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Sample records for models adequately represent

  1. Terrestrial reserve networks do not adequately represent aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Matthew E; McIntyre, Peter B; Doran, Patrick J; Allan, J David; Abell, Robin

    2010-08-01

    Protected areas are a cornerstone of conservation and have been designed largely around terrestrial features. Freshwater species and ecosystems are highly imperiled, but the effectiveness of existing protected areas in representing freshwater features is poorly known. Using the inland waters of Michigan as a test case, we quantified the coverage of four key freshwater features (wetlands, riparian zones, groundwater recharge, rare species) within conservation lands and compared these with representation of terrestrial features. Wetlands were included within protected areas more often than expected by chance, but riparian zones were underrepresented across all (GAP 1-3) protected lands, particularly for headwater streams and large rivers. Nevertheless, within strictly protected lands (GAP 1-2), riparian zones were highly represented because of the contribution of the national Wild and Scenic Rivers Program. Representation of areas of groundwater recharge was generally proportional to area of the reserve network within watersheds, although a recharge hotspot associated with some of Michigan's most valued rivers is almost entirely unprotected. Species representation in protected areas differed significantly among obligate aquatic, wetland, and terrestrial species, with representation generally highest for terrestrial species and lowest for aquatic species. Our results illustrate the need to further evaluate and address the representation of freshwater features within protected areas and the value of broadening gap analysis and other protected-areas assessments to include key ecosystem processes that are requisite to long-term conservation of species and ecosystems. We conclude that terrestrially oriented protected-area networks provide a weak safety net for aquatic features, which means complementary planning and management for both freshwater and terrestrial conservation targets is needed.

  2. Arabidopsis: an adequate model for dicot root systems?

    OpenAIRE

    Zobel, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis root system is frequently considered to have only three classes of root: primary, lateral, and adventitious. Research with other plant species has suggested up to 8 different developmental/functional classes of root for a given plant root system. If Arabidopsis has only three classes of root, it may not be an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems. Recent research, however, can be interpreted to suggest that pre-flowering Arabidopsis does have at least five (5) of th...

  3. Arabidopsis: An Adequate Model for Dicot Root Systems?

    OpenAIRE

    Zobel, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis root system is frequently considered to have only three classes of root: primary, lateral, and adventitious. Research with other plant species has suggested up to eight different developmental/functional classes of root for a given plant root system. If Arabidopsis has only three classes of root, it may not be an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems. Recent research, however, can be interpreted to suggest that pre-flowering Arabidopsis does have at least five (5) of t...

  4. Does the mean adequately represent reading performance? Evidence from a cross-linguistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Chiara V; Horne, Joanna K; McGeown, Sarah P; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; Martelli, Marialuisa

    2014-01-01

    Reading models are largely based on the interpretation of average data from normal or impaired readers, mainly drawn from English-speaking individuals. In the present study we evaluated the possible contribution of orthographic consistency in generating individual differences in reading behavior. We compared the reading performance of young adults speaking English (one of the most irregular orthographies) and Italian (a very regular orthography). In the 1st experiment we presented 22 English and 30 Italian readers with 5-letter words using the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) paradigm. In a 2nd experiment, we evaluated a new group of 26 English and 32 Italian proficient readers through the RSVP procedure and lists matched in the two languages for both number of phonemes and letters. The results of the two experiments indicate that English participants read at a similar rate but with much greater individual differences than the Italian participants. In a 3rd experiment, we extended these results to a vocal reaction time (vRT) task, examining the effect of word frequency. An ex-Gaussian distribution analysis revealed differences between languages in the size of the exponential parameter (tau) and in the variance (sigma), but not the mean, of the Gaussian component. Notably, English readers were more variable for both tau and sigma than Italian readers. The pattern of performance in English individuals runs counter to models of performance in timed tasks (Faust et al., 1999; Myerson et al., 2003) which envisage a general relationship between mean performance and variability; indeed, this relationship does not hold in the case of the English participants. The present data highlight the importance of developing reading models that not only capture mean level performance, but also variability across individuals, especially in order to account for cross-linguistic differences in reading behavior.

  5. Does the mean adequately represent reading performance? Evidence from a cross-linguistic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Valeria eMarinellli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reading models are largely based on the interpretation of average data from normal or impaired readers, mainly drawn from English-speaking individuals. In the present study we evaluated the possible contribution of orthographic consistency in generating individual differences in reading behaviour. We compared the reading performance of young adults speaking English (one of the most irregular orthographies and Italian (a very regular orthography. In the 1st experiment we presented 22 English and 30 Italian readers with 5-letter words using the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP paradigm. In a 2nd experiment, we evaluated a new group of 26 English and 32 Italian proficient readers through the RSVP procedure and lists matched in the two languages for both number of phonemes and letters. The results of the two experiments indicate that English participants read at a similar rate but with much greater individual differences than the Italian participants. In a 3rd experiment, we extended these results to a vocal reaction time (vRT task, examining the effect of word frequency. An ex-Gaussian distribution analysis revealed differences between languages in the size of the exponential parameter (tau and in the variance (sigma, but not the mean, of the Gaussian component. Notably, English readers were more variable for both tau and sigma than Italian readers. The pattern of performance in English individuals runs counter to models of performance in timed tasks (Faust et al., 1999; Myerson et al., 2003 which envisage a general relationship between mean performance and variability; indeed, this relationship does not hold in the case of the English participants. The present data highlight the importance of developing reading models that not only capture mean level performance, but also variability across individuals, especially in order to account for cross-linguistic differences in reading behaviour.

  6. Choosing an adequate FEM grid for global mantle convection modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieulot, Cedric

    2016-04-01

    Global numerical models of mantle convection are typically run on a grid which represents a hollow sphere. In the context of using the Finite Element method, there are many ways to discretise a hollow sphere by means of cuboids in a regular fashion (adaptive mesh refinement is here not considered). I will here focus on the following two: the cubed sphere [1], which is a quasi-uniform mapping of a cube to a sphere (considering both equidistant and equiangular projections), and the 12-block grid used for instance in CITCOM [2]. By means of simple experiments, I will show that at comparable resolutions (and all other things being equal), the 12-block grid is surprisingly vastly superior to the cubed-sphere grid, when used in combination with trilinear velocity - constant pressure elements, while being more difficult to build/implement. [1] C. Ronchi, R. Iacono, and P. S. Paolucci, The "Cubed Sphere": A New Method for the Solution of Partial Differential Equations in Spherical Geometry, Journal of Computational Physics, 124, p93-114 (1996). [2] S. Zhong and M.T. Zuber and L.N. Moresi and M. Gurnis, Role of temperature-dependent viscosity and surface plates in spherical shell models of mantle convection, Journal of Geophysical Research, 105 (B5), p 11,063-11,082 (2000).

  7. Adequateness of applying the Zmijewski model on Serbian companies

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    Pavlović Vladan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to determine the accuracy of the prediction of Zmijewski model in Serbia on the eligible sample. At the same time, the paper identifies model's strengths, weaknesses and limitations of its possible application. Bearing in mind that the economic environment in Serbia is not similar to the United States at the time the model was developed, Zmijewski model is surprisingly accurate in the case of Serbian companies. The accuracy was slightly weaker than the model results in the U.S. in its original form, but much better than the results model gave in the U.S. in the period 1988-1991, and 1992-1999. Model gave also better results in Serbia comparing those in Croatia, even in Croatia model was adjusted.

  8. Minimal Adequate Model of Unemployment Duration in the Post-Crisis Czech Republic

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    Adam Čabla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is one of the leading economic problems in a developed world. The aim of this paper is to identify the differences in unemployment duration in different strata in the post-crisis Czech Republic via building a minimal adequate model, and to quantify the differences. Data from Labour Force Surveys are used and since they are interval censored in nature, proper metodology must be used. The minimal adequate model is built through the accelerated failure time modelling, maximum likelihood estimates and likelihood ratio tests. Variables at the beginning are sex, marital status, age, education, municipality size and number of persons in a household, containing altogether 29 model parameters. The minimal adequate model contains 5 parameters and differences are found between men and women, the youngest category and the rest and the university educated and the rest. The estimated expected values, variances, medians, modes and 90th percentiles are provided for all subgroups.

  9. Representing uncertainty on model analysis plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trevor I.

    2016-12-01

    Model analysis provides a mechanism for representing student learning as measured by standard multiple-choice surveys. The model plot contains information regarding both how likely students in a particular class are to choose the correct answer and how likely they are to choose an answer consistent with a well-documented conceptual model. Unfortunately, Bao's original presentation of the model plot did not include a way to represent uncertainty in these measurements. I present details of a method to add error bars to model plots by expanding the work of Sommer and Lindell. I also provide a template for generating model plots with error bars.

  10. Representing Context in Hypermedia Data Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank Allan

    2005-01-01

    As computers and software systems move beyond the desktopand into the physical environments we live and workin, the systems are required to adapt to these environmentsand the activities taking place within them. Making applicationscontext-aware and representing context informationalong side...... application data can be a challenging task. Thispaper describes how digital context traditionally has beenrepresented in hypermedia data models and how this representationcan scale to also represent physical context. TheHyCon framework and data model, designed for the developmentof mobile context...

  11. STATISTICAL MODELS OF REPRESENTING INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL

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    Andreea Feraru

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article entitled Statistical Models of Representing Intellectual Capital approaches and analyses the concept of intellectual capital, as well as the main models which can support enterprisers/managers in evaluating and quantifying the advantages of intellectual capital. Most authors examine intellectual capital from a static perspective and focus on the development of its various evaluation models. In this chapter we surveyed the classical static models: Sveiby, Edvisson, Balanced Scorecard, as well as the canonical model of intellectual capital. Among the group of static models for evaluating organisational intellectual capital the canonical model stands out. This model enables the structuring of organisational intellectual capital in: human capital, structural capital and relational capital. Although the model is widely spread, it is a static one and can thus create a series of errors in the process of evaluation, because all the three entities mentioned above are not independent from the viewpoint of their contents, as any logic of structuring complex entities requires.

  12. Do regional climate models represent regional climate?

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    Maraun, Douglas; Widmann, Martin

    2014-05-01

    When using climate change scenarios - either from global climate models or further downscaled - to assess localised real world impacts, one has to ensure that the local simulation indeed correctly represents the real world local climate. Representativeness has so far mainly been discussed as a scale issue: simulated meteorological variables in general represent grid box averages, whereas real weather is often expressed by means of point values. As a result, in particular simulated extreme values are not directly comparable with observed local extreme values. Here we argue that the issue of representativeness is more general. To illustrate this point, assume the following situations: first, the (GCM or RCM) simulated large scale weather, e.g., the mid-latitude storm track, might be systematically distorted compared to observed weather. If such a distortion at the synoptic scale is strong, the simulated local climate might be completely different from the observed. Second, the orography even of high resolution RCMs is only a coarse model of true orography. In particular in mountain ranges the simulated mesoscale flow might therefore considerably deviate from the observed flow, leading to systematically displaced local weather. In both cases, the simulated local climate does not represent observed local climate. Thus, representativeness also encompasses representing a particular location. We propose to measure this aspect of representativeness for RCMs driven with perfect boundary conditions as the correlation between observations and simulations at the inter-annual scale. In doing so, random variability generated by the RCMs is largely averaged out. As an example, we assess how well KNMIs RACMO2 RCM at 25km horizontal resolution represents winter precipitation in the gridded E-OBS data set over the European domain. At a chosen grid box, RCM precipitation might not be representative of observed precipitation, in particular in the rain shadow of major moutain ranges

  13. How Are Feedbacks Represented in Land Models?

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    Yang Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Land systems are characterised by many feedbacks that can result in complex system behaviour. We defined feedbacks as the two-way influences between the land use system and a related system (e.g., climate, soils and markets, both of which are encompassed by the land system. Land models that include feedbacks thus probably more accurately mimic how land systems respond to, e.g., policy or climate change. However, representing feedbacks in land models is a challenge. We reviewed articles incorporating feedbacks into land models and analysed each with predefined indicators. We found that (1 most modelled feedbacks couple land use systems with transport, soil and market systems, while only a few include feedbacks between land use and social systems or climate systems; (2 equation-based land use models that follow a top-down approach prevail; and (3 feedbacks’ effects on system behaviour remain relatively unexplored. We recommend that land system modellers (1 consider feedbacks between land use systems and social systems; (2 adopt (bottom-up approaches suited to incorporating spatial heterogeneity and better representing land use decision-making; and (3 pay more attention to nonlinear system behaviour and its implications for land system management and policy.

  14. Assessing pharmacokinetics of different doses of fosfomycin in laboratory rats enables adequate exposure for pharmacodynamic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeppl, Wolfgang; Lingscheid, Tilman; Bernitzky, Dominik; Donath, Oliver; Reznicek, Gottfried; Zeitlinger, Markus; Burgmann, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Fosfomycin has been the subject of numerous pharmacodynamic in vivo models in recent years. The present study set out to determine fosfomycin pharmacokinetics in laboratory rats to enable adequate dosing regimens in future rodent models. Fosfomycin was given intraperitoneally as single doses of 75, 200 and 500 mg/kg bodyweight to 4 Sprague-Dawley rats per dose group. Blood samples were collected over 8 h and fosfomycin concentrations were determined by HPLC-mass spectrometry. Fosfomycin showed a dose-proportional pharmacokinetic profile indicated by a correlation of 0.99 for maximum concentration and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). The mean AUC0-8 after intraperitoneal administration of 75, 200 or 500 mg/kg bodyweight fosfomycin were 109.4, 387.0 and 829.1 µg·h/ml, respectively. In conclusion, a dosing regimen of 200-500 mg/kg 3 times daily is appropriate to obtain serum concentrations in laboratory rats, closely mimicking human serum concentrations over time.

  15. Representing Turbulence Model Uncertainty with Stochastic PDEs

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    Oliver, Todd; Moser, Robert

    2012-11-01

    Validation of and uncertainty quantification for extrapolative predictions of RANS turbulence models are necessary to ensure that the models are not used outside of their domain of applicability and to properly inform decisions based on such predictions. In previous work, we have developed and calibrated statistical models for these purposes, but it has been found that incorporating all the knowledge of a domain expert--e.g., realizability, spatial smoothness, and known scalings--in such models is difficult. Here, we explore the use of stochastic PDEs for this purpose. The goal of this formulation is to pose the uncertainty model in a setting where it is easier for physical modelers to express what is known. To explore the approach, multiple stochastic models describing the error in the Reynolds stress are coupled with multiple deterministic turbulence models to make uncertain predictions of channel flow. These predictions are compared with DNS data to assess their credibility. This work is supported by the Department of Energy [National Nuclear Security Administration] under Award Number [DE-FC52-08NA28615].

  16. SPECIFIC MODELS OF REPRESENTING THE INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL

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    Andreea Feraru

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Various scientists in the modern age of management have launched different models for evaluating intellectual capital, and some of these models are analysed critically in this study, too. Most authors examine intellectual capital from a static perspective and focus on the development of its various evaluation models. In this chapter we surveyed the classical static models: Sveiby, Edvisson, Balanced Scorecard, as well as the canonical model of intellectual capital. In a spectral dynamic analysis, organisational intellectual capital is structured in: organisational knowledge, organisational intelligence, organisational values, and their value is built on certain mechanisms entitled integrators, whose chief constitutive elements are: individual knowledge, individual intelligence and individual cultural values. The organizations, as employers, must especially reconsider those employees’ work who value knowledge because they are free to choose how, and especially where they are inclined to invest their own energy, skills and time, and they can be treated as freelancers or as some little entrepreneurs .

  17. Developmental origins of metabolic disorders: The need for biomarker candidates and therapeutic targets from adequate preclinical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gonzalez-Bulnes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The investigation on obesity and associated disorders have changed from an scenario in which genome drove the phenotype to a dynamic setup in which prenatal and early-postnatal conditions are determinant. However, research in human beings is difficult due to confounding factors (lifestyle and socioeconomic heterogeneity plus ethical issues. Hence, there is currently an intensive effort for developing adequate preclinical models, aiming for an adequate combination of basic studies in rodent models and specific preclinical studies in large animals. The results of these research strategies may increase the identification and development of contrasted biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  18. Representing Practice: Practice Models, Patterns, Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Isobel; Finlay, Janet; Fincher, Sally

    2011-01-01

    This article critiques learning design as a representation for sharing and developing practice, based on synthesis of three projects. Starting with the findings of the Mod4L Models of Practice project, it argues that the technical origins of learning design, and the consequent focus on structure and sequence, limit its usefulness for sharing…

  19. Matching occupation and self: does matching theory adequately model children's thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Mark; McMahon, Mary

    2004-10-01

    The present exploratory-descriptive cross-national study focused on the career development of 11- to 14-yr.-old children, in particular whether they can match their personal characteristics with their occupational aspirations. Further, the study explored whether their matching may be explained in terms of a fit between person and environment using Holland's theory as an example. Participants included 511 South African and 372 Australian children. Findings relate to two items of the Revised Career Awareness Survey that require children to relate personal-social knowledge to their favorite occupation. Data were analyzed in three stages using descriptive statistics, i.e., mean scores, frequencies, and percentage agreement. The study indicated that children perceived their personal characteristics to be related to their occupational aspirations. However, how this matching takes place is not adequately accounted for in terms of a career theory such as that of Holland.

  20. On the adequation of dynamic modelling and control of parallel kinematic manipulators.

    OpenAIRE

    Ozgür, Erol; Andreff, Nicolas; Martinet, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper addresses the problem of controlling the dynamics of parallel kinematic manipulators from a global point of view, where modeling, sensing and control are considered simultaneously. The methodology is presented through the examples of the Gough-Stewart manipulator and the Quattro robot.

  1. Cost Effectiveness of Screening Colonoscopy Depends on Adequate Bowel Preparation Rates – A Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, James; Karanth, Siddharth; Revere, Frances Lee

    2016-01-01

    Background Inadequate bowel preparation during screening colonoscopy necessitates repeating colonoscopy. Studies suggest inadequate bowel preparation rates of 20–60%. This increases the cost of colonoscopy for our society. Aim The aim of this study is to determine the impact of inadequate bowel preparation rate on the cost effectiveness of colonoscopy compared to other screening strategies for colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods A microsimulation model of CRC screening strategies for the general population at average risk for CRC. The strategies include fecal immunochemistry test (FIT) every year, colonoscopy every ten years, sigmoidoscopy every five years, or stool DNA test every 3 years. The screening could be performed at private practice offices, outpatient hospitals, and ambulatory surgical centers. Results At the current assumed inadequate bowel preparation rate of 25%, the cost of colonoscopy as a screening strategy is above society’s willingness to pay (<$50,000/QALY). Threshold analysis demonstrated that an inadequate bowel preparation rate of 13% or less is necessary before colonoscopy is considered more cost effective than FIT. At inadequate bowel preparation rates of 25%, colonoscopy is still more cost effective compared to sigmoidoscopy and stool DNA test. Sensitivity analysis of all inputs adjusted by ±10% showed incremental cost effectiveness ratio values were influenced most by the specificity, adherence, and sensitivity of FIT and colonoscopy. Conclusions Screening colonoscopy is not a cost effective strategy when compared with fecal immunochemical test, as long as the inadequate bowel preparation rate is greater than 13%. PMID:27936028

  2. Readiness to adopt adequate postural habits: an application of the Transtheoretical Model in the context of back pain prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, S; Herda, C; Ridder, K; Basler, H D

    2001-02-01

    Based on a biomechanical model, an adequate body posture can contribute to the prevention of back pain and back pain chronicity. This study examines the explanatory value of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) for the adoption of adequate postural habits in a cross-sectional sample of 149 employees of a German administration unit (mean age 40.2 years, 50% female). Using newly developed instruments with satisfactory psychometric properties, basic assumptions of the TTM could be confirmed: self-efficacy and the perceived pros for maintaining a good body posture increased significantly across the stages, while the perceived cons decreased. Additionally, the use of preventive strategies for back pain prevention increased linearly and significantly across the stages of change. The study supports the applicability of the TTM for postural behavior. Considering stages of change as an intervening variable may contribute to clarifying the relationship between participation in low back schools and prevention of back pain chronicity. Longitudinal and intervention study data are needed to support these assumptions.

  3. Representing spatial information in a computational model for network management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaisdell, James H.; Brownfield, Thomas F.

    1994-01-01

    While currently available relational database management systems (RDBMS) allow inclusion of spatial information in a data model, they lack tools for presenting this information in an easily comprehensible form. Computer-aided design (CAD) software packages provide adequate functions to produce drawings, but still require manual placement of symbols and features. This project has demonstrated a bridge between the data model of an RDBMS and the graphic display of a CAD system. It is shown that the CAD system can be used to control the selection of data with spatial components from the database and then quickly plot that data on a map display. It is shown that the CAD system can be used to extract data from a drawing and then control the insertion of that data into the database. These demonstrations were successful in a test environment that incorporated many features of known working environments, suggesting that the techniques developed could be adapted for practical use.

  4. Selection of Representative Models for Decision Analysis Under Uncertainty

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    Meira, Luis A. A.; Coelho, Guilherme P.; Santos, Antonio Alberto S.; Schiozer, Denis J.

    2016-03-01

    The decision-making process in oil fields includes a step of risk analysis associated with the uncertainties present in the variables of the problem. Such uncertainties lead to hundreds, even thousands, of possible scenarios that are supposed to be analyzed so an effective production strategy can be selected. Given this high number of scenarios, a technique to reduce this set to a smaller, feasible subset of representative scenarios is imperative. The selected scenarios must be representative of the original set and also free of optimistic and pessimistic bias. This paper is devoted to propose an assisted methodology to identify representative models in oil fields. To do so, first a mathematical function was developed to model the representativeness of a subset of models with respect to the full set that characterizes the problem. Then, an optimization tool was implemented to identify the representative models of any problem, considering not only the cross-plots of the main output variables, but also the risk curves and the probability distribution of the attribute-levels of the problem. The proposed technique was applied to two benchmark cases and the results, evaluated by experts in the field, indicate that the obtained solutions are richer than those identified by previously adopted manual approaches. The program bytecode is available under request.

  5. AnnAGNPS model as a potential tool for seeking adequate agriculture land management in Navarre (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahor, Y.; Giménez, R.; Casalí, J.

    2012-04-01

    Nowadays agricultural activities face two important challenges. They must be efficient from an economic point of view but with low environment impacts (soil erosion risk, nutrient/pesticide contamination, greenhouse gases emissions, etc.). In this context, hydrological and erosion models appear as remarkable tools when looking for the best management practices. AnnAGNPS (Annualized Agricultural Non Point Source Pollution) is a continuous simulation watershed-scale model that estimates yield and transit of surface water, sediment, nutrients, and pesticides through a watershed. This model has been successfully evaluated -in terms of annual runoff and sediment yield- in a small (around 200 ha) agricultural watershed located in central eastern part of Navarre (Spain), named Latxaga. The watershed is under a humid Sub-Mediterranean climate. It is cultivated almost entirely with winter cereals (wheat and barley) following conventional soil and tillage management practices. The remaining 15% of the watershed is covered by urban and shrub areas. The aim of this work is to evaluate in Latxga watershed the effect of potential and realistic changes in land use and management on surface runoff and sediment yield by using AnnAGNPS. Six years (2003 - 2008) of daily climate data were considered in the simulation. This dataset is the same used in the model evaluation previously made. Six different scenarios regarding soil use and management were considered: i) 60% cereals25% sunflower; ii) 60% cereals, 25% rapeseed; iii) 60% cereals, 25% legumes; iv) 60% cereals, 25% sunflower + rapeseed+ legumes, in equal parts; v) cereals, and alternatively different amount of shrubs (from 20% to 100% ); vi) only cereal but under different combinations of conventional tillage and no-tillage management. Overall, no significant differences in runoff generation were observed with the exception of scenario iii (in which legume is the main alternative crops), whit a slight increase in predicted

  6. Representing vegetation processes in hydrometeorological simulations using the WRF model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joakim Refslund

    -ments are still needed in the representation of the land surface variability and of some key land surface processes. This thesis explores two possibilities for improving the near-surface model predictions using the mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. In the _rst approach, data from satellite......For accurate predictions of weather and climate, it is important that the land surface and its processes are well represented. In a mesoscale model the land surface processes are calculated in a land surface model (LSM). These pro-cesses include exchanges of energy, water and momentum between...... the land surface components, such as vegetation and soil, and their interactions with the atmosphere. The land surface processes are complex and vary in time and space. Signi_cant e_ort by the land surface community has therefore been invested in improving the LSMs over the recent decades. However, improve...

  7. Representing the environment 3.0. Maps, models, networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Bollini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Web 3.0 is changing the world we live and perceive the environment anthropomorphized, making a stratifation of levels of experience and mediated by the devices. If the urban landscape is designed, shaped and planned space, there is a social landscape that overwrite the territory of values, representations shared images, narratives of personal and collective history. Mobile technology introduces an additional parameter, a kind of non-place, which allows the coexistence of the here and elsewhere in an sort of digital landscape. The maps, mental models, the system of social networks become, then, the way to present, represented and represent themselves in a kind of ideal coring of the co-presence of levels of physical, cognitive and collective space.

  8. A BRIEF REVIEW OF MODELS REPRESENTING CREEP OF ALLOY 617

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, Robert W [ORNL; Swindeman, Michael [University of Dayton Research Institute; Ren, Weiju [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    Alloy 617 is being considered for the construction of components to operate in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). Service temperatures will range from 650 to 1000 C. To meet the needs of the conceptual designers of this plant, a materials handbook is being developed that will provide information on alloy 617, as well as other materials of interest. The database for alloy 617 to be incorporated into the handbook was produced in the 1970s and 1980s, while creep and damage models were developed from the database for use in the design of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. In the work reported here, the US database and creep models are briefly reviewed. The work reported represents progress toward a useful model of the behavior of this material in the temperature range of 650 to 1000 C.

  9. Model parameters for representative wetland plant functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amber S.; Kiniry, James R.; Mushet, David M.; Smith, Loren M.; McMurry, Scott T.; Attebury, Kelly; Lang, Megan; McCarty, Gregory W.; Shaffer, Jill A.; Effland, William R.; Johnson, Mari-Vaughn V.

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands provide a wide variety of ecosystem services including water quality remediation, biodiversity refugia, groundwater recharge, and floodwater storage. Realistic estimation of ecosystem service benefits associated with wetlands requires reasonable simulation of the hydrology of each site and realistic simulation of the upland and wetland plant growth cycles. Objectives of this study were to quantify leaf area index (LAI), light extinction coefficient (k), and plant nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) concentrations in natural stands of representative plant species for some major plant functional groups in the United States. Functional groups in this study were based on these parameters and plant growth types to enable process-based modeling. We collected data at four locations representing some of the main wetland regions of the United States. At each site, we collected on-the-ground measurements of fraction of light intercepted, LAI, and dry matter within the 2013–2015 growing seasons. Maximum LAI and k variables showed noticeable variations among sites and years, while overall averages and functional group averages give useful estimates for multisite simulation modeling. Variation within each species gives an indication of what can be expected in such natural ecosystems. For P and K, the concentrations from highest to lowest were spikerush (Eleocharis macrostachya), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), smartweed (Polygonum spp.), cattail (Typha spp.), and hardstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus). Spikerush had the highest N concentration, followed by smartweed, bulrush, reed canary grass, and then cattail. These parameters will be useful for the actual wetland species measured and for the wetland plant functional groups they represent. These parameters and the associated process-based models offer promise as valuable tools for evaluating environmental benefits of wetlands and for evaluating impacts of various agronomic practices in

  10. Representing plants as rigid cylinders in experiments and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Luna, Andrés; Crosato, Alessandra; Calvani, Giulio; Uijttewaal, Wim S. J.

    2016-07-01

    Simulating the morphological adaptation of water systems often requires including the effects of plants on water and sediment dynamics. Physical and numerical models need representing vegetation in a schematic easily-quantifiable way despite the variety of sizes, shapes and flexibility of real plants. Common approaches represent plants as rigid cylinders, but the ability of these schematizations to reproduce the effects of vegetation on morphodynamic processes has never been analyzed systematically. This work focuses on the consequences of representing plants as rigid cylinders in laboratory tests and numerical simulations. New experiments show that the flow resistance decreases for increasing element Reynolds numbers for both plants and rigid cylinders. Cylinders on river banks can qualitatively reproduce vegetation effects on channel width and bank-related processes. A comparative review of numerical simulations shows that Baptist's method that sums the contribution of bed shear stress and vegetation drag, underestimates bed erosion within sparse vegetation in real rivers and overestimates the mean flow velocity in laboratory experiments. This is due to assuming uniform flow among plants and to an overestimation of the role of the submergence ratio.

  11. A Proposed Model for Assessing Defendant Competence to Self-Represent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mitzi M S; Gutheil, Thomas G

    2016-12-01

    The increasing number of criminal defendants who are choosing to self-represent poses special challenges for legal systems with regard to the types of limits that should be placed on a defendant's basic human right to defend himself without the assistance of counsel. While courts strive to respect the dignity and autonomy of the defendant that are encompassed in this right, they also want to ensure that justice is delivered and the dignity of the courtroom is maintained. The Supreme Court of the United States, in its opinion in Indiana v. Edwards (2008), held that while the right to self-represent recognized in Faretta v. California (1975) remains, states and trial judges can place limits on a defendant's right to self-representation when a defendant lacks the mental capacities needed to prepare and conduct an adequate defense. Following the court's lead, we first examine the types and range of tasks that a defendant who chooses to self-represent must perform. Based on this analysis, we propose a five-part model that forensic practitioners can use as a conceptual framework for assessing whether a defendant has deficits that would affect his competence to perform critical self-representation tasks. The five areas that the model recommends practitioners assess are whether a defendant can engage in goal-directed behaviors, has sufficient communication skills, can engage in constructive social intercourse, can control his emotions in an adversarial arena, and has the cognitive abilities needed to argue his case adequately. It is recommended that practitioners use the model in their testimony to provide the trier of fact with a comprehensive report of the areas in which a defendant has deficits that will prevent him from protecting his interests in receiving a fair and equitable trial. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  12. Thermodynamic study and modelling of iron-based melts for adequate prediction of modern ladle metallurgy processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, A. I.; Rodionova, I. G.; Shaposhnikov, N. G.; Zemlyanko, O. A.; Karamisheva, N. A.

    2008-02-01

    The representation of iron-based melts as associated liquids have been developed basing on the detail experimental investigation and analysis of available data on their thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria. It has allowed, for the first time, to interpret adequately the reactivity of the earth metals in the iron-based melts and to predict with high precision the reactions of metal refinement and non-metallic inclusions modifying in modern ladle metallurgy.

  13. Parental role modeling of fruits and vegetables at meals and snacks is associated with children's adequate consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draxten, Michelle; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Friend, Sarah; Flattum, Colleen F; Schow, Robin

    2014-07-01

    Research has shown that parental role modeling of healthful eating behaviors is positively correlated to children's dietary intake and fruit and vegetable (F&V) preferences. The purpose of this study is to (1) examine associations between parent and child report of parental role modeling of F&V consumption at snacks and dinner and (2) determine whether parental role modeling is associated with children meeting daily F&V recommendations. Parent-child dyads (N = 160) participating in the HOME Plus study completed baseline surveys on parental role modeling of F&V at snacks and dinner. Children also completed 24-hour dietary recalls. Spearman correlations and chi-square/Fisher's exact tests were used to examine relationships between parent and child report of parental role modeling of F&V at snacks and dinner and whether children met daily recommendations. On average, children consumed less than three daily servings of F&V with only 23% consuming the recommended servings. Statistically significant correlations were seen between parent and child report of parental role modeling fruit at dinner and green salad at dinner. Children who reported parental role modeling of vegetables at snack and salad at dinner were significantly more likely, than those who did not, to meet daily F&V recommendations. Parents who reported role modeling fruit at snack were significantly more likely to have children who met daily F&V recommendations. Results indicate that children are aware of their parents' eating behaviors and on occasion report this behavior similarly to their parents. Parents should be encouraged to utilize the opportunity to role model healthful dietary intake, especially at snacks, where consumption of F&V appears low. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anatomical features for an adequate choice of experimental animal model in biomedicine: II. Small laboratory rodents, rabbit, and pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossi, Laura; D'Angelo, Livia; De Girolamo, Paolo; Merighi, Adalberto

    2016-03-01

    The anatomical features distinctive to each of the very large array of species used in today's biomedical research must be born in mind when considering the correct choice of animal model(s), particularly when translational research is concerned. In this paper we take into consideration and discuss the most important anatomical and histological features of the commonest species of laboratory rodents (rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, and gerbil), rabbit, and pig related to their importance for applied research.

  15. Representing plant hydraulics in a global Earth system model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, D.; Gentine, P.

    2015-12-01

    Earth system models need improvement to reproduce observed seasonal and diurnal cycles of photosynthesis and respiration. Model water stress parameterizations lag behind the plant physiology literature. A plant hydraulics model is developed and deployed in a global Earth system model (NCAR CESM 1.2.2 with CLM 4.5). Assimilation and transpiration are attenuated according to literature cavitation curves. Water stress is evaluated based on plant functional type hydraulic parameters forced by soil moisture and atmospheric conditions. Resolving the plant water status allows for modelling divergent strategies for water stress. The case of isohydric versus anisohydric species is presented, showing that including plant hydraulic traits alter modelled photosynthesis and transpiration.

  16. Using McDaniel's model to represent non-Rayleigh active sonar reverberation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ming

    Reverberation in active sonar systems has often been observed to follow non-Rayleigh distributions. Current statistical models tend to be either too restrictive, leading to significant mismatch error, or too general, leading to large estimation error. McDaniel's model has shown promise as having reasonably tight representation in terms of skewness and kurtosis for reverberation from a variety of sonar systems. This dissertation intensively explores capability and effectiveness of the generalized McDaniel's model in representing non-Rayleigh reverberation when minimal data are available. Three major topics are covered in this dissertation. First, derivation and computation of the cumulative distribution function of McDaniel's model is addressed. Two approaches, one based on direct integration and the other via characteristic function inversion, are both shown to achieve adequate precision with the former leading to a closed-form solution and the latter requiring significantly less computational effort. Second, parameter estimators using both method of moments (MM) and maximum likelihood (ML) algorithms are developed. The MM estimator has the advantage of a simple and rapid implementation, but the disadvantage of a non- zero probability of a solution not existing. Bootstrap/pruning techniques are proposed to partially deal with the failure of this method. The ML estimator will always provide a solution; however, it requires multivariate optimization. The expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm iteration is also derived for obtaining the ML estimates and compared with the simplex method and quasi-Newton multivariate optimization routines. Furthermore, the ability of various statistical models to represent the probability of false alarm is evaluated as a function of sample size. It is demonstrated that when minimal data are available, McDaniel's model can more accurately represent non-Rayleigh reverberation than the K or Rayleigh mixture models. Third, detection

  17. Adequate Security Protocols Adopt in a Conceptual Model in Identity Management for the Civil Registry of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toapanta, Moisés; Mafla, Enrique; Orizaga, Antonio

    2017-08-01

    We analyzed the problems of security of the information of the civil registries and identification at world level that are considered strategic. The objective is to adopt the appropriate security protocols in a conceptual model in the identity management for the Civil Registry of Ecuador. In this phase, the appropriate security protocols were determined in a Conceptual Model in Identity Management with Authentication, Authorization and Auditing (AAA). We used the deductive method and exploratory research to define the appropriate security protocols to be adopted in the identity model: IPSec, DNSsec, Radius, SSL, TLS, IEEE 802.1X EAP, Set. It was a prototype of the location of the security protocols adopted in the logical design of the technological infrastructure considering the conceptual model for Identity, Authentication, Authorization, and Audit management. It was concluded that the adopted protocols are appropriate for a distributed database and should have a direct relationship with the algorithms, which allows vulnerability and risk mitigation taking into account confidentiality, integrity and availability (CIA).

  18. Explicitly representing soil microbial processes in Earth system models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, William R.; Allison, Steven D.; Davidson, Eric A.; Georgiou, Katerina; Hararuk, Oleksandra; He, Yujie; Hopkins, Francesca; Luo, Yiqi; Smith, Matthew J.; Sulman, Benjamin; Todd-Brown, Katherine; Wang, Ying-Ping; Xia, Jianyang; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2015-10-01

    Microbes influence soil organic matter decomposition and the long-term stabilization of carbon (C) in soils. We contend that by revising the representation of microbial processes and their interactions with the physicochemical soil environment, Earth system models (ESMs) will make more realistic global C cycle projections. Explicit representation of microbial processes presents considerable challenges due to the scale at which these processes occur. Thus, applying microbial theory in ESMs requires a framework to link micro-scale process-level understanding and measurements to macro-scale models used to make decadal- to century-long projections. Here we review the diversity, advantages, and pitfalls of simulating soil biogeochemical cycles using microbial-explicit modeling approaches. We present a roadmap for how to begin building, applying, and evaluating reliable microbial-explicit model formulations that can be applied in ESMs. Drawing from experience with traditional decomposition models, we suggest the following: (1) guidelines for common model parameters and output that can facilitate future model intercomparisons; (2) development of benchmarking and model-data integration frameworks that can be used to effectively guide, inform, and evaluate model parameterizations with data from well-curated repositories; and (3) the application of scaling methods to integrate microbial-explicit soil biogeochemistry modules within ESMs. With contributions across scientific disciplines, we feel this roadmap can advance our fundamental understanding of soil biogeochemical dynamics and more realistically project likely soil C response to environmental change at global scales.

  19. Quantum turing machine and brain model represented by Fock space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriyama, Satoshi; Ohya, Masanori

    2016-05-01

    The adaptive dynamics is known as a new mathematics to treat with a complex phenomena, for example, chaos, quantum algorithm and psychological phenomena. In this paper, we briefly review the notion of the adaptive dynamics, and explain the definition of the generalized Turing machine (GTM) and recognition process represented by the Fock space. Moreover, we show that there exists the quantum channel which is described by the GKSL master equation to achieve the Chaos Amplifier used in [M. Ohya and I. V. Volovich, J. Opt. B 5(6) (2003) 639., M. Ohya and I. V. Volovich, Rep. Math. Phys. 52(1) (2003) 25.

  20. Hard- and software of real time simulation tools of Electric Power System for adequate modeling power semiconductors in voltage source convertor based HVDC and FACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufa Ruslan A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The motivation of the presented research is based on the needs for development of new methods and tools for adequate simulation of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS devices and High Voltage Direct Current Transmission (HVDC system as part of real electric power systems (EPS. For that, a hybrid approach for advanced simulation of the FACTS and HVDC based on Voltage Source is proposed. The presented simulation results of the developed hybrid model of VSC confirm the achievement of the desired properties of the model and the effectiveness of the proposed solutions.

  1. A time fractional model to represent rainfall process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques GOLDER

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a stochastic representation of the rainfall process. The analysis of a rainfall time series shows that cumulative representation of a rainfall time series can be modeled as a non-Gaussian random walk with a log-normal jump distribution and a time-waiting distribution following a tempered α-stable probability law. Based on the random walk model, a fractional Fokker-Planck equation (FFPE with tempered α-stable waiting times was obtained. Through the comparison of observed data and simulated results from the random walk model and FFPE model with tempered α-stable waiting times, it can be concluded that the behavior of the rainfall process is globally reproduced, and the FFPE model with tempered α-stable waiting times is more efficient in reproducing the observed behavior.

  2. Representing Microbial Processes in Environmental Reactive Transport Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Cappellen, P.

    2009-04-01

    Microorganisms play a key role in the biogeochemical functioning of the earth's surface and shallow subsurface. In the context of reactive transport modeling, a major challenge is to derive, parameterize, calibrate and verify mathematical expressions for microbially-mediated reactions in the environmental. This is best achieved by combining field observations, laboratory experiments, theoretical principles and modeling. Here, I will illustrate such an integrated approach for the case of microbial respiration processes in aquatic sediments. Important issues that will be covered include experimental design, model consistency and performance, as well as the bioenergetics and transient behavior of geomicrobial reaction systems.

  3. Representing and managing uncertainty in qualitative ecological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuttle, T.; Bredeweg, B.; Salles, P.; Neumann, M.

    2009-01-01

    Ecologists and decision makers need ways to understand systems, test ideas, and make predictions and explanations about systems. However, uncertainty about causes and effects of processes and parameter values is pervasive in models of ecological systems. Uncertainty associated with incomplete

  4. A Topic Model Approach to Representing and Classifying Football Plays

    KAUST Repository

    Varadarajan, Jagannadan

    2013-09-09

    We address the problem of modeling and classifying American Football offense teams’ plays in video, a challenging example of group activity analysis. Automatic play classification will allow coaches to infer patterns and tendencies of opponents more ef- ficiently, resulting in better strategy planning in a game. We define a football play as a unique combination of player trajectories. To this end, we develop a framework that uses player trajectories as inputs to MedLDA, a supervised topic model. The joint maximiza- tion of both likelihood and inter-class margins of MedLDA in learning the topics allows us to learn semantically meaningful play type templates, as well as, classify different play types with 70% average accuracy. Furthermore, this method is extended to analyze individual player roles in classifying each play type. We validate our method on a large dataset comprising 271 play clips from real-world football games, which will be made publicly available for future comparisons.

  5. Model and observed seismicity represented in a two dimensional space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Caputo

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years theoretical seismology lias introduced
    some formulae relating the magnitude and the seismic moment of earthquakes
    to the size of the fault and the stress drop which generated the
    earthquake.
    In the present paper we introduce a model for the statistics of the
    earthquakes based on these formulae. The model gives formulae which
    show internal consistency and are also confirmed by observations.
    For intermediate magnitudes the formulae reproduce also the trend
    of linearity of the statistics of magnitude and moment observed in all the
    seismic regions of the world. This linear trend changes into a curve with
    increasing slope for large magnitudes and moment.
    When a catalogue of the magnitudes and/or the seismic moment of
    the earthquakes of a seismic region is available, the model allows to estimate
    the maximum magnitude possible in the region.

  6. Physically representative atomistic modeling of atomic-scale friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yalin

    Nanotribology is a research field to study friction, adhesion, wear and lubrication occurred between two sliding interfaces at nano scale. This study is motivated by the demanding need of miniaturization mechanical components in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), improvement of durability in magnetic storage system, and other industrial applications. Overcoming tribological failure and finding ways to control friction at small scale have become keys to commercialize MEMS with sliding components as well as to stimulate the technological innovation associated with the development of MEMS. In addition to the industrial applications, such research is also scientifically fascinating because it opens a door to understand macroscopic friction from the most bottom atomic level, and therefore serves as a bridge between science and engineering. This thesis focuses on solid/solid atomic friction and its associated energy dissipation through theoretical analysis, atomistic simulation, transition state theory, and close collaboration with experimentalists. Reduced-order models have many advantages for its simplification and capacity to simulating long-time event. We will apply Prandtl-Tomlinson models and their extensions to interpret dry atomic-scale friction. We begin with the fundamental equations and build on them step-by-step from the simple quasistatic one-spring, one-mass model for predicting transitions between friction regimes to the two-dimensional and multi-atom models for describing the effect of contact area. Theoretical analysis, numerical implementation, and predicted physical phenomena are all discussed. In the process, we demonstrate the significant potential for this approach to yield new fundamental understanding of atomic-scale friction. Atomistic modeling can never be overemphasized in the investigation of atomic friction, in which each single atom could play a significant role, but is hard to be captured experimentally. In atomic friction, the

  7. Manipulating Models and Grasping the Ideas They Represent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, T. G. K.; Blown, E. J.

    2016-03-01

    This article notes the convergence of recent thinking in neuroscience and grounded cognition regarding the way we understand mental representation and recollection: ideas are dynamic and multi-modal, actively created at the point of recall. Also, neurophysiologically, re-entrant signalling among cortical circuits allows non-conscious processing to support our deliberative thoughts and actions. The qualitative research we describe examines the exchanges occurring during semi-structured interviews with 360 children age 3-13, including 294 from New Zealand (158 boys, 136 girls) and 66 from China (34 boys, 32 girls) concerning their understanding of the shape and motion of the Earth, Sun and Moon (ESM). We look closely at the relationships between what is revealed as children manipulate their own play-dough models and their apparent understandings of ESM concepts. In particular, we focus on the switching taking place between what is said, what is drawn and what is modelled. The evidence is supportive of Edelman's view that memory is non-representational and that concepts are the outcome of perceptual mappings, a view which is also in accord with Barsalou's notion that concepts are simulators or skills which operate consistently across several modalities. Quantitative data indicate that the dynamic structure of memory/concept creation is similar in both genders and common to the cultures/ethnicities compared (New Zealand European and Māori; Chinese Han) and that repeated interviews in this longitudinal research lead to more advanced modelling skills and/or more advanced shape and motion concepts, the results supporting hypotheses ( Kolmogorov- Smirnov alpha levels .05; r s : p < .001).

  8. Studying Effective Factors on Corporate Entrepreneurship: Representing a Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Soleimani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Development and advancement of current organizations depends on Corporate Entrepreneurship (CE and its anticipants considerably. Therefore purpose of conducting this survey is to study effective factors on corporate entrepreneurship (personal characteristics of entrepreneurship, human resource practices, organizational culture and employees' satisfaction. This survey was conducted using descriptive-field methodology. Statistical population included managers and experts of Hexa Consulting Engineers Company (Tehran/Iran and the sample consisted of forty seven of them. Questionnaire was tool of data collection. Data was collected in cross-sectional form in July-August 2011. Descriptive and inferential (spearman correlation statistics methods were used for data analysis. According to results, there is a positive significant relationship among all factors (personal characteristics of entrepreneurship, human resource practices, organizational culture and employees' satisfaction and corporate entrepreneurship. In other words, the proposed variables as effective factors on corporate entrepreneurship were confirmed in conceptual model of survey.

  9. Modeling and Representing National Climate Assessment Information using Linked Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J.; Tilmes, C.; Smith, A.; Zednik, S.; Fox, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    Every four years, earth scientists work together on a National Climate Assessment (NCA) report which integrates, evaluates, and interprets the findings of climate change and impacts on affected industries such as agriculture, natural environment, energy production and use, etc. Given the amount of information presented in each report, and the wide range of information sources and topics, it can be difficult for users to find and identify desired information. To ease the user effort of information discovery, well-structured metadata is needed that describes the report's key statements and conclusions and provide for traceable provenance of data sources used. We present an assessment ontology developed to describe terms, concepts and relations required for the NCA metadata. Wherever possible, the assessment ontology reuses terms from well-known ontologies such as Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontology, Dublin Core (DC) vocabulary. We have generated sample National Climate Assessment metadata conforming to our assessment ontology and publicly exposed via a SPARQL-endpoint and website. We have also modeled provenance information for the NCA writing activities using the W3C recommendation-candidate PROV-O ontology. Using this provenance the user will be able to trace the sources of information used in the assessment and therefore make trust decisions. In the future, we are planning to implement a faceted browser over the metadata to enhance metadata traversal and information discovery.

  10. Molecular Simulation towards Efficient and Representative Subsurface Reservoirs Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Kadoura, Ahmad

    2016-09-01

    This dissertation focuses on the application of Monte Carlo (MC) molecular simulation and Molecular Dynamics (MD) in modeling thermodynamics and flow of subsurface reservoir fluids. At first, MC molecular simulation is proposed as a promising method to replace correlations and equations of state in subsurface flow simulators. In order to accelerate MC simulations, a set of early rejection schemes (conservative, hybrid, and non-conservative) in addition to extrapolation methods through reweighting and reconstruction of pre-generated MC Markov chains were developed. Furthermore, an extensive study was conducted to investigate sorption and transport processes of methane, carbon dioxide, water, and their mixtures in the inorganic part of shale using both MC and MD simulations. These simulations covered a wide range of thermodynamic conditions, pore sizes, and fluid compositions shedding light on several interesting findings. For example, the possibility to have more carbon dioxide adsorbed with more preadsorbed water concentrations at relatively large basal spaces. The dissertation is divided into four chapters. The first chapter corresponds to the introductory part where a brief background about molecular simulation and motivations are given. The second chapter is devoted to discuss the theoretical aspects and methodology of the proposed MC speeding up techniques in addition to the corresponding results leading to the successful multi-scale simulation of the compressible single-phase flow scenario. In chapter 3, the results regarding our extensive study on shale gas at laboratory conditions are reported. At the fourth and last chapter, we end the dissertation with few concluding remarks highlighting the key findings and summarizing the future directions.

  11. Comparison of Statistical Multifragmentation Model simulations with Canonical Thermodynamical Model results: a few representative cases

    CERN Document Server

    Botvina, A; Gupta, S Das; Mishustin, I

    2008-01-01

    The statistical multifragmentation model (SMM) has been widely used to explain experimental data of intermediate energy heavy ion collisions. A later entrant in the field is the canonical thermodynamic model (CTM) which is also being used to fit experimental data. The basic physics of both the models is the same, namely that fragments are produced according to their statistical weights in the available phase space. However, they are based on different statistical ensembles, and the methods of calculation are different: while the SMM uses Monte-Carlo simulations, the CTM solves recursion relations. In this paper we compare the predictions of the two models for a few representative cases.

  12. A box model for representing estuarine physical processes in Earth system models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Whitney, Michael M.; Bryan, Frank O.; Tseng, Yu-heng

    2017-04-01

    Appropriately treating riverine freshwater discharge into the oceans in Earth system models is a challenging problem. Commonly, the river runoff is discharged into the ocean models with zero salinity and arbitrarily distributed either horizontally or vertically over several grid cells. Those approaches entirely neglect estuarine physical processes that modify river inputs before they reach the open ocean. In order to realistically represent riverine freshwater inputs in Earth system models, a physically based Estuary Box Model (EBM) is developed to parameterize the mixing processes in estuaries. The EBM represents the estuary exchange circulation with a two-layer box structure. It takes as input the river volume flux from the land surface model and the subsurface salinity at the estuary mouth from the ocean model. It delivers the estuarine outflow salinity and net volume flux into and out of the estuary to the ocean model. An offline test of the EBM forced with observed conditions for the Columbia River system shows good agreement with observations of outflow salinity and high-resolution simulations of the exchange flow volume flux. To illustrate the practicality of use of the EBM in an Earth system model, the EBM is implemented for all coastal grid cells with river runoff in the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Compared to the standard version of CESM, which treats runoff as an augmentation to precipitation, the EBM increases sea surface salinity and reduces stratification near river mouths. The EBM also leads to significant regional and remote changes in CESM ocean surface salinities.

  13. Split Quasi-adequate Semigroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Jiang GUO; Ting Ting PENG

    2012-01-01

    The so-called split IC quasi-adequate semigroups are in the class of idempotent-connected quasi-adequate semigroups.It is proved that an IC quasi-adequate semigroup is split if and only if it has an adequate transversal.The structure of such semigroup whose band of idempotents is regular will be particularly investigated.Our obtained results enrich those results given by McAlister and Blyth on split orthodox semigroups.

  14. Hyperbolic semi-adequate links

    OpenAIRE

    Futer, David; Kalfagianni, Efstratia; Purcell, Jessica S.

    2013-01-01

    We provide a diagrammatic criterion for semi-adequate links to be hyperbolic. We also give a conjectural description of the satellite structures of semi-adequate links. One application of our result is that the closures of sufficiently complicated positive braids are hyperbolic links.

  15. Representing humans in system security models: An actor-network approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter

    2011-01-01

    System models to assess the vulnerability of information systems to security threats typically represent a physical infrastructure (buildings) and a digital infrastructure (computers and networks), in combination with an attacker traversing the system while acquiring credentials. Other humans are ge

  16. Representing humans in system security models: An actor-network approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter

    2011-01-01

    System models to assess the vulnerability of information systems to security threats typically represent a physical infrastructure (buildings) and a digital infrastructure (computers and networks), in combination with an attacker traversing the system while acquiring credentials. Other humans are ge

  17. Current European guidelines for management of arterial hypertension: Are they adequate for use in primary care? Modelling study based on the Norwegian HUNT 2 population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetlevik Irene

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies indicate that clinical guidelines using combined risk evaluation for cardiovascular diseases (CVD may overestimate risk. The aim of this study was to model and discuss implementation of the current (2007 hypertension guidelines in a general Norwegian population. Methods Implementation of the current European Guidelines for the Management of Arterial Hypertension was modelled on data from a cross-sectional, representative Norwegian population study (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 1995-97, comprising 65,028 adults, aged 20-89, of whom 51,066 (79% were eligible for modelling. Results Among individuals with blood pressure ≥120/80 mmHg, 93% (74% of the total, adult population would need regular clinical attention and/or drug treatment, based on their total CVD risk profile. This translates into 296,624 follow-up visits/100,000 adults/year. In the Norwegian healthcare environment, 99 general practitioner (GP positions would be required in the study region for this task alone. The number of GPs currently serving the adult population in the study area is 87 per 100,000 adults. Conclusion The potential workload associated with the European hypertension guidelines could destabilise the healthcare system in Norway, one of the world's most long- and healthy-living nations, by international comparison. Large-scale, preventive medical enterprises can hardly be regarded as scientifically sound and ethically justifiable, unless issues of practical feasibility, sustainability and social determinants of health are considered.

  18. Representing hybrid compensatory non-compensatory choice set formation in semi-compensatory models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Bekhor, Shlomo; Shigtan, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    Semi-compensatory models represent a choice process consisting of an elimination-based choice set formation upon satisfying criteria thresholds and a utility-based choice. Current semi-compensatory models assume a purely non-compensatory choice set formation and hence do not support multinomial c...

  19. Modeling and Depletion Simulations for a High Flux Isotope Reactor Cycle with a Representative Experiment Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Betzler, Ben [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Hirtz, Gregory John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Ilas, Germina [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Sunny, Eva [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document a high-fidelity VESTA/MCNP High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) core model that features a new, representative experiment loading. This model, which represents the current, high-enriched uranium fuel core, will serve as a reference for low-enriched uranium conversion studies, safety-basis calculations, and other research activities. A new experiment loading model was developed to better represent current, typical experiment loadings, in comparison to the experiment loading included in the model for Cycle 400 (operated in 2004). The new experiment loading model for the flux trap target region includes full length 252Cf production targets, 75Se production capsules, 63Ni production capsules, a 188W production capsule, and various materials irradiation targets. Fully loaded 238Pu production targets are modeled in eleven vertical experiment facilities located in the beryllium reflector. Other changes compared to the Cycle 400 model are the high-fidelity modeling of the fuel element side plates and the material composition of the control elements. Results obtained from the depletion simulations with the new model are presented, with a focus on time-dependent isotopic composition of irradiated fuel and single cycle isotope production metrics.

  20. A general mathematical framework for representing soil organic matter dynamics in biogeochemistry models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, C. A.; Mueller, M.

    2013-12-01

    Recent work have highlighted the importance of nonlinear interactions in representing the decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM). It is unclear however how to integrate these concepts into larger biogeochemical models or into a more general mathematical description of the decomposition process. Here we present a mathematical framework that generalizes both previous decomposition models and recent ideas about nonlinear microbial interactions. The framework is based on a set of four basic principles: 1) mass balance, 2) heterogeneity in the decomposability of SOM, 3) transformations in the decomposability of SOM over time, 4) energy limitation of decomposers. This framework generalizes a large majority of SOM decomposition models proposed to date. We illustrate the application of this framework to the development of a continuous model that includes the ideas in the Dual Arrhenius Michaelis-Menten Model (DAMM) for explicitly representing temperature-moisture limitations of enzyme activity in the decomposition of heterogenous substrates.

  1. Combining 3d Volume and Mesh Models for Representing Complicated Heritage Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, F.; Chang, H.; Lin, Y.-W.

    2017-08-01

    This study developed a simple but effective strategy to combine 3D volume and mesh models for representing complicated heritage buildings and structures. The idea is to seamlessly integrate 3D parametric or polyhedral models and mesh-based digital surfaces to generate a hybrid 3D model that can take advantages of both modeling methods. The proposed hybrid model generation framework is separated into three phases. Firstly, after acquiring or generating 3D point clouds of the target, these 3D points are partitioned into different groups. Secondly, a parametric or polyhedral model of each group is generated based on plane and surface fitting algorithms to represent the basic structure of that region. A "bare-bones" model of the target can subsequently be constructed by connecting all 3D volume element models. In the third phase, the constructed bare-bones model is used as a mask to remove points enclosed by the bare-bones model from the original point clouds. The remaining points are then connected to form 3D surface mesh patches. The boundary points of each surface patch are identified and these boundary points are projected onto the surfaces of the bare-bones model. Finally, new meshes are created to connect the projected points and original mesh boundaries to integrate the mesh surfaces with the 3D volume model. The proposed method was applied to an open-source point cloud data set and point clouds of a local historical structure. Preliminary results indicated that the reconstructed hybrid models using the proposed method can retain both fundamental 3D volume characteristics and accurate geometric appearance with fine details. The reconstructed hybrid models can also be used to represent targets in different levels of detail according to user and system requirements in different applications.

  2. Real Time Investments with Adequate Portfolio Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kvietkauskienė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify investment decision makingschemes using the adequate portfolio model. This approach can be employed to project investment in stocks, using the opportunities offered by the markets and investor intelligence. It was decided to use adequate portfolio theory for investment decision making, simulation of financial markets, and optimisation of utility function. The main conclusion of article suggests investigating return on individual portfolio level. Real investment is a way to make sure of the soundness of applicable strategies.

  3. Select strengths and biases of models in representing the Arctic winter boundary layer over sea ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pithan, Felix; Ackerman, Andrew; Angevine, Wayne M.; Hartung, Kerstin; Ickes, Luisa; Kelley, Maxwell; Medeiros, Brian; Sandu, Irina; Steeneveld, Gert Jan; Sterk, H.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Weather and climate models struggle to represent lower tropospheric temperature and moisture profiles and surface fluxes in Arctic winter, partly because they lack or misrepresent physical processes that are specific to high latitudes. Observations have revealed two preferred states of the Arctic

  4. Select strengths and biases of models in representing the Arctic winter boundary layer over sea ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pithan, Felix; Ackerman, Andrew; Angevine, Wayne M.; Hartung, Kerstin; Ickes, Luisa; Kelley, Maxwell; Medeiros, Brian; Sandu, Irina; Steeneveld, Gert Jan; Sterk, H.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Weather and climate models struggle to represent lower tropospheric temperature and moisture profiles and surface fluxes in Arctic winter, partly because they lack or misrepresent physical processes that are specific to high latitudes. Observations have revealed two preferred states of the Arctic

  5. Representing tissue mass and morphology in mechanistic models of digestive function in ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, J.; France, J.

