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Sample records for models american woodcock

  1. Migratory connectivity of american woodcock using band return data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Joseph D.; Krementz, David G.

    2017-01-01

    American woodcock (Scolopax minor) are managed as a Central and an Eastern population in the United States and Canada based on band return data showing little crossover between populations or management regions. The observed proportion of crossover between management regions, however, depends on the criteria used to subset the band return data. We analyzed the amount of crossover between management regions using only band return records that represent complete migrations between the breeding and wintering grounds by using only band return records in which the capture took place during the breeding season and the band recovery took place during the wintering season or vice versa (n = 224). Additionally, we applied spatial statistics and a clustering algorithm to investigate woodcock migratory connectivity using this subset of migratory woodcock band return records. Using raw counts, 17.9% of records showed crossover between management regions, a higher proportion than the <5% crossover reported in studies that did not use only migratory band returns. Our results showed woodcock from the breeding grounds in the Central Region largely migrate to destinations within the Central Region, whereas woodcock from the breeding grounds in the Eastern Region migrate to destinations across the entire wintering range and mix with individuals from the Central Region. Using the division coefficient, we estimated that 54% of woodcock from the breeding grounds of the Eastern Region migrate to the Central Region wintering grounds. Our result that many woodcock from separate regions of the breeding grounds mix on the wintering grounds has implications for the 2-region basis for woodcock management. Elucidating finer scale movement patterns among regions provides a basis for reassessing the need for separate management regions to ensure optimal conservation and management of the species.

  2. 76 FR 38203 - Proposed Information Collection; North American Woodcock Singing Ground Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ...] Proposed Information Collection; North American Woodcock Singing Ground Survey AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... populations. The North American Woodcock Singing Ground Survey is an essential part of the migratory bird.... II. Data OMB Control Number: 1018-0019. Title: North American Woodcock Singing Ground Survey. Service...

  3. American woodcock (Scolopax minor) mortality associated with a reovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, D.E.; Converse, K.A.; Hansen, W.R.; Norman, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    A virus isolate associated with a 1989-90 die-off in American woodcock (Scolopax minor) was identified as a reovirus. Emaciation was a consistent necropsy finding in the woodcock involved in this die-off. This reovirus infection appeared to be systemic, had the potential for fecal-oral virus transmission, and was associated with deterioration of body condition. To our knowledge this is the first report of a virus isolate from wild American woodcock. A survey conducted in 1990-92 indicated that this virus was not present at detectable levels in the woodcock breeding and wintering population. /// Un virus asociado con la mortalidad de becadas o perdices americanas (Scolopax minor) en 1989-1990-fue identificado como reovirus. La emaciaci??n fue un resultado com??n a la necropsia de las aves que murieron. Esta infecci??n por reovirus pareci?? ser sist??mica, ten?-a el potencial de transmisi??n fecal-oral y estuvo asociada con el deterioro del ave. Creemos que este sea el primer reporte de aislamiento viral a partir de becadas americanas. Una encuesta hecha entre 1990 y 1992 indic?? que este virus no estaba presente en los niveles detectables en los reproductores y en las aves invernales.

  4. Nocturnal field use by fall migrating American woodcock in the Delta of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krementz, David G.; Crossett, Richard; Lehnen, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    The American woodcock (Scolopax minor) population has declined since the late 1960s across its range and is now considered a species of special concern. Research on woodcock habitat use during migration and migratory routes through the Central Flyway has been limited. We assessed woodcock phenology, estimated density, and nocturnal habitat use in fields on public lands in the lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley portion of Arkansas during November and December of 2010 and 2011. We used all-terrain vehicles to survey woodcock along transects in 67 fields of 8 field types. We analyzed data using hierarchical distance sampling. We detected woodcock from the first week in November through the third week in December but in low numbers. We did not detect woodcock in millet or rice fields, whereas woodcock had the highest estimated densities in unharvested soybeans. All other crop type-post-harvest management combinations had low woodcock densities. We did not detect woodcock in fields 40 ha. Woodcock in the lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley may benefit from management for unharvested soybean fields of moderate size (approx. 8-40ha).

  5. Do singing-ground surveys reflect american woodcock abundance in the western Great Lakes region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew R. Nelson,; Andersen, David E.

    2013-01-01

    The Singing-ground Survey (SGS) is the primary monitoring tool used to assess population status and trends of American woodcock (Scolopax minor). Like most broad-scale surveys, the SGS cannot be directly validated because there are no independent estimates of abundance of displaying male American woodcock at an appropriate spatial scale. Furthermore, because locations of individual SGS routes have generally remained stationary since the SGS was standardized in 1968, it is not known whether routes adequately represent the landscapes they were intended to represent. To indirectly validate the SGS, we evaluated whether 1) counts of displaying male American woodcock on SGS routes related to land-cover types known to be related to American woodcock abundance, 2) changes in counts of displaying male American woodcock through time were related to changes in land cover along SGS routes, and 3) land-cover type composition along SGS routes was similar to land-cover type composition of the surrounding landscape. In Wisconsin and Minnesota, USA, counts along SGS routes reflected known American woodcock-habitat relations. Increases in the number of woodcock heard along SGS routes over a 13-year period in Wisconsin were related to increasing amounts of early successional forest, decreasing amounts of mature forest, and increasing dispersion and interspersion of cover types. Finally, the cover types most strongly associated with American woodcock abundance were represented along SGS routes in proportion to their composition of the broader landscape. Taken together, these results suggest that in the western Great Lakes region, the SGS likely provides a reliable tool for monitoring relative abundance and population trends of breeding, male American woodcock.

  6. Care of captive woodcocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, William H.; Sheldon, William G.; Stickel, Lucille F.

    1965-01-01

    Numbers of American woodcocks (Philohela minor) were held in cages for experimental work lasting several months. Injuries caused by birds attempting to flush were greatly reduced by clipping feathers from one wing, by making cage walls opaque, and by using high cages or false ceilings of fabric. Size of cage was found not to be important, to judge from weight changes, so long as ample food was unmistakably available. Birds were kept in both large and small cages without social conflicts. Cages on the ground proved too unsanitary for long-term use; small steel cages with removable floors were practical but did not solve the sanitation problem. Living earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) were provided daily in amounts roughly equal to weights of birds. Birds gained on this food when worms were offered in suitable ways. The feeding tray recommended is a large roasting pan with a snap-on metal rim that retards loss of worms. Trays contained moist peat in which birds probed for worms. Two efforts to keep woodcocks on a diet of red worms (Eisenia foetide) were unsuccessful; use of this worm was considered responsible. Woodcocks were handled and transported for short periods with least injury to them when they were rolled individually in soft bags.

  7. Some diseases and parasites of captive woodcocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, L.N.; Stickel, W.H.; Geis, S.A.

    1965-01-01

    Observations were made concerning the diseases and parasites of a group of woodcocks (Philohela minor) caught in Massachusetts in the summer of 1960 and kept in captivity in Maryland, and of another group caught and kept in Louisiana in the winter of 1960-61. Bumblefoot, a granulomatous swelling of the foot caused by Micrococcus sp., is reported for woodcocks for the first time. Six of 31 woodcocks were infected with a renal coccidium of an undetermined species. Tetrameres sp. was found in 4 of 31 birds examined. Sarcocystis was found in one bird. Aerosaculitis was found in several.

  8. Reproductive maturation and breeding of woodcock in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, R.T.; Doerr, P.D.; Keppie, Daniel M.; Owen, Ray B.

    1977-01-01

    Breeding woodcock (PhiJohela minor) were studied in North Carolina during the winters and springs of 1974-75 and 1975-76.. Measurements of testes and ovaries from 19 male and 30 female woodcock suggest that gonadal recrudescence in many woodcock occurs on the wintering grounds. In males, testicular recrudescence occurred as early as December and was accompanied by territory selection and courtship activity. Of 15 females collected in February, 5 had shelled eggs in the oviduct. Seven woodcock broods, located from 1 March to 30 April, were banded, aged, and released. From estimated clutch completion dates it appears that broods were successfully hatched from clutches completed as early as 21 January. Because of the early nesting of woodcock in North Carolina, hunters and land managers need to be aware of woodcock breeding habits and their need for protection during late winter.

  9. Demographic Characteristics of a Maine Woodcock Population and Effects of Habitat Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, T.J.; Sepik, G.F.; Derleth, E.L.; McAuley, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    A population of American woodcock (Scolopax minor) was studied on a 3,401-ha area of the Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge in northeastern Maine from 1976 through 1985. During 1976-83, from 4 to 64 clearcuts were created each year, opening up large contiguous blocks of forest. A combination of mist nets, ground traps, nightlighting techniques, and trained dogs were used to capture and band 1,884 birds during the first 5 years. Capture and recapture data (totaling 3,009 observations) were used with both demographically closed and open population models to estimate population size and, for open population models, summer survival. Flying young, especially young males, represented the greatest proportion of all captures; analysis showed that young males were more prone to capture than young females. Male courtship began about 24 March each year, usually when there was still snow in wooded areas. Males ~2 years old dominated singing grounds during April each year, but this situation changed and first-year males dominated singing grounds in May. Singing males shifted from older established singing grounds to new clearcuts soon after we initiated forest management. Many males were subdominant at singing grounds despite an abundance of unoccupied openings. Three hundred adult females were captured and, except for 1978, the majority were ~2 years old. The year in which female homing rate was lowest(1979) was preceded by the year with the largest number of l-year-old brood female captures and a summer drought. Summer survival of young was lowest in 1978 and was attributed to summer drought. The year 1979 had an abnormally cool and wet spring, and was the poorest for production of young. Capture ratios of young-to-adult females obtained by nightlighting could be used to predict production on our study area. Closed population model estimates did not seem to fit either young or adult data sets well. Instead, a partially open capture-recapture model that allowed death but no

  10. How Do Executive Functions Fit with the Cattell-Horn-Carroll Model? Some Evidence from a Joint Factor Analysis of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System and the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Randy G.; Bergeron, Renee; Hamilton, Gloria; Parra, Gilbert R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among executive functions and cognitive abilities through a joint exploratory factor analysis and joint confirmatory factor analysis of 25 test scores from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System and the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities. Participants were 100 children and adolescents…

  11. Actinides critical masses and the Paxton Woodcock rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anno, Jacques; Duhamel, Isabelle; Lavarenne, Caroline; Duluc, Matthieu

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents recent actinides (reflected or not, moderated or not) critical masses calculations performed by the French standard route (APOLLO2 Sn 8 P3, 20 energy groups cross-section collapsed from 172 energy groups CEA 93 library). Comparisons are also presented against more accurate routes of the French criticality package CRISTAL, showing the fair conservatism of the standard values. Checks of the Paxton Woodcock rule for transportation exemption limit were also made. (author)

  12. Actinides critical masses and the Paxton Woodcock rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anno, Jacques; Duhamel, Isabelle; Lavarenne, Caroline [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France); Duluc, Matthieu [Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (INSTN) (France)

    2003-10-01

    This paper presents recent actinides (reflected or not, moderated or not) critical masses calculations performed by the French standard route (APOLLO2 Sn 8 P3, 20 energy groups cross-section collapsed from 172 energy groups CEA 93 library). Comparisons are also presented against more accurate routes of the French criticality package CRISTAL, showing the fair conservatism of the standard values. Checks of the Paxton Woodcock rule for transportation exemption limit were also made. (author)

  13. 50 CFR 20.104 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for rails, woodcock, and common (Wilson's) snipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rails, woodcock, and common (Wilson's) snipe. 20.104 Section 20.104 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES... for rails, woodcock, and common (Wilson's) snipe. This section provides for the annual hunting of certain rails, woodcock, and snipe in the 48 contiguous United States. [44 FR 7148, Feb. 6, 1979...

  14. Radiocesium (137Cs) from the Chernobyl reactor in Eurasian woodcock and earthworms in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalas, J.A.; Bretten, S.; Njastad, O.; Byrkjedal, I.

    1994-01-01

    To understand the ecological effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident, we investigated radiocesium ( 137 Cs) levels in Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola), earthworms (Lambricidae), litter (dead organic materials lying on the ground), humus (beneath litter 2 cm deep), and mineral soil samples (3-6 cm deep) from a heavily effected (20-60 kBq/m 2 [1 Bq = 1 nuclear fission/sec]) area in Norway. The highest concentrations measured in earthworms (1988 median = 142 Bq/Kg) and woodcock (1986 median = 730 Bq/kg) for human food (600 Bq/kg fresh mass) only were found in woodcock during 1986. Radiocesium concentrations decreased (P < 0.001) in earthworms (40%) and woodcock (95%) from 1986 to 1990. There was no reduction in total radiocesium in soil over the same period. The relatively high radiocesium concentrations in woodcock during 1986 and the decreasing radiocesium ratio in woodcock to earthworms during the first years following fallout could have been caused by woodcock ingesting abiotic radiocesium with earthworms. The decrease in radiocesium in woodcock and earthworms during the study (1986-90) probably resulted from decreasing bioavailability of radiocesium during the first years after fallout rather than by radiocesium disappearing from the ecosystem. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  15. A Theoretical Analysis of the Performance of Learning Disabled Students on the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Mark; And Others

    Two studies were conducted to (1) analyze the subtest characteristics of the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery, and (2) apply those results to an analysis of 50 fourth grade learning disabled (LD) students' performance on the Battery. Analyses indicated that the poorer performance of LD students on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive…

  16. NEO-AMERICAN MARKET ECONOMY MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriţescu Dorel-Dumitru

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The American market economy system is the convergence point of two theoretical models: the neoclassic model (which excludes the state intervention and keynesist model (in which the state intervenes as decisional economic agent. the relaunch of American economy set off at the end of the last century in the same time with Ronald Reagan presidency and relies on a important financial and technological patrimony.

  17. Nutritional profiling of Eurasian woodcock meat: chemical composition and myoglobin characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Nicola; Ragucci, Sara; Di Giuseppe, Antonella Ma; Russo, Rosita; Poerio, Elia; Severino, Valeria; Di Maro, Antimo

    2018-04-10

    Meat from birds is a rich source of proteins for the human diet. In this framework, Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola L.), a medium-small wading bird hunted as game in many Eurasian countries, is considered one of the best meats for culinary purposes. Since the nutritional composition of Eurasian woodcock meat has not yet been reported, we decided to determine the nutritional profile of S. rusticola meat. Macronutrient components (proteins, lipids and fatty acids) were determined, as well as free and total amino acids, and compared with those of the common pheasant. Eurasian woodcock meat contains high levels of proteins and essential amino acids. The levels of unsaturated fatty acids represent a great contribution to the total lipid amount. Among polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6) is the major essential fatty acid. Finally, we report the characterization of myoglobin (Mb) from Eurasian woodcock. The data revealed that meat from this bird could be a good source of quality raw proteins because of its amino acid composition, and it had a low lipid content. On the other hand, Mb characterization might be of benefit to the meat industry, by providing useful information for the determination of species-specific differences in meat from birds. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. New Models for American Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.; Wynne, Edward

    Contents of this book include: (1) "New Models: The Need for School Reform," James W. Guthrie--a survey of some of the past successes of our educational system, an attempt to assess present public opinion about it, and an analysis of some possible explanations for its apparent inability to perform satisfactory; (2) "National Assessment: A History…

  19. Factorial Invariance of Woodcock-Johnson III Scores for African Americans and Caucasian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Oliver W.; Oakland, Thomas D.

    2006-01-01

    Bias in testing has been of interest to psychologists and other test users since the origin of testing. New or revised tests often are subject to analyses that help examine the degree of bias in reference to group membership based on gender, language use, and race/ethnicity. The pervasive use of intelligence test data when making critical and, at…

  20. A psychometric revision of the European American Values Scale for Asian Americans using the Rasch model

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, S; Kim, Bryan S.K.; Wolfe, M M

    2005-01-01

    The 18-item European American Values Scale for Asian Americans (M. M. Wolfe, P H. Yang, E C. Wong, & D. R. Atkinson, 2001) was revised on the basis of results from a psychometric analysis using the Rasch Model (G. Rasch,1960). The results led to the establishment of the 25-item European AmericanValues Scale for Asian Americans-Revised.

  1. Concurrent Validity of the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability with the WISC-R: EMR Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jack A.; Sanville, David

    1983-01-01

    Administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability (WJTCA) to educable mentally retarded children (N=30). Results showed significant mean differences between WISC-R and WJTCA full-scale standard scores, providing implications for placement of children in classes for the…

  2. Validation of the Spanish Version of the Woodcock-Johnson Mathematics Achievement Tests for Children Aged 6 to 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Pina, Violeta; Valero-Garcia, Ana V.; Gonzalez-Salinas, Carmen; Fuentes, Luis J.

    2012-01-01

    This study validated the four mathematics tests of the Spanish version of the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ-III) Achievement (ACH) battery for use in the first six grades of school in Spain. Developmental effects and gender differences were also examined. Participants were a normal population sample of 424 (216 boys) children aged 6 to 13 years.…

  3. Pago Pago, American Samoa Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pago Pago, American Samoa Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  4. Iberian (South American) Model of Judicial Review: Toward Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klishas, Andrey A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper explores Latin American countries legislation with the view to identify specific features of South American model of judicial review. The research methodology rests on comparative approach to analyzing national constitutions' provisions and experts' interpretations thereof. The constitutional provisions of Brazil, Peru, Mexico, and…

  5. A Confirmatory Model for Substance Use Among Japanese American and Part-Japanese American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John Kino Yamaguchi; Else, 'Iwalani R. N.; Goebert, Deborah A.; Nishimura, Stephanie T.; Hishinuma, Earl S.; Andrade, Naleen N.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of ethnicity and cultural identity on substance use among Asian and Pacific Islander adolescents. A cross-sequential study conducted in Hawai'i with 144 Japanese American and part-Japanese American adolescents assessed a model integrating Japanese ethnicity, cultural identity, substance use, major life events, and social support. Japanese American adolescents scored higher on the Japanese Culture Scale and on the Peers’ Social Support than the part-Japanese American adolescents. Significant associations for substance use and impairment included culturally intensified events and Japanese cultural identity- behavior subset. Models had good overall fits and suggested that conflict surrounding cultural identity may contribute to substance use. PMID:23480213

  6. Modelling chestnut biogeography for American chestnut restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fei, Songlin; Liang, Liang; Paillet, Frederick L.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Chestnuts (Castanea spp.) are ecologically and economically important species. We studied the general biology, distribution and climatic limits of seven chestnut species from around the world. We provided climatic matching of Asiatic species to North America to assist the range-wide restoration...... American chestnut appears feasible if a sufficiently diverse array of Chinese chestnut germplasm is used as a source of blight resistance. Our study provided a between-continent climate matching approach to facilitate the range-wide species restoration, which can be readily applied in planning...... the restoration of other threatened or endangered species....

  7. Development of a bioenergetics model for age-0 American Shad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Sally T.

    2011-01-01

    Bioenergetics modeling can be used as a tool to investigate the impact of non-native age-0 American shad (Alosa sapidissima) on reservoir and estuary food webs. The model can increase our understanding of how these fish influence lower trophic levels as well as predatory fish populations that feed on juvenile salmonids. Bioenergetics modeling can be used to investigate ecological processes, evaluate alternative research hypotheses, provide decision support, and quantitative prediction. Bioenergetics modeling has proven to be extremely useful in fisheries research (Ney et al. 1993,Chips and Wahl 2008, Petersen et al. 2008). If growth and diet parameters are known, the bioenergetics model can be used to quantify the relative amount of zooplankton or insects consumed by age-0 American shad. When linked with spatial and temporal information on fish abundance, model output can guide inferential hypothesis development to demonstrate where the greatest impacts of age-0 American shad might occur. Bioenergetics modeling is particularly useful when research questions involve multiple species and trophic levels (e.g. plankton communities). Bioenergetics models are mass-balance equations where the energy acquired from food is partitioned between maintenance costs, waste products, and growth (Winberg 1956). Specifically, the Wisconsin bioenergetics model (Hanson et al. 1997) is widely used in fisheries science. Researchers have extensively tested, reviewed, and improved on this modeling approach for over 30 years (Petersen et al. 2008). Development of a bioenergetics model for any species requires three key components: 1) determine physiological parameters for the model through laboratory experiments or incorporate data from a closely related species, 2) corroboration of the model with growth and consumption estimates from independent research, and 3) error analysis of model parameters. Wisconsin bioenergetics models have been parameterized for many of the salmonids and

  8. Bounds for perpetual American option prices in a jump diffusion model

    OpenAIRE

    Ekström, Erik

    2006-01-01

    We provide bounds for perpetual American option prices in a jump diffusion model in terms of American option prices in the standard Black-Scholes model. We also investigate the dependence of the bounds on different parameters of the model.

  9. English Language Proficiency and Test Performance: An Evaluation of Bilingual Students with the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo-Dynega, Marlene; Ortiz, Samuel O.; Flanagan, Dawn P.; Chaplin, William F.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report the findings of an exploratory empirical study that investigated the relationship between English Language Proficiency (ELP) on performance on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities-Third Edition (WJ III) when administered in English to bilingual students of varying levels of ELP. Sixty-one second-grade…

  10. Care delivery for Filipino Americans using the Neuman systems model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angosta, Alona D; Ceria-Ulep, Clementina D; Tse, Alice M

    2014-04-01

    Filipino Americans are at risk of coronary heart disease due to the presence of multiple cardiometabolic factors. Selecting a framework that addresses the factors leading to coronary heart disease is vital when providing care for this population. The Neuman systems model is a comprehensive and wholistic framework that offers an innovative method of viewing clients, their families, and the healthcare system across multiple dimensions. Using the Neuman systems model, advanced practice nurses can develop and implement interventions that will help reduce the potential cardiovascular problems of clients with multiple risk factors. The authors in this article provides insight into the cardiovascular health of Filipino Americans and has implications for nurses and other healthcare providers working with various Southeast Asian groups in the United States.

  11. Modelling active antennal movements of the American cockroach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pequeno-Zurro, Alejandro; Nitschke, Jahn; Szyszka, Paul

    2017-01-01

    lacking. Here we report on an integrated experimental and computational approach to investigate how sensory information affects antennal movements. We present a modelling approach to characterise the relationship between antennal searching movement of the American cockroach Periplaneta americana......Cockroach antennae are multimodal sensory appendages engaging in active olfactory and tactile sensing. They are involved in unisensory behaviours such as chemotaxis, thigmotaxis, obstacle negotiation and tactile orientation. Studies of multisensory capabilities mediated by the antennae are however...

  12. Modeling and Synthesis Support for the North American Carbon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, L.; Cook, R. B.; Thornton, P. E.; Post, W. M.; Wilson, B. E.; Dadi, U.

    2007-12-01

    The Modeling and Synthesis Thematic Data Center (MAST-DC) supports the North American Carbon Program by providing data products and data management services needed for modeling and synthesis activities. The overall objective of MAST-DC is to provide advanced data management support to NACP investigators doing modeling and synthesis, thereby freeing those investigators from having to perform data management functions. MAST-DC has compiled a number of data products for North America, including sub-pixel land-water content, daily meteorological data, and soil, land cover, and elevation data. In addition, we have developed an internet-based WebGIS system that enables users to browse, query, display, subset, and download spatial data using a standard web browser. For the mid-continent intensive, MAST-DC is working with a group of data assimilation modelers to generate a consistent set of meteorological data to drive bottom-up models.

  13. Help-Seeking Intentions among Asian American and White American Students in Psychological Distress: Application of the Health Belief Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin E.; Zane, Nolan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Underutilization of needed mental health services continues to be the major mental health disparity affecting Asian Americans (Sue, Cheng, Saad, & Chu, 2012). The goal of the study was to apply a social psychological theoretical framework—the Health Belief Model (Rosenstock, 1966)—to understand potential reasons why Asian Americans underutilize mental health services relative to White Americans. Method Using a cross-sectional online questionnaire, this study examined how perceived severity of symptoms, perceived susceptibility to mental health problems, perceived benefits of treatment, and perceived barriers to treatment influenced intentions to seek help among a sample of 395 Asian American and 261 White American students experiencing elevated levels of psychological distress. Results Analyses using structural equation modeling indicated that Asian Americans in distress had relatively lower intentions to seek help compared to White Americans. Perceived benefits partially accounted for differences in help-seeking intentions. Although Asian Americans perceived greater barriers to help-seeking than White Americans, it did not significantly explain racial/ethnic differences in help-seeking intentions. Perceived severity and barriers were related to help-seeking intentions in both groups. Conclusions Outreach efforts that particularly emphasize the benefits of seeking mental health services may be a particularly promising approach to address underutilization. These findings have implications in help-seeking promotion and outreach. PMID:26098454

  14. Cultural Models of Education and Academic Performance for Native American and European American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryberg, Stephanie A.; Covarrubias, Rebecca; Burack, Jacob A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the role of cultural representations of self (i.e., interdependence and independence) and positive relationships (i.e., trust for teachers) in academic performance (i.e., self-reported grades) for Native American ("N"?=?41) and European American ("N"?=?49) high school students. The Native American students endorsed…

  15. Following the American Example? American Models for Hospital Medicine and Research: The Case of the Kerckhoff Institute in Bad Nauheim

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermann, C

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines how and why American models were applied in the reorganization of West German hospitals and medical research centers in the post-war period. After discussing why American clinical medical centers turned into model institutions over the last century or so, a case study is discussed in some detail: the Kerckhoff Institute for cardiovascular research in Bad Nauheim, since 1951 an institute within the Max Planck Society with its own research clinic (which was unusual for Max P...

  16. [Following the American example? American models for hospital medicine and research: the case of the Kerckhoff Institute in Bad Nauheim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines how and why American models were applied in the reorganization of West German hospitals and medical research centers in the post-war period. After discussing why American clinical medical centers turned into model institutions over the last century or so, a case study is discussed in some detail: the Kerckhoff Institute for cardiovascular research in Bad Nauheim, since 1951 an institute within the Max Planck Society with its own research clinic (which was unusual for Max Planck Institutes). The history of this institution illustrates which local and specific considerations drove historical actors to embrace American models. German academic and administrative realities, however, imposed tight constraints on the implementation of US institutional models.

  17. Modelling the spread of American foulbrood in honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Samik; Bull, James C.; Budge, Giles E.; Keeling, Matt J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the spread of American foulbrood (AFB), a disease caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae, that affects bees and can be extremely damaging to beehives. Our dataset comes from an inspection period carried out during an AFB epidemic of honeybee colonies on the island of Jersey during the summer of 2010. The data include the number of hives of honeybees, location and owner of honeybee apiaries across the island. We use a spatial SIR model with an underlying owner network to simulate the epidemic and characterize the epidemic using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) scheme to determine model parameters and infection times (including undetected ‘occult’ infections). Likely methods of infection spread can be inferred from the analysis, with both distance- and owner-based transmissions being found to contribute to the spread of AFB. The results of the MCMC are corroborated by simulating the epidemic using a stochastic SIR model, resulting in aggregate levels of infection that are comparable to the data. We use this stochastic SIR model to simulate the impact of different control strategies on controlling the epidemic. It is found that earlier inspections result in smaller epidemics and a higher likelihood of AFB extinction. PMID:24026473

  18. New Comment on Gibbs Density Surface of Fluid Argon: Revised Critical Parameters, L. V. Woodcock, Int. J. Thermophys. (2014) 35, 1770-1784

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umirzakov, I. H.

    2018-01-01

    The author comments on an article by Woodcock (Int J Thermophys 35:1770-1784, 2014), who investigates the idea of a critical line instead of a single critical point using the example of argon. In the introduction, Woodcock states that "The Van der Waals critical point does not comply with the Gibbs phase rule. Its existence is based upon a hypothesis rather than a thermodynamic definition". The present comment is a response to the statement by Woodcock. The comment mathematically demonstrates that a critical point is not only based on a hypothesis that is used to define values of two parameters of the Van der Waals equation of state. Instead, the author argues that a critical point is a direct consequence of the thermodynamic phase equilibrium conditions resulting in a single critical point. It is shown that the thermodynamic conditions result in the first and second partial derivatives of pressure with respect to volume at constant temperature at a critical point equal to zero which are usual conditions of an existence of a critical point.

  19. Modeling: An Important Ingredient in Higher Education for American Indian Women Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, E. Daniel; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Discusses characteristics and behaviors of effective role models for American Indian women, based on surveys of graduates of the American Indian Social Work Career Training Program at the University of Utah. Recruitment and retention of American Indian women students will require an active support system. (JAC)

  20. Anxiety Psychopathology in African American Adults: Literature Review and Development of an Empirically Informed Sociocultural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lora Rose; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, the extant literature concerning anxiety psychopathology in African American adults is summarized to develop a testable, explanatory framework with implications for future research. The model was designed to account for purported lower rates of anxiety disorders in African Americans compared to European Americans, along with other…

  1. Filipino Americans and Racism: A Multiple Mediation Model of Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Alvin N.; Juang, Linda P.

    2010-01-01

    Although the literature on Asian Americans and racism has been emerging, few studies have examined how coping influences one's encounters with racism. To advance the literature, the present study focused on the psychological impact of Filipino Americans' experiences with racism and the role of coping as a mediator using a community-based sample of…

  2. The Ties that Bind: Effective American American Communities as Models of Peaceful Coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Robbie J.

    Peace, though pursued, is often presented in the literature as an elusive and somewhat ethereal state that seldom is attained. However, African American communities in this country have historically developed and maintained effective, collaborative, working alliances that have assisted in individual and group survival under the most adverse…

  3. Afrikaans, American and British Models for South African English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tions in a national and international context, by comparing the traditions and the roles of the lan- ... The changing linguistic, social, and educational situations in South Africa ... abroad, by the British and American leXicographical traditions. ... interactional styles in the South African social psychology and cross-cultural.

  4. The Dimensions of Subjective Well-Being among Black Americans: A Structural Model Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thanh V.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of data from 668 black adult respondents to the 1980 National Survey of Black Americans suggests that subjective well-being among black Americans is multidimensional. A three-factor model of subjective well-being encompassing strain (depressive symptoms), life satisfaction, and self-esteem was empirically supported and consistently…

  5. Model Minority Stereotype: Influence on Perceived Mental Health Needs of Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Alice W; Chang, Janet; O'Brien, Janine; Budgazad, Marc S; Tsai, Jack

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the influence of the model minority stereotype on the perceived mental health functioning of Asian Americans. It was hypothesized that college students would perceive Asian Americans as having fewer mental health problems and clinical symptoms than Whites due to the model minority stereotype. Four hundred and twenty-five undergraduate students from a predominately White college campus in the American northeast were randomly exposed to one of four conditions: (1) a clinical vignette describing a White college student suffering from adjustment disorder; (2) the same vignette describing an Asian American college student; (3) a newspaper article describing a success story of Whites and the White clinical vignette; (4) the same newspaper article and clinical vignette describing an Asian American. Following exposure to one of the conditions, participants completed a memory recall task and measures of colorblindness, attitudes towards Asian Americans, attitudes towards out-group members, and perceived mental health functioning. Participants exposed to the vignettes primed with the positive/model minority stereotype perceived the target regardless of race/ethnicity as having better mental health functioning and less clinical symptoms than the condition without the stereotype. Additionally, the stereotype primer was found to be a modest predictor for the perception of mental health functioning in Asian American vignettes. Results shed light on the impact of the model minority stereotype on the misperception of Asian Americans' mental health status, contributing to the invisibility or neglect of this minority group's mental health needs.

  6. Understanding the Influence of Model Minority Stereotypes on Asian American Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assalone, Amanda E.; Fann, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Contrary to the model minority myth that portrays Asian Americans as academic all-stars overrepresented in elite 4-year institutions, nearly half of all Asian American college students do, in fact, attend community colleges, and many experience myriad challenges. This exploratory study utilized a qualitative analysis and investigated how model…

  7. Investigating the American Time Use Survey from an Exposure Modeling Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes an evaluation of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics' American Time Use Survey (ATUS) for potential use in modeling human exposures to environmental pollutants. The ATUS is a large, on-going, cross-sectional survey of where Americans spend time and what activ...

  8. Applying ethnic equivalence and cultural values models to African-American teens' perceptions of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamborn, Susie D; Felbab, Amanda J

    2003-10-01

    This study evaluated both the parenting styles and family ecologies models with interview responses from 93 14- and 15-year-old African-American adolescents. The parenting styles model was more strongly represented in both open-ended and structured interview responses. Using variables from the structured interview as independent variables, regression analyses contrasted each model with a joint model for predicting self-esteem, self-reliance, work orientation, and ethnic identity. Overall, the findings suggest that a joint model that combines elements from both models provides a richer understanding of African-American families.

  9. Applying Ethnic Equivalence and Cultural Values Models to African-American Teens' Perceptions of Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamborn, Susie D.; Felbab, Amanda J.

    2003-01-01

    Study evaluated both the parenting styles and family ecologies models with interview responses from African American adolescents. Analyses contrasted each model with a joint model for predicting self esteem, self reliance, work orientation, and ethnic identity. Overall, findings suggest that a joint model that combines elements from both models…

  10. Hierarchical modeling of genome-wide Short Tandem Repeat (STR) markers infers native American prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cecil M

    2010-02-01

    This study examines a genome-wide dataset of 678 Short Tandem Repeat loci characterized in 444 individuals representing 29 Native American populations as well as the Tundra Netsi and Yakut populations from Siberia. Using these data, the study tests four current hypotheses regarding the hierarchical distribution of neutral genetic variation in native South American populations: (1) the western region of South America harbors more variation than the eastern region of South America, (2) Central American and western South American populations cluster exclusively, (3) populations speaking the Chibchan-Paezan and Equatorial-Tucanoan language stock emerge as a group within an otherwise South American clade, (4) Chibchan-Paezan populations in Central America emerge together at the tips of the Chibchan-Paezan cluster. This study finds that hierarchical models with the best fit place Central American populations, and populations speaking the Chibchan-Paezan language stock, at a basal position or separated from the South American group, which is more consistent with a serial founder effect into South America than that previously described. Western (Andean) South America is found to harbor similar levels of variation as eastern (Equatorial-Tucanoan and Ge-Pano-Carib) South America, which is inconsistent with an initial west coast migration into South America. Moreover, in all relevant models, the estimates of genetic diversity within geographic regions suggest a major bottleneck or founder effect occurring within the North American subcontinent, before the peopling of Central and South America. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Perpetual American put options in a level-dependent volatility model

    OpenAIRE

    Ekström, Erik

    2003-01-01

    We find the explicit value of perpetual American put options in the constant elasticity of variance model using the concept of smooth fit. We show that the price is increasing in the volatility and convex in the underlying stock price. Moreover, as the model converges to the standard Black and Scholes model, the value of the put is shown to approach the `correct' limit.

  12. Understanding Chinese American Adolescents' Developmental Outcomes: Insights from the Family Stress Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Aprile D.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2010-01-01

    In this brief report, we investigated whether the Family Stress Model could be replicated with a sample of Chinese American families. Path analyses with 444 adolescents and their parents provided support for the model's generalizability. Specifically, mothers' and fathers' reports of economic status (i.e., income, financial, and job instability)…

  13. A mediation model of professional psychological help seeking for suicide ideation among Asian American and white American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Joel; Brownson, Chris; Rutkowski, Leslie; Nguyen, Chi P; Becker, Marty Swanbrow

    2014-01-01

    This study examined professional psychological help seeking among 1,045 white American and Asian American students from 70 U.S. colleges and universities who had seriously considered attempting suicide. The authors found that Asian American college students had lower rates of professional psychological help seeking for their suicide ideation than White American college students. Guided by social network perspectives on professional psychological help seeking, the authors also tested mediators of this racial disparity. Relative to white Americans, Asian Americans were advised by fewer people (especially fewer family members) to seek professional help, which was, in turn, associated with lower rates of professional psychological help seeking for suicide ideation. These findings underscore the importance of gatekeeping as a suicide prevention strategy for Asian American college students.

  14. North American Carbon Project (NACP) Regional Model-Model and Model-Data Intercomparison Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntzinger, D. N.; Post, W. M.; Jacobson, A. R.; Cook, R. B.

    2009-05-01

    Available observations are localized and widely separated in both space and time, so we depend heavily on models to characterize, understand, and predict carbon fluxes at regional and global scales. The results from each model differ because they use different approaches (forward vs. inverse), modeling strategies (detailed process, statistical, observation based), process representation, boundary conditions, initial conditions, and driver data. To investigate these differences we conducted a model-model and model-data comparison using available forward ecosystem model and atmospheric inverse output, along with regional scale inventory data. Forward or "bottom-up" models typically estimate carbon fluxes through a set of physiological relationships, and are based on our current mechanistic understanding of how carbon is exchanged within ecosystems. Inverse or "top-down" analyses use measured atmospheric concentrations of CO2, coupled with an atmospheric transport model to infer surface flux distributions. Although bottom-up models do fairly well at reproducing measured fluxes (i.e., net ecosystem exchange) at a given location, they vary considerably in their estimates of carbon flux over regional or continental scales, suggesting difficulty in scaling mechanistic relationships to large areas and/or timescales. Conversely, top-down inverse models predict fluxes that are quantitatively consistent with atmospheric measurements, suggesting that they are capturing large scale variability in flux quite well, but offer limited insights into the processes controlling this variability and how fluxes vary at fine spatial scales. The analyses focused on identifying and quantifying spatial and temporal patterns of carbon fluxes among the models; quantifying across-model variability, as well as comparing simulated or estimated surface fluxes and biomass to observed values at regional to continental scales for the period 2000-2005. The analysis focused on the following three

  15. Stereotype content model explains prejudice for an envied outgroup: Scale of anti-Asian American Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Monica H; Kwan, Virginia S Y; Cheung, Anna; Fiske, Susan T

    2005-01-01

    The Stereotype Content Model hypothesizes anti-Asian American stereotypes differentiating two dimensions: (excessive) competence and (deficient) sociability. The Scale of Anti-Asian American Stereotypes (SAAAS) shows this envious mixed prejudice in six studies. Study 1 began with 131 racial attitude items. Studies 2 and 3 tested 684 respondents on a focused 25-item version. Studies 4 and 5 tested the final 25-item SAAAS on 222 respondents at three campuses; scores predicted outgroup friendships, cultural experiences, and (over)estimated campus presence. Study 6 showed that allegedly low sociability, rather than excessively high competence, drives rejection of Asian Americans, consistent with system justification theory. The SAAAS demonstrates mixed, envious anti-Asian American prejudice, contrasting with more-often-studied contemptuous racial prejudices (i.e., against Blacks).

  16. Analysis of GRI North American Regional Gas Supply-Demand Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesbitt, D.M.; Singh, J.; Pine, G.D.; Kline, D.; Barron, M.; Cheung, P.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from the GRI North American Regional Gas Supply-Demand Model using the four scenarios defined for the Energy Modeling Forum Number 9 (EMF-9) described in EMF-9 Working Paper 9.4 (1987). The analysis is designed both to showcase the GRI North American Regional model as well as to infer meaningful results about the North American natural gas system. The focus of the analysis is not R ampersand D per se; R ampersand D analysis using the model is conducted regularly by GRI and described elsewhere. Rather, the objective is to analyze some of the major uncertainties in the North American gas market, uncertainties that potentially affect all players including GRI. In particular, the authors seek to quantify the overall economic environment in which production, transmission, distribution, consumption, and R ampersand D decisions will be made and how different that overall environment might be under alternative assumptions. An attendant objective of this analysis has been to enlist economists from a range of organizations (producers, regulators, GRI, and consultants) to carefully scrutinize the GRI North American Regional model and results. In particular, the coauthors were assembled from diverse organizations to review and evaluate model outputs, applying their particular experience and perspective. The four EMF-9 scenarios upon which this paper is based are described in detail later in this document. Briefly, scenario one represents a world with a surfeit of gas and a relatively high oil price projection; scenario two considers a lower oil price forecast; scenario three assumes a pessimistic outlook for the gas resource base with the same oil prices as scenario one; and scenario four examines a higher level of demand for gas in the North American gas market. An important objective of this analysis is to illustrate the predictive power of multi-scenario comparisons (as contrasted with detailed analysis of any individual scenario)

  17. Testing a multiple mediation model of Asian American college students' willingness to see a counselor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul Youngbin; Park, Irene J K

    2009-07-01

    Adapting the theory of reasoned action, the present study examined help-seeking beliefs, attitudes, and intent among Asian American college students (N = 110). A multiple mediation model was tested to see if the relation between Asian values and willingness to see a counselor was mediated by attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help and subjective norm. A bootstrapping procedure was used to test the multiple mediation model. Results indicated that subjective norm was the sole significant mediator of the effect of Asian values on willingness to see a counselor. The findings highlight the importance of social influences on help-seeking intent among Asian American college students.

  18. Evaluating North American Electric Grid Reliability Using the Barabasi-Albert Network Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The reliability of electric transmission systems is examined using a scale-free model of network structure and failure propagation. The topologies of the North American eastern and western electric networks are analyzed to estimate their reliability based on the Barabasi-Albert network model. A commonly used power system reliability index is computed using a simple failure propagation model. The results are compared to the values of power system reliability indices previously obtained using s...

  19. An Idealized Cognitive Model Analysis of Metaphors in American Economic News Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yang

    2018-03-01

    On the basis of the theoretical framework of Lakoff’s Conceptual Metaphor, the paper researches into the cognitive model of conceptual metaphors in American Economic News Reports. Moreover, the paper tries to analyze economic discourse by the application of Idealized Cognitive Model of its metaphorical thinking combined with cultural model and reflect the ideology of the media. It aims to help English learners ponder the implied meaning the economic news reports conveyed and take a new look at metaphors between the lines.

  20. A Model of Maternal and Paternal Ethnic Socialization of Mexican-American Adolescents' Self-Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, George P; Carlo, Gustavo; Streit, Cara; White, Rebecca M B

    2017-11-01

    Data from a sample of 462 Mexican-American adolescents (M = 10.4 years, SD = .55; 48.1% girls), mothers, and fathers were used to test an ethnic socialization model of ethnic identity and self-efficacy that also considered mainstream parenting styles (e.g., authoritative parenting). Findings supported the ethnic socialization model: parents' endorsement of Mexican-American values were associated with ethnic socialization at fifth grade and seventh grade; maternal ethnic socialization at fifth grade and paternal ethnic socialization at seventh grade were associated with adolescents' ethnic identity exploration at 10th grade and, in turn, self-efficacy at 12th grade. The findings support ethnic socialization conceptions of how self-views of ethnicity develop from childhood across adolescence in Mexican-American children. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  1. A Bayesian spawning habitat suitability model for American shad in southeastern United States rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Joseph E.; Harris, Julianne E.; Raabe, Joshua K.; Brownell, Prescott; Drew, C. Ashton

    2012-01-01

    Habitat suitability index models for American shad Alosa sapidissima were developed by Stier and Crance in 1985. These models, which were based on a combination of published information and expert opinion, are often used to make decisions about hydropower dam operations and fish passage. The purpose of this study was to develop updated habitat suitability index models for spawning American shad in the southeastern United States, building on the many field and laboratory studies completed since 1985. We surveyed biologists who had knowledge about American shad spawning grounds, assembled a panel of experts to discuss important habitat variables, and used raw data from published and unpublished studies to develop new habitat suitability curves. The updated curves are based on resource selection functions, which can model habitat selectivity based on use and availability of particular habitats. Using field data collected in eight rivers from Virginia to Florida (Mattaponi, Pamunkey, Roanoke, Tar, Neuse, Cape Fear, Pee Dee, St. Johns), we obtained new curves for temperature, current velocity, and depth that were generally similar to the original models. Our new suitability function for substrate was also similar to the original pattern, except that sand (optimal in the original model) has a very low estimated suitability. The Bayesian approach that we used to develop habitat suitability curves provides an objective framework for updating the model as new studies are completed and for testing the model's applicability in other parts of the species' range.

  2. Tests of fit of historically-informed models of African American Admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jessica M

    2018-02-01

    African American populations in the U.S. formed primarily by mating between Africans and Europeans over the last 500 years. To date, studies of admixture have focused on either a one-time admixture event or continuous input into the African American population from Europeans only. Our goal is to gain a better understanding of the admixture process by examining models that take into account (a) assortative mating by ancestry in the African American population, (b) continuous input from both Europeans and Africans, and (c) historically informed variation in the rate of African migration over time. We used a model-based clustering method to generate distributions of African ancestry in three samples comprised of 147 African Americans from two published sources. We used a log-likelihood method to examine the fit of four models to these distributions and used a log-likelihood ratio test to compare the relative fit of each model. The mean ancestry estimates for our datasets of 77% African/23% European to 83% African/17% European ancestry are consistent with previous studies. We find admixture models that incorporate continuous gene flow from Europeans fit significantly better than one-time event models, and that a model involving continuous gene flow from Africans and Europeans fits better than one with continuous gene flow from Europeans only for two samples. Importantly, models that involve continuous input from Africans necessitate a higher level of gene flow from Europeans than previously reported. We demonstrate that models that take into account information about the rate of African migration over the past 500 years fit observed patterns of African ancestry better than alternative models. Our approach will enrich our understanding of the admixture process in extant and past populations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Challenging the Model Minority Myth: Engaging Asian American Students in Research on Asian American College Student Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyemoto, Karen L.; Kim, Grace S.; Tanabe, Miwa; Tawa, John; Day, Stephanie C.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce a method of understanding the experiences and needs of Asian American students on college campuses through the research process. Specifically, the authors offer a students-as-researchers approach to connect the transformative educational aims of Asian American studies to the scholarship, service, and lived…

  4. On the Perpetual American Put Options for Level Dependent Volatility Models with Jumps

    OpenAIRE

    Bayraktar, Erhan

    2007-01-01

    We prove that the perpetual American put option price of level dependent volatility model with compound Poisson jumps is convex and is the classical solution of its associated quasi-variational inequality, that it is $C^2$ except at the stopping boundary and that it is $C^1$ everywhere (i.e. the smooth pasting condition always holds).

  5. A tree-based method to price American options in the Heston model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellekoop, M.; Nieuwenhuis, H.

    2009-01-01

    We develop an algorithm to price American options on assets that follow the stochastic volatility model defined by Heston. We use an approach which is based on a modification of a combined tree for stock prices and volatilities, where the number of nodes grows quadratically in the number of time

  6. Methamphetamine Use among Rural White and Native American Adolescents: An Application of the Stress Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitle, David J.; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine use has been identified as having significant adverse health consequences, yet we know little about the correlates of its use. Additionally, research has found that Native Americans are at the highest risk for methamphetamine use. Our exploratory study, informed by the stress process model, examines stress and stress buffering…

  7. Numerically pricing American options under the generalized mixed fractional Brownian motion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenting; Yan, Bowen; Lian, Guanghua; Zhang, Ying

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we introduce a robust numerical method, based on the upwind scheme, for the pricing of American puts under the generalized mixed fractional Brownian motion (GMFBM) model. By using portfolio analysis and applying the Wick-Itô formula, a partial differential equation (PDE) governing the prices of vanilla options under the GMFBM is successfully derived for the first time. Based on this, we formulate the pricing of American puts under the current model as a linear complementarity problem (LCP). Unlike the classical Black-Scholes (B-S) model or the generalized B-S model discussed in Cen and Le (2011), the newly obtained LCP under the GMFBM model is difficult to be solved accurately because of the numerical instability which results from the degeneration of the governing PDE as time approaches zero. To overcome this difficulty, a numerical approach based on the upwind scheme is adopted. It is shown that the coefficient matrix of the current method is an M-matrix, which ensures its stability in the maximum-norm sense. Remarkably, we have managed to provide a sharp theoretic error estimate for the current method, which is further verified numerically. The results of various numerical experiments also suggest that this new approach is quite accurate, and can be easily extended to price other types of financial derivatives with an American-style exercise feature under the GMFBM model.

