter values varying among strata as identically distributed random effects. Year and site effects are modeled hierarchically, accommodating large regional variation in number of samples and precision of estimates. The resulting model is complex, but a Bayesian analysis can be conducted using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. We analyze CBC data for American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes), a species of considerable management interest that has historically been monitored using winter surveys. Over the interval 1966-2003, Black Duck populations showed distinct regional patterns of population change. The patterns shown by CBC data are similar to those shown by the Midwinter Waterfowl Inventory for the United States.

  20. American Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring


    The Danish artist Thomas Bang spent his early years in the USA. The works he created in this formative period were thus profoundly shaped by the contemporary movements in American art of the 1960s and 1970s when sculpture, or to be more precise, three-dimensional work became a hotbed of expansive...... experiments. This article traces how Bang made a radical move from painting to sculpture, which was characteristic of that time, and how he developed his artistic idiom by taking an active part in some of the seminal new departures in American art, in particular process art and post-minimalism. By leaping...... to the lasting impact of Bang's American period, which remains the key to understanding his works....

  1. A comparison of large-scale climate signals and the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) for drought prediction in China (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Chen, Nengcheng; Zhang, Xiang


    Drought is an extreme natural disaster that can lead to huge socioeconomic losses. Drought prediction ahead of months is helpful for early drought warning and preparations. In this study, we developed a statistical model, two weighted dynamic models and a statistical-dynamic (hybrid) model for 1-6 month lead drought prediction in China. Specifically, statistical component refers to climate signals weighting by support vector regression (SVR), dynamic components consist of the ensemble mean (EM) and Bayesian model averaging (BMA) of the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) climatic models, and the hybrid part denotes a combination of statistical and dynamic components by assigning weights based on their historical performances. The results indicate that the statistical and hybrid models show better rainfall predictions than NMME-EM and NMME-BMA models, which have good predictability only in southern China. In the 2011 China winter-spring drought event, the statistical model well predicted the spatial extent and severity of drought nationwide, although the severity was underestimated in the mid-lower reaches of Yangtze River (MLRYR) region. The NMME-EM and NMME-BMA models largely overestimated rainfall in northern and western China in 2011 drought. In the 2013 China summer drought, the NMME-EM model forecasted the drought extent and severity in eastern China well, while the statistical and hybrid models falsely detected negative precipitation anomaly (NPA) in some areas. Model ensembles such as multiple statistical approaches, multiple dynamic models or multiple hybrid models for drought predictions were highlighted. These conclusions may be helpful for drought prediction and early drought warnings in China.

  2. A model-data intercomparison of CO2 exchange across North America: Results from the North American Carbon Program Site Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwalm, C.R.; Williams, C.A.; Schaefer, K.; Anderson, R.; Arain, M.A.; Baker, I.; Black, T.A.; Chen, G.; Ciais, P.; Davis, K. J.; Desai, A. R.; Dietze, M.; Dragoni, D.; Fischer, M.L.; Flanagan, L.B.; Grant, R.F.; Gu, L.; Hollinger, D.; Izaurralde, R.C.; Kucharik, C.; Lafleur, P.M.; Law, B.E.; Li, L.; Li, Z.; Liu, S.; Lokupitiya, E.; Luo, Y.; Ma, S.; Margolis, H.; Matamala, R.; McCaughey, H.; Monson, R. K.; Oechel, W. C.; Peng, C.; Poulter, B.; Price, D.T.; Riciutto, D.M.; Riley, W.J.; Sahoo, A.K.; Sprintsin, M.; Sun, J.; Tian, H.; Tonitto, C.; Verbeeck, H.; Verma, S.B.


    Our current understanding of terrestrial carbon processes is represented in various models used to integrate and scale measurements of CO{sub 2} exchange from remote sensing and other spatiotemporal data. Yet assessments are rarely conducted to determine how well models simulate carbon processes across vegetation types and environmental conditions. Using standardized data from the North American Carbon Program we compare observed and simulated monthly CO{sub 2} exchange from 44 eddy covariance flux towers in North America and 22 terrestrial biosphere models. The analysis period spans {approx}220 site-years, 10 biomes, and includes two large-scale drought events, providing a natural experiment to evaluate model skill as a function of drought and seasonality. We evaluate models' ability to simulate the seasonal cycle of CO{sub 2} exchange using multiple model skill metrics and analyze links between model characteristics, site history, and model skill. Overall model performance was poor; the difference between observations and simulations was {approx}10 times observational uncertainty, with forested ecosystems better predicted than nonforested. Model-data agreement was highest in summer and in temperate evergreen forests. In contrast, model performance declined in spring and fall, especially in ecosystems with large deciduous components, and in dry periods during the growing season. Models used across multiple biomes and sites, the mean model ensemble, and a model using assimilated parameter values showed high consistency with observations. Models with the highest skill across all biomes all used prescribed canopy phenology, calculated NEE as the difference between GPP and ecosystem respiration, and did not use a daily time step.

  3. The latin-american alternative ecological model between the protection of the environment as a human right and the recognition of the rights of nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fabio Esborraz


    Full Text Available The concern of Latin-American Law about the “environmental issue” is rooted in the “inclusion of natural resources among the public goods” supported by the “Social Constitutionalism”. Subsequently it has been revitalised thanks to the development of the “International Environmental Law” and further intensified with the rise of the “New Latin-American Constitutionalism” and the unfolding of a real “Environmental Constitutionalism” which is clearly recognising the human right to an adequate (for the development of the person and sustainable environment. Nonetheless, in particular due to the fact that this law is built on a strongly “anthropocentric” conception, this was not enough to avoid nature despoil. Therefore, the so-called “New Andean  Constitutionalism”, by reaffirming the visio mundi of the Latin-American indigenous peoples, proposes to directly recognize the nature as a subject of law and to complete such a paradigm shift by adopting an alternative development model based on the Amerindian ethic-moral principle of the “Good Living”/“Living Well” (“Buen Vivir”/“Vivir Bien”.

  4. American Illuminations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    Illuminated fêtes and civic celebrations began in Renaissance Italy and spread through the courts of Europe. Their fireworks, torches, lamps, and special effects glorified the monarch, marked the birth of a prince, or celebrated military victory. Nineteenth-century Americans rejected such monarch......Illuminated fêtes and civic celebrations began in Renaissance Italy and spread through the courts of Europe. Their fireworks, torches, lamps, and special effects glorified the monarch, marked the birth of a prince, or celebrated military victory. Nineteenth-century Americans rejected...... such monarchial pomp and adapted spectacular lighting to their democratic, commercial culture. In American Illuminations, David Nye explains how they experimented with gas and electric light to create illuminated cityscapes far brighter and more dynamic than those of Europe, and how these illuminations became......, commercial lighting that defined distinct zones of light and glamorized the city’s White Ways, skyscrapers, bridges, department stores, theaters, and dance halls. Poor and blighted areas disappeared into the shadows. American illuminations also became integral parts of national political campaigns...

  5. Prediction of atmospheric rivers over the North Pacific and its connection to ENSO in the North American multi-model ensemble (NMME) (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Kim, Hye-Mi


    Prediction skills of the wintertime atmospheric rivers (ARs) and moisture flux over the Northeast Pacific in response to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) forcing are evaluated from the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) hindcasts (CFSv2, CCSM4, CanCM3, CanCM4, GEOS5, and GFDL CM2.1). The skill is estimated for the active AR season, December-February (DJF) with initial conditions around early November. Models underestimate the climatological moisture flux to different extents corresponding with various climatological biases in predictions of sea surface temperature (SST) and large-scale atmospheric circulation fields. The anomalous moisture flux and AR frequency over the Northeast Pacific are predicted in the models but in weaker amplitude than the reanalysis. Significant regional biases are shown in the anomalous landfalling AR frequency corresponding with ENSO, underlining the challenge in regional precipitation forecasts.

  6. Comprehensive Energy Assessment: EE and RE Project Optimization Modeling for United States Pacific Command (USPACOM) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigantic, Robert T.; Papatyi, Anthony F.; Perkins, Casey J.


    This report summarizes a study and corresponding model development conducted in support of the United States Pacific Command (USPACOM) as part of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA). This research was aimed at developing a mathematical programming framework and accompanying optimization methodology in order to simultaneously evaluate energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy (RE) opportunities. Once developed, this research then demonstrated this methodology at a USPACOM installation - Camp H.M. Smith, Hawaii. We believe this is the first time such an integrated, joint EE and RE optimization methodology has been constructed and demonstrated.

  7. Pubertal timing and sexual risk behaviors among rural African American male youth: testing a model based on life history theory. (United States)

    Kogan, Steven M; Cho, Junhan; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Allen, Kimberly A; Beach, Steven R H; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X


    Life History Theory (LHT), a branch of evolutionary biology, describes how organisms maximize their reproductive success in response to environmental conditions. This theory suggests that challenging environmental conditions will lead to early pubertal maturation, which in turn predicts heightened risky sexual behavior. Although largely confirmed among female adolescents, results with male youth are inconsistent. We tested a set of predictions based on LHT with a sample of 375 African American male youth assessed three times from age 11 to age 16. Harsh, unpredictable community environments and harsh, inconsistent, or unregulated parenting at age 11 were hypothesized to predict pubertal maturation at age 13; pubertal maturation was hypothesized to forecast risky sexual behavior, including early onset of intercourse, substance use during sexual activity, and lifetime numbers of sexual partners. Results were consistent with our hypotheses. Among African American male youth, community environments were a modest but significant predictor of pubertal timing. Among those youth with high negative emotionality, both parenting and community factors predicted pubertal timing. Pubertal timing at age 13 forecast risky sexual behavior at age 16. Results of analyses conducted to determine whether environmental effects on sexual risk behavior were mediated by pubertal timing were not significant. This suggests that, although evolutionary mechanisms may affect pubertal development via contextual influences for sensitive youth, the factors that predict sexual risk behavior depend less on pubertal maturation than LHT suggests.

  8. A model-data comparison of gross primary productivity: Results from the North American Carbon Program site synthesis (United States)

    Kevin Schaefer; Christopher R. Schwalm; Chris Williams; M. Altaf Arain; Alan Barr; Jing M. Chen; Kenneth J. Davis; Dimitre Dimitrov; Timothy W. Hilton; David Y. Hollinger; Elyn Humphreys; Benjamin Poulter; Brett M. Raczka; Andrew D. Richardson; Alok Sahoo; Peter Thornton; Rodrigo Vargas; Hans Verbeeck; Ryan Anderson; Ian Baker; T. Andrew Black; Paul Bolstad; Jiquan Chen; Peter S. Curtis; Ankur R. Desai; Michael Dietze; Danilo Dragoni; Christopher Gough; Robert F. Grant; Lianhong Gu; Atul Jain; Chris Kucharik; Beverly Law; Shuguang Liu; Erandathie Lokipitiya; Hank A. Margolis; Roser Matamala; J. Harry McCaughey; Russ Monson; J. William Munger; Walter Oechel; Changhui Peng; David T. Price; Dan Ricciuto; William J. Riley; Nigel Roulet; Hanqin Tian; Christina Tonitto; Margaret Torn; Ensheng Weng; Xiaolu Zhou


    Accurately simulating gross primary productivity (GPP) in terrestrial ecosystem models is critical because errors in simulated GPP propagate through the model to introduce additional errors in simulated biomass and other fluxes. We evaluated simulated, daily average GPP from 26 models against estimated GPP at 39 eddy covariance flux tower sites across the United States...

  9. Severe weather during the North American monsoon and its response to rapid urbanization and a changing global climate within the context of high resolution regional atmospheric modeling (United States)

    Luong, Thang Manh

    The North American monsoon (NAM) is the principal driver of summer severe weather in the Southwest U.S. With sufficient atmospheric instability and moisture, monsoon convection initiates during daytime in the mountains and later may organize, principally into mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). Most monsoon-related severe weather occurs in association with organized convection, including microbursts, dust storms, flash flooding and lightning. The overarching theme of this dissertation research is to investigate simulation of monsoon severe weather due to organized convection within the use of regional atmospheric modeling. A commonly used cumulus parameterization scheme has been modified to better account for dynamic pressure effects, resulting in an improved representation of a simulated MCS during the North American monsoon experiment and the climatology of warm season precipitation in a long-term regional climate model simulation. The effect of urbanization on organized convection occurring in Phoenix is evaluated in model sensitivity experiments using an urban canopy model (UCM) and urban land cover compared to pre-settlement natural desert land cover. The presence of vegetation and irrigation makes Phoenix a "heat sink" in comparison to its surrounding desert, and as a result the modeled precipitation in response to urbanization decreases within the Phoenix urban area and increase on its periphery. Finally, analysis of how monsoon severe weather is changing in association with observed global climate change is considered within the context of a series of retrospectively simulated severe weather events during the period 1948-2010 in a numerical weather prediction paradigm. The individual severe weather events are identified by favorable thermodynamic conditions of instability and atmospheric moisture (precipitable water). Changes in precipitation extremes are evaluated with extreme value statistics. During the last several decades, there has been

  10. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 2. Mid-American Solar Energy Complex Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Mid-American Solar Energy Complex Region. (WHK)

  11. The integrated North American electricity market : a bi-national model for securing a reliable supply of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, T.


    The 50 million people who experienced the power blackout on August 14, 2003 in southern Ontario and the U.S. Midwest and Northeast understood how vital electricity is in our day-to-day lives, but they also saw the resiliency of the North American electricity system. More than 65 per cent of the power generation was restored to service within 12 hours and no damage was caused to the generation or transmission facilities. Although the interconnected North American electricity system is among the most reliable in the world, it is threatened by an aging infrastructure, lack of new generation and transmission to meet demand, and growing regulatory pressures. This report suggests that any measures that respond to the threat of ongoing reliability should be bi-national in scope due to the interconnected nature of the system. Currently, the market, regulatory and administrative systems are different in each country. The full engagement and cooperation of both Canada and the United States is important to ensure future cross-border trade and power reliability. The Canadian Electricity Association proposes the following 7 measures: (1) support an open debate on all the supply options available to meet growing power demands, (2) promote bi-national cooperation in the construction of new transmission capacity to ensure a reliable continental electricity system, (3) examine opportunities for bi-national cooperation for investment in advanced transmission technologies and transmission research and development, (4) promote new generation technology and demand-side measures to relieve existing transmission constraints and reduce the need for new transmission facilities, (5) endorse a self-governing international organization for developing and enforcing mandatory reliability standards for the electricity industry, (6) coordinate measures to promote critical infrastructure protection, and (7) harmonize U.S. and Canadian efforts to streamline or clarify regulation of electricity

  12. A Slice of American Life (United States)

    Kirker, Sara Schmickle


    In this article, the author describes an art project for second-grade students based on American Regionalist Grant Wood's most famous painting, "American Gothic," which was modeled by his sister, Nan, and his dentist. This well-loved painting depicting a hard-working farmer and his daughter standing in front of their farmhouse is the project's…

  13. A Robust and Effective Multivariate Post-processing approach: Application on North American Multi-Model Ensemble Climate Forecast over the CONUS (United States)

    Khajehei, Sepideh; Ahmadalipour, Ali; Moradkhani, Hamid


    The North American Multi-model Ensemble (NMME) forecasting system has been providing valuable information using a large number of contributing models each consisting of several ensemble members. Despite all the potential benefits that the NMME offers, the forecasts are prone to bias in many regions. In this study, monthly precipitation from 11 contributing models totaling 128 ensemble members in the NMME are assessed and bias corrected. All the models are regridded to 0.5 degree spatial resolution for a more detailed assessment. The goals of this study are as follows: 1. Evaluating the performance of the NMME models over the Contiguous United States using the probabilistic and deterministic measures. 2. Introducing the Copula based ensemble post-processing (COP-EPP) method rooted in Bayesian methods for conditioning the forecast on the observations to improve the performance of NMME predictions. 3. Comparing the forecast skill of the NMME at four different lead-times (lead-0 to lead-3) across the western US, and assessing the effectiveness of COP-EPP in post-processing of precipitation forecasts. Results revealed that NMME models are highly biased in central and western US, while they provide acceptable performance in the eastern regions. The new approach demonstrates substantial improvement over the raw NMME forecasts. However, regional assessment indicates that the COP-EPP is superior to the commonly used Quantile Matching (QM) approach. Also, this method is showing considerable improvements on the seasonal NMME forecasts at all lead times.

  14. Predicting Help-Seeking Attitudes Toward Mental Health Services Among American Indian Older Adults: Is Andersen's Behavioral Model a Good Fit? (United States)

    Roh, Soonhee; Burnette, Catherine E; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Martin, James I; Lawler, Michael J


    American Indian (AI) older adults are vulnerable to mental health disparities, yet very little is known about the factors associated with help-seeking for mental health services among them. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of Andersen's Behavioral Model in explaining AI older adults' help-seeking attitudes toward professional mental health services. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine predisposing, enabling, and need variables as predictors of help-seeking attitudes toward mental health services in a sample of 233 AI older adults from the Midwest. The model was found to have limited utility in the context of older AI help-seeking attitudes, as the proportion of explained variance was low. Gender, perceived stigma, social support, and physical health were significant predictors, whereas age, perceived mental health, and health insurance were not. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. The Pan American Health Organization’s role and perspectives on the mapping and modeling of the neglected tropical diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven K. Ault


    Full Text Available The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO, which functions as the regional office for the Americas of the World Health Organization, is committed to provide technical cooperation to countries to update the epidemiological information available for mapping and modelling of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs, a set of diseases mainly caused by parasites affecting people living in low socioeconomic and favourable environmental conditions. This communication discusses PAHO’s role and perspectives in the use of mapping and modelling of these diseases with a view to promote its use in the development and implementation of integrated, inter-programmatic and inter-sectoral plans for the prevention, control or elimination of the NTDs and other infectious diseases related to poverty.

  16. The Pan American Health Organization's role and perspectives on the mapping and modeling of the neglected tropical diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean: an overview. (United States)

    Ault, Steven K; Nicholls, Ruben Santiago; Saboya, Martha IdaIí


    The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), which functions as the regional office for the Americas of the World Health Organization, is committed to provide technical cooperation to countries to update the epidemiological information available for mapping and modelling of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), a set of diseases mainly caused by parasites affecting people living in low socioeconomic and favourable environmental conditions. This communication discusses PAHO's role and perspectives in the use of mapping and modelling of these diseases with a view to promote its use in the development and implementation of integrated, inter-programmatic and inter-sectoral plans for the prevention, control or elimination of the NTDs and other infectious diseases related to poverty.

  17. Life History Traits and Niche Instability Impact Accuracy and Temporal Transferability for Historically Calibrated Distribution Models of North American Birds. (United States)

    Wogan, Guinevere O U


    A primary assumption of environmental niche models (ENMs) is that models are both accurate and transferable across geography or time; however, recent work has shown that models may be accurate but not highly transferable. While some of this is due to modeling technique, individual species ecologies may also underlie this phenomenon. Life history traits certainly influence the accuracy of predictive ENMs, but their impact on model transferability is less understood. This study investigated how life history traits influence the predictive accuracy and transferability of ENMs using historically calibrated models for birds. In this study I used historical occurrence and climate data (1950-1990s) to build models for a sample of birds, and then projected them forward to the 'future' (1960-1990s). The models were then validated against models generated from occurrence data at that 'future' time. Internal and external validation metrics, as well as metrics assessing transferability, and Generalized Linear Models were used to identify life history traits that were significant predictors of accuracy and transferability. This study found that the predictive ability of ENMs differs with regard to life history characteristics such as range, migration, and habitat, and that the rarity versus commonness of a species affects the predicted stability and overlap and hence the transferability of projected models. Projected ENMs with both high accuracy and transferability scores, still sometimes suffered from over- or under- predicted species ranges. Life history traits certainly influenced the accuracy of predictive ENMs for birds, but while aspects of geographic range impact model transferability, the mechanisms underlying this are less understood.

  18. A review of logistic regression models used to predict post-fire tree mortality of western North American conifers (United States)

    Travis Woolley; David C. Shaw; Lisa M. Ganio; Stephen. Fitzgerald


    Logistic regression models used to predict tree mortality are critical to post-fire management, planning prescribed bums and understanding disturbance ecology. We review literature concerning post-fire mortality prediction using logistic regression models for coniferous tree species in the western USA. We include synthesis and review of: methods to develop, evaluate...

  19. American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Pechatnov


    Full Text Available The "Founding fathers" of American Studies at MGIMO are considered to be A.V. Efimov and L.I. Clove. Alexey Efimov - Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences since 1938, Head of the Department of Modern and Contemporary History and Dean of the Historical School at the Moscow State University - one of the first professors of the Faculty of International Relations MGIMO. Efimov distinguished himself by a broad vision and scope of scientific interests. Back in 1934 he published a monograph "On the history of capitalism in the United States," which initiated a series of research culminating in the fundamental work "The United States. The path of capitalist development (pre-imperialist era". Alexey was not only a great scientist but also a great teacher, whose lectures was popular throughout Moscow. His lecture courses, given at the end of the 1940s at MGIMO, became the basis for the first post-war history textbooks USA - "Essays on the history of the United States." At least as colorful a figure was Professor Leo Izrailevich Zubok - a man of unusual destiny. As a teenager he emigrated to the United States with his parents, where he soon joined the American revolutionary movement in the 1920s and was forced to leave the country. He came to MGIMO being already an experienced scientists. His research interests were very wide: from the study of American foreign policy expansion to the history of the labor movement in the United States. Zubok's fundamental works still have not lost its scientific significance. He has successfully combined scientific work with teaching. Tutorials that are based on his lectures were very popular not only among students of MGIMO.

  20. Variability Modeling of Rainfall, Deforestation, and Incidence of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis in Orán, Argentina, 1985–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Rosales


    Full Text Available American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL is a disease transmitted to humans by the female sandflies of the genus Lutzomyia. Several factors are involved in the disease transmission cycle. In this work only rainfall and deforestation were considered to assess the variability in the incidence of ATL. In order to reach this goal, monthly recorded data of the incidence of ATL in Orán, Salta, Argentina, were used, in the period 1985–2007. The square root of the relative incidence of ATL and the corresponding variance were formulated as time series, and these data were smoothed by moving averages of 12 and 24 months, respectively. The same procedure was applied to the rainfall data. Typical months, which are April, August, and December, were found and allowed us to describe the dynamical behavior of ATL outbreaks. These results were tested at 95% confidence level. We concluded that the variability of rainfall would not be enough to justify the epidemic outbreaks of ATL in the period 1997–2000, but it consistently explains the situation observed in the years 2002 and 2004. Deforestation activities occurred in this region could explain epidemic peaks observed in both years and also during the entire time of observation except in 2005–2007.

  1. Evaluation of a New Dental Implant Cervical Design in Comparison with a Conventional Design in an Experimental American Foxhound Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ángeles Pérez-Albacete Martínez


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate osseointegration and crestal bone height in implants with a triangular cervical design in comparison with a standard rounded cervical design. The control group consisted of 24 implants with a standard cervical design, and the test group of 24 implants with a triangular cervical design. The implants were inserted in healed bone in six American Foxhounds. Crestal bone height and tissue thickness in the cervical portion were measured after 12 weeks healing. Data analysis found mean crestal bone loss of: 0.31 ± 0.24 mm on the buccal side, 0.35 ± 0.14 mm on the lingual in the test group, and 0.71 ± 0.28 mm buccal loss, and 0.42 ± 0.30 mm lingual in the control group; with statistically significant differences on the buccal aspect (p = 0.0019. Mean tissue thickness in the test group was 1.98 ± 0.17 mm on the buccal aspect, and 2.43 ± 0.93 mm in the lingual; in the control group it was 2.48 ± 0.61 mm buccal thickness, and 2.88 ± 0.14 mm lingual, with significant differences on both aspects (p = 0.0043; p = 0.0029. The results suggest that greater thickness of peri-implant tissue can be expected when the triangular cervical implant design is used rather than the standard cervical design.