    2011-01-01

    Representing changes in morphological and histological characteristics of epithelial tissue in the rumen and intestine and to evaluate their implications for absorption and tissue mass in models of digestive function requires a quantitative approach. The aim of the present study was to quantify tiss

  6. Feasibility of Representing Data from Published Nursing Research Using the OMOP Common Data Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeoneui; Choi, Jeeyae; Jang, Imho; Quach, Jimmy; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2016-01-01

    We explored the feasibility of representing nursing research data with the Observational Medical Outcomes Partners (OMOP) Common Data Model (CDM) to understand the challenges and opportunities in representing various types of health data not limited to diseases and drug treatments. We collected 1,431 unique data items from 256 nursing articles and mapped them to the OMOP CDM. A deeper level of mapping was explored by simulating 10 data search use cases. Although the majority of the data could be represented in the OMOP CDM, potential information loss was identified in contents related to patient reported outcomes, socio-economic information, and locally developed nursing intervention protocols. These areas will be further investigated in a follow up study. We will use lessons learned in this study to inform the metadata development efforts for data discovery.

  7. Representing time-varying cyclic dynamics using multiple-subject state-space models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Sy-Miin; Hamaker, Ellen L; Fujita, Frank; Boker, Steven M

    2009-11-01

    Over the last few decades, researchers have become increasingly aware of the need to consider intraindividual variability in the form of cyclic processes. In this paper, we review two contemporary cyclic state-space models: Young and colleagues' dynamic harmonic regression model and Harvey and colleagues' stochastic cycle model. We further derive the analytic equivalence between the two models, discuss their unique strengths and propose multiple-subject extensions. Using data from a study on human postural dynamics and a daily affect study, we demonstrate the use of these models to represent within-person non-stationarities in cyclic dynamics and interindividual differences therein. The use of diagnostic tools for evaluating model fit is also illustrated.

  8. Representing Operational Knowledge of PWR Plant by Using Multilevel Flow Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2014-01-01

    situation and support operational decisions. This paper will provide a general MFM model of the primary side in a standard Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor ( PWR ) system including sub - systems of Reactor Coolant System, Rod Control System, Chemical and Volume Control System, emergency heat removal......The aim of this paper is to explore the capability of representing operational knowledge by using Multilevel Flow Modelling ( MFM ) methodology. The paper demonstrate s how the operational knowledge can be inserted into the MFM models and be used to evaluate the plant state, identify the current...... systems. And the sub - systems’ functions will be decomposed into sub - models according to different operational situations. An operational model will be developed based on the operating procedure by using MFM symbols and this model can be used to implement coordination rules for organize the utilizati...

  9. Lattice-Boltzmann modeling of micromodel experiments representing a CO2-brine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Mark L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kang, Qinjun [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tarimala, Sowmitri [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abdel - Fattah, Amr I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carey, James W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-21

    Successful sequestration of CO{sub 2} into deep saline aquifers presents an enormous challenge that requires fundamental understanding of reactive-multi phase flow and transport across many temporal and spatial scales. Of critical importance is accurately predicting the efficiency of CO{sub 2} trapping mechanisms. At the pore scale (e.g., microns to millimeters) the interfacial area between CO{sub 2} and brine, as well as CO{sub 2} and the solid phase, directly influences the amount of CO{sub 2} trapped due to capillary forces, dissolution and mineral precipitation. In this work, we model immiscible displacement micromodel experiments using the lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method. We focus on quantifying interfacial area as a function of capillary numbers and viscosity ratios typically encountered in CO{sub 2} sequestration operations. We show that the LB model adequately predicts the steady-state experimental flow patterns and interfacial area measurements. Based on the steady-state agreement, we use the LB model to investigate interfacial dynamics (e.g., fluid-fluid interfacial velocity and the rate of production of fluid-fluid interfacial area). In addition, we quantify the amount of interfacial area and the interfacial dynamics associated with the capillary trapped nonwetting phase. This is expected to be important for predicting the amount of nonwetting phase subsequently trapped due to dissolution and mineral precipitation.

  10. Lattice-Boltzmann modeling of micromodel experiments representing a CO2-brine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Mark L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kang, Qinjun [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tarimala, Sowmitri [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abdel - Fattah, Amr I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carey, James W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-21

    Successful sequestration of CO{sub 2} into deep saline aquifers presents an enormous challenge that requires fundamental understanding of reactive-multi phase flow and transport across many temporal and spatial scales. Of critical importance is accurately predicting the efficiency of CO{sub 2} trapping mechanisms. At the pore scale (e.g., microns to millimeters) the interfacial area between CO{sub 2} and brine, as well as CO{sub 2} and the solid phase, directly influences the amount of CO{sub 2} trapped due to capillary forces, dissolution and mineral precipitation. In this work, we model immiscible displacement micromodel experiments using the lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method. We focus on quantifying interfacial area as a function of capillary numbers and viscosity ratios typically encountered in CO{sub 2} sequestration operations. We show that the LB model adequately predicts the steady-state experimental flow patterns and interfacial area measurements. Based on the steady-state agreement, we use the LB model to investigate interfacial dynamics (e.g., fluid-fluid interfacial velocity and the rate of production of fluid-fluid interfacial area). In addition, we quantify the amount of interfacial area and the interfacial dynamics associated with the capillary trapped nonwetting phase. This is expected to be important for predicting the amount of nonwetting phase subsequently trapped due to dissolution and mineral precipitation.

  11. Can Geostatistical Models Represent Nature's Variability? An Analysis Using Flume Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidt, C.; Fernandes, A. M.; Paola, C.; Caers, J.

    2015-12-01

    The lack of understanding in the Earth's geological and physical processes governing sediment deposition render subsurface modeling subject to large uncertainty. Geostatistics is often used to model uncertainty because of its capability to stochastically generate spatially varying realizations of the subsurface. These methods can generate a range of realizations of a given pattern - but how representative are these of the full natural variability? And how can we identify the minimum set of images that represent this natural variability? Here we use this minimum set to define the geostatistical prior model: a set of training images that represent the range of patterns generated by autogenic variability in the sedimentary environment under study. The proper definition of the prior model is essential in capturing the variability of the depositional patterns. This work starts with a set of overhead images from an experimental basin that showed ongoing autogenic variability. We use the images to analyze the essential characteristics of this suite of patterns. In particular, our goal is to define a prior model (a minimal set of selected training images) such that geostatistical algorithms, when applied to this set, can reproduce the full measured variability. A necessary prerequisite is to define a measure of variability. In this study, we measure variability using a dissimilarity distance between the images. The distance indicates whether two snapshots contain similar depositional patterns. To reproduce the variability in the images, we apply an MPS algorithm to the set of selected snapshots of the sedimentary basin that serve as training images. The training images are chosen from among the initial set by using the distance measure to ensure that only dissimilar images are chosen. Preliminary investigations show that MPS can reproduce fairly accurately the natural variability of the experimental depositional system. Furthermore, the selected training images provide

  12. Application of the generalized vertical coordinate ocean model for better representing satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y. T.

    2002-01-01

    It is found that two adaptive parametric functions can be introduced into the basic ocean equations for utilizing the optimal or hybrid features of commonly used z-level, terrain- following, isopycnal, and pressure coordinates in numerical ocean models. The two parametric functions are formulated by combining three techniques: the arbitrary vertical coordinate system of Kasahara (1 974), the Jacobian pressure gradient formulation of Song (1 998), and a newly developed metric factor that permits both compressible (non-Boussinesq) and incompressible (Boussinesq) approximations. Based on the new formulation, an adaptive modeling strategy is proposed and a staggered finite volume method is designed to ensure conservation of important physical properties and numerical accuracy. Implementation of the combined techniques to SCRUM (Song and Haidvogel1994) shows that the adaptive modeling strategy can be applied to any existing ocean model without incurring computational expense or altering the original numerical schemes. Such a generalized coordinate model is expected to benefit diverse ocean modelers for easily choosing optimal vertical structures and sharing modeling resources based on a common model platform. Several representing oceanographic problems with different scales and characteristics, such as coastal canyons, basin-scale circulation, and global ocean circulation, are used to demonstrate the model's capability for multiple applications. New results show that the model is capable of simultaneously resolving both Boussinesq and non-Boussinesq, and both small- and large-scale processes well. This talk will focus on its applications of multiple satellite sensing data in eddy-resolving simulations of Asian Marginal Sea and Kurosio. Attention will be given to how Topex/Poseidon SSH, TRMM SST; and GRACE ocean bottom pressure can be correctly represented in a non- Boussinesq model.

  13. Representative Model of the Learning Process in Virtual Spaces Supported by ICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José CAPACHO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of research activities for building the representative model of the learning process in virtual spaces (e-Learning. The formal basis of the model are supported in the analysis of models of learning assessment in virtual spaces and specifically in Dembo´s teaching learning model, the systemic approach to evaluating virtual learning by Badrul H. Khan, and the Cybernetic model for evaluating virtual learning environments. The e-Learning model is systemic and of feedback by nature. The model integrates the society, Institution of Education, virtual training platform, virtual teacher and students, and finally the assessment of student learning in virtual learning spaces supported by ICT. The model consists of fourteen processes. Processes are defined taking into account the following dimensions: identification, academic, pedagogical, educational, formative, evaluative, assessment of virtual learning and technological. The model is fundamental to the management of e-learning supported by ICT, justified by the fact that it is an operative model of the teaching-learning process in virtual spaces. The importance of having an operative model in virtual education is to project the management and decision in virtual education. Then the operational, administrative and decision phases will allow the creation of a set of indicators. These indicators will assess the process of virtual education not only in students but also in the virtual institution.

  14. REPRESENTATIVE MODEL OF THE LEARNING PROCESS IN VIRTUAL SPACES SUPPORTED BY ICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José CAPACHO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of research activities for building the representative model of the learning process in virtual spaces (e-Learning. The formal basis of the model are supported in the analysis of models of learning assessment in virtual spaces and specifically in Dembo´s teaching learning model, the systemic approach to evaluating virtual learning by Badrul H. Khan, and the Cybernetic model for evaluating virtual learning environments. The e-Learning model is systemic and of feedback by nature. The model integrates the society, Institution of Education, virtual training platform, virtual teacher and students, and finally the assessment of student learning in virtual learning spaces supported by ICT. The model consists of fourteen processes. Processes are defined taking into account the following dimensions: identification, academic, pedagogical, educational, formative, evaluative, assessment of virtual learning and technological. The model is fundamental to the management of e-learning supported by ICT, justified by the fact that it is an operative model of the teaching-learning process in virtual spaces. The importance of having an operative model in virtual education is to project the management and decision in virtual education. Then the operational, administrative and decision phases will allow the creation of a set of indicators. These indicators will assess the process of virtual education not only in students but also in the virtual institution.

  15. Emotion as a thermostat: representing emotion regulation using a damped oscillator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Sy-Miin; Ram, Nilam; Boker, Steven M; Fujita, Frank; Clore, Gerald

    2005-06-01

    The authors present in this study a damped oscillator model that provides a direct mathematical basis for testing the notion of emotion as a self-regulatory thermostat. Parameters from this model reflect individual differences in emotional lability and the ability to regulate emotion. The authors discuss concepts such as intensity, rate of change, and acceleration in the context of emotion, and they illustrate the strengths of this approach in comparison with spectral analysis and growth curve models. The utility of this modeling approach is illustrated using daily emotion ratings from 179 college students over 52 consecutive days. Overall, the damped oscillator model provides a meaningful way of representing emotion regulation as a dynamic process and helps identify the dominant periodicities in individuals' emotions.

  16. How large-scale energy-environment models represent technology and technological change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    In the process of selecting measures against global warming, it is important to consider the introduction of technological innovations into the models, and studies were made in this connection. An induced technical change model has to be an economically total model that represents various incentives involving the form of profits from innovations; profits from cost functions, research-and-development production functions, and abstract profits from empirical estimates; and the dimensions in which technological change is assumed to progress. Under study at the Stanford Energy Modeling Forum is how to represent various technological assumptions and development, which is necessary to predict the cost for dealing with global warming. At the conference of February 2001, 10 cases of preliminary model scenarios were discussed. In one case, for instance, a carbon tax of $25/ton in 2010 is raised $25 every decade to be $100/ton in 2040. Three working groups are engaged in the study of long-run economy/technology baseline scenarios, characterization of current and potential future technologies, and ways of modeling technological change. (NEDO)

  17. REPRESENTING AEROSOL DYNAMICS AND PROPERTIES IN CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELS BY THE METHOD OF MOMENTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHWARTZ, S.E.; MCGRAW, R.; BENKOVITZ, C.M.; WRIGHT, D.L.

    2001-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols, suspensions of solid or liquid particles, are an important multi-phase system. Aerosols scatter and absorb shortwave (solar) radiation, affecting climate (Charlson et al., 1992; Schwartz, 1996) and visibility; nucleate cloud droplet formation, modifying the reflectivity of clouds (Twomey et al., 1984; Schwartz and Slingo, 1996) as well as contributing to composition of cloudwater and to wet deposition (Seinfeld and Pandis, 1998); and affect human health through inhalation (NRC, 1998). Existing and prospective air quality regulations impose standards on concentrations of atmospheric aerosols to protect human health and welfare (EPA, 1998). Chemical transport and transformation models representing the loading and geographical distribution of aerosols and precursor gases are needed to permit development of effective and efficient strategies for meeting air quality standards, and for examining aerosol effects on climate retrospectively and prospectively for different emissions scenarios. Important aerosol properties and processes depend on their size distribution: light scattering, cloud nucleating properties, dry deposition, and penetration into airways of lungs. The evolution of the mass loading itself depends on particle size because of the size dependence of growth and removal processes. For these reasons it is increasingly recognized that chemical transport and transformation models must represent not just the mass loading of atmospheric particulate matter but also the aerosol microphysical properties and the evolution of these properties if aerosols are to be accurately represented in these models. If the size distribution of the aerosol is known, a given property can be evaluated as the integral of the appropriate kernel function over the size distribution. This has motivated the approach of determining aerosol size distribution, and of explicitly representing this distribution and its evolution in chemical transport models.

  18. A transferable coarse-grained model for diphenylalanine: How to represent an environment driven conformational transition

    OpenAIRE

    Dalgıçdir, Cahit; Şensoy, Özge; Sayar, Mehmet; Peter, Christine

    2013-01-01

    A transferable coarse-grained model for diphenylalanine: How to represent an environment driven conformational transition Cahit Dalgicdir, Ozge Sensoy, Christine Peter, and Mehmet Sayar Citation: The Journal of Chemical Physics 139, 234115 (2013); doi: 10.1063/1.4848675 View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4848675 View Table of Contents: http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/jcp/139/23?ver=pdfcov Published by the AIP Publishing Articles you may be interested in...

  19. Explicitly representing soil microbial processes in Earth system models: Soil microbes in earth system models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieder, William R. [Climate and Global Dynamics Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Allison, Steven D. [Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine California USA; Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine California USA; Davidson, Eric A. [Appalachian Laboratory, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Frostburg Maryland USA; Georgiou, Katerina [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley California USA; Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley California USA; Hararuk, Oleksandra [Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria British Columbia Canada; He, Yujie [Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine California USA; Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette Indiana USA; Hopkins, Francesca [Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine California USA; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California USA; Luo, Yiqi [Department of Microbiology & Plant Biology, University of Oklahoma, Norman Oklahoma USA; Smith, Matthew J. [Computational Science Laboratory, Microsoft Research, Cambridge UK; Sulman, Benjamin [Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington Indiana USA; Todd-Brown, Katherine [Department of Microbiology & Plant Biology, University of Oklahoma, Norman Oklahoma USA; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Wang, Ying-Ping [CSIRO Ocean and Atmosphere Flagship, Aspendale Victoria Australia; Xia, Jianyang [Department of Microbiology & Plant Biology, University of Oklahoma, Norman Oklahoma USA; Tiantong National Forest Ecosystem Observation and Research Station, School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai China; Xu, Xiaofeng [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, Texas USA

    2015-10-01

    Microbes influence soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and the long-term stabilization of carbon (C) in soils. We contend that by revising the representation of microbial processes and their interactions with the physicochemical soil environment, Earth system models (ESMs) may make more realistic global C cycle projections. Explicit representation of microbial processes presents considerable challenges due to the scale at which these processes occur. Thus, applying microbial theory in ESMs requires a framework to link micro-scale process-level understanding and measurements to macro-scale models used to make decadal- to century-long projections. Here, we review the diversity, advantages, and pitfalls of simulating soil biogeochemical cycles using microbial-explicit modeling approaches. We present a roadmap for how to begin building, applying, and evaluating reliable microbial-explicit model formulations that can be applied in ESMs. Drawing from experience with traditional decomposition models we suggest: (1) guidelines for common model parameters and output that can facilitate future model intercomparisons; (2) development of benchmarking and model-data integration frameworks that can be used to effectively guide, inform, and evaluate model parameterizations with data from well-curated repositories; and (3) the application of scaling methods to integrate microbial-explicit soil biogeochemistry modules within ESMs. With contributions across scientific disciplines, we feel this roadmap can advance our fundamental understanding of soil biogeochemical dynamics and more realistically project likely soil C response to environmental change at global scales.

  20. Flow-Shop Scheduling Models with Parameters Represented by Rough Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In reality, processing times are often imprecise and this imprecision is critical for the scheduling procedure. This research deals with flow-shop scheduling in rough environment. In this type of scheduling problem, we employ the rough sets to represent the job parameters. The job processing times are assumed to be rough variables, and the problem is to minimize the makespan. Three novel types of rough scheduling models are presented. A rough simulation-based genetic algorithm is designed to solve these models and its effectiveness is well illustrated by numerical experiments.

  1. Dynamic viscosity modeling of methane plus n-decane and methane plus toluene mixtures: Comparative study of some representative models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baylaucq, A.; Boned, C.; Canet, X.;

    2005-01-01

    .15 and for several methane compositions. Although very far from real petroleum fluids, these mixtures are interesting in order to study the potential of extending various models to the simulation of complex fluids with asymmetrical components (light/heavy hydrocarbon). These data (575 data points) have been...... discussed in the framework of recent representative models (hard sphere scheme, friction theory, and free volume model) and with mixing laws and two empirical models (particularly the LBC model which is commonly used in petroleum engineering, and the self-referencing model). This comparative study shows...

  2. A computational model of the hippocampus that represents environmental structure and goal location, and guides movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Jumpei; Makino, Yoshinari; Miura, Haruki; Yano, Masafumi

    2011-08-01

    Hippocampal place cells (PCs) are believed to represent environmental structure. However, it is unclear how and which brain regions represent goals and guide movements. Recently, another type of cells that fire around a goal was found in rat hippocampus (we designate these cells as goal place cells, GPCs). This suggests that the hippocampus is also involved in goal representation. Assuming that the activities of GPCs depend on the distance to a goal, we propose an adaptive navigation model. By monitoring the population activity of GPCs, the model navigates to shorten the distance to the goal. To achieve the distance-dependent activities of GPCs, plastic connections are assumed between PCs and GPCs, which are modified depending on two reward-triggered activities: activity propagation through PC-PC network representing the topological environmental structure, and the activity of GPCs with different durations. The former activity propagation is regarded as a computational interpretation of "reverse replay" phenomenon found in rat hippocampus. Simulation results confirm that after reaching a goal only once, the model can navigate to the goal along almost the shortest path from arbitrary places in the environment. This indicates that the hippocampus might play a primary role in the representation of not only the environmental structure but also the goal, in addition to guiding the movement. This navigation strategy using the population activity of GPCs is equivalent to the taxis strategy, the simplest and most basic for biological systems. Our model is unique because this simple strategy allows the model to follow the shortest path in the topological map of the environment.

  3. A proposed-standard format to represent and distribute tomographic models and other earth spatial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postpischl, L.; Morelli, A.; Danecek, P.

    2009-04-01

    Formats used to represent (and distribute) tomographic earth models differ considerably and are rarely self-consistent. In fact, each earth scientist, or research group, uses specific conventions to encode the various parameterizations used to describe, e.g., seismic wave speed or density in three dimensions, and complete information is often found in related documents or publications (if available at all) only. As a consequence, use of various tomographic models from different authors requires considerable effort, is more cumbersome than it should be and prevents widespread exchange and circulation within the community. We propose a format, based on modern web standards, able to represent different (grid-based) model parameterizations within the same simple text-based environment, easy to write, to parse, and to visualise. The aim is the creation of self-describing data-structures, both human and machine readable, that are automatically recognised by general-purpose software agents, and easily imported in the scientific programming environment. We think that the adoption of such a representation as a standard for the exchange and distribution of earth models can greatly ease their usage and enhance their circulation, both among fellow seismologists and among a broader non-specialist community. The proposed solution uses semantic web technologies, fully fitting the current trends in data accessibility. It is based on Json (JavaScript Object Notation), a plain-text, human-readable lightweight computer data interchange format, which adopts a hierarchical name-value model for representing simple data structures and associative arrays (called objects). Our implementation allows integration of large datasets with metadata (authors, affiliations, bibliographic references, units of measure etc.) into a single resource. It is equally suited to represent other geo-referenced volumetric quantities — beyond tomographic models — as well as (structured and unstructured

  4. A model-driven approach for representing clinical archetypes for Semantic Web environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Costa, Catalina; Menárguez-Tortosa, Marcos; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás; Maldonado, José Alberto

    2009-02-01

    The life-long clinical information of any person supported by electronic means configures his Electronic Health Record (EHR). This information is usually distributed among several independent and heterogeneous systems that may be syntactically or semantically incompatible. There are currently different standards for representing and exchanging EHR information among different systems. In advanced EHR approaches, clinical information is represented by means of archetypes. Most of these approaches use the Archetype Definition Language (ADL) to specify archetypes. However, ADL has some drawbacks when attempting to perform semantic activities in Semantic Web environments. In this work, Semantic Web technologies are used to specify clinical archetypes for advanced EHR architectures. The advantages of using the Ontology Web Language (OWL) instead of ADL are described and discussed in this work. Moreover, a solution combining Semantic Web and Model-driven Engineering technologies is proposed to transform ADL into OWL for the CEN EN13606 EHR architecture.

  5. Data Structure Analysis to Represent Basic Models of Finite State Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Gurenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex system engineering based on the automaton models requires a reasoned data structure selection to implement them. The problem of automaton representation and data structure selection to be used in it has been understudied. Arbitrary data structure selection for automaton model software implementation leads to unnecessary computational burden and reduces the developed system efficiency. This article proposes an approach to the reasoned selection of data structures to represent finite algoristic automaton basic models and gives practical considerations based on it.Static and dynamic data structures are proposed for three main ways to assign Mealy and Moore automatons: a transition table, a matrix of coupling and a transition graph. A thirddimensional array, a rectangular matrix and a matrix of lists are the static structures. Dynamic structures are list-oriented structures: two-level and three-level Ayliff vectors and a multi-linked list. These structures allow us to store all required information about finite state automaton model components - characteristic set cardinalities and data of transition and output functions.A criterion system is proposed for data structure comparative evaluation in virtue of algorithmic features of automata theory problems. The criteria focused on capacitive and time computational complexity of operations performed in tasks such as equivalent automaton conversions, proving of automaton equivalence and isomorphism, and automaton minimization.A data structure comparative analysis based on the criterion system has done for both static and dynamic type. The analysis showed advantages of the third-dimensional array, matrix and two-level Ayliff vector. These are structures that assign automaton by transition table. For these structures an experiment was done to measure the execution time of automation operations included in criterion system.The analysis of experiment results showed that a dynamic structure - two

  6. Regional climate models' performance in representing precipitation and temperature over selected Mediterranean areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Deidda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relative performance of several climate models in providing reliable forcing for hydrological modeling in six representative catchments in the Mediterranean region. We consider 14 Regional Climate Models (RCMs, from the EU-FP6 ENSEMBLES project, run for the A1B emission scenario on a common 0.22° (about 24 km rotated grid over Europe and the Mediterranean region. In the validation period (1951 to 2010 we consider daily precipitation and surface temperatures from the observed data fields (E-OBS data set, available from the ENSEMBLES project and the data providers in the ECA&D project. Our primary objective is to rank the 14 RCMs for each catchment and select the four best-performing ones to use as common forcing for hydrological models in the six Mediterranean basins considered in the EU-FP7 CLIMB project. Using a common suite of four RCMs for all studied catchments reduces the (epistemic uncertainty when evaluating trends and climate change impacts in the 21st century. We present and discuss the validation setting, as well as the obtained results and, in some detail, the difficulties we experienced when processing the data. In doing so we also provide useful information and advice for researchers not directly involved in climate modeling, but interested in the use of climate model outputs for hydrological modeling and, more generally, climate change impact studies in the Mediterranean region.

  7. Climate model validation and selection for hydrological applications in representative Mediterranean catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Deidda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relative performance of several climate models in providing reliable forcing for hydrological modeling in six representative catchments in the Mediterranean region. We consider 14 Regional Climate Models (RCMs, from the EU-FP6 ENSEMBLES project, run for the A1B emission scenario on a common 0.22-degree (about 24 km rotated grid over Europe and the Mediterranean. In the validation period (1951 to 2010 we consider daily precipitation and surface temperatures from the E-OBS dataset, available from the ENSEMBLES project and the data providers in the ECA&D project. Our primary objective is to rank the 14 RCMs for each catchment and select the four best performing ones to use as common forcing for hydrological models in the six Mediterranean basins considered in the EU-FP7 CLIMB project. Using a common suite of 4 RCMs for all studied catchments reduces the (epistemic uncertainty when evaluating trends and climate change impacts in the XXI century. We present and discuss the validation setting, as well as the obtained results and, to some detail, the difficulties we experienced when processing the data. In doing so we also provide useful information and hint for an audience of researchers not directly involved in climate modeling, but interested in the use of climate model outputs for hydrological modeling and, more in general, climate change impact studies in the Mediterranean.

  8. A two-layer flow model to represent ice-ocean interactions beneath Antarctic ice shelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, V.; Payne, A. J.; Gregory, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    We develop a two-dimensional two-layer flow model that can calculate melt rates beneath ice shelves from ocean temperature and salinity fields at the shelf front. The cavity motion is split into two layers where the upper plume layer represents buoyant meltwater-rich water rising along the underside of the ice to the shelf front, while the lower layer represents the ambient water connected to the open ocean circulating beneath the plume. Conservation of momentum has been reduced to a frictional geostrophic balance, which when linearized provides algebraic equations for the plume velocity. The turbulent exchange of heat and salt between the two layers is modelled through an entrainment rate which is directed into the faster flowing layer. The numerical model is tested using an idealized geometry based on the dimensions of Pine Island Ice Shelf. We find that the spatial distribution of melt rates is fairly robust. The rates are at least 2.5 times higher than the mean in fast flowing regions corresponding to the steepest section of the underside of the ice shelf close to the grounding line and to the converged geostrophic flow along the rigid lateral boundary. Precise values depend on a combination of entrainment and plume drag coefficients. The flow of the ambient is slow and the spread of ocean scalar properties is dominated by diffusion.

  9. A two-layer flow model to represent ice-ocean interactions beneath Antarctic ice shelves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a two-dimensional two-layer flow model that can calculate melt rates beneath ice shelves from ocean temperature and salinity fields at the shelf front. The cavity motion is split into two layers where the upper plume layer represents buoyant meltwater-rich water rising along the underside of the ice to the shelf front, while the lower layer represents the ambient water connected to the open ocean circulating beneath the plume. Conservation of momentum has been reduced to a frictional geostrophic balance, which when linearized provides algebraic equations for the plume velocity. The turbulent exchange of heat and salt between the two layers is modelled through an entrainment rate which is directed into the faster flowing layer.

    The numerical model is tested using an idealized geometry based on the dimensions of Pine Island Ice Shelf. We find that the spatial distribution of melt rates is fairly robust. The rates are at least 2.5 times higher than the mean in fast flowing regions corresponding to the steepest section of the underside of the ice shelf close to the grounding line and to the converged geostrophic flow along the rigid lateral boundary. Precise values depend on a combination of entrainment and plume drag coefficients. The flow of the ambient is slow and the spread of ocean scalar properties is dominated by diffusion.

  10. Representing Resources in Petri Net Models: Hardwiring or Soft-coding?

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an interesting design problem in developing a new tool for discrete-event dynamic systems (DEDS). A new tool known as GPenSIM was developed for modeling and simulation of DEDS; GPenSIM is based on Petri Nets. The design issue this paper talks about is whether to represent resources in DEDS hardwired as a part of the Petri net structure (which is the widespread practice) or to soft code as common variables in the program code. This paper shows that soft coding resources giv...

  11. Representing environment-induced helix-coil transitions in a coarse grained peptide model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgicdir, Cahit; Globisch, Christoph; Sayar, Mehmet; Peter, Christine

    2016-10-01

    Coarse grained (CG) models are widely used in studying peptide self-assembly and nanostructure formation. One of the recurrent challenges in CG modeling is the problem of limited transferability, for example to different thermodynamic state points and system compositions. Understanding transferability is generally a prerequisite to knowing for which problems a model can be reliably used and predictive. For peptides, one crucial transferability question is whether a model reproduces the molecule's conformational response to a change in its molecular environment. This is of particular importance since CG peptide models often have to resort to auxiliary interactions that aid secondary structure formation. Such interactions take care of properties of the real system that are per se lost in the coarse graining process such as dihedral-angle correlations along the backbone or backbone hydrogen bonding. These auxiliary interactions may then easily overstabilize certain conformational propensities and therefore destroy the ability of the model to respond to stimuli and environment changes, i.e. they impede transferability. In the present paper we have investigated a short peptide with amphiphilic EALA repeats which undergoes conformational transitions between a disordered and a helical state upon a change in pH value or due to the presence of a soft apolar/polar interface. We designed a base CG peptide model that does not carry a specific (backbone) bias towards a secondary structure. This base model was combined with two typical approaches of ensuring secondary structure formation, namely a C α -C α -C α -C α pseudodihedral angle potential or a virtual site interaction that mimics hydrogen bonding. We have investigated the ability of the two resulting CG models to represent the environment-induced conformational changes in the helix-coil equilibrium of EALA. We show that with both approaches a CG peptide model can be obtained that is environment-transferable and that

  12. Lightweight Expression of Granular Objects (LEGO) Content Modeling Using the SNOMED CT Observables Model to Represent Nursing Assessment Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christie

    2016-01-01

    This poster presentation presents a content modeling strategy using the SNOMED CT Observable Model to represent large amounts of detailed clinical data in a consistent and computable manner that can support multiple use cases. Lightweight Expression of Granular Objects (LEGOs) represent question/answer pairs on clinical data collection forms, where a question is modeled by a (usually) post-coordinated SNOMED CT expression. LEGOs transform electronic patient data into a normalized consumable, which means that the expressions can be treated as extensions of the SNOMED CT hierarchies for the purpose of performing subsumption queries and other analytics. Utilizing the LEGO approach for modeling clinical data obtained from a nursing admission assessment provides a foundation for data exchange across disparate information systems and software applications. Clinical data exchange of computable LEGO patient information enables the development of more refined data analytics, data storage and clinical decision support.

  13. Energy allowances for solid fats and added sugars in nutritionally adequate U.S. diets estimated at 17-33% by a linear programming model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, Matthieu; Drewnowski, Adam

    2011-02-01

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee has recommended that no more than 5-15% of total dietary energy should be derived from solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS). The guideline was based on USDA food pattern modeling analyses that met the Dietary Reference Intake recommendations and Dietary Guidelines and followed typical American eating habits. This study recreated food intake patterns for 6 of the same gender-age groups by using USDA data sources and a mathematical optimization technique known as linear programming. The analytic process identified food consumption patterns based on 128 food categories that met the nutritional goals for 9 vitamins, 9 minerals, 8 macronutrients, and dietary fiber and minimized deviation from typical American eating habits. Linear programming Model 1 created gender- and age-specific food patterns that corresponded to energy needs for each group. Model 2 created food patterns that were iso-caloric with diets observed for that group in the 2001-2002 NHANES. The optimized food patterns were evaluated with respect to MyPyramid servings goals, energy density [kcal/g (1 kcal = 4.18 kJ)], and energy cost (US$/2000 kcal). The optimized food patterns had more servings of vegetables and fruit, lower energy density, and higher cost compared with the observed diets. All nutrient goals were met. In contrast to the much lower USDA estimates, the 2 models placed SoFAS allowances at between 17 and 33% of total energy, depending on energy needs.

  14. ADEQUATE UV EXPOSURES FOR HEALTHY LIFE: IN SITU MONITORING AND MODEL CALCULATION OF THE VITAMIN-D-SYNTHETIC CAPACITY OF SUNLIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Terenetskaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D which is formed upon UV solar radiation in human skin is essential in many physiological functions. To estimate beneficial vitamin-D-synthetic capacity of sunlight a bio-equivalent UV dosimeter that is based on the same molecular photochemistry from which vitamin D is photosynthesized in human skin has been developed. The examples of an in situ monitoring of the vitamin-D-synthetic capacity of sunlight using an in vitro model of vitamin D synthesis are presented, and various operational principles of the UV biodosimeter are discussed. In addition, reliable algorithm is presented for direct calculation of previtamin D3 accumulation using the photoreaction mathematical model with solar UV spectra as input data. Critical dependence of previtamin D3 accumulation on cloudiness and aerosols is demonstrated.

  15. Is it adequate to model the socio-cultural dimension of e-learners by informing a fixed set of personal criteria?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Emmanuel G.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, interest has increased in proposing efficient techniques to capture and model cognitive and affective characteristics of e-learners. More recently,research has started investigating the development of culturally-aware educational technology. Indeed, cultures are known...... to strongly impact how people interpret their surrounding environment, hence generating cognitive and affective biases that could impact computer-supported educational activities. Consequently, educational technologies trying to become culturally-aware need to develop a sociocultural model of their learner....... In this regard, many previous projects have used a fixed set of socio-cultural criteria. It is the purpose of this paper to show that this approach is not necessarily good since the acceptability and relevance of many criteria may vary from one cultural context to another...

  16. Can we trust climate models to realistically represent severe European windstorms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciak, Tomasz M.; Knippertz, Peter; Pirret, Jennifer S. R.; Williams, Keith D.

    2016-06-01

    Cyclonic windstorms are one of the most important natural hazards for Europe, but robust climate projections of the position and the strength of the North Atlantic storm track are not yet possible, bearing significant risks to European societies and the (re)insurance industry. Previous studies addressing the problem of climate model uncertainty through statistical comparisons of simulations of the current climate with (re-)analysis data show large disagreement between different climate models, different ensemble members of the same model and observed climatologies of intense cyclones. One weakness of such evaluations lies in the difficulty to separate influences of the climate model's basic state from the influence of fast processes on the development of the most intense storms, which could create compensating effects and therefore suggest higher reliability than there really is. This work aims to shed new light into this problem through a cost-effective "seamless" approach of hindcasting 20 historical severe storms with the two global climate models, ECHAM6 and GA4 configuration of the Met Office Unified Model, run in a numerical weather prediction mode using different lead times, and horizontal and vertical resolutions. These runs are then compared to re-analysis data. The main conclusions from this work are: (a) objectively identified cyclone tracks are represented satisfactorily by most hindcasts; (b) sensitivity to vertical resolution is low; (c) cyclone depth is systematically under-predicted for a coarse resolution of T63 by both climate models; (d) no systematic bias is found for the higher resolution of T127 out to about three days, demonstrating that climate models are in fact able to represent the complex dynamics of explosively deepening cyclones well, if given the correct initial conditions; (e) an analysis using a recently developed diagnostic tool based on the surface pressure tendency equation points to too weak diabatic processes, mainly latent

  17. Representing winter wheat in the Community Land Model (version 4.5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yaqiong; Williams, Ian N.; Bagley, Justin E.; Torn, Margaret S.; Kueppers, Lara M.

    2017-05-01

    Winter wheat is a staple crop for global food security, and is the dominant vegetation cover for a significant fraction of Earth's croplands. As such, it plays an important role in carbon cycling and land-atmosphere interactions in these key regions. Accurate simulation of winter wheat growth is not only crucial for future yield prediction under a changing climate, but also for accurately predicting the energy and water cycles for winter wheat dominated regions. We modified the winter wheat model in the Community Land Model (CLM) to better simulate winter wheat leaf area index, latent heat flux, net ecosystem exchange of CO2, and grain yield. These included schemes to represent vernalization as well as frost tolerance and damage. We calibrated three key parameters (minimum planting temperature, maximum crop growth days, and initial value of leaf carbon allocation coefficient) and modified the grain carbon allocation algorithm for simulations at the US Southern Great Plains ARM site (US-ARM), and validated the model performance at eight additional sites across North America. We found that the new winter wheat model improved the prediction of monthly variation in leaf area index, reduced latent heat flux, and net ecosystem exchange root mean square error (RMSE) by 41 and 35 % during the spring growing season. The model accurately simulated the interannual variation in yield at the US-ARM site, but underestimated yield at sites and in regions (northwestern and southeastern US) with historically greater yields by 35 %.

  18. Is the mental wellbeing of young Australians best represented by a single, multidimensional or bifactor model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hides, Leanne; Quinn, Catherine; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Cockshaw, Wendell; Mitchell, Tegan; Kavanagh, David J

    2016-07-30

    Internationally there is a growing interest in the mental wellbeing of young people. However, it is unclear whether mental wellbeing is best conceptualized as a general wellbeing factor or a multidimensional construct. This paper investigated whether mental wellbeing, measured by the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF), is best represented by: (1) a single-factor general model; (2) a three-factor multidimensional model or (3) a combination of both (bifactor model). 2220 young Australians aged between 16 and 25 years completed an online survey including the MHC-SF and a range of other wellbeing and mental ill-health measures. Exploratory factor analysis supported a bifactor solution, comprised of a general wellbeing factor, and specific group factors of psychological, social and emotional wellbeing. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the bifactor model had a better fit than competing single and three-factor models. The MHC-SF total score was more strongly associated with other wellbeing and mental ill-health measures than the social, emotional or psychological subscale scores. Findings indicate that the mental wellbeing of young people is best conceptualized as an overarching latent construct (general wellbeing) to which emotional, social and psychological domains contribute. The MHC-SF total score is a valid and reliable measure of this general wellbeing factor.

  19. Using ecosystem services to represent the environment in hydro-economic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momblanch, Andrea; Connor, Jeffery D.; Crossman, Neville D.; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Andreu, Joaquín

    2016-07-01

    Demand for water is expected to grow in line with global human population growth, but opportunities to augment supply are limited in many places due to resource limits and expected impacts of climate change. Hydro-economic models are often used to evaluate water resources management options, commonly with a goal of understanding how to maximise water use value and reduce conflicts among competing uses. The environment is now an important factor in decision making, which has resulted in its inclusion in hydro-economic models. We reviewed 95 studies applying hydro-economic models, and documented how the environment is represented in them and the methods they use to value environmental costs and benefits. We also sought out key gaps and inconsistencies in the treatment of the environment in hydro-economic models. We found that representation of environmental values of water is patchy in most applications, and there should be systematic consideration of the scope of environmental values to include and how they should be valued. We argue that the ecosystem services framework offers a systematic approach to identify the full range of environmental costs and benefits. The main challenges to more holistic representation of the environment in hydro-economic models are the current limits to understanding of ecological functions which relate physical, ecological and economic values and critical environmental thresholds; and the treatment of uncertainty.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF NUMERICAL MODELS TO REPRESENT THE STIFFNESS OF LAMINATED ROTOR CORES IN ELECTRICAL MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HIDERALDO L. V. SANTOS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Usually, electrical machines have a metallic cylinder made up of a compacted stack of thin metal plates (referred as laminated core assembled with an interference fit on the shaft. The laminated structure is required to improve the electrical performance of the machine and, besides adding inertia, also enhances the stiffness of the system. Inadequate characterization of this element may lead to errors when assessing the dynamic behavior of the rotor. The aim of this work was therefore to evaluate three beam models used to represent the laminated core of rotating electrical machines. The following finite element beam models are analyzed: (i an “equivalent diameter model”, (ii an “unbranched model” and (iii a “branched model”. To validate the numerical models, experiments are performed with nine different electrical rotors so that the first non-rotating natural frequencies and corresponding vibration modes in a free-free support condition are obtained experimentally. The models are evaluated by comparing the natural frequencies and corresponding vibration mode shapes obtained experimentally with those obtained numerically. Finally, a critical discussion of the behavior of the beam models studied is presented. The results show that for the majority of the rotors tested, the “branched model” is the most suitable

  1. Representing life in the Earth system with soil microbial functional traits in the MIMICS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, W. R.; Grandy, A. S.; Kallenbach, C. M.; Taylor, P. G.; Bonan, G. B.

    2015-06-01

    Projecting biogeochemical responses to global environmental change requires multi-scaled perspectives that consider organismal diversity, ecosystem processes, and global fluxes. However, microbes, the drivers of soil organic matter decomposition and stabilization, remain notably absent from models used to project carbon (C) cycle-climate feedbacks. We used a microbial trait-based soil C model with two physiologically distinct microbial communities, and evaluate how this model represents soil C storage and response to perturbations. Drawing from the application of functional traits used to model other ecosystems, we incorporate copiotrophic and oligotrophic microbial functional groups in the MIcrobial-MIneral Carbon Stabilization (MIMICS) model; these functional groups are akin to "gleaner" vs. "opportunist" plankton in the ocean, or r- vs. K-strategists in plant and animal communities. Here we compare MIMICS to a conventional soil C model, DAYCENT (the daily time-step version of the CENTURY model), in cross-site comparisons of nitrogen (N) enrichment effects on soil C dynamics. MIMICS more accurately simulates C responses to N enrichment; moreover, it raises important hypotheses involving the roles of substrate availability, community-level enzyme induction, and microbial physiological responses in explaining various soil biogeochemical responses to N enrichment. In global-scale analyses, we show that MIMICS projects much slower rates of soil C accumulation than a conventional soil biogeochemistry in response to increasing C inputs with elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) - a finding that would reduce the size of the land C sink estimated by the Earth system. Our findings illustrate that tradeoffs between theory and utility can be overcome to develop soil biogeochemistry models that evaluate and advance our theoretical understanding of microbial dynamics and soil biogeochemical responses to environmental change.

  2. Representing ozone extremes in European megacities: the importance of resolution in a global chemistry climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. S. Stock

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The continuing growth of the world's urban population has led to an increasing number of cities with more than 10 million inhabitants. The higher emissions of pollutants, coupled to higher population density, makes predictions of air quality in these megacities of particular importance from both a science and a policy perspective. Global climate models are typically run at coarse resolution to enable both the efficient running of long time integrations, and the ability to run multiple future climate scenarios. However, when considering surface ozone concentrations at the local scale, coarse resolution can lead to inaccuracies arising from the highly non-linear ozone chemistry and the sensitivity of ozone to the distribution of its precursors on smaller scales. In this study, we use UM-UKCA, a global atmospheric chemistry model, coupled to the UK Met Office Unified Model, to investigate the impact of model resolution on tropospheric ozone, ranging from global to local scales. We focus on the model's ability to represent the probability of high ozone concentrations in the summer and low ozone concentrations, associated with polluted megacity environments, in the winter, and how this varies with horizontal resolution. We perform time-slice integrations with two model configurations at typical climate resolution (CR, ~150 km and at a higher resolution (HR, ~40 km. The CR configuration leads to overestimation of ozone concentrations on both regional and local scales, while it gives broadly similar results to the HR configuration on the global scale. The HR configuration is found to produce a more realistic diurnal cycle of ozone concentrations and to give a better representation of the probability density function of ozone values in urban areas such as the megacities of London and Paris. We discuss the possible causes for the observed difference in model behaviour between CR and HR configurations and estimate the relative contribution of chemical and

  3. How to Represent 100-meter Spatial Heterogeneity in Earth System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Nathaniel; Shevliakova, Elena; Malyshev, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems play a pivotal role in the Earth system; they have a profound impact on the global climate, food and energy production, freshwater resources, and biodiversity. One of the most fascinating yet challenging aspects of characterizing terrestrial ecosystems is their field-scale (~100 m) spatial heterogeneity. It has been observed repeatedly that the water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles at multiple temporal and spatial scales have deep ties to an ecosystem's spatial structure. Current Earth system models largely disregard this important relationship leading to an inadequate representation of ecosystem dynamics. In this presentation, we will show how existing hyperresolution environmental datasets can be harnessed to explicitly represent field-scale spatial heterogeneity in Earth system models. For each macroscale grid cell, these environmental data are clustered according to their field-scale soil and topographic attributes to define unique sub-grid tiles or hydrologic response units (HRUs). The novel Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) LM3-TiHy-PPA land model is then used to simulate these HRUs and their spatial interactions via the exchange of water, energy, and nutrients along explicit topographic gradients. Using historical simulations over the contiguous United States, we will show how a robust representation of field-scale spatial heterogeneity impacts modeled ecosystem dynamics including the water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles as well as vegetation composition and distribution.

  4. Do Physical Proximity and Availability of Adequate Infrastructure at Public Health Facility Increase Institutional Delivery? A Three Level Hierarchical Model Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rachana; Ladusingh, Laishram

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the inter-district and inter-village variation of utilization of health services for institutional births in EAG states in presence of rural health program and availability of infrastructures. District Level Household Survey-III (2007-08) data on delivery care and facility information was used for the purpose. Bivariate results examined the utilization pattern by states in presence of correlates of women related while a three-level hierarchical multilevel model illustrates the effect of accessibility, availability of health facility and community health program variables on the utilization of health services for institutional births. The study found a satisfactory improvement in state Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa, importantly, in Bihar and Uttaranchal. The study showed that increasing distance from health facility discouraged institutional births and there was a rapid decline of more than 50% for institutional delivery as the distance to public health facility exceeded 10 km. Additionally, skilled female health worker (ANM) and observed improved public health facility led to significantly increase the probability of utilization as compared to non-skilled ANM and not-improved health centers. Adequacy of essential equipment/laboratory services required for maternal care significantly encouraged deliveries at public health facility. District/village variables neighborhood poverty was negatively related to institutional delivery while higher education levels in the village and women's residing in more urbanized districts increased the utilization. "Inter-district" variation was 14 percent whereas "between-villages" variation for the utilization was 11 percent variation once controlled for all the three-level variables in the model. This study suggests that the mere availability of health facilities is necessary but not sufficient condition to promote utilization until the quality of service is inadequate and inaccessible considering

  5. Freeze-Dried Platelet-Rich Plasma Accelerates Bone Union with Adequate Rigidity in Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion Surgery Model in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Yasuhiro; Orita, Sumihisa; Kubota, Go; Kamoda, Hiroto; Yamashita, Masaomi; Matsuura, Yusuke; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Eguchi, Yawara; Suzuki, Miyako; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Abe, Koki; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Inoue, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Aoki, Yasuchika; Toyone, Tomoaki; Furuya, Takeo; Koda, Masao; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Ohtori, Seiji

    2016-11-01

    Fresh platelet-rich plasma (PRP) accelerates bone union in rat model. However, fresh PRP has a short half-life. We suggested freeze-dried PRP (FD-PRP) prepared in advance and investigated its efficacy in vivo. Spinal posterolateral fusion was performed on 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into six groups based on the graft materials (n = 10 per group): sham control, artificial bone (A hydroxyapatite–collagen composite) –alone, autologous bone, artificial bone + fresh-PRP, artificial bone + FD-PRP preserved 8 weeks, and artificial bone + human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP) as a positive control. At 4 and 8 weeks after the surgery, we investigated their bone union–related characteristics including amount of bone formation, histological characteristics of trabecular bone at remodeling site, and biomechanical strength on 3-point bending. Comparable radiological bone union was confirmed at 4 weeks after surgery in 80% of the FD-PRP groups, which was earlier than in other groups (p < 0.05). Histologically, the trabecular bone had thinner and more branches in the FD-PRP. Moreover, the biomechanical strength was comparable to that of autologous bone. FD-PRP accelerated bone union at a rate comparable to that of fresh PRP and BMP by remodeling the bone with thinner, more tangled, and rigid trabecular bone.

  6. Fault detection in processes represented by PLS models using an EWMA control scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2016-10-20

    Fault detection is important for effective and safe process operation. Partial least squares (PLS) has been used successfully in fault detection for multivariate processes with highly correlated variables. However, the conventional PLS-based detection metrics, such as the Hotelling\\'s T and the Q statistics are not well suited to detect small faults because they only use information about the process in the most recent observation. Exponentially weighed moving average (EWMA), however, has been shown to be more sensitive to small shifts in the mean of process variables. In this paper, a PLS-based EWMA fault detection method is proposed for monitoring processes represented by PLS models. The performance of the proposed method is compared with that of the traditional PLS-based fault detection method through a simulated example involving various fault scenarios that could be encountered in real processes. The simulation results clearly show the effectiveness of the proposed method over the conventional PLS method.

  7. Representing northern peatland microtopography and hydrology within the Community Land Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Shi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Predictive understanding of northern peatland hydrology is a necessary precursor to understanding the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under the influence of present and future climate change. Current models have begun to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have included a prognostic calculation of peatland water table depth for a vegetated wetland, independent of prescribed regional water tables. We introduce here a new configuration of the Community Land Model (CLM which includes a fully prognostic water table calculation for a vegetated peatland. Our structural and process changes to CLM focus on modifications needed to represent the hydrologic cycle of bogs environment with perched water tables, as well as distinct hydrologic dynamics and vegetation communities of the raised hummock and sunken hollow microtopography characteristic of peatland bogs. The modified model was parameterized and independently evaluated against observations from an ombrotrophic raised-dome bog in northern Minnesota (S1-Bog, the site for the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change experiment (SPRUCE. Simulated water table levels compared well with site-level observations. The new model predicts significant hydrologic changes in response to planned warming at the SPRUCE site. At present, standing water is commonly observed in bog hollows after large rainfall events during the growing season, but simulations suggest a sharp decrease in water table levels due to increased evapotranspiration under the most extreme warming level, nearly eliminating the occurrence of standing water in the growing season. Simulated soil energy balance was strongly influenced by reduced winter snowpack under warming simulations, with the warming influence on soil temperature partly offset by the loss of insulating snowpack in early and late winter. The new model provides improved predictive capacity for seasonal

  8. Why do global climate models struggle to represent low-level clouds in the West African summer monsoon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knippertz, Peter; Hannak, Lisa; Fink, Andreas H.; Kniffka, Anke; Pante, Gregor

    2017-04-01

    Climate models struggle to realistically represent the West African monsoon (WAM), which hinders reliable future projections and the development of adequate adaption measures. Low-level clouds over southern West Africa (5-10°N, 8°W-8°E) during July-September are an integral part of the WAM through their effect on the surface energy balance and precipitation, but their representation in climate models has so far received little attention. These clouds usually form during the night near the level of the nocturnal low-level jet ( 950 hPa), thicken and spread until the mid-morning ( 09 UTC), and then break up and rise in the course of the day, typically to about 850 hPa. The low thermal contrast to the surface and the frequent presence of obscuring higher-level clouds make detection of the low-level clouds from space rather challenging. Here we use 30 years of output from 18 models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) as well as 20 years of output from 8 models participating in the Year of Tropical Convection (YoTC) experiments to identify cloud biases and their causes. A great advantage of the YoTC dataset is the 6-hourly output frequency, which allows an analysis of the diurnal cycle, and the availability of temperature and moisture tendencies from parameterized processes such as convection, radiation and boundary-layer turbulence. A comparison to earlier analyses based on CMIP3 output reveals rather limited improvements with regard to the represenation of low-level cloud and winds. Compared to ERA-Interim re-analyses, which shows satisfactory agreement with surface observations, many of the CMIP5 and YoTC models still have large biases in low-level cloudiness of both signs and a tendency to too high elevation and too weak diurnal cycles. At the same time, these models tend to have too strong low-level jets, the impact of which is unclear due to concomitant effects on temperature and moisture advection as well as turbulent

  9. Representing dispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röhl Johannes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dispositions and tendencies feature significantly in the biomedical domain and therefore in representations of knowledge of that domain. They are not only important for specific applications like an infectious disease ontology, but also as part of a general strategy for modelling knowledge about molecular interactions. But the task of representing dispositions in some formal ontological systems is fraught with several problems, which are partly due to the fact that Description Logics can only deal well with binary relations. The paper will discuss some of the results of the philosophical debate about dispositions, in order to see whether the formal relations needed to represent dispositions can be broken down to binary relations. Finally, we will discuss problems arising from the possibility of the absence of realizations, of multi-track or multi-trigger dispositions and offer suggestions on how to deal with them.

  10. Design of a Representative Low Earth Orbit Satellite to Improve Existing Debris Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S.; Dietrich, A.; Werremeyer, M.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Liou, J.-C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the process and methodologies used in the design of a small-satellite, DebriSat, that represents materials and construction methods used in modern day Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. This satellite will be used in a future hypervelocity impact test with the overall purpose to investigate the physical characteristics of modern LEO satellites after an on-orbit collision. The major ground-based satellite impact experiment used by DoD and NASA in their development of satellite breakup models was conducted in 1992. The target used for that experiment was a Navy Transit satellite (40 cm, 35 kg) fabricated in the 1960 s. Modern satellites are very different in materials and construction techniques from a satellite built 40 years ago. Therefore, there is a need to conduct a similar experiment using a modern target satellite to improve the fidelity of the satellite breakup models. The design of DebriSat will focus on designing and building a next-generation satellite to more accurately portray modern satellites. The design of DebriSat included a comprehensive study of historical LEO satellite designs and missions within the past 15 years for satellites ranging from 10 kg to 5000 kg. This study identified modern trends in hardware, material, and construction practices utilized in recent LEO missions, and helped direct the design of DebriSat.

  11. 8760-Based Method for Representing Variable Generation Capacity Value in Capacity Expansion Models: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Yinong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, James [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Capacity expansion models (CEMs) are widely used to evaluate the least-cost portfolio of electricity generators, transmission, and storage needed to reliably serve demand over the evolution of many years or decades. Various CEM formulations are used to evaluate systems ranging in scale from states or utility service territories to national or multi-national systems. CEMs can be computationally complex, and to achieve acceptable solve times, key parameters are often estimated using simplified methods. In this paper, we focus on two of these key parameters associated with the integration of variable generation (VG) resources: capacity value and curtailment. We first discuss common modeling simplifications used in CEMs to estimate capacity value and curtailment, many of which are based on a representative subset of hours that can miss important tail events or which require assumptions about the load and resource distributions that may not match actual distributions. We then present an alternate approach that captures key elements of chronological operation over all hours of the year without the computationally intensive economic dispatch optimization typically employed within more detailed operational models. The updated methodology characterizes the (1) contribution of VG to system capacity during high load and net load hours, (2) the curtailment level of VG, and (3) the potential reductions in curtailments enabled through deployment of storage and more flexible operation of select thermal generators. We apply this alternate methodology to an existing CEM, the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS). Results demonstrate that this alternate approach provides more accurate estimates of capacity value and curtailments by explicitly capturing system interactions across all hours of the year. This approach could be applied more broadly to CEMs at many different scales where hourly resource and load data is available, greatly improving the representation of challenges

  12. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  13. Transit times and age distributions for reservoir models represented as nonlinear non-autonomuous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Markus; Meztler, Holger; Glatt, Anna; Sierra, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    We present theoretical methods to compute dynamic residence and transit time distributions for non-autonomous systems of pools governed by coupled nonlinear differential equations. Although transit time and age distributions have been used to describe reservoir models for a long time, a closer look to their assumptions reveals two major restrictions of generality in previous studies. First, the systems are assumed to be in equilibrium; and second, the equations under consideration are assumed to be linear. While both these assumptions greatly ease the computation and interpretation of transit time and age distributions they are not applicable to a wide range of problems. Moreover, the transfer of previous results learned from linear systems in steady state to the more complex nonlinear non-autonomous systems that do not even need to have equilibria, can be dangerously misleading. Fortunately the topic of time dependent age and transit time distributions has received some attention recently in hydrology, we aim to compute these distributions for systems of multiple reservoirs. We will discuss how storage selection functions can augment the information represented in an ODE system describing a system of reservoirs. We will present analytical and numerical algorithms and a Monte Carlo simulator to compute solutions for system transit time and age distributions for system-wide storage selection functions including the most simple, but important case of well mixed pools.

  14. Using EARTH Model to Estimate Groundwater Recharge at Five Representative Zones in the Hebei Plain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bingguo Wang; Menggui Jin; Xing Liang

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of groundwater recharge is essential for efficient and sustainable groundwater management in many semi-arid regions. In this paper, a lumped parameter model (EARTH) was established to simulate the recharge rate and recharge process in typical areas by the ob-servation datum of weather, soil water and groundwater synthetically, and the spatial and temporal variation law of groundwater recharge in the Hebei Plain was revealed. The mean annual recharge rates at LQ, LC, HS, DZ and CZ representative zones are 220.1, 196.7, 34.1, 141.0 and 188.0 mm/a and the recharge coefficients are 26.5%, 22.3%, 7.2%, 20.4%, and 22.0%, respectively. Recharge rate and re-charge coefficient are gradually reduced from piedmont plain to coastal plain. Groundwater recharge appears as only yearly waves, with higher frequency components of the input series filtered by the deep complicated unsaturated zone (such as LC). While at other zones, groundwater recharge series strongly dependent on the daily rainfall and irrigation because of the shallow water table or coarse lithology.

  15. Representative parameter estimation for hydrological models using a lexicographic calibration strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelleszun, Marlene; Kreye, Phillip; Meon, Günter

    2017-10-01

    We introduce the developed lexicographic calibration strategy to circumvent the imbalance between sophisticated hydrological models in combination with complex optimisation algorithms. The criteria for the evaluation of the approach were (i) robustness and transferability of the resulting parameters, (ii) goodness-of-fit criteria in calibration and validation and (iii) time-efficiency. An order of preference was determined prior to the calibration and the parameters were separated into groups for a stepwise calibration to reduce the search space. A comparison with the global optimisation method SCE-UA showed that only 6% of the calculation time was needed; the conditions total volume, seasonality and shape of the hydrograph were successfully achieved for the calibration and for the cross-validation periods. Furthermore, the parameter sets obtained by the lexicographic calibration strategy for different time periods were much more similar to each other than the parameters obtained by SCE-UA. Besides the similarities of the parameter sets, the goodness-of-fit criteria for the cross-validation were better for the lexicographic approach and the water balance components were also more similar. Thus, we concluded that the resulting parameters were more representative for the corresponding catchments and therefore more suitable for transferability. Time-efficient approximate methods were used to account for parameter uncertainty, confidence intervals and the stability of the solution in the optimum.

  16. Nonlinear and Nonparametric Stochastic Model to Represent Uncertainty of Renewable Generation in Operation and Expansion Planning Studies of Electrical Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, T. M.; Alberto, J.