  8. American Option Pricing using GARCH models and the Normal Inverse Gaussian distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentoft, Lars Peter

    In this paper we propose a feasible way to price American options in a model with time varying volatility and conditional skewness and leptokurtosis using GARCH processes and the Normal Inverse Gaussian distribution. We show how the risk neutral dynamics can be obtained in this model, we interpret...... properties shows that there are important option pricing differences compared to the Gaussian case as well as to the symmetric special case. A large scale empirical examination shows that our model outperforms the Gaussian case for pricing options on three large US stocks as well as a major index...

  9. Standardized Competencies for Parenteral Nutrition Prescribing: The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenter, Peggi; Boullata, Joseph I; Ayers, Phil; Gervasio, Jane; Malone, Ainsley; Raymond, Erica; Holcombe, Beverly; Kraft, Michael; Sacks, Gordon; Seres, David

    2015-08-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) provision is complex, as it is a high-alert medication and prone to a variety of potential errors. With changes in clinical practice models and recent federal rulings, the number of PN prescribers may be increasing. Safe prescribing of this therapy requires that competency for prescribers from all disciplines be demonstrated using a standardized process. A standardized model for PN prescribing competency is proposed based on a competency framework, the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.)-published interdisciplinary core competencies, safe practice recommendations, and clinical guidelines. This framework will guide institutions and agencies in developing and maintaining competency for safe PN prescription by their staff. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  10. An approach to the broadband effect on Latin American growth: A structural model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Verónica Alderete

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the fixed broadband penetration effect on Latin American economic growth. The methodology employed consists of using a simultaneous equation model based on Koutroumpis (2009 and Katz and Callorda (2013. To aid this process, we use country level data from the World Bank and the Regional Dialogue about the Information Society-DIRSI for the 2010-2014 period. The results obtained stress the importance of broadband penetration for economic growth in Latin America.

  11. Promoting advance directives among African Americans: a faith-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Karen

    2006-02-01

    Studies show that African Americans are less likely than other ethnic groups to complete advance directives. However, what influences African Americans' decisions to complete or not complete advance directives is unclear. Using a faith-based promotion model, 102 African Americans aged 55 years or older were recruited from local churches and community-based agencies to participate in a pilot study to promote advance care planning. Focus groups were used to collect data on participants' preferences for care, desire to make personal choices, values and attitudes, beliefs about death and dying, and advance directives. A standardized interview was used in the focus groups, and the data were organized and analyzed using NUDIST 4 software (QRS Software, Victoria, Australia). Three fourths of the participants refused to complete advance directives. The following factors influenced the participants' decisions about end-of-life care and completion of an advance directive: spirituality; view of suffering, death, and dying; social support networks; barriers to utilization; and mistrust of the health care system. The dissemination of information apprises individuals of their right to self-determine about their care, but educational efforts may not produce a significant change in behavior toward completion of advance care planning. Thus, ongoing efforts are needed to improve the trust that African Americans have in medical and health care providers.

  12. No Habitat Selection during Spring Migration at a Meso-Scale Range across Mosaic Landscapes: A Case Study with the Woodcock (Scolopax rusticola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariñe Crespo

    Full Text Available Success of migration in birds in part depends on habitat selection. Overall, it is still poorly known whether there is habitat selection amongst landbird migrants moving across landscapes. Europe is chiefly covered by agro-forestry mosaic landscapes, so migratory species associated to either agricultural landscapes or woodland habitats should theoretically find suitable stopover sites along migration. During migration from wintering to breeding quarters, woodcocks (Scolopax rusticola tagged with PTT satellite-tracking transmitters were used to test for the hypothesis that migrants associated to agro-forest habitats have no habitat selection during migration, at a meso-scale level. Using a GIS platform we extracted at a meso-scale range habitat cover at stopover localities. Results obtained from comparisons of soil covers between points randomly selected and true stopover localities sites revealed, as expected, the species may not select for particular habitats at a meso-scale range, because the habitat (or habitats required by the species can be found virtually everywhere on their migration route. However, those birds stopping over in places richer in cropland or mosaic habitats including both cropland and forest and with proportionally less closed forest stayed for longer than in areas with lower surfaces of cropland and mosaic and more closed forest. This suggests that areas rich in cropland or mosaic habitat were optimal.

  13. A numerical method to estimate the parameters of the CEV model implied by American option prices: Evidence from NYSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, Luca Vincenzo; Cecere, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop a method to compute the parameters of the CEV model implied by American options. • This is the first procedure for calibrating the CEV model to American option prices. • The proposed approach is extensively tested on the NYSE market. • The novel method turns out to be very efficient in computing the CEV model parameters. • The CEV model provides only a marginal improvement over the lognormal model. - Abstract: We develop a highly efficient procedure to forecast the parameters of the constant elasticity of variance (CEV) model implied by American options. In particular, first of all, the American option prices predicted by the CEV model are calculated using an accurate and fast finite difference scheme. Then, the parameters of the CEV model are obtained by minimizing the distance between theoretical and empirical option prices, which yields an optimization problem that is solved using an ad-hoc numerical procedure. The proposed approach, which turns out to be very efficient from the computational standpoint, is used to test the goodness-of-fit of the CEV model in predicting the prices of American options traded on the NYSE. The results obtained reveal that the CEV model does not provide a very good agreement with real market data and yields only a marginal improvement over the more popular Black–Scholes model.

  14. Disordered eating among Asian American college women: A racially expanded model of objectification theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Tran, Alisia G T T; Miyake, Elisa R; Kim, Helen Youngju

    2017-03-01

    Objectification theory has been applied to understand disordered eating among college women. A recent extension of objectification theory (Moradi, 2010) conceptualizes racism as a socialization experience that shapes women of color's objectification experiences, yet limited research has examined this theoretical assertion. The present study proposed and examined a racially expanded model of objectification theory that postulated perceived racial discrimination, perpetual foreigner racism, and racial/ethnic teasing as correlates of Asian American college women's (N = 516) self-objectification processes and eating disorder symptomatology. Perceived racial discrimination, perpetual foreigner racism, and racial/ethnic teasing were indirectly associated with eating disordered symptomatology through self-objectification processes of internalization of media ideals of beauty (media internalization), body surveillance, and body shame. Results support the inclusion of racial stressors as contexts of objectification for Asian American women. The present findings also underscore perceived racial discrimination, racial/ethnic teasing, and perpetual foreigner racism as group-specific risk factors with major theoretical, empirical, and clinical relevance to eating disorder research and treatment with Asian American college women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. DYNAMICS OF METAPHORIC MODELLING OF THE CONCEPT OF TERRORISM IN AMERICAN MASS MEDIA DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rykova, O.V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The topicality of the research in modern linguistics is defined by the importance of studying the problem of the dynamic nature of the concept content, the need to define the connection type between the concept and discourse as well as to reveal the dependence of the concept content and verbalization means from the type of discourse. The subject of the research is dynamic properties of the verbalization of a socially marked concept in American mass media discourse. The aim is to define the dynamics of structuring and explicating the knowledge about terrorism in mass media discourse. To reach the aim the following tasks are set: to determine the corpus of linguistic units which serve as verbalizers of the concept of terrorism in American mass media discourse; to define the dynamics of the verbal representation of the concept of terrorism in American mass media discourse as exemplified by metaphoric modelling. The practical applicability of the research consists in the possibility of using its main points and results in such academic courses as general linguistics, stylistics, cultural linguistics, special courses in cognitive linguistics, theory of conceptual metaphor, discourse study and in lexicographic practice.

  16. Similarity Assessment of Land Surface Model Outputs in the North American Land Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sujay V.; Wang, Shugong; Mocko, David M.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Xia, Youlong

    2017-11-01

    Multimodel ensembles are often used to produce ensemble mean estimates that tend to have increased simulation skill over any individual model output. If multimodel outputs are too similar, an individual LSM would add little additional information to the multimodel ensemble, whereas if the models are too dissimilar, it may be indicative of systematic errors in their formulations or configurations. The article presents a formal similarity assessment of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) multimodel ensemble outputs to assess their utility to the ensemble, using a confirmatory factor analysis. Outputs from four NLDAS Phase 2 models currently running in operations at NOAA/NCEP and four new/upgraded models that are under consideration for the next phase of NLDAS are employed in this study. The results show that the runoff estimates from the LSMs were most dissimilar whereas the models showed greater similarity for root zone soil moisture, snow water equivalent, and terrestrial water storage. Generally, the NLDAS operational models showed weaker association with the common factor of the ensemble and the newer versions of the LSMs showed stronger association with the common factor, with the model similarity increasing at longer time scales. Trade-offs between the similarity metrics and accuracy measures indicated that the NLDAS operational models demonstrate a larger span in the similarity-accuracy space compared to the new LSMs. The results of the article indicate that simultaneous consideration of model similarity and accuracy at the relevant time scales is necessary in the development of multimodel ensemble.

  17. Distributed snow modeling suitable for use with operational data for the American River watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, E.; Georgakakos, K. P.

    2004-12-01

    The mountainous terrain of the American River watershed (~4300 km2) at the Western slope of the Northern Sierra Nevada is subject to significant variability in the atmospheric forcing that controls the snow accumulation and ablations processes (i.e., precipitation, surface temperature, and radiation). For a hydrologic model that attempts to predict both short- and long-term streamflow discharges, a plausible description of the seasonal and intermittent winter snow pack accumulation and ablation is crucial. At present the NWS-CNRFC operational snow model is implemented in a semi distributed manner (modeling unit of about 100-1000 km2) and therefore lump distinct spatial variability of snow processes. In this study we attempt to account for the precipitation, temperature, and radiation spatial variability by constructing a distributed snow accumulation and melting model suitable for use with commonly available sparse data. An adaptation of the NWS-Snow17 energy and mass balance that is used operationally at the NWS River Forecast Centers is implemented at 1 km2 grid cells with distributed input and model parameters. The input to the model (i.e., precipitation and surface temperature) is interpolated from observed point data. The surface temperature was interpolated over the basin based on adiabatic lapse rates using topographic information whereas the precipitation was interpolated based on maps of climatic mean annual rainfall distribution acquired from PRISM. The model parameters that control the melting rate due to radiation were interpolated based on aspect. The study was conducted for the entire American basin for the snow seasons of 1999-2000. Validation of the Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) prediction is done by comparing to observation from 12 snow Sensors. The Snow Cover Area (SCA) prediction was evaluated by comparing to remotely sensed 500m daily snow cover derived from MODIS. The results that the distribution of snow over the area is well captured and the

  18. Health behavior change models and their socio-cultural relevance for breast cancer screening in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashing-Giwa, K

    1999-01-01

    Models of health behavior provide the conceptual bases for most of the breast cancer screening intervention studies. These models were not designed for and have not been adequately tested with African American women. The models discussed in this paper are: The Health Belief Model, the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior, and the Transtheoretical Model. This paper will examine the socio-cultural relevance of these health behavior models, and discuss specific socio-cultural dimensions that are not accounted for by these paradigms. It is critical that researchers include socio-cultural dimensions, such as interconnectedness, health socialization, ecological factors and health care system factors into their intervention models with African American women. Comprehensive and socio-culturally based investigations are necessary to guide the scientific and policy challenge for reducing breast cancer mortality in African American women.

  19. A large-scale linear complementarity model of the North American natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, Steven A.; Jifang Zhuang; Kiet, Supat

    2005-01-01

    The North American natural gas market has seen significant changes recently due to deregulation and restructuring. For example, third party marketers can contract for transportation and purchase of gas to sell to end-users. While the intent was a more competitive market, the potential for market power exists. We analyze this market using a linear complementarity equilibrium model including producers, storage and peak gas operators, third party marketers and four end-use sectors. The marketers are depicted as Nash-Cournot players determining supply to meet end-use consumption, all other players are in perfect competition. Results based on National Petroleum Council scenarios are presented. (Author)

  20. Consequences of shoaling of the Central American Seaway determined from modeling Nd isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulchre, P.; Arsouze, T.; Donnadieu, Y.; Dutay, J.-C.; Jaramillo, C.; Le Bras, J.; Martin, E.; Montes, C.; Waite, A. J.

    2014-03-01

    The Central American Seaway played a pivotal role in shaping global climate throughout the late Cenozoic. Recent geological surveys have provided new constraints on timing of the seaway shoaling, while neodymium isotopic (ɛNd) data measured on fossil teeth, debris, and ferromanganese crusts have helped define the history of water masses in the region. Here we provide the first 3-D simulations of ɛNd responses to the shoaling seaway. Our model suggests that a narrow and shallow seaway is sufficient to affect interoceanic circulation, that inflow/outflow balance between the Caribbean and the Antilles responds nonlinearly to sill depth, and that a seaway narrower than 400 km is consistent with an active Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the late Miocene. Simulated ɛNd values in the Caribbean confirm that inputs from radiogenic Pacific waters in the Caribbean decrease as the seaway shoals. Despite model limitations, a comparison between our results and ɛNd values recorded in the Caribbean helps constrain the depth of the Central American Seaway through time, and we infer that a depth between 50 and 200 m could have been reached 10 Ma ago.

  1. The Brand's PREACH Model: Predicting Readiness to Engage African American Churches in Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Dorine J; Alston, Reginald J

    2017-09-01

    Despite many attempts to reduce health disparities, health professionals face obstacles in improving poor health outcomes within the African American (AA) community. To promote change for improved health measures, it is important to implement culturally tailored programming through a trusted institution, such as the AA church. While churches have the potential to play an important role in positively impacting health among AAs, it is unclear what attributes are necessary to predict success or failure for health promotion within these institutions. The purpose of this study was to create a model, the Brand's PREACH ( Predicting Readiness to Engage African American Churches in Health) Model, to predict the readiness of AA churches to engage in health promotion programming. Thirty-six semistructured key informant interviews were conducted with 12 pastors, 12 health leaders, and 12 congregants to gain information on the relationship between church infrastructure (physical structure, personnel, funding, and social/cultural support), readiness, and health promotion programming. The findings revealed that church infrastructure has an association with and will predict the readiness of a church to engage in health promotion programming. The ability to identify readiness early on will be useful for developing, implementing, and evaluating faith-based interventions, in partnership with churches, which is a key factor for sustainable and effective programs.

  2. Comparisons of patch-use models for wintering American tree sparrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tome, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    Optimal foraging theory has stimulated numerous theoretical and empirical studies of foraging behavior for >20 years. These models provide a valuable tool for studying the foraging behavior of an organism. As with any other tool, the models are most effective when properly used. For example, to obtain a robust test of a foraging model, Stephens and Krebs (1986) recommend experimental designs in which four questions are answered in the affirmative. First, do the foragers play the same "game" as the model? Sec- ond, are the assumptions of the model met? Third, does the test rule out alternative possibilities? Finally, are the appropriate variables measured? Negative an- swers to any of these questions could invalidate the model and lead to confusion over the usefulness of foraging theory in conducting ecological studies. Gaines (1989) attempted to determine whether American Tree Sparrows (Spizella arborea) foraged by a time (Krebs 1973) or number expectation rule (Gibb 1962), or in a manner consistent with the predictions of Charnov's (1976) marginal value theorem (MVT). Gaines (1989: 118) noted appropriately that field tests of foraging models frequently involve uncontrollable circumstances; thus, it is often difficult to meet the assumptions of the models. Gaines also states (1989: 118) that "violations of the assumptions are also in- formative but do not constitute robust tests of predicted hypotheses," and that "the problem can be avoided by experimental analyses which concurrently test mutually exclusive hypotheses so that alter- native predictions will be eliminated if falsified." There is a problem with this approach because, when major assumptions of models are not satisfied, it is not justifiable to compare a predator's foraging behavior with the model's predictions. I submit that failing to follow the advice offered by Stephens and Krebs (1986) can invalidate tests of foraging models.

  3. Conceptual Model of Weight Management in Overweight and Obese African-American Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Suzanne M; Magwood, Gayenell S; Nemeth, Lynne S; Jenkins, Carolyn M

    2017-04-01

    Weight management of overweight and obese (OWO) African-American females (AAFs) is a poorly defined concept, leading to ineffective treatment of overweight and obesity, prevention of health sequelae, and risk reduction. A conceptual model of the phenomenon of weight management in OWO AAFs was developed through dimensional analysis of the literature. Constructs were identified and sorted into the dimensions of perspective, context, conditions, process, and consequences and integrated into an explanatory matrix. Through dimensional analysis, weight management in OWO AAFs was characterized as a multidimensional concept, defined from the perspective of weight loss in community-dwelling AAFs. Behaviors associated with weight management are strongly influenced by intrinsic factors and extrinsic conditions, which influence engagement in the processes and consequences of weight management. The resulting conceptual model of weight management in OWO AAFs provides a framework for research interventions applicable in a variety of settings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Development and implementation of the regulatory control of sources in Latin American Model Project countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferruz Cruz, P.

    2001-01-01

    After a general assessment of the situation regarding radiation safety and the radiation protection infrastructure in Latin American countries, several of them were invited to participate in a Model Project oriented, in some cases, towards establishing a mechanism for national regulatory control of radiation sources, and in others, towards upgrading their national control programme. All these activities aimed at reaching an effective and sustainable radiation protection infrastructure based on international basic safety standards. The paper presents a general overview of the current situation with regard to radiation protection within the Model Project countries in Latin America after almost five years of activities. It includes: the implementation of regulatory issues; the control of occupational, medical and public exposures; emergency response and waste safety issues. The paper also presents some lessons learned during implementation concerning the numerous activities involved in this interregional project. (author)

  5. Physician-patient argumentation and communication, comparing Toulmin's model, pragma-dialectics, and American sociolinguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Francisco Javier Uribe; Artmann, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    This article discusses the application of theories of argumentation and communication to the field of medicine. Based on a literature review, the authors compare Toulmin's model, pragma-dialectics, and the work of Todd and Fisher, derived from American sociolinguistics. These approaches were selected because they belong to the pragmatic field of language. The main results were: pragma-dialectics characterizes medical reasoning more comprehensively, highlighting specific elements of the three disciplines of argumentation: dialectics, rhetoric, and logic; Toulmin's model helps substantiate the declaration of diagnostic and therapeutic hypotheses, and as part of an interpretive medicine, approximates the pragma-dialectical approach by including dialectical elements in the process of formulating arguments; Fisher and Todd's approach allows characterizing, from a pragmatic analysis of speech acts, the degree of symmetry/asymmetry in the doctor-patient relationship, while arguing the possibility of negotiating treatment alternatives.

  6. A Geodetic Strain Rate Model for the Pacific-North American Plate Boundary, western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreemer, C.; Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.; Holland, A. A.; Bennett, R. A.

    2012-04-01

    We present a model of crustal strain rates derived from GPS measurements of horizontal station velocities in the Pacific-North American plate boundary in the western United States. The model reflects a best estimate of present-day deformation from the San Andreas fault system in the west to the Basin and Range province in the east. Of the total 2,846 GPS velocities used in the model, 1,197 are derived by ourselves, and 1,649 are taken from (mostly) published results. The velocities derived by ourselves (the "UNR solution") are estimated from GPS position time-series of continuous and semi-continuous stations for which data are publicly available. We estimated ITRF2005 positions from 2002-2011.5 using JPL's GIPSY-OASIS II software with ambiguity resolution applied using our custom Ambizap software. Only stations with time-series that span at least 2.25 years are considered. We removed from the time-series continental-scale common-mode errors using a spatially-varying filtering technique. Velocity uncertainties (typically 0.1-0.3 mm/yr) assume that the time-series contain flicker plus white noise. We used a subset of stations on the stable parts of the Pacific and North American plates to estimate the Pacific-North American pole of rotation. This pole is applied as a boundary condition to the model and the North American - ITRF2005 pole is used to rotate our velocities into a North America fixed reference frame. We do not include parts of the time-series that show curvature due to post-seismic deformation after major earthquakes and we also exclude stations whose time-series display a significant unexplained non-linearity or that are near volcanic centers. Transient effects longer than the observation period (i.e., slow viscoelastic relaxation) are left in the data. We added to the UNR solution velocities from 12 other studies. The velocities are transformed onto the UNR solution's reference frame by estimating and applying a translation and rotation that minimizes

  7. Gas analysis modeling system forecast for the Energy Modeling Forum North American Natural Gas Market Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariner-Volpe, B.; Trapmann, W.

    1989-01-01

    The Gas Analysis Modeling System is a large computer-based model for analyzing the complex US natural gas industry, including production, transportation, and consumption activities. The model was developed and first used in 1982 after the passage of the NGPA, which initiated a phased decontrol of most natural gas prices at the wellhead. The categorization of gas under the NGPA and the contractual nature of the natural gas market, which existed at the time, were primary factors in the development of the basic structure of the model. As laws and regulations concerning the natural gas market have changed, the model has evolved accordingly. Recent increases in competition in the wellhead market have also led to changes in the model. GAMS produces forecasts of natural gas production, consumption, and prices annually through 2010. It is an engineering-economic model that incorporates several different mathematical structures in order to represent the interaction of the key groups involved in the natural gas market. GAMS has separate supply and demand components that are equilibrated for each year of the forecast by means of a detailed transaction network

  8. Native South American genetic structure and prehistory inferred from hierarchical modeling of mtDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cecil M; Long, Jeffrey C

    2008-03-01

    Genetic diversity in Native South Americans forms a complex pattern at both the continental and local levels. In comparing the West to the East, there is more variation within groups and smaller genetic distances between groups. From this pattern, researchers have proposed that there is more variation in the West and that a larger, more genetically diverse, founding population entered the West than the East. Here, we question this characterization of South American genetic variation and its interpretation. Our concern arises because others have inferred regional variation from the mean variation within local populations without taking into account the variation among local populations within the same region. This failure produces a biased view of the actual variation in the East. In this study, we analyze the mitochondrial DNA sequence between positions 16040 and 16322 of the Cambridge reference sequence. Our sample represents a total of 886 people from 27 indigenous populations from South (22), Central (3), and North America (2). The basic unit of our analyses is nucleotide identity by descent, which is easily modeled and proportional to nucleotide diversity. We use a forward modeling strategy to fit a series of nested models to identity by descent within and between all pairs of local populations. This method provides estimates of identity by descent at different levels of population hierarchy without assuming homogeneity within populations, regions, or continents. Our main discovery is that Eastern South America harbors more genetic variation than has been recognized. We find no evidence that there is increased identity by descent in the East relative to the total for South America. By contrast, we discovered that populations in the Western region, as a group, harbor more identity by descent than has been previously recognized, despite the fact that average identity by descent within groups is lower. In this light, there is no need to postulate separate founding

  9. Evaluation of arch form between Vietnamese and North American Caucasians using 3-dimensional virtual models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Vu Thi Thu; Park, Jae Hyun; Bayome, Mohamed; Shastry, Shruti; Mellion, Alex; Kook, Yoon-Ah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) morphologic differences in the mandibular arch of Vietnamese and North American White subjects. The sample included 113 Vietnamese subjects (41 Class I, 37 Class II and 35 Class III) and 96 White subjects (29 Class I, 30 Class II and 37 Class III). The samples were regrouped according to arch form types (tapered, ovoid, and square) to compare the frequency distribution of the three arch forms between ethnic groups in each angle classification. The facial axis point of each tooth was digitized on 3D virtual models. Four linear and two ratio variables were measured. In comparing arch dimensions, the intercanine and intermolar widths were wider in Vietnamese than in Whites (p Vietnamese group, the square arch form was the most frequent followed by tapered and ovoid arch forms. The arch forms of Whites were narrower than Vietnamese. In North American Whites, the distribution of the arch form types showed similar frequency. In Vietnamese, the square arch form was more frequent.

  10. Modeling the North American vertical datum of 1988 errors in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.

    2018-02-01

    A large systematic difference (ranging from -20 cm to +130 cm) was found between NAVD 88 (North AmericanVertical Datum of 1988) and the pure gravimetric geoid models. This difference not only makes it very difficult to augment the local geoid model by directly using the vast NAVD 88 network with state-of-the-art technologies recently developed in geodesy, but also limits the ability of researchers to effectively demonstrate the geoid model improvements on the NAVD 88 network. Here, both conventional regression analyses based on various predefined basis functions such as polynomials, B-splines, and Legendre functions and the Latent Variable Analysis (LVA) such as the Factor Analysis (FA) are used to analyze the systematic difference. Besides giving a mathematical model, the regression results do not reveal a great deal about the physical reasons that caused the large differences in NAVD 88, which may be of interest to various researchers. Furthermore, there is still a significant amount of no-Gaussian signals left in the residuals of the conventional regression models. On the other side, the FA method not only provides a better not of the data, but also offers possible explanations of the error sources. Without requiring extra hypothesis tests on the model coefficients, the results from FA are more efficient in terms of capturing the systematic difference. Furthermore, without using a covariance model, a novel interpolating method based on the relationship between the loading matrix and the factor scores is developed for predictive purposes. The prediction error analysis shows that about 3-7 cm precision is expected in NAVD 88 after removing the systematic difference.

  11. Modeling the North American vertical datum of 1988 errors in the conterminous United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A large systematic difference (ranging from −20 cm to +130 cm was found between NAVD 88 (North AmericanVertical Datum of 1988 and the pure gravimetric geoid models. This difference not only makes it very difficult to augment the local geoid model by directly using the vast NAVD 88 network with state-of-the-art technologies recently developed in geodesy, but also limits the ability of researchers to effectively demonstrate the geoid model improvements on the NAVD 88 network. Here, both conventional regression analyses based on various predefined basis functions such as polynomials, B-splines, and Legendre functions and the Latent Variable Analysis (LVA such as the Factor Analysis (FA are used to analyze the systematic difference. Besides giving a mathematical model, the regression results do not reveal a great deal about the physical reasons that caused the large differences in NAVD 88, which may be of interest to various researchers. Furthermore, there is still a significant amount of no-Gaussian signals left in the residuals of the conventional regression models. On the other side, the FA method not only provides a better not of the data, but also offers possible explanations of the error sources. Without requiring extra hypothesis tests on the model coefficients, the results from FA are more efficient in terms of capturing the systematic difference. Furthermore, without using a covariance model, a novel interpolating method based on the relationship between the loading matrix and the factor scores is developed for predictive purposes. The prediction error analysis shows that about 3-7 cm precision is expected in NAVD 88 after removing the systematic difference.

  12. A New Estimate of North American Mountain Snow Accumulation From Regional Climate Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzesien, Melissa L.; Durand, Michael T.; Pavelsky, Tamlin M.; Kapnick, Sarah B.; Zhang, Yu; Guo, Junyi; Shum, C. K.

    2018-02-01

    Despite the importance of mountain snowpack to understanding the water and energy cycles in North America's montane regions, no reliable mountain snow climatology exists for the entire continent. We present a new estimate of mountain snow water equivalent (SWE) for North America from regional climate model simulations. Climatological peak SWE in North America mountains is 1,006 km3, 2.94 times larger than previous estimates from reanalyses. By combining this mountain SWE value with the best available global product in nonmountain areas, we estimate peak North America SWE of 1,684 km3, 55% greater than previous estimates. In our simulations, the date of maximum SWE varies widely by mountain range, from early March to mid-April. Though mountains comprise 24% of the continent's land area, we estimate that they contain 60% of North American SWE. This new estimate is a suitable benchmark for continental- and global-scale water and energy budget studies.

  13. Academic Achievement and Behavioral Health among Asian American and African American Adolescents: Testing the Model Minority and Inferior Minority Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Arthur L.; Noel, La Tonya

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested the model minority and inferior minority assumptions by examining the relationship between academic performance and measures of behavioral health in a subsample of 3,008 (22%) participants in a nationally representative, multicultural sample of 13,601 students in the 2001 Youth Risk Behavioral Survey, comparing Asian…

  14. Training the Next Generation of Scientists: System Dynamics Modeling of Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis) transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, P.; Hulse, A.; Harder, H. R.; Pierce, L. A.; Rizzo, D.; Hanley, J.; Orantes, L.; Stevens, L.; Justi, S.; Monroy, C.

    2015-12-01

    A computational simulation has been designed as an investigative case study by high school students to introduce system dynamics modeling into high school curriculum. This case study approach leads users through the forensics necessary to diagnose an unknown disease in a Central American village. This disease, Chagas, is endemic to 21 Latin American countries. The CDC estimates that of the 110 million people living in areas with the disease, 8 million are infected, with as many as 300,000 US cases. Chagas is caused by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, and is spread via blood feeding insect (vectors), that feed on vertebrates and live in crevasses in the walls and roofs of adobe homes. One-third of the infected people will develop chronic Chagas who are asymptomatic for years before their heart or GI tract become enlarged resulting in death. The case study has three parts. Students play the role of WHO field investigators and work collaboratively to: 1) use genetics to identify the host(s) and vector of the disease 2) use a STELLA™ SIR (Susceptible, Infected, Recovered) system dynamics model to study Chagas at the village scale and 3) develop management strategies. The simulations identify mitigation strategies known as Ecohealth Interventions (e.g., home improvements using local materials) to help stakeholders test and compare multiple optima. High school students collaborated with researchers from the University of Vermont, Loyola University and Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, working in labs, interviewing researchers, and incorporating mulitple field data as part of a NSF-funded multiyear grant. The model displays stable equilibria of hosts, vectors, and disease-states. Sensitivity analyses show measures of household condition and presence of vertebrates were significant leverage points, supporting other findings by the University research team. The village-scale model explores multiple solutions to disease mitigation for the purpose of producing

  15. Loss, Psychosis, and Chronic Suicidality in a Korean American Immigrant Man: Integration of Cultural Formulation Model and Multicultural Case Conceptualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Munyi; Yang, Lawrence H.; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2011-01-01

    Culture shapes the nature, experience, and expression of psychopathology and help-seeking behavior across ethnically diverse groups. Although the study of psychopathology among Asian Americans has advanced, clinicians remain in need of culturally appropriate tools for the assessment and diagnosis of severe mental disorders including psychotic symptoms among Asian Americans. In this article, we present a brief overview of two culturally relevant conceptual tools: a) the Cultural Formulation Model, and b) the Multicultural Case Conceptualization approach. We use a case scenario to illustrate the integration of these two approaches in providing culturally responsive clinical conceptualization, assessment and treatment of a Korean American immigrant suffering from prominent psychiatric symptoms. We intend this discussion to engender further empirical work to advance our knowledge of the manifestation and experience of severe mental illness including psychotic disorders among Asian Americans, and contribute to culturally competent prevention and intervention of chronic and persistent mental illness within this group. PMID:21603157

  16. Long-term occlusal changes assessed by the American Board of Orthodontics' model grading system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aszkler, Robert M; Preston, Charles B; Saltaji, Humam; Tabbaa, Sawsan

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term posttreatment changes in all criteria of the American Board of Orthodontics' (ABO) model grading system. We used plaster models from patients' final and posttreatment records. Thirty patients treated by 1 orthodontist using 1 bracket prescription were selected. An initial discrepancy index for each subject was performed to determine the complexity of each case. The final models were then graded using the ABO's model grading system immediately at posttreatment and postretention. Statistical analysis was performed on the 8 criteria of the model grading system, including paired t tests and Pearson correlations. An alpha of 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The average length of time between the posttreatment and postretention records was 12.7 ± 4.4 years. It was shown that alignment and rotations worsened by postretention (P = 0.014), and a weak statistically significant correlation at posttreatment and postretention was found (0.44; P = 0.016). Both marginal ridges and occlusal contacts scored less well at posttreatment. These criteria showed a significant decrease in scores between posttreatment and postretention (P <0.001), but the correlations were not statistically significant. The average total score showed a significant decrease between posttreatment and postretention (P <0.001), partly because of the large decrease in the previous 2 criteria. Higher scores for occlusal contacts and marginal ridges were found at the end of treatment; however, those scores and the overall scores for the 30 subjects improved in the postretention phase. Copyright © 2014. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  17. Identification of individuals with ADHD using the Dean-Woodcock sensory motor battery and a boosted tree algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Holmes W; Davis, Andrew; Dean, Raymond S

    2015-03-01

    The accurate and early identification of individuals with pervasive conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is crucial to ensuring that they receive appropriate and timely assistance and treatment. Heretofore, identification of such individuals has proven somewhat difficult, typically involving clinical decision making based on descriptions and observations of behavior, in conjunction with the administration of cognitive assessments. The present study reports on the use of a sensory motor battery in conjunction with a recursive partitioning computer algorithm, boosted trees, to develop a prediction heuristic for identifying individuals with ADHD. Results of the study demonstrate that this method is able to do so with accuracy rates of over 95 %, much higher than the popular logistic regression model against which it was compared. Implications of these results for practice are provided.

  18. The Canadian health care system: a model for American to emulate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, C D

    1992-04-01

    Canadian model has important advantages, it does not offer a panacea for American health care woes.

  19. From Forever Foreigners to Model Minority: Asian American Men in Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Yomee

    2016-01-01

    Despite their long history in the United States, relatively little scholarly attention has been paid to Asian Americans and their lived experience in sports. The purpose of this study was to give voices to Asian American men by focusing on their experiences in sports. In particular, this study examined the experiences of East Asian and Southeast Asian American male college students who were often perceived as “foreign” and “pejoratively feminine” racialized minority yet participated in sports...

  20. Science Majors and Degrees among Asian-American Students: Influences of Race and Sex in "model Minority" Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yu; Hanson, Sandra L.

    Both race and sex continue to be factors that stratify entry into science education and occupations in the United States. Asian-Americans (men and women) have experienced considerable success in the sciences and have earned the label of "model minority." The complexities and patterns involved in this success remain elusive. We use several concepts coming out of the status attainment framework and a multicultural gender perspective to explore the way in which race and sex come together to influence choices of science major and degree. Our sample consists of Asian-American and white students in the National Educational Longitudinal Study. Findings suggest that being male and being Asian-American are both associated with higher chances of pursuing majors and degrees in science. The male advantage is greater than the Asian-American advantage. Findings also suggest that race and sex interact in the science decision. For example, race differences (with an Asian-American advantage) in choice of science major are significant for women but not men. Sex differences (with a male advantage) in choice of science major are significant in the white, but not the Asian-American sample. A different set of race and sex patterns is revealed in the science degree models. Processes associated with family socioeconomic status and student characteristics help to explain race and sex patterns. Findings suggest that when Asian-American youths have closer ties to the Asian culture, they are more likely to choose science majors and degrees. Implications for policy, practice, and research in science education are discussed.

  1. Cultivating Native American scientists: an application of an Indigenous model to an undergraduate research experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Tracey R.; Griese, Emily R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2018-03-01

    With growing evidence demonstrating the impact of undergraduate research experiences on educational persistence, efforts are currently being made to expand these opportunities within universities and research institutions throughout the United States. Recruiting underrepresented students into these programs has become an increasingly popular method of promoting diversity in science. Given the low matriculation into postsecondary education and completion rates among Native Americans, there is a great need for Native American undergraduate research internships. Although research has shown that Western education models tend to be less effective with Native populations, the implementation of indigenous epistemologies and pedagogies within higher education, including research experiences, is rare. This study explores the applicability of a cognitive apprenticeship merged with an indigenous approach, the Circle of Courage, to build a scientific learning environment and enhance the academic and professional development of Native students engaged in an undergraduate research experience in the health sciences. Data were drawn from focus groups with 20 students who participated in this program in 2012-2014. Questions explored the extent to which relational bonds between students and mentors were cultivated as well as the impact of this experience on the development of research skills, intellectual growth, academic and professional self-determination, and the attachment of meaning to their research experiences. Data were analyzed via deductive content analysis, allowing for an assessment of how the theoretical constructs inherent to this model (belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity) impacted students. Findings suggest that engaging Native students in research experiences that prioritize the needs of belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity can be a successful means of fostering a positive learning environment, in which students felt like significant members

  2. An Interdisciplinary Outreach Model of African American Recruitment for Alzheimer's Disease Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Monique M.; Meisel, Marie M.; Williams, James; Morris, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The African American Outreach Satellite (Satellite) provides educational outreach to facilitate African American recruitment for longitudinal studies at the Washington University Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (ADRC). This descriptive article characterizes the Satellite's recruitment methods, plan for community engagement, results of…

  3. Overcoming the Model Minority Myth: Experiences of Filipino American Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Kevin L.; Pituc, Stephanie T.; Johnston, Marc P.; Esparrago, Theresa

    2010-01-01

    Filipino Americans are one of the largest immigrant groups in the United States and the second largest Asian American/Pacific Islander ethnic group. However, there is little research focusing on the unique experiences of this group, particularly in higher education. This paper presents a qualitative exploration of the experiences of Filipino…

  4. The Examination of Factors Influencing Social Media Usage by African American Small Business Owners Using the UTAUT Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serben, Dion F.

    2014-01-01

    The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model has demonstrated the influencing factors for various business technology uses within the organizational system. However, in the context of African American small businesses (AASB), there was very little evidence of research to determine factors affecting the intention to use…

  5. The Utility of the Prototype/Willingness Model in Predicting Alcohol Use among North American Indigenous Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, Brian E.; Hautala, Dane S.; Whitbeck, Les B.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we considered the utility of the prototype/willingness model in predicting alcohol use among North-American Indigenous adolescents. Specifically, using longitudinal data, we examined the associations among subjective drinking norms, positive drinker prototypes, drinking expectations (as a proxy of drinking willingness), and…

  6. Improvement in the Modeled Representation of North American Monsoon Precipitation Using a Modified Kain–Fritsch Convective Parameterization Scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Luong, Thang; Castro, Christopher; Nguyen, Truong; Cassell, William; Chang, Hsin-I

    2018-01-01

    A commonly noted problem in the simulation of warm season convection in the North American monsoon region has been the inability of atmospheric models at the meso-β scales (10 s to 100 s of kilometers) to simulate organized convection, principally

  7. Student Satisfaction with Canadian Music Programmes: The Application of the American Customer Satisfaction Model in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serenko, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to empirically investigate several antecedents and consequences of student satisfaction (SS) with Canadian university music programmes as well as to measure students' level of programme satisfaction. For this, the American Customer Satisfaction Model was tested through a survey of 276 current Canadian music students.…

  8. Parenting Behaviors, Association with Deviant Peers, and Delinquency in African American Adolescents: A Mediated-Moderation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Marvella A.; Prelow, Hazel M.; Weaver, Scott R.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine a model positing that association with deviant peers mediates the relation between adolescent perceived parenting behaviors (maternal monitoring and involvement), the interaction of these parenting behaviors, and delinquency in a sample of 135 urban African American adolescents (13-19 years of age).…

  9. Identification and synthetic modeling of factors affecting American black duck populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Michael J.; Miller, Mark W.; Hines, James E.

    2002-01-01

    We reviewed the literature on factors potentially affecting the population status of American black ducks (Anas rupribes). Our review suggests that there is some support for the influence of 4 major, continental-scope factors in limiting or regulating black duck populations: 1) loss in the quantity or quality of breeding habitats; 2) loss in the quantity or quality of wintering habitats; 3) harvest, and 4) interactions (competition, hybridization) with mallards (Anas platyrhychos) during the breeding and/or wintering periods. These factors were used as the basis of an annual life cycle model in which reproduction rates and survival rates were modeled as functions of the above factors, with parameters of the model describing the strength of these relationships. Variation in the model parameter values allows for consideration of scientific uncertainty as to the degree each of these factors may be contributing to declines in black duck populations, and thus allows for the investigation of the possible effects of management (e.g., habitat improvement, harvest reductions) under different assumptions. We then used available, historical data on black duck populations (abundance, annual reproduction rates, and survival rates) and possible driving factors (trends in breeding and wintering habitats, harvest rates, and abundance of mallards) to estimate model parameters. Our estimated reproduction submodel included parameters describing negative density feedback of black ducks, positive influence of breeding habitat, and negative influence of mallard densities; our survival submodel included terms for positive influence of winter habitat on reproduction rates, and negative influences of black duck density (i.e., compensation to harvest mortality). Individual models within each group (reproduction, survival) involved various combinations of these factors, and each was given an information theoretic weight for use in subsequent prediction. The reproduction model with highest

  10. Applying the Health Belief Model and an Integrated Behavioral Model to Promote Breast Tissue Donation Among Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Autumn; Kaufhold, Kelly; Luo, Yunjuan

    2018-07-01

    An important part in the effort to prevent, treat, and cure breast cancer is research done with healthy breast tissue. The Susan G. Komen for the Cure Tissue Bank at Indiana University Simon Cancer Center (KTB) encourages women to donate a small amount of healthy breast tissue and then provides that tissue to researchers studying breast cancer. Although KTB has a large donor base, the volume of tissue samples from Asian women is low despite prior marketing efforts to encourage donation among this population. This study builds on prior work promoting breast cancer screenings among Asian women by applying constructs from the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Integrated Behavioral Model (IBM) to investigate why Asian-American women are less inclined to donate their healthy breast tissue than non-Asian women and how this population may be motivated to donate in the future. A national online survey (N = 1,317) found Asian women had significantly lower perceived severity, some lower perceived benefits, and higher perceived barriers to tissue donation than non-Asian women under HBM and significantly lower injunctive norms supporting breast tissue donation, lower perceived behavioral control, and lower intentions to donate under IBM. This study also compares and discusses similarities and differences among East, Southeast, and South Asian women on these same constructs.

  11. Outcomes of different Class II treatments : Comparisons using the American Board of Orthodontics Model Grading System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinci Cansunar, Hatice; Uysal, Tancan

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of three different Class II treatment modalities followed by fixed orthodontic therapy, using the American Board of Orthodontics Model Grading System (ABO-MGS). As a retrospective study, files of patients treated at postgraduate orthodontic  clinics in different cities in Turkey was randomly selected. From 1684 posttreatment records, 669 patients were divided into three groups: 269 patients treated with extraction of two upper premolars, 198 patients treated with cervical headgear, and 202 patients treated with functional appliances. All the cases were evaluated by one researcher using ABO-MGS. The χ (2), Z test, and multivariate analysis of variance were used for statistical evaluation (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found among the groups in buccolingual inclination, overjet, occlusal relationship, and root angulation. However, there were significant differences in alignment, marginal ridge height, occlusal contact, interproximal contact measurements, and overall MGS average scores. The mean treatment time between the extraction and functional appliance groups was significantly different (p = 0.017). According to total ABO-MGS scores, headgear treatment had better results than functional appliances. The headgear group had better tooth alignment than the extraction group. Headgear treatment resulted in better occlusal contacts than the functional appliances and had lower average scores for interproximal contact measurements. Functional appliances had the worst average scores for marginal ridge height. Finally, the functional appliance group had the longest treatment times.

  12. American Mock World Health Organization: An Innovative Model for Student Engagement in Global Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Mia; Acharya, Neha; Kwok Man Lee, Edith; Catherine Holcomb, Emma; Kapoor, Veronica

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The American Mock World Health Organization (AMWHO) is a model for experiential-based learning and student engagement in global health diplomacy. AMWHO was established in 2014 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill with a mission to engage students in health policy by providing a simulation of the World Health Assembly (WHA), the policy-forming body of the World Health Organization that sets norms and transforms the global health agenda. AMWHO conferences are designed to allow students to take their knowledge of global health beyond the classroom and practice their skills in diplomacy by assuming the role of WHA delegates throughout a 3-day weekend. Through the process of developing resolutions like those formed in the WHA, students have the unique opportunity to understand the complexities behind the conflict and compromise that ensues through the lens of a stakeholder. This article describes the structure of the first 2 AMWHO international conferences, analyzes survey results from attendees, and discusses the expansion of the organization into a multi-campus national network. The AMWHO 2014 and 2015 post-conference survey results found that 98% and 90% of participants considered the conference "good" or "better," respectively, and survey responses showed that participants considered the conference "influential" in their careers and indicated that it "allowed a paradigm shift not possible in class." PMID:28351883

  13. Impact of predictive scoring model and e-mail messages on African American blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachegowda, Lohith S; Timm, Brad; Dasgupta, Pinaki; Hillyer, Christopher D; Kessler, Debra; Rebosa, Mark; France, Christopher R; Shaz, Beth H

    2017-06-01

    Expanding the African American (AA) donor pool is critical to sustain transfusion support for sickle cell disease patients. The aims were to: 1) apply cognitive computing on donation related metrics to develop a predictive model that effectively identifies repeat AA donors, 2) determine whether a single e-mail communication could improve AA donor retention and compare retention results on higher versus lower predictive score donors, and 3) evaluate the effect of e-mail marketing on AA donor retention with culturally versus nonculturally tailored message. Between 2011 and 2012, 30,786 AA donors donated blood at least once on whom predictive repeat donor scores (PRDSs) was generated from donor-related metrics (frequency of donations, duration between donations, age, blood type, and sex). In 2013, 28% (8657/30,786) of 2011 to 2012 donors returned to donate on whom PRDS was validated. Returning blood donors had a higher mean PRDS compared to nonreturning donors (0.649 vs. 0.268; p e-mail pilot, high PRDS (≥0.6) compared to low PRDS (e-mail opening rate (p e-mail, 159% higher presentation rate (p e-mail communication has the potential to increase the efficiency of donor marketing. © 2017 AABB.

  14. Modelling recolonization of second-growth forest stands by the north american red squirrel Tamiasciurus hudsonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyquist, B; Tyson, R; Larsen, K

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, we present a model for source-sink population dynamics where the locations of source and sink habitats change over time. We do this in the context of the population dynamics of the North American red squirrel, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, within a forest environment subject to harvesting and regrowth. Harvested patches of forest are initially sinks, then eventually become source habitat again as the forest regrows. At the same time, each harvested patch is gradually recolonized by squirrels from other forest patches. We are interested in the interaction of forest harvesting dynamics with squirrel population dynamics. This depends on the harvesting schedule, and on the choices squirrels make when deciding whether to settle in a mature forest patch or in a recently harvested patch. We find that the time it takes for a second-growth forest patch to be recolonized at the mature forest level is longer than the time required for the habitat quality to be restored to the mature forest level. We also notice that recolonization pressure decreases squirrel populations in neighbouring patches. The connectivity between forest patches and the cutting schedule used also affect the time course of recolonization and steady-state population levels.