  2. Evaluation of a New Dental Implant Cervical Design in Comparison with a Conventional Design in an Experimental American Foxhound Model. (United States)

    Pérez-Albacete Martínez, Maria Ángeles; Pérez-Albacete Martínez, Carlos; Maté Sánchez De Val, José Eduardo; Ramos Oltra, María Luisa; Fernández Domínguez, Manuel; Calvo Guirado, Jose Luis


    The aim of this study was to evaluate osseointegration and crestal bone height in implants with a triangular cervical design in comparison with a standard rounded cervical design. The control group consisted of 24 implants with a standard cervical design, and the test group of 24 implants with a triangular cervical design. The implants were inserted in healed bone in six American Foxhounds. Crestal bone height and tissue thickness in the cervical portion were measured after 12 weeks healing. Data analysis found mean crestal bone loss of: 0.31 ± 0.24 mm on the buccal side, 0.35 ± 0.14 mm on the lingual in the test group, and 0.71 ± 0.28 mm buccal loss, and 0.42 ± 0.30 mm lingual in the control group; with statistically significant differences on the buccal aspect ( p = 0.0019). Mean tissue thickness in the test group was 1.98 ± 0.17 mm on the buccal aspect, and 2.43 ± 0.93 mm in the lingual; in the control group it was 2.48 ± 0.61 mm buccal thickness, and 2.88 ± 0.14 mm lingual, with significant differences on both aspects ( p = 0.0043; p = 0.0029). The results suggest that greater thickness of peri-implant tissue can be expected when the triangular cervical implant design is used rather than the standard cervical design.

  3. The influence of Anglo-American theoretical models on the evolution of the nursing discipline in Spain. (United States)

    Rodrigo, Olga; Caïs, Jordi; Monforte-Royo, Cristina


    In Spain, the introduction of the new Diploma in Nursing in 1977 saw the role of nurses shifting from that of medical assistants with technical skills to being independent members of the healthcare team with specific responsibility for providing professional nursing care. Here, we analyse the evolution of the nursing profession in Spain following the transfer of nurse education to universities, doing so through interviews with the first generation of academic tutors. This was a qualitative study using the method of analytic induction and based on the principles of grounded theory. Participants were selected by means of theoretical sampling and then underwent in-depth interviews. Steps were taken to ensure the credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability of data. The main conclusion of the analysis is that there is a gap between a theoretical framework borrowed from the Anglo-American context and a nursing practice that, in Spain, has traditionally prioritised the application of technical procedures, a role akin to that of a medical assistant. It is argued that a key factor underlying the way in which nursing in Spain has evolved in recent decades is the lack of conceptual clarity regarding what the role of the professional nurse might actually entail in practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Use of Anecdotal Occurrence Data in Species Distribution Models: An Example Based on the White-Nosed Coati (Nasua narica in the American Southwest

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    James N. Stuart


    Full Text Available Species distributions are usually inferred from occurrence records. However, these records are prone to errors in spatial precision and reliability. Although influence of spatial errors has been fairly well studied, there is little information on impacts of poor reliability. Reliability of an occurrence record can be influenced by characteristics of the species, conditions during the observation, and observer’s knowledge. Some studies have advocated use of anecdotal data, while others have advocated more stringent evidentiary standards such as only accepting records verified by physical evidence, at least for rare or elusive species. Our goal was to evaluate the influence of occurrence records with different reliability on species distribution models (SDMs of a unique mammal, the white-nosed coati (Nasua narica in the American Southwest. We compared SDMs developed using maximum entropy analysis of combined bioclimatic and biophysical variables and based on seven subsets of occurrence records that varied in reliability and spatial precision. We found that the predicted distribution of the coati based on datasets that included anecdotal occurrence records were similar to those based on datasets that only included physical evidence. Coati distribution in the American Southwest was predicted to occur in southwestern New Mexico and southeastern Arizona and was defined primarily by evenness of climate and Madrean woodland and chaparral land-cover types. Coati distribution patterns in this region suggest a good model for understanding the biogeographic structure of range margins. We concluded that occurrence datasets that include anecdotal records can be used to infer species distributions, providing such data are used only for easily-identifiable species and based on robust modeling methods such as maximum entropy. Use of a reliability rating system is critical for using anecdotal data.

  5. Alcohol extract of North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) reduces fatty liver, dyslipidemia, and other complications of metabolic syndrome in a mouse model. (United States)

    Singh, Ratnesh K; Lui, Edmund; Wright, David; Taylor, Adrian; Bakovic, Marica


    We investigated whether North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) could reduce development of the metabolic syndrome phenotype in a mouse model (ETKO) of the disease. Young ETKO mice have no disease but similar to humans start to develop the fatty liver, hypertriglyceridemia, obesity, and insulin resistance at 25-30 weeks of age, and the disease continues to progress with ageing. ETKO mice were orally given an ethanol extract of ginseng roots at 4 and 32 weeks of age. Treatments with ginseng eliminated the ETKO fatty liver, reduced hepatic and intestinal lipoprotein secretion, and reduced the level of circulating lipids. Improvements by ginseng treatments were manifested as a reduction in the expression of genes involved in the regulation of fatty acid and triglyceride (fat) synthesis and secretion by the lipoproteins on one hand, and the stimulation of fatty acid oxidation and triglyceride degradation by lipolysis on the other hand. These processes altogether improved glucose, fatty acid, and triglyceride metabolism, reduced liver fat load, and reversed the progression of metabolic syndrome. These data confirm that treatments with North American ginseng could alleviate metabolic syndrome through the maintenance of a better balance between glucose and fatty acid metabolism, lipoprotein secretion, and energy homeostasis in disease-prone states.

  6. Using the PRECEDE-PROCEED model for an online peer-to-peer suicide prevention and awareness for depression (SPAD intervention among African American college students: experimental study

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    Ledetra Shanta Bridges


    Full Text Available Background: Suicide rates are high among African American students because they are at greater risk of depression. A commonly used suicide prevention approach is the gatekeeper training. However, gatekeeper training is neither evidence-based nor has it been identified as culturally-appropriate for African American college students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate an online peer-to-peer PRECEDE-PROCEED model based depression awareness and suicide prevention program that was culturally appropriate for African American college students.Methods: The setting was a predominantly Black institution in southern USA. A pre-experimental repeated measures one group design was used to measure changes in peer educators’ (n = 29predisposing factors regarding knowledge, skills and attitudes pertaining to depression,reinforcing factors or receiving support from peers, healthcare professionals and teachers to help someone with depression, enabling factors or sureness of finding organizations to help someone with depression, and behavior for helping someone with depression at pretest, Protestant 1-month follow-up. A post test only one group design was also used to measure effect on predisposing factors and behavior of students (n = 300 trained by peer educators.Results: There were statistically significant improvements in attitudes related to depression as disease (P = 0.003; η2 = 0.39, attitudes about managing depression (P = 0.0001; η2 = 0.30, skills(P = 0.0001; η2 = 0.41, reinforcing factors (P = 0.018; η2 = 0.13, enabling factors (P = 0.0001;η2 = 0.31, and behavior (P = 0.016; η2 = 0.14. Changes in knowledge about depression and attitudes about helping people with depression were not statistically significant over time for peer educators. The peer-to-peer training was not completely effective in transferring corresponding changes for students trained by peers.Conclusion: The program was effective for peer educators but

  7. Impact of intercontinental pollution transport on North American ozone air pollution: an HTAP phase 2 multi-model study (United States)

    Huang, Min; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Pierce, R. Bradley; Jo, Duseong S.; Park, Rokjin J.; Flemming, Johannes; Emmons, Louisa K.; Bowman, Kevin W.; Henze, Daven K.; Davila, Yanko; Sudo, Kengo; Eiof Jonson, Jan; Tronstad Lund, Marianne; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Dentener, Frank J.; Keating, Terry J.; Oetjen, Hilke; Payne, Vivienne H.


    The recent update on the US National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of the ground-level ozone (O3) can benefit from a better understanding of its source contributions in different US regions during recent years. In the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution experiment phase 1 (HTAP1), various global models were used to determine the O3 source-receptor (SR) relationships among three continents in the Northern Hemisphere in 2001. In support of the HTAP phase 2 (HTAP2) experiment that studies more recent years and involves higher-resolution global models and regional models' participation, we conduct a number of regional-scale Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) air quality base and sensitivity simulations over North America during May-June 2010. STEM's top and lateral chemical boundary conditions were downscaled from three global chemical transport models' (i.e., GEOS-Chem, RAQMS, and ECMWF C-IFS) base and sensitivity simulations in which the East Asian (EAS) anthropogenic emissions were reduced by 20 %. The mean differences between STEM surface O3 sensitivities to the emission changes and its corresponding boundary condition model's are smaller than those among its boundary condition models, in terms of the regional/period-mean (management. The EAS pollution impacts are weaker during observed O3 exceedances than on all days in most US regions except over some high-terrain western US rural/remote areas. Satellite O3 (TES, JPL-IASI, and AIRS) and carbon monoxide (TES and AIRS) products, along with surface measurements and model calculations, show that during certain episodes stratospheric O3 intrusions and the transported EAS pollution influenced O3 in the western and the eastern US differently. Free-running (i.e., without chemical data assimilation) global models underpredicted the transported background O3 during these episodes, posing difficulties for STEM to accurately simulate the surface O3 and its source contribution. Although we effectively

  8. Immunizations and African Americans (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...

  9. Statistical-dynamical long-range seasonal forecasting of streamflow with the North-American Multi Model Ensemble (NMME) (United States)

    Slater, Louise; Villarini, Gabriele


    There are two main approaches to long-range (monthly to seasonal) streamflow forecasting: statistical approaches that typically relate climate precursors directly to streamflow, and dynamical physically-based approaches in which spatially distributed models are forced with downscaled meteorological forecasts. While the former approach is potentially limited by a lack of physical causality, the latter tends to be complex and time-consuming to implement. In contrast, hybrid statistical-dynamical techniques that use global climate model (GCM) ensemble forecasts as inputs to statistical models are both physically-based and rapid to run, but are a relatively new field of research. Here, we conduct the first systematic multimodel statistical-dynamical forecasting of streamflow using NMME climate forecasts from eight GCMs (CCSM3, CCSM4, CanCM3, CanCM4, GFDL2.1, FLORb01, GEOS5, and CFSv2) across a broad region. At several hundred U.S. Midwest stream gauges with long (50+ continuous years) streamflow records, we fit probabilistic statistical models for seasonal streamflow percentiles ranging from minimum to maximum flows. As predictors, we use basin-averaged values of precipitation, antecedent wetness, temperature, agricultural row crop acreage, and population density. Using the observed data, we select the best-fitting probabilistic model for every site, season, and streamflow percentile (ranging from low to high flows). The best-fitting models are then used to obtain streamflow predictions by incorporating the NMME climate forecasts and the extrapolated agricultural and population time series as predictors. The forecasting skill of our models is assessed using both deterministic and probabilistic verification measures. The influence of the different predictors is evaluated for all streamflow percentiles and across the full range of lead times. Our findings reveal that statistical-dynamical streamflow forecasting produces promising results, which may enable water managers

  10. Projecting Future Changes in Extreme Weather During the North American Monsoon in the Southwest with High Resolution, Convective-Permitting Regional Atmospheric Modeling (United States)

    Chang, H. I.; Castro, C. L.; Luong, T. M.; Lahmers, T.; Jares, M.; Carrillo, C. M.


    Most severe weather during the North American monsoon in the Southwest U.S. occurs in association with organized convection, including microbursts, dust storms, flash flooding and lightning. Our objective is to project how monsoon severe weather is changing due to anthropogenic global warming. We first consider a dynamically downscaled reanalysis (35 km grid spacing), generated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model during the period 1948-2010. Individual severe weather events, identified by favorable thermodynamic conditions of instability and precipitable water, are then simulated for short-term, numerical weather prediction-type simulations of 24h at a convective-permitting scale (2 km grid spacing). Changes in the character of severe weather events within this period likely reflect long-term climate change driven by anthropogenic forcing. Next, we apply the identical model simulation and analysis procedures to several dynamically downscaled CMIP3 and CMIP5 models for the period 1950-2100, to assess how monsoon severe weather may change in the future and if these changes correspond with what is already occurring per the downscaled renalaysis and available observational data. The CMIP5 models we are downscaling (HadGEM and MPI-ECHAM6) will be included as part of North American CORDEX. The regional model experimental design for severe weather event projection reasonably accounts for the known operational forecast prerequisites for severe monsoon weather. The convective-permitting simulations show that monsoon convection appears to be reasonably well captured with the use of the dynamically downscaled reanalysis, in comparison to Stage IV precipitation data. The regional model tends to initiate convection too early, though correctly simulates the diurnal maximum in convection in the afternoon and subsequent westward propagation of thunderstorms. Projected changes in extreme event precipitation will be described in relation to the long-term changes in

  11. Evaluating Changes in Extreme Weather During the North American Monsoon in the Southwest U.S. Using High Resolution, Convective-Permitting Regional Atmospheric Modeling (United States)

    Castro, C. L.; Chang, H. I.; Luong, T. M.; Lahmers, T.; Jares, M.; Mazon, J.; Carrillo, C. M.; Adams, D. K.


    The North American monsoon (NAM) is the principal driver of summer severe weather in the Southwest U.S. Monsoon convection typically initiates during daytime over the mountains and may organize into mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). Most monsoon-related severe weather occurs in association with organized convection, including microbursts, dust storms, flash flooding and lightning. A convective resolving grid spacing (on the kilometer scale) model is required to explicitly represent the physical characteristics of organized convection, for example the presence of leading convective lines and trailing stratiform precipitation regions. Our objective is to analyze how monsoon severe weather is changing in relation to anthropogenic climate change. We first consider a dynamically downscaled reanalysis during a historical period 1948-2010. Individual severe weather event days, identified by favorable thermodynamic conditions, are then simulated for short-term, numerical weather prediction-type simulations of 30h at a convective-permitting scale. Changes in modeled severe weather events indicate increases in precipitation intensity in association with long-term increases in atmospheric instability and moisture, particularly with organized convection downwind of mountain ranges. However, because the frequency of synoptic transients is decreasing during the monsoon, organized convection is less frequent and convective precipitation tends to be more phased locked to terrain. These types of modeled changes also similarly appear in observed CPC precipitation, when the severe weather event days are selected using historical radiosonde data. Next, we apply the identical model simulation and analysis procedures to several dynamically downscaled CMIP3 and CMIP5 models for the period 1950-2100, to assess how monsoon severe weather may change in the future with respect to occurrence and intensity and if these changes correspond with what is already occurring in the historical

  12. Cardiovascular risk assessment in elderly adults using SCORE OP model in a Latin American population: The experience from Ecuador. (United States)

    Sisa, Ivan


    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is predicted to increase in Latin America countries due to their rapidly aging population. However, there is very little information about CVD risk assessment as a primary preventive measure in this high-risk population. We predicted the national risk of developing CVD in Ecuadorian elderly population using the Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation in Older Persons (SCORE OP) High and Low models by risk categories/CVD risk region in 2009. Data on national cardiovascular risk factors were obtained from the Encuesta sobre Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento. We computed the predicted 5-year risk of CVD risk and compared the extent of agreement and reclassification in stratifying high-risk individuals between SCORE OP High and Low models. Analyses were done by risk categories, CVD risk region, and sex. In 2009, based on SCORE OP Low model almost 42% of elderly adults living in Ecuador were at high risk of suffering CVD over a 5-year period. The extent of agreement between SCORE OP High and Low risk prediction models was moderate (Cohen's kappa test of 0.5), 34% of individuals approximately were reclassified into different risk categories and a third of the population would benefit from a pharmacologic intervention to reduce the CVD risk. Forty-two percent of elderly Ecuadorians were at high risk of suffering CVD over a 5-year period, indicating an urgent need to tailor primary preventive measures for this vulnerable and high-risk population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatially explicit models of dynamic histories: examination of the genetic consequences of Pleistocene glaciation and recent climate change on the American Pika. (United States)

    Brown, Jason L; Knowles, L Lacey


    A central goal of phylogeography is to identify and characterize the processes underlying divergence. One of the biggest impediments currently faced is how to capture the spatiotemporal dynamic under which a species evolved. Here, we described an approach that couples species distribution models (SDMs), demographic and genetic models in a spatiotemporally explicit manner. Analyses of American Pika (Ochotona princeps) from the sky islands of the central Rocky Mountains of North America are used to provide insights into key questions about integrative approaches in landscape genetics, population genetics and phylogeography. This includes (i) general issues surrounding the conversion of time-specific SDMs into simple continuous, dynamic landscapes from past to current, (ii) the utility of SDMs to inform demographic models with deme-specific carrying capacities and migration potentials as well as (iii) the contribution of the temporal dynamic of colonization history in shaping genetic patterns of contemporary populations. Our results support that the inclusion of a spatiotemporal dynamic is an important factor when studying the impact of distributional shifts on patterns of genetic data. Our results also demonstrate the utility of SDMs to generate species-specific predictions about patterns of genetic variation that account for varying degrees of habitat specialization and life history characteristics of taxa. Nevertheless, the results highlight some key issues when converting SDMs for use in demographic models. Because the transformations have direct effects on the genetic consequence of population expansion by prescribing how habitat heterogeneity and spatiotemporal variation is related to the species-specific demographic model, it is important to consider alternative transformations when studying the genetic consequences of distributional shifts. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Dispersal of deep-sea larvae from the intra-American seas: simulations of trajectories using ocean models. (United States)

    Young, Craig M; He, Ruoying; Emlet, Richard B; Li, Yizhen; Qian, Hui; Arellano, Shawn M; Van Gaest, Ahna; Bennett, Kathleen C; Wolf, Maya; Smart, Tracey I; Rice, Mary E


    Using data on ocean circulation with a Lagrangian larval transport model, we modeled the potential dispersal distances for seven species of bathyal invertebrates whose durations of larval life have been estimated from laboratory rearing, MOCNESS plankton sampling, spawning times, and recruitment. Species associated with methane seeps in the Gulf of Mexico and/or Barbados included the bivalve "Bathymodiolus" childressi, the gastropod Bathynerita naticoidea, the siboglinid polychaete tube worm Lamellibrachia luymesi, and the asteroid Sclerasterias tanneri. Non-seep species included the echinoids Cidaris blakei and Stylocidaris lineata from sedimented slopes in the Bahamas and the wood-dwelling sipunculan Phascolosoma turnerae, found in Barbados, the Bahamas, and the Gulf of Mexico. Durations of the planktonic larval stages ranged from 3 weeks in lecithotrophic tubeworms to more than 2 years in planktotrophic starfish. Planktotrophic sipunculan larvae from the northern Gulf of Mexico were capable of reaching the mid-Atlantic off Newfoundland, a distance of more than 3000 km, during a 7- to 14-month drifting period, but the proportion retained in the Gulf of Mexico varied significantly among years. Larvae drifting in the upper water column often had longer median dispersal distances than larvae drifting for the same amount of time below the permanent thermocline, although the shapes of the distance-frequency curves varied with depth only in the species with the longest larval trajectories. Even species drifting for >2 years did not cross the ocean in the North Atlantic Drift.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Andreea Pirnuta


    Full Text Available In an interconnected world where foreign relations matter not only for resources or military alliances but also for cultural relationships, it is highly important to have a better understanding of the power relations among nations. The information carries certain meanings that have important outcomes thus defining the power of a given nation. Foreign policy is the channel through which global politics is exercised. International politics is a hierarchy of power being determined by important cultural, economic as well as geographical aspects. The reasons and strategies that are used in order to reach the outcomes in global politics represent the focus of the present paper. The United States has been the leader in international politics since the early 20th century due to its vast resources and wealth as well as its cultural output. America’s interest in preserving a democratic and free world has its foundation in the beliefs and values it stands for the aim of this paper is to question whether or not there is a concrete premise for the idea of American exceptionalism.

  16. Early stages of divergence: phylogeography, climate modeling, and morphological differentiation in the South American lizard Liolaemus petrophilus (Squamata: Liolaemidae) (United States)

    Fontanella, Frank M; Feltrin, Natalia; Avila, Luciano J; Sites, Jack W; Morando, Mariana


    This study examines the phylogeographic structure within the Patagonian lizard Liolaemus petrophilus and tests for patterns of between-clade morphological divergence and sexual dimorphism, as well as demographic and niche changes associated with Pleistocene climate changes. We inferred intraspecific relationships, tested hypotheses for historical patterns of population expansion, and incorporated ecological niche modeling (ENM) with standard morphological and geometric morphometric analyses to examine between-clade divergence as indirect evidence for adaptation to different niches. The two inferred haploclades diverged during the early Pleistocene with the Southern clade depicting the genetic signature of a recent population increase associated with expanding niche envelope, whereas the Northern clade shows stable populations in a shrinking niche envelope. The combination of molecular evidence for postisolation demographic change and ENM, suggest that the two haploclades have responded differently to Pleistocene climatic events. PMID:22837827

  17. Clouds, Wind and the Biogeography of Central American Cloud Forests: Remote Sensing, Atmospheric Modeling, and Walking in the Jungle (United States)

    Lawton, R.; Nair, U. S.