    2015-12-01

    The uncertainties of wind and solar generation patterns tends to be a critical factor in operation and expansion planning studies of electrical energy systems, as these generations are highly dependent on atmospheric variables which are difficult to predict. Traditionally, the uncertainty of renewable generation has been represented through scenarios generated by autoregressive parametric models (ARMA, PAR(p), SARIMA, etc.), that have been widely used for simulating the uncertainty of inflows and electrical demand. These methods have 3 disadvantages: (i) it is assumed that the random variables can be modelled through a known probability distribution, usually Weibull, log-normal, or normal, which are not always adequate; (ii) the temporal and spatial coupling of the represented variables are generally constructed from the Pearson Correlation, strictly requiring the hypothesis of data normality, that in the case of wind and solar generation is not met; (iii) there is an exponential increase in the model complexity due to its dimensionality. This work proposes the use of a stochastic model built from the combination of a non-parametric approach of a probability density function (the kernel density estimation method) with a dynamic Bayesian network framework. The kernel density estimation method is used to obtain the probability density function of the random variables directly from historical records, eliminating the need of choosing prior distributions. The Bayesian network allows the representation of nonlinearities in the temporal coupling of the time series, since they allow reproducing a compact probability distribution of a variable, subject to preceding stages. The proposed model was used to the generate wind power scenarios in long-term operation studies of the Brazilian Electric System, in which inflows of major rivers were also represented. The results show a considerable quality gain when compared to scenarios generated by traditional approaches.

  17. Mathematical human body models representing a mid size male and a small female for frontal, lateral and rearward impact loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happee, R.; Morsink, P.L.J.; Lange, R. de; Bours, R.; Ridella, S.; Nayef, A.; Hoof, J. van

    2000-01-01

    A human body model representing a mid size male has been presented at the 1998 STAPP conference. A combination of modeling techniques was applied using rigid bodies for most segments, but describing the thorax as a deformable structure. In this paper, this modeling strategy was employed to also deve

  18. BIB-SEM of representative area clay structures paving towards an alternative model of porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, G.; Urai, J. L.; Houben, M.; Hemes, S.; Klaver, J.

    2012-04-01

    A major contribution to understanding the sealing capacity, coupled flow, capillary processes and associated deformation in clay-rich geomaterials is based on detailed investigation of the rock microstructures. However, the direct characterization of pores in representative elementary area (REA) and below µm-scale resolution remains challenging. To investigate directly the mm- to nm-scale porosity, SEM is certainly the most direct approach, but it is limited by the poor quality of the investigated surfaces. The recent development of ion milling tools (BIB and FIB; Desbois et al, 2009, 2011; Heath et al., 2011; Keller et al., 2011) and cryo-SEM allows respectively producing exceptional high quality polished cross-sections suitable for high resolution porosity SEM-imaging at nm-scale and investigating samples under wet conditions by cryogenic stabilization. This contribution focuses mainly on the SEM description of pore microstructures in 2D BIB-polished cross-sections of Boom (Mol site, Belgium) and Opalinus (Mont Terri, Switzerland) clays down to the SEM resolution. Pores detected in images are statistically analyzed to perform porosity quantification in REA. On the one hand, BIB-SEM results allow retrieving MIP measurements obtained from larger sample volumes. On the other hand, the BIB-SEM approach allows characterizing porosity-homogeneous and -predictable islands, which form the elementary components of an alternative concept of porosity/permeability model based on pore microstructures. Desbois G., Urai J.L. and Kukla P.A. (2009) Morphology of the pore space in claystones - evidence from BIB/FIB ion beam sectioning and cryo-SEM observations. E-Earth, 4, 15-22. Desbois G., Urai J.L., Kukla P.A., Konstanty J. and Baerle C. (2011). High-resolution 3D fabric and porosity model in a tight gas sandstone reservoir: a new approach to investigate microstructures from mm- to nm-scale combining argon beam cross-sectioning and SEM imaging . Journal of Petroleum Science

  19. Technical Note—Why Does the NBD Model Work? Robustness in Representing Product Purchases, Brand Purchases and Imperfectly Recorded Purchases

    OpenAIRE

    David C. Schmittlein; Albert C. Bemmaor; Donald G. Morrison

    1985-01-01

    One of the most managerially useful constructs that emerge from the stochastic modelling of brand choice is that of conditional expectations. In this paper the conditional expectations are derived for a generalization of the NBD model, called the beta binomial/negative binomial distribution (BB/NBD) model, first described by Jeuland, Bass and Wright. The model, developed to jointly represent the product class purchase and brand selection processes, is also particularly appropriate for analyzi...

  20. 5 CFR 919.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate evidence. 919.900 Section 919.900 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.900 Adequate evidence...

  1. Abundant Semigroups with a Multiplicative Adequate Transversal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xiao Jiang

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate abundant semigroups with a multiplicative adequate transversal. Some properties and characterizations for such semigroups are obtained. In particular,we establish the structure of this class of abundant semigroups in terms of left normal bands, right normal bands and adequate semigroups with some simple compatibility conditions. Finally, we apply this structure to some special cases.

  2. Development of a Future Representative Concentration Pathway for Use in the IPCC 5th Assessment Earth System Model Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-12-29

    The representative concentration pathway to be delivered is a scenario of atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and other radiatively important atmospheric species, along with land-use changes, derived from the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). The particular representative concentration pathway (RCP) that the Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI) has been responsible for is a not-to-exceed pathway that stabilizes at a radiative forcing of 4.5Wm-2 in the year 2100.

  3. A Sufficient Condition for a Wire-Frame Representing a Solid Modeling Uniquely

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiaye; CHEN Hui; WANG Wenping

    2001-01-01

    Generally speaking, it is impossible for a wire-frame to define a 3D object uniquely. But wire-frame as a graphics medium is still applied in some industrial areas. A sufficient condition is presented in this paper. If this condition is satisfied by a wire-frame,then the wire-frame can represent a 3D object uniquely. The result is applied to manufacturing of progressive stripe.

  4. Latent variable indirect response modeling of categorical endpoints representing change from baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuanpu; Xu, Zhenhua; Mendelsohn, Alan M; Zhou, Honghui

    2013-02-01

    Accurate exposure-response modeling is important in drug development. Methods are still evolving in the use of mechanistic, e.g., indirect response (IDR) models to relate discrete endpoints, mostly of the ordered categorical form, to placebo/co-medication effect and drug exposure. When the discrete endpoint is derived using change-from-baseline measurements, a mechanistic exposure-response modeling approach requires adjustment to maintain appropriate interpretation. This manuscript describes a new modeling method that integrates a latent-variable representation of IDR models with standard logistic regression. The new method also extends to general link functions that cover probit regression or continuous clinical endpoint modeling. Compared to an earlier latent variable approach that constrained the baseline probability of response to be 0, placebo effect parameters in the new model formulation are more readily interpretable and can be separately estimated from placebo data, thus allowing convenient and robust model estimation. A general inherent connection of some latent variable representations with baseline-normalized standard IDR models is derived. For describing clinical response endpoints, Type I and Type III IDR models are shown to be equivalent, therefore there are only three identifiable IDR models. This approach was applied to data from two phase III clinical trials of intravenously administered golimumab for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, where 20, 50, and 70% improvement in the American College of Rheumatology disease severity criteria were used as efficacy endpoints. Likelihood profiling and visual predictive checks showed reasonable parameter estimation precision and model performance.

  5. Bianchi VI cosmological models representing perfect fluid and radiation with electric-type free gravitational fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S. R.; Banerjee, S. K.

    1992-11-01

    A homogeneous Bianchi type VIh cosmological model filled with perfect fluid, null electromagnetic field and streaming neutrinos is obtained for which the free gravitational field is of the electric type. The barotropic equation of statep = (γ-1)ɛ is imposed in the particular case of Bianchi VI0 string models. Various physical and kinematical properties of the models are discussed.

  6. Selecting representative climate models for climate change impact studies : An advanced envelope-based selection approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, Arthur F.; ter Maat, Herbert W.; Biemans, Hester; Shrestha, Arun B.; Wester, Philippus; Immerzeel, Walter W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290472113

    2016-01-01

    Climate change impact studies depend on projections of future climate provided by climate models. The number of climate models is large and increasing, yet limitations in computational capacity make it necessary to compromise the number of climate models that can be included in a climate change

  7. Selecting representative climate models for climate change impact studies: an advanced envelope-based selection approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, Arthur F.; Maat, ter Herbert W.; Biemans, Hester; Shrestha, Arun B.; Wester, Philippus; Immerzeel, Walter W.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change impact studies depend on projections of future climate provided by climate models. The number of climate models is large and increasing, yet limitations in computational capacity make it necessary to compromise the number of climate models that can be included in a climate change

  8. Representing Micro–Macro Linkages by Actor-based Dynamic Network Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, Thomas; Steglich, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic actor-based models for network dynamics have the primary aim of statistical inference about processes of network change, but may be regarded as a kind of agent-based models. Similar to many other agent-based models, they are based on local rules for actor behavior. Different from many oth

  9. Selecting representative climate models for climate change impact studies : An advanced envelope-based selection approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, Arthur F.; ter Maat, Herbert W.; Biemans, Hester; Shrestha, Arun B.; Wester, Philippus; Immerzeel, Walter W.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change impact studies depend on projections of future climate provided by climate models. The number of climate models is large and increasing, yet limitations in computational capacity make it necessary to compromise the number of climate models that can be included in a climate change impa

  10. Selecting representative climate models for climate change impact studies: an advanced envelope-based selection approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, Arthur F.; Maat, ter Herbert W.; Biemans, Hester; Shrestha, Arun B.; Wester, Philippus; Immerzeel, Walter W.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change impact studies depend on projections of future climate provided by climate models. The number of climate models is large and increasing, yet limitations in computational capacity make it necessary to compromise the number of climate models that can be included in a climate change impa

  11. A general method to select representative models for decision making and optimization under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirangi, Mehrdad G.; Durlofsky, Louis J.

    2016-11-01

    The optimization of subsurface flow processes under geological uncertainty technically requires flow simulation to be performed over a large set of geological realizations for each function evaluation at every iteration of the optimizer. Because flow simulation over many permeability realizations (only permeability is considered to be uncertain in this study) may entail excessive computation, simulations are often performed for only a subset of 'representative' realizations. It is however challenging to identify a representative subset that provides flow statistics in close agreement with those from the full set, especially when the decision parameters (e.g., time-varying well pressures, well locations) are unknown a priori, as they are in optimization problems. In this work, we introduce a general framework, based on clustering, for selecting a representative subset of realizations for use in simulations involving 'new' sets of decision parameters. Prior to clustering, each realization is represented by a low-dimensional feature vector that contains a combination of permeability-based and flow-based quantities. Calculation of flow-based features requires the specification of a (base) flow problem and simulation over the full set of realizations. Permeability information is captured concisely through use of principal component analysis. By computing the difference between the flow response for the subset and the full set, we quantify the performance of various realization-selection methods. The impact of different weightings for flow and permeability information in the cluster-based selection procedure is assessed for a range of examples involving different types of decision parameters. These decision parameters are generated either randomly, in a manner that is consistent with the solutions proposed in global stochastic optimization procedures such as GA and PSO, or through perturbation around a base case, consistent with the solutions considered in pattern search

  12. Predictive modeling using a nationally representative database to identify patients at risk of developing microalbuminuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Zapata, Lorenzo; Warholak, Terri; Slack, Marion; Malone, Daniel; Murcko, Anita; Runger, George; Levengood, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Predictive models allow clinicians to identify higher- and lower-risk patients and make targeted treatment decisions. Microalbuminuria (MA) is a condition whose presence is understood to be an early marker for cardiovascular disease. The aims of this study were to develop a patient data-driven predictive model and a risk-score assessment to improve the identification of MA. The 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was utilized to create a predictive model. The dataset was split into thirds; one-third was used to develop the model, while the other two-thirds were utilized for internal validation. The 2012-2013 NHANES was used as an external validation database. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to create the model. Performance was evaluated using three criteria: (1) receiver operating characteristic curves; (2) pseudo-R (2) values; and (3) goodness of fit (Hosmer-Lemeshow). The model was then used to develop a risk-score chart. A model was developed using variables for which there was a significant relationship. Variables included were systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, C-reactive protein, blood urea nitrogen, and alcohol consumption. The model performed well, and no significant differences were observed when utilized in the validation datasets. A risk score was developed, and the probability of developing MA for each score was calculated. The predictive model provides new evidence about variables related with MA and may be used by clinicians to identify at-risk patients and to tailor treatment. The risk score developed may allow clinicians to measure a patient's MA risk.

  13. RHydro - Hydrological models and tools to represent and analyze hydrological data in R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusser, D. E.; Buytaert, W.; Vitolo, C.

    2012-04-01

    In hydrology, basic equations and procedures keep being implemented from scratch by scientist, with the potential for errors and inefficiency. The use of libraries can overcome these problems. As an example, hydrological libraries could contain: 1. Major representations of hydrological processes such as infiltration, sub-surface runoff and routing algorithms. 2. Scaling functions, for instance to combine remote sensing precipitation fields with rain gauge data 3. Data consistency checks 4. Performance measures. Here we present a beginning for such a library implemented in the high level data programming language R. Currently, Top-model, the abc-Model, HBV, a multi-model ensamble called FUSE, data import routines for WaSiM-ETH as well basic visualization and evaluation tools are implemented. Care is taken to make functions and models compatible with other existing frameworks in hydrology, such as for example Hydromad.

  14. Polar ozone depletion and trends as represented by the Whole Atmospheric Community Climate Model (WACCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnison, Douglas; Solomon, Susan; Ivy, Diane; Mills, Michael; Neely, Ryan, III; Schmidt, Anja; Garcia, Rolando; Smith, Anne

    2016-04-01

    The Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, Version 4 (WACCM4) is a comprehensive numerical model, spanning the range of altitude from the Earth's surface to the lower thermosphere [Garcia et al., JGR, 2007; Kinnison et al., JGR, 2007; Marsh et al., J. of Climate, 2013]. WACCM4 is based on the framework of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model, version 4 (CAM4), and includes all of the physical parameterizations of CAM4 and a finite volume dynamical core for the tracer advection. This version has a detailed representation of tropospheric and middle atmosphere chemical and physical processes. Simulations completed for the SPARC Chemistry Climate Model Initiative (CCMI), REFC1, REFC2, SENSC2, and REFC1SD scenarios are examined (see Eyring et al., SPARC Newsletter, 2013). Recent improvements in model representation of orographic gravity wave processes strongly impact temperature and therefore polar ozone depletion as well as its subsequent recovery. Model representation of volcanic events will also be shown to be important for ozone loss. Evaluation of polar ozone depletion processes (e.g., dehydration, denitrification, chemical activation) with key observations will be performed and the impact on future ozone recovery will be identified.

  15. Representing general theoretical concepts in structural equation models: The role of composite variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, J.B.; Bollen, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) holds the promise of providing natural scientists the capacity to evaluate complex multivariate hypotheses about ecological systems. Building on its predecessors, path analysis and factor analysis, SEM allows for the incorporation of both observed and unobserved (latent) variables into theoretically-based probabilistic models. In this paper we discuss the interface between theory and data in SEM and the use of an additional variable type, the composite. In simple terms, composite variables specify the influences of collections of other variables and can be helpful in modeling heterogeneous concepts of the sort commonly of interest to ecologists. While long recognized as a potentially important element of SEM, composite variables have received very limited use, in part because of a lack of theoretical consideration, but also because of difficulties that arise in parameter estimation when using conventional solution procedures. In this paper we present a framework for discussing composites and demonstrate how the use of partially-reduced-form models can help to overcome some of the parameter estimation and evaluation problems associated with models containing composites. Diagnostic procedures for evaluating the most appropriate and effective use of composites are illustrated with an example from the ecological literature. It is argued that an ability to incorporate composite variables into structural equation models may be particularly valuable in the study of natural systems, where concepts are frequently multifaceted and the influence of suites of variables are often of interest. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  16. Representing life in the Earth system with soil microbial functional traits in the MIMICS model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Wieder

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Projecting biogeochemical responses to global environmental change requires multi-scaled perspectives that consider organismal diversity, ecosystem processes and global fluxes. However, microbes, the drivers of soil organic matter decomposition and stabilization, remain notably absent from models used to project carbon cycle–climate feedbacks. We used a microbial trait-based soil carbon (C model, with two physiologically distinct microbial communities to improve current estimates of soil C storage and their likely response to perturbations. Drawing from the application of functional traits used to model other ecosystems, we incorporate copiotrophic and oligotrophic microbial functional groups in the MIcrobial-MIneral Carbon Stabilization (MIMICS model, which incorporates oligotrophic and copiotrophic functional groups, akin to "gleaner" vs. "opportunist" plankton in the ocean, or r vs. K strategists in plant and animals communities. Here we compare MIMICS to a conventional soil C model, DAYCENT, in cross-site comparisons of nitrogen (N enrichment effects on soil C dynamics. MIMICS more accurately simulates C responses to N enrichment; moreover, it raises important hypotheses involving the roles of substrate availability, community-level enzyme induction, and microbial physiological responses in explaining various soil biogeochemical responses to N enrichment. In global-scale analyses, we show that current projections from Earth system models likely overestimate the strength of the land C sink in response to increasing C inputs with elevated carbon dioxide (CO2. Our findings illustrate that tradeoffs between theory and utility can be overcome to develop soil biogeochemistry models that evaluate and advance our theoretical understanding of microbial dynamics and soil biogeochemical responses to environmental change.

  17. 8760-Based Method for Representing Variable Generation Capacity Value in Capacity Expansion Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-03

    Capacity expansion models (CEMs) are widely used to evaluate the least-cost portfolio of electricity generators, transmission, and storage needed to reliably serve load over many years or decades. CEMs can be computationally complex and are often forced to estimate key parameters using simplified methods to achieve acceptable solve times or for other reasons. In this paper, we discuss one of these parameters -- capacity value (CV). We first provide a high-level motivation for and overview of CV. We next describe existing modeling simplifications and an alternate approach for estimating CV that utilizes hourly '8760' data of load and VG resources. We then apply this 8760 method to an established CEM, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model (Eurek et al. 2016). While this alternative approach for CV is not itself novel, it contributes to the broader CEM community by (1) demonstrating how a simplified 8760 hourly method, which can be easily implemented in other power sector models when data is available, more accurately captures CV trends than a statistical method within the ReEDS CEM, and (2) providing a flexible modeling framework from which other 8760-based system elements (e.g., demand response, storage, and transmission) can be added to further capture important dynamic interactions, such as curtailment.

  18. Conclusions on motor control depend on the type of model used to represent the periphery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Ilona J; van Soest, Arthur J; Bobbert, Maarten F; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2012-10-01

    Within the field of motor control, there is no consensus on which kinematic and kinetic aspects of movements are planned or controlled. Perturbing goal-directed movements is a frequently used tool to answer this question. To be able to draw conclusions about motor control from kinematic responses to perturbations, a model of the periphery (i.e., the skeleton, muscle-tendon complexes, and spinal reflex circuitry) is required. The purpose of the present study was to determine to what extent such conclusions depend on the level of simplification with which the dynamical properties of the periphery are modeled. For this purpose, we simulated fast goal-directed single-joint movement with four existing types of models. We tested how three types of perturbations affected movement trajectory if motor commands remained unchanged. We found that the four types of models of the periphery showed different robustness to the perturbations, leading to different predictions on how accurate motor commands need to be, i.e., how accurate the knowledge of external conditions needs to be. This means that when interpreting kinematic responses obtained in perturbation experiments the level of error correction attributed to adaptation of motor commands depends on the type of model used to describe the periphery.

  19. Modeling Fluid’s Dynamics with Master Equations in Ultrametric Spaces Representing the Treelike Structure of Capillary Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei Khrennikov; Klaudia Oleschko; María de Jesús Correa López

    2016-01-01

    We present a new conceptual approach for modeling of fluid flows in random porous media based on explicit exploration of the treelike geometry of complex capillary networks. Such patterns can be represented mathematically as ultrametric spaces and the dynamics of fluids by ultrametric diffusion. The images of p-adic fields, extracted from the real multiscale rock samples and from some reference images, are depicted. In this model the porous background is treated as the environment contributin...

  20. A model for representing the Italian energy system. The NEEDS-TIMES experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosmi, C.; Pietrapertosa, F.; Salvia, M. [National Research Council, Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, C.da S. Loja, I-85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy)]|[Federico II University, Department of Physical Sciences, Via Cintia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Di Leo, S. [National Research Council, National Institute for the Physics of Matter, Via Cintia, I-80126 Naples (Italy)]|[University of Basilicata, Department of Environmental Engineering and Physics, C.da Macchia Romana, I-85100 Potenza (Italy); Loperte, S.; Cuomo, V. [National Research Council, Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, C.da S. Loja, I-85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy); Macchiato, M. [Federico II University, Department of Physical Sciences, Via Cintia, I-80126 Naples (Italy)]|[National Research Council, National Institute for the Physics of Matter, Via Cintia, I-80126 Naples (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    Sustainability of energy systems has a strategic role in the current energy-environmental policies as it involves key issues such as security of energy supply, mitigation of environmental impact (with special regard to air quality improvement) and energy affordability. In this framework modelling activities are more than ever a strategic issue in order to manage the large complexity of energy systems as well as to support the decision-making process at different stages and spatial scales (regional, national, Pan-European, etc.). The aim of this article is to present a new model for the Italian energy system implemented with a common effort in the framework of an integrated project under the Sixth Framework Programme. In particular, the main features of the common methodology are briefly recalled and the modelling structure, the main data and assumptions, sector by sector, are presented. Moreover the main results obtained for the baseline (BAU) scenario are fully described. (author)

  1. A Hidden Markov Model Representing the Spatial and Temporal Correlation of Multiple Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Jiakun; Su, Chi; Hu, Weihao

    2015-01-01

    To accommodate the increasing wind energy with stochastic nature becomes a major issue on power system reliability. This paper proposes a methodology to characterize the spatiotemporal correlation of multiple wind farms. First, a hierarchical clustering method based on self-organizing maps...... is adopted to categorize the similar output patterns of several wind farms into joint states. Then the hidden Markov model (HMM) is then designed to describe the temporal correlations among these joint states. Unlike the conventional Markov chain model, the accumulated wind power is taken into consideration....... The proposed statistical modeling framework is compatible with the sequential power system reliability analysis. A case study on optimal sizing and location of fast-response regulation sources is presented....

  2. Representing northern peatland microtopography and hydrology within the Community Land Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    X. Shi; P.E. Thornton; D.M. Ricciuto; P J. Hanson; J. Mao; Stephen Sebestyen; N.A. Griffiths; G. Bisht

    2015-01-01

    Predictive understanding of northern peatland hydrology is a necessary precursor to understanding the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under the influence of present and future climate change. Current models have begun to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have included a prognostic calculation of peatland water table depth...

  3. An Equivalent Mechanical Model for Representing the Entropy Generation in Heat Exchangers. Application to Power Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Ramírez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    One of the most common difficulties students face in learning Thermodynamics lies in grasping the physical meaning of concepts such as lost availability and entropy generation. This explains the quest for new approaches for explaining and comprehending these quantities, as suggested by diagrams from different authors. The difficulties worsen in the case of irreversibilities associated with heat transfer processes driven by a finite temperature difference, where no work transfer takes place. An equivalent mechanical model is proposed in this paper. Heat exchangers are modelled by means of Carnot heat engines and mechanical transmissions; the use of mechanical models allows an easy visualization of thermal irreversibilities. The proposed model is further applied to a power cycle, thus obtaining an “equivalent arrangement” where irreversibilities become clearly apparent.

  4. A mathematical model representing cellular immune development and response to Salmonella of chicken intestinal tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokker, D.; Bannink, A.; Smits, M.A.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to create a dynamic mathematical model of the development of the cellular branch of the intestinal immune system of poultry during the first 42 days of life and of its response towards an oral infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. The system elements were

  5. A comparison of methods for representing random taste heterogeneity in discrete choice models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Hess, Stephane

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a systematic study using Monte Carlo experiments and a real dataset aimed at comparing the performance of various ways of specifying random taste heterogeneity in a discrete choice model. Specifically, the analysis compares the performance of two recent advanced...

  6. Towards a self-organizing pre-symbolic neural model representing sensorimotor primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junpei eZhong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of symbolic and linguistic representations of sensorimotor behavior is a cognitive process performed by an agent when it is executing and/or observing own and others' actions. According to Piaget's theory of cognitive development, these representations develop during the sensorimotor stage and the pre-operational stage. We propose a model that relates the conceptualization of the higher-level information from visual stimuli to the development of ventral/dorsal visual streams. This model employs neural network architecture incorporating a predictive sensory module based on an RNNPB (Recurrent Neural Network with Parametric Biases and a horizontal product model. We exemplify this model through a robot passively observing an object to learn its features and movements. During the learning process of observing sensorimotor primitives, i.e. observing a set of trajectories of arm movements and its oriented object features, the pre-symbolic representation is self-organized in the parametric units. These representational units act as bifurcation parameters, guiding the robot to recognize and predict various learned sensorimotor primitives. The pre-symbolic representation also accounts for the learning of sensorimotor primitives in a latent learning context.

  7. What Happens when Representations Fail to Represent? Graduate Students' Mental Models of Organic Chemistry Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Amanda M.; Kraft, Adam; Bhattacharyya, Gautam

    2010-01-01

    As part of our investigations into the development of representational competence, we report results from a study in which we elicited sixteen graduate students' expressed mental models of commonly-used terms for describing organic reactions--functional group, nucleophile/electrophile, acid/base--and for diagrams of transformations and their…

  8. Use of CFD modeling for estimating spatial representativeness of urban air pollution monitoring sites and suitability of their locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, J. L.; Martin, F.

    2015-07-01

    A methodology to estimate the spatial representativeness of air pollution monitoring sites is applied to two urban districts. This methodology is based on high resolution maps of air pollution computed by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling tools. Traffic-emitted NO{sub 2} dispersion is simulated for several meteorological conditions taking into account the effect of the buildings on air flow and pollutant dispersion and using a steady state CFD-RANS approach. From these results, maps of average pollutant concentrations for January -May 2011 are computed as a combination of the simulated scenarios. Two urban districts of Madrid City were simulated. Spatial representativeness areas for 32 different sites within the same district (including the site of the operative air quality stations) have been estimated by computing the portion of the domains with average NO{sub 2} concentration differing less than a 20% of the concentration at each candidate monitoring site. New parameters such as the ratio AR between the representativeness area and the whole domain area or the representativeness index (IR) has been proposed to discuss and compare the representativeness areas. Significant differences between the spatial representativeness of the candidate sites of both studied districts have been found. The sites of the Escuelas Aguirre district have generally smaller representativeness areas than those of the Plaza de Castilla. More stations are needed to cover the Escuelas Aguirre district than for the Plaza de Castilla one. The operative air quality station of the Escuelas Aguirre district is less representative than the station of the Plaza de Castilla district. The cause of these differences seems to be the differences in urban structure of both districts prompting different ventilation. (Author)

  9. Use of CFD modeling for estimating spatial representativeness of urban air pollution monitoring sites and suitability of their locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, J.L.; Martin, F.

    2015-07-01

    A methodology to estimate the spatial representativeness of air pollution monitoring sites is applied to two urban districts. This methodology is based on high resolution maps of air pollution computed by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling tools. Traffic-emitted NO2 dispersion is simulated for several meteorological conditions taking into account the effect of the buildings on air flow and pollutant dispersion and using a steady state CFD-RANS approach. From these results, maps of average pollutant concentrations for January–May 2011 are computed as a combination of the simulated scenarios. Two urban districts of Madrid City were simulated. Spatial representativeness areas for 32 different sites within the same district (including the site of the operative air quality stations) have been estimated by computing the portion of the domains with average NO2 concentration differing less than a 20% of the concentration at each candidate monitoring site. New parameters such as the ratio AR between the representativeness area and the whole domain area or the representativeness index (IR) has been proposed to discuss and compare the representativeness areas. Significant differences between the spatial representativeness of the candidate sites of both studied districts have been found. The sites of the Escuelas Aguirre district have generally smaller representativeness areas than those of the Plaza de Castilla. More stations are needed to cover the Escuelas Aguirre district than for the Plaza de Castilla one. The operative air quality station of the Escuelas Aguirre district is less representative than the station of the Plaza de Castilla district. The cause of these differences seems to be the differences in urban structure of both districts prompting different ventilation. (Author)

  10. Final Technical Report: "Representing Endogenous Technological Change in Climate Policy Models: General Equilibrium Approaches"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian Sue Wing

    2006-04-18

    The research supported by this award pursued three lines of inquiry: (1) The construction of dynamic general equilibrium models to simulate the accumulation and substitution of knowledge, which has resulted in the preparation and submission of several papers: (a) A submitted pedagogic paper which clarifies the structure and operation of computable general equilibrium (CGE) models (C.2), and a review article in press which develops a taxonomy for understanding the representation of technical change in economic and engineering models for climate policy analysis (B.3). (b) A paper which models knowledge directly as a homogeneous factor, and demonstrates that inter-sectoral reallocation of knowledge is the key margin of adjustment which enables induced technical change to lower the costs of climate policy (C.1). (c) An empirical paper which estimates the contribution of embodied knowledge to aggregate energy intensity in the U.S. (C.3), followed by a companion article which embeds these results within a CGE model to understand the degree to which autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI) is attributable to technical change as opposed to sub-sectoral shifts in industrial composition (C.4) (d) Finally, ongoing theoretical work to characterize the precursors and implications of the response of innovation to emission limits (E.2). (2) Data development and simulation modeling to understand how the characteristics of discrete energy supply technologies determine their succession in response to emission limits when they are embedded within a general equilibrium framework. This work has produced two peer-reviewed articles which are currently in press (B.1 and B.2). (3) Empirical investigation of trade as an avenue for the transmission of technological change to developing countries, and its implications for leakage, which has resulted in an econometric study which is being revised for submission to a journal (E.1). As work commenced on this topic, the U.S. withdrawal

  11. Aeromechanical stability analysis of a multirotor vehicle model representing a hybrid heavy lift airship (HHLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, C.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1984-01-01

    Hybrid Heavy Lift Airship (HHLA) is a proposed candidate vehicle aimed at providing heavy lift capability at low cost. This vehicle consists of a buoyant envelope attached to a supporting structure to which four rotor systems, taken from existing helicopters are attached. Nonlinear equations of motion capable of modelling the dynamics of this coupled multi-rotor/support frame/vehicle system have been developed. Using these equations of motion the aeroelastic and aeromechanical stability analysis is performed aimed at identifying potential instabilities which could occur for this type of vehicle. The coupling between various blade, supporting structure and rigid body modes is identified. Furthermore, the effects of changes in buoyancy ratio (Buoyant lift/total weight) on the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle are studied. The dynamic effects found are of considerable importance for the design of such vehicles. The analytical model developed is also useful for studying the aeromechanical stability of single rotor and tandem rotor coupled rotor/fuselage systems.

  12. A General Model for Representing Arbitrary Unsymmetries in Various Types of Network Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne-Hansen, Jan

    1997-01-01

    When dealing with unsymmetric faults various proposals have been put forward. In general they have been characterized by specific treatment of the single fault in accordance with the structure and impedances involved. The model presented is based on node equations and was originally developed for...... complicated fault situation which has not been treated before for traditional transient stability analysis...... for transient stability studies in order to allow for an arbitrary fault representation as seen from the positive sequence network. The method results in impedances -or admittances-combining the negative sequence and zero sequence representation for the symmetrical network with the structure and electrical...... constants of the unsymmetry involving one or more buses. These impedances are introduced in the positive sequence network in the nodes involved in the unsymmetrical conditions. In addition the model can be used for static fault current analysis and presents also in this connection a general method...

  13. The Adaptive Co-Management Process: an Initial Synthesis of Representative Models and Influential Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Plummer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative and adaptive approaches to environmental management have captured the attention of administrators, resource users, and scholars. Adaptive co-management builds upon these approaches to create a novel governance strategy. This paper investigates the dynamics of the adaptive co-management process and the variables that influence it. The investigation begins by summarizing analytical and causal models relevant to the adaptive co-management process. Variables that influence this process are then synthesized from diverse literatures, categorized as being exogenous or endogenous, and developed into respective analytical frameworks. In identifying commonalities among models of the adaptive co-management process and discerning influential variables, this paper provides initial insights into understanding the dynamic social process of adaptive co-management. From these insights conjectures for future inquires are offered in the conclusion.

  14. Representing icebergs in the iLOVECLIM model (version 1.0 – a sensitivity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bügelmayer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent modelling studies have indicated that icebergs alter the ocean's state, the thickness of sea ice and the prevailing atmospheric conditions, in short play an active role in the climate system. The icebergs' impact is due to their slowly released melt water which freshens and cools the ocean. The spatial distribution of the icebergs and thus their melt water depends on the forces (atmospheric and oceanic acting on them as well as on the icebergs' size. The studies conducted so far have in common that the icebergs were moved by reconstructed or modelled forcing fields and that the initial size distribution of the icebergs was prescribed according to present day observations. To address these shortcomings, we used the climate model iLOVECLIM that includes actively coupled ice-sheet and iceberg modules, to conduct 15 sensitivity experiments to analyse (1 the impact of the forcing fields (atmospheric vs. oceanic on the icebergs' distribution and melt flux, and (2 the effect of the used initial iceberg size on the resulting Northern Hemisphere climate and ice sheet under different climate conditions (pre-industrial, strong/weak radiative forcing. Our results show that, under equilibrated pre-industrial conditions, the oceanic currents cause the bergs to stay close to the Greenland and North American coast, whereas the atmospheric forcing quickly distributes them further away from their calving site. These different characteristics strongly affect the lifetime of icebergs, since the wind-driven icebergs melt up to two years faster as they are quickly distributed into the relatively warm North Atlantic waters. Moreover, we find that local variations in the spatial distribution due to different iceberg sizes do not result in different climate states and Greenland ice sheet volume, independent of the prevailing climate conditions (pre-industrial, warming or cooling climate. Therefore, we conclude that local differences in the distribution of their

  15. Segmenting into Adequate Units for Automatic Recognition of Emotion-Related Episodes: A Speech-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Batliner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We deal with the topic of segmenting emotion-related (emotional/affective episodes into adequate units for analysis and automatic processing/classification—a topic that has not been addressed adequately so far. We concentrate on speech and illustrate promising approaches by using a database with children's emotional speech. We argue in favour of the word as basic unit and map sequences of words on both syntactic and ‘‘emotionally consistent” chunks and report classification performances for an exhaustive modelling of our data by mapping word-based paralinguistic emotion labels onto three classes representing valence (positive, neutral, negative, and onto a fourth rest (garbage class.

  16. The SHOCT domain: a widespread domain under-represented in model organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Y Eberhardt

    Full Text Available We have identified a new protein domain, which we have named the SHOCT domain (Short C-terminal domain. This domain is widespread in bacteria with over a thousand examples. But we found it is missing from the most commonly studied model organisms, despite being present in closely related species. It's predominantly C-terminal location, co-occurrence with numerous other domains and short size is reminiscent of the Gram-positive anchor motif, however it is present in a much wider range of species. We suggest several hypotheses about the function of SHOCT, including oligomerisation and nucleic acid binding. Our initial experiments do not support its role as an oligomerisation domain.

  17. Value of information estimation using geologic representative models; Estimativa de valor de informacao usando modelos geologicos representativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Alexandre M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao da Bacia de Santos. Gerencia de Reservatorio], e-mail: amxavier@petrobras.com.br; Ligero, Eliana L. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Laboratorio de Pesquisa em Simulacao e Gerenciamento de Reservatorios], e-mail: eligero@dep.fem.unicamp.br

    2006-12-15

    Petroleum field development occurs under geological, economic, technological and political uncertainties. Risk proceeding from geological uncertainties can be mitigated from additional information or operational flexibility. In petroleum field development, especially offshore fields, where investment and information costs are high and flexibility is low, it is necessary to use a probabilistic methodology in the decision analysis, mainly in the production strategy definition. The employment of probabilistic methodologies in risk analysis require some simplifications due to the complexity of the process, high number of decision possibilities and high cost of flow simulation - the tool used to evaluate alternatives. A possible simplification is the geological representative models, which are models that are able to represent reservoir geological uncertainties. In a risk methodology, the GRM models are used to integrate the geological, economic, technological and production strategies . A methodology to determine the Value of Information has been developed and it is based on the geological representative models in order to minimize the risks involved in the project. The methodology has been validated and applied to an offshore field. (author)

  18. Kidney transplantation process in Brazil represented in business process modeling notation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres Penteado, A; Molina Cohrs, F; Diniz Hummel, A; Erbs, J; Maciel, R F; Feijó Ortolani, C L; de Aguiar Roza, B; Torres Pisa, I

    2015-05-01

    Kidney transplantation is considered to be the best treatment for people with chronic kidney failure, because it improves the patients' quality of life and increases their length of survival compared with patients undergoing dialysis. The kidney transplantation process in Brazil is defined through laws, decrees, ordinances, and resolutions, but there is no visual representation of this process. The aim of this study was to analyze official documents to construct a representation of the kidney transplantation process in Brazil with the use of business process modeling notation (BPMN). The methodology for this study was based on an exploratory observational study, document analysis, and construction of process diagrams with the use of BPMN. Two rounds of validations by specialists were conducted. The result includes the kidney transplantation process in Brazil representation with the use of BPMN. We analyzed 2 digital documents that resulted in 2 processes with 45 total of activities and events, 6 organizations involved, and 6 different stages of the process. The constructed representation makes it easier to understand the rules for the business of kidney transplantation and can be used by the health care professionals involved in the various activities within this process. Construction of a representation with language appropriate for the Brazilian lay public is underway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. From representing to modelling knowledge: Proposing a two-step training for excellence in concept mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana G. Aguiar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Training users in the concept mapping technique is critical for ensuring a high-quality concept map in terms of graphical structure and content accuracy. However, assessing excellence in concept mapping through structural and content features is a complex task. This paper proposes a two-step sequential training in concept mapping. The first step requires the fulfilment of low-order cognitive objectives (remember, understand and apply to facilitate novices’ development into good Cmappers by honing their knowledge representation skills. The second step requires the fulfilment of high-order cognitive objectives (analyse, evaluate and create to grow good Cmappers into excellent ones through the development of knowledge modelling skills. Based on Bloom’s revised taxonomy and cognitive load theory, this paper presents theoretical accounts to (1 identify the criteria distinguishing good and excellent concept maps, (2 inform instructional tasks for concept map elaboration and (3 propose a prototype for training users on concept mapping combining online and face-to-face activities. The proposed training application and the institutional certification are the next steps for the mature use of concept maps for educational as well as business purposes.

  20. Earth radiation balance as observed and represented in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Martin; Folini, Doris; Schär, Christoph; Loeb, Norman; König-Langlo, Gert

    2014-05-01

    The genesis and evolution of Earth's climate is largely regulated by the Earth radiation balance. Despite of its key role in the context of climate change, substantial uncertainties still exist in the quantification of the magnitudes of its different components, and its representation in climate models. While the net radiative energy flows in and out of the climate system at the top of atmosphere are now known with considerable accuracy from new satellite programs such as CERES and SORCE, the energy distribution within the climate system and at the Earth's surface is less well determined. Accordingly, the magnitudes of the components of the surface energy balance have recently been controversially disputed, and potential inconsistencies between the estimated magnitudes of the global energy and water cycle have been emphasized. Here we summarize this discussion as presented in Chapter 2.3 of the 5th IPCC assessment report (AR5). In this context we made an attempt to better constrain the magnitudes of the surface radiative components with largest uncertainties. In addition to satellite observations, we thereby made extensive use of the growing number of surface observations to constrain the radiation balance not only from space, but also from the surface. We combined these observations with the latest modeling efforts performed for AR5 (CMIP5) to infer best estimates for the global mean surface radiative components. Our analyses favor global mean values of downward surface solar and thermal radiation near 185 and 342 Wm-2, respectively, which are most compatible with surface observations (Wild et al. 2013). These estimates are on the order of 10 Wm-2 lower and higher, respectively, than in some of the previous global energy balance assessments, including those presented in previous IPCC reports. It is encouraging that these estimates, which make full use of the information contained in the surface networks, coincide within 2 Wm-2 with the latest satellite

  1. Modelling representative and coherent Danish farm types based on farm accountancy data for use in environmental assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Randi; Halberg, Niels; Kristensen, Ib Sillebak

    2006-01-01

    -oriented environmental assessment (e.g. greenhouse gas emissions per kg pork). The objective of this study was to establish a national agricultural model for estimating data on resource use, production and environmentally important emissions for a set of representative farm types. Every year a sample of farm accounts...... is established in order to report Danish agro-economical data to the ‘Farm Accountancy Data Network’ (FADN), and to produce ‘The annual Danish account statistics for agriculture’. The farm accounts are selected and weighted to be representative for the Danish agricultural sector, and similar samples of farm...... accounts are collected in most of the European countries. Based on a sample of 2138 farm accounts from year 1999 a national agricultural model, consisting of 31 farm types, was constructed. The farm accounts were grouped according to the major soil types, the number of working hours, the most important...

  2. Representing Causation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics model, which is based on L. Talmy's (1988) theory of force dynamics, characterizes causation as a pattern of forces and a position vector. In contrast to counterfactual and probabilistic models, the dynamics model naturally distinguishes between different cause-related concepts and explains the induction of causal relationships from…

  3. The Jena Diversity-Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (JeDi-DGVM: a diverse approach to representing terrestrial biogeography and biogeochemistry based on plant functional trade-offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pavlick

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial biosphere models typically abstract the immense diversity of vegetation forms and functioning into a relatively small set of predefined semi-empirical plant functional types (PFTs. There is growing evidence, however, from the field ecology community as well as from modelling studies that current PFT schemes may not adequately represent the observed variations in plant functional traits and their effect on ecosystem functioning. In this paper, we introduce the Jena Diversity-Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (JeDi-DGVM as a new approach to terrestrial biosphere modelling with a richer representation of functional diversity than traditional modelling approaches based on a small number of fixed PFTs. JeDi-DGVM simulates the performance of a large number of randomly generated plant growth strategies, each defined by a set of 15 trait parameters which characterize various aspects of plant functioning including carbon allocation, ecophysiology and phenology. Each trait parameter is involved in one or more functional trade-offs. These trade-offs ultimately determine whether a strategy is able to survive under the climatic conditions in a given model grid cell and its performance relative to the other strategies. The biogeochemical fluxes and land surface properties of the individual strategies are aggregated to the grid-cell scale using a mass-based weighting scheme. We evaluate the simulated global biogeochemical patterns against a variety of field and satellite-based observations following a protocol established by the Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project. The land surface fluxes and vegetation structural properties are reasonably well simulated by JeDi-DGVM, and compare favourably with other state-of-the-art global vegetation models. We also evaluate the simulated patterns of functional diversity and the sensitivity of the JeDi-DGVM modelling approach to the number of sampled strategies. Altogether, the results demonstrate the

  4. The Interaction Network Ontology-supported modeling and mining of complex interactions represented with multiple keywords in biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgür, Arzucan; Hur, Junguk; He, Yongqun

    2016-01-01

    hierarchical display of these 34 interaction types and their ancestor terms in INO resulted in the identification of specific gene-gene interaction patterns from the LLL dataset. The phenomenon of having multi-keyword interaction types was also frequently observed in the vaccine dataset. By modeling and representing multiple textual keywords for interaction types, the extended INO enabled the identification of complex biological gene-gene interactions represented with multiple keywords.

  5. Defining an Adequate Education for English Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Gándara; Russell W. Rumberger

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the components of an “adequate” education for linguistic minority students in California and attempts to distinguish these from the components of an adequate education for low-income students who are native English speakers. About 1.6 million students were classified as English learners (ELs) in California in 2006. We argue that in order to determine the costs of educating these students, it is necessary to specify the goals of instruction. Four possible goals are: (1) r...

  6. A linear programming approach to reconstructing subcellular structures from confocal images for automated generation of representative 3D cellular models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Scott T; Dean, Brian C; Dean, Delphine

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a novel computer vision algorithm to analyze 3D stacks of confocal images of fluorescently stained single cells. The goal of the algorithm is to create representative in silico model structures that can be imported into finite element analysis software for mechanical characterization. Segmentation of cell and nucleus boundaries is accomplished via standard thresholding methods. Using novel linear programming methods, a representative actin stress fiber network is generated by computing a linear superposition of fibers having minimum discrepancy compared with an experimental 3D confocal image. Qualitative validation is performed through analysis of seven 3D confocal image stacks of adherent vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) grown in 2D culture. The presented method is able to automatically generate 3D geometries of the cell's boundary, nucleus, and representative F-actin network based on standard cell microscopy data. These geometries can be used for direct importation and implementation in structural finite element models for analysis of the mechanics of a single cell to potentially speed discoveries in the fields of regenerative medicine, mechanobiology, and drug discovery.

  7. The role of subcutaneous tissue stiffness on microneedle performance in a representative in vitro model of skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moronkeji, K; Todd, S; Dawidowska, I; Barrett, S D; Akhtar, R

    2016-11-10

    There has been growing interest in the mechanical behaviour of skin due to the rapid development of microneedle devices for drug delivery applications into skin. However, most in vitro experimentation studies that are used to evaluate microneedle performance do not consider the biomechanical properties of skin or that of the subcutaneous layers. In this study, a representative experimental model of skin was developed which was comprised of subcutaneous and muscle mimics. Neonatal porcine skin from the abdominal and back regions was used, with gelatine gels of differing water content (67, 80, 88 and 96%) to represent the subcutaneous tissue, and a type of ballistic gelatine, Perma-Gel®, as a muscle mimic. Dynamic nanoindentation was used to characterize the mechanical properties of each of these layers. A custom-developed impact test rig was used to apply dense polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microneedles to the skin models in a controlled and repeatable way with quantification of the insertion force and velocity. Image analysis methods were used to measure penetration depth and area of the breach caused by microneedle penetration following staining and optical imaging. The nanoindentation tests demonstrated that the tissue mimics matched expected values for subcutaneous and muscle tissue, and that the compliance of the subcutaneous mimics increased linearly with water content. The abdominal skin was thinner and less stiff as compared to back skin. The maximum force decreased with gel water content in the abdominal skin but not in the back skin. Overall, larger and deeper perforations were found in the skin models with increasing water content. These data demonstrate the importance of subcutaneous tissue on microneedle performance and the need for representative skin models in microneedle technology development.

  8. Representing spatial and temporal complexity in ecohydrological models: a meta-analysis focusing on groundwater - surface water interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Karlie; Mika, Sarah; Kolbe, Tamara; Abbott, Ben; Ciocca, Francesco; Marruedo, Amaia; Hannah, David; Schmidt, Christian; Fleckenstein, Jan; Karuse, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Sub-surface hydrologic processes are highly dynamic, varying spatially and temporally with strong links to the geomorphology and hydrogeologic properties of an area. This spatial and temporal complexity is a critical regulator of biogeochemical and ecological processes within the interface groundwater - surface water (GW-SW) ecohydrological interface and adjacent ecosystems. Many GW-SW models have attempted to capture this spatial and temporal complexity with varying degrees of success. The incorporation of spatial and temporal complexity within GW-SW model configuration is important to investigate interactions with transient storage and subsurface geology, infiltration and recharge, and mass balance of exchange fluxes at the GW-SW ecohydrological interface. Additionally, characterising spatial and temporal complexity in GW-SW models is essential to derive predictions using realistic environmental conditions. In this paper we conduct a systematic Web of Science meta-analysis of conceptual, hydrodynamic, and reactive and heat transport models of the GW-SW ecohydrological interface since 2004 to explore how these models handled spatial and temporal complexity. The freshwater - groundwater ecohydrological interface was the most commonly represented in publications between 2004 and 2014 with 91% of papers followed by marine 6% and estuarine systems with 3% of papers. Of the GW-SW models published since 2004, the 52% have focused on hydrodynamic processes and heat and reactive transport). Within the hydrodynamic subset, 25% of models focused on a vertical depth of limitations of incorporating spatial and temporal variability into GW-SW models are identified as the inclusion of woody debris, carbon sources, subsurface geological structures and bioclogging into model parameterization. The technological limitations influence the types of models applied, such as hydrostatic coupled models and fully intrinsic saturated and unsaturated models, and the assumptions or

  9. Representing Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Representing Development presents the different social representations that have formed the idea of development in Western thinking over the past three centuries. Offering an acute perspective on the current state of developmental science and providing constructive insights into future pathways...... and development, addressing their contemporary enactments and reflecting on future theoretical and empirical directions. The first section of the book provides an historical account of early representations of development that, having come from life science, has shaped the way in which developmental science has...... approached development. Section two focuses upon the contemporary issues of developmental psychology, neuroscience and developmental science at large. The final section offers a series of commentaries pointing to the questions opened by the previous chapters, looking to outline the future lines...

  10. Representing Microbial Dormancy in Soil Decomposition Models Improves Model Performance and Reveals Key Ecosystem Controls on Microbial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y.; Yang, J.; Zhuang, Q.; Wang, G.; Liu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Climate feedbacks from soils can result from environmental change and subsequent responses of plant and microbial communities and nutrient cycling. Explicit consideration of microbial life history traits and strategy may be necessary to predict climate feedbacks due to microbial physiology and community changes and their associated effect on carbon cycling. In this study, we developed an explicit microbial-enzyme decomposition model and examined model performance with and without representation of dormancy at six temperate forest sites with observed soil efflux ranged from 4 to 10 years across different forest types. We then extrapolated the model to all temperate forests in the Northern Hemisphere (25-50°N) to investigate spatial controls on microbial and soil C dynamics. Both models captured the observed soil heterotrophic respiration (RH), yet no-dormancy model consistently exhibited large seasonal amplitude and overestimation in microbial biomass. Spatially, the total RH from temperate forests based on dormancy model amounts to 6.88PgC/yr, and 7.99PgC/yr based on no-dormancy model. However, no-dormancy model notably overestimated the ratio of microbial biomass to SOC. Spatial correlation analysis revealed key controls of soil C:N ratio on the active proportion of microbial biomass, whereas local dormancy is primarily controlled by soil moisture and temperature, indicating scale-dependent environmental and biotic controls on microbial and SOC dynamics. These developments should provide essential support to modeling future soil carbon dynamics and enhance the avenue for collaboration between empirical soil experiment and modeling in the sense that more microbial physiological measurements are needed to better constrain and evaluate the models.

  11. Pharmacodynamic modelling of in vitro activity of tetracycline against a representative, naturally occurring population of porcine Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Amais; Zachariasen, Camilla; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo;

    2015-01-01

    text] between susceptible and resistant strains in the absence of a drug was not different. EC 50 increased linearly with MIC on a log-log scale, and γ was different between susceptible and resistant strains. The in vitro model parameters described the inhibition effect of tetracycline on E. coli when...... of Escherichia coli representative of those found in the Danish pig population, we compared the growth of 50 randomly selected strains. The observed net growth rates were used to describe the in vitro pharmacodynamic relationship between drug concentration and net growth rate based on E max model with three...... parameters: maximum net growth rate (α max ); concentration for a half-maximal response (E max ); and the Hill coefficient (γ). The net growth rate in the absence of antibiotic did not differ between susceptible and resistant isolates (P = 0.97). The net growth rate decreased with increasing tetracycline...

  12. NewsPaperBox - Online News Space: a visual model for representing the social space of a website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Artut

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available NewsPaperBox * propounds an alternative visual model utilizing the treemap algorithm to represent the collective use of a website that evolves in response to user interaction. While the technology currently exists to track various user behaviors such as number of clicks, duration of stay on a given web site, these statistics are not yet employed to influence the visual representation of that site's design in real time. In that sense, this project propounds an alternative modeling of a representational outlook of a website that is developed by collaborations and competitions of its global users. This paper proposes the experience of cyberspace as a generative process driven by its effective user participation.

  13. Representing nursing guideline with unified modeling language to facilitate development of a computer system: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeeyae; Choi, Jeungok E

    2014-01-01

    To provide best recommendations at the point of care, guidelines have been implemented in computer systems. As a prerequisite, guidelines are translated into a computer-interpretable guideline format. Since there are no specific tools to translate nursing guidelines, only a few nursing guidelines are translated and implemented in computer systems. Unified modeling language (UML) is a software writing language and is known to well and accurately represent end-users' perspective, due to the expressive characteristics of the UML. In order to facilitate the development of computer systems for nurses' use, the UML was used to translate a paper-based nursing guideline, and its ease of use and the usefulness were tested through a case study of a genetic counseling guideline. The UML was found to be a useful tool to nurse informaticians and a sufficient tool to model a guideline in a computer program.

  14. NewsPaperBox - Online News Space: a visual model for representing the social space of a website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Artut

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available NewsPaperBox * propounds an alternative visual model utilizing the treemap algorithm to represent the collective use of a website that evolves in response to user interaction. While the technology currently exists to track various user behaviors such as number of clicks, duration of stay on a given web site, these statistics are not yet employed to influence the visual representation of that site's design in real time. In that sense, this project propounds an alternative modeling of a representational outlook of a website that is developed by collaborations and competitions of its global users. This paper proposes the experience of cyberspace as a generative process driven by its effective user participation.

  15. Three-Dimensional Algebraic Models of the tRNA Code and 12 Graphs for Representing the Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    José, Marco V.; Morgado, Eberto R.; Guimarães, Romeu Cardoso; Zamudio, Gabriel S.; de Farías, Sávio Torres; Bobadilla, Juan R.; Sosa, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional algebraic models, also called Genetic Hotels, are developed to represent the Standard Genetic Code, the Standard tRNA Code (S-tRNA-C), and the Human tRNA code (H-tRNA-C). New algebraic concepts are introduced to be able to describe these models, to wit, the generalization of the 2n-Klein Group and the concept of a subgroup coset with a tail. We found that the H-tRNA-C displayed broken symmetries in regard to the S-tRNA-C, which is highly symmetric. We also show that there are only 12 ways to represent each of the corresponding phenotypic graphs of amino acids. The averages of statistical centrality measures of the 12 graphs for each of the three codes are carried out and they are statistically compared. The phenotypic graphs of the S-tRNA-C display a common triangular prism of amino acids in 10 out of the 12 graphs, whilst the corresponding graphs for the H-tRNA-C display only two triangular prisms. The graphs exhibit disjoint clusters of amino acids when their polar requirement values are used. We contend that the S-tRNA-C is in a frozen-like state, whereas the H-tRNA-C may be in an evolving state. PMID:25370377

  16. Quality Reporting of Multivariable Regression Models in Observational Studies: Review of a Representative Sample of Articles Published in Biomedical Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Jordi; Forné, Carles; Roso-Llorach, Albert; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M

    2016-05-01

    Controlling for confounders is a crucial step in analytical observational studies, and multivariable models are widely used as statistical adjustment techniques. However, the validation of the assumptions of the multivariable regression models (MRMs) should be made clear in scientific reporting. The objective of this study is to review the quality of statistical reporting of the most commonly used MRMs (logistic, linear, and Cox regression) that were applied in analytical observational studies published between 2003 and 2014 by journals indexed in MEDLINE.Review of a representative sample of articles indexed in MEDLINE (n = 428) with observational design and use of MRMs (logistic, linear, and Cox regression). We assessed the quality of reporting about: model assumptions and goodness-of-fit, interactions, sensitivity analysis, crude and adjusted effect estimate, and specification of more than 1 adjusted model.The tests of underlying assumptions or goodness-of-fit of the MRMs used were described in 26.2% (95% CI: 22.0-30.3) of the articles and 18.5% (95% CI: 14.8-22.1) reported the interaction analysis. Reporting of all items assessed was higher in articles published in journals with a higher impact factor.A low percentage of articles indexed in MEDLINE that used multivariable techniques provided information demonstrating rigorous application of the model selected as an adjustment method. Given the importance of these methods to the final results and conclusions of observational studies, greater rigor is required in reporting the use of MRMs in the scientific literature.

  17. Dynamic heart model for the mathematical cardiac torso (MCAT) phantom to represent the invariant total heart volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, P. H.; King, Michael A.; Tsui, Benjamin M.; LaCroix, Karen; Xia, Weishi

    1998-07-01

    This manuscript documents the alteration of the heart model of the MCAT phantom to better represent cardiac motion. The objective of the inclusion of motion was to develop a digital simulation of the heart such that the impact of cardiac motion on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging could be assessed and methods of quantitating cardiac function could be investigated. The motion of the dynamic MCAT's heart is modeled by a 128 time frame volume curve. Eight time frames are averaged together to obtain a gated perfusion acquisition of 16 time frames and ensure motion within every time frame. The position of the MCAT heart was changed during contraction to rotate back and forth around the long axis through the center of the left ventricle (LV) using the end systolic time frame as turning point. Simple respiratory motion was also introduced by changing the orientation of the heart model in a 2 dimensional (2D) plane with every time frame. The averaging effect of respiratory motion in a specific time frame was modeled by randomly selecting multiple heart locations between two extreme orientations. Non-gated perfusion phantoms were also generated by averaging over all time frames. Maximal chamber volumes were selected to fit a profile of a normal healthy person. These volumes were changed during contraction of the ventricles such that the increase in volume in the atria compensated for the decrease in volume in the ventricles. The myocardium were modeled to represent shortening of muscle fibers during contraction with the base of the ventricles moving towards a static apex. The apical region was modeled with moderate wall thinning present while myocardial mass was conserved. To test the applicability of the dynamic heart model, myocardial wall thickening was measured using maximum counts and full width half maximum measurements, and compared with published trends. An analytical 3D projector, with attenuation and detector response included, was used

  18. Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources in Three Representative Ukrainian Catchments Using Eco-Hydrological Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulii Didovets

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The information about climate change impact on river discharge is vitally important for planning adaptation measures. The future changes can affect different water-related sectors. The main goal of this study was to investigate the potential water resource changes in Ukraine, focusing on three mesoscale river catchments (Teteriv, Upper Western Bug, and Samara characteristic for different geographical zones. The catchment scale watershed model—Soil and Water Integrated Model (SWIM—was setup, calibrated, and validated for the three catchments under consideration. A set of seven GCM-RCM (General Circulation Model-Regional Climate Model coupled climate scenarios corresponding to RCPs (Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 and 8.5 were used to drive the hydrological catchment model. The climate projections, used in the study, were considered as three combinations of low, intermediate, and high end scenarios. Our results indicate the shifts in the seasonal distribution of runoff in all three catchments. The spring high flow occurs earlier as a result of temperature increases and earlier snowmelt. The fairly robust trend is an increase in river discharge in the winter season, and most of the scenarios show a potential decrease in river discharge in the spring.