  15. Spatial and stage-structured population model of the American crocodile for comparison of comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Timothy W.; Slone, Daniel H.; Swain, Eric D.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Lohmann, Melinda; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Rice, Kenneth G.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey Priority Ecosystems Science (PES) initiative to provide the ecological science required during Everglades restoration, we have integrated current regional hydrologic models with American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) research and monitoring data to create a model that assesses the potential impact of Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) efforts on the American crocodile. A list of indicators was created by the Restoration Coordination and Verification (RECOVER) component of CERP to help determine the success of interim restoration goals. The American crocodile was established as an indicator of the ecological condition of mangrove estuaries due to its reliance upon estuarine environments characterized by low salinity and adequate freshwater inflow. To gain a better understanding of the potential impact of CERP restoration efforts on the American crocodile, a spatially explicit crocodile population model has been created that has the ability to simulate the response of crocodiles to various management strategies for the South Florida ecosystem. The crocodile model uses output from the Tides and Inflows in the Mangroves of the Everglades (TIME) model, an application of the Flow and Transport in a Linked Overland/Aquifer Density Dependent System (FTLOADDS) simulator. TIME has the capability to link to the South Florida Water Management Model (SFWMM), which is the primary regional tool used to assess CERP restoration scenarios. A crocodile habitat suitability index and spatial parameter maps that reflect salinity, water depth, habitat, and nesting locations are used as driving functions to construct crocodile finite rate of increase maps under different management scenarios. Local stage-structured models are integrated with a spatial landscape grid to display crocodile movement behavior in response to changing environmental conditions. Restoration efforts are expected to affect salinity levels throughout the habitat of

  16. Physical modeling of vortical cross-step flow in the American paddlefish, Polyodon spathula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Hannah; Haines, Grant E.; Lin, M. Carly

    2018-01-01

    Vortical cross-step filtration in suspension-feeding fish has been reported recently as a novel mechanism, distinct from other biological and industrial filtration processes. Although crossflow passing over backward-facing steps generates vortices that can suspend, concentrate, and transport particles, the morphological factors affecting this vortical flow have not been identified previously. In our 3D-printed models of the oral cavity for ram suspension-feeding fish, the angle of the backward-facing step with respect to the model’s dorsal midline affected vortex parameters significantly, including rotational, tangential, and axial speed. These vortices were comparable to those quantified downstream of the backward-facing steps that were formed by the branchial arches of preserved American paddlefish in a recirculating flow tank. Our data indicate that vortices in cross-step filtration have the characteristics of forced vortices, as the flow of water inside the oral cavity provides the external torque required to sustain forced vortices. Additionally, we quantified a new variable for ram suspension feeding termed the fluid exit ratio. This is defined as the ratio of the total open pore area for water leaving the oral cavity via spaces between branchial arches that are not blocked by gill rakers, divided by the total area for water entering through the gape during ram suspension feeding. Our experiments demonstrated that the fluid exit ratio in preserved paddlefish was a significant predictor of the flow speeds that were quantified anterior of the rostrum, at the gape, directly dorsal of the first ceratobranchial, and in the forced vortex generated by the first ceratobranchial. Physical modeling of vortical cross-step filtration offers future opportunities to explore the complex interactions between structural features of the oral cavity, vortex parameters, motile particle behavior, and particle morphology that determine the suspension, concentration, and

  17. Demographic population model for American shad: will access to additional habitat upstream of dams increase population sizes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima are in decline in their native range, and modeling possible management scenarios could help guide their restoration. We developed a density-dependent, deterministic, stage-based matrix model to predict the population-level results of transporting American shad to suitable spawning habitat upstream of dams on the Roanoke River, North Carolina and Virginia. We used data on sonic-tagged adult American shad and oxytetracycline-marked American shad fry both above and below dams on the Roanoke River with information from other systems to estimate a starting population size and vital rates. We modeled the adult female population over 30 years under plausible scenarios of adult transport, effective fecundity (egg production), and survival of adults (i.e., to return to spawn the next year) and juveniles (from spawned egg to age 1). We also evaluated the potential effects of increased survival for adults and juveniles. The adult female population size in the Roanoke River was estimated to be 5,224. With no transport, the model predicted a slow population increase over the next 30 years. Predicted population increases were highest when survival was improved during the first year of life. Transport was predicted to benefit the population only if high rates of effective fecundity and juvenile survival could be achieved. Currently, transported adults and young are less likely to successfully out-migrate than individuals below the dams, and the estimated adult population size is much smaller than either of two assumed values of carrying capacity for the lower river; therefore, transport is not predicted to help restore the stock under present conditions. Research on survival rates, density-dependent processes, and the impacts of structures to increase out-migration success would improve evaluation of the potential benefits of access to additional spawning habitat for American shad.

  18. Childhood obesity policy: implications for African American girls and a nursing ecological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Monique

    2013-01-01

    In the United States there is a prevalence of obesity among ethnic groups, especially African American girls. The author in this column examines through an ecological lens selected American federal, state, and city policies and program interventions aimed at reducing obesity. Specifically, the eating behavior of African American girls is discussed as a population subset for which significant gaps are present in current obesity policy and implementation. Policy recommendations should include parents as research has shown a significant relationship in the eating behaviors of African American girls and their parents. Opportunities for nurses in practice and research to test the effectiveness of family and community level policy and program initiatives that address the ecological perspectives of the adolescent environment are discussed.

  19. Counseling African-American women with the Sistas Embracing Empowerment (SEE) model

    OpenAIRE

    Stepney, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    Research from the last two decades indicates that African-American women have faced extreme mental health challenges in overcoming experiences of isolation, depression and somatization. Unfortunately, the sources of these stressors are largely attributed to racial and gender discrimination and societal expectations and norms associated with African-American women. Additionally, minimal research has been conducted to determine the most effective counseling approaches to aid this population. A ...

  20. Improved Fossil/Industrial CO2 Emissions Modeling for the North American Carbon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, K. R.; Seib, B.; Mendoza, D.; Knox, S.; Fischer, M.; Murtishaw, S.

    2006-12-01

    The quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions has implications for a wide variety of scientific and policy- related questions. Improvement in inverse-estimated carbon fluxes, country-level carbon budgeting, analysis of regional emissions trading systems, and targeting of observational systems are all important applications better served by improvements in understanding where and when fossil fuel/industrial CO2 is emitted. Traditional approaches to quantifying fossil/industrial CO2 emissions have relied on national sales/consumption of fossil fuels with secondary spatial footprints performed via proxies such as population. This approach has provided global spatiotemporal resolution of one degree/monthly. In recent years the need has arisen for emission estimates that not only achieve higher spatiotemporal scales but include a process- level component. This latter attribute provides dynamic linkages between energy policy/decisionmaking and emissions for use in projecting changes to energy systems and the implications these changes may have on climate change. We have embarked on a NASA-funded research strategy to construct a process-level fossil/industrial CO2 emissions model/database for North America that will resolve fossil/industrial CO2 emissions hourly and at 36 km. This project is a critical component of the North American Carbon Program. Our approach builds off of many decades of air quality monitoring for regulated pollutants such as NOx, VOCs and CO that has been performed by regional air quality managers, states, and the Environmental Protection Agency in the United States. By using the highly resolved monitoring data supplied to the EPA, we have computed CO2 emissions for residential, commercial/industrial, transportation, and biogenic sources. This effort employs a new emissions modeling system (CONCEPT) that spatially and temporally distributes the monitored emissions across the US. We will provide a description of the methodology we have employed, the

  1. Imported family models? Cohabitation patterns of Latin American women in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara CORTINA TRILLA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, international immigration flows have undergone a dramatic growth in Spain. In this particular context, the purpose of this article is to analyze whether Latin American female migrants residing in Spain largely maintain nuptial and reproductive patterns from their countries of origin. To analyze the prevalence of consensual unions we use three different databases: the Spanish Immigration Survey, the Spanish Labour Force Survey and birth records, all of them corresponding to 2007 and collected by the Spanish Statistical Institute. The study documents the high prevalence of consensual unions among Latin American migrants. Regarding the socio-demographic factors influencing cohabitation, our results show important similarities between Spanish and Latin American women, except for educational attainment.

  2. On perpetual American put valuation and first-passage in a regime-switching model with jumps

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Z.; Pistorius, M. R.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of pricing a perpetual American put option in an exponential regime-switching L\\'{e}vy model. For the case of the (dense) class of phase-type jumps and finitely many regimes we derive an explicit expression for the value function. The solution of the corresponding first passage problem under a state-dependent level rests on a path transformation and a new matrix Wiener-Hopf factorization result for this class of processes.

  3. A cost comparison of travel models and behavioural telemedicine for rural, Native American populations in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Brady P; Barragan, Gary N; Fore, Chis; Bonham, Caroline A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to model the cost of delivering behavioural health services to rural Native American populations using telecommunications and compare these costs with the travel costs associated with providing equivalent care. Behavioural telehealth costs were modelled using equipment, transmission, administrative and IT costs from an established telecommunications centre. Two types of travel models were estimated: a patient travel model and a physician travel model. These costs were modelled using the New Mexico resource geographic information system program (RGIS) and ArcGIS software and unit costs (e.g. fuel prices, vehicle depreciation, lodging, physician wages, and patient wages) that were obtained from the literature and US government agencies. The average per-patient cost of providing behavioural healthcare via telehealth was US$138.34, and the average per-patient travel cost was US$169.76 for physicians and US$333.52 for patients. Sensitivity analysis found these results to be rather robust to changes in imputed parameters and preliminary evidence of economies of scale was found. Besides the obvious benefits of increased access to healthcare and reduced health disparities, providing behavioural telehealth for rural Native American populations was estimated to be less costly than modelled equivalent care provided by travelling. Additionally, as administrative and coordination costs are a major component of telehealth costs, as programmes grow to serve more patients, the relative costs of these initial infrastructure as well as overall per-patient costs should decrease. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. West Nile Virus Infection in American Singer Canaries: An Experimental Model in a Highly Susceptible Avian Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K; Lund, Melissa; Shearn Bochsler, Valerie

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the susceptibility of American singer canaries ( Serinus canaria) to West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Adult canaries were inoculated with 10 5 , 10 2 , and 10 1 plaque forming units (PFU) of WNV. All birds became infected and mortality occurred by 5 days postinoculation. The load of viral RNA as determined by RT-qPCR was dose dependent, and was higher at all doses than the level of viral RNA detected in American crows ( Corvus brachyrhynchos) challenged with 10 5 PFU of WNV. In a subset of birds, viremia was detected by virus isolation; canaries inoculated with 10 1 PFU of WNV developed viremia exceeding 10 10 PFU/mL serum, a log higher than American crows inoculated with 10 5 PFU of virus. In canaries euthanized at 3 days postinoculation, WNV was isolated at >10 7 PFU of virus/100 mg of lung, liver, heart, spleen, and kidney tissues. Pallor of the liver and splenomegaly were the most common macroscopic observations and histologic lesions were most severe in liver, spleen, and kidney, particularly in canaries challenged with 10 2 and 10 1 PFU. Immunoreactivity to WNV was pronounced in the liver and spleen. IgG antibodies to WNV were detected in serum by enzyme immunoassay in 11 of 21 (52%) challenged canaries and, in 4 of 5 (20%) of these sera, neutralization antibodies were detected at a titer ≥ 1:20. American singer canaries provide a useful model as this bird species is highly susceptible to WNV infection.

  5. Identification with and Saliency of Violent Media Models: A Comparison between Canadian and American Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenko, Gregory

    A study examined the responses of Canadian and American subjects in their approval of, and attraction to, specific television and film characters exhibiting aggressive behavior, and in their evaluation of the realism and saliency of the characters and situations observed. Subjects, undergraduate students at the University of Windsor in Windsor,…

  6. Model comparisons for estimating carbon emissions from North American wildland fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy H.F. French; William J. de Groot; Liza K. Jenkins; Brendan M. Rogers; Ernesto Alvarado; Brian Amiro; Bernardus De Jong; Scott Goetz; Elizabeth Hoy; Edward Hyer; Robert Keane; B.E. Law; Donald McKenzie; Steven G. McNulty; Roger Ottmar; Diego R. Perez-Salicrup; James Randerson; Kevin M. Robertson; Merritt. Turetsky

    2011-01-01

    Research activities focused on estimating the direct emissions of carbon from wildland fires across North America are reviewed as part of the North American Carbon Program disturbance synthesis. A comparison of methods to estimate the loss of carbon from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere from wildland fires is presented. Published studies on emissions from...

  7. The Marginalized "Model" Minority: An Empirical Examination of the Racial Triangulation of Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Lee, Jennifer C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we propose a shift in race research from a one-dimensional hierarchical approach to a multidimensional system of racial stratification. Building upon Claire Kim's (1999) racial triangulation theory, we examine how the American public rates Asians relative to blacks and whites along two dimensions of racial stratification: racial…

  8. African American Youth and the Artist's Identity: Cultural Models and Aspirational Foreclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charland, William

    2010-01-01

    The decision to participate in visual arts studies in college and visual arts professions in adult life is the product of multiple factors, including the influences of family, community, peer group, mass culture, and K-12 schooling. Recognizing African American underrepresentation in visual arts studies and professions, this article explores how…

  9. Imported family models? Cohabitation patterns of Latin American women in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Clara CORTINA TRILLA; Xiana BUENO GARCÍA; Teresa CASTRO MARTÍN

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, international immigration flows have undergone a dramatic growth in Spain. In this particular context, the purpose of this article is to analyze whether Latin American female migrants residing in Spain largely maintain nuptial and reproductive patterns from their countries of origin. To analyze the prevalence of consensual unions we use three different databases: the Spanish Immigration Survey, the Spanish Labour Force Survey and birth records, all of them correspondin...

  10. Schooling in American Sign Language: A Paradigm Shift from a Deficit Model to a Bilingual Model in Deaf Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Deaf people have long held the belief that American Sign Language (ASL) plays a significant role in the academic development of deaf children. Despite this, the education of deaf children has historically been exclusive of ASL and constructed as an English-only, deficit-based pedagogy. Newer research, however, finds a strong correlation between…

  11. Numerical Methods for Pricing American Options with Time-Fractional PDE Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a Laplace transform method and a finite difference method for solving American option pricing problem when the change of the option price with time is considered as a fractal transmission system. In this scenario, the option price is governed by a time-fractional partial differential equation (PDE with free boundary. The Laplace transform method is applied to the time-fractional PDE. It then leads to a nonlinear equation for the free boundary (i.e., optimal early exercise boundary function in Laplace space. After numerically finding the solution of the nonlinear equation, the Laplace inversion is used to transform the approximate early exercise boundary into the time space. Finally the approximate price of the American option is obtained. A boundary-searching finite difference method is also proposed to solve the free-boundary time-fractional PDEs for pricing the American options. Numerical examples are carried out to compare the Laplace approach with the finite difference method and it is confirmed that the former approach is much faster than the latter one.

  12. The North American Drought Atlas: Tree-Ring Reconstructions of Drought Variability for Climate Modeling and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, E. R.

    2007-05-01

    The North American Drought Atlas describes a detailed reconstruction of drought variability from tree rings over most of North America for the past 500-1000 years. The first version of it, produced over three years ago, was based on a network of 835 tree-ring chronologies and a 286-point grid of instrumental Palmer Drought Severity Indices (PDSI). These gridded PDSI reconstructions have been used in numerous published studies now that range from modeling fire in the American West, to the impact of drought on palaeo-Indian societies, and to the determination of the primary causes of drought over North America through climate modeling experiments. Some examples of these applications will be described to illustrate the scientific value of these large-scale reconstructions of drought. Since the development and free public release of Version 1 of the North American Drought Atlas (see http:iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.LDEO/.TRL/.NADA2004/.pdsi-atlas.html), great improvements have been made in the critical tree-ring network used to reconstruct PDSI at each grid point. This network has now been enlarged to 1743 annual tree-ring chronologies, which greatly improves the density of tree-ring records in certain parts of the grid, especially in Canada and Mexico. In addition, the number of tree-ring records that extend back before AD 1400 has been substantially increased. These developments justify the creation of Version 2 of the North American Drought Atlas. In this talk I will describe this new version of the drought atlas and some of its properties that make it a significant improvement over the previous version. The new product provides enhanced resolution of the spatial and temporal variability of prolonged drought such as the late 16th century event that impacted regions of both Mexico and the United States. I will also argue for the North American Drought Atlas being used as a template for the development of large-scale drought reconstructions in other land areas of

  13. Improvement in the Modeled Representation of North American Monsoon Precipitation Using a Modified Kain–Fritsch Convective Parameterization Scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Luong, Thang

    2018-01-22

    A commonly noted problem in the simulation of warm season convection in the North American monsoon region has been the inability of atmospheric models at the meso-β scales (10 s to 100 s of kilometers) to simulate organized convection, principally mesoscale convective systems. With the use of convective parameterization, high precipitation biases in model simulations are typically observed over the peaks of mountain ranges. To address this issue, the Kain–Fritsch (KF) cumulus parameterization scheme has been modified with new diagnostic equations to compute the updraft velocity, the convective available potential energy closure assumption, and the convective trigger function. The scheme has been adapted for use in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF). A numerical weather prediction-type simulation is conducted for the North American Monsoon Experiment Intensive Observing Period 2 and a regional climate simulation is performed, by dynamically downscaling. In both of these applications, there are notable improvements in the WRF model-simulated precipitation due to the better representation of organized, propagating convection. The use of the modified KF scheme for atmospheric model simulations may provide a more computationally economical alternative to improve the representation of organized convection, as compared to convective-permitting simulations at the kilometer scale or a super-parameterization approach.

  14. West Nile virus infection in American singer canaries: An experimental model in a highly susceptible avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Lund, Melissa; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the susceptibility of American singer canaries (Serinus canaria) to West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Adult canaries were inoculated with 105, 102, and 101plaque forming units (PFU) of WNV. All birds became infected and mortality occurred by 5 days postinoculation. The load of viral RNA as determined by RT-qPCR was dose dependent, and was higher at all doses than the level of viral RNA detected in American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) challenged with 105 PFU of WNV. In a subset of birds, viremia was detected by virus isolation; canaries inoculated with 101 PFU of WNV developed viremia exceeding 1010 PFU/mL serum, a log higher than American crows inoculated with 105 PFU of virus. In canaries euthanized at 3 days postinoculation, WNV was isolated at >107 PFU of virus/100 mg of lung, liver, heart, spleen, and kidney tissues. Pallor of the liver and splenomegaly were the most common macroscopic observations and histologic lesions were most severe in liver, spleen, and kidney, particularly in canaries challenged with 102 and 101 PFU. Immunoreactivity to WNV was pronounced in the liver and spleen. IgG antibodies to WNV were detected in serum by enzyme immunoassay in 11 of 21 (52%) challenged canaries and, in 4 of 5 (20%) of these sera, neutralization antibodies were detected at a titer ≥ 1:20. American singer canaries provide a useful model as this bird species is highly susceptible to WNV infection.

  15. The American Foreign Exchange Option in Time-Dependent One-Dimensional Diffusion Model for Exchange Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Nasir; Shashiashvili, Malkhaz

    2009-01-01

    The classical Garman-Kohlhagen model for the currency exchange assumes that the domestic and foreign currency risk-free interest rates are constant and the exchange rate follows a log-normal diffusion process.In this paper we consider the general case, when exchange rate evolves according to arbitrary one-dimensional diffusion process with local volatility that is the function of time and the current exchange rate and where the domestic and foreign currency risk-free interest rates may be arbitrary continuous functions of time. First non-trivial problem we encounter in time-dependent case is the continuity in time argument of the value function of the American put option and the regularity properties of the optimal exercise boundary. We establish these properties based on systematic use of the monotonicity in volatility for the value functions of the American as well as European options with convex payoffs together with the Dynamic Programming Principle and we obtain certain type of comparison result for the value functions and corresponding exercise boundaries for the American puts with different strikes, maturities and volatilities.Starting from the latter fact that the optimal exercise boundary curve is left continuous with right-hand limits we give a mathematically rigorous and transparent derivation of the significant early exercise premium representation for the value function of the American foreign exchange put option as the sum of the European put option value function and the early exercise premium.The proof essentially relies on the particular property of the stochastic integral with respect to arbitrary continuous semimartingale over the predictable subsets of its zeros. We derive from the latter the nonlinear integral equation for the optimal exercise boundary which can be studied by numerical methods

  16. Assessment of Domestic Goats as Models for Experimental and Natural Infection with the North American Isolate of Rickettsia slovaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukovsky-Akhsanov, Nicole; Keating, M Kelly; Spivey, Pamela; Lathrop, George W; Powell, Nathaniel; Levin, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia slovaca is a tick-borne human pathogen that is associated with scalp eschars and neck lymphadenopathy known as tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) or Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL). Originally, R. slovaca was described in Eastern Europe, but since recognition of its pathogenicity, human cases have been reported throughout Europe. European vertebrate reservoirs of R. slovaca remain unknown, but feral swine and domestic goats have been found infected or seropositive for this pathogen. Recently, a rickettsial pathogen identical to R. slovaca was identified in, and isolated from, the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis. In previous experimental studies, this organism was found infectious to guinea pigs and transovarially transmissible in ticks. In this study, domestic goats (Capra hircus) were experimentally inoculated with the North American isolate of this R. slovaca-like agent to assess their reservoir competence-the ability to acquire the pathogens and maintain transmission between infected and uninfected ticks. Goats were susceptible to infection as demonstrated by detection of the pathogen in skin biopsies and multiple internal tissues, but the only clinical sign of illness was transient fever noted in three out of four goats, and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. On average, less than 5% of uninfected ticks acquired the pathogen while feeding upon infected goats. Although domestic goats are susceptible to the newly described North American isolate of R. slovaca, they are likely to play a minor role in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. Our results suggest that goats do not propagate the North American isolate of R. slovaca in peridomestic environments and clinical diagnosis of infection could be difficult due to the brevity and mildness of clinical signs. Further research is needed to elucidate the natural transmission cycle of R. slovaca both in Europe and North America, as well as to identify a

  17. Organizational Models and Mythologies of the American Research University. ASHE 1986 Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Daniel

    Features of the matrix model of the research university and myths about the academic enterprise are described, along with serious dissonances in the U.S. university system. The linear model, from which the matrix model evolved, describes the university's structure, perceived mission, and organizational behavior. A matrix model portrays in concise,…

  18. An empirical evaluation of landscape energetic models: Mallard and American black duck space use during the non-breeding period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, William S.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Naylor, Luke W.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Humburg, Dale D.; Coluccy, John M.; Soulliere, G.

    2015-01-01

    Bird conservation Joint Ventures are collaborative partnerships between public agencies and private organizations that facilitate habitat management to support waterfowl and other bird populations. A subset of Joint Ventures has developed energetic carrying capacity models (ECCs) to translate regional waterfowl population goals into habitat objectives during the non-breeding period. Energetic carrying capacity models consider food biomass, metabolism, and available habitat to estimate waterfowl carrying capacity within an area. To evaluate Joint Venture ECCs in the context of waterfowl space use, we monitored 33 female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 55 female American black ducks (A. rubripes) using global positioning system satellite telemetry in the central and eastern United States. To quantify space use, we measured first-passage time (FPT: time required for an individual to transit across a circle of a given radius) at biologically relevant spatial scales for mallards (3.46 km) and American black ducks (2.30 km) during the non-breeding period, which included autumn migration, winter, and spring migration. We developed a series of models to predict FPT using Joint Venture ECCs and compared them to a biological null model that quantified habitat composition and a statistical null model, which included intercept and random terms. Energetic carrying capacity models predicted mallard space use more efficiently during autumn and spring migrations, but the statistical null was the top model for winter. For American black ducks, ECCs did not improve predictions of space use; the biological null was top ranked for winter and the statistical null was top ranked for spring migration. Thus, ECCs provided limited insight into predicting waterfowl space use during the non-breeding season. Refined estimates of spatial and temporal variation in food abundance, habitat conditions, and anthropogenic disturbance will likely improve ECCs and benefit conservation planners

  19. An Objective Verification of the North American Mesoscale Model for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2010-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers (LWO's) use the 12-km resolution North American Mesoscale (NAM) model (MesoNAM) text and graphical product forecasts extensively to support launch weather operations. However, the actual performance of the model at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) has not been measured objectively. In order to have tangible evidence of model performance, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU; Bauman et ai, 2004) to conduct a detailed statistical analysis of model output compared to observed values. The model products are provided to the 45 WS by ACTA, Inc. and include hourly forecasts from 0 to 84 hours based on model initialization times of 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC. The objective analysis compared the MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature (T) and dew pOint (T d), as well as the changes in these parameters over time, to the observed values from the sensors in the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network shown in Table 1. These objective statistics give the forecasters knowledge of the model's strengths and weaknesses, which will result in improved forecasts for operations.

  20. Simple intake and pharmacokinetic modeling to characterize exposure of Americans to perfluoroctanoic acid, PFOA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Matthew; Egeghy, Peter P

    2011-10-01

    Models for assessing intakes of perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA, are described and applied. One model is based on exposure media concentrations and contact rates. This model is applied to general population exposures for adults and 2-year old children. The other model is a simple one-compartment, first-order pharmacokinetic (PK) model. Parameters for this model include a rate of elimination of PFOA and a blood volume of distribution. The model was applied to data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, NHANES, to backcalculate intakes. The central tendency intake estimate for adults and children based on exposure media concentrations and contact rates were 70 and 26 ng/day, respectively. The central tendency adult intake derived from NHANES data was 56 and 37 ng/day for males and females, respectively. Variability and uncertainty discussions regarding the intake modeling focus on lack of data on direct exposure to PFOA used in consumer products, precursor compounds, and food. Discussions regarding PK modeling focus on the range of blood measurements in NHANES, the appropriateness of the simple PK model, and the uncertainties associated with model parameters. Using the PK model, the 10th and 95th percentile long-term average adult intakes of PFOA are 15 and 130 ng/day.

  1. Measurement Invariance and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: Asian International and Euro American Cultural Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollock, David; Lui, P Priscilla

    2016-10-01

    This study examined measurement invariance of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), assessing the five-factor model (FFM) of personality among Euro American (N = 290) and Asian international (N = 301) students (47.8% women, Mage = 19.69 years). The full 60-item NEO-FFI data fit the expected five-factor structure for both groups using exploratory structural equation modeling, and achieved configural invariance. Only 37 items significantly loaded onto the FFM-theorized factors for both groups and demonstrated metric invariance. Threshold invariance was not supported with this reduced item set. Groups differed the most in the item-factor relationships for Extraversion and Agreeableness, as well as in response styles. Asian internationals were more likely to use midpoint responses than Euro Americans. While the FFM can characterize broad nomothetic patterns of personality traits, metric invariance with only the subset of NEO-FFI items identified limits direct group comparisons of correlation coefficients among personality domains and with other constructs, and of mean differences on personality domains. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. A Mathematical Model of Intra-Colony Spread of American Foulbrood in European Honeybees (Apis mellifera L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo O Jatulan

    Full Text Available American foulbrood (AFB is one of the severe infectious diseases of European honeybees (Apis mellifera L. and other Apis species. This disease is caused by a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. In this paper, a compartmental (SI framework model is constructed to represent the spread of AFB within a colony. The model is analyzed to determine the long-term fate of the colony once exposed to AFB spores. It was found out that without effective and efficient treatment, AFB infection eventually leads to colony collapse. Furthermore, infection thresholds were predicted based on the stability of the equilibrium states. The number of infected cell combs is one of the factors that drive disease spread. Our results can be used to forecast the transmission timeline of AFB infection and to evaluate the control strategies for minimizing a possible epidemic.

  3. Positive Adjustment Among American Repatriated Prisoners of the Vietnam War: Modeling the Long-Term Effects of Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel W; King, Lynda A; Park, Crystal L; Lee, Lewina O; Kaiser, Anica Pless; Spiro, Avron; Moore, Jeffrey L; Kaloupek, Danny G; Keane, Terence M

    2015-11-01

    A longitudinal lifespan model of factors contributing to later-life positive adjustment was tested on 567 American repatriated prisoners from the Vietnam War. This model encompassed demographics at time of capture and attributes assessed after return to the U.S. (reports of torture and mental distress) and approximately 3 decades later (later-life stressors, perceived social support, positive appraisal of military experiences, and positive adjustment). Age and education at time of capture and physical torture were associated with repatriation mental distress, which directly predicted poorer adjustment 30 years later. Physical torture also had a salutary effect, enhancing later-life positive appraisals of military experiences. Later-life events were directly and indirectly (through concerns about retirement) associated with positive adjustment. Results suggest that the personal resources of older age and more education and early-life adverse experiences can have cascading effects over the lifespan to impact well-being in both positive and negative ways.

  4. [Use of theories and models on papers of a Latin-American journal in public health, 2000 to 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Arana, Gustavo Alonso

    2007-12-01

    To characterize frequency and type of use of theories or models on papers of a Latin-American journal in public health between 2000 and 2004. The Revista de Saúde Pública was chosen because of its history of periodic publication without interruption and current impact on the scientific communication of the area. A standard procedure was applied for reading and classifying articles in an arbitrary typology of four levels, according to the depth of the use of models or theoretical references to describe problems or issues, to formulate methods and to discuss results. Of 482 articles included, 421 (87%) were research studies, 42 (9%) reviews or special contributions and 19 (4%) opinion texts or assays . Of 421 research studies, 286 (68%) had a quantitative focus, 110 (26%) qualitative and 25 (6%) mixed. Reference to theories or models is uncommon, only 90 (19%) articles mentioned a theory or model. According to the depth of the use, 29 (6%) were classified as type I, 9 (2%) as type II, 6 (1.3%) were type III and the 46 remaining texts (9.5%) were type IV. Reference to models was nine-fold more frequent than the use of theoretical references. The ideal use, type IV, occurred in one of every ten articles studied. It is of relevance to show theoretical and models frames used when approaching topics, formulating hypothesis, designing methods and discussing findings in papers.

  5. Ecosystem Model Performance at Wetlands: Results from the North American Carbon Program Site Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulman, B. N.; Desai, A. R.; Schroeder, N. M.; NACP Site Synthesis Participants

    2011-12-01

    Northern peatlands contain a significant fraction of the global carbon pool, and their responses to hydrological change are likely to be important factors in future carbon cycle-climate feedbacks. Global-scale carbon cycle modeling studies typically use general ecosystem models with coarse spatial resolution, often without peatland-specific processes. Here, seven ecosystem models were used to simulate CO2 fluxes at three field sites in Canada and the northern United States, including two nutrient-rich fens and one nutrient-poor, sphagnum-dominated bog, from 2002-2006. Flux residuals (simulated - observed) were positively correlated with measured water table for both gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) at the two fen sites for all models, and were positively correlated with water table at the bog site for the majority of models. Modeled diurnal cycles at fen sites agreed well with eddy covariance measurements overall. Eddy covariance GEP and ER were higher during dry periods than during wet periods, while model results predicted either the opposite relationship or no significant difference. At the bog site, eddy covariance GEP had no significant dependence on water table, while models predicted higher GEP during wet periods. All models significantly over-estimated GEP at the bog site, and all but one over-estimated ER at the bog site. Carbon cycle models in peatland-rich regions could be improved by incorporating better models or measurements of hydrology and by inhibiting GEP and ER rates under saturated conditions. Bogs and fens likely require distinct treatments in ecosystem models due to differences in nutrients, peat properties, and plant communities.

  6. The Samurai or the Cowboy? Toward an American Model of Quality Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Mark W.

    1994-01-01

    The Japanese model of business management and Total Quality Management principles being applied to higher education as well as businesses are often ineffective because of the application of packaged ideas without consideration of the subtleties of individual organizations. The cowboy model of teamwork stresses the individual's role and better fits…

  7. Development of a methodology for probable maximum precipitation estimation over the American River watershed using the WRF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Elcin

    A new physically-based methodology for probable maximum precipitation (PMP) estimation is developed over the American River Watershed (ARW) using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF-ARW) model. A persistent moisture flux convergence pattern, called Pineapple Express, is analyzed for 42 historical extreme precipitation events, and it is found that Pineapple Express causes extreme precipitation over the basin of interest. An average correlation between moisture flux convergence and maximum precipitation is estimated as 0.71 for 42 events. The performance of the WRF model is verified for precipitation by means of calibration and independent validation of the model. The calibration procedure is performed only for the first ranked flood event 1997 case, whereas the WRF model is validated for 42 historical cases. Three nested model domains are set up with horizontal resolutions of 27 km, 9 km, and 3 km over the basin of interest. As a result of Chi-square goodness-of-fit tests, the hypothesis that "the WRF model can be used in the determination of PMP over the ARW for both areal average and point estimates" is accepted at the 5% level of significance. The sensitivities of model physics options on precipitation are determined using 28 microphysics, atmospheric boundary layer, and cumulus parameterization schemes combinations. It is concluded that the best triplet option is Thompson microphysics, Grell 3D ensemble cumulus, and YSU boundary layer (TGY), based on 42 historical cases, and this TGY triplet is used for all analyses of this research. Four techniques are proposed to evaluate physically possible maximum precipitation using the WRF: 1. Perturbations of atmospheric conditions; 2. Shift in atmospheric conditions; 3. Replacement of atmospheric conditions among historical events; and 4. Thermodynamically possible worst-case scenario creation. Moreover, climate change effect on precipitation is discussed by emphasizing temperature increase in order to determine the

  8. A data-calibrated distribution of deglacial chronologies for the North American ice complex from glaciological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Lev; Dyke, Arthur S.; Neal, Radford M.; Peltier, W. R.

    2012-01-01

    Past deglacial ice sheet reconstructions have generally relied upon discipline-specific constraints with no attention given to the determination of objective confidence intervals. Reconstructions based on geophysical inversion of relative sea level (RSL) data have the advantage of large sets of proxy data but lack ice-mechanical constraints. Conversely, reconstructions based on dynamical ice sheet models are glaciologically self-consistent, but depend on poorly constrained climate forcings and sub-glacial processes. As an example of a much better constrained methodology that computes explicit error bars, we present a distribution of high-resolution glaciologically-self-consistent deglacial histories for the North American ice complex calibrated against a large set of RSL, marine limit, and geodetic data. The history is derived from ensemble-based analyses using the 3D MUN glacial systems model and a high-resolution ice-margin chronology derived from geological and geomorphological observations. Isostatic response is computed with the VM5a viscosity structure. Bayesian calibration of the model is carried out using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods in combination with artificial neural networks trained to the model results. The calibration provides a posterior distribution for model parameters (and thereby modeled glacial histories) given the observational data sets that takes data uncertainty into account. Final ensemble results also account for fits between computed and observed strandlines and marine limits. Given the model (including choice of calibration parameters), input and constraint data sets, and VM5a earth rheology, we find the North American contribution to mwp1a was likely between 9.4 and 13.2 m eustatic over a 500 year interval. This is more than half of the total 16 to 26 m meltwater pulse over 500 to 700 years (with lower values being more probable) indicated by the Barbados coral record (Fairbanks, 1989; Peltier and Fairbanks, 2006) if one assumes a

  9. Mechanistic variables can enhance predictive models of endotherm distributions: the American pika under current, past, and future climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathewson, Paul D; Moyer-Horner, Lucas; Beever, Erik A; Briscoe, Natalie J; Kearney, Michael; Yahn, Jeremiah M; Porter, Warren P

    2017-03-01

    How climate constrains species' distributions through time and space is an important question in the context of conservation planning for climate change. Despite increasing awareness of the need to incorporate mechanism into species distribution models (SDMs), mechanistic modeling of endotherm distributions remains limited in this literature. Using the American pika (Ochotona princeps) as an example, we present a framework whereby mechanism can be incorporated into endotherm SDMs. Pika distribution has repeatedly been found to be constrained by warm temperatures, so we used Niche Mapper, a mechanistic heat-balance model, to convert macroclimate data to pika-specific surface activity time in summer across the western United States. We then explored the difference between using a macroclimate predictor (summer temperature) and using a mechanistic predictor (predicted surface activity time) in SDMs. Both approaches accurately predicted pika presences in current and past climate regimes. However, the activity models predicted 8-19% less habitat loss in response to annual temperature increases of ~3-5 °C predicted in the region by 2070, suggesting that pikas may be able to buffer some climate change effects through behavioral thermoregulation that can be captured by mechanistic modeling. Incorporating mechanism added value to the modeling by providing increased confidence in areas where different modeling approaches agreed and providing a range of outcomes in areas of disagreement. It also provided a more proximate variable relating animal distribution to climate, allowing investigations into how unique habitat characteristics and intraspecific phenotypic variation may allow pikas to exist in areas outside those predicted by generic SDMs. Only a small number of easily obtainable data are required to parameterize this mechanistic model for any endotherm, and its use can improve SDM predictions by explicitly modeling a widely applicable direct physiological effect

  10. Mechanistic variables can enhance predictive models of endotherm distributions: The American pika under current, past, and future climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathewson, Paul; Moyer-Horner, Lucas; Beever, Erik; Briscoe, Natalie; Kearney, Michael T.; Yahn, Jeremiah; Porter, Warren P.

    2017-01-01

    How climate constrains species’ distributions through time and space is an important question in the context of conservation planning for climate change. Despite increasing awareness of the need to incorporate mechanism into species distribution models (SDMs), mechanistic modeling of endotherm distributions remains limited in this literature. Using the American pika (Ochotona princeps) as an example, we present a framework whereby mechanism can be incorporated into endotherm SDMs. Pika distribution has repeatedly been found to be constrained by warm temperatures, so we used Niche Mapper, a mechanistic heat-balance model, to convert macroclimate data to pika-specific surface activity time in summer across the western United States. We then explored the difference between using a macroclimate predictor (summer temperature) and using a mechanistic predictor (predicted surface activity time) in SDMs. Both approaches accurately predicted pika presences in current and past climate regimes. However, the activity models predicted 8–19% less habitat loss in response to annual temperature increases of ~3–5 °C predicted in the region by 2070, suggesting that pikas may be able to buffer some climate change effects through behavioral thermoregulation that can be captured by mechanistic modeling. Incorporating mechanism added value to the modeling by providing increased confidence in areas where different modeling approaches agreed and providing a range of outcomes in areas of disagreement. It also provided a more proximate variable relating animal distribution to climate, allowing investigations into how unique habitat characteristics and intraspecific phenotypic variation may allow pikas to exist in areas outside those predicted by generic SDMs. Only a small number of easily obtainable data are required to parameterize this mechanistic model for any endotherm, and its use can improve SDM predictions by explicitly modeling a widely applicable direct physiological effect

  11. Cytoprotective Effect of American Ginseng in a Rat Ethanol Gastric Ulcer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Huang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Panax quinquefolium L. (American Ginseng, AG is one of the most popular herbal medicines in the World. We aimed to investigate whether chronic (28-day supplementation with AG could protect against ethanol-induced ulcer in gastric tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the possible molecular mechanisms leading to AG-mediated gastric mucosal protection. We randomized 32 male Wistar rats into four groups for treatment (n = 8 per group: supplementation with water (vehicle and low-dose (AG-1X, medium-dose (AG-2X and high-dose (AG-5X AG at 0, 250, 500, and 1250 mg/kg, respectively. In the first experiment, animals were fed vehicle or AG treatments for 4 weeks. At day 29, 75% ethanol was given orally to each animal at 10 mL/kg to induce gastric ulceration for 2 h. In a second experiment, animals were pretreated orally with each treatment for 1 hr before a single oral administration of ethanol (70%, 10 mL/kg. Trend analysis revealed that AG treatments inhibited ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. AG supplementation dose-dependently decreased the pro-inflammatory levels of interleukin 1β and cyclooxygenase 2 and the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins tBid, cytochrome C, and caspases-9 and -3 and increased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p-Bad. AG could have pharmacological potential for treating gastric ulcer.

  12. SPECIAL AND INCLUSIVE MODELS OF EDUCATION IN MODERN AMERICAN AND BRITISH STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Andriichuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a comparative description of inclusive and special systems of education. On the basis of American and British studies are shown that modern scientists, voluntary organizations and parents of the disabled kids meet two problems: to prove that inclusion is necessary for children with special needs as the alternative to special education and to illustrate the real ways of inclusive education implementation into general educational process. The main goal of inclusive education is defined – to educate an absolutely full member of society by attracting all participants of education process to the general school activities. The author of the article points out that the professionals in the sphere of special education created and worked out a great amount of forms, methods and techniques of teaching which work with particular categories of children with special educational needs. This potential is useful and valuable from the point of view of inclusion which cannot succeed without the professional participation of specialists in different fields of pedagogy, psychology and rehabilitology.

  13. An examination of the cross-cultural validity of the Identity Capital Model: American and Japanese students compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, James E; Mizokami, Shinichi; Roberts, Sharon E; Nakama, Reiko

    2016-01-01

    The Identity Capital Model proposes that forms of personal agency are associated with identity development as part of the transition to adulthood. This model was examined in two cultural contexts, taking into account age and gender, among college and university students aged 18 to 24 (N = 995). Confirmatory Factor Analyses verified cultural, age, and gender invariance of the two key operationalizations of the model. A Structural Equation Model path analysis confirmed that the model applies in both cultures with minor variations-types of personal agency are associated with the formation of adult- and societal-identities as part of the resolution of the identity stage. It was concluded that forms of personal agency providing the most effective ways of dealing with "individualization" (e.g., internal locus of control) are more important in the transition to adulthood among American students, whereas types of personal agency most effective in dealing with "individualistic collectivism" (e.g., ego strength) are more important among Japanese students. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. South American smoke coverage and flux estimations from the Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE') system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J. S.; Westphal, D. L.; Christopher, S. A.; Prins, E. M.; Gasso, S.; Reid, E.; Theisen, M.; Schmidt, C. C.; Hunter, J.; Eck, T.

    2002-05-01

    The Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE') project is a joint Navy, NOAA, NASA and university project to integrate satellite products with numerical aerosol models to produce a real time fire and emissions inventory. At the center of the program is the Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF ABBA) which provides real-time fire products and the NRL Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System to model smoke transport. In this presentation we give a brief overview of the system and methods, but emphasize new estimations of smoke coverage and emission fluxes from the South American continent. Temporal and smoke patterns compare reasonably well with AERONET and MODIS aerosol optical depth products for the 2000 and 2001 fire seasons. Fluxes are computed by relating NAAPS output fields and MODIS optical depth maps with modeled wind fields. Smoke emissions and transport fluxes out of the continent can then be estimated by perturbing the modeled emissions to gain agreement with the satellite and wind products. Regional smoke emissions are also presented for grass and forest burning.

  15. Process-based modeling of species' responses to climate change - a proof of concept using western North American trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M. E.; Merow, C.; Record, S.; Menlove, J.; Gray, A.; Cundiff, J.; McMahon, S.; Enquist, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    Current attempts to forecast how species' distributions will change in response to climate change suffer under a fundamental trade-off: between modeling many species superficially vs. few species in detail (between correlative vs. mechanistic models). The goals of this talk are two-fold: first, we present a Bayesian multilevel modeling framework, dynamic range modeling (DRM), for building process-based forecasts of many species' distributions at a time, designed to address the trade-off between detail and number of distribution forecasts. In contrast to 'species distribution modeling' or 'niche modeling', which uses only species' occurrence data and environmental data, DRMs draw upon demographic data, abundance data, trait data, occurrence data, and GIS layers of climate in a single framework to account for two processes known to influence range dynamics - demography and dispersal. The vision is to use extensive databases on plant demography, distributions, and traits - in the Botanical Information and Ecology Network, the Forest Inventory and Analysis database (FIA), and the International Tree Ring Data Bank - to develop DRMs for North American trees. Second, we present preliminary results from building the core submodel of a DRM - an integral projection model (IPM) - for a sample of dominant tree species in western North America. IPMs are used to infer demographic niches - i.e., the set of environmental conditions under which population growth rate is positive - and project population dynamics through time. Based on >550,000 data points derived from FIA for nine tree species in western North America, we show IPM-based models of their current and future distributions, and discuss how IPMs can be used to forecast future forest productivity, mortality patterns, and inform efforts at assisted migration.

  16. Diagnosing sea ice from the north american multi model ensemble and implications on mid-latitude winter climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elders, Akiko; Pegion, Kathy

    2017-12-01

    Arctic sea ice plays an important role in the climate system, moderating the exchange of energy and moisture between the ocean and the atmosphere. An emerging area of research investigates how changes, particularly declines, in sea ice extent (SIE) impact climate in regions local to and remote from the Arctic. Therefore, both observations and model estimates of sea ice become important. This study investigates the skill of sea ice predictions from models participating in the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) project. Three of the models in this project provide sea-ice predictions. The ensemble average of these models is used to determine seasonal climate impacts on surface air temperature (SAT) and sea level pressure (SLP) in remote regions such as the mid-latitudes. It is found that declines in fall SIE are associated with cold temperatures in the mid-latitudes and pressure patterns across the Arctic and mid-latitudes similar to the negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO). These findings are consistent with other studies that have investigated the relationship between declines in SIE and mid-latitude weather and climate. In an attempt to include additional NMME models for sea-ice predictions, a proxy for SIE is used to estimate ice extent in the remaining models, using sea surface temperature (SST). It is found that SST is a reasonable proxy for SIE estimation when compared to model SIE forecasts and observations. The proxy sea-ice estimates also show similar relationships to mid-latitude temperature and pressure as the actual sea-ice predictions.

  17. Tutuila, American Samoa 1/3 arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  18. Pago Pago, American Samoa 3 Arc-second MWH Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. NACP MsTMIP: Global and North American Driver Data for Multi-Model Intercomparison

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides environmental data that have been standardized and aggregated for use as input to carbon cycle models at global (0.5-degree resolution) and...

  20. NACP MsTMIP: Global and North American Driver Data for Multi-Model Intercomparison

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides environmental data that have been standardized and aggregated for use as input to carbon cycle models at global (0.5-degree...

  1. Pago Pago, American Samoa 1/3 Arc-second MWH Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  2. American Women and American Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmaj, Betty E.

    The American Studies Association (ASA) is an interprofessional group, representing a cross-section of persons from American literature, American history, the social sciences, philosophy, archeology, Black Studies, Urban Studies, American Studies, and others. This document by the ASA Commission on the Status of Women includes: (1) a report of the…

  3. A diagnostic evaluation model for complex research partnerships with community engagement: the partnership for Native American Cancer Prevention (NACP) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Robert T; Laurila, Kelly; Alberts, David; Huenneke, Laura F

    2015-02-01

    Complex community oriented health care prevention and intervention partnerships fail or only partially succeed at alarming rates. In light of the current rapid expansion of critically needed programs targeted at health disparities in minority populations, we have designed and are testing an "logic model plus" evaluation model that combines classic logic model and query based evaluation designs (CDC, NIH, Kellogg Foundation) with advances in community engaged designs derived from industry-university partnership models. These approaches support the application of a "near real time" feedback system (diagnosis and intervention) based on organizational theory, social network theory, and logic model metrics directed at partnership dynamics, combined with logic model metrics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A diagnostic evaluation model for complex research partnerships with community engagement: The partnership for Native American Cancer Prevention (NACP) model

    OpenAIRE

    Trotter, Robert T.; Laurila, Kelly; Alberts, David; Huenneke, Laura F.

    2014-01-01

    Complex community oriented health care prevention and intervention partnerships fail or only partially succeed at alarming rates. In light of the current rapid expansion of critically needed programs targeted at health disparities in minority populations, we have designed and are testing an “logic model plus” evaluation model that combines classic logic model and query based evaluation designs (CDC, NIH, Kellogg Foundation) with advances in community engaged designs derived from industry-univ...

  5. Modeling the South American regional smoke plume: aerosol optical depth variability and surface shortwave flux perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Rosário

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intra-seasonal variability of smoke aerosol optical depth (AOD and downwelling solar irradiance at the surface during the 2002 biomass burning season in South America was modeled using the Coupled Chemistry-Aerosol-Tracers Transport model with the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CCATT-BRAMS. Measurements of total and fine mode fraction (FMF AOD from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET and solar irradiance at the surface from the Solar Radiation Network (SolRad-NET were used to evaluate model results. In general, the major features associated with AOD evolution over the southern part of the Amazon basin and cerrado ecosystem are captured by the model. The main discrepancies were found for high aerosol loading events. In the northeastern portion of the Amazon basin the model systematically underestimated total AOD, as expected, since smoke contribution is not dominant as it is in the southern portion and emissions other than smoke were not considered in the simulation. Better agreement was obtained comparing the model results with observed FMF AOD, which pointed out the relevance of coarse mode aerosol emission in that region. Likewise, major discrepancies over cerrado during high AOD events were found to be associated with coarse mode aerosol omission in our model. The issue of high aerosol loading events in the southern part of the Amazon was related to difficulties in predicting the smoke AOD field, which was discussed in the context of emissions shortcomings. The Cuiabá cerrado site was the only one where the highest quality AERONET data were unavailable for both total and FMF AOD. Thus, lower quality data were used. Root-mean-square error (RMSE between the model and observed FMF AOD decreased from 0.34 to 0.19 when extreme AOD events (FMF AOD550 nm ≥ 1.0 and Cuiabá were excluded from the analysis. Downward surface solar irradiance comparisons also followed similar trends when extreme AOD were excluded

  6. Using the PEN-3 Model to Plan Culturally Competent Domestic Violence Intervention and Prevention Services in Chinese American and Immigrant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yick, Alice G.; Oomen-Early, Jody

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is two-fold. First, it applies the PEN-3 model to the topic of domestic violence within the Chinese American and Chinese immigrant community. The PEN-3 model was developed by Collins Airhihenbuwa, and it focuses on placing culture at the forefront of health promotion. It consists of three dimensions: cultural…

  7. A comparative review between the updated models of Brazilian, United Kingdom and American eye banks and lamellar transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Victor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The corneal transplantation (CT is the most commonly performed type of transplant in the world and the Eye Banks are organizations whose capture, evaluate, preserve, store and distribute ocular tissues. With the evolution of surgical techniques and equipment for CT, the BOs had to evolve to keep up with these requirements. This evolution goes from tissues capture techniques, donating money and clarification to the patient (e.g. internet-based, use of current equipment for more adequate tissues supply for the most current surgical techniques, integration of BOs of certain country and real-time management of stocks of ocular tissues, and adequacy of laws that manage the entire process. This review aims to make a comparative review between the updated models of Brazilian, United Kingdon and American Eye Banks. Like, check what the trend towards lamellar transplants in these three countries.