    Cloud forests stand at the core of the complex of montane ecosystems that provide the backbone to the multinational Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, which seeks to protect a biodiversity conservation "hotspot" of global significance in an area of rapidly changing land use. Although cloud forests are generally defined by frequent and prolonged immersion in cloud, workers differ in their feelings about "frequent" and "prolonged", and quantitative assessments are rare. Here we focus on the dry season, in which the cloud and mist from orographic cloud plays a critical role in forest water relations, and discuss remote sensing of orographic clouds, and regional and atmospheric modeling at several scales to quantitatively examine the distribution of the atmospheric conditions that characterize cloud forests. Remote sensing using data from GOES reveals diurnal and longer scale patterns in the distribution of dry season orographic clouds in Central America at both regional and local scales. Data from MODIS, used to calculate the base height of orographic cloud banks, reveals not only the geographic distributon of cloud forest sites, but also striking regional variation in the frequency of montane immersion in orographic cloud. At a more local scale, wind is known to have striking effects on forest structure and species distribution in tropical montane ecosystems, both as a general mechanical stress and as the major agent of ecological disturbance. High resolution regional atmospheric modeling using CSU RAMS in the Monteverde cloud forests of Costa Rica provides quantitative information on the spatial distribution of canopy level winds, insight into the spatial structure and local dynamics of cloud forest communities. This information will be useful in not only in local conservation planning and the design of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, but also in assessments of the sensitivity of cloud forests to global and regional climate changes.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of Chagas disease screening in Latin American migrants at primary health-care centres in Europe: a Markov model analysis. (United States)

    Requena-Méndez, Ana; Bussion, Sheila; Aldasoro, Edelweiss; Jackson, Yves; Angheben, Andrea; Moore, David; Pinazo, Maria-Jesús; Gascón, Joaquim; Muñoz, Jose; Sicuri, Elisa


    Chagas disease is currently prevalent in European countries hosting large communities from Latin America. Whether asymptomatic individuals at risk of Chagas disease living in Europe should be screened and treated accordingly is unclear. We performed an economic evaluation of systematic Chagas disease screening of the Latin American population attending primary care centres in Europe. We constructed a decision tree model that compared the test option (screening of asymptomatic individuals, treatment, and follow-up of positive cases) with the no-test option (screening, treating, and follow-up of symptomatic individuals). The decision tree included a Markov model with five states, related to the chronic stage of the disease: indeterminate, cardiomyopathy, gastrointestinal, response to treatment, and death. The model started with a target population of 100 000 individuals, of which 4·2% (95% CI 2·2-6·8) were estimated to be infected by Trypanosoma cruzi. The primary outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) between test and no-test options. Deterministic and probabilistic analyses (Monte Carlo simulations) were performed. In the deterministic analysis, total costs referred to 100 000 individuals in the test and no-test option were €30 903 406 and €6 597 403 respectively, with a difference of €24 306 003. The respective number of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained in the test and no-test option were 61 820·82 and 57 354·42. The ICER was €5442. In the probabilistic analysis, total costs for the test and no-test option were €32 163 649 (95% CI 31 263 705-33 063 593) and €6 904 764 (6 703 258-7 106 270), respectively. The respective number of QALYs gained was 64 634·35 (95% CI 62 809·6-66 459·1) and 59 875·73 (58 191·18-61 560·28). The difference in QALYs gained between the test and no test options was 4758·62 (95% CI 4618·42-4898·82). The incremental cost

  19. Investigation of the Subsonic Stability and Control Characteristics of a 1/7-Scale Model of the North American X-15 Airplane with and without Fuselage Forebody Strakes (United States)

    Hassell, James L., Jr.; Hewes, Donald E.


    An investigation of the low-subsonic stability and control characteristics of a l/7-scale free-flying model modified to represent closely the North American X-15 airplane (configuration 3) has been made in the Langley full-scale tunnel. Flight conditions at a relatively low altitude were simulated with the center of gravity at 16.0 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord. The longitudinal stability and control were considered to be satisfactory for all flight conditions tested. The lateral flight behavior was generally satisfactory for angles of attack below about 20 deg. At higher angles, however, the model developed a tendency to fly in a side-slipped attitude because of static directional instability at small sideslip angles. Good roll control was maintained to the highest angles tested, but rudder effectiveness diminished with increasing angle of attack and became adverse for angles above 40 deg. Removal of the lower rudder had little effect on the lateral flight characteristics for angles of attack less than about 20 deg but caused the lateral flight behavior to become worse in the high angle-of-attack range. The addition of small fuselage forebody strakes improved the static directional stability and lateral flight behavior of both configurations.

  20. Inferring the past and present connectivity across the range of a North American leaf beetle: combining ecological niche modeling and a geographically explicit model of coalescence. (United States)

    Dellicour, Simon; Fearnley, Shannon; Lombal, Anicée; Heidl, Sarah; Dahlhoff, Elizabeth P; Rank, Nathan E; Mardulyn, Patrick


    The leaf beetle Chrysomela aeneicollis occurs across Western North America, either at high elevation or in small, isolated populations along the coast, and thus has a highly fragmented distribution. DNA sequence data (three loci) were collected from five regions across the species range. Population connectivity was examined using traditional ecological niche modeling, which suggested that gene flow could occur among regions now and in the past. We developed geographically explicit coalescence models of sequence evolution that incorporated a two-dimensional representation of the hypothesized ranges suggested by the niche-modeling estimates. We simulated sequence data according to these models and compared them to observed sequences to identify most probable scenarios regarding the migration history of C. aeneicollis. Our results disagreed with initial niche-modeling estimates by clearly rejecting recent connectivity among regions, and were instead most consistent with a long period of range fragmentation, extending well beyond the last glacial maximum. This application of geographically explicit models of coalescence has highlighted some limitations of the use of climatic variables for predicting the present and past range of a species and has explained aspects of the Pleistocene evolutionary history of a cold-adapted organism in Western North America. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Native Americans with Diabetes (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Native Americans with Diabetes Better diabetes care can decrease kidney failure Language: ... between 1996 and 2013. Problem Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans. Native Americans are ...

  2. Living Two Lives: The Ability of Low Income African American Females in Their Quest to Break the Glass Ceiling of Education through the Ellison Model (TEM) Mentoring Approach (United States)

    Hoyt, DaVina J.


    It is often that during their academic pursuits, to become successful, low-income African-American women must learn to navigate an upstream current through higher education, where the established order in the academy is based on Western European values that often conflict with African-American values (Harper, Patton & Wooden, 2009; Phinney,…

  3. Model for Using Hip-Hop Music for Small Group HIV/AIDS Prevention Counseling with African American Adolescents and Young Adults. (United States)

    Stephens, Torrance; Braithwaite, Ronald L.; Taylor, Sandra E.


    Presents a HIV/AIDS preventive counseling protocol developed for use with African American young adults that makes use of hip-hop music. Contends that an increased understanding of the relationships that many African American young adults have with hip-hop music may be used by disease prevention personnel to educate these populations about…

  4. Simulation of between-farm transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Ontario, Canada using the North American Animal Disease Spread Model. (United States)

    Thakur, Krishna K; Revie, Crawford W; Hurnik, Daniel; Poljak, Zvonimir; Sanchez, Javier


    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), a viral disease of swine, has major economic impacts on the swine industry. The North American Animal Disease Spread Model (NAADSM) is a spatial, stochastic, farm level state-transition modeling framework originally developed to simulate highly contagious and foreign livestock diseases. The objectives of this study were to develop a model to simulate between-farm spread of a homologous strain of PRRS virus in Ontario swine farms via direct (animal movement) and indirect (sharing of trucks between farms) contacts using the NAADSM and to compare the patterns and extent of outbreak under different simulated conditions. A total of 2552 swine farms in Ontario province were allocated to each census division of Ontario and geo-locations of the farms were randomly generated within the agriculture land of each Census Division. Contact rates among different production types were obtained using pig movement information from four regions in Canada. A total of 24 scenarios were developed involving various direct (movement of infected animals) and indirect (pig transportation trucks) contact parameters in combination with alternating the production type of the farm in which the infection was seeded. Outbreaks were simulated for one year with 1000 replications. The median number of farms infected, proportion of farms with multiple outbreaks and time to reach the peak epidemic were used to compare the size, progression and extent of outbreaks. Scenarios involving spread only by direct contact between farms resulted in outbreaks where the median percentage of infected farms ranged from 31.5 to 37% of all farms. In scenarios with both direct and indirect contact, the median percentage of infected farms increased to a range from 41.6 to 48.6%. Furthermore, scenarios with both direct and indirect contact resulted in a 44% increase in median epidemic size when compared to the direct contact scenarios. Incorporation of both animal

  5. A matter of degrees: the introduction of clinical doctorates to the Saudi higher education system and a comparative prospective from the American model. (United States)

    Sayed, M Gary; Al-Shehri, Mohammad Y


    Recent unprecedented growth in Saudi population challenged its infrastructure and intensified demand for higher education and healthcare. In response, both the government and the private sector founded numerous colleges and universities, increasing the overall number from 8 to 49 institutions of higher education. A significant portion of the expansion has been in the health professions higher education, which also included the establishment of new teaching hospitals and other medical training facilities. As part of this growth, practice (clinical) doctorates have conspicuously made their presence felt in Saudi Arabia. The doctor of pharmacy is the first clinical doctorate that has been formally adopted as the terminal professional degree in the field. Others are in the works. Results are presented using descriptive methods. Data were collected from reviews of the literature and individual institutional websites of Saudi colleges, universities and salient governmental regulatory and national accrediting agencies. This article will introduce clinical doctorates, their status and state of implementation in the American health professions higher education system as a possible model. The article will review the current status of clinical doctorates' implementation in Saudi Arabia. It will conclude with a recommendation for concerned stake holders, including policy makers, educators, and practitioners.

  6. Small-scale modelling of cementation by descending silica-bearing fluids: Explanation of the origin of arenitic caves in South American tepuis (United States)

    Aubrecht, R.; Lánczos, T.; Schlögl, J.; Audy, M.


    Geoscientific research was performed on South American table mountains (tepuis) and in their sandstone cave systems. To explain speleogenesis in these poorly soluble rocks, two theories were introduced: a) arenization theory implying selective weathering of quartz along grain boundaries and releasing of sand grains, b) selective lithification theory implying cementation by descending silica-bearing fluid flow. The latter theory presumes that the descending fluid flow becomes unstable on the interface between two layers with different porosity and splits to separate flow channels (so-called ;finger flow;). The arenites outside these channels remain uncemented. To verify the latter theory, small-scale modelling was performed, using layered sands and sodium-silicate solution. Fine to medium sand was used (0.08-0.5 mm), along with a coarse sand fraction (0.5-1.5 mm). The sands were layered and compacted in a transparent plastic boxes. Three liters of sodium-silicate solution (so-called water glass) were left to drip for several hours to the top of the sediment. The fine-grained layers were perfectly laterally impregnated, whereas the descending fluid flows split to ;fingers; in the coarse-grained layers due their higher hydraulic conductivity. This small-scale laboratory simulation mimics the real diagenesis by descending silica-bearing fluids and matches the real phenomena observed on the tepuis. The resulting cemented constructions closely mimic many geomorphological features observed on tepuis and inside their caves, e.g. ;finger-flow; pillars, overhangs, imperfectly formed (aborted) pillars in forms of hummocks hanging from ceilings, locally also thicker central pillars that originated by merging of smaller fluid-flow channels. The modelling showed that selective lithification theory can explain most of the geomorphological aspects related to the speleogenesis in tepuis.

  7. Sensitivity of North American agriculture to ENSO-based climate scenarios and their socio-economic consequences: Modeling in an integrated assessment framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, N.J.; Izaurralde, R.C.; Brown, R.A.; Sands, R.D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Legler, D. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Center for Ocean Atmosphere Prediction Studies; Srinivasan, R. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Blacklands Research Center; Tiscareno-Lopez, M.


    A group of Canadian, US and Mexican natural resource specialists, organized by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under its North American Energy, Environment and Economy (NA3E) Program, has applied a simulation modeling approach to estimating the impact of ENSO-driven climatic variations on the productivity of major crops grown in the three countries. Methodological development is described and results of the simulations presented in this report. EPIC (the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator) was the agro-ecosystem model selected-for this study. EPIC uses a daily time step to simulate crop growth and yield, water use, runoff and soil erosion among other variables. The model was applied to a set of so-called representative farms parameterized through a specially-assembled Geographic Information System (GIS) to reflect the soils, topography, crop management and weather typical of the regions represented. Fifty one representative farms were developed for Canada, 66 for the US and 23 for Mexico. El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) scenarios for the EPIC simulations were created using the historic record of sea-surface temperature (SST) prevailing in the eastern tropical Pacific for the period October 1--September 30. Each year between 1960 and 1989 was thus assigned to an ENSO category or state. The ENSO states were defined as El Nino (EN, SST warmer than the long-term mean), Strong El Nino (SEN, much warmer), El Viejo (EV, cooler) and Neutral (within {+-}0.5 C of the long-term mean). Monthly means of temperature and precipitation were then calculated at each farm for the period 1960--1989 and the differences (or anomalies) between the means in Neutral years and EN, SEN and EV years determined. The average monthly anomalies for each ENSO state were then used to create new monthly statistics for each farm and ENSO-state combination. The adjusted monthly statistics characteristic of each ENSO state were then used to drive a stochastic-weather simulator

  8. Environmental challenges and opportunities of the evolving North American electricity market : Modeling techniques and estimating environmental outcomes[Secretariat report to Council under article 13 of the North American agreement on environmental cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Z. [Commission for Environmental Cooperation of North America, Montreal, PQ (Canada)


    Background information and results of the different models publicly available used for the evaluation of environmental effects of electricity market restructuring in the various jurisdictions in North America were included in this working paper. It comprised the description of eleven models and twelve modeling exercises. The information on each model varied greatly, as it is proprietary. The models described were: (1) the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), (2) the Department of Energy's Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS), (3) the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) utilized by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), (4) Resources for the Future's (RFF) Haiku model, (5) the Canadian Energy Research Institute's Energy 2020 Model, (6) the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) use of ICF's Coal and Electric Utilities Model, (7) the Center for Clean Air Policy's use of General Electric's Market Assessment and Portfolio Strategies (GE MAPS) model, (8) the Center for Clean Air Policy's use of GE MAPS in combination with New Energy Associates' Proscreen II, (9) the Commission for Environmental Cooperation use of the Front of Envelope Model, (10) Ontario Power Generation's use of the Utility Fuel Economics Model and National Power Model, and (11) New York State Department of Public Service's (NYDPS) Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement using New Energy Associates' PROMOD. Also included in this working paper was a comparison of the results of models and modeling exercises on which the estimation of the environmental effects of electricity market restructuring in the United States was based. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

  9. Measurement Invariance Testing of a Three-Factor Model of Parental Warmth, Psychological Control, and Knowledge across European and Asian/Pacific Islander American Youth. (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; King, Kevin M; McCarty, Carolyn A; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth


    While the interpretation and effects of parenting on developmental outcomes may be different across European and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) American youth, measurement invariance of parenting constructs has rarely been examined. Utilizing multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis, we examined whether the latent structure of parenting measures are equivalent or different across European and API American youth. Perceived parental warmth, psychological control, and knowledge were reported by a community sample of 325 adolescents (242 Europeans and 83 APIs). Results indicated that one item did not load on mother psychological control for API American youth. After removing this item, we found metric invariance for all parenting dimensions, providing support for cross-cultural consistency in the interpretation of parenting items. Scalar invariance was found for father parenting, whereas three mother parenting items were non-invariant across groups at the scalar level. After taking into account several minor forms of measurement non-invariance, non-invariant factor means suggested that API Americans perceived lower parental warmth and knowledge but higher parental psychological control than European Americans. Overall, the degree of measurement non-invariance was not extensive and was primarily driven by a few parenting items. All but one parenting item included in this study may be used for future studies across European and API American youth.

  10. Effects of environmental enrichment and stereotypic behavior on maternal behavior and infant viability in a model carnivore, the American mink (Neovison vison). (United States)

    Díez-León, María; Mason, Georgia


    In several species, stress compromises maternal behaviors that are important for infant viability (e.g. licking and grooming). Understanding how stress in captivity affects maternal behavior could therefore be beneficial, especially for carnivores in zoos and breeding centers where infant mortality is often high. We used a model carnivore--American mink--to test two hypotheses, namely that maternal investment and/or behavior is i. improved by environmental enrichment; and ii. compromised by stereotypic behavior. We observed 22 females raised in an indoor facility, 9 enriched, 13 non-enriched. At birth, and at post-natal day 20 when altricial infants were still fully dependent on their mothers, the following offspring variables were recorded: litter size, infant mortality, litter sex ratio (post-natal day 1), and weight. Maternal behavior was assessed by recording nest shape (post-natal day 1), and the frequency of licking and grooming (post-natal days 1-7). Non-enriched females stereotyped more, had female-skewed litters at birth, and tended to make poorer, flatter nests. Maternal licking and grooming showed large, stable individual differences, but appeared unaffected by enrichment. High levels of maternal stereotypic behavior predicted slower offspring growth, replicating previous findings for farmed mink. Nevertheless, enrichment did not significantly increase infant growth rates nor decrease infant mortality. Due to small sample sizes, our study now needs replicating, particularly to explore the potential benefits of enrichment on nest building, sex ratio effects, and the implications of maternal licking and grooming for offspring stress reactivity. Findings could then apply to endangered mustelids like the European mink. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Ethnic differences in inter- and intra-situational blood pressure variation: Comparisons among African-American, Hispanic-American, Asian-American, and European-American women. (United States)

    James, Gary D; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Hill, Leah A


    The purpose of this study was to compare the daily inter- and intra-situational ambulatory blood pressure (BP) variation by ethnicity in women. The African-American (N = 82; Age = 39.7 + 8.9), Hispanic-American (N = 25; age = 37.5 + 9.4), Asian-American (N = 22; Age = 35.2 + 8.6), and European-American (N = 122; Age = 37.2+ 9.4) women in this study all worked in similar positions at two major medical centers in NYC. Each wore an ambulatory monitor during the course of one mid-week workday. Proportional BP changes from work or home to sleep, intra-situational BP variation (standard deviation [SD]) and mean situational BP levels were compared among the groups using ANOVA models. African-American and Asian-American women had significantly smaller proportional work-sleep systolic changes than either European- (P women, but the Asian-American women's changes tended to be smallest. The variability (SD) of diastolic BP at work was significantly greater among African- and Hispanic-American women compared to Asian- and European-American women (all P women had greater sleep variability than European-American women (P Asian-American women had the highest level of sleep diastolic pressure (all comparisons P Asian-American women have an attenuated proportional BP decline from waking environments to sleep compared to European-American and Hispanic-American women. Asian-American nocturnal BP may be elevated relative to all other groups. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:932-935, 2016. © 2016Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Rethinking Native American Language Revitalization (United States)

    White, Frederick


    As many linguists continue to work with and analyze First Nations/Native American languages, the consensus opinion usually direly predicts the loss of daily use for almost all of the extant Indigenous languages. Tremendous efforts are being expended for renewing, revitalizing, and restoring these languages to everyday use. The model upon which…

  13. Racial Pride and Condom Use in Post-Incarcerated African-American Men Who Have Sex With Men and Women: Test of a Conceptual Model for the Men in Life Environments Intervention. (United States)

    Li, Michael J; Frank, Heather Guentzel; Harawa, Nina T; Williams, John K; Chou, Chih-Ping; Bluthenthal, Ricky N


    African-American men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) are among those most heavily impacted by HIV in the United States, and those who have histories of incarceration are at further risk of infection. The Men in Life Environments (MILE) HIV prevention intervention was developed to provide culturally appropriate skills-based education and support for African-American MSMW with recent histories of incarceration. The MILE's conceptual framework was informed by three theories: Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior, Critical Thinking and Cultural Affirmation Model, and Empowerment Theory. The theory-based framework posits that improving racial pride is crucial in building self-efficacy and intentions that in turn promote health-protective behaviors. Therefore, our study aimed to assess whether baseline associations between racial pride and condom use self-efficacy, intentions, and behaviors among African-American MSMW with histories of incarceration align with our conceptual model. We report data on 212 participants recruited from Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department Men's Central Jail and the local community. Using structural equation modeling, we tested two separate models: one with female sexual partners and one with male sexual partners, while stratifying by participant's HIV status. Only among HIV-negative participants was greater racial pride associated with less condomless intercourse with men. In this group, greater self-efficacy and intentions-but not racial pride-predicted less condomless intercourse with women. Our findings suggest that racial pride is an important factor to address in HIV prevention interventions for post-incarcerated African-American MSMW.

  14. Discrimination of Arabic Contrasts by American Learners (United States)

    Al Mahmoud, Mahmoud S.


    This article reports on second language perception of non-native contrasts. The study specifically tests the perceptual assimilation model (PAM) by examining American learners' ability to discriminate Arabic contrasts. Twenty two native American speakers enrolled in a university level Arabic language program took part in a forced choice AXB…

  15. American Macular Degeneration Foundation (United States)

    ... Policy Disclaimer Contact Us Donate Store The American Macular Degeneration Foundation The American Macular Degeneration Foundation (AMDF) is ... Ed Asner Video Clip An Inspiring Her-story Macular Degeneration is the leading cause of vision loss, affecting ...

  16. American Society of Echocardiography (United States)

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Renew Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow of the American Society of Echocardiography Member Referral Program FAQs Initiatives Advocacy Awards, Grants, ...

  17. Depression and African Americans (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Depression And African Americans Depression And African Americans Not “Just the Blues” Clinical ... or spiritual communities. Commonly Asked Questions about Clinical Depression How do I get help for clinical depression? ...

  18. African Americans and Glaucoma (United States)

    ... Americans are still unknown. However, research shows that African Americans are genetically more at risk for glaucoma, making early detection and treatment all the more important. In studies such as the Baltimore Eye Survey and the ...

  19. Unlearning American Patriotism (United States)

    Miller, Richard W.


    Immoral excesses of American foreign policy are so severe and so deep-rooted that American patriotism is now a moral burden. This love, which pulls toward amnesia, wishful thinking and inattention to urgent foreign interests, should be replaced by commitment to a global social movement that seeks to hem in the American empire. Teachers can advance…

  20. Promoting the Academic Achievement of African-American Males: The Achievers Model for Systemic Change of K-12 Educational Programs and Services (United States)

    McNair, Wanda J.


    The purpose of this applied doctoral project (ADP) was to conceptualize a framework for a charter school program design to promote the academic achievement of a select group of African-American males. Gorton, Alston, and Snowden (2007) emphasized that school improvement involves change for the better. The National Education Goals Panel, a…

  1. Chapter 4: Contesting the Model Minority and Perpetual Foreigner Stereotypes--A Critical Review of Literature on Asian Americans in Education (United States)

    Ng, Jennifer C.; Lee, Sharon S.; Pak, Yoon K.


    There are several aims of this literature review. At its basic level, the authors' goal is to provide readers with content knowledge of the educational research on Asian Americans, highlighting important findings and key studies in the field. It is their goal to identify themes and trends and look to important future directions as a whole,…

  2. Racial Identity, Generalized Self-Efficacy, and Self-Esteem: A Pilot Study of a Mediation Model for African American Women. (United States)

    Collins, Kimberly Williams; Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.


    Investigated whether a sense of generalized self-efficacy (GSE) would mediate the relationship between African American women's racial identity attitudes and self-esteem. Surveys of women from churches and a misdemeanor probation institution indicated that GSE mediated the relationship between pre-encounter racial identity attitude and…

  3. A Study of the Effects of a Culturally-Based Dance Education Model on Identified Stress Factors in American Indian College Women. (United States)

    Skye, Ferial Deer; And Others


    Finds that, among 39 American Indian college women, those who participated in a 4-week dance education program incorporating cultural support symbols showed significantly lower posttest trait anxiety than controls but did not differ from controls in posttest state anxiety. Reports stress factors identified from subjects' questionnaire responses.…

  4. Language Brokering and Adjustment among Chinese and Korean American Adolescents: A Moderated Mediation Model of Perceived Maternal Sacrifice, Respect for the Mother, and Mother-Child Open Communication. (United States)

    Shen, Yishan; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Chao, Ruth K


    Asian American adolescents often language broker for their immigrant parents. Using a two-wave sample of Chinese American ( n = 237; average age at W1 = 14.65, SD = .68) and Korean American ( n = 262; average age at W1 = 14.72, SD = .69) adolescents, this study examined a culturally relevant conditional mechanism through which language brokering may contribute to lower levels of internalizing/externalizing problems. Results suggested that language brokering for the mother was associated with perceived maternal sacrifice, which was in turn associated with respect for the mother, which was eventually associated with lower levels of externalizing problems (but not internalizing problems) in the adolescents. Moreover, the indirect effect was conditional on the level of mother-child open communication. With a lower level of open communication, the indirect effect of language brokering on externalizing problems became stronger. Results indicate that interventions designed to reduce Asian American adolescent language brokers' externalizing problems may be effective if they target adolescents' perception of parental sacrifice and respect for parents, especially for those adolescents experiencing a low level of parent-child open communication. At the same time, increasing open communication within the family may also ultimately reduce adolescent externalizing problems.