  19. Design and Fabrication of DebriSat - A Representative LEO Satellite for Improvements to Standard Satellite Breakup Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S.; Dietrich, A.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Weremeyer, M.; Liou, J.-C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and fabrication of DebriSat, a 50 kg satellite developed to be representative of a modern low Earth orbit satellite in terms of its components, materials used, and fabrication procedures. DebriSat will be the target of a future hypervelocity impact experiment to determine the physical characteristics of debris generated after an on-orbit collision of a modern LEO satellite. The major ground-based satellite impact experiment used by DoD and NASA in their development of satellite breakup models was SOCIT, conducted in 1992. The target used for that experiment was a Navy transit satellite (40 cm, 35 kg) fabricated in the 1960's. Modern satellites are very different in materials and construction techniques than those built 40 years ago. Therefore, there is a need to conduct a similar experiment using a modern target satellite to improve the fidelity of the satellite breakup models. To ensure that DebriSat is truly representative of typical LEO missions, a comprehensive study of historical LEO satellite designs and missions within the past 15 years for satellites ranging from 1 kg to 5000 kg was conducted. This study identified modern trends in hardware, material, and construction practices utilized in recent LEO missions. Although DebriSat is an engineering model, specific attention is placed on the quality, type, and quantity of the materials used in its fabrication to ensure the integrity of the outcome. With the exception of software, all other aspects of the satellite s design, fabrication, and assembly integration and testing will be as rigorous as that of an actual flight vehicle. For example, to simulate survivability of launch loads, DebriSat will be subjected to a vibration test. As well, the satellite will undergo thermal vacuum tests to verify that the components and overall systems meet typical environmental standards. Proper assembly and integration techniques will involve comprehensive joint analysis, including the precise

  20. Dynamic neuronal ensembles: Issues in representing structure change in object-oriented, biologically-based brain models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahie, S.; Zeigler, B.P.; Cho, H. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the structure of dynamic neuronal ensembles (DNEs). DNEs represent a new paradigm for learning, based on biological neural networks that use variable structures. We present a computational neural element that demonstrates biological neuron functionality such as neurotransmitter feedback absolute refractory period and multiple output potentials. More specifically, we will develop a network of neural elements that have the ability to dynamically strengthen, weaken, add and remove interconnections. We demonstrate that the DNE is capable of performing dynamic modifications to neuron connections and exhibiting biological neuron functionality. In addition to its applications for learning, DNEs provide an excellent environment for testing and analysis of biological neural systems. An example of habituation and hyper-sensitization in biological systems, using a neural circuit from a snail is presented and discussed. This paper provides an insight into the DNE paradigm using models developed and simulated in DEVS.

  1. Modeling Fluid’s Dynamics with Master Equations in Ultrametric Spaces Representing the Treelike Structure of Capillary Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Khrennikov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a new conceptual approach for modeling of fluid flows in random porous media based on explicit exploration of the treelike geometry of complex capillary networks. Such patterns can be represented mathematically as ultrametric spaces and the dynamics of fluids by ultrametric diffusion. The images of p-adic fields, extracted from the real multiscale rock samples and from some reference images, are depicted. In this model the porous background is treated as the environment contributing to the coefficients of evolutionary equations. For the simplest trees, these equations are essentially less complicated than those with fractional differential operators which are commonly applied in geological studies looking for some fractional analogs to conventional Euclidean space but with anomalous scaling and diffusion properties. It is possible to solve the former equation analytically and, in particular, to find stationary solutions. The main aim of this paper is to attract the attention of researchers working on modeling of geological processes to the novel utrametric approach and to show some examples from the petroleum reservoir static and dynamic characterization, able to integrate the p-adic approach with multifractals, thermodynamics and scaling. We also present a non-mathematician friendly review of trees and ultrametric spaces and pseudo-differential operators on such spaces.

  2. Representing culture in interstellar messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    2008-09-01

    As scholars involved with the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have contemplated how we might portray humankind in any messages sent to civilizations beyond Earth, one of the challenges they face is adequately representing the diversity of human cultures. For example, in a 2003 workshop in Paris sponsored by the SETI Institute, the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) SETI Permanent Study Group, the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology (ISAST), and the John Templeton Foundation, a varied group of artists, scientists, and scholars from the humanities considered how to encode notions of altruism in interstellar messages art_science/2003>. Though the group represented 10 countries, most were from Europe and North America, leading to the group's recommendation that subsequent discussions on the topic should include more globally representative perspectives. As a result, the IAA Study Group on Interstellar Message Construction and the SETI Institute sponsored a follow-up workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA in February 2005. The Santa Fe workshop brought together scholars from a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, chemistry, communication science, philosophy, and psychology. Participants included scholars familiar with interstellar message design as well as specialists in cross-cultural research who had participated in the Symposium on Altruism in Cross-cultural Perspective, held just prior to the workshop during the annual conference of the Society for Cross-cultural Research . The workshop included discussion of how cultural understandings of altruism can complement and critique the more biologically based models of altruism proposed for interstellar messages at the 2003 Paris workshop. This paper, written by the chair of both the Paris and Santa Fe workshops, will explore the challenges of communicating concepts of altruism that draw on both biological and cultural models.

  3. Modelling and mapping the local distribution of representative species on the Le Danois Bank, El Cachucho Marine Protected Area (Cantabrian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alegre, Ana; Sánchez, Francisco; Gómez-Ballesteros, María; Hinz, Hilmar; Serrano, Alberto; Parra, Santiago

    2014-08-01

    The management and protection of potentially vulnerable species and habitats require the availability of detailed spatial data. However, such data are often not readily available in particular areas that are challenging for sampling by traditional sampling techniques, for example seamounts. Within this study habitat modelling techniques were used to create predictive maps of six species of conservation concern for the Le Danois Bank (El Cachucho Marine Protected Area in the South of the Bay of Biscay). The study used data from ECOMARG multidisciplinary surveys that aimed to create a representative picture of the physical and biological composition of the area. Classical fishing gear (otter trawl and beam trawl) was used to sample benthic communities that inhabit sedimentary areas, and non-destructive visual sampling techniques (ROV and photogrammetric sled) were used to determine the presence of epibenthic macrofauna in complex and vulnerable habitats. Multibeam echosounder data, high-resolution seismic profiles (TOPAS system) and geological data from box-corer were used to characterize the benthic terrain. ArcGIS software was used to produce high-resolution maps (75×75 m2) of such variables in the entire area. The Maximum Entropy (MAXENT) technique was used to process these data and create Habitat Suitability maps for six species of special conservation interest. The model used seven environmental variables (depth, rugosity, aspect, slope, Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) in fine and broad scale and morphosedimentary characteristics) to identify the most suitable habitats for such species and indicates which environmental factors determine their distribution. The six species models performed highly significantly better than random (p<0.0001; Mann-Whitney test) when Area Under the Curve (AUC) values were tested. This indicates that the environmental variables chosen are relevant to distinguish the distribution of these species. The Jackknife test estimated depth

  4. Negative symptoms and the failure to represent the expected reward value of actions: behavioral and computational modeling evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, James M; Waltz, James A; Matveeva, Tatyana M; Kasanova, Zuzana; Strauss, Gregory P; Herbener, Ellen S; Collins, Anne G E; Frank, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Negative symptoms are a core feature of schizophrenia, but their pathogenesis remains unclear. Negative symptoms are defined by the absence of normal function. However, there must be a productive mechanism that leads to this absence. To test a reinforcement learning account suggesting that negative symptoms result from a failure in the representation of the expected value of rewards coupled with preserved loss-avoidance learning. Participants performed a probabilistic reinforcement learning paradigm involving stimulus pairs in which choices resulted in reward or in loss avoidance. Following training, participants indicated their valuation of the stimuli in a transfer test phase. Computational modeling was used to distinguish between alternative accounts of the data. A tertiary care research outpatient clinic. In total, 47 clinically stable patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 28 healthy volunteers participated in the study. Patients were divided into a high-negative symptom group and a low-negative symptom group. The number of choices leading to reward or loss avoidance, as well as performance in the transfer test phase. Quantitative fits from 3 different models were examined. Patients in the high-negative symptom group demonstrated impaired learning from rewards but intact loss-avoidance learning and failed to distinguish rewarding stimuli from loss-avoiding stimuli in the transfer test phase. Model fits revealed that patients in the high-negative symptom group were better characterized by an "actor-critic" model, learning stimulus-response associations, whereas control subjects and patients in the low-negative symptom group incorporated expected value of their actions ("Q learning") into the selection process. Negative symptoms in schizophrenia are associated with a specific reinforcement learning abnormality: patients with high-negative symptoms do not represent the expected value of rewards when making decisions but learn

  5. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise.

  6. Representing and Performing Businesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2014-01-01

    and MacKenzie’s idea of performativity. Based on these two approaches, the article demonstrates that the segmentation model represents and performs the businesses as it makes up certain new ways to be a business and as the businesses can be seen as moving targets. Inspired by MacKenzie the argument......This article investigates a segmentation model used by the Danish Tax and Customs Administration to classify businesses’ motivational postures. The article uses two different conceptualisations of performativity to analyse what the model’s segmentations do: Hacking’s notion of making up people...... is that the segmentation model embodies cleverness in that it simultaneously alters what it represents and then represents this altered reality to confirm the accuracy of its own model of the businesses’ postures. Despite the cleverness of the model, it also has a blind spot. The model assumes a world wherein everything...

  7. Evaluation of the Swat Model in a Small Watershed Representative of the Atlantic Forest Biome in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, I. R.; Cauduro Dias de Paiva, E. M.; Dias de Paiva, J.; Beling, F. A.; Heatwole, C.

    2011-12-01

    This study presents the results of simulations with the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model in a small watershed in Southern Brazil (latitude 29°38'37.5 " and longitude 53°48'2.2"), representative of the Atlantic Forest Biome. This area was monitored by two sequential stations, each with one rain gauge and one stage gauge, having contributing areas of 4.5 km2 and 12 km2 respectively. The altitudes in the basins range from 316 m to 431 m and vegetation is predominantly composed of native forest (55%) and native pasture (39%). The simulated period was from August 2007 to July 2011, corresponding to the period of monitoring. The temperature ranged from -2.2°C to 39.2°C, and annual rainfall ranged between 2005 mm and 2250 mm. For this application, a modification in the SWAT 2000 model algorithm was made, as proposed by Paiva and Paiva (2006), to adjust the rate of leaf area during the winter season of the region. The quality of the results was characterized by the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index (NSE) and by the coefficient of determination (R2). The model was evaluated in a monthly and daily scale. At the monthly scale, the values obtained for NSE in the calibration phase, were 0.73 and 0.81, respectively for the two sections. The values obtained for R2 were 0.77 and 0.83 in the same sections. At the daily scale, in the calibration phase NSE values were -0.44 and -0.31, respectively, for the two sections, while for R2, the values were 0.27 and 0.38 in the same sections. These results show that the fit was good for monthly values, but for daily values a proper adjustment was not possible. Due to the short period of monitoring, the validation of the model results was made with the observed data from first station with an area of 4.5 km2. The values obtained for the NSE in the validation phase were 0.73 and -0.33 for the monthly and daily scales respectively, and for R2, 0.77 and 0.27 for the monthly and daily values, thus confirming the quality of the fit

  8. Source apportionment of population representative samples of PM(2.5) in three European cities using structural equation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilacqua, Vito; Hänninen, Otto; Saarela, Kristina; Katsouyanni, Klea; Künzli, Nino; Jantunen, Matti

    2007-10-01

    Apportionment of urban particulate matter (PM) to sources is central for air quality management and efficient reduction of the substantial public health risks associated with fine particles (PM(2.5)). Traffic is an important source combustion particles, but also a significant source of resuspended particles that chemically resemble Earth's crust and that are not affected by development of cleaner motor technologies. A substantial fraction of urban ambient PM originates from long-range transport outside the immediate urban environment including secondary particles formed from gaseous emissions of mainly sulphur, nitrogen oxides and ammonia. Most source apportionment studies are based on small number of fixed monitoring sites and capture well population exposures to regional and long-range transported particles. However, concentrations from local sources are very unevenly distributed and the results from such studies are therefore poorly representative of the actual exposures. The current study uses PM(2.5) data observed at population based random sampled residential locations in Athens, Basle and Helsinki with 17 elemental constituents, selected VOCs (xylenes, trimethylbenzenes, nonane and benzene) and light absorbance (black smoke). The major sources identified across the three cities included crustal, salt, long-range transported inorganic and traffic sources. Traffic was associated separately with source categories with crustal (especially Athens and Helsinki) and long-range transported chemical composition (all cities). Remarkably high fractions of the variability of elemental (R(2)>0.6 except for Ca in Basle 0.38) and chemical concentrations (R(2)>0.5 except benzene in Basle 0.22 and nonane in Athens 0.39) are explained by the source factors of an SEM model. The RAINS model that is currently used as the main tool in developing European air quality management policies seems to capture the local urban fraction (the city delta term) quite well, but underestimates

  9. The Three Estates Model: Represented and Satirised in Chaucer’s General Prologue to the Canterbury Tales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadenur Doğan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of the ‘Three Estates Model’ of the English medieval society in Chaucer’s General Prologue to the Canterbury Tales. Based upon the descriptions and illustrations of the characters, it aims to explore the hierarchal structure of the medieval society which is divided into three main groups or ‘estates’: the ones who pray, the ones who rule and govern, and the ones who work. In the General Prologue, Chaucer gives a series of sketches of the characters that are the representatives of the three estates, and through these depictions he investigates the social characteristics and roles of the medieval people who are expected to speak and behave in accordance with what their social group requires. While presenting Three Estates Model, he employs the tradition of ‘estates satire’ by criticising the social vices resulting from the corruption in this model. Through the characteristics and virtues of the ‘Knight’, the ‘Parson’, and the ‘Plowman’, he demonstrates the perfect integration of the people who belong to chivalry, clergy and the commoners in the medieval English society. Also, by offering contrasting views to these positive traits in the portrayal of almost all of the other characters, as illustrated in the portrayal of the ‘Monk’, the ‘Reeve’, and the ‘Wife of Bathe’ in this paper, he criticises the vices and sins (that are mainly resulted from the religious, financial and moral corruption of the people belonging to the social classes of the Middle Ages.

  10. Climate change forecasting in a mountainous data scarce watershed using CMIP5 models under representative concentration pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghakhani Afshar, A.; Hasanzadeh, Y.; Besalatpour, A. A.; Pourreza-Bilondi, M.

    2016-09-01

    Hydrology cycle of river basins and available water resources in arid and semi-arid regions are highly affected by climate changes. In recent years, the increment of temperature due to excessive increased emission of greenhouse gases has led to an abnormality in the climate system of the earth. The main objective of this study is to survey the future climate changes in one of the biggest mountainous watersheds in northeast of Iran (i.e., Kashafrood). In this research, by considering the precipitation and temperature as two important climatic parameters in watersheds, 14 models evolved in the general circulation models (GCMs) of the newest generation in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) were used to forecast the future climate changes in the study area. For the historical period of 1992-2005, four evaluation criteria including Nash-Sutcliffe (NS), percent of bias (PBIAS), coefficient of determination (R 2) and the ratio of the root-mean-square-error to the standard deviation of measured data (RSR) were used to compare the simulated observed data for assessing goodness-of-fit of the models. In the primary results, four climate models namely GFDL-ESM2G, IPSL-CM5A-MR, MIROC-ESM, and NorESM1-M were selected among the abovementioned 14 models due to their more prediction accuracies to the investigated evaluation criteria. Thereafter, climate changes of the future periods (near-century, 2006-2037; mid-century, 2037-2070; and late-century, 2070-2100) were investigated and compared by four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) of new emission scenarios of RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5. In order to assess the trend of annual and seasonal changes of climatic components, Mann-Kendall non-parametric test (MK) was also employed. The results of Mann-Kendall test revealed that the precipitation has significant variable trends of both positive and negative alterations. Furthermore, the mean, maximum, and minimum temperature values had significant

  11. Climate change forecasting in a mountainous data scarce watershed using CMIP5 models under representative concentration pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghakhani Afshar, A.; Hasanzadeh, Y.; Besalatpour, A. A.; Pourreza-Bilondi, M.

    2017-07-01

    Hydrology cycle of river basins and available water resources in arid and semi-arid regions are highly affected by climate changes. In recent years, the increment of temperature due to excessive increased emission of greenhouse gases has led to an abnormality in the climate system of the earth. The main objective of this study is to survey the future climate changes in one of the biggest mountainous watersheds in northeast of Iran (i.e., Kashafrood). In this research, by considering the precipitation and temperature as two important climatic parameters in watersheds, 14 models evolved in the general circulation models (GCMs) of the newest generation in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) were used to forecast the future climate changes in the study area. For the historical period of 1992-2005, four evaluation criteria including Nash-Sutcliffe (NS), percent of bias (PBIAS), coefficient of determination ( R 2) and the ratio of the root-mean-square-error to the standard deviation of measured data (RSR) were used to compare the simulated observed data for assessing goodness-of-fit of the models. In the primary results, four climate models namely GFDL-ESM2G, IPSL-CM5A-MR, MIROC-ESM, and NorESM1-M were selected among the abovementioned 14 models due to their more prediction accuracies to the investigated evaluation criteria. Thereafter, climate changes of the future periods (near-century, 2006-2037; mid-century, 2037-2070; and late-century, 2070-2100) were investigated and compared by four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) of new emission scenarios of RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5. In order to assess the trend of annual and seasonal changes of climatic components, Mann-Kendall non-parametric test (MK) was also employed. The results of Mann-Kendall test revealed that the precipitation has significant variable trends of both positive and negative alterations. Furthermore, the mean, maximum, and minimum temperature values had

  12. Determination of a new uniform thorax density representative of the living population from 3D external body shape modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Celia; Choisne, Julie; Nérot, Agathe; Pillet, Hélène; Skalli, Wafa

    2016-05-03

    Body segment parameters (BSP) for each body׳s segment are needed for biomechanical analysis. To provide population-specific BSP, precise estimation of body׳s segments volume and density are needed. Widely used uniform densities, provided by cadavers׳ studies, did not consider the air present in the lungs when determining the thorax density. The purpose of this study was to propose a new uniform thorax density representative of the living population from 3D external body shape modeling. Bi-planar X-ray radiographies were acquired on 58 participants allowing 3D reconstructions of the spine, rib cage and human body shape. Three methods of computing the thorax mass were compared for 48 subjects: (1) the Dempster Uniform Density Method, currently in use for BSPs calculation, using Dempster density data, (2) the Personalized Method using full-description of the thorax based on 3D reconstruction of the rib cage and spine and (3) the Improved Uniform Density Method using a uniform thorax density resulting from the Personalized Method. For 10 participants, comparison was made between the body mass obtained from a force-plate and the body mass computed with each of the three methods. The Dempster Uniform Density Method presented a mean error of 4.8% in the total body mass compared to the force-plate vs 0.2% for the Personalized Method and 0.4% for the Improved Uniform Density Method. The adjusted thorax density found from the 3D reconstruction was 0.74g/cm(3) for men and 0.73g/cm(3) for women instead of the one provided by Dempster (0.92g/cm(3)), leading to a better estimate of the thorax mass and body mass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Extracellular and intraneuronal HMW-AbetaOs represent a molecular basis of memory loss in Alzheimer's disease model mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Naoki

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several lines of evidence indicate that memory loss represents a synaptic failure caused by soluble amyloid β (Aβ oligomers. However, the pathological relevance of Aβ oligomers (AβOs as the trigger of synaptic or neuronal degeneration, and the possible mechanism underlying the neurotoxic action of endogenous AβOs remain to be determined. Results To specifically target toxic AβOs in vivo, monoclonal antibodies (1A9 and 2C3 specific to them were generated using a novel design method. 1A9 and 2C3 specifically recognize soluble AβOs larger than 35-mers and pentamers on Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, respectively. Biophysical and structural analysis by atomic force microscopy (AFM revealed that neurotoxic 1A9 and 2C3 oligomeric conformers displayed non-fibrilar, relatively spherical structure. Of note, such AβOs were taken up by neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y cell, resulted in neuronal death. In humans, immunohistochemical analysis employing 1A9 or 2C3 revealed that 1A9 and 2C3 stain intraneuronal granules accumulated in the perikaryon of pyramidal neurons and some diffuse plaques. Fluoro Jade-B binding assay also revealed 1A9- or 2C3-stained neurons, indicating their impending degeneration. In a long-term low-dose prophylactic trial using active 1A9 or 2C3 antibody, we found that passive immunization protected a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD from memory deficits, synaptic degeneration, promotion of intraneuronal AβOs, and neuronal degeneration. Because the primary antitoxic action of 1A9 and 2C3 occurs outside neurons, our results suggest that extracellular AβOs initiate the AD toxic process and intraneuronal AβOs may worsen neuronal degeneration and memory loss. Conclusion Now, we have evidence that HMW-AβOs are among the earliest manifestation of the AD toxic process in mice and humans. We are certain that our studies move us closer to our goal of finding a therapeutic target and/or confirming the

  14. Abundant Semigroups Which Are Disjoint Unions of Multiplicative Adequate Transversals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haijun LIU; Xiaojiang GUO

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study abundant semigroups which are disjoint unions of multiplicative adequate tranversals.After obtaining some properties of such semigroup,we prove that a semigroup is a disjoint union of multiplicative adequate transversals if and only if it is isomorphic to the direct product of a rectangular band and an adequate semigroup.

  15. An Analysis of the Propulsion Experiments Performed on a Model Representing the Stretched PONCE DE LEON (SPDL) Class RO/RO Ship Fitted with Two Sets of Design Contrarotating Propellers (Model 5362; Propellers 4731 & 4732 and 9019 & 9020).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    REPRESENTING THE 5TRETCHED PONQ DE LEON (S.PI.) 9€ ASS _!"Q SHIP FITTED WITH TWO SETS OF DESIGN CONTRAROTATING PROPELLERS (MODEL 5362; PROPELLERS 4731...TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED AN ANALYSIS OF THE PROPULSION EXPERIMENTS PER- Final FORMED ON A MODEL REPRESENTING THE STRETCHED PONCE DE LEON (SPDL...number) A ser ies of propulsion exper ments were performed on Model 5362, representing a Stretched PONCE DE LEON Clas RO/RO ship. The model was fitted

  16. Select strengths and biases of models in representing the Arctic winter boundary layer over sea ice: the Larcform 1 single column model intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithan, Felix; Ackerman, Andrew; Angevine, Wayne M.; Hartung, Kerstin; Ickes, Luisa; Kelley, Maxwell; Medeiros, Brian; Sandu, Irina; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Sterk, H. A. M.; Svensson, Gunilla; Vaillancourt, Paul A.; Zadra, Ayrton

    2016-09-01

    Weather and climate models struggle to represent lower tropospheric temperature and moisture profiles and surface fluxes in Arctic winter, partly because they lack or misrepresent physical processes that are specific to high latitudes. Observations have revealed two preferred states of the Arctic winter boundary layer. In the cloudy state, cloud liquid water limits surface radiative cooling, and temperature inversions are weak and elevated. In the radiatively clear state, strong surface radiative cooling leads to the build-up of surface-based temperature inversions. Many large-scale models lack the cloudy state, and some substantially underestimate inversion strength in the clear state. Here, the transformation from a moist to a cold dry air mass is modeled using an idealized Lagrangian perspective. The trajectory includes both boundary layer states, and the single-column experiment is the first Lagrangian Arctic air formation experiment (Larcform 1) organized within GEWEX GASS (Global atmospheric system studies). The intercomparison reproduces the typical biases of large-scale models: some models lack the cloudy state of the boundary layer due to the representation of mixed-phase microphysics or to the interaction between micro- and macrophysics. In some models, high emissivities of ice clouds or the lack of an insulating snow layer prevent the build-up of surface-based inversions in the radiatively clear state. Models substantially disagree on the amount of cloud liquid water in the cloudy state and on turbulent heat fluxes under clear skies. Observations of air mass transformations including both boundary layer states would allow for a tighter constraint of model behavior.

  17. A study of V79 cell survival after for proton and carbon ion beams as represented by the parameters of Katz' track structure model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grzanka, Leszek; Waligórski, M. P. R.; Bassler, Niels

    Katz’s theory of cellular track structure (1) is an amorphous analytical model which applies a set of four cellular parameters representing survival of a given cell line after ion irradiation. Usually the values of these parameters are best fitted to a full set of experimentally measured survival...... curves available for a variety of ions. Once fitted, using these parameter values and the analytical formulae of the model calculations, cellular survival curves and RBE may be predicted for that cell line after irradiation by any ion, including mixed ion fields. While it is known that the Katz model...... of the proton response. This suggests that for increased accuracy of a therapy planning system based on Katz’s model, different sets of parameters may need to be used to represent cell survival after proton irradiation from those representing survival of this cell line after heavier ions, up to and including...

  18. Assessing the fit of the Dysphoric Arousal model across two nationally representative epidemiological surveys: The Australian NSMHWB and the United States NESARC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armour, C.; Carragher, N.; Elhai, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    samples. Results revealed that the Dysphoric Arousal model provided superior fit to the data compared to the alternative models. In conclusion, these findings suggest that items D1-D3 (sleeping difficulties; irritability; concentration difficulties) represent a separate, fifth factor within PTSD's latent...

  19. A Class of Left E-adequate Semigroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YONG-HUA; HE YONG

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we establish a construction of a class of left E-adequate semigroups by using semilattices of cancellative monoids and fundamental left E-adequate semigroups. We first introduce concepts of type μ+ (μ*, μ) abundant semigroups and type μ+ left E-adequate semigroups. In fact, regular semigroups are type μ+ abundant semigroups and inverse semigroups are type μ+ left E-adequate semigroups. Next, we construct a special kind of algebras called E+-product. It is proved that every E+-product is a type μ+ left E-adequate semigroup, and every type μ+ left E-adequate semigroup is isomorphic to an E+-product of a semilattice of cancellative monoids with a fundamental left E-adequate semigroup. Finally, as a corollary of the main result, it is deduced that every inverse semigroup is isomorphic to an E+-product of a Clifford semigroup by a fundamental inverse semigroup.

  20. Robust Multiscale Modelling Of Two-Phase Steels On Heterogeneous Hardware Infrastructures By Using Statistically Similar Representative Volume Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauch Ł.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The coupled finite element multiscale simulations (FE2 require costly numerical procedures in both macro and micro scales. Attempts to improve numerical efficiency are focused mainly on two areas of development, i.e. parallelization/distribution of numerical procedures and simplification of virtual material representation. One of the representatives of both mentioned areas is the idea of Statistically Similar Representative Volume Element (SSRVE. It aims at the reduction of the number of finite elements in micro scale as well as at parallelization of the calculations in micro scale which can be performed without barriers. The simplification of computational domain is realized by transformation of sophisticated images of material microstructure into artificially created simple objects being characterized by similar features as their original equivalents. In existing solutions for two-phase steels SSRVE is created on the basis of the analysis of shape coefficients of hard phase in real microstructure and searching for a representative simple structure with similar shape coefficients. Optimization techniques were used to solve this task. In the present paper local strains and stresses are added to the cost function in optimization. Various forms of the objective function composed of different elements were investigated and used in the optimization procedure for the creation of the final SSRVE. The results are compared as far as the efficiency of the procedure and uniqueness of the solution are considered. The best objective function composed of shape coefficients, as well as of strains and stresses, was proposed. Examples of SSRVEs determined for the investigated two-phase steel using that objective function are demonstrated in the paper. Each step of SSRVE creation is investigated from computational efficiency point of view. The proposition of implementation of the whole computational procedure on modern High Performance Computing (HPC

  1. Statistical properties of fluctuations of time series representing appearances of words in nationwide blog data and their applications: An example of modeling fluctuation scalings of nonstationary time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hayafumi; Sano, Yukie; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2016-11-01

    To elucidate the nontrivial empirical statistical properties of fluctuations of a typical nonsteady time series representing the appearance of words in blogs, we investigated approximately 3 ×109 Japanese blog articles over a period of six years and analyze some corresponding mathematical models. First, we introduce a solvable nonsteady extension of the random diffusion model, which can be deduced by modeling the behavior of heterogeneous random bloggers. Next, we deduce theoretical expressions for both the temporal and ensemble fluctuation scalings of this model, and demonstrate that these expressions can reproduce all empirical scalings over eight orders of magnitude. Furthermore, we show that the model can reproduce other statistical properties of time series representing the appearance of words in blogs, such as functional forms of the probability density and correlations in the total number of blogs. As an application, we quantify the abnormality of special nationwide events by measuring the fluctuation scalings of 1771 basic adjectives.

  2. Representing the acquisition and use of energy by individuals in agent-based models of animal populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibly, RS; Grimm, Volker; Johnston, Alice S.A.;

    2013-01-01

    Agent-based models (ABMs) are widely used to predict how populations respond to changing environments. As the availability of food varies in space and time, individuals should have their own energy budgets, but there is no consensus as to how these should be modelled. Here, we use knowledge...... of physiological ecology to identify major issues confronting the modeller and to make recommendations about how energy budgets for use in ABMs should be constructed. Our proposal is that modelled animals forage as necessary to supply their energy needs for maintenance, growth and reproduction......, and these can be used to obtain estimates of background mortality rate. If parameter values cannot be obtained directly, then values may provisionally be obtained by parameter borrowing, pattern-oriented modelling, artificial evolution or from allometric equations. The development of ABMs incorporating...

  3. An evaluation of three representative multimedia models used to support cleanup decision-making at hazardous, mixed, and radioactive waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Pardi, R.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Holtzman, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    The decision process involved in cleaning sites contaminated with hazardous, mixed, and radioactive materials is supported often by results obtained from computer models. These results provide limits within which a decision-maker can judge the importance of individual transport and fate processes, and the likely outcome of alternative cleanup strategies. The transport of hazardous materials may occur predominately through one particular pathway but, more often, actual or potential transport must be evaluated across several pathways and media. Multimedia models are designed to simulate the transport of contaminants from a source to a receptor through more than one environmental pathway. Three such multimedia models are reviewed here: MEPAS, MMSOILS, and PRESTO-EPA-CPG. The reviews are based on documentation provided with the software, on published reviews, on personal interviews with the model developers, and on model summaries extracted from computer databases and expert systems. The three models are reviewed within the context of specific media components: air, surface water, ground water, and food chain. Additional sections evaluate the way that these three models calculate human exposure and dose and how they report uncertainty. Special emphasis is placed on how each model handles radionuclide transport within specific media. For the purpose of simulating the transport, fate and effects of radioactive contaminants through more than one pathway, both MEPAS and PRESTO-EPA-CPG are adequate for screening studies; MMSOILS only handles nonradioactive substances and must be modified before it can be used in these same applications. Of the three models, MEPAS is the most versatile, especially if the user needs to model the transport, fate, and effects of hazardous and radioactive contaminants. 44 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Validation of mathematical models for Salmonella growth in raw ground beef under dynamic temperature conditions representing loss of refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Jennifer A; Schaffner, Donald W

    2014-07-01

    Temperature is a primary factor in controlling the growth of microorganisms in food. The current U. S. Food and Drug Administration Model Food Code guidelines state that food can be kept out of temperature control for up to 4 h without qualifiers, or up to 6 h, if the food product starts at an initial 41 °F (5 °C) temperature and does not exceed 70 °F (21 °C) at 6 h. This project validates existing ComBase computer models for Salmonella growth under changing temperature conditions modeling scenarios using raw ground beef as a model system. A cocktail of Salmonella serovars isolated from different meat products ( Salmonella Copenhagen, Salmonella Montevideo, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Saintpaul, and Salmonella Heidelberg) was made rifampin resistant and used for all experiments. Inoculated samples were held in a programmable water bath at 4.4 °C (40 °F) and subjected to linear temperature changes to different final temperatures over various lengths of time and then returned to 4.4 °C (40 °F). Maximum temperatures reached were 15.6, 26.7, or 37.8 °C (60, 80, or 100 °F), and the temperature increases took place over 4, 6, and 8 h, with varying cooling times. Our experiments show that when maximum temperatures were lower (15.6 or 26.7 °C), there was generally good agreement between the ComBase models and experiments: when temperature increases of 15.6 or 26.7 °C occurred over 8 h, experimental data were within 0.13 log CFU of the model predictions. When maximum temperatures were 37 °C, predictive models were fail-safe. Overall bias of the models was 1.11. and accuracy was 2.11. Our experiments show the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Model Food Code guidelines for holding food out of temperature control are quite conservative. Our research also shows that the ComBase models for Salmonella growth are accurate or fail-safe for dynamic temperature conditions as might be observed due to power loss from natural disasters or during transport out of

  5. Representing the acquisition and use of energy by individuals in agent-based models of animal populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibly, Richard M.; Grimm, Volker; Martin, Benjamin T.; Johnston, Alice S.A.; Kulakowska, Katarzyna; Topping, Christopher J.; Calow, Peter; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Thorbek, Pernille; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    1. Agent-based models (ABMs) are widely used to predict how populations respond to changing environments. As the availability of food varies in space and time, individuals should have their own energy budgets, but there is no consensus as to how these should be modelled. Here, we use knowledge of physiological ecology to identify major issues confronting the modeller and to make recommendations about how energy budgets for use in ABMs should be constructed. 2. Our proposal is that modelled animals forage as necessary to supply their energy needs for maintenance, growth and reproduction. If there is sufficient energy intake, an animal allocates the energy obtained in the order: maintenance, growth, reproduction, energy storage, until its energy stores reach an optimal level. If there is a shortfall, the priorities for maintenance and growth/reproduction remain the same until reserves fall to a critical threshold below which all are allocated to maintenance. Rates of ingestion and allocation depend on body mass and temperature. We make suggestions for how each of these processes should be modelled mathematically. 3. Mortality rates vary with body mass and temperature according to known relationships, and these can be used to obtain estimates of background mortality rate. 4. If parameter values cannot be obtained directly, then values may provisionally be obtained by parameter borrowing, pattern-oriented modelling, artificial evolution or from allometric equations. 5. The development of ABMs incorporating individual energy budgets is essential for realistic modelling of populations affected by food availability. Such ABMs are already being used to guide conservation planning of nature reserves and shell fisheries, to assess environmental impacts of building proposals including wind farms and highways and to assess the effects on nontarget organisms of chemicals for the control of agricultural pests.

  6. OCEANFILMS-2: Representing coadsorption of saccharides in marine films and potential impacts on modeled marine aerosol chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Susannah M.; Gobrogge, Eric; Fu, Li; Link, Katie; Elliott, Scott M.; Wang, Hongfei; Walker, Rob

    2016-08-01

    Here we show that the addition of chemical interactions between soluble monosaccharides and an insoluble lipid surfactant monolayer improves agreement of modeled sea spray chemistry with observed marine aerosol chemistry. In particular, the alkane:hydroxyl mass ratio in modeled sea spray organic matter is reduced from a median of 2.73 to a range of 0.41-0.69, reducing the discrepancy with previous Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) observations of clean marine aerosol (ratio: 0.24-0.38). The overall organic fraction of submicron sea spray also increases, allowing organic mass fractions in the range 0.5-0.7 for submicron sea spray particles over highly active phytoplankton blooms. Sum frequency generation experiments support the modeling approach by demonstrating that soluble monosaccharides can strongly adsorb to a lipid monolayer likely via Coulomb interactions under appropriate conditions. These laboratory findings motivate further research to determine the relevance of coadsorption mechanisms for real-world, sea spray aerosol production.

  7. OCEANFILMS-2: Representing coadsorption of saccharides in marine films and potential impacts on modeled marine aerosol chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, Susannah M. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Gobrogge, Eric [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman Montana USA; Fu, Li [Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Link, Katie [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman Montana USA; Elliott, Scott M. [Climate, Ocean, and Sea Ice Modelling Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos New Mexico USA; Wang, Hongfei [Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Walker, Rob [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman Montana USA

    2016-08-10

    Here we show that the addition of chemical interactions of soluble polysaccharides with a surfactant monolayer improves agreement of modeled sea spray chemistry with observed marine aerosol chemistry. In particular, the fraction of hydroxyl functional groups in modeled sea spray organic matter is increased, improving agreement with FTIR observations of marine aerosol composition. The overall organic fraction of submicron sea spray also increases, allowing organic mass fractions in the range 0.5 – 0.7 for submicron sea spray particles over highly active phytoplankton blooms. We show results from Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) experiments that support the modeling approach, by demonstrating that soluble polysaccharides can strongly adsorb to a lipid monolayer via columbic interactions under appropriate conditions.

  8. Representing soakaways in a physically distributed urban drainage model – Upscaling individual allotments to an aggregated scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldin, Maria Kerstin; Mark, Ole; Kuczera, George;

    2012-01-01

    The increased load on urban stormwater systems due to climate change and growing urbanization can be partly alleviated by using soakaways and similar infiltration techniques. However, while soakaways are usually small-scale structures, most urban drainage network models operate on a larger spatial...... of individual soakaways well. Six upscaling methods to aggregate individual soakaway units with varying saturated hydraulic conductivity (K) in the surrounding soil have been investigated. In the upscaled model, the weighted geometric mean hydraulic conductivity of individual allotments is found to provide...

  9. Representativeness errors in comparing chemistry transport and chemistry climate models with satellite UV-Vis tropospheric column retrievals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, K.F.; Vinken, G.C.M.; Eskes, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) satellite retrievals of trace gas columns of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and formaldehyde (HCHO) are useful to test and improve models of atmospheric composition, for data assimilation, air quality hindcasting and forecasting, a

  10. Representing the acquisition and use of energy by individuals in agent-based models of animal populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibly, RS; Grimm, Volker; Johnston, Alice S.A.

    2013-01-01

    , and these can be used to obtain estimates of background mortality rate. If parameter values cannot be obtained directly, then values may provisionally be obtained by parameter borrowing, pattern-oriented modelling, artificial evolution or from allometric equations. The development of ABMs incorporating...

  11. Contribution to Experimental Validation of Linear and Non-Linear Dynamic Models for Representing Rotor-Blade Parametric Coupled Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Ilmar; Saracho, C.M.; Smith, J.T.

    2004-01-01

    This work gives a theoretical and experimental contribution to the problem of rotor-blades dynamic interaction. A validation procedure of mathematical models is carried out with help of a simple test rig, built by a mass-spring system attached to four flexible rotating blades. With this test rig,...

  12. Towards a more representative parametrisation of hydrological models via synthesizing the strengths of particle swarm optimisation and robust parameter estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Krauße

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of methods for estimating the parameters of hydrological models considering uncertainties has been of high interest in hydrological research over the last years. In particular methods which understand the estimation of hydrological model parameters as a geometric search of a set of robust performing parameter vectors by application of the concept of data depth found growing research interest. Bárdossy and Singh (2008 presented a first proposal and applied it for the calibration of a conceptual rainfall-runoff model with daily time step. Krauße and Cullmann (2011 further developed this method and applied it in a case study to calibrate a process oriented hydrological model with hourly time step focussing on flood events in a fast responding catchment. The results of both studies showed the potential of the application of the principle of data depth. However, also the weak point of the presented approach got obvious. The algorithm identifies a set of model parameter vectors with high model performance and subsequently generates a set of parameter vectors with high data depth with respect to the first set. These both steps are repeated iteratively until a stopping criterion is met. In the first step the estimation of the good parameter vectors is based on the Monte Carlo method. The major shortcoming of this method is that it is strongly dependent on a high number of samples exponentially growing with the dimensionality of the problem. In this paper we present another robust parameter estimation strategy which applies an approved search strategy for high-dimensional parameter spaces, the particle swarm optimisation in order to identify a set of good parameter vectors with given uncertainty bounds. The generation of deep parameters is according to Krauße and Cullmann (2011. The method was compared to the Monte Carlo based robust parameter estimation algorithm on the example of a case study in Krauße and Cullmann (2011 to

  13. 10 CFR 503.35 - Inability to obtain adequate capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... capital investment, through tariffs, without unreasonably adverse economic effect on its service area... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inability to obtain adequate capital. 503.35 Section 503... New Facilities § 503.35 Inability to obtain adequate capital. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(D)...

  14. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order to... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for...

  15. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  16. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section 716.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a...

  17. Towards a more representative parametrisation of hydrologic models via synthesizing the strengths of Particle Swarm Optimisation and Robust Parameter Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Krauße

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of methods for estimating the parameters of hydrologic models considering uncertainties has been of high interest in hydrologic research over the last years. In particular methods which understand the estimation of hydrologic model parameters as a geometric search of a set of robust performing parameter vectors by application of the concept of data depth found growing research interest. Bárdossy and Singh (2008 presented a first Robust Parameter Estimation Method (ROPE and applied it for the calibration of a conceptual rainfall-runoff model with daily time step. The basic idea of this algorithm is to identify a set of model parameter vectors with high model performance called good parameters and subsequently generate a set of parameter vectors with high data depth with respect to the first set. Both steps are repeated iteratively until a stopping criterion is met. The results estimated in this case study show the high potential of the principle of data depth to be used for the estimation of hydrologic model parameters. In this paper we present some further developments that address the most important shortcomings of the original ROPE approach. We developed a stratified depth based sampling approach that improves the sampling from non-elliptic and multi-modal distributions. It provides a higher efficiency for the sampling of deep points in parameter spaces with higher dimensionality. Another modification addresses the problem of a too strong shrinking of the estimated set of robust parameter vectors that might lead to overfitting for model calibration with a small amount of calibration data. This contradicts the principle of robustness. Therefore, we suggest to split the available calibration data into two sets and use one set to control the overfitting. All modifications were implemented into a further developed ROPE approach that is called Advanced Robust Parameter Estimation (AROPE. However, in this approach the estimation of

  18. [Prediction of PCBs uptake by vegetable in a representative area and evaluation of the human health risk by Trapp model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shao-Po; Luo, Yong-Ming; Song, Jing; Teng, Ying; Chen, Yong-Shan

    2010-12-01

    Air, soil and vegetable samples were collected from an e-waste disassembly site and analyzed for characteristic contaminants PCBs. Based on the measured PCBs concentrations in soil and air, PCBs concentration in leafy vegetables was predicted by Trapp Model and the sources, composition of PCBs in vegetable and influencing factors were analyzed. By using human health risk assessment model of USEPA, risk to human health from consumption of vegetable that take up PCBs from environment was evaluated. The results showed that the Trapp Model could give good prediction of PCBs concentrations in leafy vegetables based on PCBs concentration in the soil and air. For instance, the measured sum of seven PCBs in vegetable was 51.2 microg x kg(-1) and the predicted value was 39.9 microg x kg(-1). So the predicted value agrees well with the measured value. The gaseous PCBs were the main source of PCBs in leafy vegetables, and the model predicting results indicated that the contribution rate was as high as 98.8%. The uptake pathway, n-octanol/water partition coefficient (K(ow)) and the n-octanol/air partition coefficient (K(oa)) of PCBs determine the concentration and composition of PCBs in vegetables. The duration needed for PCBs uptake to reach equilibrium was in good correlation with lgK(ow) and lgK(oa). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that lgK(oa) was more important. Carcinogenic risk from consumption of PCBs contaminated vegetables was 10 000 times higher than that of gaseous PCBs, and the no-carcinogenic risk was increased by approximately 200 times. The main reasons are firstly the vegetables take up and accumulate more toxic PCBs with high-chloride substitutes and consequently the oral toxic factors of PCBs increase dramatically. Secondly, an adult takes 71 times more PCBs via consumption of vegetables than via inhalation of air.

  19. Development and Implementation of a Transversely Isotropic Hyperelastic Constitutive Model With Two Fiber Families to Represent Anisotropic Soft Biological Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    region ( cervical , thoracic or lumbar), and, starting with the most superior (highest) vertebra in that region, numbered consecutively until the most...plane of the intervertebral disc have all been used by researchers to model the fibers of the annulus fibrosus (1, 18–20). CERVICAL VERTEBRAE THORACIC...typical vertebra (panel b). Vertebra are color-coded according to their location classification. Panel c is an illustration (not drawn to scale) of an

  20. Boundary-layer turbulent processes and mesoscale variability represented by numerical weather prediction models during the BLLAST campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreux, Fleur; Bazile, Eric; Canut, Guylaine; Seity, Yann; Lothon, Marie; Lohou, Fabienne; Guichard, Françoise; Nilsson, Erik

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluates the ability of three operational models, with resolution varying from 2.5 to 16 km, to predict the boundary-layer turbulent processes and mesoscale variability observed during the Boundary Layer Late-Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) field campaign. We analyse the representation of the vertical profiles of temperature and humidity and the time evolution of near-surface atmospheric variables and the radiative and turbulent fluxes over a total of 12 intensive observing periods (IOPs), each lasting 24 h. Special attention is paid to the evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), which was sampled by a combination of independent instruments. For the first time, this variable, a central one in the turbulence scheme used in AROME and ARPEGE, is evaluated with observations.In general, the 24 h forecasts succeed in reproducing the variability from one day to another in terms of cloud cover, temperature and boundary-layer depth. However, they exhibit some systematic biases, in particular a cold bias within the daytime boundary layer for all models. An overestimation of the sensible heat flux is noted for two points in ARPEGE and is found to be partly related to an inaccurate simplification of surface characteristics. AROME shows a moist bias within the daytime boundary layer, which is consistent with overestimated latent heat fluxes. ECMWF presents a dry bias at 2 m above the surface and also overestimates the sensible heat flux. The high-resolution model AROME resolves the vertical structures better, in particular the strong daytime inversion and the thin evening stable boundary layer. This model is also able to capture some specific observed features, such as the orographically driven subsidence and a well-defined maximum that arises during the evening of the water vapour mixing ratio in the upper part of the residual layer due to fine-scale advection. The model reproduces the order of magnitude of spatial variability observed at

  1. Identifying the representative flow unit for capillary dominated two-phase flow in porous media using morphology-based pore-scale modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yaoming; Sungkorn, Radompon; Toelke, Jonas

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we extend pore-morphology-based methods proposed by Hazlett (1995) and Hilpert and Miller (2001) to simulate drainage and imbibition in uniformly wetting porous media and add an (optional) entrapment of the (non-)wetting phase. By improving implementation, this method allows us to identify the statistical representative elementary volume and estimate uncertainty by computing fluid flow properties and saturation distributions of hundreds of subsamples within a reasonable time-frame. The method was utilized to study three different porous medium systems and results demonstrate that morphology-based pore-scale modeling is a viable approach to assess the representative elementary volume with respect to capillary dominated two-phase flow. The focus of this paper is the determination of the representative elementary volume for multiphase-flow properties for a digital representation of a rock.

  2. Errors in the Bag Model of Strings, and Regge Trajectories Represent the Conservation of Angular Momentum in Hyperbolic Space

    CERN Document Server

    Lavenda, B H

    2011-01-01

    The MIT bag model is shown to be wrong because the bag pressure cannot be held constant, and the volume can be fixed in terms of it. The bag derivation of Regge's trajectories is invalidated by an integration of the energy and angular momentum over all values of the radius up to $r_0=c/\\omega$. This gives the absurd result that "total" angular momentum decreases as the frequency increases. The correct expression for the angular momentum is obtained from hyperbolic geometry of constant negative curvature $r_0$. When the square of the relativistic mass is introduced, it gives a negative intercept which is the Euclidean value of the angular momentum. Regge trajectories are simply statements of the conservation of angular momentum in hyperbolic space. The frequencies and values of the angular momentum are in remarkable agreement with experiment.

  3. Towards a mechanical failure model for degrading permafrost rock slopes representing changes in rock toughness and infill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamot, Philipp; Krautblatter, Michael; Scandroglio, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    The climate-induced degradation of permafrost in mountain areas can reduce the stability of rock slopes. An increasing number of rockfalls and rockslides originate from permafrost-affected rock faces. Discontinuity patterns and their geometrical and mechanical properties play a decisive role in controlling rock slope stability. Under thawing conditions the shear resistance of rock reduces due to lower friction along rock-rock contacts, decreasing fracture toughness of rock-ice contacts, diminishing fracture toughness of cohesive rock bridges and altered creep or fracture of the ice itself. Compressive strength is reduced by 20 to 50 % and tensile strength decreases by 15 to 70 % when intact saturated rock thaws (KRAUTBLATTER ET AL. 2013). Elevated water pressures in fractures can lead to reduced effective normal stresses and thus to lower shear strengths of fractures. However, the impact of degrading permafrost on the mechanical properties of intact or fractured rock still remains poorly understood. In this study, we develop a new approach for modeling the influence of degrading permafrost on the stability of high mountain rock slopes. Hereby, we focus on the effect of rock- and ice-mechanical changes along striking discontinuities onto the whole rock slope. We aim at contributing to a better rock-ice mechanical process understanding of degrading permafrost rocks. For parametrisation and subsequent calibration of our model, we chose a test site (2885 m a.s.l.) close by the Zugspitze summit in Germany. It reveals i) a potential rockslide at the south face involving 10E4m³ of rock and ii) permafrost occurrence due to ice-filled caves and fractures. Here we combine kinematic, geotechnical and thermal monitoring in the field with rock-mechanical laboratory tests and a 2D numerical failure modeling. Up to date, the following results underline the potential effects of thawing rock and fracture infill on the stability of steep rock slopes in theory and praxis: i. ERT and

  4. The effect of winglets on the static aerodynamic stability characteristics of a representative second generation jet transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, P. F.; Flechner, S. G.

    1976-01-01

    A baseline wing and a version of the same wing fitted with winglets were tested. The longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics were determined through an angle-of-attack range from -1 deg to 10 deg at an angle of sideslip of 0 deg for Mach numbers of 0.750, 0.800, and 0.825. The lateral aerodynamic characteristics were determined through the same angle-of-attack range at fixed sideslip angles of 2.5 deg and 5 deg. Both configurations were investigated at Reynolds numbers of 13,000,000, per meter (4,000,000 per foot) and approximately 20,000,000 per meter (6,000,000 per foot). The winglet configuration showed slight increases over the baseline wing in static longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic stability throughout the test Mach number range for a model design lift coefficient of 0.53. Reynolds number variation had very little effect on stability.

  5. Representative-Sandwich Model for Mechanical-Crush and Short-Circuit Simulation of Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Sprague, Michael A.; Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    2015-07-28

    Lithium-ion batteries are currently the state-of-the-art power sources for a variety of applications, from consumer electronic devices to electric-drive vehicles (EDVs). Being an energized component, failure of the battery is an essential concern, which can result in rupture, smoke, fire, or venting. The failure of Lithium-ion batteries can be due to a number of external abusive conditions (impact/crush, overcharge, thermal ramp, etc.) or internal conditions (internal short circuits, excessive heating due to resistance build-up, etc.), of which the mechanical-abuse-induced short circuit is a very practical problem. In order to better understand the behavior of Lithium-ion batteries under mechanical abuse, a coupled modeling methodology encompassing the mechanical, thermal and electrical response has been developed for predicting short circuit under external crush.

  6. Multi-criteria assessment of the Representative Elementary Watershed approach on the Donga catchment (Benin using a downward approach of model complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Varado

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of the AMMA – African Multidisciplinary Monsoon Analysis – project and aims at a better understanding and modelling of the Donga catchment (580 km2, Benin behaviour. For this purpose, we applied the REW concept proposed by Reggiani et al. (1998, 1999, which allows the description of the main local processes at the sub-watershed scale. Such distributed hydrological models, which represent hydrological processes at various scales, should be evaluated not only on the discharge at the outlet but also on each of the represented processes and in several points of the catchment. This kind of multi-criteria evaluation is of importance in order to assess the global behaviour of the models. We applied such multi-criteria strategy to the Donga catchment (586 km2, in Benin. The work is supported by a strategy of observation, undertaken since 1998 consisting in a network of 20 rain gauges, an automatic meteorological station, 6 discharge stations and 18 wells.

    The first goal of this study is to assess the model ability to reproduce the discharge at the outlet, the water table dynamics in several points of the catchment and the vadose zone dynamics at the sub-catchment scale. We tested two spatial discretisations of increasing resolution. To test the internal structure of the model, we looked at its ability to represent also the discharge at intermediary stations. After adjustment of soil parameters, the model is shown to accurately represent discharge down to a drainage area of 100 km2, whereas poorer simulation is achieved on smaller catchments. We introduced the spatial variability of rainfall by distributing the daily rainfall over the REW and obtained a very low sensitivity of the model response to this variability. Our results suggest that processes in the unsaturated zone should first be improved, in order to better simulate soil water dynamics and represent perched water tables which

  7. Multi-criteria assessment of the Representative Elementary Watershed approach on the Donga catchment (Benin using a downward approach of model complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Varado

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of the AMMA - African Multidisciplinary Monsoon Analysis- project and aims at a better understanding and modelling of the Donga catchment (580 km2, Benin behaviour in order to determine its spatially distributed water balance. For this purpose, we applied the REW concept proposed by Reggiani et al. (1998, 1999, which allows the description of the main local processes at the sub-watershed scale. Such distributed hydrological models, which represent hydrological processes at various scales, should be evaluated not only on the discharge at the outlet but also on each of the represented processes and in several points of the catchment. This multi-criteria approach is required in order to assess the global behaviour of hydrological models. We applied such multi-criteria strategy to the Donga catchment (586 km2, in Benin. The work was supported by an observation set up, undertaken since 1998 consisting in a network of 20 rain gauges, an automatic meteorological station, 6 discharge stations and 18 wells. The main goal of this study was to assess the model's ability to reproduce the discharge at the outlet, the water table dynamics in several points of the catchment and the vadose zone dynamics at the sub-catchment scale. We tested two spatial discretisations of increasing resolution. To test the internal structure of the model, we looked at its ability to represent also the discharge at intermediate stations. After adjustment of soil parameters, the model is shown to accurately represent discharge down to a drainage area of 100 km2, whereas poorer simulation is achieved on smaller catchments. We introduced the spatial variability of rainfall by distributing the daily rainfall over the REW and obtained a very low sensitivity of the model response to this variability. Simulation of groundwater levels was poor and our results, in conjunction with new data available at the local scale, suggest that the representation of the processes

  8. Site S-7 Representative Model and Application for the Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS) McClellan AFB - 1998 Semi-Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, A.L.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    1998-12-01

    Vadose zone data collection and enhanced data analysis are continuing for the Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS) installed at site S-7 in IC 34 at McClellan MB. Data from core samples from boreholes drilled in 1998 and from VZMS continuous monitoring are evaluated and compared to previously collected data and analyses. The suite of data collected to date is used to develop and constrain a spatially averaged, one-dimensional site S-7 representative model that is implemented into T2VOC. Testing of the conceptual model under conditions of recharge of 100 mm/yr produces plausible moisture contents relative to data from several sources. Further scoping calculations involving gas-phase TCE transport in the representative model were undertaken. We investigate the role of recharge on TCE transport as well as the role of ion- and gas-phase flow driven by density and barometric pumping effects. This report provides the first example of the application of the site S-7 representative model in th e investigation of subsurface VOC movement.

  9. Rainfall-runoff modelling in a catchment with a complex groundwater flow system: application of the Representative Elementary Watershed (REW) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G. P.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2005-09-01

    Based on the Representative Elementary Watershed (REW) approach, the modelling tool REWASH (Representative Elementary WAterShed Hydrology) has been developed and applied to the Geer river basin. REWASH is deterministic, semi-distributed, physically based and can be directly applied to the watershed scale. In applying REWASH, the river basin is divided into a number of sub-watersheds, so called REWs, according to the Strahler order of the river network. REWASH describes the dominant hydrological processes, i.e. subsurface flow in the unsaturated and saturated domains, and overland flow by the saturation-excess and infiltration-excess mechanisms. The coupling of surface and subsurface flow processes in the numerical model is realised by simultaneous computation of flux exchanges between surface and subsurface domains for each REW. REWASH is a parsimonious tool for modelling watershed hydrological response. However, it can be modified to include more components to simulate specific processes when applied to a specific river basin where such processes are observed or considered to be dominant. In this study, we have added a new component to simulate interception using a simple parametric approach. Interception plays an important role in the water balance of a watershed although it is often disregarded. In addition, a refinement for the transpiration in the unsaturated zone has been made. Finally, an improved approach for simulating saturation overland flow by relating the variable source area to both the topography and the groundwater level is presented. The model has been calibrated and verified using a 4-year data set, which has been split into two for calibration and validation. The model performance has been assessed by multi-criteria evaluation. This work represents a complete application of the REW approach to watershed rainfall-runoff modelling in a real watershed. The results demonstrate that the REW approach provides an alternative blueprint for physically

  10. Unintentional Interpersonal Synchronization Represented as a Reciprocal Visuo-Postural Feedback System: A Multivariate Autoregressive Modeling Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuntaro Okazaki

    Full Text Available People's behaviors synchronize. It is difficult, however, to determine whether synchronized behaviors occur in a mutual direction--two individuals influencing one another--or in one direction--one individual leading the other, and what the underlying mechanism for synchronization is. To answer these questions, we hypothesized a non-leader-follower postural sway synchronization, caused by a reciprocal visuo-postural feedback system operating on pairs of individuals, and tested that hypothesis both experimentally and via simulation. In the behavioral experiment, 22 participant pairs stood face to face either 20 or 70 cm away from each other wearing glasses with or without vision blocking lenses. The existence and direction of visual information exchanged between pairs of participants were systematically manipulated. The time series data for the postural sway of these pairs were recorded and analyzed with cross correlation and causality. Results of cross correlation showed that postural sway of paired participants was synchronized, with a shorter time lag when participant pairs could see one another's head motion than when one of the participants was blindfolded. In addition, there was less of a time lag in the observed synchronization when the distance between participant pairs was smaller. As for the causality analysis, noise contribution ratio (NCR, the measure of influence using a multivariate autoregressive model, was also computed to identify the degree to which one's postural sway is explained by that of the other's and how visual information (sighted vs. blindfolded interacts with paired participants' postural sway. It was found that for synchronization to take place, it is crucial that paired participants be sighted and exert equal influence on one another by simultaneously exchanging visual information. Furthermore, a simulation for the proposed system with a wider range of visual input showed a pattern of results similar to the

  11. Unintentional Interpersonal Synchronization Represented as a Reciprocal Visuo-Postural Feedback System: A Multivariate Autoregressive Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Shuntaro; Hirotani, Masako; Koike, Takahiko; Bosch-Bayard, Jorge; Takahashi, Haruka K; Hashiguchi, Maho; Sadato, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    People's behaviors synchronize. It is difficult, however, to determine whether synchronized behaviors occur in a mutual direction--two individuals influencing one another--or in one direction--one individual leading the other, and what the underlying mechanism for synchronization is. To answer these questions, we hypothesized a non-leader-follower postural sway synchronization, caused by a reciprocal visuo-postural feedback system operating on pairs of individuals, and tested that hypothesis both experimentally and via simulation. In the behavioral experiment, 22 participant pairs stood face to face either 20 or 70 cm away from each other wearing glasses with or without vision blocking lenses. The existence and direction of visual information exchanged between pairs of participants were systematically manipulated. The time series data for the postural sway of these pairs were recorded and analyzed with cross correlation and causality. Results of cross correlation showed that postural sway of paired participants was synchronized, with a shorter time lag when participant pairs could see one another's head motion than when one of the participants was blindfolded. In addition, there was less of a time lag in the observed synchronization when the distance between participant pairs was smaller. As for the causality analysis, noise contribution ratio (NCR), the measure of influence using a multivariate autoregressive model, was also computed to identify the degree to which one's postural sway is explained by that of the other's and how visual information (sighted vs. blindfolded) interacts with paired participants' postural sway. It was found that for synchronization to take place, it is crucial that paired participants be sighted and exert equal influence on one another by simultaneously exchanging visual information. Furthermore, a simulation for the proposed system with a wider range of visual input showed a pattern of results similar to the behavioral results.