  8. Futures markets - the new American natural-gas trading model. Terminboersen als neues Konzept des Erdgashandels in den USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensing, I [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Volkswirtschaftslehre

    1993-09-01

    Natural gas presently goes through a very rapid change as compared with other energy sources. The U.S. natural-gas futures market as established successfully since April 3, 1990 by the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) is introduced. The basic conditions, the underlying principle, and the possible effects are elucidated. The experiences gained in the U.S.A. stimulate the European discussion about possible regulation or deregulation models because Europe is about to make important decisions about the future of the natural-gas industry. The European Communities can take the unique chance of an uninfluenced, free development and will not have to bow to dictates like, e.g. the international petroleum markets (condemnations from 1971 to 1973) and the American natural-gas industry (regulation for decades). (orig.)

  9. Relations of Transtheoretical Model Stage, Self-Efficacy, and Voluntary Physical Activity in African American Preadolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Westcott, Wayne L.

    2010-01-01

    The transtheoretical model (TTM; Prochaska, DiClemente, & Norcross, 1992) suggests that, at any point, an individual is in one of five stages-of-change related to adopting a behavior. People sequentially advance in stage but may also maintain or even regress, based on personal and environmental factors (Nigg, 2005). A classic study published in…

  10. American Indian/Alaska Native Voices in the Model of Institutional Adaptation to Student Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Raphael; Wolverton, Mimi; Appleton, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Richardson and Skinner (1991) in their Model of Institutional Adaptation to Student Diversity (MIASD) assert that state higher education boards have significant influence on the degree to which institutions respond to student diversity. The purpose of the study (conducted in the 2001-2002 school year) reported in this article was to determine…

  11. Culture and Youth Psychopathology: Testing the Syndromal Sensitivity Model in Thai and American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, John R.; Weiss, Bahr; Suwanlert, Somsong; Chaiyasit, Wanchai

    2006-01-01

    Current widespread use of the same youth assessment measures and scales across different nations assumes that youth psychopathology syndromes do not differ meaningfully across nations. By contrast, the authors' syndromal sensitivity model posits 3 processes through which cultural differences can lead to cross-national differences in…

  12. A direct comparison of popular models of normal memory loss and Alzheimer's disease in samples of African Americans, Mexican Americans, and refugees and immigrants from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauf, Robert W; Iris, Madelyn

    2011-04-01

    To understand how people differentiate normal memory loss from Alzheimer's disease (AD) by investigating cultural models of these conditions. Ethnographic interviews followed by a survey. Cultural consensus analysis was used to test for the presence of group models, derive the "culturally correct" set of beliefs, and compare models of normal memory loss and AD. Chicago, Illinois. One hundred eight individuals from local neighborhoods: African Americans, Mexican Americans, and refugees and immigrants from the former Soviet Union. Participants responded to yes-or-no questions about the nature and causes of normal memory loss and AD and provided information on ethnicity, age, sex, acculturation, and experience with AD. Groups held a common model of AD as a brain-based disease reflecting irreversible cognitive decline. Higher levels of acculturation predicted greater knowledge of AD. Russian speakers favored biological over psychological models of the disease. Groups also held a common model of normal memory loss, including the important belief that "normal" forgetting involves eventual recall of the forgotten material. Popular models of memory loss and AD confirm that patients and clinicians are speaking the same "language" in their discussions of memory loss and AD. Nevertheless, the presence of coherent models of memory loss and AD, and the unequal distribution of that knowledge across groups, suggests that clinicians should include wider circles of patients' families and friends in their consultations. These results frame knowledge as distributed across social groups rather than simply the possession of individual minds. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Energy contribution to Latin American INDCs: Analyzing sub-regional trends with a TIMES model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postic, Sebastien; Selosse, Sandrine; Maïzi, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Central and South America and the Caribbean countries share energy and climate features that are quite different from the rest of the world, including a highly renewable energy mix and very high renewable energy potentials, along with high deforestation and degradation rates which call for regional answers to regional issues. This paper assesses the impact of national contributions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change using an energy prospective model from the MarkAl/TIMES family. This approach enables a bottom-up comparison between past pledges (Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions) and the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) agreed on at COP21. Long-term economic optimization leads to decarbonizing the power sector even in the absence of climate constraints. Stringent climate policies as modeled here achieve emission reductions of 40% below the current baseline by 2050. NDCs produce stronger emission reductions than NAMAs at regional scale; however, the first contributor to emission reductions in absolute terms in Latin America is the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land-Use (AFOLU) sector, not energy. - Highlights: • We analyze energy-bound climate mitigation in Latin America with a bottom-up model. • We derive five policy scenarios based on past and current pledges to the UNFCCC. • Despite a clean BAU power mix, the region can cut emissions by up to 40% by 2050. • INDCs lead to stronger emission reductions than former NAMAs. • Energy-only measures would overlook significant abatement potential in AFOLU.

  14. Ditching Tests of a 1/10-Scale Model of the North American XFJ-1 Airplane Ted No. NACA 314

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Lloyd J.; McBride, Ellis E.

    1948-01-01

    Tests were made of a 1/10-scale dynamically similar model of the North American XFJ-1 airplane to study its behavior when ditched. The model was landed in calm water at the Langley tank no. 2 monorail. Various landing attitudes, speeds, and conditions of damage were simulated. The behavior of the model was determined from visual observations, by recording the accelerations, and by taking motion pictures of the ditchings. Data are presented in tabular form, sequence photographs, and time-history acceleration curves. From the results of the tests it was concluded that the airplane should be ditched at the near-stall, tail-down landing attitude of 12 deg. The flaps should be fully extended to obtain the lowest possible landing speed. The wing-tip tanks should be jettisoned if any appreciable load of fuel remains; if empty, they should be retained for additional buoyancy. In a calm-water ditching the airplane will probably run about 600 feet Maximum longitudinal decelerations of about 2.5g and maximum vertical acceleration of about 2g will be encountered. The nose-intake duct will be clear of the water until practically all forward motion has stopped.

  15. Simulating the convective precipitation diurnal cycle in a North American scale convection-permitting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaff, L.; Li, Y.; Prein, A. F.; Liu, C.; Rasmussen, R.; Ikeda, K.

    2017-12-01

    A better representation of the diurnal cycle of convective precipitation is essential for the analysis of the energy balance and the water budget components such as runoff, evaporation and infiltration. Convection-permitting regional climate modeling (CPM) has been shown to improve the models' performance of summer precipitation, allowing to: (1) simulate the mesoscale processes in more detail and (2) to provide more insights in future changes in convective precipitation under climate change. In this work we investigate the skill of the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF) in simulating the summer precipitation diurnal cycle over most of North America. We use 4 km horizontal grid spacing in a 13-years long current and future period. The future scenario is assuming no significant changes in large-scale weather patterns and aims to answer how the weather of the current climate would change if it would reoccur at the end of the century under a high-end emission scenario (Pseudo Global Warming). We emphasize on a region centered on the lee side of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, where the summer precipitation amount shows a regional maximum. The historical simulations are capable to correctly represent the diurnal cycle. At the lee-side of the Canadian Rockies the increase in the convective available potential energy as well as pronounced low-level moisture flux from the southeast Prairies explains the local maximum in summer precipitation. The PGW scenario shows an increase in summer precipitation amount and intensity in this region, consistently with a stronger source of moisture and convective energy.

  16. Density heterogeneity of the North American upper mantle from satellite gravity and a regional crustal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herceg, Matija; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2014-01-01

    -density conversion and (ii) uncertainties in knowledge of the crustal structure (thickness and average Vp velocities of individual crustal layers, including the sedimentary cover). In this study, we address both sources of possible uncertainties by applying different conversions from velocity to density...... and by introducing variations into the crustal structure which corresponds to the uncertainty of its resolution by highquality and low-quality seismic models. We examine the propagation of these uncertainties into determinations of lithospheric mantle density. Given a relatively small range of expected density...

  17. Haitian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanese, Anthony V.

    1998-01-01

    Uses 1990 U.S. Census data to show the changing demographic profile of Haitian Americans. Haitian Americans are likely to live along the Atlantic seaboard and to have relatively low, although not the lowest, incomes. However, the demographic mosaic of Haitian Americans is diverse, showing the effects of Haitian national and ethnic history. (SLD)

  18. Drought on the North American High Plains: Modeling Effects of Vegetation, Temperature, and Rainfall Perturbations on Regional Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, A. E.; Condon, L. E.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Large scale droughts can disrupt the water supply for agriculture, municipalities and industrial use worldwide. For example, the Dustbowl drought of the 1930s severely damaged agriculture on the North American High Plains. The Dustbowl is generally attributed to three major factors: increased temperature, decreased precipitation, and a change from native grasses that might have tolerated these climate perturbations to dryland wheat farming, which did not. This study explores the individual importance of each of these factors and the feedbacks between them. Previous modeling studies have explored how the High Plains system responds to changes in precipitation or temperature, but these models often depend on simplified or lumped parameter approaches. These approaches may not fully represent all the relevant physical processes, especially those related to energy balance changes due to increased temperature. For this study, we built a high-resolution model of the High Plains using ParFlow-CLM, an integrated hydrologic model that solves both energy and water balances from the subsurface to the top of vegetation. Model inputs including geology and climate forcing, together with representative precipitation and temperature changes for a major drought were assembled from public data. Numerical experiments were run to perturb vegetation, precipitation and temperature separately, as well as a baseline scenario with no changes and a worst-case scenario with all three simultaneously. The impact of each factor on High Plains hydrology and water resources was examined by comparing soil moisture, stream flow and water table levels between the runs. The one-factor experiments were used to show which of these outputs was the most sensitive and responded most quickly to each change. The worst-case scenario revealed interactions between the three factors.

  19. Modeling sediment accumulation in North American playa wetlands in response to climate change, 1940-2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Lucy; Skagen, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    Playa wetlands on the west-central Great Plains of North America are vulnerable to sediment infilling from upland agriculture, putting at risk several important ecosystem services as well as essential habitats and food resources of diverse wetland-dependent biota. Climate predictions for this semi-arid area indicate reduced precipitation which may alter rates of erosion, runoff, and sedimentation of playas. We forecasted erosion rates, sediment depths, and resultant playa wetland depths across the west-central Great Plains and examined the relative roles of land use context and projected changes in precipitation in the sedimentation process. We estimated erosion with the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) using historic values and downscaled precipitation predictions from three general circulation models and three emissions scenarios. We calibrated RUSLE results using field sediment measurements. RUSLE is appealing for regional scale modeling because it uses climate forecasts with monthly resolution and other widely available values including soil texture, slope and land use. Sediment accumulation rates will continue near historic levels through 2070 and will be sufficient to cause most playas (if not already filled) to fill with sediment within the next 100 years in the absence of mitigation. Land use surrounding the playa, whether grassland or tilled cropland, is more influential in sediment accumulation than climate-driven precipitation change.

  20. Encouraging Sustainable Transport Choices in American Households: Results from an Empirically Grounded Agent-Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Natalini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The transport sector needs to go through an extended process of decarbonisation to counter the threat of climate change. Unfortunately, the International Energy Agency forecasts an enormous growth in the number of cars and greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Two issues can thus be identified: (1 the need for a new methodology that could evaluate the policy performances ex-ante and (2 the need for more effective policies. To help address these issues, we developed an Agent-Based Model called Mobility USA aimed at: (1 testing whether this could be an effective approach in analysing ex-ante policy implementation in the transport sector; and (2 evaluating the effects of alternative policy scenarios on commuting behaviours in the USA. Particularly, we tested the effects of two sets of policies, namely market-based and preference-change ones. The model results suggest that this type of agent-based approach will provide a useful tool for testing policy interventions and their effectiveness.

  1. Pacific-North American teleconnection and North Pacific Oscillation: historical simulation and future projection in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Gan, Bolan; Wu, Lixin; Jia, Fan

    2017-09-01

    Based on reanalysis datasets and as many as 35 CMIP5 models, this study evaluates the capability of climate models to simulate the spatiotemporal features of Pacific-North American teleconnection (PNA) and North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) in the twentieth century wintertime, and further investigates their responses to greenhouse warming in the twenty-first century. Analysis reveals that while the majority (80%) of models reasonably simulate either the geographical distribution or the amplitude of PNA/NPO pattern, only half of models can well capture both features in space. As for the temporal features, variabilities of PNA and NPO in most models are biased toward higher amplitude. Additionally, most models simulate the interannual variabilities of PNA and NPO, qualitatively consistent with the observation, whereas models generally lack the capability to reproduce the decadal (20-25 years) variability of PNA. As the climate warms under the strongest future warming scenario, the PNA intensity is found to be strengthened, whereas there is no consensus on the direction of change in the NPO intensity among models. The intensification of positive PNA is primarily manifested in the large deepening of the North Pacific trough, which is robust as it is 2.3 times the unforced internal variability. By focusing on the tropical Pacific Ocean, we find that the multidecadal evolution of the North Pacific trough intensity (dominating the PNA intensity evolution) is closely related to that of the analogous trough in the PNA-like teleconnection forced by sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTa) in the tropical central Pacific (CP) rather than the tropical eastern Pacific (EP). Such association is also found to act under greenhouse warming: that is, the strengthening of the PNA-like teleconnection induced by the CP SSTa rather than the EP SSTa is a driving force for the intensification of PNA. This is in part owing to the robust enhancement of the tropical precipitation response to

  2. Pacific-North American teleconnection and North Pacific Oscillation: historical simulation and future projection in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Gan, Bolan; Wu, Lixin; Jia, Fan

    2018-06-01

    Based on reanalysis datasets and as many as 35 CMIP5 models, this study evaluates the capability of climate models to simulate the spatiotemporal features of Pacific-North American teleconnection (PNA) and North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) in the twentieth century wintertime, and further investigates their responses to greenhouse warming in the twenty-first century. Analysis reveals that while the majority (80%) of models reasonably simulate either the geographical distribution or the amplitude of PNA/NPO pattern, only half of models can well capture both features in space. As for the temporal features, variabilities of PNA and NPO in most models are biased toward higher amplitude. Additionally, most models simulate the interannual variabilities of PNA and NPO, qualitatively consistent with the observation, whereas models generally lack the capability to reproduce the decadal (20-25 years) variability of PNA. As the climate warms under the strongest future warming scenario, the PNA intensity is found to be strengthened, whereas there is no consensus on the direction of change in the NPO intensity among models. The intensification of positive PNA is primarily manifested in the large deepening of the North Pacific trough, which is robust as it is 2.3 times the unforced internal variability. By focusing on the tropical Pacific Ocean, we find that the multidecadal evolution of the North Pacific trough intensity (dominating the PNA intensity evolution) is closely related to that of the analogous trough in the PNA-like teleconnection forced by sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTa) in the tropical central Pacific (CP) rather than the tropical eastern Pacific (EP). Such association is also found to act under greenhouse warming: that is, the strengthening of the PNA-like teleconnection induced by the CP SSTa rather than the EP SSTa is a driving force for the intensification of PNA. This is in part owing to the robust enhancement of the tropical precipitation response to

  3. Coalescent Simulation and Paleodistribution Modeling for Tabebuia rosealba Do Not Support South American Dry Forest Refugia Hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warita Alves de Melo

    Full Text Available Studies based on contemporary plant occurrences and pollen fossil records have proposed that the current disjunct distribution of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs across South America is the result of fragmentation of a formerly widespread and continuously distributed dry forest during the arid climatic conditions associated with the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, which is known as the modern-day dry forest refugia hypothesis. We studied the demographic history of Tabebuia rosealba (Bignoniaceae to understand the disjunct geographic distribution of South American SDTFs based on statistical phylogeography and ecological niche modeling (ENM. We specifically tested the dry forest refugia hypothesis; i.e., if the multiple and isolated patches of SDTFs are current climatic relicts of a widespread and continuously distributed dry forest during the LGM. We sampled 235 individuals across 18 populations in Central Brazil and analyzed the polymorphisms at chloroplast (trnS-trnG, psbA-trnH and ycf6-trnC intergenic spacers and nuclear (ITS nrDNA genomes. We performed coalescence simulations of alternative hypotheses under demographic expectations from two a priori biogeographic hypotheses (1. the Pleistocene Arc hypothesis and, 2. a range shift to Amazon Basin and other two demographic expectances predicted by ENMs (3. expansion throughout the Neotropical South America, including Amazon Basin, and 4. retraction during the LGM. Phylogenetic analyses based on median-joining network showed haplotype sharing among populations with evidence of incomplete lineage sorting. Coalescent analyses showed smaller effective population sizes for T. roseoalba during the LGM compared to the present-day. Simulations and ENM also showed that its current spatial pattern of genetic diversity is most likely due to a scenario of range retraction during the LGM instead of the fragmentation from a once extensive and largely contiguous SDTF across South America, not supporting the

  4. Coalescent Simulation and Paleodistribution Modeling for Tabebuia rosealba Do Not Support South American Dry Forest Refugia Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Warita Alves; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S; Terribile, Levi Carina; Collevatti, Rosane G

    2016-01-01

    Studies based on contemporary plant occurrences and pollen fossil records have proposed that the current disjunct distribution of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) across South America is the result of fragmentation of a formerly widespread and continuously distributed dry forest during the arid climatic conditions associated with the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), which is known as the modern-day dry forest refugia hypothesis. We studied the demographic history of Tabebuia rosealba (Bignoniaceae) to understand the disjunct geographic distribution of South American SDTFs based on statistical phylogeography and ecological niche modeling (ENM). We specifically tested the dry forest refugia hypothesis; i.e., if the multiple and isolated patches of SDTFs are current climatic relicts of a widespread and continuously distributed dry forest during the LGM. We sampled 235 individuals across 18 populations in Central Brazil and analyzed the polymorphisms at chloroplast (trnS-trnG, psbA-trnH and ycf6-trnC intergenic spacers) and nuclear (ITS nrDNA) genomes. We performed coalescence simulations of alternative hypotheses under demographic expectations from two a priori biogeographic hypotheses (1. the Pleistocene Arc hypothesis and, 2. a range shift to Amazon Basin) and other two demographic expectances predicted by ENMs (3. expansion throughout the Neotropical South America, including Amazon Basin, and 4. retraction during the LGM). Phylogenetic analyses based on median-joining network showed haplotype sharing among populations with evidence of incomplete lineage sorting. Coalescent analyses showed smaller effective population sizes for T. roseoalba during the LGM compared to the present-day. Simulations and ENM also showed that its current spatial pattern of genetic diversity is most likely due to a scenario of range retraction during the LGM instead of the fragmentation from a once extensive and largely contiguous SDTF across South America, not supporting the South

  5. Investigating added value of regional climate modeling in North American winter storm track simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poan, E. D.; Gachon, P.; Laprise, R.; Aider, R.; Dueymes, G.

    2018-03-01

    Extratropical Cyclone (EC) characteristics depend on a combination of large-scale factors and regional processes. However, the latter are considered to be poorly represented in global climate models (GCMs), partly because their resolution is too coarse. This paper describes a framework using possibilities given by regional climate models (RCMs) to gain insight into storm activity during winter over North America (NA). Recent past climate period (1981-2005) is considered to assess EC activity over NA using the NCEP regional reanalysis (NARR) as a reference, along with the European reanalysis ERA-Interim (ERAI) and two CMIP5 GCMs used to drive the Canadian Regional Climate Model—version 5 (CRCM5) and the corresponding regional-scale simulations. While ERAI and GCM simulations show basic agreement with NARR in terms of climatological storm track patterns, detailed bias analyses show that, on the one hand, ERAI presents statistically significant positive biases in terms of EC genesis and therefore occurrence while capturing their intensity fairly well. On the other hand, GCMs present large negative intensity biases in the overall NA domain and particularly over NA eastern coast. In addition, storm occurrence over the northwestern topographic regions is highly overestimated. When the CRCM5 is driven by ERAI, no significant skill deterioration arises and, more importantly, all storm characteristics near areas with marked relief and over regions with large water masses are significantly improved with respect to ERAI. Conversely, in GCM-driven simulations, the added value contributed by CRCM5 is less prominent and systematic, except over western NA areas with high topography and over the Western Atlantic coastlines where the most frequent and intense ECs are located. Despite this significant added-value on seasonal-mean characteristics, a caveat is raised on the RCM ability to handle storm temporal `seriality', as a measure of their temporal variability at a given

  6. American College Football Division I Team Attachment: A Model for Sponsorship Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chung Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine sponsorship effectiveness at the Division I level, including the relationship between fans and sponsors. To collect the necessary data, the 13-item questionnaire was disseminated at two college football games by volunteer sampling at three Division I universities in the United States. With a total of 407 respondents, LISREL 8.52 and SPSS 17.0 were used to analyze the data for descriptive statistics, CFA, and SEM. By utilizing SEM, the variables of team attachment, sponsor image, word of mouth, and purchase intentions fit the proposed model.  Pragmatically, the significance of team attachment can be understated in its role as an initial construct to begin the sponsorship process. Considering the construct of sponsor image as a mediating variable, sponsor image played an important role to anticipate an increase in positive word of mouth or an increase in consumer purchase intentions.

  7. Emerging ecological datasets with application for modeling North American dust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, S.; Stauffer, N. G.; Garman, S.; Webb, N.

    2017-12-01

    In 2011 the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) established the Assessment, Inventory and Monitoring (AIM) program to monitor the condition of BLM land and to provide data to support evidence-based management of multi-use public lands. The monitoring program shares core data collection methods with the Natural Resources Conservation Service's (NRCS) National Resources Inventory (NRI), implemented on private lands nationally. Combined, the two programs have sampled >30,000 locations since 2003 to provide vegetation composition, vegetation canopy height, the size distribution of inter-canopy gaps, soil texture and crusting information on rangelands and pasture lands across North America. The BLM implements AIM on more than 247.3 million acres of land across the western US, encompassing major dust source regions of the Chihuahuan, Sonoran, Mojave and Great Basin deserts, the Colorado Plateau, and potential high-latitude dust sources in Alaska. The AIM data are publicly available and can be used to support modeling of land surface and boundary-layer processes, including dust emission. While understanding US dust source regions and emission processes has been of national interest since the 1930s Dust Bowl, most attention has been directed to the croplands of the Great Plains and emission hot spots like Owens Lake, California. The magnitude, spatial extent and temporal dynamics of dust emissions from western dust source areas remain highly uncertain. Here, we use ensemble modeling with empirical and physically-based dust emission schemes applied to AIM monitoring data to assess regional-scale patterns of aeolian sediment mass fluxes and dust emissions. The analysis enables connections to be made between dust emission rates at source and other indicators of ecosystem function at the landscape scale. Emerging ecological datasets like AIM provide new opportunities to evaluate aeolian sediment transport responses to land surface conditions, potential interactions with

  8. Modeling ecodevelopmental context of sexually transmitted disease/HIV risk and protective behaviors among African-American adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Y

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ya-Huei Li,1 Osaro Mgbere,1,2 Susan Abughosh,1 Hua Chen,1 Paula Cuccaro,3 Ekere James Essien1,3 1Department of Pharmaceutical Health Outcomes and Policy, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Texas Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA; 2Houston Health Department, Houston, TX, USA; 3Department of Health Promotion and Behavioral Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Risk and protective processes are integrated developmental processes that directly or indirectly affect behavioral outcomes. A better understanding of these processes is needed, in order to gauge their contribution to sexual risk behaviors. This retrospective cross-sectional study modeled the ecodevelopmental chain of relationships to examine the social contexts of African-American (AA adolescents associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD- and HIV-risk behaviors. We used data from 1,619 AA adolescents with an average age of 16±1.8 years obtained from the first wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health for this study. Confirmatory factor analysis followed by structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the latent constructs that reflect the social–interactional components of the ecodevelopmental theory. Among contextual factors, findings indicated that a feeling of love from father, school, religion, and parent attitudes toward adolescent sexual behavior were all factors that played significant roles in the sexual behavior of AA adolescents. AA adolescents who reported feeling love from their father, feeling a strong negative attitude from their parents toward having sex at a very young age, and having a strong bond with school personnel were associated with better health statuses. The level of parents’ involvement in their children’s lives was reflected in the adolescents’ feeling of love from parents and moderated by their socioeconomic status. Being male, attaining

  9. Joint American Nuclear Society and Health Physics Society Conference: Applicability of Radiation Response Models to Low Dose Protection Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glines, Wayne M; Markham, Anna

    2018-05-01

    Seventy-five years after the Hanford Site was initially created as the primary plutonium production site for atomic weapons development under the Manhattan Project, the American Nuclear Society and the Health Physics Society are sponsoring a conference from 30 September through 3 October 2018, in Pasco, Washington, titled "Applicability of Radiation Response Models to Low Dose Protection Standards." The goal of this conference is to use current scientific data to update the approach to regulating low-level radiation doses; i.e., to answer a quintessential question of radiation protection-how to best develop radiation protection standards that protect human populations against detrimental effects while allowing the beneficial uses of radiation and radioactive materials. Previous conferences (e.g., "Wingspread Conference," "Arlie Conference") have attempted to address this question; but now, almost 20 y later, the key issues, goals, conclusions, and recommendations of those two conferences remain and are as relevant as they were then. Despite the best efforts of the conference participants and increased knowledge and understanding of the science underlying radiation effects in human populations, the bases of current radiation protection standards have evolved little. This 2018 conference seeks to provide a basis and path forward for evolving radiation protection standards to be more reflective of current knowledge and understanding of low dose response models.

  10. Identifying and Assessing Gaps in Subseasonal to Seasonal Prediction Skill using the North American Multi-model Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegion, K.; DelSole, T. M.; Becker, E.; Cicerone, T.

    2016-12-01

    Predictability represents the upper limit of prediction skill if we had an infinite member ensemble and a perfect model. It is an intrinsic limit of the climate system associated with the chaotic nature of the atmosphere. Producing a forecast system that can make predictions very near to this limit is the ultimate goal of forecast system development. Estimates of predictability together with calculations of current prediction skill are often used to define the gaps in our prediction capabilities on subseasonal to seasonal timescales and to inform the scientific issues that must be addressed to build the next forecast system. Quantification of the predictability is also important for providing a scientific basis for relaying to stakeholders what kind of climate information can be provided to inform decision-making and what kind of information is not possible given the intrinsic predictability of the climate system. One challenge with predictability estimates is that different prediction systems can give different estimates of the upper limit of skill. How do we know which estimate of predictability is most representative of the true predictability of the climate system? Previous studies have used the spread-error relationship and the autocorrelation to evaluate the fidelity of the signal and noise estimates. Using a multi-model ensemble prediction system, we can quantify whether these metrics accurately indicate an individual model's ability to properly estimate the signal, noise, and predictability. We use this information to identify the best estimates of predictability for 2-meter temperature, precipitation, and sea surface temperature from the North American Multi-model Ensemble and compare with current skill to indicate the regions with potential for improving skill.

  11. High-resolution modeling of the western North American power system demonstrates low-cost and low-carbon futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, James; Johnston, Josiah; Mileva, Ana; Fripp, Matthias; Hoffman, Ian; Petros-Good, Autumn; Blanco, Christian; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Decarbonizing electricity production is central to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Exploiting intermittent renewable energy resources demands power system planning models with high temporal and spatial resolution. We use a mixed-integer linear programming model – SWITCH – to analyze least-cost generation, storage, and transmission capacity expansion for western North America under various policy and cost scenarios. Current renewable portfolio standards are shown to be insufficient to meet emission reduction targets by 2030 without new policy. With stronger carbon policy consistent with a 450 ppm climate stabilization scenario, power sector emissions can be reduced to 54% of 1990 levels by 2030 using different portfolios of existing generation technologies. Under a range of resource cost scenarios, most coal power plants would be replaced by solar, wind, gas, and/or nuclear generation, with intermittent renewable sources providing at least 17% and as much as 29% of total power by 2030. The carbon price to induce these deep carbon emission reductions is high, but, assuming carbon price revenues are reinvested in the power sector, the cost of power is found to increase by at most 20% relative to business-as-usual projections. - Highlights: ► Intermittent generation necessitates high-resolution electric power system models. ► We apply the SWITCH planning model to the western North American grid. ► We explore carbon policy and resource cost scenarios through 2030. ► As the carbon price rises, coal generation is replaced with solar, wind, gas and/or nuclear generation ► A 450 ppm climate stabilization target can be met at a 20% or lower cost increase.

  12. The sociocultural model of eating disorders in Mexican American women: behavioral acculturation and cognitive marginalization as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Cortney S; Castillo, Linda G; Gleaves, David H

    2010-01-01

    White American cultural values of appearance are implicated in the development of body dissatisfaction. This study examined whether the relationships between awareness of White American appearance ideals, internalization of such ideals, and body dissatisfaction are moderated by behavioral acculturation and attitudinal marginalization in a sample of 94 Mexican American women. Results indicated that behavioral acculturation moderated the relationship between awareness and internalization and cognitive marginalization moderated the relationship between internalization and body dissatisfaction. Body size was positively correlated with body dissatisfaction and negatively correlated with behavioral acculturation. These findings have important implications for clinical practice and research with Mexican American women.

  13. Exponential Models of Legislative Turnover. [and] The Dynamics of Political Mobilization, I: A Model of the Mobilization Process, II: Deductive Consequences and Empirical Application of the Model. Applications of Calculus to American Politics. [and] Public Support for Presidents. Applications of Algebra to American Politics. Modules and Monographs in Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications Project. UMAP Units 296-300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casstevens, Thomas W.; And Others

    This document consists of five units which all view applications of mathematics to American politics. The first three view calculus applications, the last two deal with applications of algebra. The first module is geared to teach a student how to: 1) compute estimates of the value of the parameters in negative exponential models; and draw…

  14. Transpacific Transport of Dust to North American High-Elevation Sites: Integrated Dataset and Model Outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassianov, E.; Pekour, M. S.; Flynn, C. J.; Berg, L. K.; Beranek, J.; Zelenyuk, A.; Zhao, C.; Leung, L. R.; Ma, P. L.; Riihimaki, L.; Fast, J. D.; Barnard, J.; Hallar, G. G.; McCubbin, I.; Eloranta, E. W.; McComiskey, A. C.; Rasch, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the effects of dust on the regional and global climate requires detailed information on particle size distributions and their changes with distance from the source. Awareness is now growing about the tendency of the dust coarse mode with moderate ( 3.5 µm) volume median diameter (VMD) to be rather insensitive to complex removal processes associated with long-range transport of dust from the main sources. Our study, with a focus on the transpacific transport of dust, demonstrates that the impact of coarse mode aerosol (VMD 3µm) is well defined at the high-elevation mountain-top Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL, about 3.2 km MSL) and nearby Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Mobile Facility (AMF) during March 2011. Significant amounts of coarse mode aerosol are also found at the nearest Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) site. Outputs from the high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) show that the major dust event is likely associated with transpacific transport of Asian and African plumes. Satellite data, including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) aerosol optical depth (AOD) and plume height from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) lidar data provide the observational support of the WRF-Chem simulations. Our study complements previous findings by indicating that the quasi-static nature of the coarse mode appears to be a reasonable approximation for Asian and African dust despite expected frequent orographic precipitation over mountainous regions in the western United States.

  15. A North American model to contain the spread of Aedes albopictus through tire legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, R J

    1995-12-01

    The introduction, spread, and establishment of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in the United States has been facilitated by used or waste tires. This species has not only caused considerable concern among public health officials but also highlighted that the growing accumulations of used tires are a serious solid waste problem and a challenge to the recycling industry. This paper illustrates how the State of Illinois addressed the public health and solid waste problems associated with waste tires, mosquitoes and mosquito-borne pathogens. The goal of the State was to develop and implement through legislative process the Illinois Waste Tire Act. The purpose of the Waste Tire Act is: 1) to ensure that used and waste tires are collected for disposal and recycling, 2) to provide for the abatement of used and waste tire dumps and associated threats to public health, 3) to encourage the development of used and waste tire processing facilities and technologies, including energy recovery, and 4) to provide for research on vectors associated with used and waste tires, and the diseases they spread. The discussion will include key statutes from the Act and the model used to coordinate the effort of five different governmental agencies. An up-to-date presentation of vector-related research, mandated by the Act, ranging from applied investigations on mosquito control to more basic studies investigations on virus identification using molecular technology will be discussed. Finally a discussion of problems that have been encountered along with solutions dealing with legislative language, multidisciplined agency efforts and interactions with the general public are presented.

  16. Regional-scale geostatistical inverse modeling of North American CO2 fluxes: a synthetic data study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Michalak

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of synthetic data experiments is performed to investigate the ability of a regional atmospheric inversion to estimate grid-scale CO2 fluxes during the growing season over North America. The inversions are performed within a geostatistical framework without the use of any prior flux estimates or auxiliary variables, in order to focus on the atmospheric constraint provided by the nine towers collecting continuous, calibrated CO2 measurements in 2004. Using synthetic measurements and their associated concentration footprints, flux and model-data mismatch covariance parameters are first optimized, and then fluxes and their uncertainties are estimated at three different temporal resolutions. These temporal resolutions, which include a four-day average, a four-day-average diurnal cycle with 3-hourly increments, and 3-hourly fluxes, are chosen to help assess the impact of temporal aggregation errors on the estimated fluxes and covariance parameters. Estimating fluxes at a temporal resolution that can adjust the diurnal variability is found to be critical both for recovering covariance parameters directly from the atmospheric data, and for inferring accurate ecoregion-scale fluxes. Accounting for both spatial and temporal a priori covariance in the flux distribution is also found to be necessary for recovering accurate a posteriori uncertainty bounds on the estimated fluxes. Overall, the results suggest that even a fairly sparse network of 9 towers collecting continuous CO2 measurements across the continent, used with no auxiliary information or prior estimates of the flux distribution in time or space, can be used to infer relatively accurate monthly ecoregion scale CO2 surface fluxes over North America within estimated uncertainty bounds. Simulated random transport error is shown to decrease the quality of flux estimates in under-constrained areas at the ecoregion scale, although the uncertainty bounds remain realistic. While these synthetic

  17. A Model of Successful Adaptation to Online Learning for College-Bound Native American High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaler, Collier Butler

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the conditions for Native American high school students that result in successful adaptation to an online learning environment. Design/methodology/approach: In total, eight Native American students attending high schools located on Montana Indian reservations, and one urban city, were interviewed.…

  18. The Family Festival Prevention Model: Findings from a Pilot of a Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Programme Conceptualised by and for Mexican American Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Erby, Yvette; Stauss, Kim; Koh, Eun

    2015-01-01

    Despite an overall reduction in teenage pregnancy rates in the USA, the decrease for young women of Mexican heritage in the USA has been less significant than the decrease for their White and African-American peers. Furthermore, the availability of teenage pregnancy prevention models that are conceptualised specifically for people of Mexican…

  19. The role of the humanities in the Bologna idea of a university: learning from the American model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Eckhardt Larsen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Humboldtian idea of a university has, for better or for worse, served as a blueprint for the past two centuries of university development in large parts of Europe. It entails the idea of a unity between research and personal cultivation (Bildung that indeed has its shortcomings. Since the advent of a strong specialization and theorization the humanities have largely abandoned the more educational function, Bildung in its educational and ethical sense.The American liberal arts college- and university tradition on the other hand,particularly at the bachelor level, has traditionally separated the purely educational readings of a humanities ‘canon’ from the more scholarly pursuits of the humanities. Recent debates on the humanities show these differences across the Atlantic. While the highly specialized humanities in Europe have great problems proving their relevance in a modern society and job-market, the humanities in America are mostly discussed in terms of their educational accountability. Could the Bologna process be an occasionfor the European bachelor to be remodelled along the lines of the American liberal arts model? Could the humanities prove their relevance to non specialists in European higher education?La idea humboldtiana de la universidad ha sido, para bien o para mal, una referencia para el desarrollo universitario en una gran parte de Europa durante los dos siglos pasados. Implica un concepto de unión entre investigación y formación (Bildung que, efectivamente, tiene sus defectos. Desde la llegada de una fuerte especialización y teorización, las Humanidades han abandonado, en su mayor medida, la función educacional, Bildung en su sentido ético. Por otra parte, la tradición universitaria de las Artes Liberales americanas, particularmente a nivel de Licenciatura, ha diferenciado la lectura puramente educacional del «canon», del meramente académico. Debates recientes han mostrado la existencia de esta diferenciaci

  20. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Cardiovascular Disease Modeling and Precision Medicine: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musunuru, Kiran; Sheikh, Farah; Gupta, Rajat M; Houser, Steven R; Maher, Kevin O; Milan, David J; Terzic, Andre; Wu, Joseph C

    2018-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer an unprece-dented opportunity to study human physiology and disease at the cellular level. They also have the potential to be leveraged in the practice of precision medicine, for example, personalized drug testing. This statement comprehensively describes the provenance of iPSC lines, their use for cardiovascular disease modeling, their use for precision medicine, and strategies through which to promote their wider use for biomedical applications. Human iPSCs exhibit properties that render them uniquely qualified as model systems for studying human diseases: they are of human origin, which means they carry human genomes; they are pluripotent, which means that in principle, they can be differentiated into any of the human body's somatic cell types; and they are stem cells, which means they can be expanded from a single cell into millions or even billions of cell progeny. iPSCs offer the opportunity to study cells that are genetically matched to individual patients, and genome-editing tools allow introduction or correction of genetic variants. Initial progress has been made in using iPSCs to better understand cardiomyopathies, rhythm disorders, valvular and vascular disorders, and metabolic risk factors for ischemic heart disease. This promising work is still in its infancy. Similarly, iPSCs are only just starting to be used to identify the optimal medications to be used in patients from whom the cells were derived. This statement is intended to (1) summarize the state of the science with respect to the use of iPSCs for modeling of cardiovascular traits and disorders and for therapeutic screening; (2) identify opportunities and challenges in the use of iPSCs for disease modeling and precision medicine; and (3) outline strategies that will facilitate the use of iPSCs for biomedical applications. This statement is not intended to address the use of stem cells as regenerative therapy, such as transplantation into the body to

  1. Validation of the internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4) and its link to academic performance and psychological adjustment among Asian American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Miller, Matthew J; Yip, Pansy

    2015-04-01

    There is limited research examining psychological correlates of a uniquely racialized experience of the model minority stereotype faced by Asian Americans. The present study examined the factor structure and fit of the only published measure of the internalization of the model minority myth, the Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4; Yoo et al., 2010), with a sample of 155 Asian American high school adolescents. We also examined the link between internalization of the model minority myth types (i.e., myth associated with achievement and myth associated with unrestricted mobility) and psychological adjustment (i.e., affective distress, somatic distress, performance difficulty, academic expectations stress), and the potential moderating effect of academic performance (cumulative grade point average). Results suggested the 2-factor model of the IM-4 had an acceptable fit to the data and supported the factor structure using confirmatory factor analyses. Internalizing the model minority myth of achievement related positively to academic expectations stress; however, internalizing the model minority myth of unrestricted mobility related negatively to academic expectations stress, both controlling for gender and academic performance. Finally, academic performance moderated the model minority myth associated with unrestricted mobility and affective distress link and the model minority myth associated with achievement and performance difficulty link. These findings highlight the complex ways in which the model minority myth relates to psychological outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Loss, Psychosis, and Chronic Suicidality in a Korean American Immigrant Man: Integration of Cultural Formulation Model and Multicultural Case Conceptualization

    OpenAIRE

    Shea, Munyi; Yang, Lawrence H.; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2010-01-01

    Culture shapes the nature, experience, and expression of psychopathology and help-seeking behavior across ethnically diverse groups. Although the study of psychopathology among Asian Americans has advanced, clinicians remain in need of culturally appropriate tools for the assessment and diagnosis of severe mental disorders including psychotic symptoms among Asian Americans. In this article, we present a brief overview of two culturally relevant conceptual tools: a) the Cultural Formulation Mo...

  3. Influence of Leishmania RNA Virus 1 on Proinflammatory Biomarker Expression in a Human Macrophage Model of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariyawasam, Ruwandi; Grewal, Jugvinder; Lau, Rachel; Purssell, Andrew; Valencia, Braulio M; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Boggild, Andrea K

    2017-10-17

    Species of the Leishmania Viannia (L. V.) subgenus harbor the double-stranded Leishmania RNA virus 1 (LRV-1), previously identified in isolates from Brazil and Peru. Higher levels of LRV-1 in metastasizing strains of L. V. guyanensis have been documented in both human and murine models, and correlated to disease severity. Expression of proinflammatory biomarkers, including interleukin (IL) 1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), CXCL10, CCL5, IL-6, and superoxide dismutase, in human macrophages infected with 3 ATCC and 5 clinical isolates of L. V. braziliensis, L. V. guyanensis, and L. V. panamensis for 24 and 48 hours were measured by commercial enzyme immunoassay. Analyses were performed at 24 and 48 hours, stratified by LRV-1 status and species. LRV-1-positive L. V. braziliensis demonstrated significantly lower expression levels of TNF-α (P = .01), IL-1β (P = .0015), IL-6 (P = .001), and CXCL10 (P = .0004) compared with LRV-1-negative L. V. braziliensis. No differences were observed in strains of L. V. panamensis by LRV-1 status. Compared to LRV-1-negative L. V. braziliensis, LRV-1-positive strains of L. V. braziliensis produced a predominant Th2-biased immune response, correlated in humans to poorer immunologic control of infection and more severe disease, including mucosal leishmaniasis. Effects of LRV-1 on the pathogenesis of American tegumentary leishmaniasis may be species specific. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Field Assessment and Groundwater Modeling of Pesticide Distribution in the Faga`alu Watershed in Tutuila, American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, E.; Dulai, H.; El-Kadi, A. I.; Shuler, C. K.

    2017-12-01

    To examine contaminant transport paths, groundwater and surface water interactions were investigated as a vector of pesticide migration on the island Tutuila in American Samoa. During a field campaign in summer 2016, water from wells, springs, and streams was collected across the island to analyze for selected pesticides. In addition, a detailed watershed-study, involving sampling along the mountain to ocean gradient was conducted in Faga`alu, a U.S. Coral Reef Task Force priority watershed that drains into the Pago Pago Harbor. Samples were screened at the University of Hawai`i for multiple agricultural chemicals using the ELISA method. The pesticides analyzed include glyphosate, azoxystrobin, imidacloprid and DDT/DDE. Field data was integrated into a MODFLOW-based groundwater model of the Faga`alu watershed to reconstruct flow paths, solute concentrations, and dispersion of the analytes. In combination with land-use maps, these tools were used to identify potential pesticide sources and their contaminant contributions. Across the island, pesticide concentrations were well below EPA regulated limits and azoxystrobin was absent. Glyphosate had detectable amounts in 56% of collected groundwater and 62% of collected stream samples. Respectively, 72% and 36% had imidacloprid detected and 98% and 97% had DDT/DDE detected. The highest observed concentration of glyphosate was 0.3 ppb, of imidacloprid was 0.17 ppb, and of DDT was 3.7 ppb. The persistence and ubiquity of DDT/DDE in surface and groundwater since its last island-wide application decades ago is notable. Groundwater flow paths modeled by MODFLOW imply that glyphosate sources match documented agricultural land-use areas. Groundwater-derived pesticide fluxes to the reef in Faga`alu are 977 mg/d of glyphosate and 1642 mg/d of DDT/DDE. Our study shows that pesticides are transported not only via surface runoff, but also via groundwater through the stream's base flow and are exiting the aquifer via submarine

  5. A parallel process model of the development of positive smoking expectancies and smoking behavior during early adolescence in Caucasian and African American girls

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Tammy; White, Helene R.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Loeber, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the development of positive smoking expectancies and smoking behavior in an urban cohort of girls followed annually over ages 11-14. Longitudinal data from the oldest cohort of the Pittsburgh Girls Study (N=566, 56% African American, 44% Caucasian) were used to estimate a parallel process growth model of positive smoking expectancies and smoking behavior. Average level of positive smoking expectancies was relatively stable over ages 11-14, although there was significant va...

  6. A research experience for American Indian undergraduates: Utilizing an actor–partner interdependence model to examine the student–mentor dyad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griese, Emily R.; McMahon, Tracey R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2016-01-01

    The majority of research examining Undergraduate Research Experiences focuses singularly on student-reported outcomes, often overlooking assessment of the mentor role in student learning and outcomes following these experiences. The goal of the current study was to examine the student-mentor dyad at the beginning and end of a 10-week summer research experience for American Indian undergraduates utilizing a series of actor-partner interdependence models within SEM. Participants included 26 undergraduate interns (50% American Indian; 50% American Indian and White; M age = 24) and 27 mentors (89% White; M age = 47). Findings indicated that in accounting for all potential paths between students and mentors, the partner path between mentor beliefs at the beginning of the program and students’ skills related to autonomy (β =.59, p = .01) and academic resilience (β =.44, p = .03) at the end of the program were significant. These findings suggest the important impact of mentor beliefs on student outcomes, a relationship that should be adequately assessed and continue to be important focus of undergraduate research experiences. Findings further indicate the important role of mentors for American Indian undergraduates. PMID:28289486

  7. Tropical Pacific Climate, Carbon, and Ocean Biogeochemical Response to the Central American Seaway in a GFDL Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentman, L. T.; Dunne, J. P.; Stouffer, R. J.; Krasting, J. P.; Wittenberg, A. T.; Toggweiler, J. R.; Broccoli, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    To explore the tropical Pacific climate, carbon, and ocean biogeochemical response to the shoaling and closure of the Central American Seaway during the Pliocene (5.3-2.6 Ma), we performed a suite of sensitivity experiments using the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Earth System Model, GFDL-ESM2G, varying only the seaway widths and sill depths. These novel ESM simulations include near-final closure of the seaway with a very narrow, 1º grid cell wide opening. Net mass transport through the seaway into the Caribbean is 20.5-23.1 Sv with a deep seaway, but only 14.1 Sv for the wide/shallow seaway because of the inter-basin bi-directional horizontal mass transport. Seaway transport originates from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the Pacific and rejoins it in the South Atlantic, reducing the Indonesian Throughflow and transporting heat and salt southward into the South Atlantic, in contrast to present-day and previous seaway simulations. Tropical Pacific mean climate and interannual variability is sensitive to the seaway shoaling, with the largest response to the wider/deeper seaway. In the tropical Pacific, the top 300-m warms 0.4-0.8°C, the equatorial east-west sea surface temperature gradient increases, the north-south sea surface temperature asymmetry at 110°W decreases, thermocline deepens 5-11 m, and the east-west thermocline gradient increases. In the Niño-3 region, ENSO amplitude increases, skewed toward more cold (La Niña) events, El Niño and La Niña develops earlier ( 3 months), the annual cycle weakens and the semi-annual and interannual cycles strengthen from increased symmetry of the north-south sea surface temperature gradient, and atmospheric global teleconnections strengthen with the seaway. The increase in global ocean overturning with the seaway results in a younger average ocean ideal age, reduced dissolved inorganic carbon inventory and marine net primary productivity, and altered inter-basin patterns of surface sediment carbonate

  8. The Significance of Learning Nicknames of Public Figures in Modern English and American Language Models of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garayeva, Almira K.; Akhmetzyanov, Ildar G.; Khismatullina, Lutsia G.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the topic of this study is determined by several factors: increased interest of linguists to the problem of interaction between language and culture; the need to study the onomastic units as body language. The purpose of this article is to identify the types of motivational nick names of famous American and English public…

  9. Unpacking the Gender Gap in Postsecondary Participation among African Americans and Caucasians Using Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekleselassie, Abebayehu; Mallery, Coretta; Choi, Jaehwa

    2013-01-01

    National reports recognize a growing gender gap in postsecondary enrollment as a major challenge impacting the lives of young men, particularly African Americans. Previous gender and race specific research is largely inconclusive. It is, for example, unclear from previous research how persistent the gender gap is across various school contexts,…

  10. Discrete-Time Pricing and Optimal Exercise of American Perpetual Warrants in the Geometric Random Walk Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderbei, Robert J., E-mail: rvdb@princeton.edu [Princeton University, Department of Operations Research and Financial Engineering (United States); P Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I nar, Mustafa C., E-mail: mustafap@bilkent.edu.tr [Bilkent University, Department of Industrial Engineering (Turkey); Bozkaya, Efe B. [Sabanc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I University, Faculty of Administrative Sciences (Turkey)

    2013-02-15

    An American option (or, warrant) is the right, but not the obligation, to purchase or sell an underlying equity at any time up to a predetermined expiration date for a predetermined amount. A perpetual American option differs from a plain American option in that it does not expire. In this study, we solve the optimal stopping problem of a perpetual American option (both call and put) in discrete time using linear programming duality. Under the assumption that the underlying stock price follows a discrete time and discrete state Markov process, namely a geometric random walk, we formulate the pricing problem as an infinite dimensional linear programming (LP) problem using the excessive-majorant property of the value function. This formulation allows us to solve complementary slackness conditions in closed-form, revealing an optimal stopping strategy which highlights the set of stock-prices where the option should be exercised. The analysis for the call option reveals that such a critical value exists only in some cases, depending on a combination of state-transition probabilities and the economic discount factor (i.e., the prevailing interest rate) whereas it ceases to be an issue for the put.