  5. The American Dream


    Nielsen, Kristian


    This thesis deals with the deceptive nature of The American Dream and its place in American culture in the first six decades of the 20th century, namely in the three quintessential novels The Great Gatsby, The Grapes of Wrath and Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas. With the aid of Jim Cullen's The American Dream – A short history of an idea that shaped a nation and Lawrence Samuel's The American Dream – A cultural history the different types of American Dreams are investigated, as well as how the...

  6. NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NARR dataset is an extension of the NCEP Global Reanalysis which is run over the North American Region. The NARR model uses the very high resolution NCEP Eta...

  7. American Minorities and 'New Nation' Perspectives (United States)

    Moore, Joan W.


    The 'Third World models' discussed in this article are, specifically the concept of 'internal colonialism' and the related idea of a 'dual economy/society' that is especially prominent in the literature on urbanization in Africa and Latin American nations.

  8. Innovative care delivery model to address obesity in older African-American women: Senior Wellness Initiative and Take Off Pounds Sensibly collaboration for health (SWITCH). (United States)

    Mitchell, Nia S; Polsky, Sarit


    To determine the feasibility and acceptability of integrating Take Off Pounds Sensibly (TOPS), a national nonprofit weight-loss program through which people have lost a clinically significant amount of weight, into a community program that serves African Americans (AAs) and to determine weight change. Single-group pilot design. Denver, Colorado. Community-dwelling participants aged 51 to 85. Participants were recruited through a program that serves AAs, and new TOPS chapters were started at a church, senior center, and senior residence for independent living. Feasibility was measured by determining the ease of recruitment and acceptability was measured according to retention. The secondary outcome was weight change. Sixty-four percent of people who were referred to the program or attended an information session participated in the study. The retention rate at 52 weeks was 79%. At 52 weeks, 16 of 48 participants had lost 5% or more of their initial weight, and 23 had lost 0% to 4.9% of their initial weight. Recruiting AA women through the Center for African American Health was feasible, and the program was acceptable. One-third of participants lost a clinically significant amount of weight. TOPS may be one way to combat the health disparity of obesity in AA women. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  10. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  11. Emotion socialization and ethnicity: an examination of practices and outcomes in African American, Asian American, and Latin American families. (United States)

    Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel


    The current review paper summarizes the literature on parental emotion socialization in ethnically diverse families in the United States. Models of emotion socialization have been primarily developed using samples of European American parents and children. As such, current categorizations of "adaptive" and "maladaptive" emotion socialization practices may not be applicable to individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The review examines current models of emotion socialization, with particular attention paid to the demographic breakdown of the studies used to develop these models. Additionally, the review highlights studies examining emotion socialization practices in African American, Asian American, and Latin American families. The review is synthesized with summarizing themes of similarities and differences across ethnic groups, and implications for culturally sensitive research and practice are discussed.

  12. Replacing American Breakfast Foods with Ready-To-Eat (RTE) Cereals Increases Consumption of Key Food Groups and Nutrients among US Children and Adults: Results of an NHANES Modeling Study (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D.; Drewnowski, Adam


    Replacing the typical American breakfast with ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs) may improve diet quality. Our goal was to assess the impact of RTECs on diet quality measures for different age groups, using substitution modeling. Dietary intakes came from the 2007–2010 National Health and Examination Surveys (NHANES; n = 18,112). All breakfast foods, excluding beverages, were replaced on a per calorie basis, with frequency-weighted and age/race specific RTECs. Model 1 replaced foods with RTECs alone; Model 2 replaced foods with RTECs and milk. Diet quality measures were based on desirable food groups and nutrients, Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 scores, and estimated diet costs. Model 1 diets were significantly higher in whole grains (+84.6%), fiber (+14.3%), vitamin D (+14.0%), iron (+54.5%) and folic acid (+104.6%), as compared to observed diets. Model 2 diets were additionally higher in dairy (+15.8%), calcium (+11.3%) and potassium (+3.95%). In Model 1, added sugar increased (+5.0%), but solid fats declined (−10.9%). Energy from solid fats and added sugars declined (−3.2%) in both models. Model 2 offered higher diet quality (57.1 vs. 54.6, p-value < 0.01) at a lower cost ($6.70 vs. $6.92; p < 0.01), compared to observed diets. Substitution modeling of NHANES data can assess the nutritional and economic impact of dietary guidance. PMID:28902145

  13. Replacing American Breakfast Foods with Ready-To-Eat (RTE) Cereals Increases Consumption of Key Food Groups and Nutrients among US Children and Adults: Results of an NHANES Modeling Study. (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam


    Replacing the typical American breakfast with ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs) may improve diet quality. Our goal was to assess the impact of RTECs on diet quality measures for different age groups, using substitution modeling. Dietary intakes came from the 2007-2010 National Health and Examination Surveys (NHANES; n = 18,112). All breakfast foods, excluding beverages, were replaced on a per calorie basis, with frequency-weighted and age/race specific RTECs. Model 1 replaced foods with RTECs alone; Model 2 replaced foods with RTECs and milk. Diet quality measures were based on desirable food groups and nutrients, Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 scores, and estimated diet costs. Model 1 diets were significantly higher in whole grains (+84.6%), fiber (+14.3%), vitamin D (+14.0%), iron (+54.5%) and folic acid (+104.6%), as compared to observed diets. Model 2 diets were additionally higher in dairy (+15.8%), calcium (+11.3%) and potassium (+3.95%). In Model 1, added sugar increased (+5.0%), but solid fats declined (-10.9%). Energy from solid fats and added sugars declined (-3.2%) in both models. Model 2 offered higher diet quality (57.1 vs. 54.6, p -value modeling of NHANES data can assess the nutritional and economic impact of dietary guidance.

  14. Replacing American Breakfast Foods with Ready-To-Eat (RTE Cereals Increases Consumption of Key Food Groups and Nutrients among US Children and Adults: Results of an NHANES Modeling Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D. Rehm


    Full Text Available Replacing the typical American breakfast with ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs may improve diet quality. Our goal was to assess the impact of RTECs on diet quality measures for different age groups, using substitution modeling. Dietary intakes came from the 2007–2010 National Health and Examination Surveys (NHANES; n = 18,112. All breakfast foods, excluding beverages, were replaced on a per calorie basis, with frequency-weighted and age/race specific RTECs. Model 1 replaced foods with RTECs alone; Model 2 replaced foods with RTECs and milk. Diet quality measures were based on desirable food groups and nutrients, Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010 scores, and estimated diet costs. Model 1 diets were significantly higher in whole grains (+84.6%, fiber (+14.3%, vitamin D (+14.0%, iron (+54.5% and folic acid (+104.6%, as compared to observed diets. Model 2 diets were additionally higher in dairy (+15.8%, calcium (+11.3% and potassium (+3.95%. In Model 1, added sugar increased (+5.0%, but solid fats declined (−10.9%. Energy from solid fats and added sugars declined (−3.2% in both models. Model 2 offered higher diet quality (57.1 vs. 54.6, p-value < 0.01 at a lower cost ($6.70 vs. $6.92; p < 0.01, compared to observed diets. Substitution modeling of NHANES data can assess the nutritional and economic impact of dietary guidance.

  15. Rediscovering Interwar American Theorists (United States)


    common perception, the early 20th century was a period of significant intellectual development in American military theory. Organizational changes in...Rediscovering Interwar American Theorists A Monograph by MAJ Russell McKelvey United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies United...DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2016 – MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Rediscovering Interwar American Theorists 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  16. Perpetual American options within CTRWs (United States)

    Montero, Miquel


    Continuous-time random walks are a well suited tool for the description of market behaviour at the smallest scale: the tick-to-tick evolution. We will apply this kind of market model to the valuation of perpetual American options: derivatives with no maturity that can be exercised at any time. Our approach leads to option prices that fulfill financial formulas when canonical assumptions on the dynamics governing the process are made, but it is still suitable for more exotic market conditions.

  17. Perpetual American options within CTRW's


    Montero, Miquel


    Continuous-time random walks are a well suited tool for the description of market behaviour at the smallest scale: the tick-to-tick evolution. We will apply this kind of market model to the valuation of perpetual American options: derivatives with no maturity that can be exercised at any time. Our approach leads to option prices that fulfil financial formulas when canonical assumptions on the dynamics governing the process are made, but it is still suitable for more exotic market conditions.

  18. Invisible Asian Americans: The Intersection of Sexuality, Race, and Education among Gay Asian Americans (United States)

    Ocampo, Anthony C.; Soodjinda, Daniel


    Most research on Asian American education has centered on addressing and deconstructing the model minority stereotype. While recent studies have highlighted the socioeconomic and cultural heterogeneity among Asian American students, few have examined how sexual identity and masculinity mitigate their academic experiences. In this article, we draw…

  19. Predicting Non-African American Lesbian and Heterosexual Preadoptive Couples' Openness to Adopting an African American Child (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.


    Despite increases in transracial adoption, African American children remain the least likely to be adopted. No research has examined the factors that predict prospective adopters' willingness to adopt an African American child. This study used multilevel modeling to examine predictors of willingness to adopt an African American child in a sample…

  20. American Indian Influence on the American Pharmacopeia. (United States)

    Vogel, Virgil J.

    The first U.S. Pharmacopeia, issued in 1820, listed 296 substances of animal, mineral, or vegetable origin in its primary and secondary lists. Of these 130, nearly all of vegetable origin, represented drugs used by American Indians. The number grew at each decennial revision during the 19th century, though some drugs were listed only for a decade.…

  1. Maternal socialization goals, parenting styles, and social-emotional adjustment among Chinese and European American young adults: testing a mediation model. (United States)

    Li, Yan; Costanzo, Philip R; Putallaz, Martha


    The authors compared the associations among perceived maternal socialization goals (self-development, filial piety, and collectivism), perceived maternal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and training), and the social-emotional adjustment (self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and depression) between Chinese and European American young adults. The mediation processes in which socialization goals relate to young adults' adjustment outcomes through parenting styles were examined. Results showed that European American participants perceived higher maternal self-development socialization goals, whereas Chinese participants perceived higher maternal collectivism socialization goals as well as more authoritarian parenting. Cross-cultural similarities were found in the associations between perceived maternal authoritative parenting and socioemotional adjustment (e.g., higher self-esteem and higher academic self-efficacy) across the two cultural groups. However, perceived maternal authoritarian and training parenting styles were found only to be related to Chinese participants' adjustment (e.g., higher academic self-efficacy and lower depression). The mediation analyses showed that authoritative parenting significantly mediated the positive associations between the self-development and collectivism goal and socioemotional adjustment for both cultural groups. Additionally, training parenting significantly mediated the positive association between the filial piety goal and young adults' academic self-efficacy for the Chinese group only. Findings of this study highlight the importance of examining parental socialization goals in cross-cultural parenting research.

  2. A centric/non-centric impact protocol and finite element model methodology for the evaluation of American football helmets to evaluate risk of concussion. (United States)

    Post, Andrew; Oeur, Anna; Walsh, Evan; Hoshizaki, Blaine; Gilchrist, Michael D


    American football reports high incidences of head injuries, in particular, concussion. Research has described concussion as primarily a rotation dominant injury affecting the diffuse areas of brain tissue. Current standards do not measure how helmets manage rotational acceleration or how acceleration loading curves influence brain deformation from an impact and thus are missing important information in terms of how concussions occur. The purpose of this study was to investigate a proposed three-dimensional impact protocol for use in evaluating football helmets. The dynamic responses resulting from centric and non-centric impact conditions were examined to ascertain the influence they have on brain deformations in different functional regions of the brain that are linked to concussive symptoms. A centric and non-centric protocol was used to impact an American football helmet; the resulting dynamic response data was used in conjunction with a three-dimensional finite element analysis of the human brain to calculate brain tissue deformation. The direction of impact created unique loading conditions, resulting in peaks in different regions of the brain associated with concussive symptoms. The linear and rotational accelerations were not predictive of the brain deformation metrics used in this study. In conclusion, the test protocol used in this study revealed that impact conditions influences the region of loading in functional regions of brain tissue that are associated with the symptoms of concussion. The protocol also demonstrated that using brain deformation metrics may be more appropriate when evaluating risk of concussion than using dynamic response data alone.

  3. Cuando Hollywood encontró a Harlem: caminos para la creación de un nuevo modelo de representación de la identidad afroamericana en el cine de los estudios (1970-1971 / When Hollywood Met Harlem. How the Industry Created a New Model of Representation of the Afro-American Identity in American Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jara Fernández Meneses


    Full Text Available Desde una perspectiva histórica, este artículo analiza las estrategias empleadas por el cine norteamericano a comienzos de la década de 1970 para elaborar un nuevo modelo de representación de la comunidad afroamericana. A través del análisis del contexto socio-político y económico de ese periodo, el texto examina los dos principales elementos que explican dicho fenómeno: la crisis que sufrió la industria cinematográfica a finales de la década de 1960 y el nacimiento de una nueva conciencia racial dentro del movimiento de los derechos civiles a comienzos de la década de 1970. Tres películas se utilizan para ilustrar cómo se construyó este nuevo modelo y cuáles son sus principales atributos: Algodón en Harlem (Cotton Comes to Harlem, Ossie Davies, 1970, Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song (Melvin Van Peebles, 1971 y Las noches rojas de Harlem (Shaft, Gordon Parks, 1971. A través de la comparación entre cómo la industria representó a los afroamericanos en décadas previas y cómo lo hizo en el periodo estudiado, el artículo pretende demostrar cómo y por qué Hollywood cambió su actitud hacia el retrato de la comunidad afroamericana.Palabras clave: Identidad afroamericana, directores afroamericanos, blaxploitation, Cotton Comes to Harlem, Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song, Shaft, Ossie Davies, Melvin Van Peebles, Gordon Parks.AbstractAssuming a historical approach, this text focuses on the strategies used by American cinema to elaborate a new model of representation of the Afro-American identity in the early seventies. Through the analysis of the socio-political and economic context of the period, this text examines the two main issues we should take into consideration to explain this fact: the crisis in the cinema industry in the late sixties and the rising of a new conscience within the afroamerican civil rights movement at the beginning of the seventies. Three films are used to illustrate the construction of this new

  4. American Studies in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies.......Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies....

  5. African American Suicide (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  6. Asian American Cultural Resistance. (United States)

    Libretti, Tim


    Explores the encounter of Marxism and Asian American literary theory and imagines an Asian American Marxism. To do so requires theorizing race, class, and gender not as substantive categories of antagonisms but as complementary and coordinated elements of a totality of social relations structuring racial patriarchal capitalism. (SLD)

  7. Writing American Indian History (United States)

    Noley, Grayson B.


    The purpose of this paper is to critique the manner in which history about American Indians has been written and propose a rationale for the rethinking of what we know about this subject. In particular, histories of education as regards the participation of American Indians is a subject that has been given scant attention over the years and when…

  8. Teaching American Indian Architecture. (United States)

    Winchell, Dick


    Reviews "Native American Architecture," by Nabokov and Easton, an encyclopedic work that examines technology, climate, social structure, economics, religion, and history in relation to house design and the "meaning" of space among tribes of nine regions. Describes this book's use in a college course on Native American architecture. (SV)

  9. Application of the North American Multi-Model Ensemble to seasonal water supply forecasting in the Great Lakes basin through the use of the Great Lakes Seasonal Climate Forecast Tool (United States)

    Gronewold, A.; Apps, D.; Fry, L. M.; Bolinger, R.


    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) contribution to the internationally coordinated 6-month forecast of Great Lakes water levels relies on several water supply models, including a regression model relating a coming month's water supply to past water supplies, previous months' precipitation and temperature, and forecasted precipitation and temperature. Probabilistic forecasts of precipitation and temperature depicted in the Climate Prediction Center's seasonal outlook maps are considered to be standard for use in operational forecasting for seasonal time horizons, and have provided the basis for computing a coming month's precipitation and temperature for use in the USACE water supply regression models. The CPC outlook maps are a useful forecast product offering insight into interpretation of climate models through the prognostic discussion and graphical forecasts. However, recent evolution of USACE forecast procedures to accommodate automated data transfer and manipulation offers a new opportunity for direct incorporation of ensemble climate forecast data into probabilistic outlooks of water supply using existing models that have previously been implemented in a deterministic fashion. We will present results from a study investigating the potential for applying data from the North American Multi-Model Ensemble to operational water supply forecasts. The use of NMME forecasts is facilitated by a new, publicly available, Great Lakes Seasonal Climate Forecast Tool that provides operational forecasts of monthly average temperatures and monthly total precipitation summarized for each lake basin.

  10. American Elm (Ulmus americana). (United States)

    Newhouse, Andrew E; Schrodt, Franziska; Maynard, Charles A; Powell, William A


    American elm (Ulmus americana) is a valuable and sentimental tree species that was decimated by Dutch elm disease in the mid-20th century. Therefore, any methods for modifying American elm or enhancing disease resistance are significant. This protocol describes transformation and tissue culture techniques used on American elm. Leaf pieces containing the midvein and petiole are used for explants. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 is used for transformation, with the binary vector pSE39, containing CaMV35S/nptII as a selectable marker, ACS2/ESF39A as a putative resistance enhancing gene, and CaMV35S/GUS as a reporter.

  11. Lolita - the American nightmare




    This article deals with the analysis of Lolita seen through the lenses of the American society and norms of today. We will see that many observations of the American way of behaving and social norms still hold true even nowadays years after this novel was written. Nabokov, on the other hand, never accepted the fact that this novel probed into the very depths of American life and that his intentions were purely aesthetic. Nevertheless, the phenomenon of pedophilia, obvious in the book, is a po...

  12. American Studies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Luca


    Full Text Available American Studies at the University of BucharestThe idea of teaching American Studies and founding a program in American Studies was first voiced in the long meetings of faculty and students held at the University of Bucharest soon after the collapse of the communist regime. The proposal was one of many that reflected the spirit of reform and hope for radical changes at the outset of Romania’s transition to democracy. The absence of institutional structures other than English departments and t...

  13. Asian Americans: growth, change, and diversity. (United States)

    Gardner, R W; Robey, B; Smith, P C


    The 1980 US census counted 3.5 million Asian Americans, up from 1.4 million in 1970. Asian Americans made up just 1.5% of the total US population of 226.5 million as of April 1, 1980, but this was the 3rd largest racial or ethnic minority after blacks and Hispanics. Asians increased far more during the 1970s (141%) than blacks (17%) or Hispanics (39%). This Bulletin examines the characteristics of Asian Americans, how their numbers have grown, where they live, how different groups vary in age structure, childbearing, health, and longevity. It reports on the kinds of households Asian Americans form and how they fare with regard to education, occupation, and income. Asian Americans are now often perceived as the model minority. As a whole, they are better educated, occupy higher rungs on the occupational ladder, and earn more than the general US population and even white Americans. This Bulletin presents the 1st comprehensive look at many important facts about Asian Americans and how the groups differ. Special tabulations of data collected in the 1980 census are provided. The 1980 census data are the latest available to give a true picture at the national level of Asian Americans and the various groups among them. The Bulletin examines the current numbers of Asian Americans and how this population is defined. The major Asian American groups are Chinese (21%), Filipinos (20%), Japanese (15%), Vietnamese (21%), Koreans (11%), and Asian Indians (10%). Except for the latest-arrived Vietnamese, the fertility of the 6 groups is lower than the white average. The following areas are also discussed: mortality and health; families and households; education; Asian youth; employment; income and poverty; and future prospects.

  14. Characterizing the performance of ecosystem models across time scales: A spectral analysis of the North American Carbon Program site-level synthesis (United States)

    Michael C. Dietze; Rodrigo Vargas; Andrew D. Richardson; Paul C. Stoy; Alan G. Barr; Ryan S. Anderson; M. Altaf Arain; Ian T. Baker; T. Andrew Black; Jing M. Chen; Philippe Ciais; Lawrence B. Flanagan; Christopher M. Gough; Robert F. Grant; David Hollinger; R. Cesar Izaurralde; Christopher J. Kucharik; Peter Lafleur; Shugang Liu; Erandathie Lokupitiya; Yiqi Luo; J. William Munger; Changhui Peng; Benjamin Poulter; David T. Price; Daniel M. Ricciuto; William J. Riley; Alok Kumar Sahoo; Kevin Schaefer; Andrew E. Suyker; Hanqin Tian; Christina Tonitto; Hans Verbeeck; Shashi B. Verma; Weifeng Wang; Ensheng Weng


    Ecosystem models are important tools for diagnosing the carbon cycle and projecting its behavior across space and time. Despite the fact that ecosystems respond to drivers at multiple time scales, most assessments of model performance do not discriminate different time scales. Spectral methods, such as wavelet analyses, present an alternative approach that enables the...

  15. A GIS-based multi-source and multi-box modeling approach (GMSMB) for air pollution assessment--a North American case study. (United States)

    Wang, Bao-Zhen; Chen, Zhi


    This article presents a GIS-based multi-source and multi-box modeling approach (GMSMB) to predict the spatial concentration distributions of airborne pollutant on local and regional scales. In this method, an extended multi-box model combined with a multi-source and multi-grid Gaussian model are developed within the GIS framework to examine the contributions from both point- and area-source emissions. By using GIS, a large amount of data including emission sources, air quality monitoring, meteorological data, and spatial location information required for air quality modeling are brought into an integrated modeling environment. It helps more details of spatial variation in source distribution and meteorological condition to be quantitatively analyzed. The developed modeling approach has been examined to predict the spatial concentration distribution of four air pollutants (CO, NO(2), SO(2) and PM(2.5)) for the State of California. The modeling results are compared with the monitoring data. Good agreement is acquired which demonstrated that the developed modeling approach could deliver an effective air pollution assessment on both regional and local scales to support air pollution control and management planning.

  16. Bidirectional American Sign Language to English Translation


    Cate, Hardie; Hussain, Zeshan


    We outline a bidirectional translation system that converts sentences from American Sign Language (ASL) to English, and vice versa. To perform machine translation between ASL and English, we utilize a generative approach. Specifically, we employ an adjustment to the IBM word-alignment model 1 (IBM WAM1), where we define language models for English and ASL, as well as a translation model, and attempt to generate a translation that maximizes the posterior distribution defined by these models. T...

  17. Mental Health and Asian Americans (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  18. Infant Mortality and African Americans (United States)

    ... Profiles > Black/African American > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 ... to receive late or no prenatal care. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  19. African-Americans and Alzheimer's (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  20. Contemporary American Physics Fiction. (United States)

    Friedman, Alan J.


    Discusses the works by six contemporary American novelists that illustrate the current state of "physics fiction." The discussed examples of physics fiction ranged from the fluent and frequent inclusion of the casual, to the elaborate systems of physics metaphors. (GA)

  1. American Society of Hematology (United States)

    ... Navigation Account Navigation Main Content American Society of Hematology ASH Store ASH Job Center ASH Apps Share ... youtube linkedin Research In This Section Agenda for Hematology Research Sickle Cell Priorities Lymphoma Roadmap Moonshot Initiative ...

  2. American Society of Anesthesiologists (United States)

    ... Trauma ASA and CAE Healthcare’s virtual O.R. Popular Courses Member Exclusive Difficult Airway Algorithm Member login ... You Industry Supporters Whose contributions allow the American Society of Anesthesiologists ® to create world-class education and ...