  12. Selection of a Representative Subset of Global Climate Models that Captures the Profile of Regional Changes for Integrated Climate Impacts Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Alex C.; Mcdermid, Sonali P.

    2017-01-01

    We present the Representative Temperature and Precipitation (T&P) GCM Subsetting Approach developed within the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) to select a practical subset of global climate models (GCMs) for regional integrated assessment of climate impacts when resource limitations do not permit the full ensemble of GCMs to be evaluated given the need to also focus on impacts sector and economics models. Subsetting inherently leads to a loss of information but can free up resources to explore important uncertainties in the integrated assessment that would otherwise be prohibitive. The Representative T&P GCM Subsetting Approach identifies five individual GCMs that capture a profile of the full ensemble of temperature and precipitation change within the growing season while maintaining information about the probability that basic classes of climate changes (relatively cool/wet, cool/dry, middle, hot/wet, and hot/dry) are projected in the full GCM ensemble. We demonstrate the selection methodology for maize impacts in Ames, Iowa, and discuss limitations and situations when additional information may be required to select representative GCMs. We then classify 29 GCMs over all land areas to identify regions and seasons with characteristic diagonal skewness related to surface moisture as well as extreme skewness connected to snow-albedo feedbacks and GCM uncertainty. Finally, we employ this basic approach to recognize that GCM projections demonstrate coherence across space, time, and greenhouse gas concentration pathway. The Representative T&P GCM Subsetting Approach provides a quantitative basis for the determination of useful GCM subsets, provides a practical and coherent approach where previous assessments selected solely on availability of scenarios, and may be extended for application to a range of scales and sectoral impacts.

  13. Selection of a Representative Subset of Global Climate Models that Captures the Profile of Regional Changes for Integrated Climate Impacts Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Alex C.; Mcdermid, Sonali P.

    2017-01-01

    We present the Representative Temperature and Precipitation (T&P) GCM Subsetting Approach developed within the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) to select a practical subset of global climate models (GCMs) for regional integrated assessment of climate impacts when resource limitations do not permit the full ensemble of GCMs to be evaluated given the need to also focus on impacts sector and economics models. Subsetting inherently leads to a loss of information but can free up resources to explore important uncertainties in the integrated assessment that would otherwise be prohibitive. The Representative T&P GCM Subsetting Approach identifies five individual GCMs that capture a profile of the full ensemble of temperature and precipitation change within the growing season while maintaining information about the probability that basic classes of climate changes (relatively cool/wet, cool/dry, middle, hot/wet, and hot/dry) are projected in the full GCM ensemble. We demonstrate the selection methodology for maize impacts in Ames, Iowa, and discuss limitations and situations when additional information may be required to select representative GCMs. We then classify 29 GCMs over all land areas to identify regions and seasons with characteristic diagonal skewness related to surface moisture as well as extreme skewness connected to snow-albedo feedbacks and GCM uncertainty. Finally, we employ this basic approach to recognize that GCM projections demonstrate coherence across space, time, and greenhouse gas concentration pathway. The Representative T&P GCM Subsetting Approach provides a quantitative basis for the determination of useful GCM subsets, provides a practical and coherent approach where previous assessments selected solely on availability of scenarios, and may be extended for application to a range of scales and sectoral impacts.

  14. A methodology for eliciting, representing, and analysing stakeholder knowledge for decision making on complex socio-ecological systems: from cognitive maps to agent-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsawah, Sondoss; Guillaume, Joseph H A; Filatova, Tatiana; Rook, Josefine; Jakeman, Anthony J

    2015-03-15

    This paper aims to contribute to developing better ways for incorporating essential human elements in decision making processes for modelling of complex socio-ecological systems. It presents a step-wise methodology for integrating perceptions of stakeholders (qualitative) into formal simulation models (quantitative) with the ultimate goal of improving understanding and communication about decision making in complex socio-ecological systems. The methodology integrates cognitive mapping and agent based modelling. It cascades through a sequence of qualitative/soft and numerical methods comprising: (1) Interviews to elicit mental models; (2) Cognitive maps to represent and analyse individual and group mental models; (3) Time-sequence diagrams to chronologically structure the decision making process; (4) All-encompassing conceptual model of decision making, and (5) computational (in this case agent-based) Model. We apply the proposed methodology (labelled ICTAM) in a case study of viticulture irrigation in South Australia. Finally, we use strengths-weakness-opportunities-threats (SWOT) analysis to reflect on the methodology. Results show that the methodology leverages the use of cognitive mapping to capture the richness of decision making and mental models, and provides a combination of divergent and convergent analysis methods leading to the construction of an Agent Based Model.

  15. Individual and contextual determinants of adequate maternal health care services in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achia, Thomas N O; Mageto, Lillian E

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine individual and community level factors associated with adequate use of maternal antenatal health services in Kenya. Individual and community level factors associated with adequate use of maternal health care (MHC) services were obtained from the 2008-09 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey data set. Multilevel partial-proportional odds logit models were fitted using STATA 13.0 to quantify the relations of the selected covariates to adequate MHC use, defined as a three-category ordinal variable. The sample consisted of 3,621 women who had at least one live birth in the five-year period preceding this survey. Only 18 percent of the women had adequate use of MHC services. Greater educational attainment by the woman or her partner, higher socioeconomic status, access to medical insurance coverage, and greater media exposure were the individual-level factors associated with adequate use of MHC services. Greater community ethnic diversity, higher community-level socioeconomic status, and greater community-level health facility deliveries were the contextual-level factors associated with adequate use of MHC. To improve the use of MHC services in Kenya, the government needs to design and implement programs that target underlying individual and community level factors, providing focused and sustained health education to promote the use of antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care.

  16. Hip-joint and abductor-muscle forces adequately represent in vivo loading of a cemented total hip reconstruction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, J.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Huiskes, R.

    2001-01-01

    Using finite element analyses, we investigated which muscle groups acting around the hip-joint most prominently affected the load distributions in cemented total hip reconstructions with a bonded and debonded femoral stem. The purpose was to determine which muscle groups should be included in pre-cl

  17. Representing the effects of alpine grassland vegetation cover on the simulation of soil thermal dynamics by ecosystem models applied to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S.; Li, N.; Xiang, B.; Wang, X.; Ye, B.; McGuire, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    Soil surface temperature is a critical boundary condition for the simulation of soil temperature by environmental models. It is influenced by atmospheric and soil conditions and by vegetation cover. In sophisticated land surface models, it is simulated iteratively by solving surface energy budget equations. In ecosystem, permafrost, and hydrology models, the consideration of soil surface temperature is generally simple. In this study, we developed a methodology for representing the effects of vegetation cover and atmospheric factors on the estimation of soil surface temperature for alpine grassland ecosystems on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Our approach integrated measurements from meteorological stations with simulations from a sophisticated land surface model to develop an equation set for estimating soil surface temperature. After implementing this equation set into an ecosystem model and evaluating the performance of the ecosystem model in simulating soil temperature at different depths in the soil profile, we applied the model to simulate interactions among vegetation cover, freeze-thaw cycles, and soil erosion to demonstrate potential applications made possible through the implementation of the methodology developed in this study. Results showed that (1) to properly estimate daily soil surface temperature, algorithms should use air temperature, downward solar radiation, and vegetation cover as independent variables; (2) the equation set developed in this study performed better than soil surface temperature algorithms used in other models; and (3) the ecosystem model performed well in simulating soil temperature throughout the soil profile using the equation set developed in this study. Our application of the model indicates that the representation in ecosystem models of the effects of vegetation cover on the simulation of soil thermal dynamics has the potential to substantially improve our understanding of the vulnerability of alpine grassland ecosystems to

  18. Regulatory requirements for providing adequate veterinary care to research animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, David M

    2013-09-01

    Provision of adequate veterinary care is a required component of animal care and use programs in the United States. Program participants other than veterinarians, including non-medically trained research personnel and technicians, also provide veterinary care to animals, and administrators are responsible for assuring compliance with federal mandates regarding adequate veterinary care. All program participants therefore should understand the regulatory requirements for providing such care. The author provides a training primer on the US regulatory requirements for the provision of veterinary care to research animals. Understanding the legal basis and conditions of a program of veterinary care will help program participants to meet the requirements advanced in the laws and policies.

  19. What is an Adequate Standard of Living During Retirement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binswanger, J.; Schunk, D.

    2008-01-01

    Many economists and policy-makers argue that households do not save enough to maintain an adequate standard of living during retirement. However, there is no consensus on the answer to the underlying question what this standard should be, despite the fact that it is crucial for the design of saving

  20. Quasi-Type δ Semigroups with an Adequate Transversal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shou Feng WANG

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,some properties of quasi-type δ semigroups with an adequate transversal are explored.In particular,abundant semigroups with a cancellative transversal are characterized.Our results generalize and enrich Saito's results on quasi-orthodox semigroups with an inverse transversal.

  1. Is the Stock of VET Skills Adequate? Assessment Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandy, Richard; Freeland, Brett

    In Australia and elsewhere, four approaches have been used to determine whether stocks of vocational education and training (VET) skills are adequate to meet industry needs. The four methods are as follows: (1) the manpower requirements approach; (2) the international, national, and industry comparisons approach; (3) the labor market analysis…

  2. Do Beginning Teachers Receive Adequate Support from Their Headteachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the problems faced by beginning teachers in Cyprus and the extent to which headteachers are considered to provide adequate guidance and support to them. Data were collected through interviews with 25 school teachers in Cyprus, who had recently entered teaching (within 1-5 years) in public primary schools. According to the…

  3. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... identifiable personal data and automated systems shall be adequately trained in the security and privacy of... records in which identifiable personal data are processed or maintained, including all reports and output... personal records or data; must minimize, to the extent practicable, the risk that skilled technicians...

  4. A NEW MODEL AND IMPROVED CABLE FUNCTION FOR REPRESENTING THE ACTIVATING PERIPHERAL NERVES BY A TRANSVERSE ELECTRIC FIELD DURING MAGNETIC STIMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Hui; Zheng Chongxun; Wang Haiyan; Wang Yi

    2005-01-01

    Objective Previous studies of peripheral nerves activation during magnetic stimulation have focused almost exclusively on the cause of high external parallel electric field along the nerves, whereas the effect of the transverse component has been ignored. In the present paper, the classical cable function is modified to represent the excitation of peripheral nerves stimulated by a transverse electric field during magnetic stimulation. Methods Responses of the Ranvier nodes to a transverse-field are thoroughly investigated by mathematic simulation. Results The simulation demonstrates that the excitation results from the net inward current driven by an external field. Based on a two-stage process, a novel model is introduced to describe peripheral nerves stimulated by a transverse-field. Based on the new model, the classical cable function is modified. Conclusion Using this modified cable equation, the excitation threshold of peripheral nerves in a transverse field during MS is obtained. The modified cable equation can be used to represent the response of peripheral nerves by an arbitrary electric field.

  5. A representative-sandwich model for simultaneously coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal simulation of a lithium-ion cell under quasi-static indentation tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Sprague, Michael A.; Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    2015-12-01

    The safety behavior of lithium-ion batteries under external mechanical crush is a critical concern, especially during large-scale deployment. We previously presented a sequentially coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal modeling approach for studying mechanical-abuse-induced short circuit. In this work, we study different mechanical test conditions and examine the interaction between mechanical failure and electrical-thermal responses, by developing a simultaneously coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal model. The present work utilizes a single representative-sandwich (RS) to model the full pouch cell with explicit representations for each individual component such as the active material, current collector, separator, etc. Anisotropic constitutive material models are presented to describe the mechanical properties of active materials and separator. The model predicts accurately the force-strain response and fracture of battery structure, simulates the local failure of separator layer, and captures the onset of short circuit for lithium-ion battery cells under sphere indentation tests with three different diameters. Electrical-thermal responses to the three different indentation tests are elaborated and discussed. Numerical studies are presented to show the potential impact of test conditions on the electrical-thermal behavior of the cell after the occurrence of short circuit.

  6. Representative composition of the Murray Formation, Gale Crater, Mars, as refined through modeling utilizing Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBommel, Scott; Gellert, Ralf; Berger, Jeff; Desouza, Elstan; O'Connell-Cooper, Catherine; Thompson, Lucy; Boyd, Nicholas

    2017-04-01

    The Murray formation[1] in Gale Crater is distinctly characterized by depleted MgO and CaO, an elevated Fe/Mn ratio, and enrichments in SiO2, K2O, and Ge, compared to average Mars. Supported by observations with Curiosity's Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer[2], this pattern is consistent over several kilometers. However, intermixed dust, Ca-, and Mg-sulfates introduce chemical heterogeneities into the APXS field of view. Better constraints on the composition of what is characteristic of the Murray formation is achieved by applying a least-squares deconvolution[3] to a selection of APXS Murray targets. We subtract the composition of known additions (dust[4], MgSO4, CaSO4) to derive a more-representative Murray composition. Slight variations within Murray are then probed by modeling each target as a mixture of dust, sulfates and the derived representative Murray. The derived composition for what is representative of Murray has several key deviations from the straightforward average of Murray targets. The subtraction of known dust, Mg-, and Ca-sulfate additions suggests further depletion in MgO and CaO in Murray and also suggests a significant decrease in SO3 concentration compared to the average of Murray targets. While veins and concretions are contaminants when considering the composition of the bulk rock, the subtraction of Mg- or Ca-sulfate is independent of sulfate form. Sulfates within the bulk rock (detrital or cements) have been observed in the Murray formation. These sulfates are important and discussed further in [5]. Modeling APXS Murray targets as a mixture of dust, MgSO4, CaSO4, and representative Murray, provides insight into potential subtle variations within the surprisingly consistent Murray formation. For example, the high SiO2 in Buckskin, (sol 1057-1091) is not simply a mixture of representative Murray with sulfates and dust. The elevated Ni (and MgSO4) of Morrison (sol ˜775), the elevated Al2O3 of Mojave (sol ˜800-900), and the gradually

  7. Using Satellite Data to Represent Tropical Instability Waves (TIWs-Induced Wind for Ocean Modeling: A Negative Feedback onto TIW Activity in the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhong Min

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent satellite data and modeling studies indicate a pronounced role Tropical Instability Waves (TIW-induced wind feedback plays in the tropical Pacific climate system. Previously, remotely sensed data were used to derive a diagnostic model for TIW-induced wind stress perturbations (τTIW, which was embedded into an ocean general circulation model (OGCM to take into account TIW-induced ocean-atmosphere coupling in the tropical Pacific. While the previous paper by Zhang (2013 is concerned with the effect on the mean ocean state, the present paper is devoted to using the embedded system to examine the effects on TIW activity in the ocean, with τTIW being interactively determined from TIW-scale sea surface temperature (SSTTIW fields generated in the OGCM, written as τTIW = αTIW·F(SSTTIW, where αTIW is a scalar parameter introduced to represent the τTIW forcing intensity. Sensitivity experiments with varying αTIW (representing TIW-scale wind feedback strength are performed to illustrate a negative feedback induced by TIW-scale air-sea coupling and its relationship with TIW variability in the ocean. Consistent with previous modeling studies, TIW wind feedback tends to have a damping effect on TIWs in the ocean, with a general inverse relationship between the τTIW intensity and TIWs. It is further shown that TIW-scale coupling does not vary linearly with αTIW: the coupling increases linearly with intensifying τTIW forcing at low values of αTIW (in a weak τTIW forcing regime; it becomes saturated at a certain value of αTIW; it decreases when αTIW goes above a threshold value as the τTIW forcing increases further. This work presents a clear demonstration of using satellite data to effectively represent TIW-scale wind feedback and its multi-scale interactions with large-scale ocean processes in the tropical Pacific.

  8. Global kinetic rate parameters for the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the pyrolyis of catechol, a model compound representative of solid fuel moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.B. Ledesma; N.D. Marsh; A.K. Sandrowitz; M.J. Wornat [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States). Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    2002-12-01

    To obtain kinetic parameters on PAH formation relevant to solid fuels combustion, pyrolysis experiments have been conducted with catechol, a model fuel representing entities in coal and biomass. Catechol pyrolysis experiments were performed in a tubular-flow reactor at temperatures of 500-1000{sup o}C and at a residence time of 0.4 s. PAH products were identified and quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-visible diode-array detection and by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection. A pseudo-unimolecular reaction kinetic model was used to model the experimental yield/temperature data of 15 individual aromatics and of combinations of PAH grouped by structural class and ring-number. The modeling of the individual species' yields showed that the pseudo-unimolecular model agreed very well with the experimental data. E{sub a} values ranged from 50 to 110 kcal mol{sup -1}, generally increasing as the size of the aromatic product increased from one to five aromatic rings. The pseudo-unimolecular model also performed well in modeling the experimental yields of PAH grouped by structural class and ring number. The global kinetic analysis results for PAH grouped by ring number revealed that E{sub a} values increased in the following order: 2-ring {lt} 3-ring {lt} 4-ring {lt} 5-ring {lt} 6-ring. Their yields followed the reverse order: 2-ring {lt} 3-ring {lt} 4-ring {lt} 5-ring {lt} 6-ring. These trends of increasing E{sub a} and decreasing yield, as ring number is increased, are consistent with a mechanism for PAH growth involving successive ring buildup reactions. 39 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Task Analytic Models to Guide Analysis and Design: Use of the Operator Function Model to Represent Pilot-Autoflight System Mode Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Asaf; Mitchell, Christine M.; Chappell, Alan R.; Shafto, Mike (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Task-analytic models structure essential information about operator interaction with complex systems, in this case pilot interaction with the autoflight system. Such models serve two purposes: (1) they allow researchers and practitioners to understand pilots' actions; and (2) they provide a compact, computational representation needed to design 'intelligent' aids, e.g., displays, assistants, and training systems. This paper demonstrates the use of the operator function model to trace the process of mode engagements while a pilot is controlling an aircraft via the, autoflight system. The operator function model is a normative and nondeterministic model of how a well-trained, well-motivated operator manages multiple concurrent activities for effective real-time control. For each function, the model links the pilot's actions with the required information. Using the operator function model, this paper describes several mode engagement scenarios. These scenarios were observed and documented during a field study that focused on mode engagements and mode transitions during normal line operations. Data including time, ATC clearances, altitude, system states, and active modes and sub-modes, engagement of modes, were recorded during sixty-six flights. Using these data, seven prototypical mode engagement scenarios were extracted. One scenario details the decision of the crew to disengage a fully automatic mode in favor of a semi-automatic mode, and the consequences of this action. Another describes a mode error involving updating aircraft speed following the engagement of a speed submode. Other scenarios detail mode confusion at various phases of the flight. This analysis uses the operator function model to identify three aspects of mode engagement: (1) the progress of pilot-aircraft-autoflight system interaction; (2) control/display information required to perform mode management activities; and (3) the potential cause(s) of mode confusion. The goal of this paper is twofold

  10. Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor BMS-986142 in experimental models of rheumatoid arthritis enhances efficacy of agents representing clinical standard-of-care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillooly, Kathleen M; Pulicicchio, Claudine; Pattoli, Mark A; Cheng, Lihong; Skala, Stacey; Heimrich, Elizabeth M; McIntyre, Kim W; Taylor, Tracy L; Kukral, Daniel W; Dudhgaonkar, Shailesh; Nagar, Jignesh; Banas, Dana; Watterson, Scott H; Tino, Joseph A; Fura, Aberra; Burke, James R

    2017-01-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) regulates critical signal transduction pathways involved in the pathobiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune disorders. BMS-986142 is a potent and highly selective reversible small molecule inhibitor of BTK currently being investigated in clinical trials for the treatment of both RA and primary Sjögren's syndrome. In the present report, we detail the in vitro and in vivo pharmacology of BMS-986142 and show this agent provides potent and selective inhibition of BTK (IC50 = 0.5 nM), blocks antigen receptor-dependent signaling and functional endpoints (cytokine production, co-stimulatory molecule expression, and proliferation) in human B cells (IC50 ≤ 5 nM), inhibits Fcγ receptor-dependent cytokine production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and blocks RANK-L-induced osteoclastogenesis. Through the benefits of impacting these important drivers of autoimmunity, BMS-986142 demonstrated robust efficacy in murine models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), including collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA). In both models, robust efficacy was observed without continuous, complete inhibition of BTK. When a suboptimal dose of BMS-986142 was combined with other agents representing the current standard of care for RA (e.g., methotrexate, the TNFα antagonist etanercept, or the murine form of CTLA4-Ig) in the CIA model, improved efficacy compared to either agent alone was observed. The results suggest BMS-986142 represents a potential therapeutic for clinical investigation in RA, as monotherapy or co-administered with agents with complementary mechanisms of action.

  11. The use of artificial neural network modeling to represent the process of concentration by molecular distillation of omega-3 from squid oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi, P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of omega-3 compounds obtained for the esterification of squid oil by molecular distillation was carried out in two stages. This operation can process these thermolabile and high molecular weight components at very low temperatures. Given the mathematical complexity of the theoretical model, artificial neural networks (ANN have provided an alternative to a classical computing analysis. The objective of this study was to create a predictive model using artificial neural network techniques to represent the concentration process of omega-3 compounds obtained from squid oil using molecular distillation. Another objective of this study was to analyze the performance of two different alternatives of ANN modeling; one of them is a model that represents all variables in the process and the other is a global model that simulates only the input and output variables of the process. The alternative of the ANN global model showed the best fit to the experimental data.La concentración de compuestos omega-3, obtenidos de la esterificación de aceite de calamar, por destilación molecular fue llevada a cabo en dos etapas. Esta operación permite procesar componentes termolábiles y de alto peso molecular a muy bajas temperaturas. Dada la alta complejidad de los modelos teóricos, las redes neuronales artificiales (RNA conforman una alternativa al análisis computacional clásico. El objetivo de este estudio fue crear un modelo predictivo usando modelos de redes neuronales artificiales para representar el proceso de concentración de compuestos omega-3 obtenidos del aceite de calamar por destilación molecular. Otro objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el desenvolvimiento de dos alternativas de modelos RNA; uno de ellos es un modelo que representa todas las variables en el proceso y otro es un modelo global que simula solo las variables de entrada y de salida del proceso. La alternativa de un modelo RNA global mostró el mejor ajuste de los

  12. Computational modeling as part of alternative testing strategies in the respiratory and cardiovascular systems: inhaled nanoparticle dose modeling based on representative aerosol measurements and corresponding toxicological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilou, Marika; Mavrofrydi, Olga; Housiadas, Christos; Eleftheriadis, Kostas; Papazafiri, Panagiota

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of modeling in this work were (a) the integration of two existing numerical models in order to connect external exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) with internal dose through inhalation, and (b) to use computational fluid-particle dynamics (CFPD) to analyze the behavior of NPs in the respiratory and the cardiovascular system. Regarding the first objective, a lung transport and deposition model was combined with a lung clearance/retention model to estimate NPs dose in the different regions of the human respiratory tract and some adjacent tissues. On the other hand, CFPD was used to estimate particle transport and deposition of particles in a physiologically based bifurcation created by the third and fourth lung generations (respiratory system), as well as to predict the fate of super-paramagnetic particles suspended in a liquid under the influence of an external magnetic field (cardiovascular system). All the above studies showed that, with proper refinement, the developed computational models and methodologies may serve as an alternative testing strategy, replacing transport/deposition experiments that are expensive both in time and resources and contribute to risk assessment.

  13. Representing Uncertainty by Probability and Possibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uncertain parameters in modeling are usually represented by probability distributions reflecting either the objective uncertainty of the parameters or the subjective belief held by the model builder. This approach is particularly suited for representing the statistical nature or variance of uncer......Uncertain parameters in modeling are usually represented by probability distributions reflecting either the objective uncertainty of the parameters or the subjective belief held by the model builder. This approach is particularly suited for representing the statistical nature or variance...

  14. Representing Uncertainty by Probability and Possibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uncertain parameters in modeling are usually represented by probability distributions reflecting either the objective uncertainty of the parameters or the subjective belief held by the model builder. This approach is particularly suited for representing the statistical nature or variance of uncer......Uncertain parameters in modeling are usually represented by probability distributions reflecting either the objective uncertainty of the parameters or the subjective belief held by the model builder. This approach is particularly suited for representing the statistical nature or variance...

  15. The Complexity of Recognition of Linguistically Adequate Dependency Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Neuhaus, P; Neuhaus, Peter; Broeker, Norbert

    1997-01-01

    Results of computational complexity exist for a wide range of phrase structure-based grammar formalisms, while there is an apparent lack of such results for dependency-based formalisms. We here adapt a result on the complexity of ID/LP-grammars to the dependency framework. Contrary to previous studies on heavily restricted dependency grammars, we prove that recognition (and thus, parsing) of linguistically adequate dependency grammars is NP-complete.

  16. Undergraduate UK nutrition education might not adequately address weight management

    OpenAIRE

    Rogerson, David; Soltani, Hora; Copeland, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Weight management appears to be multidimensional and complex, and registered nutritionists might work to educate, promote and provide weight-management services to communities, groups and individuals. However, nutrition education might not adequately reflect the weight-management requirements of individuals and groups. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the Association for Nutrition’s undergraduate core competency framework for accredited Nutrition degrees sufficien...

  17. PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY MEASUREMENTS IN A REPRESENTATIVE GAS-COOLED PRISMATIC REACTOR CORE MODEL: FLOW IN THE COOLANT CHANNELS AND INTERSTITIAL BYPASS GAPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas E. Conder; Richard Skifton; Ralph Budwig

    2012-11-01

    Core bypass flow is one of the key issues with the prismatic Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor, and it refers to the coolant that navigates through the interstitial, non-cooling passages between the graphite fuel blocks instead of traveling through the designated coolant channels. To determine the bypass flow, a double scale representative model was manufactured and installed in the Matched Index-of-Refraction flow facility; after which, stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was employed to measure the flow field within. PIV images were analyzed to produce vector maps, and flow rates were calculated by numerically integrating over the velocity field. It was found that the bypass flow varied between 6.9-15.8% for channel Reynolds numbers of 1,746 and 4,618. The results were compared to computational fluid dynamic (CFD) pre-test simulations. When compared to these pretest calculations, the CFD analysis appeared to under predict the flow through the gap.

  18. Representing object role modeling models with Web ontology language description logic axioms%使用OWL DL形式化表达对象角色建模模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘文林; 刘大昕

    2011-01-01

    对象角色建模(ORM)方法已应用于本体工程,因此需要将ORM模型转换为OWL DL公理,以便将ORM本体发布到语义Web上,同时还可使用支持DL的推理机来检查ORM本体的语义一致性和冗余问题.通过模型语义分析、模型等价转换、引入新的运算符和特性等方法,提出将ORM模型形式化表达为OWL DL公理的规则.除了外部唯一约束等四种约束外,其他形态的ORM模型都可以形式化表达为OWL DL公理.%Object Role Modeling (ORM) has been used in ontology engineering to model domain ontology, which needs to represent ORM models in OWL DL axioms to check semantic conflicts and redundancy with DL reasoners, and to publish ORM ontology on the semantic Web. By means of comparing the semantics of ORM model and OWL DL axioms, equivalently model-convening, and introducing new operators and properties, that mapping rules to represent ORM models in OWL DL axioms was proposed. Except a few constraints, most ORM model elements can be represented by OWL DL axioms.

  19. Distributions and climate effects of atmospheric aerosols from the preindustrial era to 2100 along Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs simulated using a global aerosol model SPRINTARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Takemura

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Global distributions and associated climate effects of atmospheric aerosols were simulated using a global aerosol climate model, SPRINTARS, from 1850 to the present day and projected forward to 2100. Aerosol emission inventories used by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 were applied to this study. Scenarios based on the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs were used for the future projection. Aerosol loading in the atmosphere has already peaked and is now reducing in Europe and North America. However, in Asia where rapid economic growth is ongoing, aerosol loading is estimated to reach a maximum in the first half of this century. Atmospheric aerosols originating from the burning of biomass have maintained high loadings throughout the 21st century in Africa, according to the RCPs. Evolution of the adjusted forcing by direct and indirect aerosol effects over time generally correspond to the aerosol loading. The probable future pathways of global mean forcing differ based on the aerosol direct effect for different RCPs. Because aerosol forcing will be close to the preindustrial level by the end of the 21st century for all RCPs despite the continuous increases in greenhouse gases, global warming will be accelerated with reduced aerosol negative forcing.

  20. Distributions and climate effects of atmospheric aerosols from the preindustrial era to 2100 along Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs simulated using the global aerosol model SPRINTARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Takemura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Global distributions and associated climate effects of atmospheric aerosols were simulated using a global aerosol climate model, SPRINTARS, from 1850 to the present day and projected forward to 2100. Aerosol emission inventories used by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 were applied to this study. Scenarios based on the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs were used for the future projection. Aerosol loading in the atmosphere has already peaked and is now reducing in Europe and North America. However, in Asia where rapid economic growth is ongoing, aerosol loading is estimated to reach a maximum in the first half of this century. Atmospheric aerosols originating from the burning of biomass have maintained high loadings throughout the 21st century in Africa, according to the RCPs. Evolution of the adjusted forcing by direct and indirect aerosol effects over time generally correspond to the aerosol loading. The probable future pathways of global mean forcing differ based on the aerosol direct effect for different RCPs. Because aerosol forcing will be close to the preindustrial level by the end of the 21st century for all RCPs despite the continuous increases in greenhouse gases, global warming will be accelerated with reduced aerosol negative forcing.

  1. List of Accredited Representatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — VA accreditation is for the sole purpose of providing representation services to claimants before VA and does not imply that a representative is qualified to provide...

  2. Genetic modification of preimplantation embryos: toward adequate human research policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresser, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Citing advances in transgenic animal research and setbacks in human trials of somatic cell genetic interventions, some scientists and others want to begin planning for research involving the genetic modification of human embryos. Because this form of genetic modification could affect later-born children and their offspring, the protection of human subjects should be a priority in decisions about whether to proceed with such research. Yet because of gaps in existing federal policies, embryo modification proposals might not receive adequate scientific and ethical scrutiny. This article describes current policy shortcomings and recommends policy actions designed to ensure that the investigational genetic modification of embryos meets accepted standards for research on human subjects.

  3. The representative animal

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, J M

    1994-01-01

    The anthropocentric approach to the study of animal behavior uses representative nonhuman animals to understand human behavior. This approach raises problems concerning the comparison of the behavior of two different species. The datum of behavior analysis is the behavior of humans and representative animal phenotypes. The behavioral phenotype is the product of the ontogeny and phylogeny of each species, and this requires that contributions of genotype as well as behavioral history to experim...

  4. [Advance directives. Representatives' opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets I Font, J M; Hernando Robles, P; Font I Canals, R; Diestre Ortin, G; Quintana, S

    The use and usefulness of Advance Directives has led to a lot of controversy about their validity and effectiveness. Those areas are unexplored in our country from the perspective of representatives. To determine the opinion of the representatives appointed in a registered Statement of Advance Directives (SAD) on the use of this document. Telephone survey of representatives of 146 already dead people and who, since February 2012, had registered a SAD document. More the two-thirds (98) of respondents recalled that the SAD was consulted, with 86 (58.9%) saying that their opinion as representative was consulted, and 120 (82.1%) believe that the patient's will was respected. Of those interviewed, 102 (69.9%) believe that patients who had previously planned their care using a SAD had a good death, with 33 (22.4%) saying it could have been better, and 10 (6.9%) believe they suffered greatly. The SAD were mostly respected and consulted, and possibly this is related to the fact that most of the representatives declare that the death of those they represented was perceived as comfortable. It would be desirable to conduct further studies addressed at health personnel in order to know their perceptions regarding the use of Advance Directives in the process of dying. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Adequate sizing and motor exploitation: Motor energy management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Miloje M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor energy management includes adequate sizing, control and improvement of electric energy quality, i.e. voltage quality (reducing voltage unbalance and harmonics distortion, and the proper maintenance. The specific motor price per kW is approximately constant for motors rated from 5 kW to 20 kW. By adequate sizing, or by proper replacement of the old motor with the new one, with rated output power reduced by 20% to 50% the smaller motor will be also cheaper by 20% to 50%. When the 22 kW motor is replaced with the new 15 kW that costs 64% of the price of a new 22 kW motor, the efficiency is increased by 3.6% (Example in paper. On the basis of our investigation results, it is confirmed that there are significant possibilities for energy savings by setting voltage values within the ±5% voltage band (Un±5%, since more than 80% induction motors are under loaded (£70%, especially small and medium rated power (1-30 kW motors.

  6. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu'usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n = 692) were categorized according to the adequacy of prenatal care utilization index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way analysis of variance and independent samples t tests. Between 2001 and 2008 85.4 % of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P = 0.02), maternal unemployment (P = 0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P = 0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initiation. Giving birth in 2007-2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 vs. 25.12 weeks; P prenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007-2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population.

  7. Is prophetic discourse adequate to address global economic justice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet J. Naudé

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article outlined key features of prophetic discourse and investigated whether this form of moral discourse adequately addresses issues of economic injustice. It is shown that the strength of prophetic discourse is its ability to denounce instances of injustice whilst at the same time announcing a God-willed alternative future. The ‘preferential option for the poor’ in Latin American liberation theologies is treated as a case study of the influence of prophetic discourse in contexts of perceived economic injustice. Also the core weaknesses of prophetic discourse are investigated, specifically its incomplete moral argument, weak moral analyses, silence on transition measures, and its inability to take a positive stance on reforms in the system from which itself benefits. In the final section it is concluded that prophetic discourse plays an indispensable role in addressing issues of global economic justice, but – taken by itself – it is not an adequate form of moral discourse to address concrete matters of justice.

  8. Quantifying dose to the reconstructed breast: Can we adequately treat?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eugene; Marsh, Robin B.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Pierce, Lori J., E-mail: ljpierce@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how immediate reconstruction (IR) impacts postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) dose distributions to the reconstructed breast (RB), internal mammary nodes (IMN), heart, and lungs using quantifiable dosimetric end points. 3D conformal plans were developed for 20 IR patients, 10 autologous reconstruction (AR), and 10 expander-implant (EI) reconstruction. For each reconstruction type, 5 right- and 5 left-sided reconstructions were selected. Two plans were created for each patient, 1 with RB coverage alone and 1 with RB + IMN coverage. Left-sided EI plans without IMN coverage had higher heart Dmean than left-sided AR plans (2.97 and 0.84 Gy, p = 0.03). Otherwise, results did not vary by reconstruction type and all remaining metrics were evaluated using a combined AR and EI dataset. RB coverage was adequate regardless of laterality or IMN coverage (Dmean 50.61 Gy, D95 45.76 Gy). When included, IMN Dmean and D95 were 49.57 and 40.96 Gy, respectively. Mean heart doses increased with left-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion. Right-sided treatment plans and IMN inclusion increased mean lung V{sub 20}. Using standard field arrangements and 3D planning, we observed excellent coverage of the RB and IMN, regardless of laterality or reconstruction type. Our results demonstrate that adequate doses can be delivered to the RB with or without IMN coverage.

  9. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu’usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Methods Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n=692) were categorized according to the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent samples t-tests. Results Between 2001 and 2008 85.4% of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P=0.02), maternal unemployment (P=0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P=0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initation. Giving birth in 2007–2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 versus 25.12 weeks; Pprenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007–2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population. PMID:24045912

  10. Representing properties locally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, K O; Barsalou, L W

    2001-09-01

    Theories of knowledge such as feature lists, semantic networks, and localist neural nets typically use a single global symbol to represent a property that occurs in multiple concepts. Thus, a global symbol represents mane across HORSE, PONY, and LION. Alternatively, perceptual theories of knowledge, as well as distributed representational systems, assume that properties take different local forms in different concepts. Thus, different local forms of mane exist for HORSE, PONY, and LION, each capturing the specific form that mane takes in its respective concept. Three experiments used the property verification task to assess whether properties are represented globally or locally (e.g., Does a PONY have mane?). If a single global form represents a property, then verifying it in any concept should increase its accessibility and speed its verification later in any other concept. Verifying mane for PONY should benefit as much from having verified mane for LION earlier as from verifying mane for HORSE. If properties are represented locally, however, verifying a property should only benefit from verifying a similar form earlier. Verifying mane for PONY should only benefit from verifying mane for HORSE, not from verifying mane for LION. Findings from three experiments strongly supported local property representation and ruled out the interpretation that object similarity was responsible (e.g., the greater overall similarity between HORSE and PONY than between LION and PONY). The findings further suggest that property representation and verification are complicated phenomena, grounded in sensory-motor simulations.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the pyrolysis of catechol (ortho-dihydroxybenzene), a model fuel representative of entities in tobacco, coal, and lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wornat, M.J.; Ledesma, E.B.; Marsh, N.D. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    2001-10-09

    In order to better understand the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from complex fuels, we have performed pyrolysis experiments in a laminar-flow reactor, using the model fuel catechol (Ortho-dihydroxybenzene), a phenol-type compound representative of structural entities in tobacco, coal and wood. Employing high pressure liquid chromatography with diode-array ultraviolet-visible (UV) detection, we have unequivocally identified 59 individual species among the condensed-phase products of catechol pyrolysis at a temperature of 1000{degree}C and a residence time of 0.4 s. Also identified are two oxygen-containing compounds that are produced only at pyrolysis temperatures lower than 900{degree}C. Of the total 61 species, fifty have never before been identified as pyrolysis products of any pure phenol type compound. Two of the catechol pyrolysis products, 5-ethynylacenaphthylene and 3-ethynylphenanthrene, have never before been identified as products of any fuel. Ranging in size from one to eight fused aromatic rings, the catechol pyrolysis products comprise several compound classes: bi-aryls, indene benzologues, benzenoid PAH, alkylated aromatics, fluoranthene benzologues, cyclopenta-fused PAH, ethynyl-substituted aromatics, polyacetylenes, and oxygen-containing aromatics. The catechol pyrolysis products bear remarkable compositional similarity to the products of bituminous coal volatiles pyrolyzed at the same temperature - demonstrating the relevance of these catechol model compound experiments to the study of complex fuels such as coal, wood and tobacco. The UV spectra, establishing compound identity, are presented for several of the identified catechol product components. 70 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Representing Identity and Equivalence for Scientific Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickett, K. M.; Sacchi, S.; Dubin, D.; Renear, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    Matters of equivalence and identity are central to the stewardship of scientific data. In order to properly prepare for and manage the curation, preservation and sharing of digitally-encoded data, data stewards must be able to characterize and assess the relationships holding between data-carrying digital resources. However, identity-related questions about resources and their information content may not be straightforward to answer: for example, what exactly does it mean to say that two files contain the same data, but in different formats? Information content is frequently distinguished from particular representations, but there is no adequately developed shared understanding of what this really means and how the relationship between content and its representations hold. The Data Concepts group at the Center for Informatics Research in Science and Scholarship (CIRSS), University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, is developing a logic-based framework of fundamental concepts related to scientific data to support curation and integration. One project goal is to develop precise accounts of information resources carrying the same data. We present two complementary conceptual models for information representation: the Basic Representation Model (BRM) and the Systematic Assertion Model (SAM). We show how these models provide an analytical account of digitally-encoded scientific data and a precise understanding of identity and equivalence. The Basic Representation Model identifies the core entities and relationships involved in representing information carried by digital objects. In BRM, digital objects are symbol structures that express propositional content, and stand in layered encoding relationships. For example, an RDF description may be serialized as either XML or N3, and those expressions in turn may be encoded as either UTF-8 or UTF-16 sequences. Defining this encoding stack reveals distinctions necessary for a precise account of identity and equivalence

  13. Partitioning a Steady State Sediment Budget to Represent Long tailed Distributions of Contaminant Residence Times: A Modeling Approach for Routing Tracers Through Alluvial Storage Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzuto, J. E.; Ackerman, T. R.

    2012-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) was released into the South River, VA, from an industrial source from 1929-1950. Because of mercury's affinity for fine grained particles, a budget for fine sediment can be used to model the trajectories of Hg through the alluvial valley. We adopt Malmon's (2002) model, which requires each storage compartment to be "well-mixed". Our sediment budget quantifies residence times, exchange rates, and sediment storage volumes in the floodplain (FP), hyporheic zone, and in fine-grained channel margin (FGCM) deposits that form in the lee of obstructions (chiefly downed trees) along the sides of the wetted perimeter of the channel. This simple model with only 3 storage compartments fails to fit Hg concentration histories in the FGCM and under predicts contemporary mercury loading to the channel from bank erosion. We speculate that the FP and FGCM deposits are not well-mixed. Mercury is preferentially stored and remobilized from frequently-inundated, low elevation floodplain areas near the stream channel. Radiometric dates from FGCM deposits suggest that most sediments are reworked within a few years, but a small fraction of the deposits remains in storage for decades. We therefore partition the FP and FGCM deposits into multiple reservoirs, each with a different residence time. We divide the FGCM deposits into two sub-reservoirs with characteristic exchange rates and masses that represent the observed age distribution. Sediment accumulation rates on the FP follow an exponential distribution of FP relief, and we divide the floodplain into 5 reservoirs with inundation frequencies of 0.3, 2, 5, 62, and 100 years. Since erosion is assumed to be evenly distributed across each reservoir, FP area as a function of age decreases exponentially. With time, the elevation of floodplains increases through sedimentation, so a portion of each reservoir evolves into a less frequently inundated category every year, creating a unidirectional mass flux from each FP reservoir into

  14. A fingerprinting mixing model approach to generate uniformly representative solutions for distributed contributions of sediment sources in a Pyrenean drainage basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazón, Leticia; Gaspar, Leticia; Latorre, Borja; Blake, Will; Navas, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Spanish Pyrenean reservoirs are under pressure from high sediment yields in contributing catchments. Sediment fingerprinting approaches offer potential to quantify the contribution of different sediment sources, evaluate catchment erosion dynamics and develop management plans to tackle the reservoir siltation problems. The drainage basin of the Barasona reservoir (1509 km2), located in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, is an alpine-prealpine agroforest basin supplying sediments to the reservoir at an annual rate of around 350 t km-2 with implications for reservoir longevity. The climate is mountain type, wet and cold, with both Atlantic and Mediterranean influences. Steep slopes and the presence of deep and narrow gorges favour rapid runoff and large floods. The ability of geochemical fingerprint properties to discriminate between the sediment sources was investigated by conducting the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis H-test and a stepwise discriminant function analysis (minimization of Wilk's lambda). This standard procedure selects potential fingerprinting properties as optimum composite fingerprint to characterize and discriminate between sediment sources to the reservoir. Then the contribution of each potential sediment source was assessed by applying a Monte Carlo mixing model to obtain source proportions for the Barasona reservoir sediment samples. The Monte Carlo mixing model was written in C programming language and designed to deliver a user-defined number possible solutions. A Combinatorial Principals method was used to identify the most probable solution with associated uncertainty based on source variability. The unique solution for each sample was characterized by the mean value and the standard deviation of the generated solutions and the lower goodness of fit value applied. This method is argued to guarantee a similar set of representative solutions in all unmixing cases based on likelihood of occurrence. Soil samples for the different potential sediment

  15. Adequate dosing of micronutrients for different age groups in the life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienz, Denise; Cori, Hector; Hornig, Dietrich

    2003-09-01

    Many studies of micronutrient supplementation in developing countries have used single-nutrient supplements with either vitamins or minerals. However, people in these countries often suffer from multiple, rather than single, micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this paper is to discuss the factors that go into determining the adequate dosing of vitamins and/or minerals for people of different ages. To elaborate on the adequacy of micronutrient doses in supplements, a model described by the US FNB was used, which calculates the difference between the mean observed intake for an individual and the estimated average requirement for a life stage and gender group. This model allows estimating the degree of confidence that a certain nutrient intake (from supplements and diet) is adequate. The US/Canadian DRI values have been used as the basis for these calculations, from which it can be concluded that a daily supplement of one RDA of each micronutrient is adequate to cover the personal requirements of all individuals in each respective age and gender group of the population, provided that 20 to 40% of an RDA is supplied by the diet--likely a realistic value for developing countries. DRI values vary significantly between different age groups, reflecting changing needs over a life cycle. With the objective of a supplement to be adequate and safe, the design of a one-for-all supplement covering all age groups is not realistic. Such a supplement would either underscore or surpass the required intake of some of the age groups. Additionally the dosage of certain micronutrients might exceed the upper level of intake for lower age groups. Therefore, it is suggested that three different supplements following the one RDA concept for all micronutrients be developed for research use in developing countries for the following age groups; 1 to 3 years, 4 to 13 years, and females > 14 years (excluding during pregnancy).

  16. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  17. Deferasirox pharmacokinetics in patients with adequate versus inadequate response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirnomas, Deborah; Smith, Amber Lynn; Braunstein, Jennifer; Finkelstein, Yaron; Pereira, Luis; Bergmann, Anke K.; Grant, Frederick D.; Paley, Carole; Shannon, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Tens of thousands of transfusion-dependent (eg, thalassemia) patients worldwide suffer from chronic iron overload and its potentially fatal complications. The oral iron chelator deferasirox has become commercially available in many countries since 2006. Although this alternative to parenteral deferoxamine has been a major advance for patients with transfusional hemosiderosis, a proportion of patients have suboptimal response to the maximum approved doses (30 mg/kg per day), and do not achieve negative iron balance. We performed a prospective study of oral deferasirox pharmacokinetics (PK), comparing 10 transfused patients with inadequate deferasirox response (rising ferritin trend or rising liver iron on deferasirox doses > 30 mg/kg per day) with control transfusion-dependent patients (n = 5) with adequate response. Subjects were admitted for 4 assessments: deferoxamine infusion and urinary iron measurement to assess readily chelatable iron; quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy to assess hepatic uptake and excretion of chelate; a 24-hour deferasirox PK study following a single 35-mg/kg dose of oral deferasirox; and pharmacogenomic analysis. Patients with inadequate response to deferasirox had significantly lower systemic drug exposure compared with control patients (P < .00001). Cmax, volume of distribution/bioavailability (Vd/F), and elimination half-life (t1/2) were not different between the groups, suggesting bioavailability as the likely discriminant. Effective dosing regimens for inadequately responding patients to deferasirox must be determined. This trial has been registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov under identifier NCT00749515. PMID:19724055

  18. Acute isoniazid toxicity and the need for adequate pyridoxine supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Lee E; Wear, Robert E; Schuller, Dan; Malesker, Mark

    2006-10-01

    A 25-year-old, 54-kg Hispanic man who had recently started multidrug therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis presented in status epilepticus after ingesting 9 g of isoniazid in a suicide attempt. Successful management of this patient required collaboration between several institutions to provide the large amount of necessary intravenous pyridoxine. Ultimately, this single overdose depleted the supply of intravenous pyridoxine for a significant region of the state of Nebraska. Isoniazid is commonly used to treat tuberculosis, but it is encountered relatively infrequently as the cause of an acute overdose. Severe isoniazid overdoses may present as seizure activity that is refractory to conventional antiepileptic therapy. Although intravenous pyridoxine is an effective antidote for isoniazid overdoses in patients presenting with status epilepticus, this agent has few indications and is typically stocked in limited quantities. In regions with large populations of patients who receive antituberculosis therapy, collaborative networks must be created to ensure that adequate supplies of intravenous pyridoxine (> or = 20 g) are available for effective treatment of isoniazid poisonings.

  19. Undergraduate UK nutrition education might not adequately address weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, David; Soltani, Hora; Copeland, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Weight management appears to be multidimensional and complex, and registered nutritionists might work to educate, promote and provide weight-management services to communities, groups and individuals. However, nutrition education might not adequately reflect the weight-management requirements of individuals and groups. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the Association for Nutrition's undergraduate core competency framework for accredited Nutrition degrees sufficiently reflects the weight-management needs and experiences of individuals. A qualitative investigation, conducted within critical realist ontology, was performed to understand the weight-management experiences of dieters and compare these with the Association for Nutrition's accreditation criteria for undergraduate Nutrition degrees. Framework analysis was used to identify and explain participants' experiences thematically and to compare these with the Association for Nutrition's core competency criteria. Participants (n 8) with weight-loss (n 4) and weight-maintenance experiences (n 4) were interviewed using semi-structured interviews to understand weight management at the agential level. Participants described knowledge, exercise, planning, psychological constructs and behaviour-change techniques, determinants of eating and social support as features of weight management. The competency criteria provided clear guidance on all aspects discussed by the group, apart from psychological constructs and behaviour-change techniques and social support. Accredited Nutrition courses might not fully reflect the weight-management needs and experiences of individuals. Nutritionists might require greater knowledge of psychology and behaviour change to better understand and accommodate their clients' weight-management needs.

  20. Monitoring the eye lens: which dose quantity is adequate?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, R [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Dietze, G, E-mail: rolf.behrens@ptb.d [Paracelsusstrasse 7, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2010-07-21

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a rather low dose threshold (below 0.5 Gy) for the induction of a cataract of the eye lens. Some other studies even assume that there is no threshold at all. Therefore, protection measures have to be optimized and current dose limits for the eye lens may be reduced in the future. The question of which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens arises from this situation. While in many countries dosemeters calibrated in terms of the dose equivalent quantity H{sub p}(0.07) have been seen as being adequate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens, this might be questionable in the case of reduced dose limits and, thus, it may become necessary to use the dose equivalent quantity H{sub p}(3) for this purpose. To discuss this question, the dose conversion coefficients for the equivalent dose of the eye lens (in the following eye lens dose) were determined for realistic photon and beta radiation fields and compared with the values of the corresponding conversion coefficients for the different operational quantities. The values obtained lead to the following conclusions: in radiation fields where most of the dose comes from photons, especially x-rays, it is appropriate to use dosemeters calibrated in terms of H{sub p}(0.07) on a slab phantom, while in other radiation fields (dominated by beta radiation or unknown contributions of photon and beta radiation) dosemeters calibrated in terms of H{sub p}(3) on a slab phantom should be used. As an alternative, dosemeters calibrated in terms of H{sub p}(0.07) on a slab phantom could also be used; however, in radiation fields containing beta radiation with the end point energy near 1 MeV, an overestimation of the eye lens dose by up to a factor of 550 is possible.

  1. Improving access to adequate pain management in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Willem

    2015-06-01

    There is a global crisis in access to pain management in the world. WHO estimates that 4.65 billion people live in countries where medical opioid consumption is near to zero. For 2010, WHO considered a per capita consumption of 216.7 mg morphine equivalents adequate, while Taiwan had a per capita consumption of 0.05 mg morphine equivalents in 2007. In Asia, the use of opioids is sensitive because of the Opium Wars in the 19th century and for this reason, the focus of controlled substances policies has been on the prevention of diversion and dependence. However, an optimal public health outcome requires that also the beneficial aspects of these substances are acknowledged. Therefore, WHO recommends a policy based on the Principle of Balance: ensuring access for medical and scientific purposes while preventing diversion, harmful use and dependence. Furthermore, international law requires that countries ensure access to opioid analgesics for medical and scientific purposes. There is evidence that opioid analgesics for chronic pain are not associated with a major risk for developing dependence. Barriers for access can be classified in the categories of overly restrictive laws and regulations; insufficient medical training on pain management and problems related to assessment of medical needs; attitudes like an excessive fear for dependence or diversion; and economic and logistical problems. The GOPI project found many examples of such barriers in Asia. Access to opioid medicines in Taiwan can be improved by analysing the national situation and drafting a plan. The WHO policy guidelines Ensuring Balance in National Policies on Controlled Substances can be helpful for achieving this purpose, as well as international guidelines for pain treatment.

  2. Representing distance, consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    to mobility and its social context. Such an understanding can be approached through representations, as distance is being represented in various ways, most noticeably in maps and through the notions of space and Otherness. The question this talk subsequently asks is whether these representations of distance...... are being consumed in the contemporary society, in the same way as places, media, cultures and status are being consumed (Urry 1995, Featherstone 2007). An exploration of distance and its representations through contemporary consumption theory could expose what role distance plays in forming...... are present in theoretical and empirical elaborations on mobility, but these remain largely implicit and unchallenged (Bauman 1998). This talk will endeavour to unmask distance as a theoretical entity by exploring ways in which distance can be understood and by discussing distance through its representations...

  3. Decadal application of WRF/Chem for regional air quality and climate modeling over the U.S. under the representative concentration pathways scenarios. Part 1: Model evaluation and impact of downscaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Khairunnisa; Wang, Kai; Campbell, Patrick; Chen, Ying; Glotfelty, Timothy; He, Jian; Pirhalla, Michael; Zhang, Yang

    2017-03-01

    An advanced online-coupled meteorology-chemistry model, i.e., the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF/Chem), is applied for current (2001-2010) and future (2046-2055) decades under the representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios to examine changes in future climate, air quality, and their interactions. In this Part I paper, a comprehensive model evaluation is carried out for current decade to assess the performance of WRF/Chem and WRF under both scenarios and the benefits of downscaling the North Carolina State University's (NCSU) version of the Community Earth System Model (CESM_NCSU) using WRF/Chem. The evaluation of WRF/Chem shows an overall good performance for most meteorological and chemical variables on a decadal scale. Temperature at 2-m is overpredicted by WRF (by ∼0.2-0.3 °C) but underpredicted by WRF/Chem (by ∼0.3-0.4 °C), due to higher radiation from WRF. Both WRF and WRF/Chem show large overpredictions for precipitation, indicating limitations in their microphysics or convective parameterizations. WRF/Chem with prognostic chemical concentrations, however, performs much better than WRF with prescribed chemical concentrations for radiation variables, illustrating the benefit of predicting gases and aerosols and representing their feedbacks into meteorology in WRF/Chem. WRF/Chem performs much better than CESM_NCSU for most surface meteorological variables and O3 hourly mixing ratios. In addition, WRF/Chem better captures observed temporal and spatial variations than CESM_NCSU. CESM_NCSU performance for radiation variables is comparable to or better than WRF/Chem performance because of the model tuning in CESM_NCSU that is routinely made in global models.

  4. The Nigerian health care system: Need for integrating adequate medical intelligence and surveillance systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menizibeya Osain Welcome

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : As an important element of national security, public health not only functions to provide adequate and timely medical care but also track, monitor, and control disease outbreak. The Nigerian health care had suffered several infectious disease outbreaks year after year. Hence, there is need to tackle the problem. This study aims to review the state of the Nigerian health care system and to provide possible recommendations to the worsening state of health care in the country. To give up-to-date recommendations for the Nigerian health care system, this study also aims at reviewing the dynamics of health care in the United States, Britain, and Europe with regards to methods of medical intelligence/surveillance. Materials and Methods : Databases were searched for relevant literatures using the following keywords: Nigerian health care, Nigerian health care system, and Nigerian primary health care system. Additional keywords used in the search were as follows: United States (OR Europe health care dynamics, Medical Intelligence, Medical Intelligence systems, Public health surveillance systems, Nigerian medical intelligence, Nigerian surveillance systems, and Nigerian health information system. Literatures were searched in scientific databases Pubmed and African Journals OnLine. Internet searches were based on Google and Search Nigeria. Results : Medical intelligence and surveillance represent a very useful component in the health care system and control diseases outbreak, bioattack, etc. There is increasing role of automated-based medical intelligence and surveillance systems, in addition to the traditional manual pattern of document retrieval in advanced medical setting such as those in western and European countries. Conclusion : The Nigerian health care system is poorly developed. No adequate and functional surveillance systems are developed. To achieve success in health care in this modern era, a system well grounded in routine

  5. Factorisable Quasi-adequate Semigroups%因子拟适当半群

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭婷婷; 郭小江

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate a class of factorisable IC quasi-adequate semigroups,so-called, factorisable IC quasi-adequate semigroups of type-(H, I). Some characterizations of factorisable IC quasi-adequate semigroups of type-(H, I) are obtained. In particular, we prove that any IC quasi-adequate semigroup has a factorisable IC quasi-adequate subsemigroups of type-(H, I) and a band of cancellative monoids.

  6. Representativity of TMA studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Guido

    2010-01-01

    The smaller the portion of a tumor sample that is analyzed becomes, the higher is the risk of missing important histological or molecular features that might be present only in a subset of tumor cells. Many researchers have, therefore, suggested using larger tissue cores or multiple cores from the same donor tissue to enhance the representativity of TMA studies. However, numerous studies comparing the results of TMA studies with the findings from conventional large sections have shown that all well-established associations between molecular markers and tumor phenotype or patient prognosis can be reproduced with TMAs even if only one single 0.6 mm tissue spot is analyzed. Moreover, the TMA technology has proven to be superior to large section analysis in finding new clinically relevant associations. The high number of samples that are typically included in TMA studies, and the unprecedented degree of standardization during TMA experiments and analysis often give TMA studies an edge over traditional large-section studies.

  7. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100–199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001) and ethnicity (p = 0.006). The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  8. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Jones

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC, a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415 was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100–199 μg/L. The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001 and ethnicity (p = 0.006. The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate.

  9. Identification of children with reading difficulties: Cheap can be adequate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber

    Classification of reading difficulties: Cheap screening can be accurate Purpose: Three factors are important for identification of students in need of remedial instruction: accuracy, timeliness, and cost. The identification has to be accurate to be of any use, the identification has to be timely......, inexpensive testing. The present study investigated the classification accuracy of three screening models varying in timeliness and cost. Method: We compared the ROC statistics of three logistic models for predicting end of Grade 2 reading difficulties in a sample of 164 students: 1) an early, comprehensive...

  10. Are Academic Programs Adequate for the Software Profession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, close to 1.8 million people, or 77% of all computer professionals, were working in the design, development, deployment, maintenance, and management of software in 2006. The ACM [Association for Computing Machinery] model curriculum for the BS in computer science proposes that about 42% of the core body…

  11. Statistical properties of fluctuations of time series representing the appearance of words in nationwide blog data and their applications: An example of observations and the modelling of fluctuation scalings of nonstationary time series

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, Hayafumi; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the non-trivial empirical statistical properties of fluctuations of a typical non-steady time series representing the appearance of words in blogs, we investigated approximately five billion Japanese blogs over a period of six years and analyse some corresponding mathematical models. First, we introduce a solvable non-steady extension of the random diffusion model, which can be deduced by modelling the behaviour of heterogeneous random bloggers. Next, we deduce theoretical expressions for both the temporal and ensemble fluctuation scalings of this model, and demonstrate that these expressions can reproduce all empirical scalings over eight orders of magnitude. Furthermore, we show that the model can reproduce other statistical properties of time series representing the appearance of words in blogs, such as functional forms of the probability density and correlations in the total number of blogs. As an application, we quantify the abnormality of special nationwide events by measuring the fluctuati...