  11. Arab American College Students' Physical Activity and Body Composition: Reconciling Middle East-West Differences Using the Socioecological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, David

    2011-01-01

    In this study, I conducted focus group interviews with 21 Arab American college students (9 men, 12 women; 9 Muslims, 12 non-Muslims), who were selected for extreme manifestation of religiosity or acculturation, to explore their beliefs and attitudes toward socioecological (SE) factors that facilitated and hindered their individual physical…

  12. North American vegetation model for land-use planning in a changing climate: A solution to large classification problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Nicholas L. Crookston; Cuauhtemoc Saenz-Romero; Elizabeth M. Campbell

    2012-01-01

    Data points intensively sampling 46 North American biomes were used to predict the geographic distribution of biomes from climate variables using the Random Forests classification tree. Techniques were incorporated to accommodate a large number of classes and to predict the future occurrence of climates beyond the contemporary climatic range of the biomes. Errors of...

  13. Discrete-Time Pricing and Optimal Exercise of American Perpetual Warrants in the Geometric Random Walk Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderbei, Robert J.; Pınar, Mustafa Ç.; Bozkaya, Efe B.

    2013-01-01

    An American option (or, warrant) is the right, but not the obligation, to purchase or sell an underlying equity at any time up to a predetermined expiration date for a predetermined amount. A perpetual American option differs from a plain American option in that it does not expire. In this study, we solve the optimal stopping problem of a perpetual American option (both call and put) in discrete time using linear programming duality. Under the assumption that the underlying stock price follows a discrete time and discrete state Markov process, namely a geometric random walk, we formulate the pricing problem as an infinite dimensional linear programming (LP) problem using the excessive-majorant property of the value function. This formulation allows us to solve complementary slackness conditions in closed-form, revealing an optimal stopping strategy which highlights the set of stock-prices where the option should be exercised. The analysis for the call option reveals that such a critical value exists only in some cases, depending on a combination of state-transition probabilities and the economic discount factor (i.e., the prevailing interest rate) whereas it ceases to be an issue for the put.

  14. Maternal Models of Risk: Links between Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in African American Female Caregivers and Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakefield, Tiffany; Wilson, Helen; Donenberg, Geri

    2012-01-01

    African American (AA) adolescent girls are at heightened risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and thus knowledge of factors related to risky sexual behavior in this population is crucial. Using Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977), this paper examines pathways from female caregivers' risky sexual behavior and substance use to…

  15. Associations among physical symptoms, fear of cancer recurrence, and emotional well-being among Chinese American breast cancer survivors: a path model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dalnim; Chu, Qiao; Lu, Qian

    2018-06-01

    Most existing studies on fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) are exploratory without theoretical underpinnings and have been conducted among non-Hispanic Whites. Based on theoretical models, we hypothesized that more physical symptoms (pain and fatigue) would be associated with higher FCR, which, in turn would be related to lower emotional well-being among Chinese American breast cancer survivors. Participants were 77 Chinese American women who were diagnosed with breast cancer of stages 0-III. A cross-sectional path analysis was conducted with a bootstrapping method. The final model showed that indirect paths from pain interference to emotional well-being and from fatigue to emotional well-being via FCR were significant. That is, higher levels of pain interference and fatigue were associated with higher FCR, which was further related to lower emotional well-being. To our best knowledge, this is the first theory-driven study that investigates FCR experiences among Chinese American breast cancer survivors. Our study might provide a more comprehensive understanding of FCR as it simultaneously shows predictors and a psychological consequence of FCR. Results need to be replicated in large, racially/ethnically diverse samples and longitudinal studies.

  16. Helminth parasites of South American fishes: current status and characterization as a model for studies of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, J L; Pereira, F B; Alves, P V; Oliva, M E; Timi, J T

    2017-03-01

    The South American subcontinent supports one of the world's most diverse and commercially very important ichthyofauna. In this context, the study of South American fish parasites is of increased relevance in understanding their key roles in ecosystems, regulating the abundance or density of host populations, stabilizing food webs and structuring host communities. It is hard to estimate the number of fish parasites in South America. The number of fish species studied for parasites is still low (less than 10%), although the total number of host-parasite associations (HPAs) found in the present study was 3971. Monogeneans, with 835 species (1123 HPAs, 28.5%), and trematodes, with 662 species (1127 HPAs, 30.9%), are the more diverse groups. Data gathered from the literature are useful to roughly estimate species richness of helminths from South American fish, even though there are some associated problems: the reliability of information depends on accurate species identification; the lack of knowledge about life cycles; the increasing number of discoveries of cryptic species and the geographically biased number of studies. Therefore, the closest true estimations of species diversity and distribution will rely on further studies combining both molecular and morphological approaches with ecological data such as host specificity, geographical distribution and life-cycle data. Research on biodiversity of fish parasites in South America is influenced by problems such as funding, taxonomic impediments and dispersion of research groups. Increasing collaboration, interchange and research networks in the context of globalization will enable a promising future for fish parasitology in South America.

  17. American Illuminations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    Illuminated fêtes and civic celebrations began in Renaissance Italy and spread through the courts of Europe. Their fireworks, torches, lamps, and special effects glorified the monarch, marked the birth of a prince, or celebrated military victory. Nineteenth-century Americans rejected such monarch...

  18. Replacing American snacks with tree nuts increases consumption of key nutrients among US children and adults: results of an NHANES modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-03-07

    Replacing typical American snacks with tree nuts may be an effective way to improve diet quality and compliance with the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs). To assess and quantify the impact of replacing typical snacks with composite tree nuts or almonds on diet metrics, including empty calories (i.e., added sugars and solid fats), individual fatty acids, macronutrients, nutrients of public health concern, including sodium, fiber and potassium, and summary measures of diet quality. Food pattern modeling was implemented in the nationally representative 2009-2012 National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES) in a population of 17,444 children and adults. All between-meal snacks, excluding beverages, were replaced on a per calorie basis with a weighted tree nut composite, reflecting consumption patterns in the population. Model 1 replaced all snacks with tree nuts, while Model 2 exempted whole fruits, non-starchy vegetables, and whole grains (>50% of total grain content). Additional analyses were conducted using almonds only. Outcomes of interest were empty calories (i.e., solid fats and added sugars), saturated and mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, fiber, protein, sodium, potassium and magnesium. The Healthy Eating Index-2010, which measures adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, was used as a summary measure of diet quality. Compared to observed diets, modeled food patterns were significantly lower in empty calories (-20.1% and -18.7% in Model 1 and Model 2, respectively), added sugars (-17.8% and -16.9%), solid fats (-21.0% and -19.3%), saturated fat (-6.6% and -7.1%)., and sodium (-12.3% and -11.2%). Modeled patterns were higher in oils (65.3% and 55.2%), monounsaturated (35.4% and 26.9%) and polyunsaturated fats (42.0% and 35.7%), plant omega 3 s (53.1% and 44.7%), dietary fiber (11.1% and 14.8%), and magnesium (29.9% and 27.0%), and were modestly higher in potassium (1.5% and 2.9%). HEI-2010 scores were significantly

  19. NEW PATTERNS IN UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION--EMERGING CURRICULUM MODELS FOR THE AMERICAN COLLEGE. NEW DIMENSIONS IN HIGHER EDUCATION, NUMBER 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AXELROD, JOSEPH

    THIS REVIEW OF A LITERATURE SEARCH PRESENTS A DESCRIPTION OF NEW MODELS OF UNDERGRADUATE CURRICULUMS THAT ARE COMING INTO EXISTENCE AND COMPARES THE PURPOSES OF THESE NEW MODELS WITH THE WEAKNESSES OF THE OLD MODELS THAT THE NEW MODELS SEEK TO CORRECT. THE NEW MODELS OF UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION ARE SEEKING TO CREATE, EVEN ON THE LARGEST CAMPUSES,…

  20. A model-data intercomparison of CO2 exchange across North America: Results from the North American Carbon Program Site Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwalm, C.R.; Williams, C.A.; Schaefer, K.; Anderson, R.; Arain, M.A.; Baker, I.; Black, T.A.; Chen, G.; Ciais, P.; Davis, K. J.; Desai, A. R.; Dietze, M.; Dragoni, D.; Fischer, M.L.; Flanagan, L.B.; Grant, R.F.; Gu, L.; Hollinger, D.; Izaurralde, R.C.; Kucharik, C.; Lafleur, P.M.; Law, B.E.; Li, L.; Li, Z.; Liu, S.; Lokupitiya, E.; Luo, Y.; Ma, S.; Margolis, H.; Matamala, R.; McCaughey, H.; Monson, R. K.; Oechel, W. C.; Peng, C.; Poulter, B.; Price, D.T.; Riciutto, D.M.; Riley, W.J.; Sahoo, A.K.; Sprintsin, M.; Sun, J.; Tian, H.; Tonitto, C.; Verbeeck, H.; Verma, S.B.

    2011-06-01

    Our current understanding of terrestrial carbon processes is represented in various models used to integrate and scale measurements of CO{sub 2} exchange from remote sensing and other spatiotemporal data. Yet assessments are rarely conducted to determine how well models simulate carbon processes across vegetation types and environmental conditions. Using standardized data from the North American Carbon Program we compare observed and simulated monthly CO{sub 2} exchange from 44 eddy covariance flux towers in North America and 22 terrestrial biosphere models. The analysis period spans {approx}220 site-years, 10 biomes, and includes two large-scale drought events, providing a natural experiment to evaluate model skill as a function of drought and seasonality. We evaluate models' ability to simulate the seasonal cycle of CO{sub 2} exchange using multiple model skill metrics and analyze links between model characteristics, site history, and model skill. Overall model performance was poor; the difference between observations and simulations was {approx}10 times observational uncertainty, with forested ecosystems better predicted than nonforested. Model-data agreement was highest in summer and in temperate evergreen forests. In contrast, model performance declined in spring and fall, especially in ecosystems with large deciduous components, and in dry periods during the growing season. Models used across multiple biomes and sites, the mean model ensemble, and a model using assimilated parameter values showed high consistency with observations. Models with the highest skill across all biomes all used prescribed canopy phenology, calculated NEE as the difference between GPP and ecosystem respiration, and did not use a daily time step.

  1. Environmental challenges and opportunities of the evolving North American electricity market : Modeling techniques and estimating environmental outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, Z.

    2002-06-01

    Background information and results of the different models publicly available used for the evaluation of environmental effects of electricity market restructuring in the various jurisdictions in North America were included in this working paper. It comprised the description of eleven models and twelve modeling exercises. The information on each model varied greatly, as it is proprietary. The models described were: (1) the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), (2) the Department of Energy's Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS), (3) the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) utilized by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), (4) Resources for the Future's (RFF) Haiku model, (5) the Canadian Energy Research Institute's Energy 2020 Model, (6) the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) use of ICF's Coal and Electric Utilities Model, (7) the Center for Clean Air Policy's use of General Electric's Market Assessment and Portfolio Strategies (GE MAPS) model, (8) the Center for Clean Air Policy's use of GE MAPS in combination with New Energy Associates' Proscreen II, (9) the Commission for Environmental Cooperation use of the Front of Envelope Model, (10) Ontario Power Generation's use of the Utility Fuel Economics Model and National Power Model, and (11) New York State Department of Public Service's (NYDPS) Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement using New Energy Associates' PROMOD. Also included in this working paper was a comparison of the results of models and modeling exercises on which the estimation of the environmental effects of electricity market restructuring in the United States was based. 18 refs., 5 tabs

  2. Comprehensive Energy Assessment: EE and RE Project Optimization Modeling for United States Pacific Command (USPACOM) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigantic, Robert T.; Papatyi, Anthony F.; Perkins, Casey J.

    2010-09-30

    This report summarizes a study and corresponding model development conducted in support of the United States Pacific Command (USPACOM) as part of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA). This research was aimed at developing a mathematical programming framework and accompanying optimization methodology in order to simultaneously evaluate energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy (RE) opportunities. Once developed, this research then demonstrated this methodology at a USPACOM installation - Camp H.M. Smith, Hawaii. We believe this is the first time such an integrated, joint EE and RE optimization methodology has been constructed and demonstrated.

  3. Free-Spinning-Tunnel Investigation of a 1/28-Scale Model of the North American FJ-4 Airplane with External Fuel Tanks, TED No. NACA AD 3112

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Frederick M.

    1958-01-01

    A supplementary investigation to determine the effect of external fuel tanks on the spin and recovery characteristics of a l/28-scale model of the North American FJ-4 airplane has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel. The model had been extensively tested previously (NACA Research Memorandum SL38A29) and therefore only brief tests were made to evaluate the effect of tank installation. Erect spin tests of the model indicate that flat-type spins-are more prevalent with 200-gallon external fuel tanks than with tanks not installed. The recovery technique determined for spins without tanks, rudder reversal to full against the spin accompanied by simultaneous movement of ailerons to full with the spin, is recommended for spins encountered with external tanks installed. If inverted spins are encountered with external tanks installed, the tanks should be jettisoned and recovery attempted by rudder reversal to full against the spin with ailerons maintained at neutral.

  4. A Slice of American Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirker, Sara Schmickle

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project for second-grade students based on American Regionalist Grant Wood's most famous painting, "American Gothic," which was modeled by his sister, Nan, and his dentist. This well-loved painting depicting a hard-working farmer and his daughter standing in front of their farmhouse is the project's…

  5. Native American nurse leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Lee A

    2004-07-01

    To identify which characteristics, wisdom, and skills are essential in becoming an effective Native American nurse leader. This will lead to the development of a curriculum suitable for Native American nurses. A qualitative, descriptive design was used for this study. Focus groups were conducted in Polson, Montana. A total of 67 Native and non-Native nurses participated. Sixty-seven percent of them were members of Indian tribes. Data were content analyzed using Spradley's ethnographic methodology. Three domains of analysis emerged: point of reference for the leader (individual, family, community), what a leader is (self-actualized, wise, experienced, political, bicultural, recognized, quiet presence, humble, spiritual, and visionary), and what a leader does (mentors, role models, communicates, listens, demonstrates values, mobilizes, and inspires). Native nurse leaders lead differently. Thus, a leadership curriculum suitable for Native nurses may lead to increased work productivity and therefore improved patient care for Native Americans.

  6. A model-data comparison of gross primary productivity: Results from the North American Carbon Program site synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Schaefer; Christopher R. Schwalm; Chris Williams; M. Altaf Arain; Alan Barr; Jing M. Chen; Kenneth J. Davis; Dimitre Dimitrov; Timothy W. Hilton; David Y. Hollinger; Elyn Humphreys; Benjamin Poulter; Brett M. Raczka; Andrew D. Richardson; Alok Sahoo; Peter Thornton; Rodrigo Vargas; Hans Verbeeck; Ryan Anderson; Ian Baker; T. Andrew Black; Paul Bolstad; Jiquan Chen; Peter S. Curtis; Ankur R. Desai; Michael Dietze; Danilo Dragoni; Christopher Gough; Robert F. Grant; Lianhong Gu; Atul Jain; Chris Kucharik; Beverly Law; Shuguang Liu; Erandathie Lokipitiya; Hank A. Margolis; Roser Matamala; J. Harry McCaughey; Russ Monson; J. William Munger; Walter Oechel; Changhui Peng; David T. Price; Dan Ricciuto; William J. Riley; Nigel Roulet; Hanqin Tian; Christina Tonitto; Margaret Torn; Ensheng Weng; Xiaolu Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Accurately simulating gross primary productivity (GPP) in terrestrial ecosystem models is critical because errors in simulated GPP propagate through the model to introduce additional errors in simulated biomass and other fluxes. We evaluated simulated, daily average GPP from 26 models against estimated GPP at 39 eddy covariance flux tower sites across the United States...

  7. Exploring the Convergence of the Liberal Arts Model and the Ecuadorian Culture in a Latin American University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana Paredes, Matias

    2013-01-01

    The replication of the U.S. cultural models in business and social organizations is a common practice in Latin America. In Ecuador, a university operates under the liberal arts model, understanding it as a replication of an U.S. cultural model, in an environment where the Ecuadorian cultural beliefs and values constitute the national cultural…

  8. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 2. Mid-American Solar Energy Complex Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Mid-American Solar Energy Complex Region. (WHK)

  9. The integrated North American electricity market : a bi-national model for securing a reliable supply of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, T.

    2004-03-01

    The 50 million people who experienced the power blackout on August 14, 2003 in southern Ontario and the U.S. Midwest and Northeast understood how vital electricity is in our day-to-day lives, but they also saw the resiliency of the North American electricity system. More than 65 per cent of the power generation was restored to service within 12 hours and no damage was caused to the generation or transmission facilities. Although the interconnected North American electricity system is among the most reliable in the world, it is threatened by an aging infrastructure, lack of new generation and transmission to meet demand, and growing regulatory pressures. This report suggests that any measures that respond to the threat of ongoing reliability should be bi-national in scope due to the interconnected nature of the system. Currently, the market, regulatory and administrative systems are different in each country. The full engagement and cooperation of both Canada and the United States is important to ensure future cross-border trade and power reliability. The Canadian Electricity Association proposes the following 7 measures: (1) support an open debate on all the supply options available to meet growing power demands, (2) promote bi-national cooperation in the construction of new transmission capacity to ensure a reliable continental electricity system, (3) examine opportunities for bi-national cooperation for investment in advanced transmission technologies and transmission research and development, (4) promote new generation technology and demand-side measures to relieve existing transmission constraints and reduce the need for new transmission facilities, (5) endorse a self-governing international organization for developing and enforcing mandatory reliability standards for the electricity industry, (6) coordinate measures to promote critical infrastructure protection, and (7) harmonize U.S. and Canadian efforts to streamline or clarify regulation of electricity

  10. American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Pechatnov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The "Founding fathers" of American Studies at MGIMO are considered to be A.V. Efimov and L.I. Clove. Alexey Efimov - Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences since 1938, Head of the Department of Modern and Contemporary History and Dean of the Historical School at the Moscow State University - one of the first professors of the Faculty of International Relations MGIMO. Efimov distinguished himself by a broad vision and scope of scientific interests. Back in 1934 he published a monograph "On the history of capitalism in the United States," which initiated a series of research culminating in the fundamental work "The United States. The path of capitalist development (pre-imperialist era". Alexey was not only a great scientist but also a great teacher, whose lectures was popular throughout Moscow. His lecture courses, given at the end of the 1940s at MGIMO, became the basis for the first post-war history textbooks USA - "Essays on the history of the United States." At least as colorful a figure was Professor Leo Izrailevich Zubok - a man of unusual destiny. As a teenager he emigrated to the United States with his parents, where he soon joined the American revolutionary movement in the 1920s and was forced to leave the country. He came to MGIMO being already an experienced scientists. His research interests were very wide: from the study of American foreign policy expansion to the history of the labor movement in the United States. Zubok's fundamental works still have not lost its scientific significance. He has successfully combined scientific work with teaching. Tutorials that are based on his lectures were very popular not only among students of MGIMO.

  11. Novel inactivating mutations of the DCAF17 gene in American and Turkish families cause male infertility and female subfertility in the mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, F; Desai, S; Diao, F; Turkkahraman, D; Wranitz, F; Wood-Trageser, M; Shin, Y-H; Kotan, L D; Jiang, H; Witchel, S; Gurtunca, N; Yatsenko, S; Mysliwec, D; Topaloglu, K; Rajkovic, A

    2018-04-01

    Loss-of-function DCAF17 variants cause hypogonadism, partial alopecia, diabetes mellitus, mental retardation, and deafness with variable clinical presentation. DCAF17 pathogenic variants have been largely reported in the Middle Eastern populations, but the incidence in American families is rare and animal models are lacking. Exome sequencing in 5 women with syndromic hypergonadotropic hypogonadism from 2 unrelated families revealed novel pathogenic variants in the DCAF17 gene. DCAF17 exon 2 (c.127-1G > C) novel homozygous variants were discovered in 4 Turkish siblings, while 1 American was compound heterozygous for 1-stop gain variant in exon 5 (c.C535T; p.Gln179*) and previously described stop gain variant in exon 9 (c.G906A; p.Trp302*). A mouse model mimicking loss of function in exon 2 of Dcaf17 was generated using CRISPR/Cas9 and showed female subfertility and male infertility. Our results identify 2 novel variants, and show that Dcaf17 plays a significant role in mammalian gonadal development and infertility. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The Pan American Health Organization’s role and perspectives on the mapping and modeling of the neglected tropical diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven K. Ault

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO, which functions as the regional office for the Americas of the World Health Organization, is committed to provide technical cooperation to countries to update the epidemiological information available for mapping and modelling of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs, a set of diseases mainly caused by parasites affecting people living in low socioeconomic and favourable environmental conditions. This communication discusses PAHO’s role and perspectives in the use of mapping and modelling of these diseases with a view to promote its use in the development and implementation of integrated, inter-programmatic and inter-sectoral plans for the prevention, control or elimination of the NTDs and other infectious diseases related to poverty.

  13. The Pan American Health Organization's role and perspectives on the mapping and modeling of the neglected tropical diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Steven K; Nicholls, Ruben Santiago; Saboya, Martha IdaIí

    2012-09-01

    The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), which functions as the regional office for the Americas of the World Health Organization, is committed to provide technical cooperation to countries to update the epidemiological information available for mapping and modelling of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), a set of diseases mainly caused by parasites affecting people living in low socioeconomic and favourable environmental conditions. This communication discusses PAHO's role and perspectives in the use of mapping and modelling of these diseases with a view to promote its use in the development and implementation of integrated, inter-programmatic and inter-sectoral plans for the prevention, control or elimination of the NTDs and other infectious diseases related to poverty.

  14. Predicting Help-Seeking Attitudes Toward Mental Health Services Among American Indian Older Adults: Is Andersen's Behavioral Model a Good Fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Soonhee; Burnette, Catherine E; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Martin, James I; Lawler, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    American Indian (AI) older adults are vulnerable to mental health disparities, yet very little is known about the factors associated with help-seeking for mental health services among them. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of Andersen's Behavioral Model in explaining AI older adults' help-seeking attitudes toward professional mental health services. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine predisposing, enabling, and need variables as predictors of help-seeking attitudes toward mental health services in a sample of 233 AI older adults from the Midwest. The model was found to have limited utility in the context of older AI help-seeking attitudes, as the proportion of explained variance was low. Gender, perceived stigma, social support, and physical health were significant predictors, whereas age, perceived mental health, and health insurance were not. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. The North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME): Phase-1 Seasonal to Interannual Prediction, Phase-2 Toward Developing Intra-Seasonal Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtman, Ben P.; Min, Dughong; Infanti, Johnna M.; Kinter, James L., III; Paolino, Daniel A.; Zhang, Qin; vandenDool, Huug; Saha, Suranjana; Mendez, Malaquias Pena; Becker, Emily; hide

    2013-01-01

    The recent US National Academies report "Assessment of Intraseasonal to Interannual Climate Prediction and Predictability" was unequivocal in recommending the need for the development of a North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) operational predictive capability. Indeed, this effort is required to meet the specific tailored regional prediction and decision support needs of a large community of climate information users. The multi-model ensemble approach has proven extremely effective at quantifying prediction uncertainty due to uncertainty in model formulation, and has proven to produce better prediction quality (on average) then any single model ensemble. This multi-model approach is the basis for several international collaborative prediction research efforts, an operational European system and there are numerous examples of how this multi-model ensemble approach yields superior forecasts compared to any single model. Based on two NOAA Climate Test Bed (CTB) NMME workshops (February 18, and April 8, 2011) a collaborative and coordinated implementation strategy for a NMME prediction system has been developed and is currently delivering real-time seasonal-to-interannual predictions on the NOAA Climate Prediction Center (CPC) operational schedule. The hindcast and real-time prediction data is readily available (e.g., http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.Models/.NMME/) and in graphical format from CPC (http://origin.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/people/wd51yf/NMME/index.html). Moreover, the NMME forecast are already currently being used as guidance for operational forecasters. This paper describes the new NMME effort, presents an overview of the multi-model forecast quality, and the complementary skill associated with individual models.

  16. Profile: Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American Profile: Asian Americans Asian American Profile (Map of the US with the top 10 states displaying the largest Asian American population according to the Census Bureau) CA - ...

  17. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...

  18. A Regional Water Resource Planning Model to Explore the Water-Energy Nexus in the American Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Lopez, F.; Yates, D.; Purkey, D.; Huber-lee, A. T.

    2011-12-01

    The power sector withdraws substantial cooling water for electric generation in the United States and is thus heavily dependent on available water resources. Changes in water supplies and water quality may impact the reliability of power generation. This research intends to guide energy policy and decision making, leading to reduced greenhouse gas emission and avoiding unintended consequences related to water management in the context of future decisions around type and location of energy generation. It is recognized that different energy management strategies will have different water management implications that extend from the local, to the regional, and ultimately to the national scale. Further, the importance of these impacts will be defined by the characteristics of individual water systems within which energy management strategies are implemented. The Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) system was employed to represent the water resource systems of the American Southwest, where various energy management strategies could be represented within a broad water management context, but with regional specificity. A point of convergence for the American Southwest is Southern California, which relies on water transfers from both the Sacramento/San Joaquin system and the Colorado River systems. The reality is that the water systems of the Los Angeles/San Diego system are connected to those of the San Francisco Bay Area, the Central Valley of California, Central Arizona, Metropolitan Las Vegas, the Salt Lake Valley, the Rio Grande Valley, the Front Range of the Rockies, and in fact, to the borders of Kansas, Nebraska, Texas, and Mexico through Interstate and International Compacts. The Southwest WEAP application was developed to represent the water management implications of different energy and water management strategies and development pathways under current and future conditions. The energy assumptions are derived from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL

  19. A review of logistic regression models used to predict post-fire tree mortality of western North American conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis Woolley; David C. Shaw; Lisa M. Ganio; Stephen. Fitzgerald

    2012-01-01

    Logistic regression models used to predict tree mortality are critical to post-fire management, planning prescribed bums and understanding disturbance ecology. We review literature concerning post-fire mortality prediction using logistic regression models for coniferous tree species in the western USA. We include synthesis and review of: methods to develop, evaluate...

  20. Impact of hydrological variations on modeling of peatland CO2 fluxes: Results from the North American Carbon Program site synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulman, Benjamin N.; Desai, Ankur R.; Schroeder, Nicole M.; Ricciuto, Dan; Barr, Alan; Richardson, Andrew D.; Flanagan, Lawrence B.; Lafleur, Peter M.; Tian, Hanqin; Chen, Guangsheng; Grant, Robert F.; Poulter, Benjamin; Verbeeck, Hans; Ciais, Philippe; Ringeval, Bruno; Baker, Ian T.; Schaefer, Kevin; Luo, Yiqi; Weng, Ensheng

    2012-03-01

    Northern peatlands are likely to be important in future carbon cycle-climate feedbacks due to their large carbon pools and vulnerability to hydrological change. Use of non-peatland-specific models could lead to bias in modeling studies of peatland-rich regions. Here, seven ecosystem models were used to simulate CO2fluxes at three wetland sites in Canada and the northern United States, including two nutrient-rich fens and one nutrient-poor,sphagnum-dominated bog, over periods between 1999 and 2007. Models consistently overestimated mean annual gross ecosystem production (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) at all three sites. Monthly flux residuals (simulated - observed) were correlated with measured water table for GEP and ER at the two fen sites, but were not consistently correlated with water table at the bog site. Models that inhibited soil respiration under saturated conditions had less mean bias than models that did not. Modeled diurnal cycles agreed well with eddy covariance measurements at fen sites, but overestimated fluxes at the bog site. Eddy covariance GEP and ER at fens were higher during dry periods than during wet periods, while models predicted either the opposite relationship or no significant difference. At the bog site, eddy covariance GEP did not depend on water table, while simulated GEP was higher during wet periods. Carbon cycle modeling in peatland-rich regions could be improved by incorporating wetland-specific hydrology and by inhibiting GEP and ER under saturated conditions. Bogs and fens likely require distinct plant and soil parameterizations in ecosystem models due to differences in nutrients, peat properties, and plant communities.

  1. Evaluation of a New Dental Implant Cervical Design in Comparison with a Conventional Design in an Experimental American Foxhound Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Albacete Martínez, Maria Ángeles; Pérez-Albacete Martínez, Carlos; Maté Sánchez De Val, José Eduardo; Ramos Oltra, María Luisa; Fernández Domínguez, Manuel; Calvo Guirado, Jose Luis

    2018-03-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate osseointegration and crestal bone height in implants with a triangular cervical design in comparison with a standard rounded cervical design. The control group consisted of 24 implants with a standard cervical design, and the test group of 24 implants with a triangular cervical design. The implants were inserted in healed bone in six American Foxhounds. Crestal bone height and tissue thickness in the cervical portion were measured after 12 weeks healing. Data analysis found mean crestal bone loss of: 0.31 ± 0.24 mm on the buccal side, 0.35 ± 0.14 mm on the lingual in the test group, and 0.71 ± 0.28 mm buccal loss, and 0.42 ± 0.30 mm lingual in the control group; with statistically significant differences on the buccal aspect ( p = 0.0019). Mean tissue thickness in the test group was 1.98 ± 0.17 mm on the buccal aspect, and 2.43 ± 0.93 mm in the lingual; in the control group it was 2.48 ± 0.61 mm buccal thickness, and 2.88 ± 0.14 mm lingual, with significant differences on both aspects ( p = 0.0043; p = 0.0029). The results suggest that greater thickness of peri-implant tissue can be expected when the triangular cervical implant design is used rather than the standard cervical design.

  2. Variability modeling of rainfall, deforestation, and incidence of american tegumentary leishmaniasis in orán, Argentina, 1985-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Juan Carlos; Yang, Hyun Mo; Avila Blas, Orlando José

    2014-01-01

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is a disease transmitted to humans by the female sandflies of the genus Lutzomyia. Several factors are involved in the disease transmission cycle. In this work only rainfall and deforestation were considered to assess the variability in the incidence of ATL. In order to reach this goal, monthly recorded data of the incidence of ATL in Orán, Salta, Argentina, were used, in the period 1985-2007. The square root of the relative incidence of ATL and the corresponding variance were formulated as time series, and these data were smoothed by moving averages of 12 and 24 months, respectively. The same procedure was applied to the rainfall data. Typical months, which are April, August, and December, were found and allowed us to describe the dynamical behavior of ATL outbreaks. These results were tested at 95% confidence level. We concluded that the variability of rainfall would not be enough to justify the epidemic outbreaks of ATL in the period 1997-2000, but it consistently explains the situation observed in the years 2002 and 2004. Deforestation activities occurred in this region could explain epidemic peaks observed in both years and also during the entire time of observation except in 2005-2007.

  3. Variability Modeling of Rainfall, Deforestation, and Incidence of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis in Orán, Argentina, 1985–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Rosales

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL is a disease transmitted to humans by the female sandflies of the genus Lutzomyia. Several factors are involved in the disease transmission cycle. In this work only rainfall and deforestation were considered to assess the variability in the incidence of ATL. In order to reach this goal, monthly recorded data of the incidence of ATL in Orán, Salta, Argentina, were used, in the period 1985–2007. The square root of the relative incidence of ATL and the corresponding variance were formulated as time series, and these data were smoothed by moving averages of 12 and 24 months, respectively. The same procedure was applied to the rainfall data. Typical months, which are April, August, and December, were found and allowed us to describe the dynamical behavior of ATL outbreaks. These results were tested at 95% confidence level. We concluded that the variability of rainfall would not be enough to justify the epidemic outbreaks of ATL in the period 1997–2000, but it consistently explains the situation observed in the years 2002 and 2004. Deforestation activities occurred in this region could explain epidemic peaks observed in both years and also during the entire time of observation except in 2005–2007.

  4. Evaluation of a New Dental Implant Cervical Design in Comparison with a Conventional Design in an Experimental American Foxhound Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ángeles Pérez-Albacete Martínez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate osseointegration and crestal bone height in implants with a triangular cervical design in comparison with a standard rounded cervical design. The control group consisted of 24 implants with a standard cervical design, and the test group of 24 implants with a triangular cervical design. The implants were inserted in healed bone in six American Foxhounds. Crestal bone height and tissue thickness in the cervical portion were measured after 12 weeks healing. Data analysis found mean crestal bone loss of: 0.31 ± 0.24 mm on the buccal side, 0.35 ± 0.14 mm on the lingual in the test group, and 0.71 ± 0.28 mm buccal loss, and 0.42 ± 0.30 mm lingual in the control group; with statistically significant differences on the buccal aspect (p = 0.0019. Mean tissue thickness in the test group was 1.98 ± 0.17 mm on the buccal aspect, and 2.43 ± 0.93 mm in the lingual; in the control group it was 2.48 ± 0.61 mm buccal thickness, and 2.88 ± 0.14 mm lingual, with significant differences on both aspects (p = 0.0043; p = 0.0029. The results suggest that greater thickness of peri-implant tissue can be expected when the triangular cervical implant design is used rather than the standard cervical design.

  5. The influence of Anglo-American theoretical models on the evolution of the nursing discipline in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Olga; Caïs, Jordi; Monforte-Royo, Cristina

    2017-07-01

    In Spain, the introduction of the new Diploma in Nursing in 1977 saw the role of nurses shifting from that of medical assistants with technical skills to being independent members of the healthcare team with specific responsibility for providing professional nursing care. Here, we analyse the evolution of the nursing profession in Spain following the transfer of nurse education to universities, doing so through interviews with the first generation of academic tutors. This was a qualitative study using the method of analytic induction and based on the principles of grounded theory. Participants were selected by means of theoretical sampling and then underwent in-depth interviews. Steps were taken to ensure the credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability of data. The main conclusion of the analysis is that there is a gap between a theoretical framework borrowed from the Anglo-American context and a nursing practice that, in Spain, has traditionally prioritised the application of technical procedures, a role akin to that of a medical assistant. It is argued that a key factor underlying the way in which nursing in Spain has evolved in recent decades is the lack of conceptual clarity regarding what the role of the professional nurse might actually entail in practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Anglo-American Credit Scoring and Consumer Debt in the Subprime Mortgage Crisis of 2007 as Models for Other Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fay Ruddy

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The system of credit scoring has been built up in recent times on the basis of a compromise struck between individuality and surveillance in ways that boosted consumption through consumer debt. This paper considers the role of credit scoring in the recent financial crisis, concluding that even if credit scoring had worked as intended under its own terms, the practice would not have been enough to limit the defaulting of mortgage borrowers under conditions of falling house prices. The broader economic problem is the crippling amount of consumer debt involved; hence the paper places credit scoring in the larger explanatory framework of consumer debt and, more generally, consumerism in its more problematic form. The sorting accomplished by credit scoring is open to abuses in the marketplace, unless it is tempered by the application of guardrails by a regulatory authority. As cultures beyond the Anglo-American sphere adopt this practice, guardrails like those applied to credit scoring in America are needed; as even the current U.S. Administration has acknowledged, the existing guardrails will have to be complemented by stricter social standards. The paper provides a derivation of the theoretical background on credit scoring as surveillance, and includes a literature survey.

  7. Alcohol extract of North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) reduces fatty liver, dyslipidemia, and other complications of metabolic syndrome in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ratnesh K; Lui, Edmund; Wright, David; Taylor, Adrian; Bakovic, Marica

    2017-09-01

    We investigated whether North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) could reduce development of the metabolic syndrome phenotype in a mouse model (ETKO) of the disease. Young ETKO mice have no disease but similar to humans start to develop the fatty liver, hypertriglyceridemia, obesity, and insulin resistance at 25-30 weeks of age, and the disease continues to progress with ageing. ETKO mice were orally given an ethanol extract of ginseng roots at 4 and 32 weeks of age. Treatments with ginseng eliminated the ETKO fatty liver, reduced hepatic and intestinal lipoprotein secretion, and reduced the level of circulating lipids. Improvements by ginseng treatments were manifested as a reduction in the expression of genes involved in the regulation of fatty acid and triglyceride (fat) synthesis and secretion by the lipoproteins on one hand, and the stimulation of fatty acid oxidation and triglyceride degradation by lipolysis on the other hand. These processes altogether improved glucose, fatty acid, and triglyceride metabolism, reduced liver fat load, and reversed the progression of metabolic syndrome. These data confirm that treatments with North American ginseng could alleviate metabolic syndrome through the maintenance of a better balance between glucose and fatty acid metabolism, lipoprotein secretion, and energy homeostasis in disease-prone states.

  8. Reliability of the American Medical Association guides' model for measuring spinal range of motion. Its implication for whole-person impairment rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschke, J E; Nattrass, C L; Disler, P B; Chou, M J; Ooi, K T

    1999-02-01

    Repeated measures design for intra- and interrater reliability. To determine the intra- and interrater reliability of the lumbar spine range of motion measured with a dual inclinometer, and the thoracolumbar spine range of motion measured with a long-arm goniometer, as recommended in the American Medical Association Guides. The American Medical Association Guides (2nd and 4th editions) recommend using measurements of thoracolumbar and lumbar range of movement, respectively, to estimate the percentage of permanent impairment in patients with chronic low back pain. However, the reliability of this method of estimating impairment has not been determined. In all, 34 subjects participated in the study, 21 women with a mean age of 40.1 years (SD, +/- 11.1) and 13 men with a mean age of 47.7 years (SD, +/- 12.1). Measures of thoracolumbar flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and rotation were obtained with a long-arm goniometer. Lumbar flexion, extension, and lateral flexion were measured with a dual inclinometer. Measurements were taken by two examiners on one occasion and by one examiner on two occasions approximately 1 week apart. The results showed poor intra- and interrater reliability for all measurements taken with both instruments. Measurement error expressed in degrees showed that measurements taken by different raters exhibited systematic as well as random differences. As a result, subjects measured by two different examiners on the same day, with either instrument, could give impairment ratings ranging between 0% and 18% of the whole person (excluding rotation), in which percentage impairment is calculated using the average range of motion and the average systematic and random error in degrees for the group for each movement (flexion, extension, and lateral flexion). The poor reliability of the American Medical Association Guides' spinal range of motion model can result in marked variation in the percentage of whole-body impairment. These findings have

  9. Direct Radiative Impacts of Central American Biomass Burning Smoke Aerosols: Analysis from a Coupled Aerosol-Radiation-Meteorology Model RAMS-AROMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Christopher, S. A.; Nair, U. S.; Reid, J. S.; Prins, E. M.

    2005-12-01

    Considerable efforts including various field experiments have been carried out in the last decade for studying the regional climatic impact of smoke aerosols produced by biomass burning activities in Africa and South America. In contrast, only few investigations have been conducted for Central American Biomass Burning (CABB) region. Using a coupled aerosol-radiation-meteorology model called RAMS-AROMA together with various ground-based observations, we present a comprehensive analysis of the smoke direct radiative impacts on the surface energy budget, boundary layer evolution, and e precipitation process during the CABB events in Spring 2003. Quantitative estimates are also made regarding the transboundary carbon mass to the U.S. in the form of smoke particles. Buult upon the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) mesoscale model, the RAMS AROMA has several features including Assimilation and Radiation Online Modeling of Aerosols (AROMA) algorithms. The model simulates smoke transport by using hourly smoke emission inventory from the Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) geostationary satellite database. It explicitly considers the smoke effects on the radiative transfer at each model time step and model grid, thereby coupling the dynamical processes and aerosol transport. Comparison with ground-based observation show that the simulation realistically captured the smoke transport timeline and distribution from daily to hourly scales. The effects of smoke radiative extinction on the decrease of 2m air temperature (2mT), diurnal temperature range (DTR), and boundary layer height over the land surface are also quantified. Warming due to smoke absorption of solar radiation can be found in the lower troposphere over the ocean, but not near the underlying land surface. The increase of boundary layer stability produces a positive feedback where more smoke particles are trapped in the lower boundary layer. These changes in temperature, surface

  10. Asian American Adolescent Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Ohm, Julie Juhye

    1999-01-01

    The formation of ego identity in Asian American late adolescents attending Virginia Tech was examined within the frameworks of Erikson's psychosocial theory and Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo's model of acculturation. Ego identity was measured using the Achieved sub-scale of the Revised Version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, an instrument based on the theoretical constructs of Erikson. Ethnic identity was measured using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and America...

  11. An extended model of reasoned action to understand the influence of individual- and network-level factors on African Americans' participation in HIV vaccine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Paula M; Archibald, Matthew; Diallo, Dazon Dixon; Hou, Su-I; Horton, Takeia; Chan, Kayshin; Mulligan, Mark J; del Rio, Carlos

    2010-06-01

    In the United States, the number and proportion of HIV/AIDS cases among black/African Americans continue to highlight the need for new biomedical prevention interventions, including an HIV vaccine, microbicide, or new antiretroviral (ARV) prevention strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to complement existing condom usage, harm reduction methods, and behavioral change strategies to stem the HIV epidemic. Although black/African Americans are disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS, their participation in HIV clinical research continues to have unique challenges. We theorize that interaction among multilevel factors creates ideal alignment for minority participation in HIV clinical studies. Thus, we initially set out to test an extended model of reasoned action with 362 participants to understand the interplay of sociopsychological and network-level considerations influencing minority participation in HIV prevention research efforts. In this study, we linked the intrapersonal dimensions of attitudes, beliefs, and normative concerns to community-level components, appraisal of involvement with the clinical research organization, an entity which operates within a networked structure of community partner agencies, and identification with coalition advocacy aims. Various participatory outcomes were explored including involvement in future HIV vaccine community functions, participation in community promotion of HIV vaccine research, and community mobilization. Three-stage least squares estimates indicated similar findings across three models. Significant effects demonstrate the importance of positive attitudes toward HIV vaccine research, favorable health research beliefs, perceived social support for participation, HIV/AIDS issue engagement, and perceived relevance of the clinical research site's mission and values. Identification of these nuanced pathway effects provides implications for tailored community program development.

  12. AMERICAN EXCEPTIONALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Andreea Pirnuta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In an interconnected world where foreign relations matter not only for resources or military alliances but also for cultural relationships, it is highly important to have a better understanding of the power relations among nations. The information carries certain meanings that have important outcomes thus defining the power of a given nation. Foreign policy is the channel through which global politics is exercised. International politics is a hierarchy of power being determined by important cultural, economic as well as geographical aspects. The reasons and strategies that are used in order to reach the outcomes in global politics represent the focus of the present paper. The United States has been the leader in international politics since the early 20th century due to its vast resources and wealth as well as its cultural output. America’s interest in preserving a democratic and free world has its foundation in the beliefs and values it stands for the aim of this paper is to question whether or not there is a concrete premise for the idea of American exceptionalism.

  13. Cardiovascular risk assessment in elderly adults using SCORE OP model in a Latin American population: The experience from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisa, Ivan

    2018-02-09

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is predicted to increase in Latin America countries due to their rapidly aging population. However, there is very little information about CVD risk assessment as a primary preventive measure in this high-risk population. We predicted the national risk of developing CVD in Ecuadorian elderly population using the Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation in Older Persons (SCORE OP) High and Low models by risk categories/CVD risk region in 2009. Data on national cardiovascular risk factors were obtained from the Encuesta sobre Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento. We computed the predicted 5-year risk of CVD risk and compared the extent of agreement and reclassification in stratifying high-risk individuals between SCORE OP High and Low models. Analyses were done by risk categories, CVD risk region, and sex. In 2009, based on SCORE OP Low model almost 42% of elderly adults living in Ecuador were at high risk of suffering CVD over a 5-year period. The extent of agreement between SCORE OP High and Low risk prediction models was moderate (Cohen's kappa test of 0.5), 34% of individuals approximately were reclassified into different risk categories and a third of the population would benefit from a pharmacologic intervention to reduce the CVD risk. Forty-two percent of elderly Ecuadorians were at high risk of suffering CVD over a 5-year period, indicating an urgent need to tailor primary preventive measures for this vulnerable and high-risk population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. The impact of the North American shale gas revolution on regional natural gas markets: Evidence from the regime-switching model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Jiang-Bo; Ji, Qiang; Fan, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the North American shale gas revolution on price movement regimes in the North American and European gas markets, using the Markov regime-switching model. It then measures price spreads between oil and gas from 1998 to 2015 to identify the impact of the revolution on the relationship between oil and regional gas prices. The results show that the typical movement regime of Henry Hub prices changes from 'slightly upward' to 'sharply downward'. In addition, the clear seasonal effect of Henry Hub prices has disappeared after the shale gas revolution. The typical movement of national balancing point (NBP) prices has changed gradually from a 'sharply upward' regime to the alternative regimes between 'sharply downward' and 'slightly upward', tending to follow oil prices. This indicates that the shale gas revolution has had little impact on NBP price movement. Meanwhile, Henry Hub prices have decoupled from WTI prices, while NBP and Brent prices have continued to exhibit a long-term equilibrium level around which they have swung in the short time-frame since the shale gas revolution. Pertinent energy policy makers and energy market participants should pay attention to these changes and adjust their trade, production and investment strategies accordingly. - Highlights: •Impact of shale gas revolution on Henry Hub and NBP price movement regime is analysed. •Impact of revolution on relationship between oil and regional gas price is identified. •Revolution changes Henry Hub movement regime, having minor impact on NBP regime. •Clear seasonal fluctuation of Henry Hub prices has disappeared since the revolution. •Henry Hub has decoupled from WTI, while NBP and Brent exhibit long-term equilibrium.

  15. Clouds, Wind and the Biogeography of Central American Cloud Forests: Remote Sensing, Atmospheric Modeling, and Walking in the Jungle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, R.; Nair, U. S.