  3. American Medical Association (United States)

    ... AMA Wire For healthy individual market, keep tax rules that spur coverage Senate tax plan would scrap ... Foundation AMA Insurance Copyright 1995 - 2017 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Terms of Use Privacy Policy ...

  4. The American dream


    Camanho, Gilberto Luis


    The American dream : literar. Spiegelungen. - In: Weltmacht USA / hrsg. von Josef Becker ... - München : Vögel, 1976. - S. 31-48. - (Schriften der Philosophischen Fachbereiche der Universität Augsburg ; 10)

  5. Singing American History. (United States)

    Nielsen, Fred


    Discusses how to use music when teaching U.S. History. Provides examples such as teaching about the Civil War, the Great Depression, and the Vietnam War and showing the contributions of African Americans. Includes a discography. (CMK)

  6. American Pediatric Surgical Association (United States)

    American Pediatric Surgical Association Search for: Login Resources + For Members For Professionals For Training Program Directors For Media For ... Surgical Outcomes Surveys & Results Publications Continuing Education + ExPERT Pediatric Surgery NaT Annual Meeting CME MOC Requirements Residents / ...

  7. American Heart Association (United States)

    ... Americans live with heart disease, stroke or a cardiovascular condition. Your donation will help us save and improve their lives with research, education and emergency care. Warning Signs If you or someone else is ...

  8. American Epilepsy Society (United States)

    ... for the AES Annual Meeting. More info here . Epilepsy Currents American Epilepsy Society Journal Impact Factor More ... P450 enzyme overexpression during spontaneous recurrent seizures More Epilepsy Professional News AES Status Epilepticus guideline for treatment ...

  9. Profile: Asian Americans (United States)

    ... Vietnamese, 46 percent of Chinese, 23 percent of Filipinos and 21 percent of Asian Indians are not fluent in English. In 2015, 75.5 percent of Asian American spoke a language other than English at home. Educational Attainment: According ...

  10. A confirmatory factor analysis of the Beck Anxiety Inventory in African American and European American young adults. (United States)

    Chapman, L Kevin; Williams, Sarah R; Mast, Benjamin T; Woodruff-Borden, Janet


    The anxiety literature is particularly sparse as it relates to African Americans, and there are few studies to date that have examined the factor structure of anxiety assessment tools within this population. The current study investigated the original two-factor structure of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) in addition to two extant factor structures of the BAI in a non-clinical sample of African American and European American young adults. One hundred twenty one European American and 100 African American young adults completed the BAI. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the previous factor structures of the Beck Anxiety Inventory do not provide the best fit for either the African American or the European American sample. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that an alternative, two-factor model provided the best fit for the sample, particularly for the African American sample. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  11. NATO: Revisiting American Commitment (United States)


    NATO: Revisiting American Commitment by Captain Thomas F Hurley II United States Navy United...STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT .33 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NATO: Revisiting American Commitment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...the 21st century. The strategic benefit to the United States may no longer be worth the commitment to the alliance. The U.S. should reevaluate its

  12. American Studies in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Federmayer


    Full Text Available The beginning of American Studies as an academic discipline at Hungarian colleges and universities is basically coterminous with the watershed years of 1989-1990 when the country made a radical shift from state socialism toward parliamentary democracy and a free economy. This political and economic about-face, which came hand in hand with the undermining of foundationalist certainties and the generation of new anxieties coincided, more or less, with the radical transformation that American St...

  13. African Anglo American

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, J.


    The South-African based Anglo-American Corp. dominates the mining industries of South Africa and Botswana and is very important in Namibia, Zimbabwe and Zambia. Most recently it has started prospecting in Tanzania once again. This article discusses the corporation's interests in Africa, gold, copper, diamonds, platinum, nickel and coal, and its interest in South American copper and various African metal industries. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Model for using hip-hop music for small group HIV/AIDS prevention counseling with African American adolescents and young adults. (United States)

    Stephens, T; Braithwaite, R L; Taylor, S E


    Currently little attention has been directed, with the exception of peer education efforts, to constructively develop new and innovative ways to promote HIV/AIDS primary prevention among African American (AA) adolescents and young adults. With this in mind, the aim of this conceptual effort is to present a HIV/AIDS preventive counseling protocol developed for use with AA young adults that makes use of hip-hop music, a form of music popularized by young AAs. The author contend that an increased understanding of the relationships that many AA young adults have with hip-hop music may be used by disease prevention personnel to educate these populations about protective factors for HIV. Making use of hip-hop music is one strategy for integrating counseling in prevention and health maintenance. The overall implications of using hip-hop music in health promotion are unlimited. First, this method makes use of cultural relevant materials to address the educational and health needs of the target community. Second, it is grounded in an approach that serves to stimulate cooperative learning based on peer developed content. Moreover, the use of this medium can be applied to other health promotion activities such as violence/harm reduction and substance abuse prevention, upon reviews of songs for appropriate content. The authors contend that such an approach holds heuristic value in dealing with HIV/AIDS prevention among AA young adults. Additional testing of the intervention is warranted in the refinement of this innovative intervention.

  15. Comparing Cattell-Horn-Carroll factor models: differences between bifactor and higher order factor models in predicting language achievement. (United States)

    Beaujean, A Alexander; Parkin, Jason; Parker, Sonia


    Previous research using the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities has shown a relationship between cognitive ability and academic achievement. Most of this research, however, has been done using the Woodcock-Johnson family of instruments with a higher order factor model. For CHC theory to grow, research should be done with other assessment instruments and tested with other factor models. This study examined the relationship between different factor models of CHC theory and the factors' relationships with language-based academic achievement (i.e., reading and writing). Using the co-norming sample for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--4th Edition and the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test--2nd Edition, we found that bifactor and higher order models of the subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-4th Edition produced a different set of Stratum II factors, which, in turn, have very different relationships with the language achievement variables of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test--2nd Edition. We conclude that the factor model used to represent CHC theory makes little difference when general intelligence is of major interest, but it makes a large difference when the Stratum II factors are of primary concern, especially when they are used to predict other variables. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Performance evaluation of GIM-TEC assimilation of the IRI-Plas model at two equatorial stations in the American sector (United States)

    Adebiyi, S. J.; Adebesin, B. O.; Ikubanni, S. O.; Joshua, B. W.


    Empirical models of the ionosphere, such as the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model, play a vital role in evaluating the environmental effect on the operation of space-based communication and navigation technologies. The IRI extended to Plasmasphere (IRI-Plas) model can be adjusted with external data to update its electron density profile while still maintaining the overall integrity of the model representations. In this paper, the performance of the total electron content (TEC) assimilation option of the IRI-Plas at two equatorial stations, Jicamarca, Peru (geographic: 12°S, 77°W, dip angle 0.8°) and Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil (Geographic: 22.7°S, 45°W, dip angle -26°), is examined during quiet and disturbed conditions. TEC, F2 layer critical frequency (foF2), and peak height (hmF2) predicted when the model is operated without external input were used as a baseline in our model evaluation. Results indicate that TEC predicted by the assimilation option generally produced smaller estimation errors compared to the "no extra input" option during quiet and disturbed conditions. Generally, the error is smaller at the equatorial trough than near the crest for both quiet and disturbed days. With assimilation option, there is a substantial improvement of storm time estimations when compared with quiet time predictions. The improvement is, however, independent on storm's severity. Furthermore, the modeled foF2 and hmF2 are generally poor with TEC assimilation, particularly the hmF2 prediction, at the two locations during both quiet and disturbed conditions. Consequently, IRI-Plas model assimilated with TEC value only may not be sufficient where more realistic instantaneous values of peak parameters are required.

  17. Fate and transport modeling with American Petroleum Institute decision support system applied in a site assessment for residual crude oil in unconsolidated sediments: Case study in Kern County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinchuch, L.A.; Waldron, J.M.


    Historical crude oil leaks from a pipeline affected unconsolidated alluvial sediments near a sensitive groundwater recharge area in Kern County, California. The residual crude oil is confined to the vadose zone and occurs from ∼3 m below ground surface (BGS) to a maximum depth of 24 m BGS. The water table beneath the affected sediments is currently 46 m BGS. The site is irrigated regularly for agriculture. To date, the residual crude oil has not impacted groundwater quality. Future groundwater recharge plans may raise the water table to 15 m BGS in the area affected by the crude oil. Fate and transport modeling using site-specific data shows that the existing hydrocarbons in the subsurface do not pose a significant risk to groundwater quality. The computer models selected for this project are incorporated as modules in the American Petroleum Institute's Exposure and Risk Assessment Decision Support System. Transport of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) is modeled using Seasonal Soil (SESOIL) for the unsaturated zone coupled with AT123D for the saturated zone. The SESOIL model is calibrated using actual soil moisture measurements and groundwater recharge estimates based on applied irrigation. Peak BTEX concentrations in groundwater predicted for the site are well below maximum contaminant levels. A sensitivity analysis confirms that aerobic biodegradation significantly reduces BTEX compounds. Due to the high availability of dissolved oxygen in groundwater at this site, natural attenuation may be the most favorable mechanism to remediate BTEX in the subsurface

  18. The Large-scale Coronal Structure of the 2017 August 21 Great American Eclipse: An Assessment of Solar Surface Flux Transport Model Enabled Predictions and Observations (United States)

    Nandy, Dibyendu; Bhowmik, Prantika; Yeates, Anthony R.; Panda, Suman; Tarafder, Rajashik; Dash, Soumyaranjan


    On 2017 August 21, a total solar eclipse swept across the contiguous United States, providing excellent opportunities for diagnostics of the Sun’s corona. The Sun’s coronal structure is notoriously difficult to observe except during solar eclipses; thus, theoretical models must be relied upon for inferring the underlying magnetic structure of the Sun’s outer atmosphere. These models are necessary for understanding the role of magnetic fields in the heating of the corona to a million degrees and the generation of severe space weather. Here we present a methodology for predicting the structure of the coronal field based on model forward runs of a solar surface flux transport model, whose predicted surface field is utilized to extrapolate future coronal magnetic field structures. This prescription was applied to the 2017 August 21 solar eclipse. A post-eclipse analysis shows good agreement between model simulated and observed coronal structures and their locations on the limb. We demonstrate that slow changes in the Sun’s surface magnetic field distribution driven by long-term flux emergence and its evolution governs large-scale coronal structures with a (plausibly cycle-phase dependent) dynamical memory timescale on the order of a few solar rotations, opening up the possibility for large-scale, global corona predictions at least a month in advance.

  19. Continental-scale water and energy flux analysis and validation for the North American Land Data Assimilation System project phase 2 (NLDAS-2): 1. Intercomparison and application of model products (United States)

    Xia, Youlong; Mitchell, Kenneth; Ek, Michael; Sheffield, Justin; Cosgrove, Brian; Wood, Eric; Luo, Lifeng; Alonge, Charles; Wei, Helin; Meng, Jesse; Livneh, Ben; Lettenmaier, Dennis; Koren, Victor; Duan, Qingyun; Mo, Kingtse; Fan, Yun; Mocko, David


    Results are presented from the second phase of the multiinstitution North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2) research partnership. In NLDAS, the Noah, Variable Infiltration Capacity, Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting, and Mosaic land surface models (LSMs) are executed over the conterminous U.S. (CONUS) in realtime and retrospective modes. These runs support the drought analysis, monitoring and forecasting activities of the National Integrated Drought Information System, as well as efforts to monitor large-scale floods. NLDAS-2 builds upon the framework of the first phase of NLDAS (NLDAS-1) by increasing the accuracy and consistency of the surface forcing data, upgrading the land surface model code and parameters, and extending the study from a 3-year (1997-1999) to a 30-year (1979-2008) time window. As the first of two parts, this paper details the configuration of NLDAS-2, describes the upgrades to the forcing, parameters, and code of the four LSMs, and explores overall model-to-model comparisons of land surface water and energy flux and state variables over the CONUS. Focusing on model output rather than on observations, this study seeks to highlight the similarities and differences between models, and to assess changes in output from that seen in NLDAS-1. The second part of the two-part article focuses on the validation of model-simulated streamflow and evaporation against observations. The results depict a higher level of agreement among the four models over much of the CONUS than was found in the first phase of NLDAS. This is due, in part, to recent improvements in the parameters, code, and forcing of the NLDAS-2 LSMs that were initiated following NLDAS-1. However, large inter-model differences still exist in the northeast, Lake Superior, and western mountainous regions of the CONUS, which are associated with cold season processes. In addition, variations in the representation of sub-surface hydrology in the four LSMs lead to large differences

  20. A modeling framework for integrated harvest and habitat management of North American waterfowl: Case-study of northern pintail metapopulation dynamics (United States)

    Mattsson, Brady J.; Runge, M.C.; Devries, J.H.; Boomer, G.S.; Eadie, J.M.; Haukos, D.A.; Fleskes, J.P.; Koons, D.N.; Thogmartin, W.E.; Clark, R.G.


    We developed and evaluated the performance of a metapopulation model enabling managers to examine, for the first time, the consequences of alternative management strategies involving habitat conditions and hunting on both harvest opportunity and carrying capacity (i.e., equilibrium population size in the absence of harvest) for migratory waterfowl at a continental scale. Our focus is on the northern pintail (Anas acuta; hereafter, pintail), which serves as a useful model species to examine the potential for integrating waterfowl harvest and habitat management in North America. We developed submodel structure capturing important processes for pintail populations during breeding, fall migration, winter, and spring migration while encompassing spatial structure representing three core breeding areas and two core nonbreeding areas. A number of continental-scale predictions from our baseline parameterization (e.g., carrying capacity of 5.5 million, equilibrium population size of 2.9 million and harvest rate of 12% at maximum sustained yield [MSY]) were within 10% of those from the pintail harvest strategy under current use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. To begin investigating the interaction of harvest and habitat management, we examined equilibrium population conditions for pintail at the continental scale across a range of harvest rates while perturbing model parameters to represent: (1) a 10% increase in breeding habitat quality in the Prairie Pothole population (PR); and (2) a 10% increase in nonbreeding habitat quantity along in the Gulf Coast (GC). Based on our model and analysis, a greater increase in carrying capacity and sustainable harvest was seen when increasing a proxy for habitat quality in the Prairie Pothole population. This finding and underlying assumptions must be critically evaluated, however, before specific management recommendations can be made. To make such recommendations, we require (1) extended, refined submodels with additional

  1. Americanization of Non-American Storiesin Disney Films


    Setiawati, Beta


    The study is intended to know the Disney’s animation films characteristics which are adapted from non American stories that contain Americanization in order to be American popular culture products. This qualitative and library research is carried out within the field of American Studies. Disney’s animated films which are regarded as artifacts in order to identify American society and culture is used as her primary data. She then compares those Disney films with the original stories to discove...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bota-Avram Cristina


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to focus on one of the most important aspect of the internal control in banking system #8211; information and communication - trying to identify on which of the two well-known international models of control (COSO or CoCo i

  3. Music plus Music Integration: A Model for Music Education Policy Reform That Reflects the Evolution and Success of Arts Integration Practices in 21st Century American Public Schools (United States)

    Scripp, Lawrence; Gilbert, Josh


    This article explores the special case of integrative teaching and learning in music as a model for 21st century music education policy reform based on the principles that have evolved out of arts integration research and practices over the past century and informed by the recent rising tide of evidence of music's impact on brain capacity and…

  4. Expanded Simulation Models Version 3.0 for Growth of the Submerged Aquatic Plants American Wildcelery, Sago Pondweed, Hydrilla, and Eurasian Watermilfoil (United States)


    parameters (shell terms) -Model parameters etc. -Calculations -Calls to subroutines Figure 1. Relational diagram illustrating the organization of an aquatic...0 0.291 0 105 1 270 Tuber sprouting and initial elongation leaf expansion 0.292 0.875 106 180 271 1215 Leaf expansion floral initiation...and anthesis 0.876 1.000 181 191 1216 1415 Floral initiation and anthesis induction of tuber formation, tuber formation and senescence 1.001

  5. Expanding the Secondary Literature Curriculum: Annotated Bibliographies of American Indian, Asian American, and Hispanic American Literature. (United States)

    Duff, Ogle B.; Tongchinsub, Helen J.


    Aids teachers looking for literature selections of established literary worth which reflect the diversity of American culture. Discusses briefly the history and development of American Indian, Asian American, and Hispanic American literature. Offers annotated bibliographies of selections appropriate for use in secondary schools. (SR)

  6. Depression among older Mexican American caregivers. (United States)

    Hernandez, Ann Marie; Bigatti, Silvia M


    The authors compared depression levels between older Mexican American caregivers and noncaregivers while controlling for confounds identified but not controlled in past research. Mexican American caregivers and noncaregivers (N = 114) ages 65 and older were matched on age, gender, socioeconomic status, self-reported health, and acculturation. Caregivers reported higher scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) and were more likely to score in the depressed range than noncaregivers. In a regression model with all participants, group classification (caregiver vs. noncaregiver) and health significantly predicted CES-D scores. A model with only caregivers that included caregiver burden, self-rated health, and gender significantly predicted CES-D scores, with only caregiver burden entering the regression equation. These results suggest that older Mexican American caregivers are more depressed than noncaregivers, as has been found in younger populations. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Pathway to a paradigm: the linear nonthreshold dose-response model in historical context. The American Academy of Health Physics 1995 Radiology Centennial Hartman Oration. (United States)

    Kathren, R L


    This paper traces the evolution of the linear nonthreshold dose-response model and its acceptance as a paradigm in radiation protection practice and risk analysis. Deterministic effects such as skin burns and even deep tissue trauma were associated with excessive exposure to x rays shortly after their discovery, and carcinogenicity was observed as early as 1902. Still, it was not until 1925 that the first protective limits were suggested. For three decades these limits were based on the concept of a tolerance dose which, if not exceeded, would result in no demonstrable harm to the individual and implicitly assumed a threshold dose below which radiation effects would be absent. After World War II, largely because of genetic concerns related to atmospheric weapons testing, radiation protection dose limits were expressed in terms of a risk based maximum permissible dose which clearly implied no threshold. The 1927 discovery by Muller of x-ray induced genetic mutations in fruit flies, linear with dose and with no apparent threshold, was an important underpinning of the standards. The linear nonthreshold dose-response model was originally used to provide an upper limit estimate of the risk, with zero being the lower limit, of low level irradiation since the dose-response curve could not be determined at low dose levels. Evidence to the contrary such as hormesis and the classic studies of the radium dial painters notwithstanding, the linear nonthreshold model gained greater acceptance and in the centennial year of the discovery of x rays stands as a paradigm although serious questions are beginning to be raised regarding its general applicability. The work includes a brief digression describing the work of x-ray protection pioneer William Rollins and concludes with a recommendation for application of a de minimis dose level in radiation protection.

  8. American Dream / Anu Raat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raat, Anu


    Uuritakse sõnapaari "American dream" tähendust, kuidas ja millal see unelmalugu tekkis, miks see on ameerikalik nähtus, samuti 1950-ndate moeloomingut, eriti Christian Diori oma Euroopas ja Ameerikas, selle põhjusi ja mõjusid seoses massilise tarbimisega

  9. Americans with Disabilities Act. (United States)

    Kaesberg, Mary Ann; Murray, Kenneth T.


    Presents a 35-item checklist of practical activities for school district compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The checklist is based on ADA statutes, other civil rights legislation and litigation, as well as pertinent regulations and the legislative history of the act contained in the Congressional Record. (MLF)

  10. American Academy of Audiology (United States)

    ... Public Relations Toolkit and Hotline to Get Your Practice and Profession into the Media Audiology News 16 Nov A Movement Was Born: ... Academy of Audiology Publications and Resources Audiology Today Journal of the American Academy of Audiology ... About Us Academy Information ...

  11. Teaching Asian American Students. (United States)

    Chiang, Linda H.


    Uses data from interviews with parents of Asian American students, observations, and literature reviews to identify cultural and language issues that must be considered in teaching this population. The paper discusses the history of Asian immigrants, attitudes toward education among Asians, the relationship between teaching styles and Asian…

  12. Grant Wood: "American Gothic." (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.


    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  13. American Indian Community Colleges. (United States)

    One Feather, Gerald

    With the emergence of reservation based community colleges (th Navajo Community College and the Dakota Community Colleges), the American Indian people, as decision makers in these institutions, are providing Indians with the technical skills and cultural knowledge necessary for self-determination. Confronted with limited numbers of accredited…

  14. Civic Innovation & American Democracy. (United States)

    Sirianni, Carmen; Friedland, Lewis


    Argues that American democracy is at a critical stage of development, with declining trust in government, citizens feeling displaced by a professional political class, derailed public interest, and policy that limits citizen deliberation and responsibility. Some instances of civic innovation, community organization, civic journalism, and efforts…

  15. Arab American Voices. (United States)

    Hall, Loretta

    Through speeches, newspaper accounts, poems, memoirs, interviews, and other materials by and about Arab Americans, this collection explores issues central to what it means to be of Arab descent in the United States today. Each of the entries is accompanied by an introduction, biographical and historical information, a glossary for the selection,…

  16. The Native American Speaks. (United States)

    Bromberg, Walter; And Others

    This publication is the product of several workshops and is aimed at multi-ethnic integration of teacher attitudes, curriculum content, and teaching techniques. The 7 articles and 3 bibliographies, contributed by Native American consultants, emphasize recognition and alteration of bias in teacher attitudes, curriculum content, and teaching…

  17. Native American Architecture. (United States)

    Nabokov, Peter; Easton, Robert

    This book presents building traditions of the major Indian tribes in nine regions of the North American continent, from the huge, plankhouse villages of the Northwest Coast, to the moundbuilder towns and temples of the Southeast, to the Navajo hogans and adobe pueblos of the Southwest. Indian buildings are a central element of Indian culture, the…

  18. Emerging New Crop Pests: Ecological Modelling and Analysis of the South American Potato Psyllid Russelliana solanicola (Hemiptera: Psylloidea and Its Wild Relatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindy M Syfert

    Full Text Available Food security is threatened by newly emerging pests with increased invasive potential accelerated through globalization. The Neotropical jumping plant louse Russelliana solanicola Tuthill is currently a localized potato pest and probable vector of plant pathogens. It is an unusually polyphagous species and is widely distributed in and along the Andes. To date, introductions have been detected in eastern Argentina, southern Brazil and Uruguay. Species distribution models (SDMs and trait comparisons based on contemporary and historical collections are used to estimate the potential spread of R. solanicola worldwide. We also extend our analyses to all described species in the genus Russelliana in order to assess the value of looking beyond pest species to predict pest spread. We investigate the extent to which data on geographical range and environmental niche can be effectively extracted from museum collections for comparative analyses of pest and non-pest species in Russelliana. Our results indicate that R. solanicola has potential for invasion in many parts of the world with suitable environmental conditions that currently have or are anticipated to increase potato cultivation. Large geographical ranges are characteristic of a morphological subgeneric taxon group that includes R. solanicola; this same group also has a larger environmental breadth than other groups within the genus. Ecological modelling using museum collections provides a useful tool for identifying emerging pests and developing integrated pest management programs.