  12. A formal statistical approach to representing uncertainty in rainfall-runoff modelling with focus on residual analysis and probabilistic output evaluation - Distinguishing simulation and prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breinholt, Anders; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Madsen, Henrik; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2012-11-01

    SummaryWhile there seems to be consensus that hydrological model outputs should be accompanied with an uncertainty estimate the appropriate method for uncertainty estimation is not agreed upon and a debate is ongoing between advocators of formal statistical methods who consider errors as stochastic and GLUE advocators who consider errors as epistemic, arguing that the basis of formal statistical approaches that requires the residuals to be stationary and conform to a statistical distribution is unrealistic. In this paper we take a formal frequentist approach to parameter estimation and uncertainty evaluation of the modelled output, and we attach particular importance to inspecting the residuals of the model outputs and improving the model uncertainty description. We also introduce the probabilistic performance measures sharpness, reliability and interval skill score for model comparison and for checking the reliability of the confidence bounds. Using point rainfall and evaporation data as input and flow measurements from a sewer system for model conditioning, a state space model is formulated that accounts for three different flow contributions: wastewater from households, and fast rainfall-runoff from paved areas and slow rainfall-dependent infiltration-inflow from unknown sources. We consider two different approaches to evaluate the model output uncertainty, the output error method that lumps all uncertainty into the observation noise term, and a method based on Stochastic Differential Equations (SDEs) that separates input and model structure uncertainty from observation uncertainty and allows updating of model states in real-time. The results show that the optimal simulation (off-line) model is based on the output error method whereas the optimal prediction (on-line) model is based on the SDE method and the skill scoring criterion proved that significant predictive improvements of the output can be gained from updating the states continuously. In an effort to

  13. Why Don’t More Farmers Go Organic? Using A Stakeholder-Informed Exploratory Agent-Based Model to Represent the Dynamics of Farming Practices in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Schmitt Olabisi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a growing interest in organic agriculture; there has been relatively little research on why farmers might choose to adopt organic methods, particularly in the developing world. To address this shortcoming, we developed an exploratory agent-based model depicting Philippine smallholder farmer decisions to implement organic techniques in rice paddy systems. Our modeling exercise was novel in its combination of three characteristics: first, agent rules were based on focus group data collected in the system of study. Second, a social network structure was built into the model. Third, we utilized variance-based sensitivity analysis to quantify model outcome variability, identify influential drivers, and suggest ways in which further modeling efforts could be focused and simplified. The model results indicated an upper limit on the number of farmers adopting organic methods. The speed of information spread through the social network; crop yields; and the size of a farmer’s plot were highly influential in determining agents’ adoption rates. The results of this stylized model indicate that rates of organic farming adoption are highly sensitive to the yield drop after switchover to organic techniques, and to the speed of information spread through existing social networks. Further research and model development should focus on these system characteristics.

  14. Evaluation of the Diurnal Cycle in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Over Land as Represented by a Variety of Single-Column Models: The Second GABLS Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, G.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Kumar, V.; Mauritsen, T.; Steeneveld, G.J.; Angevine, W.M.; Bazile, E.; Beljaars, A.; Bruijn, de E.I.F.; Cheng, A.

    2011-01-01

    We present the main results from the second model intercomparison within the GEWEX (Global Energy andWater cycle EXperiment) Atmospheric Boundary Layer Study (GABLS). The target is to examine the diurnal cycle over land in today’s numerical weather prediction and climate models for operational and r

  15. Isolation and characterization of Magnetospirillum sp strain 15-1 as a representative anaerobic toluene-degrader from a constructed wetland model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Cifuentes, Ingrid; Lavanchy, Paula Maria Martinez; Marin-Cevada, Vianey

    2017-01-01

    Previously, Planted Fixed-Bed Reactors (PFRs) have been used to investigate microbial toluene removal in the rhizosphere of constructed wetlands. Aerobic toluene degradation was predominant in these model systems although bulk redox conditions were hypoxic to anoxic. However, culture...

  16. A formal statistical approach to representing uncertainty in rainfall-runoff modelling with focus on residual analysis and probabilistic output evaluation - Distinguishing simulation and prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Anders; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Madsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    and GLUE advocators who consider errors as epistemic, arguing that the basis of formal statistical approaches that requires the residuals to be stationary and conform to a statistical distribution is unrealistic. In this paper we take a formal frequentist approach to parameter estimation and uncertainty...... evaluation of the modelled output, and we attach particular importance to inspecting the residuals of the model outputs and improving the model uncertainty description. We also introduce the probabilistic performance measures sharpness, reliability and interval skill score for model comparison...... on the SDE method and the skill scoring criterion proved that significant predictive improvements of the output can be gained from updating the states continuously. In an effort to attain residual stationarity for both the output error method and the SDE method transformation of the observations were...

  17. An evaluation of uncertainty in the aerosol optical properties as represented by satellites and an ensemble of chemistry-climate coupled models over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Peña, Laura; Baró, Rocío; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    The changes in Earth's climate are produced by forcing agents such as greenhouse gases, clouds and atmospheric aerosols. The latter modify the Earth's radiative budget due to their optical, microphysical and chemical properties, and are considered to be the most uncertain forcing agent. There are two main approaches to the study of aerosols: (1) ground-based and remote sensing observations and (2) atmospheric modelling. With the aim of characterizing the uncertainties associated with these approaches, and estimating the radiative forcing caused by aerosols, the main objective of this work is to assess the representation of aerosol optical properties by different remote sensing sensors and online-coupled chemistry-climate models and to determine whether the inclusion of aerosol radiative feedbacks in this type of models improves the modelling outputs over Europe. Two case studies have been selected under the framework of the EuMetChem COST Action ES1004, when important aerosol episodes during 2010 over Europe took place: a Russian wildfires episode and a Saharan desert dust outbreak covering most of Europe. Model data comes from an ensemble of regional air quality-climate simulations performed by the working group 2 of EuMetChem, that investigates the importance of different processes and feedbacks in on-line coupled chemistry-climate models. These simulations are run for three different configurations for each model, differing in the inclusion (or not) of aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions. The remote sensing data comes from three different sensors, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and SeaWIFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor). The evaluation has been performed by using classical statistical metrics, comparing modelled and remotely sensed data versus a ground-based instrument network (AERONET). The evaluated variables are aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the Angström exponent (AE) at

  18. Development and Application of an Integrated Model for Representing Hydrologic Processes and Irrigation at Residential Scale in Semiarid and Mediterranean Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, J. B.; Gironas, J. A.; Bonilla, C. A.; Vera, S.; Reyes, F. R.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization alters physical and biological processes that take place in natural environments. New impervious areas change the hydrological processes, reducing infiltration and evapotranspiration and increasing direct runoff volumes and flow discharges. To reduce these effects at local scale, sustainable urban drainage systems, low impact development and best management practices have been developed and implemented. These technologies, which typically consider some type of green infrastructure (GI), simulate natural processes of capture, retention and infiltration to control flow discharges from frequent events and preserve the hydrological cycle. Applying these techniques in semiarid regions requires accounting for aspects related to the maintenance of green areas, such as the irrigation needs and the selection of the vegetation. This study develops the Integrated Hydrological Model at Residential Scale, IHMORS, which is a continuous model that simulates the most relevant hydrological processes together with irrigation processes of green areas. In the model contributing areas and drainage control practices are modeled by combining and connecting differents subareas subjected to surface processes (i.e. interception, evapotranspiration, infiltration and surface runoff) and sub-surface processes (percolation, redistribution and subsurface runoff). The model simulates these processes and accounts for the dynamics of the water content in different soil layers. The different components of the model were first tested using laboratory and numerical experiments, and then an application to a case study was carried out. In this application we assess the long-term performance in terms of runoff control and irrigation needs of green gardens with different vegetation, under different climate and irrigation practices. The model identifies significant differences in the performance of the alternatives and provides a good insight for the maintenance needs of GI for runoff control.

  19. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Rohner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world’s population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women’s urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001. Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women’s education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency.

  20. Improving Land Dry Farmer Capacity Toward Adequate Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitti Aminah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Land dry farmers have not enrolled in supporting food security. Most of the farmer are the peasants with low capacity to produce food. The purpose of the research is to formulate policy recommendation to increase capacity of the peasants for support food security. The data were collected using following techniques: questionnaire, interview and focus group discussion. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and structural equation modelling (SEM. The research results showed that the peasant characteristics and the peasants capacity are within low category, influencing the level of food security. The Government are expected actively to increase the peasant’s capacity by optimizing efforts: providing extension and training in participatory ways; increasing role of facilitator and researcher in empowerment process, increasing the peasants’ access to production input, credit facilities and wider markets, give incentive to the peasants so that they can do double working, as well as increasing coordination between government institutions and stakeholder.

  1. Chronic Disease Management Programmes: an adequate response to patients’ needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijken, Mieke; Bekkema, Nienke; Boeckxstaens, Pauline; Schellevis, François G.; De Maeseneer, Jan M.; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background  Inspired by American examples, several European countries are now developing disease management programmes (DMPs) to improve the quality of care for patients with chronic diseases. Recently, questions have been raised whether the disease management approach is appropriate to respond to patient‐defined needs. Objective  In this article we consider the responsiveness of current European DMPs to patients’ needs defined in terms of multimorbidity, functional and participation problems, and self‐management. Method  Information about existing DMPs was derived from a survey among country‐experts. In addition, we made use of international scientific literature. Results  Most European DMPs do not have a solid answer yet to the problem of multimorbidity. Methods of linking DMPs, building extra modules to deal with the most prevalent comorbidities and integration of case management principles are introduced. Rehabilitation, psychosocial and reintegration support are not included in all DMPs, and the involvement of the social environment of the patient is uncommon. Interventions tailored to the needs of specific social or cultural patient groups are mostly not available. Few DMPs provide access to individualized patient information to strengthen self‐management, including active engagement in decision making. Conclusion  To further improve the responsiveness of DMPs to patients’ needs, we suggest to monitor ‘patient relevant outcomes’ that might be based on the ICF‐model. To address the needs of patients with multimorbidity, we propose a generic comprehensive model, embedded in primary care. A goal‐oriented approach provides the opportunity to prioritize goals that really matter to patients. PMID:22712877

  2. Combined field/modelling approaches to represent the air-vegetation distribution of benzo[a]pyrene using different vegetation species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratola, Nuno; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro

    2015-04-01

    A strategy designed to combine the features of field-based experiments and modelling approaches is presented in this work to assess air-vegetation distribution of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in the Iberian Peninsula (IP). Given the lack of simultaneous data in both environmental matrices, a methodology with two main steps was employed. First, evaluating the simulations with the chemistry transport model (CTM) WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) + CHIMERE data against the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) network, to test the aptitude of the CTM to replicate the respective atmospheric levels. Then, using modelled concentrations and a method to estimate air levels of BaP from biomonitoring data to compare the performance of different pine species (Pinus pinea, Pinus pinaster, Pinus nigra and Pinus halepensis) to describe the atmospheric evidences. The comparison of modelling vs. biomonitoring has a higher dependence on the location of the sampling points, rather than on the pine species, as some tend to overestimate and others to underestimate BaP concentrations, in most cases regardless of the season. The climatology of the canopy levels of BaP was successfully validated with the concentrations in pine needles (most biases below 26%), however, the model was unable to distinguish between species. This should be taken into consideration in future studies, as biases can rise up to 48%, especially in summer and autumn, the. The comparison with biomonitoring data showed a similar pattern, but with the best results in the warmer months.

  3. Non-point Source Pollution Modeling Using Geographic Information System (GIS for Representing Best Management Practices (BMP in the Gorganrood Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Pasandidehfard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The most important pollutants that cause water pollution are nitrogen and phosphorus from agricultural runoff called Non-Point Source Pollution (NPS. To solve this problem, management practices known as BMPs or Best Management Practices are applied. One of the common methods for Non-Point Source Pollution prediction is modeling. By modeling, efficiency of many practices can be tested before application. In this study, land use changes were studied from the years 1984 till 2010 that showed an increase in agricultural lands from 516908.52 to 630737.19 ha and expansion of cities from 5237.87 to 15487.59 ha and roads from 9666.07 to 11430.24 ha. Using L-THIA model (from nonpoint source pollution models for both land use categories, the amount of pollutant and the volume of runoff were calculated that showed high growth. Then, the seventh sub-basin was recognized as a critical zone in terms of pollution among the sub-basins. In the end, land use change was considered as a BMP using Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE based on which a more suitable land use map was produced. After producing the new land use map, L-THIA model was run again and the result of the model was compared to the actual land use to show the effect of this BMP. Runoff volume decreased from 367.5 to 308.6 M3/ha and nitrogen in runoff was reduced from 3.26 to 1.58 mg/L and water BOD from 3.61 to 2.13 mg/L. Other pollutants also showed high reduction. In the end, land use change is confirmed as an effective BMP for Non-Point Source Pollution reduction.

  4. Bonding and vibrations of CH xO and CH x species ( x = 1-3) on a palladium nanoparticle representing model catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Sergey M.; Cabeza, Gabriela F.; Neyman, Konstantin M.

    2011-04-01

    This computational study deals with the adsorption of CH3, CH2, CH, CH2OH, CH3O, CH2O and CHO species on a nanoparticle Pd79 that mimics experimentally investigated model Pd catalysts. We quantify structural, energetic and vibrational parameters of these adsorption complexes and analyse their dependence on the adsorption site. Most of the considered low coordinated adsorption sites are found to be favoured by 20-50 kJ/mol over the sites on (1 1 1) facets. Some of the studied species have distinguishable vibrational parameters at different adsorption sites of the model nanoparticle, making possible spectroscopic characterization of respective adsorption complexes.

  5. Novel anisotropic continuum-discrete damage model capable of representing localized failure of massive structures. Part II: identification from tests under heterogeneous stress field

    CERN Document Server

    Kucerova, A; Ibrahimbegovic, A; Zeman, J; Bittnar, Z

    2009-01-01

    In Part I of this paper we have presented a simple model capable of describing the localized failure of a massive structure. In this part, we discuss the identification of the model parameters from two kinds of experiments: a uniaxial tensile test and a three-point bending test. The former is used only for illustration of material parameter response dependence, and we focus mostly upon the latter, discussing the inverse optimization problem for which the specimen is subjected to a heterogeneous stress field.

  6. A methodology for eliciting, representing, and analysing stakeholder knowledge for decision making on complex socio-ecological systems: From cognitive maps to agent-based models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsawah, Sondoss; Guillaume, Joseph H.A.; Filatova, Tatiana; Rook, Josefine; Jakeman, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to developing better ways for incorporating essential human elements in decision making processes for modelling of complex socio-ecological systems. It presents a step-wise methodology for integrating perceptions of stakeholders (qualitative) into formal simulation mode

  7. Predicting Student Grade Point Average at a Community College from Scholastic Aptitude Tests and from Measures Representing Three Constructs in Vroom's Expectancy Theory Model of Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloch, Douglas C.; Michael, William B.

    1981-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether an unweighted linear combination of community college students' scores on standardized achievement tests and a measure of motivational constructs derived from Vroom's expectance theory model of motivation was predictive of academic success (grade point average earned during one quarter of an academic…

  8. A methodology for eliciting, representing, and analysing stakeholder knowledge for decision making on complex socio-ecological systems: From cognitive maps to agent-based models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Sawah, Sondoss; Guillaume, Joseph H.A.; Filatova, Tatiana; Rook, Josefine; Jakeman, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to developing better ways for incorporating essential human elements in decision making processes for modelling of complex socio-ecological systems. It presents a step-wise methodology for integrating perceptions of stakeholders (qualitative) into formal simulation

  9. Predicting Student Grade Point Average at a Community College from Scholastic Aptitude Tests and from Measures Representing Three Constructs in Vroom's Expectancy Theory Model of Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloch, Douglas C.; Michael, William B.

    1981-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether an unweighted linear combination of community college students' scores on standardized achievement tests and a measure of motivational constructs derived from Vroom's expectance theory model of motivation was predictive of academic success (grade point average earned during one quarter of an academic…

  10. From Desktop Toy to Educational Aid: Neo Magnets as an Alternative to Ball-and-Stick Models in Representing Carbon Fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Jacqueline Y.; Yang, Min-Han; Lee, Chi-Young

    2015-01-01

    Neo magnets are neodymium magnet beads that have been marketed as a desktop toy. We proposed using neo magnets as an alternative building block to traditional ball-and-stick models to construct carbon allotropes, such as fullerene and various nanocone structures. Due to the lack of predetermined physical connections, the versatility of carbon…

  11. The model of back-flow mixed tanks-in-series used for representing the liquid flow in a reciprocating plate column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ljubiša B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different working parameters (vibration intensity superficial gas and liquid rate and content of the solid phase on liquid flow in a multiphase (gas-liquid: RPC-II and gas-liquid-solid: RPC-III reciprocating plate column was analyzed using step-response methods and sorbic acid as a tracer. The liquid flow was determined using a model of N-tanks in series followed by back mixing of the liquid phase between the tanks. The parameters of this model N, a and x were calculated by applying several methods: calculation of the moments of the residence time distribution function for a constant number of tanks in series (N=const analysis of a set of linear equations for N *const and determination of the minimum of defined goal function using the optimization technique leastsq.m of MATLAB software.

  12. A method to represent ozone response to large changes in precursor emissions using high-order sensitivity analysis in photochemical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Yarwood

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Photochemical grid models (PGMs are used to simulate tropospheric ozone and quantify its response to emission changes. PGMs are often applied for annual simulations to provide both maximum concentrations for assessing compliance with air quality standards and frequency distributions for assessing human exposure. Efficient methods for computing ozone at different emission levels can improve the quality of ozone air quality management efforts. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using the decoupled direct method (DDM to calculate first- and second-order sensitivity of ozone to anthropogenic NOx and VOC emissions in annual PGM simulations at continental scale. Algebraic models are developed that use Taylor series to produce complete annual frequency distributions of hourly ozone at any location and any anthropogenic emission level between zero and 100%, adjusted independently for NOx and VOC. We recommend computing the sensitivity coefficients at the midpoint of the emissions range over which they are intended to be applied, in this case with 50% anthropogenic emissions. The algebraic model predictions can be improved by combining sensitivity coefficients computed at 10 and 50% anthropogenic emissions. Compared to brute force simulations, algebraic model predictions tend to be more accurate in summer than winter, at rural than urban locations, and with 100% than zero anthropogenic emissions. Equations developed to combine sensitivity coefficients computed with 10 and 50% anthropogenic emissions are able to reproduce brute force simulation results with zero and 100% anthropogenic emissions with a mean bias of less than 2 ppb and mean error of less than 3 ppb averaged over 22 US cities.

  13. A method to represent ozone response to large changes in precursor emissions using high-order sensitivity analysis in photochemical models

    OpenAIRE

    G. Yarwood; Emery, C; Jung, J.; U. Nopmongcol; T. Sakulyanotvittaya

    2013-01-01

    Photochemical grid models (PGMs) are used to simulate tropospheric ozone and quantify its response to emission changes. PGMs are often applied for annual simulations to provide both maximum concentrations for assessing compliance with air quality standards and frequency distributions for assessing human exposure. Efficient methods for computing ozone at different emission levels can improve the quality of ozone air quality management efforts. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using t...

  14. A method to represent ozone response to large changes in precursor emissions using high-order sensitivity analysis in photochemical models

    OpenAIRE

    G. Yarwood; Emery, C; Jung, J.; U. Nopmongcol; Sakulyanontvittaya, T.

    2013-01-01

    Photochemical grid models (PGMs) are used to simulate tropospheric ozone and quantify its response to emission changes. PGMs are often applied for annual simulations to provide both maximum concentrations for assessing compliance with air quality standards and frequency distributions for assessing human exposure. Efficient methods for computing ozone at different emission levels can improve the quality of ozone air quality management efforts. This study demonstrates the feas...

  15. A method to represent ozone response to large changes in precursor emissions using high-order sensitivity analysis in photochemical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Yarwood

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Photochemical grid models (PGMs are used to simulate tropospheric ozone and quantify its response to emission changes. PGMs are often applied for annual simulations to provide both maximum concentrations for assessing compliance with air quality standards and frequency distributions for assessing human exposure. Efficient methods for computing ozone at different emission levels can improve the quality of ozone air quality management efforts. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using the decoupled direct method (DDM to calculate first- and second-order sensitivity of ozone to anthropogenic NOx and VOC emissions in annual PGM simulations at continental scale. Algebraic models are developed that use Taylor series to produce complete annual frequency distributions of hourly ozone at any location and any anthropogenic emission level between zero and 100%, adjusted independently for NOx and VOC. We recommend computing the sensitivity coefficients at the mid-point of the emissions range over which they are intended to be applied, in this case with 50% anthropogenic emissions. The algebraic model predictions can be improved by combining sensitivity coefficients computed at 10% and 50% anthropogenic emissions. Compared to brute force simulations, algebraic model predictions tend to be more accurate in summer than winter, at rural than urban locations, and with 100% than zero anthropogenic emissions. Equations developed to combine sensitivity coefficients computed with 10% and 50% anthropogenic emissions are able to reproduce brute force simulation results with zero and 100% anthropogenic emissions with mean bias less than 2 ppb and mean error less than 3 ppb averaged over 22 US cities.

  16. Evaluation of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships of PD-0162819, a biotin carboxylase inhibitor representing a new class of antibacterial compounds, using in vitro infection models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Adam; Kuhn, Michael; Dority, Michael; Buist, Susan; Mehrens, Shawn; Zhu, Tong; Xiao, Deqing; Miller, J Richard; Hanna, Debra

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationships of a prototype biotin carboxylase (BC) inhibitor, PD-0162819, against Haemophilus influenzae 3113 in static concentration time-kill (SCTK) and one-compartment chemostat in vitro infection models. H. influenzae 3113 was exposed to PD-0162819 concentrations of 0.5 to 16× the MIC (MIC = 0.125 μg/ml) and area-under-the-curve (AUC)/MIC ratios of 1 to 1,100 in SCTK and chemostat experiments, respectively. Serial samples were collected over 24 h. For efficacy driver analysis, a sigmoid maximum-effect (E(max)) model was fitted to the relationship between bacterial density changes over 24 h and corresponding PK/PD indices. A semimechanistic PK/PD model describing the time course of bacterial growth and death was developed. The AUC/MIC ratio best explained efficacy (r(2) = 0.95) compared to the peak drug concentration (C(max))/MIC ratio (r(2) = 0.76) and time above the MIC (T>MIC) (r(2) = 0.88). Static effects and 99.9% killing were achieved at AUC/MIC values of 500 and 600, respectively. For time course analysis, the net bacterial growth rate constant, maximum bacterial density, and maximum kill rate constant were similar in SCTK and chemostat studies, but PD-0162819 was more potent in SCTK than in the chemostat (50% effective concentration [EC(50)] = 0.046 versus 0.34 μg/ml). In conclusion, basic PK/PD relationships for PD-0162819 were established using in vitro dynamic systems. Although the bacterial growth parameters and maximum drug effects were similar in SCTK and the chemostat system, PD-0162819 appeared to be more potent in SCTK, illustrating the importance of understanding the differences in preclinical models. Additional studies are needed to determine the in vivo relevance of these results.

  17. A reduced-order modeling approach to represent subgrid-scale hydrological dynamics for land-surface simulations: application in a polygonal tundra landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, G. S. H.; Bisht, G.; Riley, W. J.

    2014-09-01

    Existing land surface models (LSMs) describe physical and biological processes that occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. For example, biogeochemical and hydrological processes responsible for carbon (CO2, CH4) exchanges with the atmosphere range from the molecular scale (pore-scale O2 consumption) to tens of kilometers (vegetation distribution, river networks). Additionally, many processes within LSMs are nonlinearly coupled (e.g., methane production and soil moisture dynamics), and therefore simple linear upscaling techniques can result in large prediction error. In this paper we applied a reduced-order modeling (ROM) technique known as "proper orthogonal decomposition mapping method" that reconstructs temporally resolved fine-resolution solutions based on coarse-resolution solutions. We developed four different methods and applied them to four study sites in a polygonal tundra landscape near Barrow, Alaska. Coupled surface-subsurface isothermal simulations were performed for summer months (June-September) at fine (0.25 m) and coarse (8 m) horizontal resolutions. We used simulation results from three summer seasons (1998-2000) to build ROMs of the 4-D soil moisture field for the study sites individually (single-site) and aggregated (multi-site). The results indicate that the ROM produced a significant computational speedup (> 103) with very small relative approximation error (constructed at different scales together hierarchically, this method has the potential to efficiently increase the resolution of land models for coupled climate simulations to spatial scales consistent with mechanistic physical process representation.

  18. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Fabian; Wirth, James P; Woodruff, Bradley A; Chiwile, Faraja; Yankson, Hannah; Sesay, Fatmata; Koroma, Aminata S; Petry, Nicolai; Pyne-Bailey, Solade; Dominguez, Elisa; Kupka, Roland; Hodges, Mary H; de Onis, Mercedes

    2016-02-03

    Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world's population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women's urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine) was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency.

  19. Increasing the spatial scale of process-based agricultural systems models by representing heterogeneity: The case of urine patches in grazed pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snow, Val O.; Cichota, R; McAuliffe, John

    2017-01-01

    We sought to extend the spatial scale of soil-plant models by including, rather than ignoring, heterogeneity using the deposition of urine patches as an example. Our “pseudo-patches” approach preserves the most important biophysical effects but is computationally-tractable within a multi......-paddock simulation. It explicitly preserves the soil carbon and nitrogen heterogeneity but does not require independent simulation of soil water and plant processes and is temporal in that the patches of heterogeneity can appear and disappear during the simulation. The approach was tested through comparison...

  20. Code assessment and modelling for Design Basis Accident analysis of the European Sodium Fast Reactor design. Part II: Optimised core and representative transients analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, A., E-mail: aulach@iqn.upv.es [JRC-IET European Commission, Westerduinweg 3, PO BOX 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Schikorr, M. [KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Mikityuk, K. [PSI, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Ammirabile, L. [JRC-IET European Commission, Westerduinweg 3, PO BOX 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Bandini, G. [ENEA, Via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Darmet, G.; Schmitt, D. [EDF, 1 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart (France); Dufour, Ph.; Tosello, A. [CEA, St. Paul lez Durance, 13108 Cadarache (France); Gallego, E.; Jimenez, G. [UPM, José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Bubelis, E.; Ponomarev, A.; Kruessmann, R.; Struwe, D. [KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Stempniewicz, M. [NRG, Utrechtseweg 310, P.O. Box-9034, 6800 ES Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • Benchmarked models have been applied for the analysis of DBA transients of the ESFR design. • Two system codes are able to simulate the behavior of the system beyond sodium boiling. • The optimization of the core design and its influence in the transients’ evolution is described. • The analysis has identified peak values and grace times for the protection system design. - Abstract: The new reactor concepts proposed in the Generation IV International Forum require the development and validation of computational tools able to assess their safety performance. In the first part of this paper the models of the ESFR design developed by several organisations in the framework of the CP-ESFR project were presented and their reliability validated via a benchmarking exercise. This second part of the paper includes the application of those tools for the analysis of design basis accident (DBC) scenarios of the reference design. Further, this paper also introduces the main features of the core optimisation process carried out within the project with the objective to enhance the core safety performance through the reduction of the positive coolant density reactivity effect. The influence of this optimised core design on the reactor safety performance during the previously analysed transients is also discussed. The conclusion provides an overview of the work performed by the partners involved in the project towards the development and enhancement of computational tools specifically tailored to the evaluation of the safety performance of the Generation IV innovative nuclear reactor designs.

  1. Representing anisotropic subduction zones with isotropic velocity models: A characterization of the problem and some steps on a possible path forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezada, M. J.; Faccenda, M.; Toomey, D. R.

    2016-08-01

    Despite the widely known fact that mantle flow in and around subduction zones produces the development of considerable seismic anisotropy, most P-wave tomography efforts still rely on the assumption of isotropy. In this study, we explore the potential effects of erroneous assumption on tomographic images and explore an alternative approach. We conduct a series of synthetic tomography tests based on a geodynamic simulation of subduction and rollback. The simulation results provide a self-consistent distribution of isotropic (thermal) anomalies and seismic anisotropy which we use to calculate synthetic delay times for a number of realistic and hypothetical event distributions. We find that anisotropy-induced artifacts are abundant and significant for teleseismic, local and mixed event distributions. The occurrence of artifacts is not reduced, and indeed can be exacerbated, by increasing richness in ray-path azimuths and incidence angles. The artifacts that we observe are, in all cases, important enough to significantly impact the interpretation of the images. We test an approach based on prescribing the anisotropy field as an a priori constraint and find that even coarse approximations to the true anisotropy field produce useful results. Using approximate anisotropy, fields can result in reduced RMS misfit to the travel time delays and reduced abundance and severity of imaging artifacts. We propose that the use of anisotropy fields derived from geodynamic modeling and constrained by seismic observables may constitute a viable alternative to isotropic tomography that does not require the inversion for anisotropy parameters in each node of the model.

  2. Anti-VEGF therapy in the management of retinopathy of prematurity: what we learn from representative animal models of oxygen-induced retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang H

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Haibo Wang Department of Ophthalmology, John A Moran Eye Center, The University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Abstract: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP remains a leading cause of childhood blindness, affecting infants born prematurely. ROP is characterized by the onset of delayed physiological retinal vascular development (PRVD and followed by pathologic neovascularization into the vitreous instead of the retina, called intravitreal neovascularization (IVNV. Therefore, the therapeutic strategy for treating ROP is to promote PRVD and inhibit or prevent IVNV. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ROP. There is a growing body of studies testing the use of anti-VEGF agents as a treatment for ROP. Intravitreal anti-VEGF treatment for ROP has potential advantages compared with laser photocoagulation, the gold standard for the treatment of severe ROP; however, intravitreal anti-VEGF treatment has been associated with reactivation of ROP and suppression of systemic VEGF that may affect body growth and organ development in preterm infants. Therefore, it is important to understand the role of VEGF in PRVD and IVNV. This review includes the current knowledge of anti-VEGF treatment for ROP from animal models of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR, highlighting the importance of VEGF inhibition by targeting retinal Müller cells, which inhibits IVNV and permits PRVD. The signaling events involved in mediating VEGF expression and promoting VEGF-mediated angiogenesis, including hypoxia-dependent signaling, erythropoietin/erythropoietin receptor-, oxidative stress-, beta-adrenergic receptor-, integrin-, Notch/Delta-like ligand 4- and exon guidance molecules-mediated signaling pathways, are also discussed. Keywords: vascular endothelial growth factor, retinopathy of prematurity, intravitreal neovascularization, oxygen-induced retinopathy model, physiological retinal vascular development

  3. Morphine glucuronidation and glucosidation represent complementary metabolic pathways that are both catalyzed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7: kinetic, inhibition, and molecular modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Nuy; Elliot, David J; Lewis, Benjamin C; Burns, Kushari; Johnston, Martin R; Mackenzie, Peter I; Miners, John O

    2014-04-01

    Morphine 3-β-D-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine 6-β-D-glucuronide (M6G) are the major metabolites of morphine in humans. More recently, morphine-3-β-d-glucoside (M-3-glucoside) was identified in the urine of patients treated with morphine. Kinetic and inhibition studies using human liver microsomes (HLM) and recombinant UGTs as enzyme sources along with molecular modeling were used here to characterize the relationship between morphine glucuronidation and glucosidation. The M3G to M6G intrinsic clearance (C(Lint)) ratio (∼5.5) from HLM supplemented with UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcUA) alone was consistent with the relative formation of these metabolites in humans. The mean C(Lint) values observed for M-3-glucoside by incubations of HLM with UDP-glucose (UDP-Glc) as cofactor were approximately twice those for M6G formation. However, although the M3G-to-M6G C(Lint) ratio remained close to 5.5 when human liver microsomal kinetic studies were performed in the presence of a 1:1 mixture of cofactors, the mean C(Lint) value for M-3-glucoside formation was less than that of M6G. Studies with UGT enzyme-selective inhibitors and recombinant UGT enzymes, along with effects of BSA on morphine glycosidation kinetics, were consistent with a major role of UGT2B7 in both morphine glucuronidation and glucosidation. Molecular modeling identified key amino acids involved in the binding of UDP-GlcUA and UDP-Glc to UGT2B7. Mutagenesis of these residues abolished morphine glucuronidation and glucosidation. Overall, the data indicate that morphine glucuronidation and glucosidation occur as complementary metabolic pathways catalyzed by a common enzyme (UGT2B7). Glucuronidation is the dominant metabolic pathway because the binding affinity of UDP-GlcUA to UGT2B7 is higher than that of UDP-Glc.

  4. Adaptive robust image registration approach based on adequately sampling polar transform and weighted angular projection function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhao; Tao, Feng; Jun, Wang

    2013-10-01

    An efficient, robust, and accurate approach is developed for image registration, which is especially suitable for large-scale change and arbitrary rotation. It is named the adequately sampling polar transform and weighted angular projection function (ASPT-WAPF). The proposed ASPT model overcomes the oversampling problem of conventional log-polar transform. Additionally, the WAPF presented as the feature descriptor is robust to the alteration in the fovea area of an image, and reduces the computational cost of the following registration process. The experimental results show two major advantages of the proposed method. First, it can register images with high accuracy even when the scale factor is up to 10 and the rotation angle is arbitrary. However, the maximum scaling estimated by the state-of-the-art algorithms is 6. Second, our algorithm is more robust to the size of the sampling region while not decreasing the accuracy of the registration.

  5. A coupling of homology modeling with multiple molecular dynamics simulation for identifying representative conformation of GPCR structures: a case study on human bombesin receptor subtype-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowroozi, Amin; Shahlaei, Mohsen

    2017-02-01

    In this study, a computational pipeline was therefore devised to overcome homology modeling (HM) bottlenecks. The coupling of HM with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is useful in that it tackles the sampling deficiency of dynamics simulations by providing good-quality initial guesses for the native structure. Indeed, HM also relaxes the severe requirement of force fields to explore the huge conformational space of protein structures. In this study, the interaction between the human bombesin receptor subtype-3 and MK-5046 was investigated integrating HM, molecular docking, and MD simulations. To improve conformational sampling in typical MD simulations of GPCRs, as in other biomolecules, multiple trajectories with different initial conditions can be employed rather than a single long trajectory. Multiple MD simulations of human bombesin receptor subtype-3 with different initial atomic velocities are applied to sample conformations in the vicinity of the structure generated by HM. The backbone atom conformational space distribution of replicates is analyzed employing principal components analysis. As a result, the averages of structural and dynamic properties over the twenty-one trajectories differ significantly from those obtained from individual trajectories.

  6. Isolation and characterization of Magnetospirillum sp. strain 15-1 as a representative anaerobic toluene-degrader from a constructed wetland model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Cifuentes, Ingrid; Martinez-Lavanchy, Paula M; Marin-Cevada, Vianey; Böhnke, Stefanie; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Jochen A; Heipieper, Hermann J

    2017-01-01

    Previously, Planted Fixed-Bed Reactors (PFRs) have been used to investigate microbial toluene removal in the rhizosphere of constructed wetlands. Aerobic toluene degradation was predominant in these model systems although bulk redox conditions were hypoxic to anoxic. However, culture-independent approaches indicated also that microbes capable of anaerobic toluene degradation were abundant. Therefore, we aimed at isolating anaerobic-toluene degraders from one of these PFRs. From the obtained colonies which consisted of spirilli-shaped bacteria, a strain designated 15-1 was selected for further investigations. Analysis of its 16S rRNA gene revealed greatest similarity (99%) with toluene-degrading Magnetospirillum sp. TS-6. Isolate 15-1 grew with up to 0.5 mM of toluene under nitrate-reducing conditions. Cells reacted to higher concentrations of toluene by an increase in the degree of saturation of their membrane fatty acids. Strain 15-1 contained key genes for the anaerobic degradation of toluene via benzylsuccinate and subsequently the benzoyl-CoA pathway, namely bssA, encoding for the alpha subunit of benzylsuccinate synthase, bcrC for subunit C of benzoyl-CoA reductase and bamA for 6-oxocyclohex-1-ene-1-carbonyl-CoA hydrolase. Finally, most members of a clone library of bssA generated from the PFR had highest similarity to bssA from strain 15-1. Our study provides insights about the physiological capacities of a strain of Magnetospirillum isolated from a planted system where active rhizoremediation of toluene is taking place.

  7. Cadmium phytoavailability to rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in representative Chinese soils. A model to improve soil environmental quality guidelines for food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad T; Aziz, Rukhsanda; Yang, Xiaoe; Xiao, Wendan; Rafiq, Muhammad K; Ali, Basharat; Li, Tingqiang

    2014-05-01

    Food chain contamination by cadmium (Cd) is globally a serious health concern resulting in chronic abnormalities. Rice is a major staple food of the majority world population, therefore, it is imperative to understand the relationship between the bioavailability of Cd in soils and its accumulation in rice grain. Objectives of this study were to establish environment quality standards for seven different textured soils based on human dietary toxicity, total Cd content in soils and bioavailable portion of Cd in soil. Cadmium concentrations in polished rice grain were best related to total Cd content in Mollisols and Udic Ferrisols with threshold levels of 0.77 and 0.32mgkg(-1), respectively. Contrastingly, Mehlich-3-extractable Cd thresholds were more suitable for Calcaric Regosols, Stagnic Anthrosols, Ustic Cambosols, Typic Haplustalfs and Periudic Argosols with thresholds values of 0.36, 0.22, 0.17, 0.08 and 0.03mgkg(-1), respectively. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that phytoavailability of Cd to rice grain was strongly correlated with Mehlich-3-extractable Cd and soil pH. The empirical model developed in this study explains the combined effects of soil properties and extractable soil Cd content on the phytoavailability of Cd to polished rice grain. This study indicates that accumulation of Cd in rice is influenced greatly by soil type, which should be considered in assessment of soil safety for Cd contamination in rice. This investigation concluded that the selection of proper soil type for food crop production can help us to avoid the toxicity of Cd in our daily diet.

  8. Isolation and characterization of Magnetospirillum sp. strain 15-1 as a representative anaerobic toluene-degrader from a constructed wetland model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Cifuentes, Ingrid; Martinez-Lavanchy, Paula M.; Marin-Cevada, Vianey; Böhnke, Stefanie; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Jochen A.

    2017-01-01

    Previously, Planted Fixed-Bed Reactors (PFRs) have been used to investigate microbial toluene removal in the rhizosphere of constructed wetlands. Aerobic toluene degradation was predominant in these model systems although bulk redox conditions were hypoxic to anoxic. However, culture-independent approaches indicated also that microbes capable of anaerobic toluene degradation were abundant. Therefore, we aimed at isolating anaerobic-toluene degraders from one of these PFRs. From the obtained colonies which consisted of spirilli-shaped bacteria, a strain designated 15–1 was selected for further investigations. Analysis of its 16S rRNA gene revealed greatest similarity (99%) with toluene-degrading Magnetospirillum sp. TS-6. Isolate 15–1 grew with up to 0.5 mM of toluene under nitrate-reducing conditions. Cells reacted to higher concentrations of toluene by an increase in the degree of saturation of their membrane fatty acids. Strain 15–1 contained key genes for the anaerobic degradation of toluene via benzylsuccinate and subsequently the benzoyl-CoA pathway, namely bssA, encoding for the alpha subunit of benzylsuccinate synthase, bcrC for subunit C of benzoyl-CoA reductase and bamA for 6-oxocyclohex-1-ene-1-carbonyl-CoA hydrolase. Finally, most members of a clone library of bssA generated from the PFR had highest similarity to bssA from strain 15–1. Our study provides insights about the physiological capacities of a strain of Magnetospirillum isolated from a planted system where active rhizoremediation of toluene is taking place. PMID:28369150

  9. Holoclone forming cells from pancreatic cancer cells enrich tumor initiating cells and represent a novel model for study of cancer stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Tan

    derived from BxPC3 cell line. Generation of holoclones can serve as a novel model for studying cancer stem cells, and attribute to developing new anti-cancer drugs.

  10. Twenty-Four-Hour Urine Osmolality as a Physiological Index of Adequate Water Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica T. Perrier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While associations exist between water, hydration, and disease risk, research quantifying the dose-response effect of water on health is limited. Thus, the water intake necessary to maintain optimal hydration from a physiological and health standpoint remains unclear. The aim of this analysis was to derive a 24 h urine osmolality (UOsm threshold that would provide an index of “optimal hydration,” sufficient to compensate water losses and also be biologically significant relative to the risk of disease. Ninety-five adults (31.5 ± 4.3 years, 23.2 ± 2.7 kg·m−2 collected 24 h urine, provided morning blood samples, and completed food and fluid intake diaries over 3 consecutive weekdays. A UOsm threshold was derived using 3 approaches, taking into account European dietary reference values for water; total fluid intake, and urine volumes associated with reduced risk for lithiasis and chronic kidney disease and plasma vasopressin concentration. The aggregate of these approaches suggest that a 24 h urine osmolality ≤500 mOsm·kg−1 may be a simple indicator of optimal hydration, representing a total daily fluid intake adequate to compensate for daily losses, ensure urinary output sufficient to reduce the risk of urolithiasis and renal function decline, and avoid elevated plasma vasopressin concentrations mediating the increased antidiuretic effort.

  11. Are Nutritional Care Adequate for Elderly Hospitalized Patients? A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Kjøllesdal Eide

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses nutritional care in identifying and treating nutritional risk in elderly hospitalized patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a large Norwegian University hospital in the period 2011 to 2013. Data on nutritional risk and care for elderly patients (≥70 years without dementia were collected at 20 wards by 173 second-year nursing students in acute-care clinical studies. A stratified sampling technique was utilized to improve the representativeness of the sample. In total, 508 patients (48.8% women with a mean age of 79.6 years participated. The internationally and nationally recommended nutritional care was not implemented at the hospital, suggesting that nutritional care for elderly hospitalized patients was not adequate. This implies that the majority of the elderly patients nutritionally at risk are neither identified nor treated according to their needs. The article highlights the importance of having systematic nutritional care practices to make it possible for the hospital ward staff to routinely identify nutritional risk and initiate appropriate nutritional treatment measures.

  12. Aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis for scattered sound in auditoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Molly K.; Xiang, Ning; Kleiner, Mendel

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this work was to apply an aurally-adequate time-frequency analysis technique to the analysis of sound scattering effects in auditoria. Time-frequency representations were developed as a motivated effort that takes into account binaural hearing, with a specific implementation of interaural cross-correlation process. A model of the human auditory system was implemented in the MATLAB platform based on two previous models [A. Härmä and K. Palomäki, HUTear, Espoo, Finland; and M. A. Akeroyd, A. Binaural Cross-correlogram Toolbox for MATLAB (2001), University of Sussex, Brighton]. These stages include proper frequency selectivity, the conversion of the mechanical motion of the basilar membrane to neural impulses, and binaural hearing effects. The model was then used in the analysis of room impulse responses with varying scattering characteristics. This paper discusses the analysis results using simulated and measured room impulse responses. [Work supported by the Frank H. and Eva B. Buck Foundation.

  13. In search of an adequate yet affordable tutor in online learning networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Kester, Liesbeth; Brouns, Francis; Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Sloep, P., van Rosmalen, P., Kester, L., Brouns, F. M. R., & Koper, E. J. R. (2006). In search of an adequate yet affordable tutor in online learning networks. In search of an adequate yet affordable tutor in online learning networks. Presentation at the 6th IEEE International Conference on Advanced

  14. 42 CFR 413.24 - Adequate cost data and cost finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... basis of reimbursable cost must provide adequate cost data. This must be based on their financial and.... Adequate data capable of being audited is consistent with good business concepts and effective and efficient management of any organization, whether it is operated for profit or on a nonprofit basis. It is a...

  15. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The pesticides...

  16. The enforceability of the human right to adequate food : a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wernaart, B.F.W.

    2013-01-01

    While the right to adequate food is often discussed in the context of developing countries, especially in situations where access to adequate food is a problem on a larger scale, this book focusses on the right to food in two Western countries in which theoretically the circumstances allow this righ

  17. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... adequate veterinary care. (a) Each research facility shall have an attending veterinarian who shall provide adequate veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section: (1) Each research facility shall... veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...

  18. Testing Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory models of trait activity, industriousness, exercise social cognitions, exercise intentions, and physical activity in a representative U.S. sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Phuong T; Bogg, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Prior research identified assorted relations between trait and social cognition models of personality and engagement in physical activity. Using a representative U.S. sample (N = 957), the goal of the present study was to test two alternative structural models of the relationships among the extraversion-related facet of activity, the conscientiousness-related facet of industriousness, social cognitions from the Theory of Planned Behavior (perceived behavioral control, affective attitudes, subjective norms, intentions), Social Cognitive Theory (self-efficacy, outcome expectancies), and the Transtheoretical Model (behavioral processes of change), and engagement in physical activity. Path analyses with bootstrapping procedures were used to model direct and indirect effects of trait and social cognition constructs on physical activity through two distinct frameworks - the Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory. While both models showed good internal fit, comparative model information criteria showed the Theory-of-Planned-Behavior-informed model provided a better fit. In the model, social cognitions fully mediated the relationships from the activity facet and industriousness to intentions for and engagement in physical activity, such that the relationships were primarily maintained by positive affective evaluations, positive expected outcomes, and confidence in overcoming barriers related to physical activity engagement. The resultant model - termed the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model- is proposed as a useful framework for organizing and integrating personality trait facets and social cognitions from various theoretical perspectives to investigate the expression of health-related behaviors, such as physical activity. Moreover, the results are discussed in terms of extending the application of the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model to longitudinal and intervention designs for physical activity engagement.

  19. Testing Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory models of trait activity, industriousness, exercise social cognitions, exercise intentions, and physical activity in a representative U.S. sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Thi Vo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prior research identified assorted relations between trait and social cognition models of personality and engagement in physical activity. Using a representative U.S. sample (N = 957, the goal of the present study was to test two alternative structural models of the relationships among the extraversion-related facet of activity, the conscientiousness-related facet of industriousness, social cognitions from the Theory of Planned Behavior (perceived behavioral control, affective attitudes, subjective norms, intentions, Social Cognitive Theory (self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and the Transtheoretical Model (behavioral processes of change, and engagement in physical activity. Path analyses with bootstrapping procedures were used to model direct and indirect effects of trait and social cognition constructs on physical activity through two distinct frameworks – the Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory. While both models showed good internal fit, comparative model information criteria showed the Theory-of-Planned-Behavior-informed model provided a better fit. In the model, social cognitions fully mediated the relationships from the activity facet and industriousness to intentions for and engagement in physical activity, such that the relationships were primarily maintained by positive affective evaluations, positive expected outcomes, and confidence in overcoming barriers related to physical activity engagement. The resultant model – termed the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model – is proposed as a useful framework for organizing and integrating personality trait facets and social cognitions from various theoretical perspectives to investigate the expression of health-related behaviors, such as physical activity. Moreover, the results are discussed in terms of extending the application of the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model to longitudinal and intervention designs for physical activity engagement.

  20. Testing Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory models of trait activity, industriousness, exercise social cognitions, exercise intentions, and physical activity in a representative U.S. sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Phuong T.; Bogg, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Prior research identified assorted relations between trait and social cognition models of personality and engagement in physical activity. Using a representative U.S. sample (N = 957), the goal of the present study was to test two alternative structural models of the relationships among the extraversion-related facet of activity, the conscientiousness-related facet of industriousness, social cognitions from the Theory of Planned Behavior (perceived behavioral control, affective attitudes, subjective norms, intentions), Social Cognitive Theory (self-efficacy, outcome expectancies), and the Transtheoretical Model (behavioral processes of change), and engagement in physical activity. Path analyses with bootstrapping procedures were used to model direct and indirect effects of trait and social cognition constructs on physical activity through two distinct frameworks – the Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory. While both models showed good internal fit, comparative model information criteria showed the Theory-of-Planned-Behavior-informed model provided a better fit. In the model, social cognitions fully mediated the relationships from the activity facet and industriousness to intentions for and engagement in physical activity, such that the relationships were primarily maintained by positive affective evaluations, positive expected outcomes, and confidence in overcoming barriers related to physical activity engagement. The resultant model – termed the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model– is proposed as a useful framework for organizing and integrating personality trait facets and social cognitions from various theoretical perspectives to investigate the expression of health-related behaviors, such as physical activity. Moreover, the results are discussed in terms of extending the application of the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model to longitudinal and intervention designs for physical activity engagement. PMID:26300811

  1. Adequate image quality with reduced radiation dose in prospectively triggered coronary CTA compared with retrospective techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnoldi, Elisabeth; Johnson, Thorsten R.; Rist, Carsten; Wintersperger, Bernd J.; Sommer, Wieland H.; Becker, Christoph R.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Nikolaou, Konstantin [Ludwig-Maximilians University, Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospitals Munich - Grosshadern Campus, Munich (Germany); Becker, Alexander [Ludwig-Maximilians University, Department of Medicine I, University Hospitals Munich - Grosshadern Campus, Munich (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    The goal of our study was to compare a prospective triggering (PT) CT technique with retrospectively gated (RG) CT techniques in coronary computed tomographic angiograms (CCTA) with respect to image quality and radiation dose. Sixty consecutive patients were enrolled. CCTAs using the RG technique were obtained with a dual-source 64-slice CT system in 40 patients, using ECG-triggered tube current modulation, with either a broad pulsing window at 30-80% of the RR interval (group RGb, 20 patients, heart rate > 70 bpm) or a small pulsing window at 70% (group RGs, 20 patients, heart rate < 70 bpm). The other 20 patients underwent CCTA using the PT technique on a 128-slice CT system (group PT, heart rate < 70 bpm). All images were evaluated by two observers for quality on a three-point scale, with 1 being excellent and 3 being insufficient. The effective radiation dose was calculated for each patient. The average image quality score was 1.5 {+-} 0.6 for PT, 1.35 {+-} 0.5 for RGs and 1.65 {+-} 0.5 for RGb. The mean effective dose for RGb was 9 {+-} 4 mSv, for RGs 7 {+-} 3 mSv and for PT 3 {+-} 1 mSv. This represents a 57% dose reduction for PT compared with RGs and a 67% dose reduction for PT compared with RGb. In conclusion, in selected patients CCTA with the PT technique offers adequate image quality with a significantly lower radiation dose compared with CCTA using RG techniques. (orig.)

  2. Ensuring Adequate Health and Safety Information for Decision Makers during Large-Scale Chemical Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Z.; Clavin, C.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) spill in the Elk River of West Virginia highlighted existing gaps in emergency planning for, and response to, large-scale chemical releases in the United States. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act requires that facilities with hazardous substances provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), which contain health and safety information on the hazardous substances. The MSDS produced by Eastman Chemical Company, the manufacturer of MCHM, listed "no data available" for various human toxicity subcategories, such as reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a result of incomplete toxicity data, the public and media received conflicting messages on the safety of the contaminated water from government officials, industry, and the public health community. Two days after the governor lifted the ban on water use, the health department partially retracted the ban by warning pregnant women to continue avoiding the contaminated water, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deemed safe three weeks later. The response in West Virginia represents a failure in risk communication and calls to question if government officials have sufficient information to support evidence-based decisions during future incidents. Research capabilities, like the National Science Foundation RAPID funding, can provide a solution to some of the data gaps, such as information on environmental fate in the case of the MCHM spill. In order to inform policy discussions on this issue, a methodology for assessing the outcomes of RAPID and similar National Institutes of Health grants in the context of emergency response is employed to examine the efficacy of research-based capabilities in enhancing public health decision making capacity. The results of this assessment highlight potential roles rapid scientific research can fill in ensuring adequate health and safety data is readily available for decision makers during large

  3. Multiple dimensions of health locus of control in a representative population sample: ordinal factor analysis and cross-validation of an existing three and a new four factor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hapke Ulfert

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on the general approach of locus of control, health locus of control (HLOC concerns control-beliefs due to illness, sickness and health. HLOC research results provide an improved understanding of health related behaviour and patients' compliance in medical care. HLOC research distinguishes between beliefs due to Internality, Externality powerful Others (POs and Externality Chance. However, evidences for differentiating the POs dimension were found. Previous factor analyses used selected and predominantly clinical samples, while non-clinical studies are rare. The present study is the first analysis of the HLOC structure based on a large representative general population sample providing important information for non-clinical research and public health care. Methods The standardised German questionnaire which assesses HLOC was used in a representative adult general population sample for a region in Northern Germany (N = 4,075. Data analyses used ordinal factor analyses in LISREL and Mplus. Alternative theory-driven models with one to four latent variables were compared using confirmatory factor analysis. Fit indices, chi-square difference tests, residuals and factor loadings were considered for model comparison. Exploratory factor analysis was used for further model development. Results were cross-validated splitting the total sample randomly and using the cross-validation index. Results A model with four latent variables (Internality, Formal Help, Informal Help and Chance best represented the HLOC construct (three-dimensional model: normed chi-square = 9.55; RMSEA = 0.066; CFI = 0.931; SRMR = 0.075; four-dimensional model: normed chi-square = 8.65; RMSEA = 0.062; CFI = 0.940; SRMR = 0.071; chi-square difference test: p Conclusions Future non-clinical HLOC studies in western cultures should consider four dimensions of HLOC: Internality, Formal Help, Informal Help and Chance. However, the standardised German instrument

  4. Abundant Semigroups with Q-adequate Transversals and Some of Their Special Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojiang Guo; K.P. Shum

    2007-01-01

    Regular semigroups with multiplicative inverse transversals were first studied by Blyth and McFadden in 1982.In this paper, we extend the concept of inverse transversals to some kind of quasi-ideal adequate transversals of abundant semigroups.Some characterization theorems of abundant semigroups with different kinds of quasiideal adequate transversals are obtained. In particular, the structure theory of abundant semigroups having different kinds of quasi-ideal adequate transversals is established. Some results obtained by Blyth, McAlister and McFadden on inverse transversals in regular semigroups are hence extended to abundant semigroups.

  5. 基于RBF的指标规范值的水资源承载力评价模型%Evaluation Model of Carrying Capacity of Water Resources Represented with Normalized Indices Values Based on Radial Basis Function Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧蕾; 刘伟; 李祚泳

    2012-01-01

    [Objective ] The aim was to study the assessment model of carrying capacity of water resources represented with normalized indices values based on radial basis function network ( RBF). [ Method] On the basis of the normalized transformation for indices, the basis function of model was universal for various indices and made representative calculation greatly simplified, as mean as normalized values of standards at all levels as the normalized values of each component of center vector for the basis functions in hidden nodes. [ Result] The RBF model optimized weight values by monkey king algorithm was applied to assess the carrying capacities of water resources in three districts of Changwu County of Shaanxi Province, the evaluation results were basically consistent with that of fuzzy assessment method. [ Conclusion] RBF model is simple and practical, and has universality and generality.%[目的]研究基于指标规范值的区域水资源承载力评价的径向基函数网络模型(RBF).[方法]在对指标进行规范变换的基础上,将指标各级标准规范值的平均值作为RBF的隐层节点基函数中心矢量各分量的规范值,因而基函数对各指标具有普适性,使基函数的表示和计算大为简化.[结果]将猴王算法优化网络权值得到的RBF模型应用于陕西省长武县3个区域水资源承载力的评价,其评价结果与模糊综合评价结果基本一致.[结论]RBF模型具有简单、实用的特点,具有普适性和通用性.

  6. A Framework for Representing Moving Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Ludger; Blunck, Henrik; Hinrichs, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    We present a framework for representing the trajectories of moving objects and the time-varying results of operations on moving objects. This framework supports the realization of discrete data models of moving objects databases, which incorporate representations of moving objects based on non-li...

  7. Selecting ELL Textbooks: A Content Analysis of Language-Teaching Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBelle, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    Many middle school teachers lack adequate criteria to critically select materials that represent a variety of L2 teaching models. This study analyzes the illustrated and written content of 33 ELL textbooks to determine the range of L2 teaching models represented. The researchers asked to what extent do middle school ELL texts depict frequency and…

  8. Auditory information processing during adequate propofol anesthesia monitored by electroencephalogram bispectral index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Kerssens (Chantal); J. Klein (Jan); A. van der Woerd; B. Bonke (Benno)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMemory for intraoperative events may arise from inadequate anesthesia when the hypnotic state is not continuously monitored. Electroencephalogram bispectral index (BIS) enables monitoring of the hypnotic state and titration of anesthesia to an adequate level

  9. Auditory information processing during adequate propofol anesthesia monitored by electroencephalogram bispectral index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Kerssens (Chantal); J. Klein (Jan); A. van der Woerd; B. Bonke (Benno)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMemory for intraoperative events may arise from inadequate anesthesia when the hypnotic state is not continuously monitored. Electroencephalogram bispectral index (BIS) enables monitoring of the hypnotic state and titration of anesthesia to an adequate level

  10. Is protein-energy intake adequate during dialysis treatment in hemodialysis patients ?

    OpenAIRE

    Trudeke (G) I. Struijk-Wielinga; Najoua Zanaki; Maryam Hdoudou; Peter J.M. Weijs

    2012-01-01

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is a strong predictor of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Although PEW is caused by non nutritional conditions, research indicates that nutritional support that targets adequate protein intake improves outcome. During dialysis therapy in-centre meals and snacks are provided. The question is whether these meals provide adequate protein and energy intake considering external (at home) consumed meals? Indirect calorimetry and physical activity Le...

  11. Adequate sleep among adolescents is positively associated with health status and health-related behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Jeng Yi-Jong; Wang Edward K; Chen Mei-Yen

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Amount of sleep is an important indicator of health and well-being in children and adolescents. Adequate sleep (AS: adequate sleep is defined as 6–8 hours per night regularly) is a critical factor in adolescent health and health-related behaviors. The present study was based on a health promotion project previously conducted on adolescents in Tao-Yuan County, Taiwan. The aim was to examine the relationship between AS during schooldays and excessive body weight, frequency o...