    2011-12-01

    Cloud forests stand at the core of the complex of montane ecosystems that provide the backbone to the multinational Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, which seeks to protect a biodiversity conservation "hotspot" of global significance in an area of rapidly changing land use. Although cloud forests are generally defined by frequent and prolonged immersion in cloud, workers differ in their feelings about "frequent" and "prolonged", and quantitative assessments are rare. Here we focus on the dry season, in which the cloud and mist from orographic cloud plays a critical role in forest water relations, and discuss remote sensing of orographic clouds, and regional and atmospheric modeling at several scales to quantitatively examine the distribution of the atmospheric conditions that characterize cloud forests. Remote sensing using data from GOES reveals diurnal and longer scale patterns in the distribution of dry season orographic clouds in Central America at both regional and local scales. Data from MODIS, used to calculate the base height of orographic cloud banks, reveals not only the geographic distributon of cloud forest sites, but also striking regional variation in the frequency of montane immersion in orographic cloud. At a more local scale, wind is known to have striking effects on forest structure and species distribution in tropical montane ecosystems, both as a general mechanical stress and as the major agent of ecological disturbance. High resolution regional atmospheric modeling using CSU RAMS in the Monteverde cloud forests of Costa Rica provides quantitative information on the spatial distribution of canopy level winds, insight into the spatial structure and local dynamics of cloud forest communities. This information will be useful in not only in local conservation planning and the design of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, but also in assessments of the sensitivity of cloud forests to global and regional climate changes.

  16. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  17. Native Americans with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Native Americans with Diabetes Better diabetes care can decrease kidney failure Language: ... between 1996 and 2013. Problem Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans. Native Americans are ...

  18. Investigation of the Subsonic Stability and Control Characteristics of a 1/7-Scale Model of the North American X-15 Airplane with and without Fuselage Forebody Strakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassell, James L., Jr.; Hewes, Donald E.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation of the low-subsonic stability and control characteristics of a l/7-scale free-flying model modified to represent closely the North American X-15 airplane (configuration 3) has been made in the Langley full-scale tunnel. Flight conditions at a relatively low altitude were simulated with the center of gravity at 16.0 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord. The longitudinal stability and control were considered to be satisfactory for all flight conditions tested. The lateral flight behavior was generally satisfactory for angles of attack below about 20 deg. At higher angles, however, the model developed a tendency to fly in a side-slipped attitude because of static directional instability at small sideslip angles. Good roll control was maintained to the highest angles tested, but rudder effectiveness diminished with increasing angle of attack and became adverse for angles above 40 deg. Removal of the lower rudder had little effect on the lateral flight characteristics for angles of attack less than about 20 deg but caused the lateral flight behavior to become worse in the high angle-of-attack range. The addition of small fuselage forebody strakes improved the static directional stability and lateral flight behavior of both configurations.

  19. Modeling connectivity to identify current and future anthropogenic barriers to movement of large carnivores: A case study in the American Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Meredith L; Dickson, Brett G; Nicholson, Kerry L

    2017-06-01

    This study sought to identify critical areas for puma ( Puma concolor ) movement across the state of Arizona in the American Southwest and to identify those most likely to be impacted by current and future human land uses, particularly expanding urban development and associated increases in traffic volume. Human populations in this region are expanding rapidly, with the potential for urban centers and busy roads to increasingly act as barriers to demographic and genetic connectivity of large-bodied, wide-ranging carnivores such as pumas, whose long-distance movements are likely to bring them into contact with human land uses and whose low tolerance both for and from humans may put them at risk unless opportunities for safe passage through or around human-modified landscapes are present. Brownian bridge movement models based on global positioning system collar data collected during bouts of active movement and linear mixed models were used to model habitat quality for puma movement; then, a wall-to-wall application of circuit theory models was used to produce a continuous statewide estimate of connectivity for puma movement and to identify pinch points, or bottlenecks, that may be most at risk of impacts from current and future traffic volume and expanding development. Rugged, shrub- and scrub-dominated regions were highlighted as those offering high quality movement habitat for pumas, and pinch points with the greatest potential impacts from expanding development and traffic, although widely distributed, were particularly prominent to the north and east of the city of Phoenix and along interstate highways in the western portion of the state. These pinch points likely constitute important conservation opportunities, where barriers to movement may cause disproportionate loss of connectivity, but also where actions such as placement of wildlife crossing structures or conservation easements could enhance connectivity and prevent detrimental impacts before they occur.

  20. Malignant melanoma as a model for cancer education and prevention. 1989 Harvey lecture American Association for Cancer Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W A

    1990-01-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma is one of the most rapidly increasing and highly fatal cancers in the world today. Current estimates suggest that 1 in 90-100 Caucasians will develop MM by the year 2000, and 20%-30% will eventually die of the disease. The cause of the epidemic of malignant melanoma is clearly increasing exposure to the sun from lifestyle and clothing habits that have changed over the past 50 years. The disease occurs primarily in preexisting nevi in sun-exposed sites in specific high risk populations who can be, and have been, defined. These are primarily middle- and upper middle-class Caucasians with blue eyes, brown or blonde hair, and fair skin, with predominantly indoor occupations who spend, or have spent, considerable time outdoors in leisure and other activities. The presence of a clearly definable cause (exposure to the sun) in specific risk groups, the ease of early detection by simple means, and the devastating outcome of late diagnosis make malignant melanoma an ideal model for teaching the basic tenets of cancer causation, development, and prevention to the public and professionals alike.

  1. Modeling the relationship between water level, wild rice abundance, and waterfowl abundance at a central North American wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Kevin; Eash, Josh D.; Ford, Walt; Heglund, Patricia J.; McDowell, Michelle; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2018-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests wild rice (Zizania palustris), an important resource for migrating waterfowl, is declining in parts of central North America, providing motivation to rigorously quantify the relationship between waterfowl and wild rice. A hierarchical mixed-effects model was applied to data on waterfowl abundance for 16 species, wild rice stem density, and two measures of water depth (true water depth at vegetation sampling locations and water surface elevation). Results provide evidence for an effect of true water depth (TWD) on wild rice abundance (posterior mean estimate for TWD coefficient, β TWD = 0.92, 95% confidence interval = 0.11—1.74), but not for an effect of wild rice stem density or water surface elevation on local waterfowl abundance (posterior mean values for relevant parameters overlapped 0). Refined protocols for sampling design and more consistent sampling frequency to increase data quality should be pursued to overcome issues that may have obfuscated relationships evaluated here.

  2. Inferring the past and present connectivity across the range of a North American leaf beetle: combining ecological niche modeling and a geographically explicit model of coalescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellicour, Simon; Fearnley, Shannon; Lombal, Anicée; Heidl, Sarah; Dahlhoff, Elizabeth P; Rank, Nathan E; Mardulyn, Patrick

    2014-08-01

    The leaf beetle Chrysomela aeneicollis occurs across Western North America, either at high elevation or in small, isolated populations along the coast, and thus has a highly fragmented distribution. DNA sequence data (three loci) were collected from five regions across the species range. Population connectivity was examined using traditional ecological niche modeling, which suggested that gene flow could occur among regions now and in the past. We developed geographically explicit coalescence models of sequence evolution that incorporated a two-dimensional representation of the hypothesized ranges suggested by the niche-modeling estimates. We simulated sequence data according to these models and compared them to observed sequences to identify most probable scenarios regarding the migration history of C. aeneicollis. Our results disagreed with initial niche-modeling estimates by clearly rejecting recent connectivity among regions, and were instead most consistent with a long period of range fragmentation, extending well beyond the last glacial maximum. This application of geographically explicit models of coalescence has highlighted some limitations of the use of climatic variables for predicting the present and past range of a species and has explained aspects of the Pleistocene evolutionary history of a cold-adapted organism in Western North America. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Intercomparison of Meteorological Forcing Data from Empirical and Mesoscale Model Sources in the N.F. American River Basin in northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayand, N. E.; Hamlet, A. F.; Hughes, M. R.; Feld, S.; Lundquist, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    The data required to drive distributed hydrological models is significantly limited within mountainous terrain due to a scarcity of observations. This study evaluated three common configurations of forcing data: a) one low-elevation station, combined with empirical techniques, b) gridded output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and c) a combination of the two. Each configuration was evaluated within the heavily-instrumented North Fork American River Basin in northern California, during October-June 2000-2010. Simulations of streamflow and snowpack using the Distributed Hydrology Soil and Vegetation Model (DHSVM) highlighted precipitation and radiation as variables whose sources resulted in significant differences. The best source of precipitation data varied between years. On average, the performance of WRF and the single station distributed using the Parameter Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM), were not significantly different. The average percent biases in simulated streamflow were 3.4% and 0.9%, for configurations a) and b) respectively, even though precipitation compared directly with gauge measurements was biased high by 6% and 17%, suggesting that gauge undercatch may explain part of the bias. Simulations of snowpack using empirically-estimated long-wave irradiance resulted in melt rates lower than those observed at high-elevation sites, while at lower-elevations the same forcing caused significant mid-winter melt that was not observed (Figure 1). These results highlight the complexity of how forcing data sources impact hydrology over different areas (high vs. low elevation snow) and different time-periods. Overall, results support the use of output from the WRF model over empirical techniques in regions with limited station data. FIG. 1. (a,b) Simulated SWE from DHSVM compared to observations at the Sierra Snow Lab (2100m) and Blue Canyon (1609m) during 2008 - 2009. Modeled (c,d) internal pack temperature, (e,f) downward

  4. Living Two Lives: The Ability of Low Income African American Females in Their Quest to Break the Glass Ceiling of Education through the Ellison Model (TEM) Mentoring Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, DaVina J.

    2013-01-01

    It is often that during their academic pursuits, to become successful, low-income African-American women must learn to navigate an upstream current through higher education, where the established order in the academy is based on Western European values that often conflict with African-American values (Harper, Patton & Wooden, 2009; Phinney,…

  5. Simulation of between-farm transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Ontario, Canada using the North American Animal Disease Spread Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Krishna K; Revie, Crawford W; Hurnik, Daniel; Poljak, Zvonimir; Sanchez, Javier

    2015-03-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), a viral disease of swine, has major economic impacts on the swine industry. The North American Animal Disease Spread Model (NAADSM) is a spatial, stochastic, farm level state-transition modeling framework originally developed to simulate highly contagious and foreign livestock diseases. The objectives of this study were to develop a model to simulate between-farm spread of a homologous strain of PRRS virus in Ontario swine farms via direct (animal movement) and indirect (sharing of trucks between farms) contacts using the NAADSM and to compare the patterns and extent of outbreak under different simulated conditions. A total of 2552 swine farms in Ontario province were allocated to each census division of Ontario and geo-locations of the farms were randomly generated within the agriculture land of each Census Division. Contact rates among different production types were obtained using pig movement information from four regions in Canada. A total of 24 scenarios were developed involving various direct (movement of infected animals) and indirect (pig transportation trucks) contact parameters in combination with alternating the production type of the farm in which the infection was seeded. Outbreaks were simulated for one year with 1000 replications. The median number of farms infected, proportion of farms with multiple outbreaks and time to reach the peak epidemic were used to compare the size, progression and extent of outbreaks. Scenarios involving spread only by direct contact between farms resulted in outbreaks where the median percentage of infected farms ranged from 31.5 to 37% of all farms. In scenarios with both direct and indirect contact, the median percentage of infected farms increased to a range from 41.6 to 48.6%. Furthermore, scenarios with both direct and indirect contact resulted in a 44% increase in median epidemic size when compared to the direct contact scenarios. Incorporation of both animal

  6. Obesity and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 percent are overweight ... inhqrdr/data/query At a Glace – Risk Factors: Obesity is a risk ... Americans Heart Disease – See Heart Disease and Hispanic Americans ...

  7. Small-scale modelling of cementation by descending silica-bearing fluids: Explanation of the origin of arenitic caves in South American tepuis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, R.; Lánczos, T.; Schlögl, J.; Audy, M.

    2017-12-01

    Geoscientific research was performed on South American table mountains (tepuis) and in their sandstone cave systems. To explain speleogenesis in these poorly soluble rocks, two theories were introduced: a) arenization theory implying selective weathering of quartz along grain boundaries and releasing of sand grains, b) selective lithification theory implying cementation by descending silica-bearing fluid flow. The latter theory presumes that the descending fluid flow becomes unstable on the interface between two layers with different porosity and splits to separate flow channels (so-called ;finger flow;). The arenites outside these channels remain uncemented. To verify the latter theory, small-scale modelling was performed, using layered sands and sodium-silicate solution. Fine to medium sand was used (0.08-0.5 mm), along with a coarse sand fraction (0.5-1.5 mm). The sands were layered and compacted in a transparent plastic boxes. Three liters of sodium-silicate solution (so-called water glass) were left to drip for several hours to the top of the sediment. The fine-grained layers were perfectly laterally impregnated, whereas the descending fluid flows split to ;fingers; in the coarse-grained layers due their higher hydraulic conductivity. This small-scale laboratory simulation mimics the real diagenesis by descending silica-bearing fluids and matches the real phenomena observed on the tepuis. The resulting cemented constructions closely mimic many geomorphological features observed on tepuis and inside their caves, e.g. ;finger-flow; pillars, overhangs, imperfectly formed (aborted) pillars in forms of hummocks hanging from ceilings, locally also thicker central pillars that originated by merging of smaller fluid-flow channels. The modelling showed that selective lithification theory can explain most of the geomorphological aspects related to the speleogenesis in tepuis.

  8. Individual, social and environmental correlates of physical activity in overweight and obese African American and Hispanic women: A structural equation model analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherezade K. Mama

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: PA is more heavily influenced by intrapersonal factors related to weight. Improving intrapersonal factors related to weight and perceptions of the environment may lead to increased PA in African American and Hispanic women.

  9. Ethnic differences in inter- and intra-situational blood pressure variation: Comparisons among African-American, Hispanic-American, Asian-American, and European-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Gary D; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Hill, Leah A

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the daily inter- and intra-situational ambulatory blood pressure (BP) variation by ethnicity in women. The African-American (N = 82; Age = 39.7 + 8.9), Hispanic-American (N = 25; age = 37.5 + 9.4), Asian-American (N = 22; Age = 35.2 + 8.6), and European-American (N = 122; Age = 37.2+ 9.4) women in this study all worked in similar positions at two major medical centers in NYC. Each wore an ambulatory monitor during the course of one mid-week workday. Proportional BP changes from work or home to sleep, intra-situational BP variation (standard deviation [SD]) and mean situational BP levels were compared among the groups using ANOVA models. African-American and Asian-American women had significantly smaller proportional work-sleep systolic changes than either European- (P women, but the Asian-American women's changes tended to be smallest. The variability (SD) of diastolic BP at work was significantly greater among African- and Hispanic-American women compared to Asian- and European-American women (all P women had greater sleep variability than European-American women (P Asian-American women had the highest level of sleep diastolic pressure (all comparisons P Asian-American women have an attenuated proportional BP decline from waking environments to sleep compared to European-American and Hispanic-American women. Asian-American nocturnal BP may be elevated relative to all other groups. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:932-935, 2016. © 2016Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Replacing American snacks with tree nuts increases consumption of key nutrients among US children and adults: results of an NHANES modeling study

    OpenAIRE

    Rehm, Colin D.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Background Replacing typical American snacks with tree nuts may be an effective way to improve diet quality and compliance with the 2015?2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs). Objective To assess and quantify the impact of replacing typical snacks with composite tree nuts or almonds on diet metrics, including empty calories (i.e., added sugars and solid fats), individual fatty acids, macronutrients, nutrients of public health concern, including sodium, fiber and potassium, and summary ...

  11. Measurement Invariance Testing of a Three-Factor Model of Parental Warmth, Psychological Control, and Knowledge across European and Asian/Pacific Islander American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; King, Kevin M; McCarty, Carolyn A; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    While the interpretation and effects of parenting on developmental outcomes may be different across European and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) American youth, measurement invariance of parenting constructs has rarely been examined. Utilizing multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis, we examined whether the latent structure of parenting measures are equivalent or different across European and API American youth. Perceived parental warmth, psychological control, and knowledge were reported by a community sample of 325 adolescents (242 Europeans and 83 APIs). Results indicated that one item did not load on mother psychological control for API American youth. After removing this item, we found metric invariance for all parenting dimensions, providing support for cross-cultural consistency in the interpretation of parenting items. Scalar invariance was found for father parenting, whereas three mother parenting items were non-invariant across groups at the scalar level. After taking into account several minor forms of measurement non-invariance, non-invariant factor means suggested that API Americans perceived lower parental warmth and knowledge but higher parental psychological control than European Americans. Overall, the degree of measurement non-invariance was not extensive and was primarily driven by a few parenting items. All but one parenting item included in this study may be used for future studies across European and API American youth.

  12. Free-Spinning and Recovery Characteristics of a 1/19-Scale Model of the North American T-28C Airplane, TED No. NACA AD 3127

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S., Jr.

    1956-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel on a l/19-scale model of the North American T-28C airplane to determine the spin and recovery characteristics. The T-28C airplane is similar to the T-28B airplane except for slight modifications for the arresting hook. The lower rear section of the fuselage was cut out and, consequently, the lower part of the rudder was removed to make a smooth fairing with the fuselage. The T-28B airplane had good recovery characteristics; but these modifications, along with the addition of gun packages on the wings, led to poor and unsatisfactory spin-recovery characteristics during demonstration spins of the T-28C airplane. Model test results indicated that without the gun packages installed, satisfactory recoveries could be obtained if the elevators were held full back while the rudder was fully reversed and the ailerons were held neutral. However, with the addition of gun packages to the wings and the corresponding change in loading, recoveries were considered unsatisfactory. Recoveries attempted by using a larger chord or larger span rudder were improved very slightly, but were still considered marginal or unsatisfactory. Strakes placed on the nose of the model were effective in slowing the spin rotation slightly and, in most instances, decreased the turns for recovery slightly. Recovery characteristics were slightly marginal for the full fuel loading when strakes and the extended-chord rudder were installed; but with the wing fuel partly used, recovery characteristics were again considered unsatisfactory or, at least, definitely on the marginal side. The optimum control technique for recovery is movement of the rudder to full against the spin with the stick held full back (elevators full up) and the ailerons held neutral, followed by forward movement of the stick only after the spin rotation ceases. Inverted-spin test results indicate that the airplane will spin steep and fast and that recovery

  13. Sensitivity of North American agriculture to ENSO-based climate scenarios and their socio-economic consequences: Modeling in an integrated assessment framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, N.J.; Izaurralde, R.C.; Brown, R.A.; Sands, R.D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Legler, D. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Center for Ocean Atmosphere Prediction Studies; Srinivasan, R. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Blacklands Research Center; Tiscareno-Lopez, M.

    1997-09-01

    A group of Canadian, US and Mexican natural resource specialists, organized by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under its North American Energy, Environment and Economy (NA3E) Program, has applied a simulation modeling approach to estimating the impact of ENSO-driven climatic variations on the productivity of major crops grown in the three countries. Methodological development is described and results of the simulations presented in this report. EPIC (the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator) was the agro-ecosystem model selected-for this study. EPIC uses a daily time step to simulate crop growth and yield, water use, runoff and soil erosion among other variables. The model was applied to a set of so-called representative farms parameterized through a specially-assembled Geographic Information System (GIS) to reflect the soils, topography, crop management and weather typical of the regions represented. Fifty one representative farms were developed for Canada, 66 for the US and 23 for Mexico. El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) scenarios for the EPIC simulations were created using the historic record of sea-surface temperature (SST) prevailing in the eastern tropical Pacific for the period October 1--September 30. Each year between 1960 and 1989 was thus assigned to an ENSO category or state. The ENSO states were defined as El Nino (EN, SST warmer than the long-term mean), Strong El Nino (SEN, much warmer), El Viejo (EV, cooler) and Neutral (within {+-}0.5 C of the long-term mean). Monthly means of temperature and precipitation were then calculated at each farm for the period 1960--1989 and the differences (or anomalies) between the means in Neutral years and EN, SEN and EV years determined. The average monthly anomalies for each ENSO state were then used to create new monthly statistics for each farm and ENSO-state combination. The adjusted monthly statistics characteristic of each ENSO state were then used to drive a stochastic-weather simulator

  14. Media exposure, internalization of the thin ideal, and body dissatisfaction: comparing Asian American and European American college females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Mahsa; Hill, Laura G; Orrell-Valente, Joan K

    2011-09-01

    Internalization of the thin ideal mediates the media exposure-body dissatisfaction relation in young adult European American females. There is little related research on Asian Americans. We used structural equations modeling to test: (1) whether media exposure was associated with body dissatisfaction in Asian American young adult females, (2) internalization of the thin ideal mediated any such association, and (3) whether the mediational model provided equivalent fit for European American and Asian American samples. Participants were 287 college females (154 Asian Americans, 133 European Americans). Internalization of the thin ideal explained the media exposure-body dissatisfaction association equally well for both groups. Results suggest that Asian Americans may be employing unhealthy weight control behaviors, and may be prone to developing eating disorders, at rates similar to European American young adult females. Clinicians need to screen carefully for body dissatisfaction, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and eating disorders in Asian American females. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. American options under stochastic volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chockalingam, A.; Muthuraman, K.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of pricing an American option written on an underlying asset with constant price volatility has been studied extensively in literature. Real-world data, however, demonstrate that volatility is not constant, and stochastic volatility models are used to account for dynamic volatility

  16. Asian American and African American masculinities : race, citizenship, and culture in post-civil rights

    OpenAIRE

    Chon-Smith, Chong

    2006-01-01

    Through the interpretation of labor department documents, journalism, and state discourses, I historicize the formation of both the construction of black "pathology" and the Asian "model minority" by analyzing the comparative racialization of African Americans and Asian Americans in the United States. Beginning with the Moynihan Report and journalistic reports about Asian Americans as "model minority," Black and Asian men were racialized together, as if "racially magnetized," in an attempt to...

  17. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  18. American Society of Echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Renew Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow of the American Society of Echocardiography Member Referral Program FAQs Initiatives Advocacy Awards, Grants, ...

  19. Asthma and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Asthma Asthma and Hispanic Americans In 2015, 2.2 million Hispanics reported that they currently have asthma. Puerto Rican Americans have almost twice the asthma ...

  20. Discrimination of Arabic Contrasts by American Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mahmoud, Mahmoud S.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on second language perception of non-native contrasts. The study specifically tests the perceptual assimilation model (PAM) by examining American learners' ability to discriminate Arabic contrasts. Twenty two native American speakers enrolled in a university level Arabic language program took part in a forced choice AXB…

  1. Unlearning American Patriotism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard W.

    2007-01-01

    Immoral excesses of American foreign policy are so severe and so deep-rooted that American patriotism is now a moral burden. This love, which pulls toward amnesia, wishful thinking and inattention to urgent foreign interests, should be replaced by commitment to a global social movement that seeks to hem in the American empire. Teachers can advance…

  2. Asian American Student Engagement in Student Leadership and Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Lester J.; Poon, OiYan A.; Na, Vanessa S.

    2017-01-01

    Conceptual models for understanding the ways in which Asian American students engage in leadership and activism are interrogated. The chapter provides a discussion of implications for student affairs professionals working with Asian American student leaders and activists.

  3. Racial Pride and Condom Use in Post-Incarcerated African-American Men Who Have Sex With Men and Women: Test of a Conceptual Model for the Men in Life Environments Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Michael J; Frank, Heather Guentzel; Harawa, Nina T; Williams, John K; Chou, Chih-Ping; Bluthenthal, Ricky N

    2018-01-01

    African-American men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) are among those most heavily impacted by HIV in the United States, and those who have histories of incarceration are at further risk of infection. The Men in Life Environments (MILE) HIV prevention intervention was developed to provide culturally appropriate skills-based education and support for African-American MSMW with recent histories of incarceration. The MILE's conceptual framework was informed by three theories: Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior, Critical Thinking and Cultural Affirmation Model, and Empowerment Theory. The theory-based framework posits that improving racial pride is crucial in building self-efficacy and intentions that in turn promote health-protective behaviors. Therefore, our study aimed to assess whether baseline associations between racial pride and condom use self-efficacy, intentions, and behaviors among African-American MSMW with histories of incarceration align with our conceptual model. We report data on 212 participants recruited from Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department Men's Central Jail and the local community. Using structural equation modeling, we tested two separate models: one with female sexual partners and one with male sexual partners, while stratifying by participant's HIV status. Only among HIV-negative participants was greater racial pride associated with less condomless intercourse with men. In this group, greater self-efficacy and intentions-but not racial pride-predicted less condomless intercourse with women. Our findings suggest that racial pride is an important factor to address in HIV prevention interventions for post-incarcerated African-American MSMW.

  4. International practices in the provision of teratology information: a survey of international teratogen information programmes and comparisons with the North American model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Rebecca L; Ungar, Wendy J; Einarson, Adrienne; Koren, Gideon

    2010-10-01

    Teratology Information Services (TIS) provide health care professionals and the public with information regarding the safety and/or risk of exposures during pregnancy and lactation, mainly via telephone consultations. An international comparison of clinical practices at TIS has never been conducted. The survey objective was to compare international TIS to North American TIS, with an aim to identify strengths and challenges that can lead to service improvement. Twenty-two international TIS were approached for participation during an international conference. TIS were surveyed on information in six categories: services, staffing, operations, data collection, knowledge transfer activities and additional information. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics. Statistical tests were conducted using SPSS®. Sixteen TIS from 12 countries participated. Survey results were compared with previously reported results from a similar survey of North American TIS (16 US, two Canadian). TIS exist in a variety of departments and settings, but most commonly are in university hospitals. Pregnant women were the most commonly counselled group worldwide. International TIS spent significantly more time fielding inquiries regarding medications, while North American TIS had a wider variety of inquiry categories. All TIS could improve budget tracking. Overall, service practices and goals were similar, although international TIS conducted more follow-up with service users than North American TIS. This report offers TIS the first ever opportunity to compare practices. Increased dialogue between TIS encourages sharing of best practices and improves the ability of these important public health programmes to support women and health care providers. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Personality Similarity and Work-Related Outcomes among African-American Nursing Personnel: A Test of the Supplementary Model of Person-Environment Congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, David V.; Bedeian, Arthur G.

    1995-01-01

    Data from 206 nursing service employees (171 African American) and a 5-factor taxonomy of personality were used to test effects of personality similarity on job satisfaction, performance, and tenure. Tenure was significantly predicted by satisfaction and similarity in conscientiousness. No association was found between personality similarity and…

  6. Racial Identity, Generalized Self-Efficacy, and Self-Esteem: A Pilot Study of a Mediation Model for African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kimberly Williams; Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated whether a sense of generalized self-efficacy (GSE) would mediate the relationship between African American women's racial identity attitudes and self-esteem. Surveys of women from churches and a misdemeanor probation institution indicated that GSE mediated the relationship between pre-encounter racial identity attitude and…

  7. Integration of the WJ IV, WISC-V, WISC-V Integrated, and WIAT-III into a School Neuropsychological Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    The Woodcock-Johnson-Fourth edition (WJ IV; Schrank, McGrew, & Mather, 2014a) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth edition (WISC-V; Wechsler, 2014) are two of the major tests of cognitive abilities used in school psychology. The complete WJ IV battery includes the Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities (Schrank,…

  8. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  9. NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NARR dataset is an extension of the NCEP Global Reanalysis which is run over the North American Region. The NARR model uses the very high resolution NCEP Eta...

  10. Images of smokers and willingness to smoke among African American pre-adolescents: an application of the prototype/willingness model of adolescent health risk behavior to smoking initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X; Stock, Michelle L; Lune, Linda S Vande; Cleveland, Michael J

    2005-06-01

    This study used the prototype/willingness model of adolescent health risk behavior to examine factors related to onset of smoking. Two waves of data were collected from a panel of 742 African American children (mean age=10.5 at Wave 1) and their primary caregivers. Measures included cognitions outlined by the prototype model as well as self-reports of smoking by the parent and child. Structural equation modeling revealed a pattern consistent with expectations generated by the prototype model. The relation between contextual, familial, and dispositional factors-including neighborhood risk, parental smoking, and children's academic orientation-and the initiation of smoking at Wave 2, two years later, was mediated by the children's cognitions. Primary among these cognitions were the children's images of smokers and children's willingness to smoke. Smoking cognitions mediate the impact of important distal factors (such as context, family environment, and disposition) on the onset of smoking in children. Perhaps more important, it is possible to predict onset of smoking in African American children as young as age 10 by assessing the cognitive factors suggested by the prototype model.

  11. North American Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  12. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  13. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  14. North American Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  15. The Building Resiliency and Vocational Excellence (BRAVE) Program: a violence-prevention and role model program for young, African American males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, James P

    2005-11-01

    There are sharp disparities between non-Hispanic Whites and African Americans in mortality and years of potential life lost for numerous health-related conditions, including HIV/AIDS. The Building Resiliency and Vocational Excellence (BRAVE) Program is an intervention using Resiliency Networking designed for use with African American young men to help offset these disparities. Resiliency Networking incorporates coaching, career planning, and re-definition of gender roles to help young men develop a sense of purpose and future and to manage their lifestyles effectively. In addition to fostering a strong link with an older mentor, the program fosters healthy peer-to-peer relationships. The paper reports on preliminary use of the intervention and recommends future applications.

  16. Validation of a prediction model that allows direct comparison of the Oxford Knee Score and American Knee Society clinical rating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maempel, J F; Clement, N D; Brenkel, I J; Walmsley, P J

    2015-04-01

    This study demonstrates a significant correlation between the American Knee Society (AKS) Clinical Rating System and the Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and provides a validated prediction tool to estimate score conversion. A total of 1022 patients were prospectively clinically assessed five years after TKR and completed AKS assessments and an OKS questionnaire. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated significant correlations between OKS and the AKS knee and function scores but a stronger correlation (r = 0.68, p Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  17. The American Dream

    OpenAIRE

    Önnerth, Lars; Neubert, Mikkel; Omerbasic, Dejan; Heyman, Minch; Kimberly, Marie; Nielsen, Lyngbo; Mynte, Anne; Hørlyck Kaastrup, Markus

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the phenomenon that is the American Dream and its effect on the working and upper class citizens in American society. To give context to the American dream and its origin, we have made use of professor Jim Cullen’s book “The American Dream: A Short Story of an Idea that Shaped a Nation” from 2003. We have identified what we decided to call the “the traditional dream” and “the modern dream”, both representing different outlooks on lives and ethical standards. We have done t...

  18. Help-Seeking Experiences and Attitudes among African American, Asian American, and European American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Akihiko; Anderson, Page L.; Twohig, Michael P.; Feinstein, Amanda B.; Chou, Ying-Yi; Wendell, Johanna W.; Stormo, Analia R.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined African American, Asian American, and European American college students' previous direct and indirect experiences of seeking professional psychological services and related attitudes. Survey data were collected from 254 European American, 182 African American and 82 Asian American college students. Results revealed that fewer…

  19. Perpetual American options within CTRWs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Miquel

    2008-06-01

    Continuous-time random walks are a well suited tool for the description of market behaviour at the smallest scale: the tick-to-tick evolution. We will apply this kind of market model to the valuation of perpetual American options: derivatives with no maturity that can be exercised at any time. Our approach leads to option prices that fulfill financial formulas when canonical assumptions on the dynamics governing the process are made, but it is still suitable for more exotic market conditions.

  20. Perpetual American options within CTRW's

    OpenAIRE

    Montero, Miquel

    2007-01-01

    Continuous-time random walks are a well suited tool for the description of market behaviour at the smallest scale: the tick-to-tick evolution. We will apply this kind of market model to the valuation of perpetual American options: derivatives with no maturity that can be exercised at any time. Our approach leads to option prices that fulfil financial formulas when canonical assumptions on the dynamics governing the process are made, but it is still suitable for more exotic market conditions.

  1. Close relationships between asian american and european american college students

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, C; Edwards, K; Young, B; Greenberger, E

    2001-01-01

    The authors examined attitudes and behaviors regarding close relationships between European and Asian Americans, with a particular emphasis on 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Filipino Americans). Participants were 218 Asian American college students and 171 European American college students attending a culturally diverse university. The European Americans did not differentiate among the various subgroups of Asian Americans. Their attitudes reg...

  2. Invisible Asian Americans: The Intersection of Sexuality, Race, and Education among Gay Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Anthony C.; Soodjinda, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Most research on Asian American education has centered on addressing and deconstructing the model minority stereotype. While recent studies have highlighted the socioeconomic and cultural heterogeneity among Asian American students, few have examined how sexual identity and masculinity mitigate their academic experiences. In this article, we draw…

  3. Family Cohesion in the Lives of Mexican American and European American Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, Andrew O.; MacDermid, Shelley M.; Coltrane, Scott L.; Parke, Ross D.; Duffy, Sharon; Widaman, Keith F.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated similarities and differences in relations between stress and parenting behaviors for 509 Mexican American and European American fathers and mothers in Southern California. Our model posited that family cohesion mediates the relation between stressors and parenting behavior, and we found that family cohesion strongly…

  4. Predicting Non-African American Lesbian and Heterosexual Preadoptive Couples' Openness to Adopting an African American Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2009-01-01

    Despite increases in transracial adoption, African American children remain the least likely to be adopted. No research has examined the factors that predict prospective adopters' willingness to adopt an African American child. This study used multilevel modeling to examine predictors of willingness to adopt an African American child in a sample…

  5. American Thyroid Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More October 20, 2017 0 American Thyroid Association: Charles H. Emerson, MD, Will Lead New Board of Directors By ATA | 2017 ... Featured , News Releases | No Comments American Thyroid Association: Charles H. Emerson, MD, Will Lead New Board of Directors October 19,… Read ...

  6. The Quiet American Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legters, Lyman H.

    1984-01-01

    What is wrong in the American parochialism about foreign languages is the assumption that language acquisition is a cosmetic gain, without any immediate or forseeable practical use. Languages will only be learned effectively when Americans learn that they can be used in getting tasks accomplished. (MSE)

  7. American Studies in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies.......Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies....

  8. Asian American Cultural Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libretti, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Explores the encounter of Marxism and Asian American literary theory and imagines an Asian American Marxism. To do so requires theorizing race, class, and gender not as substantive categories of antagonisms but as complementary and coordinated elements of a totality of social relations structuring racial patriarchal capitalism. (SLD)

  9. The Mexican American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Helen

    The purpose of this paper, prepared for the U. S. Commission on Civil Rights, is to indicate the types and ranges of problems facing the Mexican American community and to suggest ways in which these problems are peculiar to Mexican Americans. Specific examples are cited to illustrate major problems and personal experiences. Topics covered in the…

  10. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  11. Teaching American Indian Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Dick

    1991-01-01

    Reviews "Native American Architecture," by Nabokov and Easton, an encyclopedic work that examines technology, climate, social structure, economics, religion, and history in relation to house design and the "meaning" of space among tribes of nine regions. Describes this book's use in a college course on Native American architecture. (SV)

  12. Replacing American Breakfast Foods with Ready-To-Eat (RTE) Cereals Increases Consumption of Key Food Groups and Nutrients among US Children and Adults: Results of an NHANES Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-09-13

    Replacing the typical American breakfast with ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs) may improve diet quality. Our goal was to assess the impact of RTECs on diet quality measures for different age groups, using substitution modeling. Dietary intakes came from the 2007-2010 National Health and Examination Surveys (NHANES; n = 18,112). All breakfast foods, excluding beverages, were replaced on a per calorie basis, with frequency-weighted and age/race specific RTECs. Model 1 replaced foods with RTECs alone; Model 2 replaced foods with RTECs and milk. Diet quality measures were based on desirable food groups and nutrients, Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 scores, and estimated diet costs. Model 1 diets were significantly higher in whole grains (+84.6%), fiber (+14.3%), vitamin D (+14.0%), iron (+54.5%) and folic acid (+104.6%), as compared to observed diets. Model 2 diets were additionally higher in dairy (+15.8%), calcium (+11.3%) and potassium (+3.95%). In Model 1, added sugar increased (+5.0%), but solid fats declined (-10.9%). Energy from solid fats and added sugars declined (-3.2%) in both models. Model 2 offered higher diet quality (57.1 vs. 54.6, p -value < 0.01) at a lower cost ($6.70 vs. $6.92; p < 0.01), compared to observed diets. Substitution modeling of NHANES data can assess the nutritional and economic impact of dietary guidance.

  13. Replacing American Breakfast Foods with Ready-To-Eat (RTE) Cereals Increases Consumption of Key Food Groups and Nutrients among US Children and Adults: Results of an NHANES Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Replacing the typical American breakfast with ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs) may improve diet quality. Our goal was to assess the impact of RTECs on diet quality measures for different age groups, using substitution modeling. Dietary intakes came from the 2007–2010 National Health and Examination Surveys (NHANES; n = 18,112). All breakfast foods, excluding beverages, were replaced on a per calorie basis, with frequency-weighted and age/race specific RTECs. Model 1 replaced foods with RTECs alone; Model 2 replaced foods with RTECs and milk. Diet quality measures were based on desirable food groups and nutrients, Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 scores, and estimated diet costs. Model 1 diets were significantly higher in whole grains (+84.6%), fiber (+14.3%), vitamin D (+14.0%), iron (+54.5%) and folic acid (+104.6%), as compared to observed diets. Model 2 diets were additionally higher in dairy (+15.8%), calcium (+11.3%) and potassium (+3.95%). In Model 1, added sugar increased (+5.0%), but solid fats declined (−10.9%). Energy from solid fats and added sugars declined (−3.2%) in both models. Model 2 offered higher diet quality (57.1 vs. 54.6, p-value < 0.01) at a lower cost ($6.70 vs. $6.92; p < 0.01), compared to observed diets. Substitution modeling of NHANES data can assess the nutritional and economic impact of dietary guidance. PMID:28902145

  14. Close relationships between Asian American and European American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Edwards, K; Young, B; Greenberger, E

    2001-02-01

    The authors examined attitudes and behaviors regarding close relationships between European and Asian Americans, with a particular emphasis on 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Filipino Americans). Participants were 218 Asian American college students and 171 European American college students attending a culturally diverse university. The European Americans did not differentiate among the various subgroups of Asian Americans. Their attitudes regarding close relationships were less positive toward Asian Americans than toward Mexican and African Americans, a finding contrary to the prediction of social exchange theory (H. Tajfel, 1975). In contrast to the European Americans' view of homogeneity among Asian Americans, the 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans expressed a distinctive hierarchy of social preference among themselves. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research on interethnic relations involving Asian Americans.

  15. Cuando Hollywood encontró a Harlem: caminos para la creación de un nuevo modelo de representación de la identidad afroamericana en el cine de los estudios (1970-1971 / When Hollywood Met Harlem. How the Industry Created a New Model of Representation of the Afro-American Identity in American Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jara Fernández Meneses

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Desde una perspectiva histórica, este artículo analiza las estrategias empleadas por el cine norteamericano a comienzos de la década de 1970 para elaborar un nuevo modelo de representación de la comunidad afroamericana. A través del análisis del contexto socio-político y económico de ese periodo, el texto examina los dos principales elementos que explican dicho fenómeno: la crisis que sufrió la industria cinematográfica a finales de la década de 1960 y el nacimiento de una nueva conciencia racial dentro del movimiento de los derechos civiles a comienzos de la década de 1970. Tres películas se utilizan para ilustrar cómo se construyó este nuevo modelo y cuáles son sus principales atributos: Algodón en Harlem (Cotton Comes to Harlem, Ossie Davies, 1970, Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song (Melvin Van Peebles, 1971 y Las noches rojas de Harlem (Shaft, Gordon Parks, 1971. A través de la comparación entre cómo la industria representó a los afroamericanos en décadas previas y cómo lo hizo en el periodo estudiado, el artículo pretende demostrar cómo y por qué Hollywood cambió su actitud hacia el retrato de la comunidad afroamericana.Palabras clave: Identidad afroamericana, directores afroamericanos, blaxploitation, Cotton Comes to Harlem, Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song, Shaft, Ossie Davies, Melvin Van Peebles, Gordon Parks.AbstractAssuming a historical approach, this text focuses on the strategies used by American cinema to elaborate a new model of representation of the Afro-American identity in the early seventies. Through the analysis of the socio-political and economic context of the period, this text examines the two main issues we should take into consideration to explain this fact: the crisis in the cinema industry in the late sixties and the rising of a new conscience within the afroamerican civil rights movement at the beginning of the seventies. Three films are used to illustrate the construction of this new

  16. American Canine Hepatozoonosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, S. A.; Panciera, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    American canine hepatozoonosis (ACH) is a tick-borne disease that is spreading in the southeastern and south-central United States. Characterized by marked leukocytosis and periosteal bone proliferation, ACH is very debilitating and often fatal. Dogs acquire infection by ingesting nymphal or adult Gulf Coast ticks (Amblyomma maculatum) that, in a previous life stage, ingested the parasite in a blood meal taken from some vertebrate intermediate host. ACH is caused by the apicomplexan Hepatozoon americanum and has been differentiated from Old World canine hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis. Unlike H. canis, which is transmitted by the ubiquitous brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus), H. americanum is essentially an accidental parasite of dogs, for which Gulf Coast ticks are not favored hosts. The geographic portrait of the disease parallels the known distribution of the Gulf Coast tick, which has expanded in recent years. Thus, the endemic cycle of H. americanum involves A. maculatum as definitive host and some vertebrate intermediate host(s) yet to be identified. Although coyotes (Canis latrans) are known to be infected, it is not known how important this host is in maintaining the endemic cycle. This review covers the biology of the parasite and of the tick that transmits it and contrasts ACH with classical canine hepatozoonosis. Clinical aspects of the disease are discussed, including diagnosis and treatment, and puzzling epidemiologic issues are examined. Brief consideration is given to the potential for ACH to be used as a model for study of angiogenesis and of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. PMID:14557294

  17. Maternal socialization goals, parenting styles, and social-emotional adjustment among Chinese and European American young adults: testing a mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Costanzo, Philip R; Putallaz, Martha

    2010-01-01

    The authors compared the associations among perceived maternal socialization goals (self-development, filial piety, and collectivism), perceived maternal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and training), and the social-emotional adjustment (self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and depression) between Chinese and European American young adults. The mediation processes in which socialization goals relate to young adults' adjustment outcomes through parenting styles were examined. Results showed that European American participants perceived higher maternal self-development socialization goals, whereas Chinese participants perceived higher maternal collectivism socialization goals as well as more authoritarian parenting. Cross-cultural similarities were found in the associations between perceived maternal authoritative parenting and socioemotional adjustment (e.g., higher self-esteem and higher academic self-efficacy) across the two cultural groups. However, perceived maternal authoritarian and training parenting styles were found only to be related to Chinese participants' adjustment (e.g., higher academic self-efficacy and lower depression). The mediation analyses showed that authoritative parenting significantly mediated the positive associations between the self-development and collectivism goal and socioemotional adjustment for both cultural groups. Additionally, training parenting significantly mediated the positive association between the filial piety goal and young adults' academic self-efficacy for the Chinese group only. Findings of this study highlight the importance of examining parental socialization goals in cross-cultural parenting research.

  18. Adapting American Policymaking to Overcome American Exceptionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    discomfort at President Bush’s rallying good against evil speeches and the words of the NSS. The President’s us versus them foreign policies...of global leadership, and of concern for the well being of the global community. Classically, American exceptionalism refers to the uniquely free ...longer that force for good, but a force for its own good. Exceptionalism once meant a nation free from tyrannical rule and offering of bountiful

  19. Polydactyly in the American Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingle, G J; Niswander, J D

    1975-01-01

    Polydactyly has an incidence in the American Indian twice that of Caucasians. A minimum estimate of this incidence is 2.40 per 1,000 live births. Preaxial type 1 has an incidence three to four times that reported for Caucasians or Negroes. The overall sex ratio in Indians is distorted with more males affected than females. The preaxial type 1 anomaly has a strong predilection for the hands and always is unilateral in contrast to postaxial type B where more than one-half are bilateral. The evidence to date, consisting of varying incidences of specific types of polydactyly among American whites, Negroes, and Indians in varying enviroments, suggests different gene-frequencies for polydactyly in each population. The incidence in Indians with 50% Caucasian admixture suggests that the factors controlling polydactyly are in large part genetically determined. Family studies and twin studies reported elsewhere offer no clear-cut genetic model which explains the highly variable gene frequencies.

  20. Lolita - the American nightmare

    OpenAIRE

    GRISELDA (ABAZAJ) DANGLLI

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the analysis of Lolita seen through the lenses of the American society and norms of today. We will see that many observations of the American way of behaving and social norms still hold true even nowadays years after this novel was written. Nabokov, on the other hand, never accepted the fact that this novel probed into the very depths of American life and that his intentions were purely aesthetic. Nevertheless, the phenomenon of pedophilia, obvious in the book, is a po...

  1. American Studies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Luca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available American Studies at the University of BucharestThe idea of teaching American Studies and founding a program in American Studies was first voiced in the long meetings of faculty and students held at the University of Bucharest soon after the collapse of the communist regime. The proposal was one of many that reflected the spirit of reform and hope for radical changes at the outset of Romania’s transition to democracy. The absence of institutional structures other than English departments and t...

  2. Latin American foreign exchange intervention - Updated

    OpenAIRE

    Da Silva, Sergio; Nunes, Mauricio

    2007-01-01

    We examine Latin American foreign exchange intervention in a framework where the exchange rate regime is endogenous and there exists an inefficient, equilibrium foreign exchange intervention bias. The model suggests that greater central bank independence is associated with lesser intervention in the foreign exchange market, and also with leaning-against-the-wind intervention. Both results are confirmed by data from 13 Latin American countries.

  3. Healthy lifestyle interventions to combat noncommunicable disease-a novel nonhierarchical connectivity model for key stakeholders: a policy statement from the American Heart Association, European Society of Cardiology, European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, and American College of Preventive Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Ross; Guazzi, Marco; Lianov, Liana; Whitsel, Laurie; Berra, Kathy; Lavie, Carl J; Kaminsky, Leonard; Williams, Mark; Hivert, Marie-France; Cherie Franklin, Nina; Myers, Jonathan; Dengel, Donald; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Pinto, Fausto J; Cosentino, Francesco; Halle, Martin; Gielen, Stephan; Dendale, Paul; Niebauer, Josef; Pelliccia, Antonio; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo; Corra, Ugo; Piepoli, Massimo F; Guthrie, George; Shurney, Dexter; Arena, Ross; Berra, Kathy; Dengel, Donald; Franklin, Nina Cherie; Hivert, Marie-France; Kaminsky, Leonard; Lavie, Carl J; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Myers, Jonathan; Whitsel, Laurie; Williams, Mark; Corra, Ugo; Cosentino, Francesco; Dendale, Paul; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo; Gielen, Stephan; Guazzi, Marco; Halle, Martin; Niebauer, Josef; Pelliccia, Antonio; Piepoli, Massimo F; Pinto, Fausto J; Guthrie, George; Lianov, Liana; Shurney, Dexter

    2015-08-14

    citing this article. [1] Arena R, Guazzi M, Lianov L, Whitsel L, Berra K, Lavie CJ, Kaminsky L, Williams M, Hivert M-F, Franklin NC, Myers J, Dengel D, Lloyd-Jones DM, Pinto FJ, Cosentino F, Halle M, Gielen S, Dendale P, Niebauer J, Pelliccia A, Giannuzzi P, Corra U, Piepoli MF, Guthrie G, Shurney D. Healthy Lifestyle Interventions to Combat Noncommunicable Diseased - A Novel Nonhierarchical Connectivity Model for Key Stakeholders: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association, European Society of Cardiology, European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, and American College of Preventive Medicine. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 2015; DOI: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2015.05.001 [In Press].

  4. Osteoporosis and Asian American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Asian American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Asian American women are at high risk for ... medications. Are There Any Special Issues for Asian Women Regarding Bone Health? Recent studies indicate a number ...