  19. Analyzing Economic Attainment Patterns of Foreign Born Latin American Male Immigrants to The United States: an Example Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Gotcher


    Full Text Available The paper presents the research which examines and endeavors to account for variation in the economic attainments of immigrants to the United States from Latin America, through the use of Hierarchical Linear Modeling. When analyzing this variation, researchers typically choose between two competing explanations. Human capital theory contends that variation in economic attainment is a product of different characteristics of individuals. Social capital theory contends that variation in economic attainment is a product of differences in characteristics of the societies from which the workers come. The author's central thesis is that we need not choose between human and social capital theories, that we can rely on both theoretical approaches, that it is an empirical and not a theoretical question how much variation can be explained by one set of factors versus the other. The real problem then is to build an appropriate methodology that allows us to partition the variation in economic attainments, identifying how much is explained by individual and how much by group characteristics. Using a multi-level modeling technique, this research presents such a methodology.

  20. Analysis of the psychometric properties of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Score (AOFAS) in rheumatoid arthritis patients: application of the Rasch model. (United States)

    Conceição, Cristiano Sena da; Neto, Mansueto Gomes; Neto, Anolino Costa; Mendes, Selena M D; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes; Sá, Kátia Nunes


    To tested the reliability and validity of Aofas in a sample of rheumatoid arthritis patients. The scale was applicable to rheumatoid arthritis patients, twice by the interviewer 1 and once by the interviewer 2. The Aofas was subjected to test-retest reliability analysis (with 20 Rheumatoid arthritis subjects). The psychometric properties were investigated using Rasch analysis on 33 Rheumatoid arthritis patients. Intra-Class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) were (0.90model. Further Rasch modeling suggested revising the original item 8. The results suggest that the Brazilian versions of Aofas exhibit adequate reliability, construct validity, response stability. These findings indicate that Aofas Ankle-Hindfoot scale presents a significant potential for clinical applicability in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis. Other studies in populations with other characteristics are now underway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. A Call-Put Duality for Perpetual American Options


    Alfonsi, Aurélien; Jourdain, Benjamin


    International audience; It is well known that in models with time-homogeneous local volatility functions and constant interest and dividend rates, the European Put prices are transformed into European Call prices by the simultaneous exchanges of the interest and dividend rates and of the strike and spot price of the underlying. This paper investigates such a Call Put duality for perpetual American options. It turns out that the perpetual American Put price is equal to the perpetual American C...

  2. Asian American Career Development: A Qualitative Analysis (United States)

    Fouad, Nadya A.; Kantamneni, Neeta; Smothers, Melissa K.; Chen, Yung-Lung; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Terry, Sarah


    This study used a modified version of consensual qualitative research design to examine how contextual, cultural, and personal variables influence the career choices of a diverse group of 12 Asian Americans. Seven domains of influences on career choices emerged including family, culture, external factors, career goals, role models, work values,…

  3. Future considerations for clinical dermatology in the setting of 21st century American policy reform: The Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act and Alternative Payment Models in dermatology. (United States)

    Barbieri, John S; Miller, Jeffrey J; Nguyen, Harrison P; Forman, Howard P; Bolognia, Jean L; VanBeek, Marta J


    With the introduction of the Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act, clinicians who are not eligible for an exemption must choose to participate in 1 of 2 new reimbursement models: the Merit-based Incentive Payment System or Alternative Payment Models (APMs). Although most dermatologists are expected to default into the Merit-based Incentive Payment System, some may have an interest in exploring APMs, which have associated financial incentives. However, for dermatologists interested in the APM pathway, there are currently no options other than joining a qualifying Accountable Care Organization, which make up only a small subset of Accountable Care Organizations overall. As a result, additional APMs relevant to dermatologists are needed to allow those interested in the APMs to explore this pathway. Fortunately, the Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act establishes a process for new APMs to be approved and the creation of bundled payments for skin diseases may represent an opportunity to increase the number of APMs available to dermatologists. In this article, we will provide a detailed review of APMs under the Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act and discuss the development and introduction of APMs as they pertain to dermatology. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Scoring the DSM-IV personality disorders using the Five-Factor Model: development and validation of normative scores for North American, French, and Dutch-Flemish samples. (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; De Fruyt, Filip; Reynolds, Sarah K; Pham-Scottez, Alexandra; Baker, Spencer R; Bagby, R Michael


    Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality disorder (PD) counts have demonstrated significant convergent and discriminant validity with DSM-IV PD symptoms. However, these FFM PD counts are of limited clinical use without normative data because it is difficult to determine what a specific score means with regard to the relative level of elevation. The current study presents data from three large normative samples that can be used as norms for the FFM PD counts in the respective countries: United States (N = 1,000), France (N = 801), and Belgium-Netherlands (N = 549). The present study also examines the performance, with regard to diagnostic efficiency, of statistically-defined cut-offs at 1.5 standard deviations above the mean (T > or = 65) versus previously identified cut-offs using receiver-operator characteristics (ROC) analyses. These cut-offs are tested in three clinical samples-one from each of the aforementioned countries. In general, the T > or = 65 cut-offs performed similarly to those identified using ROC analyses and manifested properties relevant to a screening instrument. These normative data allow FFM data to be used in a flexible and comprehensive manner, which may include scoring this type of personality data in order to screen for DSM-IV PD constructs.

  5. A preliminary study comparing attitudes toward hospice referral between African American and white American primary care physicians. (United States)

    Ache, Kevin A; Shannon, Robert P; Heckman, Michael G; Diehl, Nancy N; Willis, Floyd B


    End-of-life (EOL) decision making is an integral component of high-quality health care. Factors influencing individual primary care physicians (PCPs) can affect their perspectives and referral preferences for EOL care. Numerous barriers have been cited, including patient and family readiness, physicians' comfort with discussing death, and the pursuit of a cure. This study explores another barrier by examining physician ethnicity and comparing the attitudes toward hospice referral between African American and white American primary care providers (PCPs). Training PCPs to efficiently transition from a curative model of care to a palliative model of care has the potential to increase the level of appropriate EOL care, increase hospice referral, and enhance patient and provider satisfaction; it is also fiscally prudent. This preliminary study aims to compare attitudes toward hospice referral and physicians' personal experiences with hospice between African American and white American PCPs. The survey tool was developed by PCPs at the Mayo Clinic Florida after a full literature review and consultation with hospice physicians, oncology specialists, and primary care colleagues from the residency programs at Mayo Minnesota and Mayo Arizona, with input from the Mayo Survey Office, and distributed to all physicians and residents in the departments of Family Medicine at via Mayo's intranet; Mayo's Midwest Regional Practices (245 physicians) received the survey via standard mail. The survey consisted of 17 questions regarding attitudes toward hospice referral and the one question regarding physicians' personal experience with hospice. The final sample size consisted of 167 white American physicians and 46 African American physicians. Responses were compared using a Wilcoxon rank sum test. P values ≤ 0.05 were considered statistically significant. All statistical analyses were performed using the SAS software package (SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina). The

  6. 78 FR 58123 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations (United States)


    ... entities in detail as part of the 1981 cost-benefit analysis. This analysis was revised annually from 1990... Survey (expires 4/30/ 2015). 1018-0019--North American Woodcock Singing Ground Survey (expire 4/30/2015...

  7. The American Armies: 1993 (United States)


    Liberation Front) in El Salvador has evaporated, paving the way for resolution of El Salvador’s civil conflict. A minor "reverse domino" effect is...being felt throughout Latin America. As the conflict in El Salvador subsided, Honduran fears about the size of El Salvadoran forces have eased, resulting...30 American nations, especially since US. participation in the overthrow of Allende in 1973.21 Bolivia’s aspirations for direct access to the Pacific

  8. North American Security Cooperation: Prospects for Growth (United States)


    institutionalist approach best explains NATO’s behavior during a declining threat involvement (471). Additionally, he confirms the effects of an...and international institutionalist models rather than the rational-actor or realist models provide more insight into why change was slow or non...intellectual tradition. How do you get at the elites? Attitude, leftist, ideological . . . they think they are the queen of Latin American . . . the

  9. Social Skills Efficacy and Proactivity among Native American Adolescents (United States)

    Turner, Sherri L.; Conkel, Julia L.; Reich, Allison N.; Trotter, Michelle J.; Siewart, Jason J.


    This article discusses Native American urban adolescents' construal of social skills, and relationships between these skills and proactivity behaviors as identified in the Integrative Contextual Model of Career Development (Lapan, 2004). Recommendations that build upon the social skills strengths of Native American young people are included.…

  10. Promoting Reading among Mexican American Children. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Murray, Yvonne I.; Velazquez, Jose

    Good books can help children develop pride in their ethnic identity, knowledge about cultural history and positive role models, and improved self-esteem. However, Mexican American students often do not experience literature in this way. This digest briefly reviews Mexican American children's literature, recommends classroom strategies, provides…

  11. Mental Health and African Americans (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  12. American Head and Neck Society (United States)

    American Head & Neck Society Mission Statement: Advance Education, Research, and Quality of Care for the head and neck oncology patient. American Head & Neck Society | AHNS The mission of the AHNS is to ...

  13. Native Americans' Interest in Horticulture. (United States)

    Meyer, Mary Hockenberry


    Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)

  14. Nutrients from dairy foods are difficult to replace in diets of Americans: food pattern modeling and an analyses of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006. (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Auestad, Nancy; Quann, Erin E


    Because dairy products provide shortfall nutrients (eg, calcium, potassium, and vitamin D) and other important nutrients, this study hypothesized that it would be difficult for Americans to meet nutritional requirements for these nutrients in the absence of dairy product consumption or when recommended nondairy calcium sources are consumed. To test this hypothesis, MyPyramid dietary pattern modeling exercises and an analyses of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 were conducted in those aged at least 2 years (n = 16 822). Impact of adding or removing 1 serving of dairy, removing all dairy, and replacing dairy with nondairy calcium sources was evaluated. Dietary pattern modeling indicated that at least 3 servings of dairy foods are needed to help individuals meet recommendations for nutrients, such as calcium and magnesium, and 4 servings may be needed to help some groups meet potassium recommendations. A calcium-equivalent serving of dairy requires 1.1 servings of fortified soy beverage, 0.6 serving of fortified orange juice, 1.2 servings of bony fish, or 2.2 servings of leafy greens. The replacement of dairy with calcium-equivalent foods alters the overall nutritional profile of the diet and affects nutrients including protein, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, riboflavin, vitamins A, D and B(12). Similar modeling exercises using consumption data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey also demonstrated that nondairy calcium replacement foods are not a nutritionally equivalent substitute for dairy products. In conclusion, although it is possible to meet calcium intake recommendations without consuming dairy foods, calcium replacement foods are not a nutritionally equivalent substitute for dairy foods and consumption of a calcium-equivalent amount of some nondairy foods is unrealistic. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.


    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  16. Native American Ceremonial Athletic Games. (United States)

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    This is a report on the relationship of North American Indian athletic games to ceremonies. Data for this investigation were researched from 48 "Annual Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution" published from 1881 to 1933, and the 84 volumes of the "American Anthropologist" published from 1888 to 1974. Observational…

  17. American Food and World Hunger. (United States)

    Czarra, Fred R.; Long, Cathryn J., Eds.


    Describes activities to help students in grades 7-9 learn about American food production and distribution. Students learn about the American diet over the centuries; the production of American Corn; the meaning of the term hunger; and the need for protein. (CS)

  18. African-American wildland memories (United States)

    Cassandra Y. Johnson; J. Michael Bowker


    Collective memory can be used conceptually to examine African-American perceptions of wildlands and black interaction with such places. The middle--American view of wildlands frames these terrains as refuges--pure and simple, sanctified places distinct from the profanity of human modification. However, wild, primitive areas do not exist in the minds of all Americans as...

  19. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Baharian


    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.

  20. National trends in school victimization among Asian American adolescents. (United States)

    Cooc, North; Gee, Kevin A


    The "model minority" perception of Asian American students often ignores the academic and social challenges that many face in schools. One area that has received less attention is the school victimization experiences of Asian American adolescents. While some qualitative researchers have explored factors contributing to school victimization in recent years, missing in the literature is the scope of these incidents among Asian Americans. This paper contributes to this literature by (1) examining national trends in the victimization of Asian American adolescents in schools over the last decade and (2) investigating how victimization varies according to their gender, socioeconomic status, and achievement levels. The results show that although Asian American adolescents are consistently less likely to be bullied relative to other students, they are more likely to report experiences of racial discrimination. Victimization incidents for Asian Americans also differ by gender and academic achievement levels. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cytomegalovirus Infections among African-Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Best Al M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since African-Americans have twice the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV infections as age-matched Caucasians we sought to determine the ages and possible sources of infection of African-American children. Methods Subjects were 157 African-American healthy children and adolescents and their 113 household adults in Richmond VA. Families completed a questionnaire, provided saliva for antibody testing, and adolescents were interviewed regarding sexual activity. Results Regardless of age CMV seropositivity was not associated with gender, breast feeding, health insurance, sexual activity, or household income, education, or size. In the final regression model, prior CMV infection in adults was over two-fold higher than in children (chi-square = 18.8, p Conclusion We observed that African-American children had CMV seroprevalence rates by age 20 years at less than one-half of that of their adult mothers and caregivers. Sibling-to-sibling transmission was a likely source of CMV infections for the children. The next generation of African-American women may be highly susceptible to a primary CMV infection during pregnancy and may benefit from a CMV vaccine.

  2. Celebrating National American Indian Heritage Month

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mann, Diane


    .... Installation planning for American Indian Heritage Month should incorporate cultural traditions and history specific to Native Americans of the area, patriotism of Native Americans who have served...

  3. History of Asian American psychology. (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T L; Okazaki, Sumie


    An overview of the history of Asian American psychology is provided by reviewing the context for the development of the field as well as the early founding of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). The presidents of AAPA as well as key events and conferences are noted. The involvement of AAPA leaders in national mental health policies and activities are reviewed. The substantive areas of Asian American psychology and the education and training of Asian American psychologists are also discussed. The article ends with some comments about the future of Asian American psychology. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Anglo American plc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Anglo American plc with its subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates, is a world leader in gold, platinum group metals and diamonds, is one of the world's largest private-sector coal producers, and has interests in base and ferrous metals, industrial minerals and forest products. The first Safety, Health and Environment (SHE) report, covers these aspects of the company's business and reports case studies at operations worldwide. These include achievements by Anglo Coal in its South African operations and Carbones del Cerrejon in Colombia.

  5. The american dental dream. (United States)

    Hodges, Nathan


    The American Dental Dream-the cultural desire for straight, white teeth-is difficult, if not impossible, for poor and working-class people to achieve. Using ethnographic fiction, autoethnography, poetry, and qualitative interviewing, I brush away the taken-for-granted assumptions about teeth. I explore the personal, relational, and structural consequences of this cultural desire, and show how social class writes itself on our bodies. I write these culture-centered teeth tales to show how one might cope with their teeth.

  6. North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM) [12 km (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM) is one of the major regional weather forecast models run by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction...

  7. Differences in knowledge of breast cancer screening among African American, Arab American, and Latina women. (United States)

    Williams, Karen Patricia; Mabiso, Athur; Todem, David; Hammad, Adnan; Hill-Ashford, Yolanda; Hamade, Hiam; Palamisono, Gloria; Robinson-Lockett, Murlisa; Zambrana, Ruth E


    We examined differences in knowledge and socioeconomic factors associated with 3 types of breast cancer screening (breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammogram) among African American, Arab, and Latina women. Community health workers used a community-based intervention to recruit 341 women (112 Arab, 113 Latina, and 116 African American) in southeastern Michigan to participate in a breast cancer prevention intervention from August through October 2006. Before and after the intervention, women responded to a previously validated 5-item multiple-choice test on breast cancer screening (possible score range: 0 to 5) in their language of preference (English, Spanish, or Arabic). We used generalized estimating equations to analyze data and to account for family-level and individual correlations. Although African American women knew more about breast cancer screening at the baseline (pretest median scores were 4 for African American, 3 for Arab and 3 for Latina women), all groups significantly increased their knowledge after participating in the breast cancer prevention intervention (posttest median scores were 5 for African American and 4 for Arab and Latina women). Generalized estimating equations models show that Arab and Latina women made the most significant gains in posttest scores (P American, Arab, and Latina women to promote adherence to breast cancer screening guidelines.

  8. Training African-American residents in the 20th century. (United States)

    Green-McKenzie, Judith


    needed not only to serve minority populations but also to serve as mentors and role models for prospective and current students. The first African-American resident to graduate from the Bellevue Residency Program did indeed treat the underserved, as Dr. Vincent founded the Vincent Sanatorium, dedicated to treating African-American patients, and training African-American nurses and doctors. Over the course of the 20th century, Bellevue Hospital has trained increasing numbers of African-American physicians. It is hoped that, like their predecessor, Dr. Vincent, they will provide care to underserved communities and to the community as a whole, as well as serve as role models for generations to come.

  9. Anger Suppression, Interdependent Self-Construal, and Depression among Asian American and European American College Students (United States)

    Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.; Park, Irene J. K.


    The present study tested a theoretical model of emotion regulation (Yap, Sheeber, & Allen, 2007) in a sample of Asian American and European American college students (N = 365). Specifically, the mediating role of anger suppression in the effect of temperament and family processes on depressive symptoms was tested across race and levels of interdependent self-construal (a culturally based self orientation emphasizing connectedness with others). Next, the moderation of the suppression—depression relation was tested by race and interdependent self-construal. Results indicated that the hypothesized model fit well across Asian American and European American students as well as those with high vs. low levels of interdependent self-construal. Anger suppression was a significant mediator of the hypothesized indirect effects on depressive symptoms. Moreover, race and interdependent self-construal moderated the suppression—depression link, such that Asian American status and a stronger interdependent self-construal attenuated the relation between anger suppression and depressive symptoms. Understanding both universal and culture-specific aspects of emotion regulation in the development of depressive symptoms will be essential for sound theory, future research, and effective prevention and intervention efforts across diverse populations. PMID:21058815

  10. American Nations, Latin States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nelson Ahumada


    Full Text Available The nation, as artifact of modernity, assumes particularities in America such as the colonization and genocide of original peoples which still weighs as a never ending comeback. Nevertheless, capital, with its overwhelming force, destroyed peoples, cultures, traditions and landscapes. Latin America faces the challenge of uniting beyond the necessities of capital, and beyond two languages, spanish and portuguese. All of which has full validity at present with the blocks UNASUR and ALBA. Ethnocentricity is postulated as the exclusive condition of all possible humanity and, as programme, racism without races; Latin American miscegenation, as the potential for unity and the strength of emancipation as a project. Our intellectuals, who constructed a unique and superlative literature, are the lighthouses in the development of a nationalism without races. Anthropology in debate with psychoanalysis can become a compass in rethinking our America.

  11. Feel American, Watch American, Eat American? Remote Acculturation, TV, and Nutrition Among Adolescent-Mother Dyads in Jamaica. (United States)

    Ferguson, Gail M; Muzaffar, Henna; Iturbide, Maria I; Chu, Hui; Meeks Gardner, Julie


    Globalization prompts remote acculturation toward U.S. culture in Jamaica; this study used a bioecological systems approach to examine its proximal impact on nutrition through U.S. cable TV consumption, and maternal influences in the home. Overall, 330 randomly selected adolescent-mother dyads from schools in Kingston, Jamaica (M adolescent_age  = 13.8 years, SD adolescent_age  = 1.8) completed questionnaires reporting American identity and behavioral preferences, daily time spent watching U.S.-produced TV programs, and frequency of eating unhealthy foods. Actor-partner interdependence models revealed that girls' American identity/behavior directly predicted their unhealthy eating, whereas girls' mothers and boys' American identity/behavior indirectly predicted unhealthy eating as mediated by their U.S. TV hours. Additionally, mothers' American identity/behavior predicted daughters' unhealthy eating as mediated by mothers' U.S. TV hours. Remote acculturation theory may facilitate more targeted research and prevention/intervention. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. American foundations : roles and contributions


    Anheier, Helmut K.; Hammack, David


    Foundations play an essential part in the philanthropic activity that defines so much of American life. No other nation provides its foundations with so much autonomy and freedom of action as does the United States. Liberated both from the daily discipline of the market and from direct control by government, American foundations understandably attract great attention. As David Hammack and Helmut Anheier note in this volume, "Americans have criticized foundations for... their alleged conservat...

  13. The American University of Beirut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø


    in the Middle East and China and the new cases of transnational, private higher education flourishing in the Middle East and the wider Global South. AUB and these universities are central cases in International Relations for studying transnational actors and their transnational power. Universities have been...... with American society through its board of trustees. American civil society has been a major financial partner since the missionary days to modern day foundation philanthropy. American business has supported the university and recruited its graduates. American government has supported the university financially...

  14. American Academy of Pain Medicine (United States)

    ... 7. GET STARTED AAPM... the Voice of Pain Medicine Become part of the distinguished multimodal, interdisciplinary community of pain medicine clinicians. Join Today! Welcome The American Academy of ...

  15. Confronting the lure of American tourism: modern accommodation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert de la Bruheze, Adri A.; Lundin, Per; Kaiserfeld, Thomas


    American ideals and models feature prominently in the master narrative of post-war European consumer societies. Some claim that the American way of life ultimately gained hegemony in Europe. The authors of this book assert that a crucial dimension is missing from the claim of American hegemony -

  16. Preparedness of Chinese Students for American Culture and Communicating in English (United States)

    Rawlings, Melody; Sue, Edna


    What Chinese students learn about American culture and the English language in the classrooms of China does not adequately prepare them for the reality of American culture and communication in English. In this study, the constructs of American culture and models of English language taught in Chinese classrooms are compared with the reality of…

  17. Clark Kerr's Multiversity and Technology Transfer in the Modern American Research University (United States)

    Sigurdson, Kristjan T.


    In the early 1960s, Clark Kerr, the famed American educationalist and architect of the California public higher education system, took up the task of describing the emergent model of the contemporary American university. Multiversities, as he called them, were the large powerful American universities that packaged the provision of undergraduate,…

  18. Is There Really A North American Plate? (United States)

    Krill, A.


    Lithospheric plates are typically identified from earthquake epicenters and evidence such as GPS movements. But no evidence indicates a plate boundary between the North American and South American Plates. Some plate maps show them separated by a transform boundary, but it is only a fracture zone. Other maps show an "undefined plate boundary" or put no boundary between these two plates (check Google images). Early plate maps showed a single large American Plate, quite narrow east of the Caribbean Plate (Le Pichon 1968, Morgan 1968). The North and South American Plates became established by the leading textbook Earth (Press & Siever 1974). On their map, from a Scientific American article by John Dewey (1972), these new plates were separated by an "uncertain plate boundary." The reasons for postulating a North American Plate were probably more psychological than geological. Each of the other continents of the world had its own plate, and North American geologists naturally wanted theirs. Similarly, European geographers used to view Europe as its own continent. A single large plate should again be hypothesized. But the term American Plate would now be ambiguous ("Which plate, North or South?") Perhaps future textbook authors could call it the "Two-American Plate." Textbook authors ultimately decide such global-tectonic matters. I became aware of textbook authors' opinions and influence from my research into the history of Alfred Wegener's continental drift (see Fixists vs. Mobilists by Krill 2011). Leading textbook author Charles Schuchert realized that continental drift would abolish his cherished paleogeographic models of large east-west continents (Eria, Gondwana) and small oceans (Poseiden, Nereis). He and his junior coauthors conspired to keep drift evidence out of their textbooks, from the 1934-editions until the 1969-editions (Physical Geology by Longwell et al. 1969, Historical Geology by Dunbar & Waage 1969). Their textbooks ruled in America. Textbooks

  19. "American Gothic" Revised: Positive Perceptions from a Young American Farmer (United States)

    Joehl, Regan R.