  12. Marc Treib: Representing Landscape Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2008-01-01

    The editor of Representing Landscape Architecture, Marc Treib, argues that there is good reason to evaluate the standard practices of representation that landscape architects have been using for so long. In the rush to the promised land of computer design these practices are now in danger of being...... left by the wayside. The 14 often both fitting and well crafted contributions of this publication offer an approach to how landscape architecture has been and is currently represented; in the design study, in presentation, in criticism, and in the creation of landscape architecture....

  13. Representative process sampling - in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Kim; Friis-Pedersen, Hans Henrik; Julius, Lars Petersen

    2007-01-01

    Didactic data sets representing a range of real-world processes are used to illustrate "how to do" representative process sampling and process characterisation. The selected process data lead to diverse variogram expressions with different systematics (no range vs. important ranges; trends and....../or periodicity; different nugget effects and process variations ranging from less than one lag to full variogram lag). Variogram data analysis leads to a fundamental decomposition into 0-D sampling vs. 1-D process variances, based on the three principal variogram parameters: range, sill and nugget effect...

  14. Evaluation of Ciprofloxacin as a Representative of Veterinary Fluoroquinolones in Susceptibility Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Riddle, Christa; Lemons, Carol L.; Papich, Mark G.; Altier, Craig

    2000-01-01

    Currently in veterinary medicine, ciprofloxacin is often used in susceptibility testing to represent the entire class of fluoroquinolone antimicrobials. Using quality control organisms as well as clinical isolates, we compared the MIC of ciprofloxacin to those of three other fluoroquinolones used in animals and found that ciprofloxacin is not an adequate representative of other members of this class.

  15. Counterinsurgency and Operational Art: Is the Joint Campaign Planning Model Adequate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    National Campaign Plan (1983)...............................................................................................54 Unidos Para Reconstruir...Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in El Salvador Cuando la historia no se puede con la pluma, hay que escríbirla con el fusil (When history can no...able to shift as easily to a new operational concept as the FMLN. In 1986, the ESAF produced another COIN plan called Unidos Para Reconstruir (United

  16. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-03

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization.

  17. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal D. Karakochuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18–45 years in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420 were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30 were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L and pregnant women (157 μg/L were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100–199 and 150–249 μg/L, respectively. We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization.

  18. Impact of Diet-Induced Obesity and Testosterone Deficiency on the Cardiovascular System: A Novel Rodent Model Representative of Males with Testosterone-Deficient Metabolic Syndrome (TDMetS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G Donner

    Full Text Available Current models of obesity utilise normogonadic animals and neglect the strong relationships between obesity-associated metabolic syndrome (MetS and male testosterone deficiency (TD. The joint presentation of these conditions has complex implications for the cardiovascular system that are not well understood. We have characterised and investigated three models in male rats: one of diet-induced obesity with the MetS; a second using orchiectomised rats mimicking TD; and a third combining MetS with TD which we propose is representative of males with testosterone deficiency and the metabolic syndrome (TDMetS.Male Wistar rats (n = 24 were randomly assigned to two groups and provided ad libitum access to normal rat chow (CTRL or a high fat/high sugar/low protein "obesogenic" diet (OGD for 28 weeks (n = 12/group. These groups were further sub-divided into sham-operated or orchiectomised (ORX animals to mimic hypogonadism, with and without diet-induced obesity (n = 6/group. Serum lipids, glucose, insulin and sex hormone concentrations were determined. Body composition, cardiovascular structure and function; and myocardial tolerance to ischemia-reperfusion were assessed.OGD-fed animals had 72% greater fat mass; 2.4-fold greater serum cholesterol; 2.3-fold greater serum triglycerides and 3-fold greater fasting glucose (indicative of diabetes mellitus compared to CTRLs (all p<0.05. The ORX animals had reduced serum testosterone and left ventricle mass (p<0.05. In addition to the combined differences observed in each of the isolated models, the OGD, ORX and OGD+ORX models each had greater CK-MB levels following in vivo cardiac ischemia-reperfusion insult compared to CTRLs (p<0.05.Our findings provide evidence to support that the MetS and TD independently impair myocardial tolerance to ischemia-reperfusion. The combined OGD+ORX phenotype described in this study is a novel animal model with associated cardiovascular risk factors and complex myocardial

  19. Impact of Diet-Induced Obesity and Testosterone Deficiency on the Cardiovascular System: A Novel Rodent Model Representative of Males with Testosterone-Deficient Metabolic Syndrome (TDMetS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Daniel G; Elliott, Grace E; Beck, Belinda R; Bulmer, Andrew C; Du Toit, Eugene F

    2015-01-01

    Current models of obesity utilise normogonadic animals and neglect the strong relationships between obesity-associated metabolic syndrome (MetS) and male testosterone deficiency (TD). The joint presentation of these conditions has complex implications for the cardiovascular system that are not well understood. We have characterised and investigated three models in male rats: one of diet-induced obesity with the MetS; a second using orchiectomised rats mimicking TD; and a third combining MetS with TD which we propose is representative of males with testosterone deficiency and the metabolic syndrome (TDMetS). Male Wistar rats (n = 24) were randomly assigned to two groups and provided ad libitum access to normal rat chow (CTRL) or a high fat/high sugar/low protein "obesogenic" diet (OGD) for 28 weeks (n = 12/group). These groups were further sub-divided into sham-operated or orchiectomised (ORX) animals to mimic hypogonadism, with and without diet-induced obesity (n = 6/group). Serum lipids, glucose, insulin and sex hormone concentrations were determined. Body composition, cardiovascular structure and function; and myocardial tolerance to ischemia-reperfusion were assessed. OGD-fed animals had 72% greater fat mass; 2.4-fold greater serum cholesterol; 2.3-fold greater serum triglycerides and 3-fold greater fasting glucose (indicative of diabetes mellitus) compared to CTRLs (all p<0.05). The ORX animals had reduced serum testosterone and left ventricle mass (p<0.05). In addition to the combined differences observed in each of the isolated models, the OGD, ORX and OGD+ORX models each had greater CK-MB levels following in vivo cardiac ischemia-reperfusion insult compared to CTRLs (p<0.05). Our findings provide evidence to support that the MetS and TD independently impair myocardial tolerance to ischemia-reperfusion. The combined OGD+ORX phenotype described in this study is a novel animal model with associated cardiovascular risk factors and complex myocardial pathology

  20. Representative process sampling - in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Kim; Friis-Pedersen, Hans Henrik; Julius, Lars Petersen

    2007-01-01

    /or periodicity; different nugget effects and process variations ranging from less than one lag to full variogram lag). Variogram data analysis leads to a fundamental decomposition into 0-D sampling vs. 1-D process variances, based on the three principal variogram parameters: range, sill and nugget effect......Didactic data sets representing a range of real-world processes are used to illustrate "how to do" representative process sampling and process characterisation. The selected process data lead to diverse variogram expressions with different systematics (no range vs. important ranges; trends and...... presented cases of variography either solved the initial problems or served to understand the reasons and causes behind the specific process structures revealed in the variograms. Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) are not complete without process TOS....

  1. Psychosocial working conditions and self-reported health in a representative sample of wage-earners: a test of the different hypotheses of the Demand-Control-Support-Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanroelen, Christophe; Levecque, Katia; Louckx, Fred

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents an in-depth examination of the demand-control-support-model (DCS-model). Each hypothesis of the DCS-model is tested: the main effects of job demands, job autonomy, task variation and social support; the additive effects of job strain, active learning and iso-strain; and the interactive buffer-effects of job autonomy, task variation and support on job demands. Data from a representative cross-sectional sample of 11,099 male and female wage-earners are investigated using log linear methods. The outcome measures are self-reported persistent fatigue, musculoskeletal complaints and emotional well-being. There is some support for each of the hypotheses. Quantitative job demands and superior support have the strongest effects. The job autonomy and buffer hypotheses are only partially supported. The strong effects of job demands, support, job strain and active learning are suggesting that a policy aimed at improving psychosocial working conditions should focus on a bearable level of job demands and the quality of social relationships at work.

  2. Mathematical Kinetic Modelling and Representing Design Equation for a Packed Photoreactor with Immobilised TiO2-P25 Nanoparticles on Glass Beads in the Removal of C.I. Acid Orange 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheidaei Behnaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a design equation was presented for a batch-recirculated photoreactor composed of a packed bed reactor (PBR with immobilised TiO2-P25 nanoparticle thin films on glass beads, and a continuous-flow stirred tank (CFST. The photoreactor was studied in order to remove C.I. Acid Orange 7 (AO7, a monoazo anionic dye from textile industry, by means of UV/TiO2 process. The effect of different operational parameters such as the initial concentration of contaminant, the volume of solution in CFST, the volumetric flow rate of liquid, and the power of light source in the removal efficiency were examined. A rate equation for the removal of AO7 is obtained by mathematical kinetic modelling. The results of reaction kinetic analysis indicate the conformity of removal kinetics with Langmuir-Hinshelwood model (kL-H = 0.74 mg L-1 min-1, Kads = 0.081 mg-1 L. The represented design equation obtained from mathematical kinetic modelling can properly predict the removal rate constant of the contaminant under different operational conditions (R2 = 0.963. Thus the calculated and experimental results are in good agreement with each other.

  3. Judgments of and by Representativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-15

    probably agree that John Updike is a more representative American writer than Norman Mailer. rlearly, such a judgment does not have a frequentistic...example, in an early study we presented people with the following description, " John is 27 years old, with an outgoing personality. At college he was an...outstanding athlete but did not show much ability or interest in in- tellectual matters". We found that John was judged to be more likely to be "a gym

  4. Climate Change and the Representative Agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, R.B. [Environmental Studies Program, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2000-02-01

    The artifice of an infinitely-lived representative agent is commonly invoked to balance the present costs and future benefits of climate stabilization policies. Since actual economies are populated by overlapping generations of finite-lived persons, this approach begs important questions of welfare aggregation. This paper compares the results of representative agent and overlapping generations models that are numerically calibrated based on standard assumptions regarding climate economy interactions. Under two social choice rules - Pareto efficiency and classical utilitarianism - the models generate closely similar simulation results. In the absence of policies to redistribute income between present and future generations, efficient rates of carbon dioxide emissions abatement rise from 15 to 20% between the years 2000 and 2105. Under classical utilitarianism, in contrast, optimal control rates rise from 48 to 79% this same period. 23 refs.

  5. Assessment Model of Water Safety Represented with Normalized Indices Values Based on Radial Basis Function Neural Network%基于RBF的指标规范化的水安全评价模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧蕾; 李祚泳

    2012-01-01

    为了建立科学合理、计算简便和普适通用的水安全评价模型,在适当设定指标参照值cj0和指标值的规范变换式基础上,提出了基于径向基函数网络的指标规范化的水安全评价模型.采用具有全局优化的猴王遗传算法对模型中的参数进行优化,得出优化后对任意m(1≤m≤23)项水安全指标共同适用的水安全评价模型.应用模型对山东省水安全状况进行了评价分析,其评价结果与其它方法的评价结果基本一致,从而表明:指标规范值的径向基函数网络模型为水安全评价提供了一个简单实用、结果可靠的新方法.%In order to design a scientific, reasonable, universal, common, and easy-operating water safety assessment model, we proposed this model based on the setting reference values and normalized transformation form of indexes. The assessment model of water safety represented with normalized indices values was proposed based on radial basis function network (RBF). At the same time, the parameter involved in the model was also optimized by using Monkey Genetic algorithm. The results show that the optimized universal water safety assessment model is suitable to m (l≤m≤23) index items. The water security of Shandong Province was evaluated with this model. The evaluation results are consistent with the results of other methods. It shows that the NV-RBF model is simple and practical so as to be a useful evaluating method for water security.

  6. Semantic Representatives of the Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena N. Tsay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article concept as one of the principle notions of cognitive linguistics is investigated. Considering concept as culture phenomenon, having language realization and ethnocultural peculiarities, the description of the concept “happiness” is presented. Lexical and semantic paradigm of the concept of happiness correlates with a great number of lexical and semantic variants. In the work semantic representatives of the concept of happiness, covering supreme spiritual values are revealed and semantic interpretation of their functioning in the Biblical discourse is given.

  7. Imitation of suprasegmental patterns by five-year-old children with adequate and inadequate articulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadden, B B; Asp, C W; Tonkovich, J D; Mason, D

    1980-08-01

    Ten five-year-old children with adequate articulation skills and 10 five-year-old children with inadequate articulation skills were administered the Templin-Darley Test of Articulation and the Test of Rhythm and Intonation Patterns (TRIP). Differences between the adequate and inadequate groups in terms of the mean percentage correct and the correlations between TRIP and Templin-Darley Test scores within groups were statistically nonsignificant. Item analysis revealed no differences between groups in the pattern of performance on the three subtests of the TRIP or on specific test items. The possible effects of therapy enrollment on suprasegmental test performance are discussed, and future research needs are suggested.

  8. Representative mass reduction in sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Harry Kim; Dahl, Casper Kierulf

    2004-01-01

    We here present a comprehensive survey of current mass reduction principles and hardware available in the current market. We conduct a rigorous comparison study of the performance of 17 field and/or laboratory instruments or methods which are quantitatively characterized (and ranked) for accuracy...... always be representative in the full Theory of Sampling (TOS) sense. This survey also allows empirical verification of the merits of the famous ??Gy?s formula?? for order-of-magnitude estimation of the Fundamental Sampling Error (FSE).......We here present a comprehensive survey of current mass reduction principles and hardware available in the current market. We conduct a rigorous comparison study of the performance of 17 field and/or laboratory instruments or methods which are quantitatively characterized (and ranked) for accuracy...... dividers, the Boerner Divider, the ??spoon method??, alternate/fractional shoveling and grab sampling. Only devices based on riffle splitting principles (static or rotational) passes the ultimate representativity test (with minor, but significant relative differences). Grab sampling, the overwhelmingly...

  9. Prescribers and pharmaceutical representatives: why are we still meeting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Melissa A; Keough, Mary Ellen; Baril, Joann L; Saccoccio, Laura; Mazor, Kathleen M; Ladd, Elissa; Von Worley, Ann; Gurwitz, Jerry H

    2009-07-01

    Research suggests that pharmaceutical marketing influences prescribing and may cause cognitive dissonance for prescribers. This work has primarily been with physicians and physician-trainees. Questions remain regarding why prescribers continue to meet with pharmaceutical representatives (PRs). To describe the reasons that prescribers from various health professions continue to interact with PRs despite growing evidence of the influence of these interactions. Multi-disciplinary focus groups with 61 participants held in practice settings and at society meetings. Most prescribers participating in our focus groups believe that overall PR interactions are beneficial to patient care and practice health. They either trust the information from PRs or feel that they are equipped to evaluate it independently. Despite acknowledgement of study findings to the contrary, prescribers state that they are able to effectively manage PR interactions such that their own prescribing is not adversely impacted. Prescribers describe few specific strategies or policies for these interactions, and report that policies are not consistently implemented with all members of a clinic or institution. Some prescribers perceive an inherent contradiction between academic centers and national societies receiving money from pharmaceutical companies, and then recommending restriction at the level of the individual prescriber. Prescribers with different training backgrounds present a few novel reasons for these meetings. Despite evidence that PR detailing influences prescribing, providers from several health professions continue to believe that PR interactions improve patient care, and that they can adequately evaluate and filter information presented to them by PRs. Focus group comments suggest that cultural change is necessary to break the norms that exist in many settings. Applying policies consistently, considering non-physician members of the healthcare team, working with trainees, restructuring

  10. 基于投影寻踪回归的指标规范值的水质评价模型%Assessment Model of Water Quality Represented with Normalized Indices Values Based on Projection Pursuit Regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李祚泳; 张正健; 余春雪

    2012-01-01

    Traditional projection pursuit regression represented with matrix, which is applied in water quality evaluation for multi-index, affects not only learning efficient of optimized parameter matrix element, but also optimal effects. The present work set the proper reference values and transformed forms for each index. Therefore, the different in the same grade standard values with different index could be weakened after the normal transformation, the normalized values of different indexes were e-quivalent to a certain normalized index. Therefore, it is only necessary to set up the models of NV-PPR (2) and NV-PPR(3) suited to 2 indexes and 3 indexes, respectively, for each normalized index values. Meanwhile, the optimization of the parameter matrix elements of model were iterated by monkey-king genetic algorithm. Furthermore, the multi-index NV-PPR model could be represented into the combinations of some NV-PPR (2) and (or) NV-PPR (3) models. The practicality of models was verified virtually. The results showed that the projection pursuit regression model of water quality evaluation based on normalized index transform exhibited the characteristics of simplicity in form, convenience during calculation, university as well as commonness.%传统的投影寻踪回归(PPR)的矩阵表示法用于水质评价,当指标较多时,不仅优化参数矩阵元的学习效率低,而且优化效果亦受到影响.若适当设置3类水体(地表水、地下水和富营养化水体)各指标的参照值及指标值的规范变换式,使不同指标的同级标准的规范值差异不大,从而可以认为用规范值表示的不同指标皆与某个规范指标“等效”.因此,只需构造并优化得出对各指标规范值都共同适用的2个指标变量的NV-PPR(2)和3个指标变量的NV-PPR(3)模型,对于指标变量较多的NV-PPR建模,只需将其分解为若干个NV-PPR(2)和(或)NV-PPR(3)的组合表示即可.对模型的实用性进行的效

  11. Representing Energy. I. Representing a Substance Ontology for Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.; Vokos, Stamatis

    2012-01-01

    The nature of energy is not typically an explicit topic of physics instruction. Nonetheless, verbal and graphical representations of energy articulate models in which energy is conceptualized as a quasimaterial substance, a stimulus, or a vertical location. We argue that a substance ontology for energy is particularly productive in developing…

  12. Representing Energy. I. Representing a Substance Ontology for Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.; Vokos, Stamatis

    2012-01-01

    The nature of energy is not typically an explicit topic of physics instruction. Nonetheless, verbal and graphical representations of energy articulate models in which energy is conceptualized as a quasimaterial substance, a stimulus, or a vertical location. We argue that a substance ontology for energy is particularly productive in developing…

  13. Groundwater recharge: Accurately representing evapotranspiration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bugan, Richard DH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater recharge is the basis for accurate estimation of groundwater resources, for determining the modes of water allocation and groundwater resource susceptibility to climate change. Accurate estimations of groundwater recharge with models...

  14. Representing Conversations for Scalable Overhearing

    CERN Document Server

    Gutnik, G; 10.1613/jair.1829

    2011-01-01

    Open distributed multi-agent systems are gaining interest in the academic community and in industry. In such open settings, agents are often coordinated using standardized agent conversation protocols. The representation of such protocols (for analysis, validation, monitoring, etc) is an important aspect of multi-agent applications. Recently, Petri nets have been shown to be an interesting approach to such representation, and radically different approaches using Petri nets have been proposed. However, their relative strengths and weaknesses have not been examined. Moreover, their scalability and suitability for different tasks have not been addressed. This paper addresses both these challenges. First, we analyze existing Petri net representations in terms of their scalability and appropriateness for overhearing, an important task in monitoring open multi-agent systems. Then, building on the insights gained, we introduce a novel representation using Colored Petri nets that explicitly represent legal joint conv...

  15. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section. (1) Each dealer and exhibitor shall employ an... adequate veterinary care and to oversee the adequacy of other aspects of animal care and use. (b)...

  16. The Unequal Effect of Adequate Yearly Progress: Evidence from School Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Abigail B.; Clift, Jack W.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report insights, based on annual site visits to elementary and middle schools in three states from 2004 to 2006, into the incentive effect of the No Child Left Behind Act's requirement that increasing percentages of students make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in every public school. They develop a framework, drawing on the physics…

  17. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of the Center for Veterinary Medicine (the Director) may, on the Director's own initiative or on the... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal drug from other influences, such as spontaneous change in the course of the disease, normal...

  18. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... workshop. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled: ``Hemoglobin... discuss blood donor hemoglobin and hematocrit qualification standards in the United States, its impact...

  19. Getting adequate information across to colorectal cancer screening subjects can be difficult.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, AF van; Rossum, L.G.M. van; Deutekom, M.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Bossuyt, P.M.; Fockens, P.; Dekker, E. den; Jansen, J.B.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Participation in screening should be the outcome of an informed decision. We evaluated whether invitees in the first Dutch colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programme were adequately informed after having received a detailed information leaflet. METHODS: A total of 20,623 subjects aged

  20. Science Education as a Contributor to Adequate Yearly Progress and Accountability Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act requires states to measure the adequate yearly progress (AYP) of each public school and local educational agency (LEA) and to hold schools and LEAs accountable for failing to make AYP. Although it is required that science be assessed in at least three grades, the achievement results from science examinations are…

  1. In Search of an Adequate Yet Affordable Tutor in Online Learning Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Kester, Liesbeth; Brouns, Francis; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Sloep, P. B., Van Rosmalen, P., Kester, L., Brouns, F., & Koper, R. (2006). In Search of an Adequate Yet Affordable Tutor in Online Learning Networks. In Kinshuk, R. Koper, P. Kommers, P. Kirschner, D. G. Sampson & W. Didderen (Eds.), Sixth International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies

  2. Protecting the Home and Adequate Housing - Living in a Caravan or Trailer as a Human Right

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Many Roma, gypsies and travellers live in caravans or trailers, sometimes in together trailer parks or camps. This article analyses how this specific lifestyle connected to their housing is protected under the various regimes and provisions of international human rights law. Home and adequate housin

  3. African Americans, Economically Disadvantaged, or Attendance Rate Effects on Adequate Yearly Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sheena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, nonexperimental study was to determine if and to what extent a difference existed in the percentage of African American students, percentage of economically disadvantaged students, and students' attendance rate in elementary schools that made adequate yearly progress (AYP) and those that did not make AYP in one…

  4. Access to adequate water in post-apartheid South African provinces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-10-02

    Oct 2, 2010 ... agement of water resources in South Africa. ... supply services and that 50% were without adequate sanitation. (DWAF ... President Mbeki promised that 'within the next 5 years all ... This research has responded to debates about water service .... under the first category 'Piped Households' or 'Basic Access'.

  5. Understanding the pelvic pain mechanism is key to find an adequate therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerrebroeck, Philip

    2016-06-25

    Pain is a natural mechanism to actual or potential tissue damage and involves both a sensory and an emotional experience. In chronic pelvic pain, localisation of pain can be widespread and can cause considerable distress. A multidisciplinary approach is needed in order to fully understand the pelvic pain mechanism and to identify an adequate therapeutic approach.

  6. Do sex assault victims receive adequate care? If not, you risk fines, violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    Failure to collect evidence, inadequate care, and delays resulted in a New York City hospital being fined for providing inadequate care to a rape victim. These problems are common in the emergency department. Avoid asking sexual assault victims the same questions repeatedly. Determine the patient's primary concern and address it immediately. Examine patients in a private area with adequate space.

  7. Determinants of prompt and adequate care among presumed malaria cases in a community in eastern Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingabire, Chantal Marie; Kateera, Fredrick; Hakizimana, Emmanuel; Rulisa, Alexis; Muvunyi, Claude; Mens, Petra; Koenraadt, Sander; Mutesa, Leon; Vugt, Van Michele; Borne, Van Den Bart; Alaii, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background: In order to understand factors influencing fever/malaria management practices among community-based individuals, the study evaluated psychosocial, socio-demographic and environmental determinants of prompt and adequate healthcare-seeking behaviours. Methods: A quantitative household (

  8. Evaluating the Reliability of Selected School-Based Indices of Adequate Reading Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Courtney E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the stability (i.e., 4-month and 12-month test-retest reliability) of six selected school-based indices of adequate reading progress. The total sampling frame included between 3970 and 5655 schools depending on the index and research question. Each school had at least 40 second-grade students that had complete Oral…

  9. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Adequate Yearly Progress among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Using national data from the 2007-08 School and Staffing Survey, we compared the relationships between parental involvement and school outcomes related to adequate yearly progress (AYP) in urban, suburban, and rural schools. Parent-initiated parental involvement demonstrated significantly positive relationships with both making AYP and staying off…

  10. Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption among Rural Western Australian Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godrich, Stephanie L; Lo, Johnny; Davies, Christina R; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda

    2017-01-03

    Improving the suboptimal vegetable consumption among the majority of Australian children is imperative in reducing chronic disease risk. The objective of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between food security determinants (FSD) (i.e., food availability, access, and utilisation dimensions) and adequate vegetable consumption among children living in regional and remote Western Australia (WA). Caregiver-child dyads (n = 256) living in non-metropolitan/rural WA completed cross-sectional surveys that included questions on FSD, demographics and usual vegetable intake. A total of 187 dyads were included in analyses, which included descriptive and logistic regression analyses via IBM SPSS (version 23). A total of 13.4% of children in this sample had adequate vegetable intake. FSD that met inclusion criteria (p ≤ 0.20) for multivariable regression analyses included price; promotion; quality; location of food outlets; variety of vegetable types; financial resources; and transport to outlets. After adjustment for potential demographic confounders, the FSD that predicted adequate vegetable consumption were, variety of vegetable types consumed (p = 0.007), promotion (p = 0.017), location of food outlets (p = 0.027), and price (p = 0.043). Food retail outlets should ensure that adequate varieties of vegetable types (i.e., fresh, frozen, tinned) are available, vegetable messages should be promoted through food retail outlets and in community settings, towns should include a range of vegetable purchasing options, increase their reliance on a local food supply and increase transport options to enable affordable vegetable purchasing.

  11. How Much and What Kind? Identifying an Adequate Technology Infrastructure for Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    To realize the potential benefits of technology use in early childhood education (ECE), and to ensure that technology can help to address the digital divide, providers, families of young children, and young children themselves must have access to an adequate technology infrastructure. The goals for technology use in ECE that a technology…

  12. Perceptions of Teachers in Their First Year of School Restructuring: Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The 2007-2008 school year marked the first year Florida's Title I schools that did not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for five consecutive years entered into restructuring as mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. My study examines the perceptions of teacher entering into their first year of school restructuring due to…

  13. Does the new conceptual framework provide adequate concepts for reporting relevant information about performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.; Faramarzi, A; Hoogendoorn, M.

    2014-01-01

    The basic question we raise in this paper is whether the 2013 Discussion Paper (DP 2013) on the Conceptual Framework provides adequate principles for reporting an entity’s performance and what improvements could be made in light of both user needs and evidence from academic literature. DP 2013 propo

  14. Maintaining adequate nutrient supply - Principles, decision-support tools, and best management practices [Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert B. Harrison; Douglas A. Maguire; Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining adequate nutrient supply to maintain or enhance tree vigor and forest growth requires conservation of topsoil and soil organic matter. Sometimes nutrient amendments are also required to supplement inherent nutrient-pool limitations or replenish nutrients removed in harvested material. The goal is to maintain the productive potential of the soil and, when...

  15. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Efficient Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Tetens, Inge; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård;

    2016-01-01

    using linear programming. The FBs were defined depending on the type of constraints applied: cultural acceptability (C), or dietary guidelines (D), or nutrient recommendations (N), or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CN), or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DN......: Use of linear programming facilitates the generation of low-cost food baskets that are nutritionally adequate, health promoting, and culturally acceptable....

  16. 42 CFR 438.207 - Assurances of adequate capacity and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement Access Standards § 438.207 Assurances of adequate capacity and services. (a) Basic rule. The State... that is sufficient in number, mix, and geographic distribution to meet the needs of the anticipated...

  17. Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. Verstegen

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky’s State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional-“all of its parts and parcels”. The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including: (i “sufficient oral and written communication skills to enable students to function in a complex and rapidly changing civilization . . . .and (vii sufficient levels of academic or vocational skills to enable public school students to compete favorably with their counterparts in surrounding states, in academics or in the job market”. Now, over a decade later, key questions remain regarding whether these objectives have been fulfilled. This research is designed to calculate the cost of an adequate education by aligning resources to State standards, laws and objectives, using a professional judgment approach. Seven focus groups were convened for this purpose and the scholarly literature was reviewed to provide multiple inputs into study findings. The study produced a per pupil base cost for each of three prototype school districts and an total statewide cost, with the funding gap between existing revenue and the revenue needed for current operations of $1.097 billion per year (2001-02. Additional key resource requirements needed to achieve an adequate education, identified by professional judgment panels, include: (1 extending the school year for students and teachers, (2 adding voluntary half-day preschool for three and four year olds, and (3 raising teacher salaries. This increases the funding gap to $1.23 billion and suggests that significant new funding is required over time if the Commonwealth of Kentucky is to provide an adequate and equitable education of high quality for all children and youth as directed by the State Supreme Court.

  18. Climate and land use change impacts on global terrestrial ecosystems, fire, and river flows in the HadGEM2-ES Earth System Model using the Representative Concentration Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Betts

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of an Earth System Model now includes a number of land surface processes directly relevant to analyzing potential impacts of climate change. This model, HadGEM2-ES, allows us to assess the impacts of climate change, multiple interactions, and feedbacks as the model is run. This paper discusses the results of century-scale HadGEM2-ES simulations from an impacts perspective–specifically, terrestrial ecosystems and water resources–for four different scenarios following the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs, being used for next assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC. Over the 21st Century, simulated changes in global and continential-scale terrestrial ecosystems due to climate change appear to be very similar in all 4 RCPs, even though the level of global warming by the end of the 21st Century ranges from 2 °C in the lowest scenario to 5.5° in the highest. A warming climate generally favours broadleaf trees over needleleaf, needleleaf trees over shrubs, and shrubs over herbaceous vegetation, resulting in a poleward shift of temperate and boreal forests and woody tundra in all scenarios. Although climate related changes are slightly larger in scenarios of greater warming, the largest differences between scenarios arise at regional scales as a consequence of different patterns of anthropogenic land cover change. In the model, the scenario with the lowest global warming results in the most extensive decline in tropical forest cover due to a large expansion of agriculture. Under all four RCPs, fire potential could increase across extensive land areas, particularly tropical and sub-tropical latitudes. River outflows are simulated to increase with higher levels of CO2 and global warming in all projections, with outflow increasing with mean temperature at the end of the 21st Century at the global scale and in North America, Asia, and Africa. In South America, Europe, and Australia, the

  19. PSCAD Modules Representing PV Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.

    2013-08-01

    Photovoltaic power plants (PVPs) have been growing in size, and the installation time is very short. With the cost of photovoltaic (PV) panels dropping in recent years, it can be predicted that in the next 10 years the contribution of PVPs to the total number of renewable energy power plants will grow significantly. In this project, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a dynamic modeling of the modules to be used as building blocks to develop simulation models of single PV arrays, expanded to include Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT), expanded to include PV inverter, or expanded to cover an entire PVP. The focus of the investigation and complexity of the simulation determines the components that must be included in the simulation. The development of the PV inverter was covered in detail, including the control diagrams. Both the current-regulated voltage source inverter and the current-regulated current source inverter were developed in PSCAD. Various operations of the PV inverters were simulated under normal and abnormal conditions. Symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults were simulated, presented, and discussed. Both the three-phase analysis and the symmetrical component analysis were included to clarify the understanding of unsymmetrical faults. The dynamic model validation was based on the testing data provided by SCE. Testing was conducted at SCE with the focus on the grid interface behavior of the PV inverter under different faults and disturbances. The dynamic model validation covers both the symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults.

  20. A strategy for representing the effects of convective momentum transport in multiscale models: Evaluation using a new superparameterized version of the Weather Research and Forecast model (SP-WRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulich, S. N.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a general method for the treatment of convective momentum transport (CMT) in large-scale dynamical solvers that use a cyclic, two-dimensional (2-D) cloud-resolving model (CRM) as a "superparameterization" of convective-system-scale processes. The approach is similar in concept to traditional parameterizations of CMT, but with the distinction that both the scalar transport and diagnostic pressure gradient force are calculated using information provided by the 2-D CRM. No assumptions are therefore made concerning the role of convection-induced pressure gradient forces in producing up or down-gradient CMT. The proposed method is evaluated using a new superparameterized version of the Weather Research and Forecast model (SP-WRF) that is described herein for the first time. Results show that the net effect of the formulation is to modestly reduce the overall strength of the large-scale circulation, via "cumulus friction." This statement holds true for idealized simulations of two types of mesoscale convective systems, a squall line, and a tropical cyclone, in addition to real-world global simulations of seasonal (1 June to 31 August) climate. In the case of the latter, inclusion of the formulation is found to improve the depiction of key synoptic modes of tropical wave variability, in addition to some aspects of the simulated time-mean climate. The choice of CRM orientation is also found to importantly affect the simulated time-mean climate, apparently due to changes in the explicit representation of wide-spread shallow convective regions.

  1. Surface water coagulation-flocculation models. Modelos para el proceso de coagulacion-floculacion de aguas superficiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oropesa Rodriguez, I.; Alvarez Rosell, S.; Marin Llanes, L.; Marquez Canosa, E.

    1994-01-01

    Modelling of water treatment processes have been studied ultimately. In the present work, three of the models that are used generally to represent the physical-chemical phenomenum that occur during the coagulation-flocculation process, are compared. The best result are obtained with Freundlich model although the new model gives adequate results too. (Author) 4 refs.

  2. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Efficient Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Tetens, Inge; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs......) that help prevent both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Methods: Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day......: Use of linear programming facilitates the generation of low-cost food baskets that are nutritionally adequate, health promoting, and culturally acceptable....

  3. Is casual exposure to summer sunlight effective at maintaining adequate vitamin D status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffey, Brian L

    2010-08-01

    The advice that an adequate vitamin D status can be achieved by short, casual exposure to summer sunlight is ubiquitous. This review will examine the value of this advice. The results of experimental studies on changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations following ultraviolet exposure are interpreted in the context of human exposure to sunlight. It is shown that current advice about modest sun exposure during the summer months does little in the way of boosting overall 25(OH)D levels, while sufficient sun exposure that could achieve a worthwhile benefit would compromise skin health. Failure to understand the nature of human exposure to sunlight has led to misguided advice concerning the sun exposure necessary for an adequate vitamin D status.

  4. The relationship between social capital, social support and the adequate use of prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Maria do Carmo; Pereira, Ana Paula Esteves; Lamarca, Gabriela de Almeida; Vettore, Mario Vianna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between social capital and social support and the adequate use of prenatal care. A follow-up study involving 1,485 pregnant women was conducted in two cities in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, social support and social capital data were collected during the first trimester of pregnancy. The post-partum period included information on levels of prenatal care utilization, social networks, parity, obstetric and gestational risk and prenatal care attendance. Hierarchized multinomial logistic regression was used in the statistical analysis. Prenatal care use above adequate levels was associated with high social capital at the city level (aggregated social capital), socioeconomic status and working during pregnancy. Lower non-aggregated contextual and compositional social capital, gestational risk and pattern of prenatal care were associated with inadequate prenatal care utilization. Contextual social capital and social support were found to be social determinants for the appropriate use of prenatal care.

  5. Ensuring smokers are adequately informed: reflections on consumer rights, manufacturer responsibilities, and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S; Liberman, J

    2005-01-01

    The right to information is a fundamental consumer value. Following the advent of health warnings, the tobacco industry has repeatedly asserted that smokers are fully informed of the risks they take, while evidence demonstrates widespread superficial levels of awareness and understanding. There remains much that tobacco companies could do to fulfil their responsibilities to inform smokers. We explore issues involved in the meaning of "adequately informed" smoking and discuss some of the key policy and regulatory implications. We use the idea of a smoker licensing scheme—under which it would be illegal to sell to smokers who had not demonstrated an adequate level of awareness—as a device to explore some of these issues. We also explore some of the difficulties that addiction poses for the notion that smokers might ever voluntarily assume the risks of smoking. PMID:16046703

  6. The concept of adequate causation and Max Weber's comparative sociology of religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, A

    1999-06-01

    Max Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, studied in isolation, shows mainly an elective affinity or an adequacy on the level of meaning between the Protestant ethic and the 'spirit' of capitalism. Here it is suggested that Weber's subsequent essays on 'The Economic Ethics of World Religions' are the result of his opinion that adequacy on the level of meaning needs and can be verified by causal adequacy. After some introductory remarks, particularly on elective affinity, the paper tries to develop the concept of adequate causation and the related concept of objective possibility on the basis of the work of v. Kries on whom Weber heavily relied. In the second part, this concept is used to show how the study of the economic ethics of India, China, Rome and orthodox Russia can support the thesis that the 'spirit' of capitalism, although it may not have been caused by the Protestant ethic, was perhaps adequately caused by it.

  7. Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption among Rural Western Australian Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L. Godrich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the suboptimal vegetable consumption among the majority of Australian children is imperative in reducing chronic disease risk. The objective of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between food security determinants (FSD (i.e., food availability, access, and utilisation dimensions and adequate vegetable consumption among children living in regional and remote Western Australia (WA. Caregiver-child dyads (n = 256 living in non-metropolitan/rural WA completed cross-sectional surveys that included questions on FSD, demographics and usual vegetable intake. A total of 187 dyads were included in analyses, which included descriptive and logistic regression analyses via IBM SPSS (version 23. A total of 13.4% of children in this sample had adequate vegetable intake. FSD that met inclusion criteria (p ≤ 0.20 for multivariable regression analyses included price; promotion; quality; location of food outlets; variety of vegetable types; financial resources; and transport to outlets. After adjustment for potential demographic confounders, the FSD that predicted adequate vegetable consumption were, variety of vegetable types consumed (p = 0.007, promotion (p = 0.017, location of food outlets (p = 0.027, and price (p = 0.043. Food retail outlets should ensure that adequate varieties of vegetable types (i.e., fresh, frozen, tinned are available, vegetable messages should be promoted through food retail outlets and in community settings, towns should include a range of vegetable purchasing options, increase their reliance on a local food supply and increase transport options to enable affordable vegetable purchasing.

  8. Effective dose of dexmedetomidine to induce adequate sedation in elderly patients under spinal anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background During sedation with dexmedetomidine, a dose adjustment may be needed based on the invasiveness of the procedure, the patient's general condition, and their age. We aim here to determine the effective dose (ED) of dexmedetomidine to induce an adequate depth of sedation in elderly patients undergoing spinal anesthesia. Methods In this study, 47 patients aged 65 years or older, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II, undergoing spinal anesthesia were included. ...

  9. Evaluation of lymph node numbers for adequate staging of Stage II and III colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bumpers Harvey L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although evaluation of at least 12 lymph nodes (LNs is recommended as the minimum number of nodes required for accurate staging of colon cancer patients, there is disagreement on what constitutes an adequate identification of such LNs. Methods To evaluate the minimum number of LNs for adequate staging of Stage II and III colon cancer, 490 patients were categorized into groups based on 1-6, 7-11, 12-19, and ≥ 20 LNs collected. Results For patients with Stage II or III disease, examination of 12 LNs was not significantly associated with recurrence or mortality. For Stage II (HR = 0.33; 95% CI, 0.12-0.91, but not for Stage III patients (HR = 1.59; 95% CI, 0.54-4.64, examination of ≥20 LNs was associated with a reduced risk of recurrence within 2 years. However, examination of ≥20 LNs had a 55% (Stage II, HR = 0.45; 95% CI, 0.23-0.87 and a 31% (Stage III, HR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.38-1.26 decreased risk of mortality, respectively. For each six additional LNs examined from Stage III patients, there was a 19% increased probability of finding a positive LN (parameter estimate = 0.18510, p Conclusions Thus, the 12 LN cut-off point cannot be supported as requisite in determining adequate staging of colon cancer based on current data. However, a minimum of 6 LNs should be examined for adequate staging of Stage II and III colon cancer patients.

  10. Differentiating the barriers to adequate prenatal care in Missouri, 1987-88.

    OpenAIRE

    Sable, M R; Stockbauer, J W; Schramm, W F; Land, G H

    1990-01-01

    Inadequate prenatal care has previously been identified as a significant risk factor for women who have low birth weight infants and infants who die during the neonatal period. Postpartum interviews with 1,484 primarily low-income women were conducted during 1987-88 in three areas of Missouri with the highest rates of inadequate prenatal care. The purpose of the study was to identify barriers to prenatal care and to determine which barriers differentiated between women receiving adequate and ...

  11. Auditory information processing during adequate propofol anesthesia monitored by electroencephalogram bispectral index

    OpenAIRE

    Kerssens, Chantal; Klein, Jan; Woerd, A.; Bonke, Benno

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMemory for intraoperative events may arise from inadequate anesthesia when the hypnotic state is not continuously monitored. Electroencephalogram bispectral index (BIS) enables monitoring of the hypnotic state and titration of anesthesia to an adequate level (BIS 40 to 60). At this level, preserved memory function has been observed in trauma patients. We investigated memory formation in elective surgical outpatients during target-controlled propofol anesthesia supplemented with al...

  12. Current strategies for the restoration of adequate lordosis during lumbar fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrey, Cédric; Darnis, Alice

    2015-01-18

    Not restoring the adequate lumbar lordosis during lumbar fusion surgery may result in mechanical low back pain, sagittal unbalance and adjacent segment degeneration. The objective of this work is to describe the current strategies and concepts for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. Theoretical lordosis can be evaluated from the measurement of the pelvic incidence and from the analysis of spatial organization of the lumbar spine with 2/3 of the lordosis given by the L4-S1 segment and 85% by the L3-S1 segment. Technical aspects involve patient positioning on the operating table, release maneuvers, type of instrumentation used (rod, screw-rod connection, interbody cages), surgical sequence and the overall surgical strategy. Spinal osteotomies may be required in case of fixed kyphotic spine. AP combined surgery is particularly efficient in restoring lordosis at L5-S1 level and should be recommended. Finally, not one but several strategies may be used to achieve the need for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery.

  13. A one-item question with a Likert or Visual Analog Scale adequately measured current anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Heather M; Barratt, Alexandra L; Butow, Phyllis N; Deeks, Jonathan J

    2007-04-01

    To determine whether a single question with a Likert Scale or a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) response adequately measures current anxiety. Consecutive English-speaking adult women attending a dedicated breast clinic in a major Australian city were invited to complete a demographic questionnaire, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and a single question with a five-point Likert Scale response and a VAS in random order. Only women who completed the STAI were included in analyses. Four hundred of 497 (80%) eligible women agreed to participate. Both measures were adequate predictors of the STAI score; correlation with STAI was 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-0.82) for the VAS and 0.75 (95% CI 0.70-0.79) for the Likert Scale. However, 11% of women incorrectly completed the VAS limiting its usefulness. A single question with either a Likert Scale or VAS response may be an adequate replacement for the STAI. Both measures quickly and easily assess anxiety and may be useful for research purposes when researchers have very limited time or questionnaire space or need to reduce the burden on participants of completing many measures.

  14. Current strategies for the restoration of adequate lordosis during lumbar fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrey, Cédric; Darnis, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Not restoring the adequate lumbar lordosis during lumbar fusion surgery may result in mechanical low back pain, sagittal unbalance and adjacent segment degeneration. The objective of this work is to describe the current strategies and concepts for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. Theoretical lordosis can be evaluated from the measurement of the pelvic incidence and from the analysis of spatial organization of the lumbar spine with 2/3 of the lordosis given by the L4-S1 segment and 85% by the L3-S1 segment. Technical aspects involve patient positioning on the operating table, release maneuvers, type of instrumentation used (rod, screw-rod connection, interbody cages), surgical sequence and the overall surgical strategy. Spinal osteotomies may be required in case of fixed kyphotic spine. AP combined surgery is particularly efficient in restoring lordosis at L5-S1 level and should be recommended. Finally, not one but several strategies may be used to achieve the need for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. PMID:25621216

  15. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: are regulatory standards adequately protective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Felicia; Stacy, Shaina L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America.

  16. An adequate Fe nutritional status of maize suppresses infection and biotrophic growth of Colletotrichum graminicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fanghua; Albarouki, Emad; Lingam, Brahmasivasenkar; Deising, Holger B; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2014-07-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential element for plant pathogens as well as for their host plants. As Fe plays a central role in pathogen virulence, most plants have evolved Fe-withholding strategies to reduce Fe availability to pathogens. On the other hand, plants need Fe for an oxidative burst in their basal defense response against pathogens. To investigate how the plant Fe nutritional status affects plant tolerance to a hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen, we employed the maize-Colletotrichum graminicola pathosystem. Fungal infection progressed rapidly via biotrophic to necrotrophic growth in Fe-deficient leaves, while an adequate Fe nutritional status suppressed the formation of infection structures of C. graminicola already during the early biotrophic growth phase. As indicated by Prussian blue and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining, the retarding effect of an adequate Fe nutritional status on fungal development coincided temporally and spatially with the recruitment of Fe to infection sites and a local production of H2 O2 . A similar coincidence between local Fe and H2 O2 accumulation was found in a parallel approach employing C. graminicola mutants affected in Fe acquisition and differing in virulence. These results indicate that an adequate Fe nutritional status delays and partially suppresses the fungal infection process and the biotrophic growth phase of C. graminicola, most likely via the recruitment of free Fe to the fungal infection site for a timely oxidative burst. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  17. A test for adequate wastewater treatment based on glutathione S transferase isoenzyme profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammou, A; Samaras, P; Papadimitriou, C; Papadopoulos, A I

    2013-04-01

    Discharge to the environment of treated or non-treated municipal wastewater imposes several threats to coastal and estuarine ecosystems which are difficult to assess. In our study we evaluate the use of the isoenzyme profile of glutathione S transferase (GST) in combination with the kinetic characteristics of the whole enzyme and of heme peroxidase, as a test of adequate treatment of municipal wastewater. For this reason, Artemia nauplii were incubated in artificial seawater prepared by wastewater samples, such as secondary municipal effluents produced by a conventional activated sludge unit and advanced treated effluents produced by the employment of coagulation, activated carbon adsorption and chlorination as single processes or as combined ones. Characteristic changes of the isoenzyme pattern and the enzymes' kinetic properties were caused by chlorinated secondary municipal effluent or by secondary non-chlorinated effluent. Advanced treatment by combination of coagulation and/or carbon adsorption resulted to less prominent changes, suggesting more adequate treatment. Our results suggest that GST isoenzyme profile in combination with the kinetic properties of the total enzyme family is a sensitive test for the evaluation of the adequateness of the treatment of reclaimed wastewater and the reduction of potentially harmful compounds. Potentially, it may offer a 'fingerprint' characteristic of a particular effluent and probably of the treatment level it has been subjected.

  18. Accounting for representativeness errors in the inversion of atmospheric constituent emissions: application to the retrieval of regional carbon monoxide fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Koohkan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A four-dimensional variational data assimilation system (4D-Var is developed to retrieve carbon monoxide (CO fluxes at regional scale, using an air quality network. The air quality stations that monitor CO are proximity stations located close to industrial, urban or traffic sources. The mismatch between the coarsely discretised Eulerian transport model and the observations, inferred to be mainly due to representativeness errors in this context, lead to a bias (average simulated concentrations minus observed concentrations of the same order of magnitude as the concentrations. 4D-Var leads to a mild improvement in the bias because it does not adequately handle the representativeness issue. For this reason, a simple statistical subgrid model is introduced and is coupled to 4D-Var. In addition to CO fluxes, the optimisation seeks to jointly retrieve influence coefficients, which quantify each station's representativeness. The method leads to a much better representation of the CO concentration variability, with a significant improvement of statistical indicators. The resulting increase in the total inventory estimate is close to the one obtained from remote sensing data assimilation. This methodology and experiments suggest that information useful at coarse scales can be better extracted from atmospheric constituent observations strongly impacted by representativeness errors.

  19. Healthcare Costs Associated with an Adequate Intake of Sugars, Salt and Saturated Fat in Germany: A Health Econometrical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Toni; Senftleben, Karolin; Deumelandt, Peter; Christen, Olaf; Riedel, Katja; Langer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represent not only the major driver for quality-restricted and lost life years; NCDs and their related medical treatment costs also pose a substantial economic burden on healthcare and intra-generational tax distribution systems. The main objective of this study was therefore to quantify the economic burden of unbalanced nutrition in Germany--in particular the effects of an excessive consumption of fat, salt and sugar--and to examine different reduction scenarios on this basis. In this study, the avoidable direct cost savings in the German healthcare system attributable to an adequate intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), salt and sugar (mono- & disaccharides, MDS) were calculated. To this end, disease-specific healthcare cost data from the official Federal Health Monitoring for the years 2002-2008 and disease-related risk factors, obtained by thoroughly searching the literature, were used. A total of 22 clinical endpoints with 48 risk-outcome pairs were considered. Direct healthcare costs attributable to an unbalanced intake of fat, salt and sugar are calculated to be 16.8 billion EUR (CI95%: 6.3-24.1 billion EUR) in the year 2008, which represents 7% (CI95% 2%-10%) of the total treatment costs in Germany (254 billion EUR). This is equal to 205 EUR per person annually. The excessive consumption of sugar poses the highest burden, at 8.6 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.0-12.1); salt ranks 2nd at 5.3 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.2-7.3) and saturated fat ranks 3rd at 2.9 billion EUR (CI95%: 32 million-4.7 billion). Predicted direct healthcare cost savings by means of a balanced intake of sugars, salt and saturated fat are substantial. However, as this study solely considered direct medical treatment costs regarding an adequate consumption of fat, salt and sugars, the actual societal and economic gains, resulting both from direct and indirect cost savings, may easily exceed 16.8 billion EUR.

  20. Healthcare Costs Associated with an Adequate Intake of Sugars, Salt and Saturated Fat in Germany: A Health Econometrical Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Meier

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCDs represent not only the major driver for quality-restricted and lost life years; NCDs and their related medical treatment costs also pose a substantial economic burden on healthcare and intra-generational tax distribution systems. The main objective of this study was therefore to quantify the economic burden of unbalanced nutrition in Germany--in particular the effects of an excessive consumption of fat, salt and sugar--and to examine different reduction scenarios on this basis. In this study, the avoidable direct cost savings in the German healthcare system attributable to an adequate intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA, salt and sugar (mono- & disaccharides, MDS were calculated. To this end, disease-specific healthcare cost data from the official Federal Health Monitoring for the years 2002-2008 and disease-related risk factors, obtained by thoroughly searching the literature, were used. A total of 22 clinical endpoints with 48 risk-outcome pairs were considered. Direct healthcare costs attributable to an unbalanced intake of fat, salt and sugar are calculated to be 16.8 billion EUR (CI95%: 6.3-24.1 billion EUR in the year 2008, which represents 7% (CI95% 2%-10% of the total treatment costs in Germany (254 billion EUR. This is equal to 205 EUR per person annually. The excessive consumption of sugar poses the highest burden, at 8.6 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.0-12.1; salt ranks 2nd at 5.3 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.2-7.3 and saturated fat ranks 3rd at 2.9 billion EUR (CI95%: 32 million-4.7 billion. Predicted direct healthcare cost savings by means of a balanced intake of sugars, salt and saturated fat are substantial. However, as this study solely considered direct medical treatment costs regarding an adequate consumption of fat, salt and sugars, the actual societal and economic gains, resulting both from direct and indirect cost savings, may easily exceed 16.8 billion EUR.

  1. Learning to represent visual input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Geoffrey E

    2010-01-12

    One of the central problems in computational neuroscience is to understand how the object-recognition pathway of the cortex learns a deep hierarchy of nonlinear feature detectors. Recent progress in machine learning shows that it is possible to learn deep hierarchies without requiring any labelled data. The feature detectors are learned one layer at a time and the goal of the learning procedure is to form a good generative model of images, not to predict the class of each image. The learning procedure only requires the pairwise correlations between the activations of neuron-like processing units in adjacent layers. The original version of the learning procedure is derived from a quadratic 'energy' function but it can be extended to allow third-order, multiplicative interactions in which neurons gate the pairwise interactions between other neurons. A technique for factoring the third-order interactions leads to a learning module that again has a simple learning rule based on pairwise correlations. This module looks remarkably like modules that have been proposed by both biologists trying to explain the responses of neurons and engineers trying to create systems that can recognize objects.

  2. Transmission potential and design of adequate control measures for Marburg hemorrhagic fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ajelli

    Full Text Available Marburg hemorrhagic fever is rare yet among the most severe diseases affecting humans, with case fatality ratio even higher than 80%. By analyzing the largest documented Marburg hemorrhagic fever epidemic, which occurred in Angola in 2005 and caused 329 deaths, and data on viral load over time in non-human primates, we make an assessment of transmissibility and severity of the disease. We also give insight into the control of new Marburg hemorrhagic fever epidemics to inform appropriate health responses. We estimated the distribution of the generation time to have mean 9 days (95%CI: 8.2-10 days and standard deviation 5.4 days (95%CI: 3.9-8.6 days, and the basic reproduction number to be R(0 = 1.59 (95%CI: 1.53-1.66. Model simulations suggest that a timely isolation of cases, starting no later than 2-3 days after symptoms onset, is sufficient to contain an outbreak. Our analysis reveals that Marburg hemorrhagic fever is characterized by a relatively small reproduction number and by a relatively long generation time. Such factors, along with the extremely high severity and fatality, support the rare occurrence of large epidemics in human populations. Our results also support the effectiveness of social distancing measures--case isolation in particular--to contain or at least to mitigate an emerging outbreak. This work represents an advance in the knowledge required to manage a potential Marburg hemorrhagic fever epidemic.

  3. Modelling the Impacts of Climate Change on Phenology of Representative Maize Varieties in Henan Province%气候变化对河南省夏玉米主栽品种发育期的影响模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李树岩; 王靖; 余卫东; 陈忠民

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to model the impacts of climate change on maize phenology. Henan province was divided into four agro-climatic zones and the genetic parameters of representative maize varieties in each zone were determined by calibrate and validate CERES-Maize model. Thereafter, the impact of future climate change on maize phenology was modeled based on future climate change scenarios (A2 and B2) for 2020s, 2050s and 2080s by adding the temperature and precipitation increments simulated by regional climate model (PRECIS) to the baseline (1961-1990). The study results showed that there were large spatial differences between genetic parameters of representative maize varieties in four zones. Required thermal time from sowing to flowering of maize varieties in western Henan was higher than other zones. However, required thermal time from flowering to maturity of maize varieties in northern and eastern Henan was higher than other two zones. Days from sowing to flowering were accurately simulated with RMSE <4.0d and NRMSE <10% for both the calibration and validation periods. RMSE between simulated and observed maturing date was lower than 4d for calibration period and 3-7d for validation period. NRMSE between simulated and observed maturing date was lower than 10% in all the zones except for western Henan. Simulated vegetative growth period and whole growth period of summer maize shortened by 4.7d and 12.9d on average under A2 scenario, and 3.1d and 8.6d on average under B2 scenario, respectively. The decrease in the length of maize growing period was in accordance with the increase in growing period temperature in different regions in Henan province, with the longest decrease in western Henan.%为模拟气候变化对夏玉米发育期影响,本文将河南省划分为4个夏玉米主栽区,分区进行主栽品种遗传参数调试验证,确定各区域品种平均遗传参数。将未来气候变化情景(A2和B2)下,2020s、2050s和2080s各时段的温度和

  4. Are the current Australian sun exposure guidelines effective in maintaining adequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimlin, Michael; Sun, Jiandong; Sinclair, Craig; Heward, Sue; Hill, Jane; Dunstone, Kimberley; Brodie, Alison

    2016-01-01

    An adequate vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, is important in humans for maintenance of healthy bones and muscle function. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was assessed in participants from Melbourne, Australia (37.81S, 144.96E), who were provided with the current Australian guidelines on sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy (25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L). Participants were interviewed in February (summer, n=104) and August (winter, n=99) of 2013. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was examined as a function of measures of sun exposure and sun protection habits with control of key characteristics such as dietary intake of vitamin D, body mass index (BMI) and skin colour, that may modify this relationship. The mean 25(OH)D concentration in participants who complied with the current sun exposure guidelines was 67.3 nmol/L in summer and 41.9 nmol/L in winter. At the end of the study, 69.3% of participants who complied with the summer sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate, while only 27.6% of participants who complied with the winter sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate at the end of the study. The results suggest that the current Australian guidelines for sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy are effective for most in summer and ineffective for most in winter. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  5. Adequate X-ray control of central and peripheral vena cava catheters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostel, F.; Schmidt, C.

    1985-06-01

    Central venous catheters are frequently used not only in intensive care patients. Attention is drawn to the possible displacements of catheters and to the need for correct radiological control of the catheter position. Since unrecognized extravascular position of the catheter is followed by serious complications s.e. tension pneumothorax and infusions into the pleural cavity or the mediastinum, adequate X-ray control has to be carried out with simultaneous administration of contrast medium. Correction of displaced catheters should be done under fluoroscopy.

  6. A modified method for isolating mouse islets of an adequate quality, quantity, and purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiejie; Peng, Baogang; Zhang, Caiyun; Xu, Jiwei; Ma, Yi; Lu, Xinjun

    2017-08-01

    Mouse islets are widely used in diabetes research. Thus an adequate quality, quantity, and purity of islets are needed for high-quality investigations. We performed a combination of filtration and density gradient separation and optimized many steps in the islet isolation procedure, including perfusion, digestion, and purification. Our results show that an increased quality, quantity, and purity of isolated islets can be achieved using these modifications. Moreover, this method can guarantee maximal recovery and purity of the isolated islets and is easy to perform with practice.

  7. Enucleation for gastrointestinal stromal tumors at the esophagogastric junction: Is this an adequate solution?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadia Peparini; Giovanni Carbotta; Piero Chirletti

    2011-01-01

    The authors discussed the proposal by Coccolini and colleagues to treat gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) at the esophagogastric junction with enucleation and, if indicated, adjuvant therapy, reducing the risks related to esophageal and gastroesophageal resection. They concluded that, because the prognostic impact of a T1 high-mitotic rate on esophageal GIST is worse than that of a T1 high-mitotic rate on gastric GIST, enucleation may not be an adequate surgery for esophagogastric GISTs with a high mitotic rate in which the guarantee of negative resection margins and adjuvant therapies can be the only chance of survival.

  8. Towards {sup 31}Mg-β-NMR resonance linewidths adequate for applications in magnesium chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachura, M., E-mail: mstachura@triumf.ca [TRIUMF (Canada); McFadden, R. M. L. [University of British Columbia, Chemistry Department (Canada); Chatzichristos, A.; Dehn, M. H. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Gottberg, A. [TRIUMF (Canada); Hemmingsen, L. [Københavns Universitet Universitetsparken 5, Kemisk Institut (Denmark); Jancso, A. [University of Szeged, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry (Hungary); Karner, V. L. [University of British Columbia, Chemistry Department (Canada); Kiefl, R. F. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Larsen, F. H. [Københavns Universitet Rolighedsvej 26, Institut for Fødevarevidenskab (Denmark); Lassen, J.; Levy, C. D. P.; Li, R. [TRIUMF (Canada); MacFarlane, W. A. [University of British Columbia, Chemistry Department (Canada); Morris, G. D. [TRIUMF (Canada); Pallada, S. [CERN (Switzerland); Pearson, M. R. [TRIUMF (Canada); Szunyogh, D.; Thulstrup, P. W. [Københavns Universitet Universitetsparken 5, Kemisk Institut (Denmark); Voss, A. [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Physics (Finland)

    2017-11-15

    The span of most chemical shifts recorded in conventional {sup 25}Mg-NMR spectroscopy is ~ 100 ppm. Accordingly, linewidths of ~ 10 ppm or better are desirable to achieve adequate resolution for applications in chemistry. Here we present first high-field {sup 31}Mg- β-NMR measurements of {sup 31}Mg{sup +} ions implanted into a MgO single crystal carried out at the ISAC facility at TRIUMF. The resonances recorded at 2.5 T and 3.5 T show strong linewidth dependency on the applied RF power, ranging from ~ 419 ppm for the highest RF power down to ~ 48 ppm for the lowest one.