  5. Mental Health and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  6. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  7. On American Individualism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李谷雨

    2016-01-01

    Among those American symbols like multiculturalism, hi-tech and its powerful status in the world, an important representative one is its individualism. This paper will briefly discuss it based on daily matters.

  8. American Pediatric Surgical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Pediatric Surgical Association Search for: Login Resources + For Members For Professionals For Training Program Directors For Media For ... Surgical Outcomes Surveys & Results Publications Continuing Education + ExPERT Pediatric Surgery NaT Annual Meeting CME MOC Requirements Residents / ...

  9. American Epilepsy Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the AES Annual Meeting. More info here . Epilepsy Currents American Epilepsy Society Journal Impact Factor More ... P450 enzyme overexpression during spontaneous recurrent seizures More Epilepsy Professional News AES Status Epilepticus guideline for treatment ...

  10. American Academy of Optometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Award Recipients Nov 07, 2017 View all news Optometry and Vision Science Journal Optometry and Vision Science is the official journal of the American Academy of Optometry. AAO members receive a complimentary online subscription. Learn ...

  11. The American dream

    OpenAIRE

    Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2015-01-01

    The American dream : literar. Spiegelungen. - In: Weltmacht USA / hrsg. von Josef Becker ... - München : Vögel, 1976. - S. 31-48. - (Schriften der Philosophischen Fachbereiche der Universität Augsburg ; 10)

  12. Latin American Newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Mary A.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the historical development of the press in Latin America from the sixteenth century to the present. Discusses the various pressures that Latin American newspapers are subject to, including political censorship, economic restrictions, and cultural conflicts. (AEA)

  13. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by ... and eventually, in developing more effective treatments. Does glaucoma treatment differ? Although treatment varies for all individuals, ...

  14. American Geriatrics Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn More Social Media Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Instagram Social Media Bar Right Menu Annual Meeting Donate to our Foundation Contact Us American Geriatrics Society 40 Fulton St., 18th Floor New York, NY ...

  15. American Samoa Longline Logbook

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data system contains the logbook data of vessels unloading in American Samoa. In 1992, the logbooks of three longline trips conducting an experiment to test the...

  16. American Lyme Disease Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infectious Diseases, 35: 451-464, 2002) What is Lyme Disease? Lyme disease (LD) is an infection caused by ... mission with your own tax-deductible contribution. American Lyme Disease Foundation, Inc. PO Box 466 Lyme, CT 06371 ...

  17. American Nephrology Nurses' Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join/Renew Jobs Contact Corporate Shop American Nephrology Nurses Association About ANNA Association About ANNA Strategic Plan ... CExpress Events National Events Chapter / Local Events Nephrology Nurses Week ANNA Education Modules CKD Modules Education Services ...

  18. American Vitiligo Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Place Vitiligo Voices Contact Welcome to The American Vitiligo Foundation Home Page Top Isabella T., California An ... 20.00 USD 20 for - 35.00 USD Vitiligo Doesn't Scare Me by Kim Kirkland Kim ...

  19. American Samoa Cannery Offloading

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1995 through 2010, the two canneries in American Samoa provided Cannery Offloading Reports to the Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources (DMWR) office. In...

  20. American Academy of Audiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certification Meetings & Events Employee Resources Research Academia Practice Management Reimbursement Coding Compliance Resources and Tools Publications & News News Audiology Today Journal of the American Academy of Audiology Books Brochures Multimedia Guidelines and Standards ...

  1. American Music Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login Quick Links Facts About Music Therapy Qualifications ... with AMTA Sponsor AMTA Events Social Networking Support Music Therapy When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon will ...

  2. Application of the North American Multi-Model Ensemble to seasonal water supply forecasting in the Great Lakes basin through the use of the Great Lakes Seasonal Climate Forecast Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronewold, A.; Apps, D.; Fry, L. M.; Bolinger, R.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) contribution to the internationally coordinated 6-month forecast of Great Lakes water levels relies on several water supply models, including a regression model relating a coming month's water supply to past water supplies, previous months' precipitation and temperature, and forecasted precipitation and temperature. Probabilistic forecasts of precipitation and temperature depicted in the Climate Prediction Center's seasonal outlook maps are considered to be standard for use in operational forecasting for seasonal time horizons, and have provided the basis for computing a coming month's precipitation and temperature for use in the USACE water supply regression models. The CPC outlook maps are a useful forecast product offering insight into interpretation of climate models through the prognostic discussion and graphical forecasts. However, recent evolution of USACE forecast procedures to accommodate automated data transfer and manipulation offers a new opportunity for direct incorporation of ensemble climate forecast data into probabilistic outlooks of water supply using existing models that have previously been implemented in a deterministic fashion. We will present results from a study investigating the potential for applying data from the North American Multi-Model Ensemble to operational water supply forecasts. The use of NMME forecasts is facilitated by a new, publicly available, Great Lakes Seasonal Climate Forecast Tool that provides operational forecasts of monthly average temperatures and monthly total precipitation summarized for each lake basin.

  3. North American Foreign Fighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Noonan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While the phenomenon of so-called “foreign fighters” is in no way new the past thirty-plus years has shown a marked increase in the numbers of individuals traveling abroad to fight in civil conflicts in the Muslim world. The crisis in Syria (2011-present has created a massive influx of such individuals going to fight. Of particular concern in western capitals has been the numbers of individuals from those countries that have gone to fight in that conflict which has since crossed the border into neighboring Iraq with the establishment of the socalled “Islamic State” and threatens to broaden the conflict into a larger regional sectarian conflagration. While the numbers of such participants from Western Europe have been greater than those who have gone from the United States and Canada there are legitimate concerns in both Washington, DC, and Ottawa about American and Canadian citizens who have gone—or attempted to go—to fight there and in other locales such as the Maghreb and Somalia. The analysis here will provide some background on the foreign fighter phenomenon, discuss the foreign fighter flow model, explore the issue from both Canadian and US perspectives to include providing details of some original research categorizing the characteristics of a small sample of US and Canadian fighters and those who attempted to go and fight, discuss how both governments have attempted to deal with the issue, and offer some policy prescription for dealing with this issue that is of importance to both international security writ large and domestic security in the US and Canada.

  4. The Roots of Disillusioned American Dream in Typical American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古冬华

    2016-01-01

    Typical American is one of Gish Jen’s notable novels catching attention of the American literary circle. The motif of disillusioned American dream can be seen clearly through the experiences of three main characters. From perspectives of the consumer culture and cultural conflicts, this paper analyzes the roots of the disillusioned American dream in the novel.

  5. A GIS-based multi-source and multi-box modeling approach (GMSMB) for air pollution assessment--a North American case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-Zhen; Chen, Zhi

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a GIS-based multi-source and multi-box modeling approach (GMSMB) to predict the spatial concentration distributions of airborne pollutant on local and regional scales. In this method, an extended multi-box model combined with a multi-source and multi-grid Gaussian model are developed within the GIS framework to examine the contributions from both point- and area-source emissions. By using GIS, a large amount of data including emission sources, air quality monitoring, meteorological data, and spatial location information required for air quality modeling are brought into an integrated modeling environment. It helps more details of spatial variation in source distribution and meteorological condition to be quantitatively analyzed. The developed modeling approach has been examined to predict the spatial concentration distribution of four air pollutants (CO, NO(2), SO(2) and PM(2.5)) for the State of California. The modeling results are compared with the monitoring data. Good agreement is acquired which demonstrated that the developed modeling approach could deliver an effective air pollution assessment on both regional and local scales to support air pollution control and management planning.

  6. Characterizing the performance of ecosystem models across time scales: A spectral analysis of the North American Carbon Program site-level synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Dietze; Rodrigo Vargas; Andrew D. Richardson; Paul C. Stoy; Alan G. Barr; Ryan S. Anderson; M. Altaf Arain; Ian T. Baker; T. Andrew Black; Jing M. Chen; Philippe Ciais; Lawrence B. Flanagan; Christopher M. Gough; Robert F. Grant; David Hollinger; R. Cesar Izaurralde; Christopher J. Kucharik; Peter Lafleur; Shugang Liu; Erandathie Lokupitiya; Yiqi Luo; J. William Munger; Changhui Peng; Benjamin Poulter; David T. Price; Daniel M. Ricciuto; William J. Riley; Alok Kumar Sahoo; Kevin Schaefer; Andrew E. Suyker; Hanqin Tian; Christina Tonitto; Hans Verbeeck; Shashi B. Verma; Weifeng Wang; Ensheng Weng

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem models are important tools for diagnosing the carbon cycle and projecting its behavior across space and time. Despite the fact that ecosystems respond to drivers at multiple time scales, most assessments of model performance do not discriminate different time scales. Spectral methods, such as wavelet analyses, present an alternative approach that enables the...

  7. Model for using hip-hop music for small group HIV/AIDS prevention counseling with African American adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, T; Braithwaite, R L; Taylor, S E

    1998-10-01

    Currently little attention has been directed, with the exception of peer education efforts, to constructively develop new and innovative ways to promote HIV/AIDS primary prevention among African American (AA) adolescents and young adults. With this in mind, the aim of this conceptual effort is to present a HIV/AIDS preventive counseling protocol developed for use with AA young adults that makes use of hip-hop music, a form of music popularized by young AAs. The author contend that an increased understanding of the relationships that many AA young adults have with hip-hop music may be used by disease prevention personnel to educate these populations about protective factors for HIV. Making use of hip-hop music is one strategy for integrating counseling in prevention and health maintenance. The overall implications of using hip-hop music in health promotion are unlimited. First, this method makes use of cultural relevant materials to address the educational and health needs of the target community. Second, it is grounded in an approach that serves to stimulate cooperative learning based on peer developed content. Moreover, the use of this medium can be applied to other health promotion activities such as violence/harm reduction and substance abuse prevention, upon reviews of songs for appropriate content. The authors contend that such an approach holds heuristic value in dealing with HIV/AIDS prevention among AA young adults. Additional testing of the intervention is warranted in the refinement of this innovative intervention.

  8. Evolution of a Nursing Model for Identifying Client Needs in a Disaster Shelter: A Case Study with the American Red Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Janice; Casey-Lockyer, Mary

    2016-12-01

    From the time of Clara Barton, Red Cross nursing has had a key role in the care and support of persons affected by disasters in the United States. Hurricane Katrina and other events brought to light the need for a shelter model that was inclusive of the whole community, including persons with disabilities, at-risk and vulnerable populations, and children. From an intake process to a nursing model for assessment, an evidence-guided process informed a systematic approach for a registered nurse-led model of care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Native American medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K

    1998-11-01

    This article summarizes common principles, practices, and ethics of Native American healing, the traditional medicine of North America. Native American healing, spirituality, culture, and, in modern times, political, social, and economic concerns are closely intertwined. Intuition and spiritual awareness are a healer's most essential diagnostic tools. Therapeutic methods include prayer, music, ritual purification, herbalism, massage, ceremony, and personal innovations of individual healers. A community of friends, family, and helpers often participate in the healing intervention and help to alleviate the alienation caused by disease. A healthy patient has a healthy relationship with his or her community and, ultimately, with the greater community of nature known as "All Relations." The goal of Native American healing is to find wholeness, balance, harmony, beauty, and meaning. "Healing," making whole, is as important as curing disease; at times they are identical.

  10. North American refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osten, James; Haltmaier, Susan

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the current status of the North American refining industry, and considers the North American economy and the growth in demand in the petroleum industry, petroleum product demand and quality, crude oil upgrading to meet product standards, and changes in crude oil feedstocks such as the use of heavier crudes and bitumens. Refining expansion, the declining profits in refining, and changes due to environmental standards are discussed. The Gross Domestic Product and oil demand for the USA, Canada, Mexico, and Venezuela for the years 1995-2020 are tabulated

  11. Mesoscale modeling of Central American smoke transport to the United States: 1. ``Top-down'' assessment of emission strength and diurnal variation impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Christopher, Sundar A.; Nair, U. S.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Prins, Elaine M.; Szykman, James; Hand, Jenny L.

    2006-03-01

    As is typical in the Northern Hemisphere spring, during 20 April to 21 May 2003, significant biomass burning smoke from Central America was transported to the southeastern United States (SEUS). A coupled aerosol, radiation, and meteorology model that is built upon the heritage of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), having newly developed capabilities of Assimilation and Radiation Online Modeling of Aerosols (AROMA) algorithm, was used to simulate the smoke transport and quantify the smoke radiative impacts on surface energetics, boundary layer, and other atmospheric processes. This paper, the first of a two-part series, describes the model and examines the ability of RAMS-AROMA to simulate the smoke transport. Because biomass-burning fire activities have distinct diurnal variations, the FLAMBE hourly smoke emission inventory that is derived from the geostationary satellite (GOES) fire products was assimilated into the model. In the "top-down" analysis, ground-based observations were used to evaluate the model performance, and the comparisons with model-simulated results were used to estimate emission uncertainties. Qualitatively, a 30-day simulation of smoke spatial distribution as well as the timing and location of the smoke fronts are consistent with those identified from the PM2.5 observation network, local air quality reports, and the measurements of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and aerosol vertical profiles from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) site in Oklahoma. Quantitatively, the model-simulated daily mean near-surface dry smoke mass correlates well with PM2.5 mass at 34 locations in Texas and with the total carbon mass and nonsoil potassium mass (KNON) at three IMPROVE sites along the smoke pathway (with linear correlation coefficients R = 0.77, 0.74, and 0.69 at the significance level larger than 0.99, respectively). The top-down sensitivity analysis indicates that the total smoke particle emission

  12. The Large-scale Coronal Structure of the 2017 August 21 Great American Eclipse: An Assessment of Solar Surface Flux Transport Model Enabled Predictions and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Dibyendu; Bhowmik, Prantika; Yeates, Anthony R.; Panda, Suman; Tarafder, Rajashik; Dash, Soumyaranjan

    2018-01-01

    On 2017 August 21, a total solar eclipse swept across the contiguous United States, providing excellent opportunities for diagnostics of the Sun’s corona. The Sun’s coronal structure is notoriously difficult to observe except during solar eclipses; thus, theoretical models must be relied upon for inferring the underlying magnetic structure of the Sun’s outer atmosphere. These models are necessary for understanding the role of magnetic fields in the heating of the corona to a million degrees and the generation of severe space weather. Here we present a methodology for predicting the structure of the coronal field based on model forward runs of a solar surface flux transport model, whose predicted surface field is utilized to extrapolate future coronal magnetic field structures. This prescription was applied to the 2017 August 21 solar eclipse. A post-eclipse analysis shows good agreement between model simulated and observed coronal structures and their locations on the limb. We demonstrate that slow changes in the Sun’s surface magnetic field distribution driven by long-term flux emergence and its evolution governs large-scale coronal structures with a (plausibly cycle-phase dependent) dynamical memory timescale on the order of a few solar rotations, opening up the possibility for large-scale, global corona predictions at least a month in advance.

  13. Weighted-delta-tracking for Monte Carlo particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, L.W.G.; Kotlyar, D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents an alteration to the Monte Carlo Woodcock tracking technique. • The alteration improves computational efficiency within regions of high absorbers. • The rejection technique is replaced by a statistical weighting mechanism. • The modified Woodcock method is shown to be faster than standard Woodcock tracking. • The modified Woodcock method achieves a lower variance, given a specified accuracy. - Abstract: Monte Carlo particle transport (MCPT) codes are incredibly powerful and versatile tools to simulate particle behavior in a multitude of scenarios, such as core/criticality studies, radiation protection, shielding, medicine and fusion research to name just a small subset applications. However, MCPT codes can be very computationally expensive to run when the model geometry contains large attenuation depths and/or contains many components. This paper proposes a simple modification to the Woodcock tracking method used by some Monte Carlo particle transport codes. The Woodcock method utilizes the rejection method for sampling virtual collisions as a method to remove collision distance sampling at material boundaries. However, it suffers from poor computational efficiency when the sample acceptance rate is low. The proposed method removes rejection sampling from the Woodcock method in favor of a statistical weighting scheme, which improves the computational efficiency of a Monte Carlo particle tracking code. It is shown that the modified Woodcock method is less computationally expensive than standard ray-tracing and rejection-based Woodcock tracking methods and achieves a lower variance, given a specified accuracy

  14. A modeling framework for integrated harvest and habitat management of North American waterfowl: Case-study of northern pintail metapopulation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Brady J.; Runge, M.C.; Devries, J.H.; Boomer, G.S.; Eadie, J.M.; Haukos, D.A.; Fleskes, J.P.; Koons, D.N.; Thogmartin, W.E.; Clark, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    We developed and evaluated the performance of a metapopulation model enabling managers to examine, for the first time, the consequences of alternative management strategies involving habitat conditions and hunting on both harvest opportunity and carrying capacity (i.e., equilibrium population size in the absence of harvest) for migratory waterfowl at a continental scale. Our focus is on the northern pintail (Anas acuta; hereafter, pintail), which serves as a useful model species to examine the potential for integrating waterfowl harvest and habitat management in North America. We developed submodel structure capturing important processes for pintail populations during breeding, fall migration, winter, and spring migration while encompassing spatial structure representing three core breeding areas and two core nonbreeding areas. A number of continental-scale predictions from our baseline parameterization (e.g., carrying capacity of 5.5 million, equilibrium population size of 2.9 million and harvest rate of 12% at maximum sustained yield [MSY]) were within 10% of those from the pintail harvest strategy under current use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. To begin investigating the interaction of harvest and habitat management, we examined equilibrium population conditions for pintail at the continental scale across a range of harvest rates while perturbing model parameters to represent: (1) a 10% increase in breeding habitat quality in the Prairie Pothole population (PR); and (2) a 10% increase in nonbreeding habitat quantity along in the Gulf Coast (GC). Based on our model and analysis, a greater increase in carrying capacity and sustainable harvest was seen when increasing a proxy for habitat quality in the Prairie Pothole population. This finding and underlying assumptions must be critically evaluated, however, before specific management recommendations can be made. To make such recommendations, we require (1) extended, refined submodels with additional

  15. Music plus Music Integration: A Model for Music Education Policy Reform That Reflects the Evolution and Success of Arts Integration Practices in 21st Century American Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scripp, Lawrence; Gilbert, Josh

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the special case of integrative teaching and learning in music as a model for 21st century music education policy reform based on the principles that have evolved out of arts integration research and practices over the past century and informed by the recent rising tide of evidence of music's impact on brain capacity and…

  16. Paleoclimatic modeling and phylogeography of least killifish, Heterandria formosa: insights into Pleistocene expansion-contraction dynamics and evolutionary history of North American Coastal Plain freshwater biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Justin C; Sandel, Michael; Travis, Joseph; Lozano-Vilano, María de Lourdes; Johnson, Jerald B

    2013-10-09

    Climatic and sea-level fluctuations throughout the last Pleistocene glacial cycle (~130-0 ka) profoundly influenced present-day distributions and genetic diversity of Northern Hemisphere biotas by forcing range contractions in many species during the glacial advance and allowing expansion following glacial retreat ('expansion-contraction' model). Evidence for such range dynamics and refugia in the unglaciated Gulf-Atlantic Coastal Plain stems largely from terrestrial species, and aquatic species Pleistocene responses remain relatively uninvestigated. Heterandria formosa, a wide-ranging regional endemic, presents an ideal system to test the expansion-contraction model within this biota. By integrating ecological niche modeling and phylogeography, we infer the Pleistocene history of this livebearing fish (Poeciliidae) and test for several predicted distributional and genetic effects of the last glaciation. Paleoclimatic models predicted range contraction to a single southwest Florida peninsula refugium during the Last Glacial Maximum, followed by northward expansion. We inferred spatial-population subdivision into four groups that reflect genetic barriers outside this refuge. Several other features of the genetic data were consistent with predictions derived from an expansion-contraction model: limited intraspecific divergence (e.g. mean mtDNA p-distance = 0.66%); a pattern of mtDNA diversity (mean Hd = 0.934; mean π = 0.007) consistent with rapid, recent population expansion; a lack of mtDNA isolation-by-distance; and clinal variation in allozyme diversity with higher diversity at lower latitudes near the predicted refugium. Statistical tests of mismatch distributions and coalescent simulations of the gene tree lent greater support to a scenario of post-glacial expansion and diversification from a single refugium than to any other model examined (e.g. multiple-refugia scenarios). Congruent results from diverse data indicate H. formosa fits the classic Pleistocene

  17. American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... combined with facial expressions and postures of the body. It is the primary language of many North Americans who are deaf and ... their eyebrows, widening their eyes, and tilting their bodies forward. Just as with other languages, specific ways of expressing ideas in ASL vary ...

  18. American Housing Survey (AHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment and Payroll Survey of Business Owners Work from Home Our statistics highlight trends in household statistics from multiple surveys. Data Tools & Apps Main American FactFinder Census Business Builder My Classification Codes (i.e., NAICS) Economic Census Economic Indicators Economic Studies Industry Statistics

  19. Chagas Disease (American trypanosomiasis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets/detail/chagas-disease-(american-trypanosomiasis)","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... capacities, focusing on: strengthening world epidemiological surveillance and information systems; preventing transmission by blood transfusion and organ ...

  20. The American Oyster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Nancy E.

    The Maryland Marine Science Education Project has produced a series of mini-units in marine science education for the junior high/middle school classroom. This unit focuses on the American oyster. Although the unit specifically treats the Chesapeake Bay, it may be adapted for use with similar estuarine systems. In addition, the unit may be…

  1. American Indian Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Feather, Gerald

    With the emergence of reservation based community colleges (th Navajo Community College and the Dakota Community Colleges), the American Indian people, as decision makers in these institutions, are providing Indians with the technical skills and cultural knowledge necessary for self-determination. Confronted with limited numbers of accredited…

  2. Gifted European American Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Margie K.; Perkins, Carol O.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes factors affecting the achievement of 15 highly accomplished European American women in the fields of business, higher education, and law and government. Findings indicate participants tended to attribute their success to external factors while simultaneously employing proactive strategies to overcome potential barriers.…

  3. Depression and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have insurance or can’t afford treatment, your community may have publicly-funded mental health centers or programs that charge you according to ... how he found healing in an African American community. Other Resources ... Institute of Mental Health Phone Number: 301-443-4513 Toll Free Number: ...

  4. American Dream / Anu Raat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raat, Anu

    2010-01-01

    Uuritakse sõnapaari "American dream" tähendust, kuidas ja millal see unelmalugu tekkis, miks see on ameerikalik nähtus, samuti 1950-ndate moeloomingut, eriti Christian Diori oma Euroopas ja Ameerikas, selle põhjusi ja mõjusid seoses massilise tarbimisega

  5. American Holidays and Festivals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯凌

    2002-01-01

    One of the interesting things to learn about a country is to know different kinds of holidays and festivals its people celebrate(庆祝) and to tell why they celebrate them. Although there are some similarities(相似) between American and Chinese holidays and festivals, there are quite a few differences.

  6. Americans with Disabilities Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaesberg, Mary Ann; Murray, Kenneth T.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a 35-item checklist of practical activities for school district compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The checklist is based on ADA statutes, other civil rights legislation and litigation, as well as pertinent regulations and the legislative history of the act contained in the Congressional Record. (MLF)

  7. The Native American Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Russell

    1989-01-01

    Describes the American Indian "Holocaust," decimation of Indian populations following European discovery of the Americas. European and African diseases, warfare with Europeans, and genocide reduced native populations from 75 million to only a few million. Discusses population statistics and demographic effects of epidemics, continuing infection,…

  8. Grant Wood: "American Gothic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  9. Hispanic American Volunteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Josue; Safrit, R. Dale

    2001-01-01

    Hispanic Americans in Cleveland, Ohio were interviewed about volunteerism. Six themes were identified: (1) influence of family and friends; (2) importance of volunteering to benefit youth; (3) importance of church and religious beliefs; (4) volunteering as a requirement; (5) connections between volunteerism and the community; and (6) personal…

  10. Civic Innovation & American Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirianni, Carmen; Friedland, Lewis

    1997-01-01

    Argues that American democracy is at a critical stage of development, with declining trust in government, citizens feeling displaced by a professional political class, derailed public interest, and policy that limits citizen deliberation and responsibility. Some instances of civic innovation, community organization, civic journalism, and efforts…

  11. American Porphyria Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nicole Castelano Gregary Edwards Megan Parrish ~ How the dog I didn't want became the dog I'd always dreamed of Darnisha Davenport Liz ... or through the site for commercial or public purposes. The American Porphyria Foundation (APF) Tax Forms 990 ...

  12. Asian Americans and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The communities that constitute the racialized category of Asian Americans consist of approximately 20 million people in the United States, or about 5% of the total population. About 20% or 4 million are of primary or secondary school age, and over 1.1 million are in higher education. Both in popular and academic discourse, "Asian…

  13. American Lung Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... see if you should get screened. Learn more EDUCATION ADVOCACY RESEARCH Our vision is a world free of lung disease The American Lung Association is ... by lung disease. Help us continue to deliver education, advocacy and research to those who need it. $250 $100 $50 Your best gift Donate now Learn More ... nonprofit software

  14. Native American Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabokov, Peter; Easton, Robert

    This book presents building traditions of the major Indian tribes in nine regions of the North American continent, from the huge, plankhouse villages of the Northwest Coast, to the moundbuilder towns and temples of the Southeast, to the Navajo hogans and adobe pueblos of the Southwest. Indian buildings are a central element of Indian culture, the…

  15. Anger Suppression, Interdependent Self-Construal, and Depression among Asian American and European American College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.; Park, Irene J. K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study tested a theoretical model of emotion regulation (Yap, Sheeber, & Allen, 2007) in a sample of Asian American and European American college students (N = 365). Specifically, the mediating role of anger suppression in the effect of temperament and family processes on depressive symptoms was tested across race and levels of interdependent self-construal (a culturally based self orientation emphasizing connectedness with others). Next, the moderation of the suppression—depressio...

  16. A Call-Put Duality for Perpetual American Options

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonsi, Aurélien; Jourdain, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    International audience; It is well known that in models with time-homogeneous local volatility functions and constant interest and dividend rates, the European Put prices are transformed into European Call prices by the simultaneous exchanges of the interest and dividend rates and of the strike and spot price of the underlying. This paper investigates such a Call Put duality for perpetual American options. It turns out that the perpetual American Put price is equal to the perpetual American C...

  17. The American University of Beirut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø

    2016-01-01

    with American society through its board of trustees. American civil society has been a major financial partner since the missionary days to modern day foundation philanthropy. American business has supported the university and recruited its graduates. American government has supported the university financially...... and politically. The chapter compares the transnational relations of the AUB, the other classical American overseas universities with missionary roots in the Middle East (AUC and LAU), the more than 20 American higher education institutions founded in China around 1900 (which did not survive the Korean War...

  18. Discipline behaviors of Chinese American and European American mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulei, Elaine; Zevenbergen, Andrea A; Jacobs, Sue C

    2006-09-01

    In any society, parenting beliefs are a reflection of that society's cultural values and traditions (J. U. Ogbu, 1981). Verbosity, a parenting behavior considered dysfunctional in European American culture, may not be problematic in Chinese culture. The authors recruited 31 Chinese American and 30 European American mothers and used questionnaires to measure parenting behaviors and child behavior problems. The Chinese American mothers also completed a questionnaire assessing their acculturation level. The Chinese American mothers had higher levels of verbosity than did the European American mothers; however, there were no differences between the groups in child behavior problems. The results also revealed higher levels of laxness in the Chinese American mothers compared to the European American mothers. Acculturation level did not predict verbosity or laxness levels. Results suggest that the effectiveness of a parenting style should be defined relative to cultural context.

  19. Pathway to a paradigm: the linear nonthreshold dose-response model in historical context. The American Academy of Health Physics 1995 Radiology Centennial Hartman Oration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathren, R L

    1996-05-01

    This paper traces the evolution of the linear nonthreshold dose-response model and its acceptance as a paradigm in radiation protection practice and risk analysis. Deterministic effects such as skin burns and even deep tissue trauma were associated with excessive exposure to x rays shortly after their discovery, and carcinogenicity was observed as early as 1902. Still, it was not until 1925 that the first protective limits were suggested. For three decades these limits were based on the concept of a tolerance dose which, if not exceeded, would result in no demonstrable harm to the individual and implicitly assumed a threshold dose below which radiation effects would be absent. After World War II, largely because of genetic concerns related to atmospheric weapons testing, radiation protection dose limits were expressed in terms of a risk based maximum permissible dose which clearly implied no threshold. The 1927 discovery by Muller of x-ray induced genetic mutations in fruit flies, linear with dose and with no apparent threshold, was an important underpinning of the standards. The linear nonthreshold dose-response model was originally used to provide an upper limit estimate of the risk, with zero being the lower limit, of low level irradiation since the dose-response curve could not be determined at low dose levels. Evidence to the contrary such as hormesis and the classic studies of the radium dial painters notwithstanding, the linear nonthreshold model gained greater acceptance and in the centennial year of the discovery of x rays stands as a paradigm although serious questions are beginning to be raised regarding its general applicability. The work includes a brief digression describing the work of x-ray protection pioneer William Rollins and concludes with a recommendation for application of a de minimis dose level in radiation protection.

  20. Asian American Career Development: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Nadya A.; Kantamneni, Neeta; Smothers, Melissa K.; Chen, Yung-Lung; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Terry, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This study used a modified version of consensual qualitative research design to examine how contextual, cultural, and personal variables influence the career choices of a diverse group of 12 Asian Americans. Seven domains of influences on career choices emerged including family, culture, external factors, career goals, role models, work values,…

  1. Analyzing Economic Attainment Patterns of Foreign Born Latin American Male Immigrants to The United States: an Example Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Gotcher

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research which examines and endeavors to account for variation in the economic attainments of immigrants to the United States from Latin America, through the use of Hierarchical Linear Modeling. When analyzing this variation, researchers typically choose between two competing explanations. Human capital theory contends that variation in economic attainment is a product of different characteristics of individuals. Social capital theory contends that variation in economic attainment is a product of differences in characteristics of the societies from which the workers come. The author's central thesis is that we need not choose between human and social capital theories, that we can rely on both theoretical approaches, that it is an empirical and not a theoretical question how much variation can be explained by one set of factors versus the other. The real problem then is to build an appropriate methodology that allows us to partition the variation in economic attainments, identifying how much is explained by individual and how much by group characteristics. Using a multi-level modeling technique, this research presents such a methodology.

  2. Modelling spatial concordance between Rocky Mountain spotted fever disease incidence and habitat probability of its vector Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Samuel F; Sarkar, Sahotra; Aviña, Aldo; Schuermann, Jim A; Williamson, Phillip

    2012-11-01

    The spatial distribution of Dermacentor variabilis, the most commonly identified vector of the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii which causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) in humans, and the spatial distribution of RMSF, have not been previously studied in the south central United States of America, particularly in Texas. From an epidemiological perspective, one would tend to hypothesise that there would be a high degree of spatial concordance between the habitat suitability for the tick and the incidence of the disease. Both maximum-entropy modelling of the tick's habitat suitability and spatially adaptive filters modelling of the human incidence of RMSF disease provide reliable portrayals of the spatial distributions of these phenomenons. Even though rates of human cases of RMSF in Texas and rates of Dermacentor ticks infected with Rickettsia bacteria are both relatively low in Texas, the best data currently available allows a preliminary indication that the assumption of high levels of spatial concordance would not be correct in Texas (Kappa coefficient of agreement = 0.17). It will take substantially more data to provide conclusive findings, and to understand the results reported here, but this study provides an approach to begin understanding the discrepancy.

  3. Modelling spatial concordance between Rocky Mountain spotted fever disease incidence and habitat probability of its vector Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel F. Atkinson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of Dermacentor variabilis, the most commonly identified vector of the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii which causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF in humans, and the spatial distribution of RMSF, have not been previously studied in the south central United States of America, particularly in Texas. From an epidemiological perspective, one would tend to hypothesise that there would be a high degree of spatial concordance between the habitat suitability for the tick and the incidence of the disease. Both maximum-entropy modelling of the tick’s habitat suitability and spatially adaptive filters modelling of the human incidence of RMSF disease provide reliable portrayals of the spatial distributions of these phenomenons. Even though rates of human cases of RMSF in Texas and rates of Dermacentor ticks infected with Rickettsia bacteria are both relatively low in Texas, the best data currently available allows a preliminary indication that the assumption of high levels of spatial concordance would not be correct in Texas (Kappa coefficient of agreement = 0.17. It will take substantially more data to provide conclusive findings, and to understand the results reported here, but this study provides an approach to begin understanding the discrepancy.

  4. An American Paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the paradox that while Americans generally identify themselves as environmentalists, they show little willingness to voluntarily restrain their behavior or to support specific fiscal policies that would result in increased levels of environmental protection. I explore the role of values in the explanation of this paradox, and discuss some of the difficulties involved in studying values and their role in human behavior

  5. Improving American Innovation,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    Why has Jap~m succeeded: western technology and the Japanese ethos. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982. (NC 462 MO634 Norman , Colin...productivity growth. Review of Economics and Statistics 64:627-34, N~ovember 1982. Smith, G. W. and W. N. Smallwood . Preparing for breakthroughs: the rewards of...recommendations. Edited by Charles E. Larsen and WI. Novis Smith. Washington: American Chemical Society, 1980. Kobert, Norman . Agressivn management style

  6. American Studies in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Antsyferova, Olga

    2006-01-01

    Interest in the USA, both general and specifically academic, has always existed in Russia, with its own ups and downs. But American studies as an academic discipline started gaining its popularity probably after WWII when there sporadically started to emerge the ever-increasing number of academic books, articles and dissertations in literary and historical research on the USA, the main centers of which were founded at the Academic Research Institute of the USA and Canada, headed by academicia...

  7. Rediscovering Interwar American Theorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    background, influences , and influence . It illuminates Robinson’s efforts to account for factors associated with an American citizen -army and the... influences , and assessing their influence on doctrine and leaders of the Second World War. Additionally, this paper contains recommendations to improve the...addresses this gap by analyzing the theories of Brigadier General William K. Naylor and Colonel Oliver P. Robinson, examining their influences , and

  8. History of Latin American Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Browman

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available Two recent contributions (Oyuela-Caycedo 1994 and Politis 1995 to analyses of the intellectual development of archaeology in Latin America provide us with new perspectives. A theme shared by both is the perception by the authors of a need to distance the development of archaeology in Latin American countries from the overweening influence of Europe and especially U. S. archaeologists. Politis argues that U.S. influence has been tantamount to 'cultural imperialism' (1995:226. He sees U.S. archaeologists as having a history of appropriating and manipulating the knowledge of the past which ignores the local peoples own traditional perceptions of their patrimony, and argues that the U.S. perspective is designed to satisfy the needs of western scholarship but fails to enter a dialog with the legitimate concerns of the subject countries. Oyuela·Caycedo's introductory essay in his book "Nationalism and Archaeology" carries a very similar message. He faults U.S. archaeologists for failing to locate their studies in the areas social and local context, which he sees as leading the U.S. scholars to employ a model derived from "dependency theory" (1994:5, resulting in an overly simplistic perception of the context for the development of archaeological disciplines in respective Latin American countries.

  9. A Native American Theatre Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kent R.

    1973-01-01

    The ceremonial rituals American Indians have practiced for centuries are uncontestable testimony to how strongly they respond to theatre. These rituals, a pure and functional form of dramatic art, are practiced today by a Native American theater group. (FF)

  10. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  11. Asian American Health - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Asian American Health URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Asian American Health - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  12. Future considerations for clinical dermatology in the setting of 21st century American policy reform: The Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act and Alternative Payment Models in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, John S; Miller, Jeffrey J; Nguyen, Harrison P; Forman, Howard P; Bolognia, Jean L; VanBeek, Marta J

    2017-06-01

    With the introduction of the Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act, clinicians who are not eligible for an exemption must choose to participate in 1 of 2 new reimbursement models: the Merit-based Incentive Payment System or Alternative Payment Models (APMs). Although most dermatologists are expected to default into the Merit-based Incentive Payment System, some may have an interest in exploring APMs, which have associated financial incentives. However, for dermatologists interested in the APM pathway, there are currently no options other than joining a qualifying Accountable Care Organization, which make up only a small subset of Accountable Care Organizations overall. As a result, additional APMs relevant to dermatologists are needed to allow those interested in the APMs to explore this pathway. Fortunately, the Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act establishes a process for new APMs to be approved and the creation of bundled payments for skin diseases may represent an opportunity to increase the number of APMs available to dermatologists. In this article, we will provide a detailed review of APMs under the Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act and discuss the development and introduction of APMs as they pertain to dermatology. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Critical Care Delivery: The Importance of Process of Care and ICU Structure to Improved Outcomes: An Update From the American College of Critical Care Medicine Task Force on Models of Critical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weled, Barry J; Adzhigirey, Lana A; Hodgman, Tudy M; Brilli, Richard J; Spevetz, Antoinette; Kline, Andrea M; Montgomery, Vicki L; Puri, Nitin; Tisherman, Samuel A; Vespa, Paul M; Pronovost, Peter J; Rainey, Thomas G; Patterson, Andrew J; Wheeler, Derek S

    2015-07-01

    In 2001, the Society of Critical Care Medicine published practice model guidelines that focused on the delivery of critical care and the roles of different ICU team members. An exhaustive review of the additional literature published since the last guideline has demonstrated that both the structure and process of care in the ICU are important for achieving optimal patient outcomes. Since the publication of the original guideline, several authorities have recognized that improvements in the processes of care, ICU structure, and the use of quality improvement science methodologies can beneficially impact patient outcomes and reduce costs. Herein, we summarize findings of the American College of Critical Care Medicine Task Force on Models of Critical Care: 1) An intensivist-led, high-performing, multidisciplinary team dedicated to the ICU is an integral part of effective care delivery; 2) Process improvement is the backbone of achieving high-quality ICU outcomes; 3) Standardized protocols including care bundles and order sets to facilitate measurable processes and outcomes should be used and further developed in the ICU setting; and 4) Institutional support for comprehensive quality improvement programs as well as tele-ICU programs should be provided.

  14. Topic Modeling of Smoking- and Cessation-Related Posts to the American Cancer Society's Cancer Survivor Network (CSN): Implications for Cessation Treatment for Cancer Survivors Who Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmaas, J Lee; McDonald, Bennett R; Portier, Kenneth M

    2017-08-01

    Smoking is a risk factor in at least 18 cancers, and approximately two-thirds of cancer survivors continue smoking following diagnosis. Text mining of survivors' online posts related to smoking and quitting could inform strategies to reduce smoking in this vulnerable population. We identified posts containing smoking/cessation-related keywords from the Cancer Survivors Network (CSN), an online cancer survivor community of 166 000 members and over 468 000 posts since inception. Unsupervised topic model analysis of posts since 2000 using Latent Dirichlet Allocation extracted 70 latent topics which two subject experts inspected for themes based on representative terms. Posterior analysis assessed the distribution of topics within posts, and the range of themes discussed across posts. Less than 1% of posts (n = 3998) contained smoking/cessation-related terms, and covered topics related to cancer diagnoses, treatments, and coping. The most frequent smoking-related topics were quit smoking methods (5.4% of posts), and the environment for quitters (2.9% of posts), such as the stigma associated with being a smoker diagnosed with cancer and lack of empathy experienced compared to nonsmokers. Smoking as a risk factor for one's diagnosis was a primary topic in only 1.7% of smoking/cessation-related posts. The low frequency of smoking/cessation-related posts may be due to expected criticism/stigma for smoking but may also suggests a need for health care providers to address smoking and assist with quitting in the diagnostic and treatment process. Topic model analysis revealed potential barriers that should be addressed in devising clinical or population-level interventions for cancer survivors who smoke. Although smoking is a major risk factor for cancer, little is known about cancer patients' or survivors' views or concerns about smoking and quitting. This study used text mining of posts to an online community of cancer patients and survivors to investigate contexts in which

  15. Numerical simulation of "an American haboob"

    OpenAIRE

    Vukovic, A.; Vujadinovic, M.; Pejanovic, G.; Andric, J.; Kumjian, M. R.; Djurdjevic, V.; Dacic, M.; Prasad, A. K.; El-Askary, H. M.; Paris, B. C.; Petkovic, S.; Nickovic, S.; Sprigg, W. A.

    2014-01-01

    A dust storm of fearful proportions hit Phoenix in the early evening hours of 5 July 2011. This storm, an American haboob, was predicted hours in advance because numerical, land–atmosphere modeling, computing power and remote sensing of dust events have improved greatly over the past decade. High-resolution numerical models are required for accurate simulation of the small scales of the haboob process, with high velocity surface winds produced by strong convection and severe...

  16. Social Skills Efficacy and Proactivity among Native American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sherri L.; Conkel, Julia L.; Reich, Allison N.; Trotter, Michelle J.; Siewart, Jason J.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses Native American urban adolescents' construal of social skills, and relationships between these skills and proactivity behaviors as identified in the Integrative Contextual Model of Career Development (Lapan, 2004). Recommendations that build upon the social skills strengths of Native American young people are included.…

  17. School Climate, Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms among Asian American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cixin; Atwal, Kavita

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined a multidimensional, developmental, and transactional model for depressive symptoms among Asian American adolescents using longitudinal data from 1,664 Asian American adolescents in the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). Specifically, the relationships among school climate, acculturation, perceived…

  18. American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACD AACD 2018: A Masterpiece of Comprehensive Cosmetic Dentistry Education 34th Annual Scientific Session | April 18-21 ... 222.9540 Contact Us © 2017American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry (AACD) © 2017American Academy ...

  19. American Food and World Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarra, Fred R.; Long, Cathryn J., Eds.

    1983-01-01

    Describes activities to help students in grades 7-9 learn about American food production and distribution. Students learn about the American diet over the centuries; the production of American Corn; the meaning of the term hunger; and the need for protein. (CS)

  20. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  1. Facts about American Indian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Indian College Fund, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As a result of living in remote rural areas, American Indians living on reservations have limited access to higher education. One-third of American Indians live on reservations, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. According to the most recent U.S. government statistics, the overall poverty rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives, including…

  2. Native American Ceremonial Athletic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    This is a report on the relationship of North American Indian athletic games to ceremonies. Data for this investigation were researched from 48 "Annual Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution" published from 1881 to 1933, and the 84 volumes of the "American Anthropologist" published from 1888 to 1974. Observational…

  3. Lincoln’s Image in the American Schoolbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Goldfield

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abraham Lincoln's image in American school books has reflected the shifting political and social landscape of American society. Following Lincoln's assassination in 1865, textbooks for the next half century portrayed him as a martyr for a mostly evangelical Protestant nation and as a role model for African Americans. The centennial of Lincoln's birth in 1909 and the massive immigration during the first two decades of the twentieth century broadened the image of Lincoln in textbooks as a common man and an inspiration for American diversity.

  4. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Baharian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.

  5. Cytomegalovirus Infections among African-Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Best Al M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since African-Americans have twice the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV infections as age-matched Caucasians we sought to determine the ages and possible sources of infection of African-American children. Methods Subjects were 157 African-American healthy children and adolescents and their 113 household adults in Richmond VA. Families completed a questionnaire, provided saliva for antibody testing, and adolescents were interviewed regarding sexual activity. Results Regardless of age CMV seropositivity was not associated with gender, breast feeding, health insurance, sexual activity, or household income, education, or size. In the final regression model, prior CMV infection in adults was over two-fold higher than in children (chi-square = 18.8, p Conclusion We observed that African-American children had CMV seroprevalence rates by age 20 years at less than one-half of that of their adult mothers and caregivers. Sibling-to-sibling transmission was a likely source of CMV infections for the children. The next generation of African-American women may be highly susceptible to a primary CMV infection during pregnancy and may benefit from a CMV vaccine.

  6. History of Asian American psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T L; Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-10-01

    An overview of the history of Asian American psychology is provided by reviewing the context for the development of the field as well as the early founding of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). The presidents of AAPA as well as key events and conferences are noted. The involvement of AAPA leaders in national mental health policies and activities are reviewed. The substantive areas of Asian American psychology and the education and training of Asian American psychologists are also discussed. The article ends with some comments about the future of Asian American psychology. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. The american dental dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The American Dental Dream-the cultural desire for straight, white teeth-is difficult, if not impossible, for poor and working-class people to achieve. Using ethnographic fiction, autoethnography, poetry, and qualitative interviewing, I brush away the taken-for-granted assumptions about teeth. I explore the personal, relational, and structural consequences of this cultural desire, and show how social class writes itself on our bodies. I write these culture-centered teeth tales to show how one might cope with their teeth.

  8. Differences in knowledge of breast cancer screening among African American, Arab American, and Latina women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Karen Patricia; Mabiso, Athur; Todem, David; Hammad, Adnan; Hill-Ashford, Yolanda; Hamade, Hiam; Palamisono, Gloria; Robinson-Lockett, Murlisa; Zambrana, Ruth E

    2011-01-01

    We examined differences in knowledge and socioeconomic factors associated with 3 types of breast cancer screening (breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammogram) among African American, Arab, and Latina women. Community health workers used a community-based intervention to recruit 341 women (112 Arab, 113 Latina, and 116 African American) in southeastern Michigan to participate in a breast cancer prevention intervention from August through October 2006. Before and after the intervention, women responded to a previously validated 5-item multiple-choice test on breast cancer screening (possible score range: 0 to 5) in their language of preference (English, Spanish, or Arabic). We used generalized estimating equations to analyze data and to account for family-level and individual correlations. Although African American women knew more about breast cancer screening at the baseline (pretest median scores were 4 for African American, 3 for Arab and 3 for Latina women), all groups significantly increased their knowledge after participating in the breast cancer prevention intervention (posttest median scores were 5 for African American and 4 for Arab and Latina women). Generalized estimating equations models show that Arab and Latina women made the most significant gains in posttest scores (P American, Arab, and Latina women to promote adherence to breast cancer screening guidelines.

  9. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2015, 240, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 60% more ...

  10. North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM) [12 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM) is one of the major regional weather forecast models run by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction...

  11. President Ford and both the Soviet and American ASTP crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    President Gerald R. Ford removes the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft model from a model set depicting the 1975 Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), an Earth orbital docking and rendezvous mission with crewmen from the U.S. and USSR. From left to right, Vladamir A. Shatalov, Chief, Cosmonaut training; Valeriy N. Kubasov, ASTP Soviet engineer; Aleksey A. Leonov, ASTP Soviet crew commander; Thomas P. Stafford, commander of the American crew; Donald K. Slayton, American docking module pilot; Vance D. Brand, command module pilot for the American crew. Dr. George M Low, Deputy Administrator for NASA is partially obscured behind President Ford.

  12. North American Natural Gas Markets. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group`s findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  13. Paul Graham, American Night

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Bernard

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Le photographe britannique Paul Graham (1956- ne jouit pas encore en France de la notoriété de son compatriote Martin Parr et on ne peut, par conséquent, que se féliciter de voir l’une de ses plus puissantes séries — American Night — représentée à la Galerie Les Filles du Calvaire.Connu, avec Parr, pour avoir profondément influencé la photo documentaire anglaise en la faisant passer à la couleur avec virulence, Graham a été révélé il y a une vingtaine d’années par une série d’images prises à...

  14. American Nations, Latin States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nelson Ahumada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The nation, as artifact of modernity, assumes particularities in America such as the colonization and genocide of original peoples which still weighs as a never ending comeback. Nevertheless, capital, with its overwhelming force, destroyed peoples, cultures, traditions and landscapes. Latin America faces the challenge of uniting beyond the necessities of capital, and beyond two languages, spanish and portuguese. All of which has full validity at present with the blocks UNASUR and ALBA. Ethnocentricity is postulated as the exclusive condition of all possible humanity and, as programme, racism without races; Latin American miscegenation, as the potential for unity and the strength of emancipation as a project. Our intellectuals, who constructed a unique and superlative literature, are the lighthouses in the development of a nationalism without races. Anthropology in debate with psychoanalysis can become a compass in rethinking our America.