    Grant Wood's "American Gothic," intended to represent the Depression Era, Midwestern farmer, has been regarded by many as the stereotypical representation of a true American farmer for decades. While this painting does represent farmers in the early part of the 20th century, the author feels obliged to say that it is time to drop this…

  20. Multiculturalism and "American" Religion: The Case of Hindu Indian Americans (United States)

    Kurien, Prema A.


    How non-Christian religious groups should be politically recognized within Western multicultural societies has proved to be a pressing contemporary issue. This article examines some ways in which American policies regarding religion and multiculturalism have shaped Hindu Indian American organizations, forms of public expression and activism.…

  1. Acculturation and emotion among Asian Americans. (United States)

    Liem, R; Lim, B A; Liem, J H


    This study examined the emotion experience of Asian Americans in relation to respondents' orientation to acculturation: Assimilation, Integration, Separation, or Marginalization (J. W. Berry, 1980). Ego- versus other-focused emotion experiences (H. R. Markus & S. Kitayama, 1991) and attention and valence, 2 stages in P. C. Ellsworth's (1994) model of emotion appraisal, were used to investigate the relation between acculturation and affect. Asian Americans most and least assimilated to the dominant Anglo American culture were expected to exhibit emotion responses correspondingly similar to and different from those of Anglo Americans. Those with a bi-cultural or integrationist trajectory should occupy a middle ground in terms of emotional experience. Compared with the appraisal process, ego- versus other-focused emotions, mediated in part by one's self-construal (e.g., independent or interdependent), were more strongly associated with acculturation orientation in the expected directions. The implications of recognizing the influence of acculturation on the emotional meaning of life encounters of newcomers are discussed in light of community psychology and clinical practice.

  2. Gender, Family, and Community Correlates of Mental Health in South Asian Americans


    Masood, Nausheen; Okazaki, Sumie; Takeuchi, David T.


    Nationally representative data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (Alegría et al., 2004) was used to examine both disorder prevalence rates and correlates of distress for the South Asian American subgroup (n = 164). South Asian Americans generally appeared to have lower or comparable rates of lifetime and 12-month mood and anxiety disorders when compared with the overall Asian American sample. A multiple-regression model fitted to predict recent psychological distress, with 12-...

  3. Shape-Up and Eat Right Families Pilot Program: Feasibility of a Weight Management Shared Medical Appointment Model in African-Americans With Obesity at an Urban Academic Medical Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitanjali Srivastava


    Full Text Available ObjectivesDisparities in obesity care exist among African-American children and adults. We sought to test the feasibility of a pilot program, a 1-year family-based intervention for African-American families with obesity [shape up and eat right (SUPER], adopting the shared medical appointment model (SMA at an urban safety net hospital.OutcomesPrimary outcomes: (1 family attendance rate and (2 program satisfaction. Secondary outcomes: change in body mass index (BMI, eating behaviors, and sedentary activity.MethodsAdult parents (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 ≥18 years and their child(ren (BMI ≥ 85th percentile ages 6–12 years from adult or pediatric weight management clinics were recruited. One group visit per month (n = 12 consisting of a nutrition and exercise component was led by a nurse practitioner and registered dietitian. Height and weight were recorded during each visit. Participants were queried on program satisfaction, food logs and exercise journals, Food Stamp Program’s Food Behavior, and the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program food checklists.ResultsThirteen participants from lower socioeconomic zip codes consented [n = 5 mothers mean age 33 years, BMI of 47.4 kg/m2 (31.4–73.6 kg/m2; n = 8 children; mean age 9 years, BMI of 97.6th percentile (94–99th percentile; 60% enrolled in state Medicaid]. Average individual attendance was 23.4% (14–43%; n = 13; monthly session attendance rates declined from 100 to 40% by program completion; two families completed the program in entirety. Program was rated (n = 5 adults very satisfactory (40% and extremely satisfactory (60%. Pre-intervention, families rated their eating habits as fair and reported consuming sugar-sweetened beverages or sports drinks, more so than watching more than 1 h of television (p < 0.002 or video game/computer activity (p < 0.006 and consuming carbonated sodas (p < 0.004. Post-intervention, reducing salt

  4. Arab American Women Negotiating Identities (United States)

    Mango, Oraib


    Compared to the literature available on other ethnic groups in the United States, there is very little information about school experiences of Arab Americans (Nieto, 2003). This study examines the ways that Arab American women reported positioning themselves when faced with difficult situations related to stereotypical images of Arabs and Arab…

  5. American Samoa: Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, J. Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Conrad, Misty [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This document outlines actions being taken to reduce American Samoa's petroleum consumption. It describes the four near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee during action-planning workshops conducted in May 2016, and describes the steps that will need to be taken to implement those strategies.

  6. Family Values in American Drama. (United States)

    Brown, Joanne

    When an educator was invited by a Chinese university to teach a seminar in American drama, she used "family drama" as the organizing theme of her course because she was (and is) convinced that from Eugene O'Neill on, American playwrights have been obsessed with family disintegration and the failure of family harmony. This paper is an…

  7. Native American Foods and Cookery. (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…

  8. Native American Women: Leadership Images (United States)

    Miller, Dorothy L.


    Personal rewards for American Indian women in bicultural leadership roles are largely lacking due to the dilemmas rooted in the ambiguity of the two social structures between which they move. Despite strains and pressures, many of these women are making their voices heard on native American issues. (Author/GC)

  9. History of American Higher Education (United States)

    McCarthy, Margaret Cain


    "History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from…

  10. American Foreign Policy: Regional Perspectives (United States)


    Generic CMYK printer profile Composite Default screen William B. Ruger Chair of National Security Economics Papers Number 4 American Foreign Policy...American comparative ad- vantage, including the liberalization of textile and agricultural policies in the United States, thereby leveling the playing

  11. LBA-ECO CD-36 South American Land Data Assimilation System Atmospheric Forcing Data (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides South American Land Data Assimilation System (SALDAS) forcing data including atmospheric fields necessary for land surface modeling...

  12. Colonial American Astronomy (United States)

    Yeomans, Donald K.


    While a foundation of German scientific methods enabled the rapid growth of North American Astronomy in the nineteenth century, during the seventeenth and most of the eighteenth centuries, the colonial men of science looked only to the English mother country for scientific patronage and guidance. An essay on fundamental astronomy appeared in one of the annual colonial almanacs as early as 1656, telescopic observations were made about 1660 and the first original colonial astronomical work was published by Thomas Danforth on the comet of 1664. By 1671 the Copernican ideas were so espoused at Harvard College that a physics class refused to read a Ptolemaic textbook when it was assigned to them by a senior instructor. At least in the Cambridge-Boston area, contemporary colonialist had access to the most recent scientific publications from the mother country. Observations of the great comet of 1680 by the Almanac maker, John Foster, reached Isaac Newton and were used and gratefully acknowledged in his Principia. During the seventeenth century the colonial interest in astronomy was more intense than it was for other sciences but colonists still occupied a position in the scientific backwater when compared with contemporary European scientists. Nevertheless, the science of astronomy was successfully transplanted from England to North America in the seventeenth century.

  13. American canine hepatozoonosis. (United States)

    Panciera, R J; Ewing, S A


    American canine hepatozoonosis is an emerging, tick-transmitted infection of domestic dogs caused by a recently recognized species of apicomplexan parasite, Hepatozoon americanum. The known definitive host of the protozoan is the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum. Presently recognized intermediate hosts include the domestic dog and the coyote, Canis latrans. Laboratory-reared larval or nymphal A. maculatum can be infected readily by feeding to repletion on a parasitemic intermediate host; sporogony requires 35-40 days. Transmission of infection to the dog has been produced experimentally by oral administration of mature oocysts or oocyst-containing ticks. Canine disease follows experimental exposure in 4-6 weeks and is characterized by systemic illness, extreme neutrophilic leukocytosis, muscle and bone pain, and proliferation of periosteal bone. Histopathological findings include multifocal skeletal and cardiac myositis associated with escape of mature merozoites from within the host-cell environment. There is also rapid onset of periosteal activation and osteogenesis and, less frequently, glomerulopathy and amyloidosis. Sequential stages of development of H. americanum in both the dog and the tick have been elucidated. Gamonts potentially infectious to ticks have been observed in peripheral blood leukocytes of the dog in as few as 28 days after exposure to oocysts. Young coyotes experimentally exposed to a canine strain of H. americanum acquired disease indistinguishable from that of similarly exposed young dogs.

  14. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  15. Discrimination against Muslim American adolescents. (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J


    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This descriptive qualitative study complements the few existing studies on Muslim American adolescents by obtaining in-depth description of the discrimination they encounter. The sample was 14 Muslim American adolescents who participated in one of two gender-specific focus groups about their discrimination experiences. Findings identified school settings as rife with discrimination toward Muslims, portrayed Muslim girls as at risk for harassment by strangers in public places, and illustrated how Muslim youth cope with discrimination. The study findings sensitize school nurses to the nature of the problem and provide direction for intervention.

  16. The American University of Beirut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø


    ) and modern day American–associated universities in the Middle East. Much policy attention, but little scholarly attention has been devoted to the question of soft power of especially higher education in the USA and much less American overseas higher education. This chapter will present analysis on the soft......This chapter will present the American University of Beirut as a central case for the study and discussion of the university as a transnational actor with possible transnational power in international politics. It will place the AUB among the cases of classical American missionary universities...... and politically. The chapter compares the transnational relations of the AUB, the other classical American overseas universities with missionary roots in the Middle East (AUC and LAU), the more than 20 American higher education institutions founded in China around 1900 (which did not survive the Korean War...

  17. Discrimination and psychological distress: does Whiteness matter for Arab Americans? (United States)

    Abdulrahim, Sawsan; James, Sherman A; Yamout, Rouham; Baker, Wayne


    The white racial category in the U.S. encompasses persons who have Arab ancestry. Arab Americans, however, have always occupied a precarious position in relationship to Whiteness. This study examined differences in reporting racial/ethnic discrimination among Arab Americans. It also investigated whether and how the association between discrimination and psychological distress varies by characteristics that capture an Arab American's proximity to/distance from Whiteness. We used data from the Detroit Arab American Study (2003; n = 1016), which includes measures of discrimination and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress. A series of logistic regression models were specified to test the discrimination-psychological distress association, stratified by five measures that capture Whiteness--subjective racial identification, religion, skin color, ethnic centrality, and residence in the ethnic enclave. Discrimination was more frequently reported by Muslim Arab Americans, those who racially identify as non-white, and who live in the ethnic enclave. Conversely, the association between discrimination and psychological distress was stronger for Christian Arab Americans, those who racially identify as white, who have dark skin color, and who live outside the ethnic enclave. Even though Arab Americans who occupy an identity location close to Whiteness are less subjected to discrimination, they are more negatively affected by it. The findings illuminate the complex pathways through which discrimination associates with psychological distress among 'white' immigrants. Further research on discrimination and health among Arab Americans can help unpack the white racial category and deconstruct Whiteness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Differences in Family-of-Origin Perceptions Among African American, Anglo-American, and Hispanic American College Students. (United States)

    Erdman, Phyllis; Kane, Connie M.


    Examines African American, Anglo-American, and Hispanic American college students' perceptions of their family of origin. African American students rated their families higher than the other two groups on autonomy and intimacy. There were no significant differences between males and females or between Anglo-American students and Hispanic American…

  19. Women of the American Otological Society. (United States)

    Alyono, Jennifer C; Jackler, Robert K; Chandrasekhar, Sujana S


    To describe the history of women in the American Otological Society (AOS). Biographies of the early women of the AOS were compiled through review of the AOS transactions, their published scholarship, newspaper articles, and memorials. Interviews were conducted with the only two women to have led the society and also with former colleagues and family members of pioneering AOS women members who are no longer with us. The evolving gender composition of the society over time was researched from AOS membership lists and compared with data on surgical workforce composition from multiple sources such as the Association of American Medical Colleges, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, American Medical Association, and the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. Although American women specialized in otology as far back as 1895, the first woman to be invited to join the AOS as Associate member in 1961 was Dorothy Wolff, PhD. The first female full member was otologic surgeon LaVonne Bergstrom, M.D., who was elected in 1977, 109 years after the foundation of the Society. As of 2017, only two women have served as AOS President. The first was Aina Julianna Gulya, M.D., who took office during the 133rd year in 2001. At the time of the sesquicentennial (2017), 7.5% of AOS members are women including three of eight who serve on the AOS Council. This compares with 15.8% of women among the otolaryngology workforce and a growing 10.9% representation among those who have earned subcertification in neurotology. Gender disparities remain in the AOS, but both participation and scholarly contributions by women in otology have grown substantially since the society's inception 150 years ago, and particularly in the 21st century. Increasing the presence of women in leadership provides role models and mentorship for the future.

  20. Gothic roots: Brockden Brown's Wieland, American identity, and American literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata R. Mautner Wasserman


    Charles Brockden Brown’s Wieland (1798, one of the first novels by an American author set in the newly formed United States, and dealing with American topics, is generally classed as a “Gothic” novel and read as exploring issues of national identity. The Gothic form, popular in English literature, where it gave sensationalistic treatment to matters of gender, class, national identity and religious affiliation, proved adaptable to conditions overseas. Wieland, however, is less sanguine about the success of the nation-building and independence-achieving enterprise than other, later, novels of American national identity.

  1. Immigration reform, American style. (United States)

    Papademetriou, D G


    This article reviews the background of the proposed Immigration and Reform Act (also known as the Simpson-Mazzoli bill), which seeks to overhaul US immigration law for the first time since 1952. This bill is consistent with President Reagan's hard line on border enforcement and mandates stiff penalties for those who transport illegal aliens for commercial advantage or private profit. It further offers Mexico preferential treatment in immigration (40,000 additional visas/year). It includes an amnesty program to offer legal status to qualified illegal residents. The bill directs the President to develop a secure national worker identification system and would create a large-scale temporary foreign agricultural program for perishable commodities. Agricultural workers' families would not be eligible to accompany them unless they also obtain temporary visas. Foreign temporary workers, employable only in cases where local domestic workers are not available, must be provided with wages and working conditions equal to those prevailing among domestic workers. Stiff penalties are stipulated for employers who fail to abide with the terms of the program. In the author's opinion, this bill fails to appreciate the global character of international migration and its complexity. It relects a fundamental ambivalence about a strictly controlled main gate versus a back door approach to immigration as well as the conflicting images of the US as a nation of immigrants versus the historical reality of American nativism and xenophobia. Needed are comprehensive initiatives whose mutually reinforcing components can address the multiple dimensions of the immigration problem within a framework that does not ignore workers who have contributed to the economic well-being of the US, regardless of their legal status.

  2. Immigration and the American century. (United States)

    Hirschman, Charles


    The full impact of immigration on American society is obscured in policy and academic analyses that focus on the short-term problems of immigrant adjustment. With a longer-term perspective, which includes the socioeconomic roles of the children of immigrants, immigration appears as one of the defining characteristics of twentieth-century America. Major waves of immigration create population diversity with new languages and cultures, but over time, while immigrants and their descendants become more "American," the character of American society and culture is transformed. In the early decades of the twentieth century, immigrants and their children were the majority of the workforce in many of the largest industrial cities; in recent decades, the arrival of immigrants and their families has slowed the demographic and economic decline of some American cities. The presence of immigrants probably creates as many jobs for native-born workers as are lost through displacement. Immigrants and their children played an important role in twentieth-century American politics and were influential in the development of American popular culture during the middle decades of the twentieth century. Intermarriage between the descendants of immigrants and old-stock Americans fosters a national identity based on civic participation rather than ancestry.

  3. The Food Environment in an Urban Mexican American Community


    Lisabeth, Lynda D; Sánchez, Brisa N; Escobar, James; Hughes, Rebecca; Meurer, William J; Zuniga, Belinda; Garcia, Nelda; Brown, Devin L; Morgenstern, Lewis B


    The objective was to determine whether ethnic composition of neighborhoods is associated with number and type of food stores in an urban, Mexican American US community. Data were from a commercial food store data source and the US Census. Multivariate count models were used to test associations with adjustment for neighborhood demographics, income, and commercialization. Neighborhoods at the 75th percentile of percent Mexican American (76%) had nearly four times the number of convenience stor...

  4. Minority stress and college persistence attitudes among African American, Asian American, and Latino students: perception of university environment as a mediator. (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Ku, Tsun-Yao; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin


    We examined whether perception of university environment mediated the association between minority status stress and college persistence attitudes after controlling for perceived general stress. Participants were 160 Asian American, African American, and Latino students who attended a predominantly White university. Results of a path model analysis showed that university environment was a significant mediator for the association between minority status stress and college persistence attitudes. Additionally, minority status stress was distinct from perceived general stress. Finally, the results from a multiple-group comparison indicated that the magnitude of the mediation effect was invariant across Asian American, African American, and Latino college students, thus supporting the generalizability of the mediation model.

  5. North American oil demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.B.


    An understanding of the relationship of economic growth and potential petroleum product demand is needed to forecast the potential for North American oil demand growth as well as knowledge of world supply and price. The bullish expectations for economic growth in the US and Canada auger well for North American refiners and marketeers. The growth in world economic output forecast, however, means a larger oil demand and an increase in OPEC's pricing power. Such price increases could depress North American oil demand growth. (author)

  6. Performing Transnational Arab American Womanhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koegeler-Abdi, Martina


    her narrative performance within the histories of American orientalism, the emerging Cold War, and ethnic beauty pageants to provide a better understanding of the specific intersection in these 1950s hegemonic discourses that framed and enabled her public agency. Her analysis then looks at how Hakim...... herself strategically cites these discourses in her self-fashioning to claim her own subject position as a white Arab and American woman during the 1950s. She argues that, while most Arab American authors at this time avoid a serious Arab ethnic affiliation, Rosemary Hakim already proudly uses...

  7. American Samoa Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Herdrich, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bodell, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Visser, Charles [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Describes the five near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee (ASREC) during action planning workshops conducted in May 2013, and outlines the actions being taken to implement those strategies. Each option is tied to a priority identified in the earlier draft American Samoa Strategic Energy Plan as being an essential component of reducing American Samoa'spetroleum energy consumption. The actions described for each strategy provide a roadmap to facilitate the implementation of each strategy. This document is intended to evolve along with the advancement of the projects, and will be updated to reflect progress.

  8. Americanization of Non-American Storiesin Disney Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beta Setiawati


    Full Text Available The study is intended to know the Disney’s animation films characteristics which are adapted from non American stories that contain Americanization in order to be American popular culture products. This qualitative and library research is carried out within the field of American Studies. Disney’s animated films which are regarded as artifacts in order to identify American society and culture is used as her primary data. She then compares those Disney films with the original stories to discover the changes in making those stories become American popular products. She furthermore uses the sources such as books, magazines, journals, articles, and also internet data for her secondary data. The result of this study shows that most of folk narratives which were used in Disney films were adapted from other countries’ stories. However, Disney intentionally adapts foreign countries’ stories in its animated films by using Disney formula to blow up the sale of its products. Since Disney is one of the most powerful media conglomerates in the world, it works endlessly to set out world entertainment. Disney formula in its animated films which has dominated those adapted films are only intended to obtain as much profit as possible without paying attention to the values in children entertainment.

  9. Geothermal energy for American Samoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The geothermal commercialization potential in American Samoa was investigated. With geothermal energy harnessed in American Samoa, a myriad of possibilities would arise. Existing residential and business consumers would benefit from reduced electricity costs. The tuna canneries, demanding about 76% of the island's process heat requirements, may be able to use process heat from a geothermal source. Potential new industries include health spas, aquaculture, wood products, large domestic and transhipment refrigerated warehouses, electric cars, ocean nodule processing, and a hydrogen economy. There are no territorial statutory laws of American Samoa claiming or reserving any special rights (including mineral rights) to the territorial government, or other interests adverse to a land owner, for subsurface content of real property. Technically, an investigation has revealed that American Samoa does possess a geological environment conducive to geothermal energy development. Further studies and test holes are warranted.

  10. Association of American Indian Physicians (United States)

    ... the OMH website Tribal Stories Needed for CDC Museum Exhibition Stories should highlight how Native traditions and ... of American Indian Physicians. Website designed by Back40 Design & managed by Javelin CMS

  11. American College of Emergency Physicians (United States)

    ... Career Center is where you can find your dream job Search Jobs Now Tweets about "@ACEPNow OR # ... For You Insurance Programs Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians Terms of ...

  12. Teaching French via American Football (United States)

    Berwald, Jean-Pierre


    Outlines the methods of using football in teaching French in the American classroom by using French Canadian newspapers and other visual media available in the United States, in addition to specific language activities. (LG)

  13. American Health Information Management Association (United States)

    ... Government Corporate & Government Training Signature Partners Sponsorship Exhibitors Advertise With AHIMA Copyright & Permissions Privacy Policy RSS LinkedIn Facebook Twitter YouTube Copyright © 2017 by The American Health ...

  14. American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry (United States)

    ... Position Statements Publications Bookstore American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Legislative & Regulatory Agenda AAGP eNews (Members Only) Tools ... Funding Training Resources and Curricula For Clinicians >> Geriatric Psychiatry Identifier Webinar: Billing and Coding Consumer Material Clinical ...

  15. Central American and Caribbean Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather and soil temperature observations from foreign countries, taken by foreign and American observers. Includes NOAA forms collected and archived at NCDC, and...

  16. African Americans and Multiple Sclerosis (United States)

    ... Council: AmericansandMS African Americans & Multiple Sclerosis GENER AL INFORMATION MS STOPS PEOPLE FROM MOVING. ... Judy, diagnosed in 1982 What is MS? Multiple sclerosis (MS), an unpredictable, often disabling disease of the ...

  17. A literature review about acculturation on the American Anthropologist: reduced version.


    joaquim de castro


    The research accomplished a literature review about acculturation on the earlier American Anthropologist journal. Acculturation research appeared on North American Anthropology; afterward it came to Sociology and Psychology. The main models to approach acculturation followed the historical evolution of the North American culture, and the earlier research barely considered the main dimensions of the acculturation concept. Assimilation and, in a lesser degree, fusion were the preferred models d...

  18. American acceptance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, W.


    The characteristic adventurous spirit that built American technology will eventually lead to American acceptance of nuclear power unless an overpowering loss of nerve causes us to reject both nuclear technology and world leadership. The acceptance of new technology by society has always been accompanied by activist opposition to industralization. To resolve the debate between environmental and exploitive extremists, we must accept with humility the basic premise that human accomplishment is a finite part of nature

  19. African American Health PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but it’s still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 5/2/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/2/2017.

  20. Health promotion for older Americans.


    Heckler, M M


    As American lifespans increase, there is greater concern for the quality of those longer lives. The Department of Health and Human Services, through its many component agencies, has inaugurated a major initiative to promote health and fitness among older Americans to improve life quality and to reduce health care costs. The older population is a fertile ground for such an initiative, because studies indicate that the elderly are extremely health-conscious and very willing to adopt habits that...

  1. Examining Factors Influencing Asian American and Latino American Students' College Choice (United States)

    Wang-Yeung, Leilani Weichun


    This dissertation examines the gap in college enrollment between Asian Americans and Latino Americans regarding the effects of family and school factors, classifying them into the six ethnic/generational status groups (Asian American first generation, Asian American second generation, Asian American third generation and plus, Latino American first…

  2. Transfusion medicine on American television. (United States)

    Karp, J K


    Television is a beloved American pastime and a frequent American export. As such, American television shapes how the global public views the world. This study examines how the portrayal of blood transfusion and blood donation on American television may influence how domestic and international audiences perceive the field of transfusion medicine. American television programming of the last quarter-century was reviewed to identify programmes featuring topics related to blood banking/transfusion medicine. The included television episodes were identified through various sources. Twenty-seven television episodes airing between 1991 and 2013 were identified as featuring blood bank/transfusion medicine topics. Although some accurate representations of the field were identified, most television programmes portrayed blood banking/transfusion medicine inaccurately. The way in which blood banking/transfusion medicine is portrayed on American television may assist clinicians in understanding their patient's concerns about blood safety and guide blood collection organisations in improving donor recruitment. © 2013 The Author. Transfusion Medicine © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  3. The cultural context of sexual aggression: Asian American and European American perpetrators. (United States)

    Hall, Gordon C Nagayama; Teten, Andra L; Sue, Stanley


    Attention paid to culture in theories of sexual coercion has been limited. This failure to include culture in these theories implies that culture does not have an important role in sexually coercive behavior. Recent conceptual and empirical work supports the existence of culture-specific models of sexual coercion. Sexual coercion has been characterized in much of the literature as an individual phenomenon. However, cultural norms are influential in collectivist cultural groups. Whereas European American men's sexual coercion is primarily determined by misogynous beliefs, Asian American men's sexual coercion is determined by a combination of misogynous beliefs and cultural considerations. These findings underscore the need to consider cultural context in the development of theoretical models and interventions for sexually coercive behavior.

  4. Celebrating National American Indian Heritage Month

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mann, Diane


    November has been designated National American Indian Heritage Month to honor American Indians and Alaska Natives by increasing awareness of their culture, history, and, especially, their tremendous...

  5. Exclusive Breastfeeding Experiences among Mexican American Women. (United States)

    Wambach, Karen; Domian, Elaine Williams; Page-Goertz, Sallie; Wurtz, Heather; Hoffman, Kelli


    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hispanic breastfeeding mothers begin early formula supplementation at higher rates than other ethnic groups, which can lead to shorter breastfeeding duration and decreased exclusive breastfeeding. Acculturation, the process of adopting beliefs and behaviors of another culture, appears to influence breastfeeding practices of Hispanic women in the United States. Little is known about Mexican American mothers' formula use and exclusive breastfeeding within the context of acculturation. Our study identified perceived benefits and barriers to exclusive breastfeeding and levels of acculturation among Mexican American women living in a Midwestern city. We used a qualitative descriptive design integrating Pender's Health Promotion Model concepts. Individual interviews were conducted in English or Spanish (N = 21). The revised Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans was used to examine acculturation levels. Acculturation scores indicated that the majority (66%) of the sample was "very Mexican oriented." Most women exclusively breastfed, with a few using early supplementation for "insufficient milk production." Three themes emerged: (1) It is natural that a woman give life and also provide the best food for her baby; (2) Breastfeeding is ultimately a woman's decision but is influenced by tradition, guidance, and encouragement; and (3) Breast milk is superior but life circumstances can challenge one's ability to breastfeed. Strong familial/cultural traditions supported and normalized breastfeeding. Barriers to exclusive breastfeeding were similar to breastfeeding women in general, in the United States. Findings support the need for culturally competent and individualized lactation care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. New realities of the American family. (United States)

    Ahlburg, D A; De Vita, C J


    The demographic, social, and economic characteristics of American families have changed dramatically over the past few decades. While the male breadwinner/female homemaker model was long traditionally typical,l contemporary families may be openly made up of single-parents, remarried couples, unmarried couples, stepfamilies, foster families, extended or multigenerational families, or 2 families within 1 household. Families are now most likely to have 3 or fewer children, a mother employed outside of the home, and a 50% chance of parental divorce before the children are grown. These trends are common not only in America, but in most industrialized nations around the world. In fact, family trends are so fluid that the US Census Bureau and workplace policy find it difficult to keep pace. This report presents and discusses social and demographic trends behind the ever-changing face of the American family. Households and types of families are further defined, as are the living arrangements of children, young adults, and the elderly. Marriage, divorce, and remarriage trends, age at marriage rates, and interracial marriage are then discussed. Next examined are declining family size, teenage parents, contraception and abortion, unwed mothers, and technological routes to parenthood. The changing roles of family members and family economic well-being are discussed in sections preceding closing comments on the outlook for the American family.

  7. American option pricing with stochastic volatility processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping LI


    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of option pricing more perfectly, the option pricing problem with Heston stochastic volatility model is considered. The optimal implementation boundary of American option and the conditions for its early execution are analyzed and discussed. In view of the fact that there is no analytical American option pricing formula, through the space discretization parameters, the stochastic partial differential equation satisfied by American options with Heston stochastic volatility is transformed into the corresponding differential equations, and then using high order compact finite difference method, numerical solutions are obtained for the option price. The numerical experiments are carried out to verify the theoretical results and simulation. The two kinds of optimal exercise boundaries under the conditions of the constant volatility and the stochastic volatility are compared, and the results show that the optimal exercise boundary also has stochastic volatility. Under the setting of parameters, the behavior and the nature of volatility are analyzed, the volatility curve is simulated, the calculation results of high order compact difference method are compared, and the numerical option solution is obtained, so that the method is verified. The research result provides reference for solving the problems of option pricing under stochastic volatility such as multiple underlying asset option pricing and barrier option pricing.

  8. II Latin American Conference on Bioimpedance

    CERN Document Server

    Bertemes-Filho, Pedro


    This volume presents the proceedings of CLABIO 2015 - II Latin American Conference on Bioimpedance, held in Montevideo, Uruguay - September 30 - October 02, 2015. The works cover a broad range in Biomedical Engineering and Computing, Medical Physics and Medical Sciences, Environment, Biology and Chemistry. The topics are: ·Bioimpedance Applications ·Bioimpedance Instrumentation ·Body and Tissue Composition ·Cell Culture and Cell Suspension ·Electrical Impedance Tomography ·Electrode Modelling ·Magnetic Induction - Electrical Impedance Tomography ·Magnetic Resonance - Electrical Impedance Tomography ·Nonlinear Phenomena ·Organ and Tissue Impedance ·Plant Tissue Impedance ·Skin Impedance Modelling ·Technological Advances in Bioimpedance ·Theory and Modelling.

  9. American Association for Aerosol Research (AAAR) `95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Fourteenth annual meeting of the American Association for Aerosol Research was held October 9-13, 1995 at Westin William Penn Hotel in Pittsburgh, PA. This volume contains the abstracts of the papers and poster sessions presented at this meeting, grouped by the session in which they were presented as follows: Radiation Effects; Aerosol Deposition; Collision Simulations and Microphysical Behavior; Filtration Theory and Measurements; Materials Synthesis; Radioactive and Nuclear Aerosols; Aerosol Formation, Thermodynamic Properties, and Behavior; Particle Contamination Issues in the Computer Industry; Pharmaceutical Aerosol Technology; Modeling Global/Regional Aerosols; Visibility; Respiratory Deposition; Biomass and Biogenic Aerosols; Aerosol Dynamics; Atmospheric Aerosols.

  10. Overview of North American Hydrogen Sensor Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, Kathleen [SRA International, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Lopez, Hugo [UL LLC, Chicago, IL (United States); Cairns, Julie [CSA Group, Cleveland, OH (United States); Wichert, Richard [Professional Engineering, Inc.. Citrus Heights, CA (United States); Rivkin, Carl [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buttner, William [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    An overview of the main North American codes and standards associated with hydrogen safety sensors is provided. The distinction between a code and a standard is defined, and the relationship between standards and codes is clarified, especially for those circumstances where a standard or a certification requirement is explicitly referenced within a code. The report identifies three main types of standards commonly applied to hydrogen sensors (interface and controls standards, shock and hazard standards, and performance-based standards). The certification process and a list and description of the main standards and model codes associated with the use of hydrogen safety sensors in hydrogen infrastructure are presented.

  11. Perception of Obesity in African-American and Arab-American Minority Groups. (United States)

    McClelland, Molly L; Weekes, Carmon V N; Bazzi, Hussein; Warwinsky, Joshua; Abouarabi, Wassim; Snell, Felicia; Salamey, Tarick


    Effectiveness of health education programs and interventions, designed to improve obesity rates, may vary according to perceptions of health within cultural groups. A qualitative approach was used. Two minority cultural groups (Arab-American and African-American) living in the same county were studied to compare perceptions of health, nutrition, and obesity and subsequent health behaviors. Control, expectations, bias, acceptance, and access were the five themes identified. Arab-Americans that had lower weights, lower prevalence of chronic diseases, expected healthy weights, reported age and gender bias related to being overweight were not as accepting of being overweight and did not report difficulties in accessing healthy food choices compared to their African-American counterparts. Health interventions aimed at reducing obesity rates and related chronic diseases should be culturally specific and aimed at changing expected and accepted cultural norms. Cultural group's void of certain disease states should be studied and used as models to ameliorate the problem in other cultures. Changing health behaviors within a certain cultural group may produce better outcomes when initiated from a member of that same group. The impact of economic and environmental factors on health behaviors must also be considered.

  12. Examining cultural socialization within African American and European American households. (United States)

    Tyler, Kenneth M; Dillihunt, Monica L; Boykin, A Wade; Coleman, Sean T; Scott, Darla M; Tyler, Christina M B; Hurley, Eric A


    This preliminary study explored the cultural socialization processes of 227 African American and European American parents of elementary schoolchildren. The Cultural Value Socialization Scales (K. M. Tyler, A. W. Boykin, C. M. Boelter, & M. L. Dillihunt, 2005) were used to garner parents' reports of their cultural value socialization activities at home. The scales contained written vignettes depicting persons involved in activity that reflected a specific cultural value. Ethnocultural values examined were communalism, verve, movement, and affect, and mainstream cultural values included individualism, competition, bureaucracy, and materialism. Regression analyses reveal that being an African American parent was predictive of competition and materialism scores. Race was not a significant predictor of the remaining cultural value socialization scores. Limitations to the study are discussed. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Sociolinguistics features of humor in american linguoculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article we study the characteristics of the language of representation and perception of American humour, its linguistic and cultural features in humorous texts of American comics from the American linguistic culture. The material for research is the humorous texts and fragments of the performances of American ...

  14. Anxiety, Alexithymia, and Depression as Mediators of the Association between Childhood Abuse and Eating Disordered Behavior in African American and European American Women (United States)

    Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Williams, Larry J.


    This study evaluated structural equation models of the associations among family functioning, childhood abuse, depression, anxiety, alexithymia, and eating disorder symptomatology in a sample of 412 European American and 192 African American female undergraduates. Additionally, the specific roles of anxiety, depression, and alexithymia as…

  15. Pavlov's position toward American behaviorism. (United States)

    Windholz, G


    Pavlov's development of the conditional reflex theory coincided with the rise of American behaviorism. Substituting an objective physiology for a subjective psychology, Pavlov saw in the rise of American behaviorism a clear confirmation of his method and theory. But in the early 1930s, Lashley attacked Pavlov's theory of specific cerebral localization of function, proposing instead the concept of an internal cerebral organization; Guthrie objected to Pavlov's centralist interpretation of conditioning, proposing instead a peripheralist interpretation; while Hull challenged Pavlov's theory of sleep and hypnosis as the manifestations of inhibition. Pavlov replied with critiques of Lashley's, Guthrie's, and Hull's views, and, convinced that Lashley and Guthrie misunderstood his position, repeated his method's and theory's basic propositions. Yet, Pavlov never gave up the expectation that American behaviorism would accept his conditional reflex theory and saw in Hunter's 1932 statements a support of his assumptions.

  16. Dietary acculturation in Asian Americans. (United States)

    Serafica, Reimund C


    The purpose of this literature review is to promote a better understanding of the construct of dietary acculturation in recent years and how it affects dietary intake of Asian-American population. Four databases were searched simultaneously using the following key terms: Asian-Americans, dietary practices, eating habits, and dietary acculturation. A total of seven articles were relevant and met the inclusion criteria. The findings from these studies of dietary acculturation in Asian Americans are generally in agreement with other dietary acculturation research conducted in non-Asian population samples. Although the studies presented in this literature review represent the recent researches conducted in Asian populations in the US, the research in dietary acculturation remains sparse.

  17. Growth characteristics and Otolith analysis on Age-0 American Shad (United States)

    Sauter, Sally T.; Wetzel, Lisa A.


    Otolith microstructure analysis provides useful information on the growth history of fish (Campana and Jones 1992, Bang and Gronkjaer 2005). Microstructure analysis can be used to construct the size-at-age growth trajectory of fish, determine daily growth rates, and estimate hatch date and other ecologically important life history events (Campana and Jones 1992, Tonkin et al. 2008). This kind of information can be incorporated into bioenergetics modeling, providing necessary data for estimating prey consumption, and guiding the development of empirically-based modeling scenarios for hypothesis testing. For example, age-0 American shad co-occur with emigrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon originating from Hanford Reach and the Snake River in the lower Columbia River reservoirs during the summer and early fall. The diet of age-0 American shad appears to overlap with that of juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Chapter 1, this report), but juvenile fall Chinook salmon are also known to feed on age-0 American shad in the reservoirs (USGS unpublished data). Abundant, energy-dense age-0 American shad may provide juvenile fall Chinook salmon opportunities for rapid growth during the time period when large numbers of age-0 American shad are available. Otolith analysis of hatch dates and the growth curve of age-0 American shad could be used to identify when eggs, larvae, and juveniles of specific size classes are temporally available as food for fall Chinook salmon in the lower Columbia River reservoirs. This kind of temporally and spatially explicit life history information is important to include in bioenergetics modeling scenarios. Quantitative estimates of prey consumption could be used with spatially-explicit estimates of prey abundance to construct a quantitative assessment of the age-0 American shad impact on a reservoir food web.

  18. Latin American Theology and Religious Pluralism: A Latin American Voice (United States)

    Cascante-Gomez, Fernando A.


    This article summarizes recent efforts by Latin-American theologians concerned with developing a pluralist theology of liberation. The author highlights some of the most significant issues and themes of this emerging theological reflection among liberation theologians. Finally, he identifies some of the challenges a pluralist theology of…

  19. American Indians, American Dreams, and the Meaning of Success. (United States)

    Cornell, Stephen


    Sees a 1987 Supreme Court decision allowing California tribes to continue operating high-stakes gambling operations as a milestone on the path to the Indian dream of community survival and collective political power. Contrasts this dream with the traditional American Dream of individual economic achievement. Contains 14 references. (SV)

  20. Evaluating the agreement between measurements and models of net ecosystem exchange at different times and timescales using wavelet coherence: an example using data from the North American Carbon Program Site-Level Interim Synthesis (United States)

    P.C. Stoy; M.C. Dietze; A.D. Richardson; R. Vargas; A.G. Barr; R.S. Anderson; M.A. Arain; I.T. Baker; T.A. Black; J.M. Chen; R.B. Cook; C.M. Gough; R.F. Grant; D.Y. Hollinger; R.C. Izaurralde; C.J. Kucharik; P. Lafleur; B.E. Law; S. Liu; E. Lokupitiya; Y. Luo; J. W. Munger; C. Peng; B. Poulter; D.T. Price; D. M. Ricciuto; W. J. Riley; A. K. Sahoo; K. Schaefer; C.R. Schwalm; H. Tian; H. Verbeeck; E. Weng


    Earth system processes exhibit complex patterns across time, as do the models that seek to replicate these processes. Model output may or may not be significantly related to observations at different times and on different frequencies. Conventional model diagnostics provide an aggregate view of model-data agreement, but usually do not identify the time and frequency...

  1. My Mother and Me: Why Tiger Mothers Motivate Asian Americans But Not European Americans. (United States)

    Fu, Alyssa S; Markus, Hazel Rose


    "Tiger Mother" Amy Chua provoked a culture clash with her claim that controlling parenting in Asian American (AA) contexts produces more successful children than permissive parenting in European American (EA) contexts. At the heart of this controversy is a difference in the normative models of self that guide behavior. Ideas and practices prevalent in AA contexts emphasize that the person is and should be interdependent with one's close others, especially one's mother. In contrast, EA contexts emphasize the person as independent, even from one's mother. We find that AA compared with EA high school students experience more interdependence with their mothers and pressure from them, but that the pressure does not strain their relationship with their mothers. Furthermore, following failure, AAs compared with EAs are more motivated by their mothers, and AAs are particularly motivated by pressure from their mothers when it conveys interdependence. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  2. Intergenerational Transmission of Tridimensional Cultural Orientations in Chinese American Families: The Role of Bicultural Socialization. (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong; Hou, Yang


    It is important to understand the acculturation process of ethnic minority youth: To which cultures do they orient, and how do their cultural orientations develop? The present study tests a tridimensional acculturation model in Chinese American families and examines a potential mechanism through which parental cultural orientations may relate to adolescent cultural orientations. Participants were 350 Chinese American adolescents (M age  = 17.04, 58 % female) and their parents in Northern California. Results support the tridimensional acculturation model by demonstrating moderate associations among Chinese American orientation, Chinese orientation, and American orientation; our findings also point to a unique effect of parental Chinese American orientation on parental bicultural socialization beliefs. Most importantly, we identified an indirect pathway from parental to adolescents' Chinese American orientation through adolescents' internalization of parental bicultural socialization beliefs.

  3. Classic African American Children's Literature (United States)

    McNair, Jonda C.


    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  4. American Indians as Economic Decisionmakers. (United States)

    Caldwell, Jean; Gash, David


    Maintains that U.S. history did not begin with the colonization of North America by Europeans but with the Native American tribes that flourished prior to colonization. Discusses economic issues that determined the history and culture of various tribes. Provides a lesson plan based on economic decisions made by the Choctaw tribe. (CFR)

  5. American Samoa's forest resources, 2001. (United States)

    Joseph A. Donnegan; Sheri S. Mann; Sarah L. Butler; Bruce A. Hiserote


    The Forest Inventory and Analysis Program of the Pacific Northwest Research Station collected, analyzed, and summarized data from field plots, and mapped land cover on four islands in American Samoa. This statistical sample provides estimates of forest area, stem volume, biomass, numbers of trees, damages to trees, and tree size distribution. The summary provides...

  6. Arab American Experiences in Education (United States)

    Bousquet, Sarah


    Based upon field study and a review of the literature, this paper sought to describe the educational experiences that are common in the Middle East and North Africa. The paper explained the curriculum and pedagogy that are most commonly found in Arab schools. It also addresses the misconceptions that many Americans have regarding Arab education.…

  7. /S/ in Central American Spanish. (United States)

    Lipski, John M.


    Describes the behavior of the phoneme /s/ in Central American Spanish by comparing the speech patterns of residents of Guatemala City, San Salvador, Tegucigalpa, San Jose, and Managua. Considers the possible diachronic processes which could have given rise to the current configurations and the theoretical consequences implied by the…

  8. Pedagogics in Mexican American Studies. (United States)

    Carranza, E. Lou

    A pedagogy appropriate to college level courses and comprised of interdisciplinary content, multidisciplinary faculty, and students from diverse academic backgrounds and with varying levels of skills merits development. A taxonomy of some of the difficulties in the construction of such a course in Mexican American studies, for example, focuses on…

  9. Indigenous agroforestry in American Samoa (United States)

    Malala (Mike) Misa; Agnes M. Vargo


    Agroforestry exists in American Samoa as a system where indigenous trees and natural vegetation used for food, fuelwood, crafts and medicine are incorporated with traditional staple crops and livestock on a set piece of land, usually a mountainous slope. Most agroforests are taro-based (Colocasia esculenta). While nutritional, cultural, social,...

  10. Native Americans in Higher Education. (United States)

    Browne, Dauna B.; Evans, Wayne H.

    Colleges and universities have failed to meet the unique educational needs of Native American students, whose attrition rates are far in excess of those of other students. These students must come to terms with their cultural identity while functioning within the culturally alien framework presented by the school. Federally funded programs have…

  11. Filipino Americans: Transformation and Identity. (United States)

    Root, Maria P. P., Ed.

    Throughout the United States, many Filipino Americans, especially students, are beginning to want to know more about their cultural heritage and future. Overall, there has been very little written to transmit knowledge about Filipino history, ideas, and values, even though Filipinos make up the largest Asian ethnic group in the United States.…


    RANA CATESBELANA (American Bullfrog). DIET. Data were obtained opportunistically from 28 adult (M = 14; F = 14) bullftogs collected in April 2001 from the Meadow Valley Wash located between the cities of Carp and Elgin, Lincoln County, Nevada, USA (N37'17':WI14'30'). Alth...

  13. Marketing to Older American Consumers. (United States)

    Mertz, Barbara; Stephens, Nancy


    Examined older adults as a potential market for American businesses. Data indicate that in terms of size and income, senior citizens comprise a substantial buying group. Their buying styles, product and service needs, and shopping behavior vary from younger adults and within the older adult population. Strategies for successful marketing are…

  14. Alcohol Education via American Literature. (United States)

    Celluci, Tony; Larsen, Richard


    Describes two courses utilizing modern American fiction, poetry, and drama in which vivid depictions of the disasters wrought by excessive drinking are found. Posits these as examples of how literature that addresses problems related to drinking and alcoholism can be used in a focused way in alcohol education. (LKS)

  15. American Elements in Czech Parody

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hemelíková, Blanka


    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2015), s. 102-113 ISSN 0022-3840 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : Czech interwar literature * parody * Brdečka, Jiří * Kuděj, Zdeněk Matěj * americanism Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision Impact factor: 0.070, year: 2015

  16. Communication; A Scientific American Book. (United States)

    Scientific American, Inc., New York, NY.

    With present advances in communication technology, profound and qualitative changes in our civilization are taking place--in business and politics, in education, in entertainment, interpersonal relations, and the organization of society itself. In honor of the significance of such developments, an entire issue of "Scientific American" magazine…

  17. History of American Education Primer (United States)

    Boers, David


    This book depicts the evolution of American educational history from 1630 to the present. The book highlights how ideological managers have shaped society and, because schools mirror society, have thus had a profound impact on education and schooling. Five common areas of study - philosophy, politics, economics, social sciences, and religion -…

  18. Women in Latin American History. (United States)

    Lavrin, Asuncion


    Presents a bibliography and suggests a number of topics around which a college level history course on Latin American women could be organized. Course topics include migration of women, definition of sex roles, legal status of women, women's work and society, feminism, politics, religion, women and the family, and women's education and…

  19. Arab Stereotypes and American Educators. (United States)

    Wingfield, Marvin; Karaman, Bushra


    Maintains that negative stereotypes of Arabs permeate U.S. popular culture. Discusses Arab stereotypes among educators and the effects of stereotyping on Arab American students. Describes efforts used in the Dearborn, MI, schools to eliminate stereotypes and integrate into the curriculum the study of Arab culture. (CFR)

  20. Counseling Considerations among Arab Americans. (United States)

    Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia C.; Hakim-Larson, Julie


    This article describes a focus group interview conducted with a group of therapists in a large-scale, comprehensive family service agency in an Arab American community. The interview format was semistructured, and the results confirmed what little was already known about the population and supplemented that body of knowledge with updated…