  15. Anger Suppression, Interdependent Self-Construal, and Depression among Asian American and European American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.; Park, Irene J. K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study tested a theoretical model of emotion regulation (Yap, Sheeber, & Allen, 2007) in a sample of Asian American and European American college students (N = 365). Specifically, the mediating role of anger suppression in the effect of temperament and family processes on depressive symptoms was tested across race and levels of interdependent self-construal (a culturally based self orientation emphasizing connectedness with others). Next, the moderation of the suppression—depression relation was tested by race and interdependent self-construal. Results indicated that the hypothesized model fit well across Asian American and European American students as well as those with high vs. low levels of interdependent self-construal. Anger suppression was a significant mediator of the hypothesized indirect effects on depressive symptoms. Moreover, race and interdependent self-construal moderated the suppression—depression link, such that Asian American status and a stronger interdependent self-construal attenuated the relation between anger suppression and depressive symptoms. Understanding both universal and culture-specific aspects of emotion regulation in the development of depressive symptoms will be essential for sound theory, future research, and effective prevention and intervention efforts across diverse populations. PMID:21058815

  16. Anger suppression, interdependent self-construal, and depression among Asian American and European American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Rebecca Y M; Park, Irene J K

    2010-10-01

    The present study tested a theoretical model of emotion regulation (Yap, Sheeber, & Allen, 2007) in a sample of Asian American and European American college students (N = 365). Specifically, the mediating role of anger suppression in the effect of temperament and family processes on depressive symptoms was tested across race and levels of interdependent self-construal (a culturally based self orientation emphasizing connectedness with others). Next, the moderation of the suppression-depression relation was tested by race and interdependent self-construal. Results indicated that the hypothesized model fit well across Asian American and European American students, as well as those with high versus low levels of interdependent self-construal. Anger suppression was a significant mediator of the hypothesized indirect effects on depressive symptoms. Moreover, race and interdependent self-construal moderated the suppression-depression link, such that Asian American status and a stronger interdependent self-construal attenuated the relation between anger suppression and depressive symptoms. Understanding both universal and culture-specific aspects of emotion regulation in the development of depressive symptoms will be essential for sound theory, future research, and effective prevention and intervention efforts across diverse populations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Depression and Pain in Asian and White Americans With Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyochol; Weaver, Michael; Lyon, Debra; Choi, Eunyoung; Fillingim, Roger B

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have examined the underlying psychosocial mechanisms of pain in Asian Americans. Using the biopsychosocial model, we sought to determine whether variations in depression contribute to racial group differences in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis pain between Asian Americans and non-Hispanic white Americans. The sample consisted of 100 participants, including 50 Asian Americans (28 Korean Americans, 9 Chinese Americans, 7 Japanese Americans, 5 Filipino Americans, and 1 Indian American) and 50 age- and sex-matched non-Hispanic white Americans with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis pain. The Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was used to assess symptoms of depression, and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index and the Graded Chronic Pain Scale were used to measure clinical pain. In addition, quantitative sensory testing was used to measure experimental sensitivity to heat- and mechanically-induced pain. The results indicated that higher levels of depression in Asian Americans may contribute to greater clinical pain and experimental pain sensitivity. These findings add to the growing literature regarding ethnic and racial differences in pain and its associated psychological conditions, and additional research is warranted to strengthen these findings. This article shows the contribution of depression to clinical pain and experimental pain sensitivity in Asian Americans with knee osteoarthritis. Our results suggest that Asian Americans have higher levels of depressive symptoms and that depression plays a relevant role in greater clinical pain and experimental pain sensitivity in Asian Americans. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Associations between depression, distress tolerance, delay discounting, and alcohol-related problems in European American and African American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennhardt, Ashley A; Murphy, James G

    2011-12-01

    Although levels of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems are high in college students, there is significant variability in the number and type of problems experienced, even among students who drink heavily. African American students drink less and experience fewer alcohol-related problems than European American students, but are still at risk, and little research has investigated the potentially unique patterns and predictors of problems among these students. Depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting have been implicated in adult substance abuse and may be important predictors of alcohol problem severity among college students. We examined the relationship between these variables and alcohol-related problems among African American and European American students (N = 206; 53% female; 68% European American; 28% African American) who reported recent heavy drinking. In regression models that controlled for drinking level, depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting were associated with alcohol problems among African American students, but only depression was associated with alcohol problems among European American students. These results suggest that negative affect is a key risk factor for alcohol problems among college student drinkers. For African American students, the inability to tolerate negative emotions and to organize their behavior around future outcomes may also be especially relevant risk factors.

  19. Is There Really A North American Plate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krill, A.

    2011-12-01

    Lithospheric plates are typically identified from earthquake epicenters and evidence such as GPS movements. But no evidence indicates a plate boundary between the North American and South American Plates. Some plate maps show them separated by a transform boundary, but it is only a fracture zone. Other maps show an "undefined plate boundary" or put no boundary between these two plates (check Google images). Early plate maps showed a single large American Plate, quite narrow east of the Caribbean Plate (Le Pichon 1968, Morgan 1968). The North and South American Plates became established by the leading textbook Earth (Press & Siever 1974). On their map, from a Scientific American article by John Dewey (1972), these new plates were separated by an "uncertain plate boundary." The reasons for postulating a North American Plate were probably more psychological than geological. Each of the other continents of the world had its own plate, and North American geologists naturally wanted theirs. Similarly, European geographers used to view Europe as its own continent. A single large plate should again be hypothesized. But the term American Plate would now be ambiguous ("Which plate, North or South?") Perhaps future textbook authors could call it the "Two-American Plate." Textbook authors ultimately decide such global-tectonic matters. I became aware of textbook authors' opinions and influence from my research into the history of Alfred Wegener's continental drift (see Fixists vs. Mobilists by Krill 2011). Leading textbook author Charles Schuchert realized that continental drift would abolish his cherished paleogeographic models of large east-west continents (Eria, Gondwana) and small oceans (Poseiden, Nereis). He and his junior coauthors conspired to keep drift evidence out of their textbooks, from the 1934-editions until the 1969-editions (Physical Geology by Longwell et al. 1969, Historical Geology by Dunbar & Waage 1969). Their textbooks ruled in America. Textbooks

  20. "American Gothic" Revised: Positive Perceptions from a Young American Farmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joehl, Regan R.

    2008-01-01

    Grant Wood's "American Gothic," intended to represent the Depression Era, Midwestern farmer, has been regarded by many as the stereotypical representation of a true American farmer for decades. While this painting does represent farmers in the early part of the 20th century, the author feels obliged to say that it is time to drop this…

  1. Contact with the Dead, Religion, and Death Anxiety among Older Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Bastida, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if contact with the dead is associated with lower death anxiety among older Mexican Americans. The data come from a nationwide survey of older Mexican Americans (N = 1,005). The study model specifies that (a) older Mexican Americans who have experienced contact with the dead are more likely to see the…

  2. Confronting the lure of American tourism: modern accommodation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert de la Bruheze, Adri A.; Lundin, Per; Kaiserfeld, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    American ideals and models feature prominently in the master narrative of post-war European consumer societies. Some claim that the American way of life ultimately gained hegemony in Europe. The authors of this book assert that a crucial dimension is missing from the claim of American hegemony -

  3. Clark Kerr's Multiversity and Technology Transfer in the Modern American Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, Kristjan T.

    2013-01-01

    In the early 1960s, Clark Kerr, the famed American educationalist and architect of the California public higher education system, took up the task of describing the emergent model of the contemporary American university. Multiversities, as he called them, were the large powerful American universities that packaged the provision of undergraduate,…

  4. Preparedness of Chinese Students for American Culture and Communicating in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, Melody; Sue, Edna

    2013-01-01

    What Chinese students learn about American culture and the English language in the classrooms of China does not adequately prepare them for the reality of American culture and communication in English. In this study, the constructs of American culture and models of English language taught in Chinese classrooms are compared with the reality of…

  5. Can north american fish passage tools work for South american migratory fishes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rafael Mariano Baigún

    Full Text Available In North America, the Numerical Fish Surrogate (NFS is used to design fish bypass systems for emigrating juvenile salmon as they migrate from hatchery outfalls and rearing habitats to adult habitat in the oceans. The NFS is constructed of three linked modules: 1 a computational fluid dynamics model describes the complex flow fields upstream of dams at a scale sufficiently resolved to analyze, understand and forecast fish movement, 2 a particle tracking model interpolates hydraulic information from the fixed nodes of the computational fluid model mesh to multiple locations relevant to migrating fish, and 3 a behavior model simulates the cognition and behavior of individual fish in response to the fluid dynamics predicted by the computational fluid dynamics model. These three modules together create a virtual reality where virtual fish exhibit realistic dam approach behaviors and can be counted at dam exits in ways similar to the real world. Once calibrated and validated with measured fish movement and passage data, the NFS can accurately predict fish passage proportions with sufficient precision to allow engineers to select one optimum alternative from among many competing structural or operational bypass alternatives. Although South American fish species are different from North American species, it is likely that the basic computational architecture and numerical methods of the NFS can be used for fish conservation in South America. Consequently, the extensive investment made in the creation of the NFS need not be duplicated in South America. However, its use in South America will require that the behavioral response of the continent's unique fishes to hydrodynamic cues must be described, codified and tested before the NFS can be used to conserve fishes by helping design efficient South American bypass systems. To this end, we identify studies that could be used to describe the movement behavior of South American fishes of sufficient detail

  6. Metabolic Syndrome Risk Profiles Among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Lai, Betty S.; Brancati, Frederick L.; Golden, Sherita H.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although African American adolescents have the highest prevalence of obesity, they have the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome across all definitions used in previous research. To address this paradox, we sought to develop a model of the metabolic syndrome specific to African American adolescents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003–2010) of 822 nonpregnant, nondiabetic, African American adolescents (45% girls; aged 12 to 17 years) who underwent physical examinations and fasted at least 8 h were analyzed. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis to model metabolic syndrome and then used latent profile analysis to identify metabolic syndrome risk groups among African American adolescents. We compared the risk groups on probability of prediabetes. RESULTS The best-fitting metabolic syndrome model consisted of waist circumference, fasting insulin, HDL, and systolic blood pressure. We identified three metabolic syndrome risk groups: low, moderate, and high risk (19% boys; 16% girls). Thirty-five percent of both boys and girls in the high-risk groups had prediabetes, a significantly higher prevalence compared with boys and girls in the low-risk groups. Among adolescents with BMI higher than the 85th percentile, 48 and 36% of boys and girls, respectively, were in the high-risk group. CONCLUSIONS Our findings provide a plausible model of the metabolic syndrome specific to African American adolescents. Based on this model, approximately 19 and 16% of African American boys and girls, respectively, are at high risk for having the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23093663

  7. Rocket-Model Investigation of the Longitudinal Stability, Drag, and Duct Performance Characteristics of the North American MX-770 (X-10) Missile at Mach Numbers from 0.80 to 1.70

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Aleck C.; Swanson, Andrew G.

    1953-01-01

    A free-flight 0.12-scale rocket-boosted model of the North American MX-770 (X-10) missile has been tested in flight by the Pilotless Aircraft Research Division of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory. Drag, longitudinal stability, and duct performance data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.8 to 1.7 covering a Reynolds number range of about 9 x 10(exp 6) to 24 x 10(exp 6) based on wing mean aerodynamic chord. The lift-curve slope, static stability, and damping-in-pitch derivatives showed similar variations with Mach number, the parameters increasing from subsonic values in the transonic region and decreasing in the supersonic region. The variations were for the most part fairly smooth. The aerodynamic center of the configuration shifted rearward in the transonic region and moved forward gradually in the supersonic region. The pitching effectiveness of the canard control surfaces was maintained throughout the flight speed range, the supersonic values being somewhat greater than the subsonic. Trim values of angle of attack and lift coefficient changed abruptly in the transonic region, the change being associated with variations in the out-of-trim pitching moment, control effectiveness, and aerodynamic-center travel in this speed range. Duct total-pressure recovery decreased with increase in free-stream Mach number and the values were somewhat less than normal-shock recovery. Minimum drag data indicated a supersonic drag coefficient about twice the subsonic drag coefficient and a drag-rise Mach number of approximately 0.90. Base drag was small subsonically but was about 25 percent of the minimum drag of the configuration supersonically.

  8. Teaching about American Federal Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Stephen L., Ed.

    Ten essays discuss federal democracy, the form of government of the United States. The first essay discusses the origins of American federalism. The second examines why we have a federal system, the functions federalism serves, and the consequences of federalism for the American political system. Federalism in the Constitution and constitutional…

  9. American uranium: Relic or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This article is a review of the American Uranium industry. Historical aspects are presented as the industry's history is outlined from the mid-1950's to the present day. Present capabilities are noted, as are a current comparison of American production costs vs. world costs. Future trends are analyzed

  10. Native American Foods and Cookery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…

  11. Family Values in American Drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joanne

    When an educator was invited by a Chinese university to teach a seminar in American drama, she used "family drama" as the organizing theme of her course because she was (and is) convinced that from Eugene O'Neill on, American playwrights have been obsessed with family disintegration and the failure of family harmony. This paper is an…

  12. American Samoa: Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, J. Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Conrad, Misty [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document outlines actions being taken to reduce American Samoa's petroleum consumption. It describes the four near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee during action-planning workshops conducted in May 2016, and describes the steps that will need to be taken to implement those strategies.

  13. The oxymoron of American pastoralism

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Sayre

    2013-01-01

    Pastoralism has been variously defined in American literary studies. In European literature the pastoral persisted as a distinct genre and self-conscious literary tradition from Theocritus and Virgil through the eighteenth century. Major eighteenth and nineteenth-century American authors alluded to this tradition, but they could not really lay claim to it, for as this...

  14. Additional Resources on Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Corinne Maekawa; Lee, Sunny; Liang, Christopher T. H.; Alvarez, Alvin N.; McEwen, Marylu K.

    2002-01-01

    The authors identify Asian American associations and organizations, academic journals, periodicals, and media resources. Selected annotated resources on Asian American activism and politics, counseling and psychology, educational issues, gender and sexual orientation, history, policy reports, and racial and ethnic identity are also included.…

  15. Elder Abuse among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

  16. African American Health PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but it's still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle.

  17. On American Cultural Exportation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德俊

    2015-01-01

    American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy. This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.

  18. On American Cultural Exportation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德俊

    2015-01-01

    American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy.This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.

  19. Reconsidering Asian American Student Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Corinne M.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter addresses the applicability of student development theories in light of empirical research on Asian American college students through a twofold approach: (a) revisiting the relevance of Kodama, McEwen, Liang, and Lee's (2001, 2002) theoretical work on Asian American student development; and (b) using Jones' and Stewart's (2016)…

  20. Native American youth and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Laurence A. French

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth and delinquency issues have long been problematic among Native Americans groups both on- and off-reservation. This phenomenon is further complicated by the cultural diversity among American Indians and Alaska Natives scattered across the United States. In address these issues, the paper begins with a historical overview of Native American youth. This history presents the long tradition of federal policies that, how well intended, have resulted in discriminatory practices with the most damages attacks being those directed toward the destruction of viable cultural attributes – the same attributes that make Native Americans unique within United States society. Following the historical material, the authors contrast the pervasive Native American aboriginal ethos of harmony with that of Protestant Ethic that dominates the ethos of the larger United States society. In addition to providing general information on Native American crime and delinquency, the paper also provides a case study of Native American justice within the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe, in both size and population, in the United States. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues specific to Native American youth and efforts to address these problems.

  1. Arab American Women Negotiating Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Oraib

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the literature available on other ethnic groups in the United States, there is very little information about school experiences of Arab Americans (Nieto, 2003). This study examines the ways that Arab American women reported positioning themselves when faced with difficult situations related to stereotypical images of Arabs and Arab…

  2. Gender, Family, and Community Correlates of Mental Health in South Asian Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Masood, Nausheen; Okazaki, Sumie; Takeuchi, David T.

    2009-01-01

    Nationally representative data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (Alegría et al., 2004) was used to examine both disorder prevalence rates and correlates of distress for the South Asian American subgroup (n = 164). South Asian Americans generally appeared to have lower or comparable rates of lifetime and 12-month mood and anxiety disorders when compared with the overall Asian American sample. A multiple-regression model fitted to predict recent psychological distress, with 12-...

  3. Home Environment and Self-Efficacy Beliefs among Native American, African American, and Latino Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert H

    2018-05-07

    Context helps determine what individuals experience in the settings they inhabit. Context also helps determine the likelihood that those experiences will promote adaptive development. Theory suggests likely interplay between various aspects of home context and development of ideas about self that influence patterns of development for children. This study addressed relations between two aspects of home life (companionship and investment, modeling and encouragement) and three types of self-efficacy beliefs (enlisting social resources, independent learning, self-regulatory behavior) considered important for long-term adaptive functioning. The study focused on three groups of minority adolescents (Native American, African American, Latino). Relations were examined using regression models that also included four aspects of household risk that often hinder the development of self-efficacy. Although findings varied somewhat across the three groups, significant relations emerged between the two domains of home life examined and self-efficacy beliefs in all three groups, even controlling for overall household risk. Companionship and investment appeared particularly relevant for African American adolescents, while modeling and encouragement appeared particularly relevant for Native American adolescents. Both were relevant for Latino adolescents. © 2018 Family Process Institute.

  4. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  5. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  6. American Pharmacists Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Practice 340B/safety Net Providers Patient Outreach Tools Practice Tools Quality Measures Transitions of Care Chronic Care Management Appointment Based Model OTC Supplement OPIOID Center Nuclear Pharmacy Clinical Guidelines Conducting Research Projects GET INVOLVED Participate House ...

  7. Shape-Up and Eat Right Families Pilot Program: Feasibility of a Weight Management Shared Medical Appointment Model in African-Americans With Obesity at an Urban Academic Medical Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitanjali Srivastava

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesDisparities in obesity care exist among African-American children and adults. We sought to test the feasibility of a pilot program, a 1-year family-based intervention for African-American families with obesity [shape up and eat right (SUPER], adopting the shared medical appointment model (SMA at an urban safety net hospital.OutcomesPrimary outcomes: (1 family attendance rate and (2 program satisfaction. Secondary outcomes: change in body mass index (BMI, eating behaviors, and sedentary activity.MethodsAdult parents (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 ≥18 years and their child(ren (BMI ≥ 85th percentile ages 6–12 years from adult or pediatric weight management clinics were recruited. One group visit per month (n = 12 consisting of a nutrition and exercise component was led by a nurse practitioner and registered dietitian. Height and weight were recorded during each visit. Participants were queried on program satisfaction, food logs and exercise journals, Food Stamp Program’s Food Behavior, and the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program food checklists.ResultsThirteen participants from lower socioeconomic zip codes consented [n = 5 mothers mean age 33 years, BMI of 47.4 kg/m2 (31.4–73.6 kg/m2; n = 8 children; mean age 9 years, BMI of 97.6th percentile (94–99th percentile; 60% enrolled in state Medicaid]. Average individual attendance was 23.4% (14–43%; n = 13; monthly session attendance rates declined from 100 to 40% by program completion; two families completed the program in entirety. Program was rated (n = 5 adults very satisfactory (40% and extremely satisfactory (60%. Pre-intervention, families rated their eating habits as fair and reported consuming sugar-sweetened beverages or sports drinks, more so than watching more than 1 h of television (p < 0.002 or video game/computer activity (p < 0.006 and consuming carbonated sodas (p < 0.004. Post-intervention, reducing salt

  8. Acculturation and Health of Korean American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Cha-Nam; Lach, Helen W

    2014-07-01

    Increasing cultural diversity in the United States and significant health disparities among immigrant populations make acculturation an important concept to measure in health research. The purpose of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to examine acculturation and health of Korean American adults. A convenience sample of 517 Korean American adults in a Midwestern city completed a survey in either English or Korean. All four groups of Berry's acculturation model were identified using cluster analysis with Lee's Acculturation Scale. Assimilation, integration, and separation were found in the English survey sample, whereas integration, separation, and marginalization were found in the Korean survey sample. Moreover, the findings revealed that acculturation is a bidimensional process, and the unique nature of samples may determine acculturation groups. Physical health and mental health were significantly related to acculturation in the English survey sample. However, there was not a significant relationship between health and acculturation in the Korean survey sample. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Energy geopolitics, an American perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Even if geopolitics can be said not to exist for Americans who, like for example in the field of energy, believe that any problem can find a solution with the help of money and of the American ingenuity, and who are in fact only interested in a lower energy price, the author comments how energy issues are addressed by the candidates to the President election of 2008. The author notices that American people may have to realise, at least for a while, that their country is accused to bear a large share of responsibilities in environmental problems

  10. North American oil demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    An understanding of the relationship of economic growth and potential petroleum product demand is needed to forecast the potential for North American oil demand growth as well as knowledge of world supply and price. The bullish expectations for economic growth in the US and Canada auger well for North American refiners and marketeers. The growth in world economic output forecast, however, means a larger oil demand and an increase in OPEC's pricing power. Such price increases could depress North American oil demand growth. (author)

  11. American Samoa Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Herdrich, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bodell, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Visser, Charles [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Describes the five near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee (ASREC) during action planning workshops conducted in May 2013, and outlines the actions being taken to implement those strategies. Each option is tied to a priority identified in the earlier draft American Samoa Strategic Energy Plan as being an essential component of reducing American Samoa'spetroleum energy consumption. The actions described for each strategy provide a roadmap to facilitate the implementation of each strategy. This document is intended to evolve along with the advancement of the projects, and will be updated to reflect progress.

  12. The Food Environment in an Urban Mexican American Community

    OpenAIRE

    Lisabeth, Lynda D; Sánchez, Brisa N; Escobar, James; Hughes, Rebecca; Meurer, William J; Zuniga, Belinda; Garcia, Nelda; Brown, Devin L; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to determine whether ethnic composition of neighborhoods is associated with number and type of food stores in an urban, Mexican American US community. Data were from a commercial food store data source and the US Census. Multivariate count models were used to test associations with adjustment for neighborhood demographics, income, and commercialization. Neighborhoods at the 75th percentile of percent Mexican American (76%) had nearly four times the number of convenience stor...

  13. Americanization of Non-American Storiesin Disney Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beta Setiawati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is intended to know the Disney’s animation films characteristics which are adapted from non American stories that contain Americanization in order to be American popular culture products. This qualitative and library research is carried out within the field of American Studies. Disney’s animated films which are regarded as artifacts in order to identify American society and culture is used as her primary data. She then compares those Disney films with the original stories to discover the changes in making those stories become American popular products. She furthermore uses the sources such as books, magazines, journals, articles, and also internet data for her secondary data. The result of this study shows that most of folk narratives which were used in Disney films were adapted from other countries’ stories. However, Disney intentionally adapts foreign countries’ stories in its animated films by using Disney formula to blow up the sale of its products. Since Disney is one of the most powerful media conglomerates in the world, it works endlessly to set out world entertainment. Disney formula in its animated films which has dominated those adapted films are only intended to obtain as much profit as possible without paying attention to the values in children entertainment.

  14. Minority stress and college persistence attitudes among African American, Asian American, and Latino students: perception of university environment as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Ku, Tsun-Yao; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin

    2011-04-01

    We examined whether perception of university environment mediated the association between minority status stress and college persistence attitudes after controlling for perceived general stress. Participants were 160 Asian American, African American, and Latino students who attended a predominantly White university. Results of a path model analysis showed that university environment was a significant mediator for the association between minority status stress and college persistence attitudes. Additionally, minority status stress was distinct from perceived general stress. Finally, the results from a multiple-group comparison indicated that the magnitude of the mediation effect was invariant across Asian American, African American, and Latino college students, thus supporting the generalizability of the mediation model.

  15. Usage Notes in the Oxford American Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, R. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Compares the "Oxford American Dictionary" with the "American Heritage Dictionary." Examines the dictionaries' differences in philosophies of language, introductory essays, and usage notes. Concludes that the "Oxford American Dictionary" is too conservative, paternalistic, and dogmatic for the 1980s. (DMM)

  16. Periodismo en Latinoamérica: Revisión histórica y propuesta de un modelo de análisis Latin American Journalism: A Review of Five Decades and a Proposal for a Model of Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mellado Ruiz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available En base a un recorrido histórico de las últimas cinco décadas, este artículo analiza los elementos que hoy definen a la profesión periodística en Latinoamérica. El trabajo se sostiene en las estructuras sociales compartidas por la región, así como en la función de mediación que el periodismo cumple en la construcción de la realidad, proponiendo un modelo que describe los aspectos individuales, organizacionales y sociales que han influido en su desarrollo. Se concluye que los problemas de formación vinculados a la identidad y a la autonomía de la profesión, el valor cultural dado a la carrera profesional, la existencia y alcance de los colegios profesionales, las peculiaridades políticas y económicas, y la gran influencia extranjera ejercida por Europa y EEUU, son los aspectos que diferencian al periodismo latinoamericano del resto del mundo. Sin embargo, se plantea la inexistencia de una conceptualización y operacionalización homologada de la profesión en el sub-continente. Based on an historical analysis of the last five decades of research, this article analyzes the elements that define the journalism in Latin America. The work is based on the common social structures and the fact that journalism mediates in the construction of reality throughout the region, proposing a model that describes the individual, organizational and social aspects that have influenced the development of the profession. The results indicate that the educational problems linked to both the identity and the autonomy of the profession, the cultural value associated to professional practice, the existence and reach of the Teachers Associations, political and economic peculiarities, and the considerable influence exercised by Europe and the United States, are all aspects that make Latin American journalism different journalism in the rest of the world. Still, despite these similarities, neither a shared conceptualization nor a homologated

  17. American Association Of State Climatologists

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records documenting the business, membership, and meetings of the American Association of State Climatologists, from 1976-92. Material donated in 2008 by the estate...

  18. Performing Transnational Arab American Womanhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koegeler-Abdi, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The first Miss Lebanon-America, Rosemary Hakim, landed at Beirut Airport in July 1955 to start a public diplomacy tour. As an American beauty queen from Detroit visiting Lebanon, her parents' homeland, she was greeted enthusiastically by the local press and closely monitored by US government...... a transnational sense of Arab Americanness to negotiate her own gender and ethnic identity. This is significant because we currently lack a broader historical understanding of Arab American women’s public agency, particularly during the mid-twentieth century. Hakim’s memoir requires us to rethink the history...... of Arab American women’s strategies of self-representation in ways that acknowledge but are not confined within the terms of conventional orientalist discourses....

  19. Central American and Caribbean Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather and soil temperature observations from foreign countries, taken by foreign and American observers. Includes NOAA forms collected and archived at NCDC, and...

  20. American Institute for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Phytochemicals in your food Red and processed meat Sugar and cancer risk Alcohol and cancer risk Physical Activity Are ... Updates: Diabetes Rates are High and Rising, That Links with Cancer Apples and Oranges, What Americans are Eating and ...

  1. Charting Transnational Native American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsinya Huang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum entitled "Charting Transnational Native American Studies: Aesthetics, Politics, Identity," edited by Hsinya Huang, Philip J. Deloria, Laura M. Furlan, and John Gamber

  2. American Head and Neck Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... research and insights. Comments This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. This iframe ... and Announcements Copyright ©2016 · American Head and Neck Society · Privacy and Return Policy Managed by BSC Management, ...

  3. American Association of Tissue Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Committees Accreditation American Board of Tissue Banking Bylaws / Ethics Communications Donor Family Services Ad Hoc Committee Education Finance ... Bureau Accredited Bank Search Bookstore Bulletins Global Topics Communications & Media Job Center News Releases Patients and Community Useful ...

  4. Taxation and the American Indian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, David

    1973-01-01

    The article explores American Indian tribal rights to tax exemptions and self-imposed taxation; general recommendations on possible tribal tax alternatives; and evaluation of the probable economic effect of taxation. (FF)

  5. Geothermal energy for American Samoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The geothermal commercialization potential in American Samoa was investigated. With geothermal energy harnessed in American Samoa, a myriad of possibilities would arise. Existing residential and business consumers would benefit from reduced electricity costs. The tuna canneries, demanding about 76% of the island's process heat requirements, may be able to use process heat from a geothermal source. Potential new industries include health spas, aquaculture, wood products, large domestic and transhipment refrigerated warehouses, electric cars, ocean nodule processing, and a hydrogen economy. There are no territorial statutory laws of American Samoa claiming or reserving any special rights (including mineral rights) to the territorial government, or other interests adverse to a land owner, for subsurface content of real property. Technically, an investigation has revealed that American Samoa does possess a geological environment conducive to geothermal energy development. Further studies and test holes are warranted.

  6. Pricing American and Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Pat Muldowney

    2015-01-01

    An analytic method for pricing American call options is provided; followed by an empirical method for pricing Asian call options. The methodology is the pricing theory presented in "A Modern Theory of Random Variation", by Patrick Muldowney, 2012.

  7. American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Position Statements Publications Bookstore American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Legislative & Regulatory Agenda AAGP eNews (Members Only) Tools ... Funding Training Resources and Curricula For Clinicians >> Geriatric Psychiatry Identifier Webinar: Billing and Coding Consumer Material Clinical ...

  8. American Association for Clinical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find the answer to your question IN CLINICAL CHEMISTRY Hs-cTnI as a Gatekeeper for Further Cardiac ... Online Harmonization.net Commission on Accreditation in Clinical Chemistry American Board of Clinical Chemistry Clinical Chemistry Trainee ...

  9. American acceptance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, W.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristic adventurous spirit that built American technology will eventually lead to American acceptance of nuclear power unless an overpowering loss of nerve causes us to reject both nuclear technology and world leadership. The acceptance of new technology by society has always been accompanied by activist opposition to industralization. To resolve the debate between environmental and exploitive extremists, we must accept with humility the basic premise that human accomplishment is a finite part of nature

  10. African American Health PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but it’s still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 5/2/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/2/2017.

  11. Examining Factors Influencing Asian American and Latino American Students' College Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Yeung, Leilani Weichun

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation examines the gap in college enrollment between Asian Americans and Latino Americans regarding the effects of family and school factors, classifying them into the six ethnic/generational status groups (Asian American first generation, Asian American second generation, Asian American third generation and plus, Latino American first…

  12. Transfusion medicine on American television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, J K

    2014-02-01

    Television is a beloved American pastime and a frequent American export. As such, American television shapes how the global public views the world. This study examines how the portrayal of blood transfusion and blood donation on American television may influence how domestic and international audiences perceive the field of transfusion medicine. American television programming of the last quarter-century was reviewed to identify programmes featuring topics related to blood banking/transfusion medicine. The included television episodes were identified through various sources. Twenty-seven television episodes airing between 1991 and 2013 were identified as featuring blood bank/transfusion medicine topics. Although some accurate representations of the field were identified, most television programmes portrayed blood banking/transfusion medicine inaccurately. The way in which blood banking/transfusion medicine is portrayed on American television may assist clinicians in understanding their patient's concerns about blood safety and guide blood collection organisations in improving donor recruitment. © 2013 The Author. Transfusion Medicine © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  13. Celebrating National American Indian Heritage Month

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mann, Diane

    2004-01-01

    November has been designated National American Indian Heritage Month to honor American Indians and Alaska Natives by increasing awareness of their culture, history, and, especially, their tremendous...

  14. What Cultural Values Influence American Public Relations Practitioners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Gabriel M.; Taylor, Maureen

    1999-01-01

    Examines the role of culture as a key variable in public relations research and practice. Finds (1) American practitioners continue to practice one-way models of public relations; and (2) public relations practitioners who have collectivistic values tend to practice two-way models of public relations. Discusses implications for theory and…

  15. Strategic Management of Quality: An American and British Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, L. David; McElwee, Gerard

    1997-01-01

    Total Quality Management is being implemented in American and British schools to improve educational outcomes. The 14 points of Deming's quality model and Porter's models of competition and drivers of cost provide a systematic, structured template to promote educational excellence and meet the demands of social, political, and economic forces.…

  16. American option pricing with stochastic volatility processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping LI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of option pricing more perfectly, the option pricing problem with Heston stochastic volatility model is considered. The optimal implementation boundary of American option and the conditions for its early execution are analyzed and discussed. In view of the fact that there is no analytical American option pricing formula, through the space discretization parameters, the stochastic partial differential equation satisfied by American options with Heston stochastic volatility is transformed into the corresponding differential equations, and then using high order compact finite difference method, numerical solutions are obtained for the option price. The numerical experiments are carried out to verify the theoretical results and simulation. The two kinds of optimal exercise boundaries under the conditions of the constant volatility and the stochastic volatility are compared, and the results show that the optimal exercise boundary also has stochastic volatility. Under the setting of parameters, the behavior and the nature of volatility are analyzed, the volatility curve is simulated, the calculation results of high order compact difference method are compared, and the numerical option solution is obtained, so that the method is verified. The research result provides reference for solving the problems of option pricing under stochastic volatility such as multiple underlying asset option pricing and barrier option pricing.

  17. Perception of Obesity in African-American and Arab-American Minority Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Molly L; Weekes, Carmon V N; Bazzi, Hussein; Warwinsky, Joshua; Abouarabi, Wassim; Snell, Felicia; Salamey, Tarick

    2016-03-01

    Effectiveness of health education programs and interventions, designed to improve obesity rates, may vary according to perceptions of health within cultural groups. A qualitative approach was used. Two minority cultural groups (Arab-American and African-American) living in the same county were studied to compare perceptions of health, nutrition, and obesity and subsequent health behaviors. Control, expectations, bias, acceptance, and access were the five themes identified. Arab-Americans that had lower weights, lower prevalence of chronic diseases, expected healthy weights, reported age and gender bias related to being overweight were not as accepting of being overweight and did not report difficulties in accessing healthy food choices compared to their African-American counterparts. Health interventions aimed at reducing obesity rates and related chronic diseases should be culturally specific and aimed at changing expected and accepted cultural norms. Cultural group's void of certain disease states should be studied and used as models to ameliorate the problem in other cultures. Changing health behaviors within a certain cultural group may produce better outcomes when initiated from a member of that same group. The impact of economic and environmental factors on health behaviors must also be considered.

  18. Overview of North American Hydrogen Sensor Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, Kathleen [SRA International, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Lopez, Hugo [UL LLC, Chicago, IL (United States); Cairns, Julie [CSA Group, Cleveland, OH (United States); Wichert, Richard [Professional Engineering, Inc.. Citrus Heights, CA (United States); Rivkin, Carl [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buttner, William [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-11

    An overview of the main North American codes and standards associated with hydrogen safety sensors is provided. The distinction between a code and a standard is defined, and the relationship between standards and codes is clarified, especially for those circumstances where a standard or a certification requirement is explicitly referenced within a code. The report identifies three main types of standards commonly applied to hydrogen sensors (interface and controls standards, shock and hazard standards, and performance-based standards). The certification process and a list and description of the main standards and model codes associated with the use of hydrogen safety sensors in hydrogen infrastructure are presented.

  19. Monte Carlo Simulation of an American Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gikiri Thuo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available We implement gradient estimation techniques for sensitivity analysis of option pricing which can be efficiently employed in Monte Carlo simulation. Using these techniques we can simultaneously obtain an estimate of the option value together with the estimates of sensitivities of the option value to various parameters of the model. After deriving the gradient estimates we incorporate them in an iterative stochastic approximation algorithm for pricing an option with early exercise features. We illustrate the procedure using an example of an American call option with a single dividend that is analytically tractable. In particular we incorporate estimates for the gradient with respect to the early exercise threshold level.

  20. Representations of intercourse in American literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2014-01-01

    on theoretical notions from cognitive poetics, the present article assumes that literary representations of intercourse reflect and replicate in readers cognitive-cultural models of intercourse and the roles of, and power relations between, men and women therein. The analysis presented here is quantitative...... and falls under the rubric of corpus stylistics and is based on data from the FICTION component of the Corpus of Historical American English. The analysis measures the preference of male or female passive participants in propositional scenarios denoted by transitive fuck, thus allowing...

  1. American Association for Aerosol Research (AAAR) `95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Fourteenth annual meeting of the American Association for Aerosol Research was held October 9-13, 1995 at Westin William Penn Hotel in Pittsburgh, PA. This volume contains the abstracts of the papers and poster sessions presented at this meeting, grouped by the session in which they were presented as follows: Radiation Effects; Aerosol Deposition; Collision Simulations and Microphysical Behavior; Filtration Theory and Measurements; Materials Synthesis; Radioactive and Nuclear Aerosols; Aerosol Formation, Thermodynamic Properties, and Behavior; Particle Contamination Issues in the Computer Industry; Pharmaceutical Aerosol Technology; Modeling Global/Regional Aerosols; Visibility; Respiratory Deposition; Biomass and Biogenic Aerosols; Aerosol Dynamics; Atmospheric Aerosols.

  2. II Latin American Conference on Bioimpedance

    CERN Document Server

    Bertemes-Filho, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of CLABIO 2015 - II Latin American Conference on Bioimpedance, held in Montevideo, Uruguay - September 30 - October 02, 2015. The works cover a broad range in Biomedical Engineering and Computing, Medical Physics and Medical Sciences, Environment, Biology and Chemistry. The topics are: ·Bioimpedance Applications ·Bioimpedance Instrumentation ·Body and Tissue Composition ·Cell Culture and Cell Suspension ·Electrical Impedance Tomography ·Electrode Modelling ·Magnetic Induction - Electrical Impedance Tomography ·Magnetic Resonance - Electrical Impedance Tomography ·Nonlinear Phenomena ·Organ and Tissue Impedance ·Plant Tissue Impedance ·Skin Impedance Modelling ·Technological Advances in Bioimpedance ·Theory and Modelling.

  3. Native American Women: Living with Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the role of Native American women in the spiritual and cultural life of American Indians. Native American spirituality is deeply connected to the land through daily use, ritual, and respect for sacred space. Often Native American women act as conduits and keepers of this knowledge. (MJP)

  4. Successfully Educating Our African-American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncree-Moffett, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study was to explore the lived experiences of African American retired female teachers who have prior experience with educating urban African American students in public schools. Also explored are the experiences of active African American female teachers of urban African American students and comparisons are…

  5. Sociolinguistics features of humor in american linguoculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article we study the characteristics of the language of representation and perception of American humour, its linguistic and cultural features in humorous texts of American comics from the American linguistic culture. The material for research is the humorous texts and fragments of the performances of American ...

  6. The Native American Experience. American Historical Images on File.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardwell, Lelia, Ed.

    This photo-documentation reference body presents more than 275 images chronicling the experiences of the American Indian from their prehistoric migrations to the present. The volume includes information and images illustrating the life ways of various tribes. The images are accompanied by historical information providing cultural context. The book…

  7. Anxiety, Alexithymia, and Depression as Mediators of the Association between Childhood Abuse and Eating Disordered Behavior in African American and European American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Williams, Larry J.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated structural equation models of the associations among family functioning, childhood abuse, depression, anxiety, alexithymia, and eating disorder symptomatology in a sample of 412 European American and 192 African American female undergraduates. Additionally, the specific roles of anxiety, depression, and alexithymia as…

  8. Growth characteristics and Otolith analysis on Age-0 American Shad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Sally T.; Wetzel, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Otolith microstructure analysis provides useful information on the growth history of fish (Campana and Jones 1992, Bang and Gronkjaer 2005). Microstructure analysis can be used to construct the size-at-age growth trajectory of fish, determine daily growth rates, and estimate hatch date and other ecologically important life history events (Campana and Jones 1992, Tonkin et al. 2008). This kind of information can be incorporated into bioenergetics modeling, providing necessary data for estimating prey consumption, and guiding the development of empirically-based modeling scenarios for hypothesis testing. For example, age-0 American shad co-occur with emigrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon originating from Hanford Reach and the Snake River in the lower Columbia River reservoirs during the summer and early fall. The diet of age-0 American shad appears to overlap with that of juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Chapter 1, this report), but juvenile fall Chinook salmon are also known to feed on age-0 American shad in the reservoirs (USGS unpublished data). Abundant, energy-dense age-0 American shad may provide juvenile fall Chinook salmon opportunities for rapid growth during the time period when large numbers of age-0 American shad are available. Otolith analysis of hatch dates and the growth curve of age-0 American shad could be used to identify when eggs, larvae, and juveniles of specific size classes are temporally available as food for fall Chinook salmon in the lower Columbia River reservoirs. This kind of temporally and spatially explicit life history information is important to include in bioenergetics modeling scenarios. Quantitative estimates of prey consumption could be used with spatially-explicit estimates of prey abundance to construct a quantitative assessment of the age-0 American shad impact on a reservoir food web.

  9. A multilevel understanding of HIV/AIDS disease burden among African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, Bridgette M

    2014-01-01

    Disproportionate HIV/AIDS rates among African American women have been examined extensively, primarily from an individual-centered focus. Beyond individual behaviors, factors such as the hyperincarceration of African American men and geographically concentrated disadvantage may better explain inequitable disease burden. In this article I propose a conceptual model of individual, social, and structural factors that influence HIV transmission among African American women. The model can be used to develop comprehensive assessments and guide prevention programs in African American communities. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  10. Healthy Lifestyle Interventions to Combat Noncommunicable Disease—A Novel Nonhierarchical Connectivity Model for Key Stakeholders: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association, European Society of Cardiology, European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, and American College of Preventive Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Ross; Guazzi, Marco; Lianov, Liana; Whitsel, Laurie; Berra, Kathy; Lavie, Carl J; Kaminsky, Leonard; Williams, Mark; Hivert, Marie-France; Franklin, Nina Cherie; Myers, Jonathan; Dengel, Donald; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Pinto, Fausto J; Cosentino, Francesco; Halle, Martin; Gielen, Stephan; Dendale, Paul; Niebauer, Josef; Pelliccia, Antonio; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo; Corra, Ugo; Piepoli, Massimo F; Guthrie, George; Shurney, Dexter

    2015-08-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have become the primary health concern for most countries around the world. Currently, more than 36 million people worldwide die from NCDs each year, accounting for 63% of annual global deaths; most are preventable. The global financial burden of NCDs is staggering, with an estimated 2010 global cost of $6.3 trillion (US dollars) that is projected to increase to $13 trillion by 2030. A number of NCDs share one or more common predisposing risk factors, all related to lifestyle to some degree: (1) cigarette smoking, (2) hypertension, (3) hyperglycemia, (4) dyslipidemia, (5) obesity, (6) physical inactivity, and (7) poor nutrition. In large part, prevention, control, or even reversal of the aforementioned modifiable risk factors are realized through leading a healthy lifestyle (HL). The challenge is how to initiate the global change, not toward increasing documentation of the scope of the problem but toward true action-creating, implementing, and sustaining HL initiatives that will result in positive, measurable changes in the previously defined poor health metrics. To achieve this task, a paradigm shift in how we approach NCD prevention and treatment is required. The goal of this American Heart Association/European Society of Cardiology/European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation/American College of Preventive Medicine policy statement is to define key stakeholders and highlight their connectivity with respect to HL initiatives. This policy encourages integrated action by all stakeholders to create the needed paradigm shift and achieve broad adoption of HL behaviors on a global scale. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research and the European Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Disillusionment of the American Dream——On An American Tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管秀丽

    2008-01-01

    Theodore Dreiser is now regarded as one of the pre-eminent American realistic novelists of the first half of the twentieth century.an anatomist of the American Dream.In his great work An American Tragedy,Dreis- er exposes and criticizes mercilessly the corruption and black side of American society.The disillusionment of the American Dream is an important theme of the fiction.This paper illustrates "An American Tragedy" is the re- flection of disillusionment of the American Dream in the perspectives of the tragedy of a mortal,the tragedy of American society,and the tragedy of the American Dream.

  12. 75 FR 70300 - USEC, Inc.; American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility; American Centrifuge Plant; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility; American Centrifuge Plant; Notice of Receipt of a License Transfer... SNM-2011, for the American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility and the American Centrifuge Plant... USEC Inc., (the Licensee), for its American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility (LCF) and American...

  13. My Mother and Me: Why Tiger Mothers Motivate Asian Americans But Not European Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Alyssa S; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2014-06-01

    "Tiger Mother" Amy Chua provoked a culture clash with her claim that controlling parenting in Asian American (AA) contexts produces more successful children than permissive parenting in European American (EA) contexts. At the heart of this controversy is a difference in the normative models of self that guide behavior. Ideas and practices prevalent in AA contexts emphasize that the person is and should be interdependent with one's close others, especially one's mother. In contrast, EA contexts emphasize the person as independent, even from one's mother. We find that AA compared with EA high school students experience more interdependence with their mothers and pressure from them, but that the pressure does not strain their relationship with their mothers. Furthermore, following failure, AAs compared with EAs are more motivated by their mothers, and AAs are particularly motivated by pressure from their mothers when it conveys interdependence. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  14. Marketing to Older American Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Barbara; Stephens, Nancy

    1986-01-01

    Examined older adults as a potential market for American businesses. Data indicate that in terms of size and income, senior citizens comprise a substantial buying group. Their buying styles, product and service needs, and shopping behavior vary from younger adults and within the older adult population. Strategies for successful marketing are…

  15. American Indians in Graduate Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    1989-01-01

    The number of American Indians enrolled in institutions of higher education is very small. Enrollment figures for fall 1984 show Indians made up .68% of the total enrollment in institutions of higher education in the country, but only 15% of them were in universities. Their largest representation was in two-year institutions, where 54% of Indian…

  16. The Evil that Americans Did

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John David

    2007-01-01

    Slavery's unequivocal evil lies at the heart of debates over apologizing for America's "peculiar institution" and awarding reparations. In The Problem of Evil: Slavery, Freedom, and the Ambiguities of American Reform, a provocative collection of original essays, the editors Steven Mintz and John Stauffer, along with 23 contributors,…

  17. Communication; A Scientific American Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientific American, Inc., New York, NY.

    With present advances in communication technology, profound and qualitative changes in our civilization are taking place--in business and politics, in education, in entertainment, interpersonal relations, and the organization of society itself. In honor of the significance of such developments, an entire issue of "Scientific American" magazine…

  18. The American Inventors Protection Act

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, Arvid O.I.; Kleimeier, Stefanie; Mimiroglu, Nagihan; Pennings, Joost M.E.

    2018-01-01

    We examine the impact of innovation disclosure through patenting on firms' cost of debt, focusing on the American Inventors Protection Act (AIPA) as an exogenous shock in innovation disclosure regulation. Post-AIPA, firms have an incentive to apply for patents only if commercial success is likely.

  19. Foundation Networks and American Hegemony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderjeet Parmar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The major American foundations constructed and sustained the rich texture of cooperative social, intellectual and political relations between key actors and institutions supportive of specific modes of thought that promoted US hegemony. Foundations also fostered and developed the attractive power-knowledge networks that not only radiated intellectual influence but also attracted some of the most creative minds. Finally, liberal internationalist foundations fostered globalism even when the American state was ‘isolationist’, and when US influence abroad unwelcome. Their significance in American hegemony building lay in their sustained, long-term cooperative relationship with the American state through which they helped build national, international and global institutions and networks. The latter process evidences the most significant impact of US foundations – the building of the domestic and international infrastructure for liberal internationalism which has transformed into a kind of “social neoliberalism”. Theoretical conclusions follow from these claims: the sustained and deep cooperation between the state and foundations suggests that we must revise our views of “how power works” in the United States and therefore influences its foreign relations. Therefore, the article shows that elite networks, consisting of state officials and private citizens are powerful means by which foreign policy shifts may be prepared, elite and mass opinion primed and mobilised, new consensus built, ‘old’ forces marginalised, and US hegemony constructed.

  20. Polish Americans. Second, Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Helen Znaniecka

    This book examines Polonia, the Polish ethnic community in America created by three giant waves of immigration between 1880 and 1990. The complicated history of this ethnic group is reflected in the lives of increasing numbers of Polish Americans, including recent immigrants brought by political and economic changes, as they achieve middle class…