  9. Developing an adequate "pneumatraumatology": understanding the spiritual impacts of traumatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Duane R

    2002-01-01

    Psychosocial interventions and systematic theology are primary resources for chaplains and congregational pastors who care for victims of physical trauma. Yet these resources may not be adequate to address the spiritual impacts of trauma. This article proposes a preliminary "pneumatraumatology," drawing on early Christian asceticism and Buddhist mysticism to describe one way of understanding the spiritual impacts of traumatic injury. It also suggests possible responses to these impacts informed by narrative/constructionist perspectives and Breggemann's understanding of the dimensions of spiritual transformation in the Hebrew Bible.

  10. Representative Nature of Scientific Literacy Themes in a High School Chemistry Course: The Case of Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumba, Frackson; Hunter, William J. F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out how the scientific literacy themes are represented in the current Zambian high school chemistry syllabus, textbooks and grade twelve chemistry examination papers in an attempt to find out whether or not the chemistry course has adequate potential to contribute to the preparation of scientifically literate…

  11. Representing clinical guidelines in UMl: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hederman, Lucy; Smutek, Daniel; Wade, Vincent; Knape, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Clinical guidelines can be represented using models, such as GLIF, specifically designed for healthcare guidelines. This paper demonstrates that they can also be modelled using a mainstream business modelling language such as UML. The paper presents a guideline in GLIF and as UML activity diagrams, and then presents a mapping of GLIF primitives to UML. The potential benefits of using a mainstream modelling language are outlined. These include availability of advanced modelling tools, transfer between modelling tools, and automation via business workflow technology.

  12. Larger Thyroid Volume and Adequate Iodine Nutrition in Chinese Schoolchildren: Local Normative Reference Values Compared with WHO/IGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Mo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Thyroid volume measured by ultrasound to define goiter needs reliable local thyroid volume reference from iodine-sufficient populations. The aim of this study is to explore the reference interval for normal thyroid volume in schoolchildren aged 8–10 years from Zhejiang Province, China. Methods. A probability-proportionate-to-size sampling method was applied to select a representative sample of 1213 children aged 8–10 years in Zhejiang Province to detect the thyroid volume, salt iodine, and urine iodine. Results. Median urinary iodine concentration in involved schoolchildren was 178.30 (125.00 μg l−1, with the percentage of samples less than 100 μg l−1 as 12.69% and more than 300 μg l−1 as 15.25%. Thyroid volume was significantly correlated with age and anthropometric measurements independently of each other. The 97th percentile of thyroid volume in our study was larger generally than the new international reference. Conclusions. The iodine nutritional status in Zhejiang Province was at an adequate level. Despite some limitations in this study, we initially established the reference values for thyroid volume in 8–10-year-old schoolchildren in Zhejiang Province, China, as a local reference to be used for monitoring iodine deficiency disorders.

  13. Are breast biopsies adequately funded? A process cost and revenue analysis; Ist die Mammabiopsie ausreichend finanziert? Eine Prozesskosten und Erloesbetrachtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, M.; Fischbach, E.; Fehm, T. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen (DE). Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology] (and others)

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: The objective of the study was to determine whether the various breast biopsy procedures specified in the S 3 guidelines are sensibly represented within the current German health system as considered from a cost evaluation perspective. Materials and Methods: This prospectively designed multicenter study analyzed 221 breast biopsies at 7 institutions from 04/2006 to 01/2007. Core needle biopsies, vacuum-assisted biopsies and surgical open biopsies under sonographic or mammographic guidance were evaluated. During an analysis of process costs, the individual process steps were recorded in diagrammatic form and assigned to the true consumption of resources. The actual resource consumption costs were entered. A process-related breakeven analysis was conducted to check whether the reimbursement of individual biopsy types covers the costs. Results: Only sonographically guided core needle biopsy and surgical open biopsy are adequately reimbursed in the current German health system. All other breast biopsies indicate a negative profit margin. The principal reasons for underfunding are found in the area of reimbursement of investment and non-personnel costs. Conclusion: The reimbursement of breast biopsies must be improved in order to guarantee nationwide care of the population using the breast biopsy methods recommended in the S 3 guidelines and to avoid disincentives with respect to breast biopsy indications. (orig.)

  14. Comparison of the Beckmann model with bidirectional reflectance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T. F.; Hering, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    The Beckmann model is compared with recently reported bidirectional reflectance measurements. Comparisons revealed that monochromatic specular and bidirectional reflectance measurements are not adequately described by corresponding results evaluated from the model using mechanically acquired surface roughness parameters (rms height and rms slope). Significant improvement between measurements and predictions of the model is observed when optically acquired surface roughness parameters are used. Specular reflectance measurements for normal to intermediate polar angles of incidence are adequately represented by the model provided values of optical roughness multiplied by cosine of polar angle of incidence are less than 27 times average optical rms slope.

  15. 10 CFR 63.332 - Representative volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative volume. 63.332 Section 63.332 Energy... Protection Standards § 63.332 Representative volume. (a) The representative volume is the volume of ground... radionuclides released from the Yucca Mountain disposal system that will be in the representative volume....

  16. Establishment of stable and clinically representative mouse models of Clostridium difficile infection%具有临床代表性的艰难梭菌感染小鼠稳定模型的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费稼希; 林倩云; 张岩; 曾丽珊; 王浦; 陈烨

    2016-01-01

    Objective To build mouse models of Clostridium difficile infection with clinical representativeness and good stability,and provide suitable tools for researches on the infection of Clostridium difficile.Methods 3 different species of mice (C57BL/6 mice,BALB/c mice and KM mice) were treated with antibiotics and then challenged with different concentrations of Clostridium difficile suspension by garage.The symptom of diarrhea,general situation and pathological changes of colonic tissues were observed.Results After gavage,all the BALB/c mice in the 1010 CFU/mL concentration group developed diarrhea,with a mortality rate of 16.7%.The diarrhea symptoms of mice in other experimental groups varied in severity or even were mild and only seen in some of the mice.The mice with diarrhea had loose or even watery stool,wet tail,weight loss and reduced food intake.Histological examination showed congestion,hemorrhage and neutrophil infiltration of the mucosa in dead mice.Conclusion BALB/c mice which were induced by gavage with five antibiotics for 9 days and intraperitoneal injection with clindamycin,then gavaged with 1010 CFU/mL of Clostridium difficile bacterial suspension are the most stable models for Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea.%目的 构建临床代表性好、稳定性佳的艰难梭菌感染小鼠模型,为艰难梭菌感染相关疾病提供研究工具.方法 选择C57BL/6、BALB/c、昆明小鼠,经抗生素诱导后,分别予以不同浓度(108 CFU/mL~1010 CFU/mL)的临床分离菌株混悬液灌胃,观察不同品系小鼠不同时间点腹泻、全身情况及结肠组织病理学变化.结果 灌菌后,BALB/c小鼠1010 CFU/mL浓度组全部出现腹泻,死亡率为16.7%;其他实验组小鼠腹泻程度差异较大或仅部分出现轻度腹泻.腹泻小鼠表现为稀烂便甚至水样便和湿尾现象,体重减轻,肠道病理显示结肠黏膜充血水肿伴炎性细胞浸润.结论 经5种抗生素灌胃9 d+

  17. Is Biomedical Waste Management Knowledge Adequate in Paramedics AND Sanitary Workers in Hospitals of Ujjain City?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Rajput

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available "Background: Hospitals produce a byproduct which is wasteful and causes contamination of the environment, with its antecedent complications. Inadequate and inappropriate knowledge of handling may have serious health consequences. Objectives: Present study was conducted to find out the current level of knowledge among paramedics (Lab Technicians, nursing staff and sanitary workers in hospitals of Ujjain city regarding biomedical waste management. Methods: A Cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 study participants in the Government and private hospital of Ujjain city from 1st January 2013 to 30 November 2013.Statistical analysis was done by SPSS 16.0 and chi-square test. Results: Mean age of the total 400 study participants was 31.36 (SD=11.62 years, among them 68.5% were female, majority (64.5% were the nurses and majority (64.7% were working in the concerned hospital since more than 2 years. Nursing staff has adequate knowledge (36.8% as compared to lab technician and sanitary staff (30.3%. Staff who had received medical waste management training had significantly (p<0.05 higher knowledge. Conclusion: On the basis of findings we conclude that the knowledge regarding biomedical waste management is not adequate among nursing staff, lab teqnicians and sanitary workers. " [Natl J Community Med 2016; 7(3.000: 151-154

  18. Incentives for an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss transmission grid. Final version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twomey, P.; Neuhoff, K.; Newbery, D.

    2006-11-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses incentives necessary for the implementation of an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss electricity transmission grid. As Switzerland moves towards a more liberalised and competitive electricity market, an essential task of policy makers will be to ensure that incentives are in place for the construction, maintenance and operation of adequate, economic and reliable transmission infrastructure. As well as continuing to serve the domestic market, the location of Switzerland at the centre of Europe also means that policy should embrace opportunities in servicing the developing European Internal Market by providing transit and other services. Topics discussed include the economic evaluation of transmission investment proposals, regulated transmission investment, investments in transmission lines by power merchants, power auctions and congestion management as well as inter-TSO compensation mechanisms. European regulations and practice are discussed as are access questions and transmission charges. Developments in interconnection management and harmonisation are examined. The particular characteristics of the Swiss energy system, its prices and its legal frameworks are discussed. Cross-border trading and security of supply are also discussed

  19. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing. 1

  20. Are physiotherapy graduates adequately prepared to to manage hiv/aids patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Puckree

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Physiotherapy learners treat patients with Human Immuno-deficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS. There is no available published research on physiotherapy learners' opinions about how the South Afican physiotherapy undergraduate program is  helping them cope with HIV/AIDS patients. This study determines whether the physiotherapy degree offered at South African Universities, adequately prepares learners to cope with HIV/AIDS patients. Differences in knowledge and attitudes of physiotherapy learners regarding HIV/AIDS, amongst  universities is also explored. Two hundred and two senior physiotherapy learners from eight South African universities returned their  questionnaires and 55% of these were viable for analysis. A large portion (79% of learners indicated that the physiotherapy undergraduate degree did not adequately prepare them to cope with HIV/AIDS patients. Learners' knowledge and attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS differed significantly (41% to 73%  amongst universities. Formal lectures on HIV/AIDS significantly affected knowledge (0% -100% but not attitude towards patients. The role of the physiotherapist, precautions, transmission modes, syndrome stages, counseling and clinical skills were considered critical in the management of HIV/AIDS patients.

  1. Vegetable dishes, dairy products and fruits are key items mediating adequate dietary intake for Japanese adults with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, N; Inayama, T; Hata, K; Oka, J

    2015-11-01

    This is a cross-sectional study. The objective of this study was to ascertain the essential items mediating adequate dietary intake based on the Japanese Food Guide in common among the transtheoretical model (TTM), self-efficacy (SE) and outcome expectancy (OE). Members of the organization Spinal Injuries Japan. We posted a questionnaire survey to 2731 community-dwelling Japanese adults with spinal cord injury (SCI), and responses from 841 individuals were analyzed. Food intake was assessed as the frequency scores of 10 food items eaten in a daily diet in Japan. The correlations between the frequency scores of food intake and TTM, SE and OE were determined by binominal logistic regression analysis. The frequency scores of food intake were significantly associated with 'To eat vegetable dishes (dishes made mainly from vegetables or potatoes) not less than twice a day', 'To eat green/yellow vegetables not less than twice a day', 'To eat dairy products not less than once a day' and 'To eat fruits not less than once a day' in TTM. 'To eat vegetable dishes (dishes made mainly from vegetables or potatoes) not less than twice a day', 'To eat dairy products not less than once a day' and 'To eat fruits not less than once a day' were significantly associated with the frequency scores of food intake in SE. In OE, no differences were shown. This study finds that vegetable dishes, dairy products and fruits are the key items mediating adequate dietary intake. Dietary guidelines promoting the intake of these dishes for SCI individuals are needed.

  2. High School Students' perception of University Students as STEM representatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Eva Lykkegaard

    2012-01-01

    . Some representatives transmit information and are thereby definers, whereas other representatives illustrates as personal examples and are thereby models. This study focuses on high school students’ views on STEM representatives and the impact these representatives have on the high school students......The Danish government has an ambition to recruit more high school students into STEM educations (science, technology, engineering and/or mathematics). The students’ choice of further education is based on the people and jobs they have knowledge of. Therefore, to recruit more students into STEM...... studies, it is important to introduce high school students to good STEM representatives to make possible the development of potential STEM identities. A potential identity within a specific subject area relies on at least a situation bound relationship to the subject area or the person representing it...

  3. High School Students' Perception of University Students as STEM Representatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Eva Lykkegaard

    . Some representatives transmit infor-mation and are thereby definers, whereas other representatives illustrates as personal examples and are thereby models. This study focuses on high school students’ views on STEM representatives and the impact these representatives have on the high school students......The Danish government has an ambition to recruit more high school students into STEM edu-cations (science, technology, engineering and/or mathematics). The students’ choice of further education is based on the people and jobs they have knowledge of. Therefore, to recruit more students into STEM...... studies, it is important to introduce high school students to good STEM representatives to make possible the development of potential STEM identities. A potential identity within a specific subject area relies on at least a situation bound relation-ship to the subject area or the person representing it...

  4. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  5. An Adequate Approach to Image Retrieval Based on Local Level Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaira Muhammad Hayat Khan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Image retrieval based on text annotation has become obsolete and is no longer interesting for scientists because of its high time complexity and low precision in results. Alternatively, increase in the amount of digital images has generated an excessive need for an accurate and efficient retrieval system. This paper proposes content based image retrieval technique at a local level incorporating all the rudimentary features. Image undergoes the segmentation process initially and each segment is then directed to the feature extraction process. The proposed technique is also based on image?s content which primarily includes texture, shape and color. Besides these three basic features, FD (Fourier Descriptors and edge histogram descriptors are also calculated to enhance the feature extraction process by taking hold of information at the boundary. Performance of the proposed method is found to be quite adequate when compared with the results from one of the best local level CBIR (Content Based Image Retrieval techniques.

  6. The classification of explosion-proof protected induction motor into adequate temperature and efficiency class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinovar, Iztok; Srpčič, Gregor; Seme, Sebastijan; Štumberger, Bojan; Hadžiselimović, Miralem

    2017-07-01

    This article deals with the classification of explosion-proof protected induction motors, which are used in hazardous areas, into adequate temperature and efficiency class. Hazardous areas are defined as locations with a potentially explosive atmosphere where explosion may occur due to present of flammable gasses, liquids or combustible dusts (industrial plants, mines, etc.). Electric motors and electrical equipment used in such locations must be specially designed and tested to prevent electrical initiation of explosion due to high surface temperature and arcing contacts. This article presents the basic tests of three-phase explosion-proof protected induction motor with special emphasis on the measuring system and temperature rise test. All the measurements were performed with high-accuracy instrumentation and accessory equipment and carried out at the Institute of energy technology in the Electric machines and drives laboratory and Applied electrical engineering laboratory.

  7. Adequate bases of phase space master integrals for $gg \\to h$ at NNLO and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Höschele, Maik; Ueda, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    We study master integrals needed to compute the Higgs boson production cross section via gluon fusion in the infinite top quark mass limit, using a canonical form of differential equations for master integrals, recently identified by Henn, which makes their solution possible in a straightforward algebraic way. We apply the known criteria to derive such a suitable basis for all the phase space master integrals in afore mentioned process at next-to-next-to-leading order in QCD and demonstrate that the method is applicable to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order as well by solving a non-planar topology. Furthermore, we discuss in great detail how to find an adequate basis using practical examples. Special emphasis is devoted to master integrals which are coupled by their differential equations.

  8. Adequate bases of phase space master integrals for gg → h at NNLO and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höschele, Maik; Hoff, Jens; Ueda, Takahiro

    2014-09-01

    We study master integrals needed to compute the Higgs boson production cross section via gluon fusion in the infinite top quark mass limit, using a canonical form of differential equations for master integrals, recently identified by Henn, which makes their solution possible in a straightforward algebraic way. We apply the known criteria to derive such a suitable basis for all the phase space master integrals in afore mentioned process at next-to-next-to-leading order in QCD and demonstrate that the method is applicable to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order as well by solving a non-planar topology. Furthermore, we discuss in great detail how to find an adequate basis using practical examples. Special emphasis is devoted to master integrals which are coupled by their differential equations.

  9. Precise femtosecond laser ablation of dental hard tissue: preliminary investigation on adequate laser parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikov, Todor; Pecheva, Emilia; Montgomery, Paul; Antoni, Frederic; Leong-Hoi, Audrey; Petrov, Todor

    2017-01-01

    This work aims at evaluating the possibility of introducing state-of-the-art commercial femtosecond laser system in restorative dentistry by maintaining well-known benefits of lasers for caries removal, but also in overcoming disadvantages such as thermal damage of irradiated substrate. Femtosecond ablation of dental hard tissue is investigated by changing the irradiation parameters (pulsed laser energy, scanning speed and pulse repetition rate), assessed for enamel and dentin. The femtosecond laser system used in this work may be suitable for cavity preparation in dentin and enamel, due to the expected effective ablation and low temperature increase when using ultra short laser pulses. If adequate laser parameters are selected, this system seems to be promising for promoting a laser-assisted, minimally invasive approach in restorative dentistry.

  10. Overcome of Carbon Catabolite Repression of Bioinsecticides Production by Sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis through Adequate Fermentation Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Jaoua, Samir; Zouari, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    The overcoming of catabolite repression, in bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain S22 was investigated into fully controlled 3 L fermenter, using glucose based medium. When applying adequate oxygen profile throughout the fermentation period (75% oxygen saturation), it was possible to partially overcome the catabolite repression, normally occurring at high initial glucose concentrations (30 and 40 g/L glucose). Moreover, toxin production yield by sporeless strain S22 was markedly improved by the adoption of the fed-batch intermittent cultures technology. With 22.5 g/L glucose used into culture medium, toxin production was improved by about 36% when applying fed-batch culture compared to one batch. Consequently, the proposed fed-batch strategy was efficient for the overcome of the carbon catabolite repression. So, it was possible to overproduce insecticidal crystal proteins into highly concentrated medium.

  11. Overcome of Carbon Catabolite Repression of Bioinsecticides Production by Sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis through Adequate Fermentation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussen Ben Khedher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The overcoming of catabolite repression, in bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain S22 was investigated into fully controlled 3 L fermenter, using glucose based medium. When applying adequate oxygen profile throughout the fermentation period (75% oxygen saturation, it was possible to partially overcome the catabolite repression, normally occurring at high initial glucose concentrations (30 and 40 g/L glucose. Moreover, toxin production yield by sporeless strain S22 was markedly improved by the adoption of the fed-batch intermittent cultures technology. With 22.5 g/L glucose used into culture medium, toxin production was improved by about 36% when applying fed-batch culture compared to one batch. Consequently, the proposed fed-batch strategy was efficient for the overcome of the carbon catabolite repression. So, it was possible to overproduce insecticidal crystal proteins into highly concentrated medium.

  12. Nebulized antibiotics. An adequate option for treating ventilator-associated respiratory infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Barcenilla, F

    2015-03-01

    Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) is a frequent complication in critical patients. The 90% of those who develop it receive broad-spectrum antibiotic (ATB) treatment, without any strong evidence of its favorable impact. The use of nebulized ATB could be a valid treatment option, to reduce the use of systemic ATB and the pressure of selection on the local flora. Several studies suggest that an adequate nebulization technique can ensure high levels of ATB even in areas of lung consolidation, and to obtain clinical and microbiological cure. New studies are needed to properly assess the impact of treatment with nebulized ATB on the emergence of resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  13. Adequate vitamin D status and adiposity contribute to bone health in peripubertal nonobese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Ah; Kim, Ji Young; Kang, Min Jae; Chung, Seung Joon; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won

    2013-05-01

    The dietary reference intake (DRI) of vitamin D for Korean children was reduced from 400 IU/day in 2005 to 200 IU/day in 2010. We evaluated the risk factors for low 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status and its relationships with bone health in peripubertal nonobese children living in Seoul or Gyeonggi-do. One hundred children (9.3 ± 1.9 years, 71 prepubertal, 45 boys) participated in the winter (n = 38, December through March) and summer (June through September). Bone mineral content (Z_BMC), fat mass (Z_FM), lean mass (Z_LM), and bone mineral density for the total body (Z_TB) and lumbar spine (Z_L1-4) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Twenty-nine percent of children (47.4 % in winter, 17.7 % in summer) were vitamin D deficient (25(OH)D level of vitamin D intake (P = 0.044) were associated with low 25(OH)D level. The 25(OH)D level correlated positively with Z_BMC (P = 0.040), Z_TB (P = 0.027), and Z_L1-4 (P = 0.045) independently of sex, puberty, Z_FM, Z_LM, physical activity level, and calcium intake. Z_FM correlated independently with Z_BMC (P vitamin D deficient in winter. Adequate vitamin D status and adiposity contributed to good bone health in nonobese children. Considering the beneficial effects of adequate vitamin D status on bone health, the current DRI may be insufficient for preventing vitamin D deficiency in winter among Korean children.

  14. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen; Smed, Sinne; Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Mojca; Rayner, Mike; Darmon, Nicole; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Background Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Methods Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA), or dietary guidelines (DG), or nutrient recommendations (N), or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN), or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN). The variety and number of foods in each of the resulting five baskets was increased through limiting the relative share of individual foods. Results The one-day version of N contained only 12 foods at the minimum cost of DKK 27 (€ 3.6). The CA, DG, and DGN were about twice of this and the CAN cost ~DKK 81 (€ 10.8). The baskets with the greater variety of foods contained from 70 (CAN) to 134 (DGN) foods and cost between DKK 60 (€ 8.1, N) and DKK 125 (€ 16.8, DGN). Ensuring that the food baskets cover both dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations doubled the cost while cultural acceptability (CAN) tripled it. Conclusion Use of linear programming facilitates the generation of low-cost food baskets that are nutritionally adequate, health promoting, and culturally acceptable. PMID:27760131

  15. Are general surgery residents adequately prepared for hepatopancreatobiliary fellowships? A questionnaire-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Houssam; Parikh, Janak; Patel, Shirali; Jeyarajah, D Rohan

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study was conducted to assess the preparedness of hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) fellows upon entering fellowship, identify challenges encountered by HPB fellows during the initial part of their HPB training, and identify potential solutions to these challenges that can be applied during residency training. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to all HPB fellows in accredited HPB fellowship programmes in two consecutive academic years (n = 42). Reponses were then analysed. Results A total of 19 (45%) fellows responded. Prior to their fellowship, 10 (53%) were in surgical residency and the rest were in other surgical fellowships or surgical practice. Thirteen (68%) were graduates of university-based residency programmes. All fellows felt comfortable in performing basic laparoscopic procedures independently at the completion of residency and less comfortable in performing advanced laparoscopy. Eight (42%) fellows cited a combination of inadequate case volume and lack of autonomy during residency as the reasons for this lack of comfort. Thirteen (68%) identified inadequate preoperative workup and management as their biggest fear upon entering practice after general surgery training. A total of 17 (89%) fellows felt they were adequately prepared to enter HPB fellowship. Extra rotations in transplant, vascular or minimally invasive surgery were believed to be most helpful in preparing general surgery residents pursing HPB fellowships. Conclusions Overall, HPB fellows felt themselves to be adequately prepared for fellowship. Advanced laparoscopic procedures and the perioperative management of complex patients are two of the challenges facing HPB fellows. General surgery residents who plan to pursue an HPB fellowship may benefit from spending extra rotations on certain subspecialties. Focus on perioperative workup and management should be an integral part of residency and fellowship training. PMID:25387852

  16. A Comparison of Pseudo-Maximum Likelihood and Asymptotically Distribution-Free Dynamic Factor Analysis Parameter Estimation in Fitting Covariance-Structure Models to Block-Toeplitz Representing Single-Subject Multivariate Time-Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, P.C.M.; Nesselroade, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    The study of intraindividual variability pervades empirical inquiry in virtually all subdisciplines of psychology. The statistical analysis of multivariate time-series data - a central product of intraindividual investigations - requires special modeling techniques. The dynamic factor model (DFM), w

  17. VT Biodiversity Project - Representative Landscapes boundary lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This coverage represents the results of an analysis of landscape diversity in Vermont. Polygons in the dataset represent as much as possible (in a...

  18. A Model for Analytic Investigation of Three-Dimensional Head-Spine Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    the rotation of the ribs and the deformation of the costo-sternal cartilage . Each rib is connected to two vertebrae by means of three deformable...deform- able element, which represents the deformability of the costo- cartilage . This model is thus quite adequate for representing the additional...deformable elements representing the elastic behavior of soft tissues occupying the intercostal spaces, and a pair of points at the interior end of the

  19. Representing User Navigation in XML Retrieval with Structural Summaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, M. S.; Consens, Mariano P.; Larsen, Birger

    This poster presents a novel way to represent user navigation in XML retrieval using collection statistics from XML summaries. Currently, developing user navigation models in XML retrieval is costly and the models are specific to collected user assessments. We address this problem by proposing...... summary navigation models which describe user navigation in terms of XML summaries. We develop our proposal using assessments collected in the interactive track at INEX 2006. Our preliminary results suggest that summary navigation models can represent user navigation in a way that is e ective...

  20. Disparities in adequate mental health care for past-year major depressive episodes among Caucasian and Hispanic youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Pierre K; Martins, Silvia S; Richard, Patrick

    2009-10-01

    Following efforts made in recent years to provide effective mental health treatments based on evidence-based guidelines, a working definition was developed in the literature detailing a minimum level of "adequate mental health care" for serious mental illness. However, little is known about racial or ethnic disparities in receipt of adequate mental health care for individuals affected with serious mental illness. The objective of this study was to examine disparities among Caucasian and Hispanic youths in receipt of adequate mental health care for past-year major depressive episodes. Data for this study were drawn from the 2005 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. The study sample was composed of 1,169 Caucasian youths and 316 Hispanic youths aged 12 to 17 with past-year major depressive episodes. The percentages of youths in the sample who received adequate mental health care for past-year major depressive episodes were estimated, and the correlates of receipt of adequate mental health care were examined. Thirty-four percent of the full sample received adequate mental health care for past-year major depressive episodes, but separate analyses indicated that adequate mental health care was received by a significantly higher proportion of Caucasian youths (36%) than Hispanic youths (27%). The odds of receiving adequate mental health care for past-year major depressive episodes for Caucasians were 1.55 times that of Hispanics (p=.01). Having Medicaid or coverage via the State Children's Health Insurance Program significantly increased the odds of receiving adequate mental care for past-year major depressive episodes for both Hispanics and Caucasians. As mental health problems of adolescents from diverse racial or ethnic backgrounds become more easily identified and a larger proportion of these groups is referred to mental health treatment services, it is important to examine the degree to which treatment should be tailored to engage and retain specific racial or

  1. 7 CFR 1280.611 - Representative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative period. 1280.611 Section 1280.611... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.611 Representative period. Representative period means the period designated by the Secretary pursuant to § 518 of the Act. ...

  2. 29 CFR 548.405 - Representative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representative period. 548.405 Section 548.405 Labor... Application § 548.405 Representative period. (a) The application must set forth the facts relied upon to show... employee exclusive of overtime premiums over a representative period of time. 21 The basic rate will be...

  3. 7 CFR 1230.618 - Representative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative period. 1230.618 Section 1230.618... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.618 Representative period. The term Representative period means the 12-consecutive months prior to the first day of absentee and...

  4. 7 CFR 1220.612 - Representative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative period. 1220.612 Section 1220.612... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.612 Representative period. Representative period means the period designated by the Secretary pursuant to section 1970 of the Act. ...

  5. Mining Representative Subset Based on Fuzzy Clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hongfang; FENG Boqin; L(U) Lintao

    2007-01-01

    Two new concepts-fuzzy mutuality and average fuzzy entropy are presented. Then based on these concepts, a new algorithm-RSMA (representative subset mining algorithm) is proposed, which can abstract representative subset from massive data.To accelerate the speed of producing representative subset, an improved algorithm-ARSMA(accelerated representative subset mining algorithm) is advanced, which adopt combining putting forward with backward strategies. In this way, the performance of the algorithm is improved. Finally we make experiments on real datasets and evaluate the representative subset. The experiment shows that ARSMA algorithm is more excellent than RandomPick algorithm either on effectiveness or efficiency.

  6. A formação inicial em química baseada em conceitos representados por meio de modelos mentais Chemistry education based on concepts represented by mental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bizarria Gibin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The current legislation determines that the chemist must have a solid comprehension about chemical concepts. Literature presents the concept of mental model, which is determinant to the learning of phenomena and concepts. This paper presents some mental models that students of the Chemistry course at UFSCar have about chemical concepts. A lot of incoherence was observed in student's mental models, which is an evidence that there are problems in the learning of chemistry education.

  7. Adequate sleep among adolescents is positively associated with health status and health-related behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng Yi-Jong

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amount of sleep is an important indicator of health and well-being in children and adolescents. Adequate sleep (AS: adequate sleep is defined as 6–8 hours per night regularly is a critical factor in adolescent health and health-related behaviors. The present study was based on a health promotion project previously conducted on adolescents in Tao-Yuan County, Taiwan. The aim was to examine the relationship between AS during schooldays and excessive body weight, frequency of visiting doctors and health-related behaviors among Taiwanese adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study design, categorical and multivariate data analyses were used. The hypotheses investigated were: high frequency of AS is positively associated with lack of obesity and less frequent visits to doctors; and high frequency AS is positively associated with health-related behavior. Results A total of 656 boys (53.2% and girls (46.8%, ranging in age from 13–18 years were studied between January and June 2004. Three hundred and fifty seven subjects (54% reported that they slept less than the suggested 6–8 hours on schooldays. A significant negative association was found between low sleep and of the following health-related behaviors: (1 life appreciation; (2 taking responsibility for health; (3 adopting healthy diet; (4 effective stress management; (5 regular exercise; and (6 total AHP score. High frequency AS was associated with low frequencies of obesity after potential confounding factors were controlled. Junior high school adolescents reported significantly higher frequencies of AS than high school participants. Gender, family structure, home location and frequency of television watching or computer use were not significantly associated with AS. Conclusion These findings support the proposition that AS is associated with good health status and high-frequency adoption of health-related behavior. Furthermore, these findings suggest that inadequate

  8. Timing and adequate attendance of antenatal care visits among women in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaya, Sanni; Bishwajit, Ghose; Ekholuenetale, Michael; Shah, Vaibhav; Kadio, Bernard; Udenigwe, Ogochukwu

    2017-01-01

    Although ANC services are increasingly available to women in low and middle-income countries, their inadequate use persists. This suggests a misalignment between aims of the services and maternal beliefs and circumstances. Owing to the dearth of studies examining the timing and adequacy of content of care, this current study aims to investigate the timing and frequency of ANC visits in Ethiopia. Data was obtained from the nationally representative 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) which used a two-stage cluster sampling design to provide estimates for the health and demographic variables of interest for the country. Our study focused on a sample of 10,896 women with history of at least one childbirth event. Percentages of timing and adequacy of ANC visits were conducted across the levels of selected factors. Variables which were associated at 5% significance level were examined in the multivariable logistic regression model for association between timing and frequency of ANC visits and the explanatory variables while controlling for covariates. Furthermore, we presented the approach to estimate marginal effects involving covariate-adjusted logistic regression with corresponding 95%CI of delayed initiation of ANC visits and inadequate ANC attendance. The method used involved predicted probabilities added up to a weighted average showing the covariate distribution in the population. Results indicate that 66.3% of women did not use ANC at first trimester and 22.3% had ANC less than 4 visits. The results of this study were unique in that the association between delayed ANC visits and adequacy of ANC visits were examined using multivariable logistic model and the marginal effects using predicted probabilities. Results revealed that older age interval has higher odds of inadequate ANC visits. More so, type of place of residence was associated with delayed initiation of ANC visits, with rural women having the higher odds of delayed initiation of ANC

  9. Representative Agricultural Pathways and Scenarios for Regional Integrated Assessment of Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability, and Adaptation. 5; Chapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Roberto O.; Antle, John M.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruane, Alexander C.; Vervoort, Joost; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hathie, Ibrahima; Tui, Sabine Homann-Kee; Mulwa, Richard; Nhemachena, Charles; Ponnusamy, Paramasivam; Rasnayaka, Herath; Singh, Harbir

    2015-01-01

    The global change research community has recognized that new pathway and scenario concepts are needed to implement impact and vulnerability assessment where precise prediction is not possible, and also that these scenarios need to be logically consistent across local, regional, and global scales. For global climate models, representative concentration pathways (RCPs) have been developed that provide a range of time-series of atmospheric greenhouse-gas concentrations into the future. For impact and vulnerability assessment, new socio-economic pathway and scenario concepts have also been developed, with leadership from the Integrated Assessment Modeling Consortium (IAMC).This chapter presents concepts and methods for development of regional representative agricultural pathways (RAOs) and scenarios that can be used for agricultural model intercomparison, improvement, and impact assessment in a manner consistent with the new global pathways and scenarios. The development of agriculture-specific pathways and scenarios is motivated by the need for a protocol-based approach to climate impact, vulnerability, and adaptation assessment. Until now, the various global and regional models used for agricultural-impact assessment have been implemented with individualized scenarios using various data and model structures, often without transparent documentation, public availability, and consistency across disciplines. These practices have reduced the credibility of assessments, and also hampered the advancement of the science through model intercomparison, improvement, and synthesis of model results across studies. The recognition of the need for better coordination among the agricultural modeling community, including the development of standard reference scenarios with adequate agriculture-specific detail led to the creation of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) in 2010. The development of RAPs is one of the cross-cutting themes in AgMIP's work

  10. Visual Representativeness in Junior Secondary School English Language Textbooks in Use in Ebonyi State of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinyere Henrietta Maduabuchi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from research findings seems to corroborate with the assertion that the students’ constant difficulties in the comprehension of English language texts may have emanated from the limited visual representativeness in most of the recommended textbooks in use in Junior Secondary Schools in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. Textbooks help to equip teachers and learners with broad and factual information concerning what learners should learn by helping them to perform well in the learning environment and in external examinations. This study investigated the types of visual representativeness in Junior Secondary School English Language Textbooks in Ebonyi State vis-à-vis the curriculum content. An exploratory-interpretive design was used in the study. A total of 9 textbooks were selected out of the 18 English language textbooks used in Ebonyi State. The visual representativeness in the textbooks were analyzed using content and qualitative analysis. Simple Percentage and frequency counts were used in the interpretation of visual representativeness in JSS English Language in Use in Ebonyi State. This was done by taking the frequency of the visual representativeness in the textbooks based on the content specification on visual representativeness of topics in the curriculum. The findings showed that the English language textbooks used in junior secondary schools in Ebonyi State of Nigeria adopted decorational, representational, and transformational visuals. It was also found that the visual representativeness in some of the English language textbooks were inadequate. For instance, the Intensive English (books I, II, and III, had 14.2%, 8%, and 19.2% under represented visuals respectively, and 85.7%, 92%, and 80.8%  adequately represented visuals respectively, In New Concept English (books I, II, III , we had 14.3%, 23.8%, and 29.4% under represented visuals respectively, and 85.7%, 77.1%, and 70.5% adequately represented visuals respectively and Junior

  11. Leptin and its Receptors in Human Placenta of Small, Adequate, and Large for Gestational Age Newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo-de-la-Vega-Monroy, Maria-Luisa; González-Domínguez, Martha I; Zaina, Silvio; Sabanero, Myrna; Daza-Benítez, Leonel; Malacara, Juan Manuel; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria

    2017-05-01

    Alterations in birth weight impact postnatal outcome and adult metabolic health. Therefore, fetal growth regulation is crucial for preventing chronic metabolic diseases. Leptin has been suggested to play an important role in placental and fetal growth, albeit its specific mechanisms of action have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to analyze leptin concentrations in placenta, cord blood, and maternal blood of SGA, AGA, and LGA (small, adequate and large for gestational age, respectively) newborns, as well as placental leptin receptor (LEPRa and LEPRb) protein expression. We performed a cross-sectional comparative study in 3 groups of healthy mothers and their term newborns at delivery (SGA, AGA, and LGA, n=20 per group). Placental, maternal blood, and cord blood leptin content were measured by ELISA. Placental LEPRa and LEPRb protein expression were determined by Western Blot. Maternal leptin concentrations correlated positively with maternal weight before and at the end of gestation, without differences between groups. Cord leptin is higher in LGA and lower in SGA, whereas placental leptin is higher in SGA. Placental leptin was inversely correlated with placental weight, independently from maternal weight and gestational age. Both LEPRa and LEPRb expression are lower in SGA, while LEPRa positively correlated with placental weight and birthweight. The current findings indicate that placental leptin and its receptors are differentially expressed in SGA, AGA, and LGA newborns. We suggest that placental leptin and LEPR protein expression may influence placental growth and thus, birth weight. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. An adequate interset rest period for strength recovery during a common isokinetic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazquez, Ivan N; Warren, Barbara L; O'Hanlon, Ann M; Silvestri, Lynette R

    2013-07-01

    Isokinetic testing is used in rehabilitation settings on a regular basis; yet, there is a lack of consistency in rest period usage among protocols. Furthermore, the allotment of rest periods has been arbitrary (e.g., 30, 60, 90 seconds or more). This investigation examines the work:rest ratio as an effective method of standardizing rest periods in isokinetic testing. The purpose of this study was to establish an adequate rest period that would allow reproducibility of strength during a common isokinetic strength test. Twenty-seven healthy college-aged men (age, 23 ± 3.8 years; body weight, 79.54 ± 11.09 kg) were tested on 5 separate occasions: 2 familiarization sessions and 3 experimental sessions. Each subject performed a knee extension/flexion isokinetic strength protocol (Cybex NORM; Lumex, Inc., Ronkonkoma, NY, USA) to determine peak torque by performing 5 maximal reciprocal repetitions at each ascending velocity of 60, 180, and 300°·s. Work:rest ratios of 1:3, 1:8, and 1:12 were counterbalanced between sets. A 3 × 3 repeated measures analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. A significance level of α ≤ 0.05 was used for all tests. There was no significant difference in either knee extension or knee flexion peak torque when comparing work:rest ratios. These findings suggest that a 1:3 work:rest ratio is sufficient during a common isokinetic strength test.

  13. Internship training adequately prepares South African medical graduates for community service - with exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkabinde, T C; Ross, A; Reid, S; Nkwanyana, N M

    2013-09-30

    The 2-year internship period for medical graduates began in South Africa in 2005 and has never been formally evaluated. This study assessed the perceptions of community service medical officers (COSMOs) working at district hospitals (DHs) in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) to determine whether the 2-year internship programme had adequately prepared them for community service (CS). A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted regarding the perceptions of COSMOs working at 22 district hospitals in KZN. Data were collected in July 2012, using a questionnaire based on the core skills and knowledge detailed in the Health Professions Council of South Africa intern log book. All eight domains were self-assessed and a score of 4 out of 5 indicated an ability to work independently. Of the COSMOs, 78% (60 out of 89) completed the questionnaire. Most felt well-prepared for CS in all disciplines, but critical gaps in knowledge and skills were identified in paediatrics, orthopaedics, anaesthetics and obstetrics. In addition, 75% of respondents (45 out of 60) expressed a need for additional training in the disciplines of ear, nose and throat (ENT), urology, ophthalmology and dermatology. The 2-year internship has provided the basis for independent medical practice in DHs. However, certain critical skill gaps need urgent attention, particularly in obstetrics and anaesthesia. Areas of weakness in ENT, urology, ophthalmology and dermatology could be addressed by including these specialities as a compulsory rotation in surgery, medicine or family medicine during internship training.

  14. A high UV environment does not ensure adequate Vitamin D status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimlin, M. G.; Lang, C. A.; Brodie, A.; Harrison, S.; Nowak, M.; Moore, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    Queensland has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world and due to the high levels of solar UV in this region it is assumed that incidental UV exposure should provide adequate vitamin D status for the population. This research was undertaken to test this assumption among healthy free-living adults in south-east Queensland, Australia (27°S), at the end of winter. This research was approved by Queensland University of Technology Human Research Ethics Committee and conducted under the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki. 10.2% of the sample had serum vitamin D levels below 25nm/L (deficiency) and a further 32.3% had levels between 25nm/L and 50nm/L (insufficiency). Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency can occur at the end of winter, even in sunny climates. The wintertime UV levels in south-east Queensland (UV index 4-6) are equivalent to summertime UV levels in northern regions of Europe and the USA. These ambient UV levels are sufficient to ensure synthesis of vitamin D requirements. We investigated individual UV exposure (through a self reported sun exposure questionnaire) and found correlations between exposure and Vitamin D status. Further research is needed to explore the interactions between the solar UV environment and vitamin D status, particularly in high UV environments, such as Queensland.

  15. Improved ASTM G72 Test Method for Ensuring Adequate Fuel-to-Oxidizer Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susana Tapia

    2016-01-01

    The ASTM G72/G72M-15 Standard Test Method for Autogenous Ignition Temperature of Liquids and Solids in a High-Pressure Oxygen-Enriched Environment is currently used to evaluate materials for the ignition susceptibility driven by exposure to external heat in an enriched oxygen environment. Testing performed on highly volatile liquids such as cleaning solvents has proven problematic due to inconsistent test results (non-ignitions). Non-ignition results can be misinterpreted as favorable oxygen compatibility, although they are more likely associated with inadequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios. Forced evaporation during purging and inadequate sample size were identified as two potential causes for inadequate available sample material during testing. In an effort to maintain adequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios within the reaction vessel during test, several parameters were considered, including sample size, pretest sample chilling, pretest purging, and test pressure. Tests on a variety of solvents exhibiting a range of volatilities are presented in this paper. A proposed improvement to the standard test protocol as a result of this evaluation is also presented. Execution of the final proposed improved test protocol outlines an incremental step method of determining optimal conditions using increased sample sizes while considering test system safety limits. The proposed improved test method increases confidence in results obtained by utilizing the ASTM G72 autogenous ignition temperature test method and can aid in the oxygen compatibility assessment of highly volatile liquids and other conditions that may lead to false non-ignition results.

  16. Are GPs adequately equipped with the knowledge for educating and counseling of families with ADHD children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarei Nabi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common child psychiatry disorders. General physicians (GP, as primary care providers, can have an important role in screening and treatment of ADHD. This study aimed to survey GPs' knowledge, attitude, and their views of their role in the screening, diagnosing and managing children with ADHD. Methods Six hundred and sixty five general physicians in Shiraz, Iran, answered a self-reported questionnaire on ADHD. The questionnaire consisted of questions regarding socio-demographic characteristics such as age, the duration of practice as a GP, marital status, general knowledge about ADHD, and the management of ADHD. Results Less than half of them believed that they have adequate knowledge and information about this disorder. They usually do not like to be the primary care providers for children with ADHD. The majority of them prefer to refer the children to related specialists, mostly psychiatrists or psychologists. More than one third of them believed that sugar is a cause of ADHD. Only 6.6% of them reported that ADHD persists for the whole life. Their knowledge about methylphenidate is reasonable. Conclusions As many other countries worldwide, the knowledge of GPs about ADHD should be improved. They do not asses and manage children with probable ADHD by themselves without referring to related professionals. They do not opt for the use of methylphenidate.

  17. [Survey of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in Japan. Molecular epidemiology and factors affecting adequate hairbrush sampling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Tanabe, Hiroshi; Wakasa, Asako; Kawasaki, Masako; Anzawa, Kazushi; Ishizaki, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    At the 48th Annual Meeting of The Society for Japanese Medical Mycology, held in October, 2004, we reported our findings from a survey on Trichophyton tonsurans infections in the Hokuriku and Kinki regions of Japan. The survey revealed that a few epidemics had occurred across these regions. In this article, we introduce our subsequent studies relating to 1) molecular epidemiology of isolates taken from people in many parts of Japan and 2) factors affecting adequate sampling of the scalp with hairbrushes, essential for surveying and monitoring the infection. In total, 198 isolates of Trichophyton tonsurans were analyzed using restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the non-transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal RNA genes. The restriction enzyme Mva I indicated two molecular types of strains, implying that the causative agents of the epidemic had different origins. None of the isolates obtained from the epidemic showed the same restriction profile as that of isolates from aged and sporadic cases. The published hairbrush method suitable for obtaining samples from the scalp of Judo trainees was reevaluated by changing several factors. We found that sampling should not be done soon after the students' physical training because other fungal elements may give a false positive, samples should not be obtained from students who have recently applied topical antimycotics, and samples should be taken under the guidance of qualified instructors familiar with the sampling method.

  18. Is current medical education adequately preparing future physicians to manage concussion: an initial evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaworth, Michael A; Grandhi, Ravi K; Logan, Kelsey; Gubanich, Paul J; Myer, Gregory D

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, there were 2.5 million hospitalizations, emergency room visits, or deaths associated with concussions in the United States.[1] Knowledge deficits exist among physicians regarding concussion management, which can lead to severe repercussions, including poor patient outcomes, poor patient satisfaction, and potential medical-legal issues. While concussion is a prevalent condition evaluated in the medical field, medical students continue to have a knowledge deficit regarding concussion diagnosis, prognosis, medical management, and return to play guidelines. Medical students from a mid-western medical school completed a survey on concussion diagnosis, prognosis, medical management, and return to play guidelines. The response rate was 40%. The data suggests that the vast majority of medical students are able to define concussion; however, most reported never having a lecture dedicated to concussion during medical school and also lacked clinical experience with acute concussion and post-concussive syndrome. There are clear areas of deficiency as noted by the inability of students to correctly identify symptoms and appropriate management of concussion. The current study indicates that at an individual, mid-western, top 50 medical school, current medical trainees may not be adequately educated to identify and manage concussion. Future research is warranted to determine the optimal guidelines to educate future physicians as it pertains to concussion diagnosis, management, prognosis, and return to play guidelines.

  19. Development of Reasoning Associated with Pictographs: Representing, Interpreting, and Predicting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.; Moritz, Jonathan B.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes a developmental model involving four response levels concerning how students arrange pictures to represent data in a pictograph, how they interpret these pictographs, and how they make predictions based on these pictographs. The model is exemplified by responses from three related interview-based studies. Discusses educational…

  20. Representing Others in a Public Good Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Evelyn Hauge

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In many important public good situations the decision-making power and authority is delegated to representatives who make binding decisions on behalf of a larger group. The purpose of this study is to compare contribution decisions made by individuals with contribution decisions made by group representatives. We present the results from a laboratory experiment that compares decisions made by individuals in inter-individual public good games with decisions made by representatives on behalf of their group in inter-group public good games. Our main finding is that contribution behavior differs between individuals and group representatives, but only for women. While men’s choices are equally self-interested as individuals and group representatives, women make less self-interested choices as group representatives.

  1. Represented Speech in Qualitative Health Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Represented speech refers to speech where we reference somebody. Represented speech is an important phenomenon in everyday conversation, health care communication, and qualitative research. This case will draw first from a case study on physicians’ workplace learning and second from a case study...... on nurses’ apprenticeship learning. The aim of the case is to guide the qualitative researcher to use own and others’ voices in the interview and to be sensitive to represented speech in everyday conversation. Moreover, reported speech matters to health professionals who aim to represent the voice...... of their patients. Qualitative researchers and students might learn to encourage interviewees to elaborate different voices or perspectives. Qualitative researchers working with natural speech might pay attention to how people talk and use represented speech. Finally, represented speech might be relevant...

  2. Representing Quadric Surfaces Using NURBS Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦开怀

    1997-01-01

    A method for representing quadrc surfaces using NURBS is presented.By means of the necessary and sufficient conditons for NURBS curves to precisely represent circular arcs and other conics,quadric surfaces can be represented by NURBS surfaces with fewer control vertices.The method can be used not only for NURBS surface representation of quadric surfaces,but also for rounding polyhedrons.Many examples are given in the paper.

  3. Adequate trust avails, mistaken trust matters: on the moral responsibility of doctors as proxies for patients' trust in biobank research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Linus; Helgesson, Gert; Hansson, Mats G; Eriksson, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    In Sweden, most patients are recruited into biobank research by non-researcher doctors. Patients' trust in doctors may therefore be important to their willingness to participate. We suggest a model of trust that makes sense of such transitions of trust between domains and distinguishes adequate trust from mistaken trust. The unique position of doctors implies, we argue, a Kantian imperfect duty to compensate for patients' mistaken trust. There are at least three kinds of mistaken trust, each of which requires a different set of countermeasures. First, trust is mistaken when necessary competence is lacking; the competence must be developed or the illusion dispelled. Second, trust is irrational whenever the patient is mistaken about his actual reasons for trusting. Care must therefore be taken to support the patient's reasoning and moral agency. Third, some patients inappropriately trust doctors to recommend only research that will benefit them directly. Such trust should be counteracted by nurturing a culture where patients expect to be asked occasionally to contribute to the common good.

  4. Impact of Diet-Induced Obesity and Testosterone Deficiency on the Cardiovascular System: A Novel Rodent Model Representative of Males with Testosterone-Deficient Metabolic Syndrome (TDMetS)

    OpenAIRE

    Donner, Daniel G.; Elliott, Grace E.; Belinda R. Beck; Bulmer, Andrew C.; Du Toit, Eugene F

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Current models of obesity utilise normogonadic animals and neglect the strong relationships between obesity-associated metabolic syndrome (MetS) and male testosterone deficiency (TD). The joint presentation of these conditions has complex implications for the cardiovascular system that are not well understood. We have characterised and investigated three models in male rats: one of diet-induced obesity with the MetS; a second using orchiectomised rats mimicking TD; and a third co...

  5. Determinants of prompt and adequate care among presumed malaria cases in a community in eastern Rwanda: A cross sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingabire, C.M.; Kateera, F.; Hakizimana, E.; Rulisa, A.; Muvunyi, C.; Mens, P.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Mutesa, L.; Vugt, M. van; Borne, B. van den; Alaii, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In order to understand factors influencing fever/malaria management practices among community-based individuals, the study evaluated psychosocial, socio-demographic and environmental determinants of prompt and adequate healthcare-seeking behaviours. Methods: A quantitative household (HH)

  6. The two-layer geochemical structure of modern biogeochemical provinces and its significance for spatially adequate ecological evaluations and decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    regard to secondary redistribution of chemical elements; 3) selection of areas adequate for the short- and long-term ecogeochemical monitoring; 4) selection of areas as global and regional biogeochemical standards. The approach was used to evaluate contribution of stable iodine deficiency and radioactive iodine fallout to distribution of thyroid diseases among population of the Bryansk region [1], to evaluate natural transformation of the initially uniform spatial structure of N, P, K in agricultural fields [2] and radiocesium in forest and flood plain landscapes [3]. The work has been partly supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants 07-05-00912; 10-05-01148; 13-05-00823). References Korobova E.M., S.L. Romanov, A.I. Kuvylin, E.I. Chesalova, V.Yu. Beriozkin, I.V. Kurnosova. Modern natural and technogenic iodine biogeochemical provinces: spatial structure and health effects. Goldschmidt 2011, Prague, August 14-19, 2011. Mineralogical Magazine, 75, 3, June 2011, Goldschmidt abstracts 2011, www.minersoc.org, 1224. Romanov S.L. Patterns of the structure of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium fields in landscape systems of Belorussia. Thesis. Moscow, Moscow State University, 1991, 20 p. Korobova E.M., Romanov S.L., 2009. A Chernobyl 137Cs contamination study as an example for the spatial structure of geochemical fields and modeling of the geochemical field structure. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems 99, 1-8.

  7. Representing Topological Relationships Among Heterogeneous Geometry-Collection Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Nong Zhong; Ning Jing; Luo Chen; Qiu-Yun Wu

    2004-01-01

    Topological relationships between two spatial features represent important knowledge in Geographical Information Systems (GIS). In the last few years, many models that represent topological relationships have been proposed. But these models cannot represent the topological relationships between heterogeneous geometrycollection features, which are composed of different dimensional geometries. In this paper, the formal definition of regular heterogeneous geometrycollection and regularization rules are given. Based on the spatial model, two methods for representing topological relationships between these complex features are proposed. The first method is Dimensionally Extended Nine-Intersection Model Based on Components (DE-9IMBC) that extends Dimensionally Extended Nine-Intersection Model (DE-9IM) and takes into account the topological relationships between components of these complex features. The advantage of DE-9IMBC is that a large number of different topological relationships can be checked. The second method extends the definitions of topological relationships in Open Geodata Interoperability Specification (OpenGIS), and redefines the seven named topological relationships:{Disjoint, Touches, Within, Crosses, Overlaps, Contains and Equal}, to represent the topological relationships between heterogeneous geometrycollection features. It is proven that the seven extended topological relationships are complete and mutually exclusive, and they are suitable for being embedded in spatial query languages.

  8. Representing Topological Relationships Among Heterogeneous Geometry-Collection Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-NongZhong[; NingJing; LuoChen; Qiu-YunWu

    2004-01-01

    Topological relationships between two spatial features represent important knowledge in Geographical Information Systems (GIS). In the last few years, many models that represent topological relationships have been proposed. But these models cannot represent the topological relationships between heterogeneous geometrycollection features, which are composed of different dimensional geometries. In this paper, the formal definition of regular heterogeneous geometrycollection and regularization rules are given. Based on the spatial model, two methods for representing topological relationships between these complex features are proposed. The first method is Dimensionally Extended Nine-Intersection Model Based on Components (DE-9IMBC) that extends Dimensionally Extended Nine-Intersection Model (DE-9IM) and takes into account the topological relationships between components of these complex features. The advantage of DE-9IMBC is that a large number of different topological relationships can be checked. The second method extends the definitions of topological relationships in Open Geodata Interoperability Specification (OpenGIS), and redefines the seven named topological relationships: {Disjoint, Touches, Within, Crosses, Overlaps, Contains and Equal}, to represent the topological relationships between heterogeneous geometrycollection features. It is proven that the seven extended topological relationships are complete and mutually exclusive, and they are suitable for being embedded in spatial query languages.

  9. Offering Adequate Pedagogical Progression via Mobile Equipments-Experiment of a French Engineering School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-Luc Koning

    2006-01-01

    Students may enter our 5-year engineering school in France at two levels: first and third year.However, due to their quite different backgrounds (this is especially true for third year students), we need to provide newcomers with a 6-week training period during which they follow classes in the fields where they particularly feel weak. Unfortunately, depending on the student' s background, this is not always possible to bring him/her to the expected level. Another aspect one needs to mention is that these students may not have the same weaknesses in a given field. However, for economical reasons, those classes follow a uniform program as it is not feasible to provide a customized progression. In this paper we discuss how to redesign a mathematics course so as to offer tailored exercise sequencing.Groups of 20 students could then draw their exercises from an intranet database according to their previously completed work, try to solve it by themselves, request additional hints and even ask for some direct help from the teacher. Such a database is currently under development. If it turns out several students stumble against the same difficulty the teacher could show the whole class room how to solve it using the digital projector.This project goes one step further than our initial mobile education project ( 2003 ~ 2004 ). Until recently,we had used the equipment in a unique direction, from the instructor toward the students. Here, in this new project we are focusing on the whole loop in order to offer a more adequate (personalized) pedagogical progression: from the student to the teacher (when the tablet PCs are monitored by the teacher) , and back to-ward the students (when a direct help is proded by the teacher)

  10. Spirulina does not decrease muscle damage nor oxdidative stress in cycling athletes with adequate nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A.M. Franca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Spirulina maxima on oxidative stress and muscle damage in cycling athletes subjected to high volume and intensity of training. Eighteen male athletes were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=11 with age 27.8±3.5 and placebo (n=7 with age 34.3±2.3 in a double-blind fashion. They carried out a protocol of Spirulina dietary supplementation (7.5 g/day of placebo for four weeks and maintained their trainings during this period. A nutritional anamnesis was performed and blood tests were done to determine pre and post levels of creatine kinase (CK, lactic dehydrogenase (LHD, superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA. The supplemented and placebo groups performed the same volume training, has adequate macronutrients and antioxidant vitamins ingestion before study, as well as initial CK, LDH, SOD and MDA levels. Supplementation did not promote a significant alteration in CK levels on supplemented group (158.4±16.3 for 140.0±16.6 U/l, p>0.05, LDH (420±13.2 for 394.9±27.9 UI/l, p>0.05, MDA (2.8±0.2 for 2.9±0.4 nmol/ml, p>0.05, nor an increase in the SOD (7.3±0.6 for 7.0±0.6 U/mg Hb, p>0.05. We conclude that administration of Spirulina does not interfere in the magnitude of muscle damage nor in antioxidant status of cycling athletes that practice intense training.

  11. Emotional Experiences of Obese Women with Adequate Gestational Weight Variation: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria-Schützer, Débora Bicudo; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani de Castro; Alves, Vera Lucia Pereira; Vieira, Carla Maria; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Background As a result of the growth of the obese population, the number of obese women of fertile age has increased in the last few years. Obesity in pregnancy is related to greater levels of anxiety, depression and physical harm. However, pregnancy is an opportune moment for the intervention of health care professionals to address obesity. The objective of this study was to describe how obese pregnant women emotionally experience success in adequate weight control. Methods and Findings Using a qualitative design that seeks to understand content in the field of health, the sample of subjects was deliberated, with thirteen obese pregnant women selected to participate in an individual interview. Data was analysed by inductive content analysis and includes complete transcription of the interviews, re-readings using suspended attention, categorization in discussion topics and the qualitative and inductive analysis of the content. The analysis revealed four categories, three of which show the trajectory of body care that obese women experience during pregnancy: 1) The obese pregnant woman starts to think about her body;2) The challenge of the diet for the obese pregnant woman; 3) The relation of the obese pregnant woman with the team of antenatal professionals. The fourth category reveals the origin of the motivation for the change: 4) The potentializing factors for change: the motivation of the obese woman while pregnant. Conclusions During pregnancy, obese women are more in touch with themselves and with their emotional conflicts. Through the transformations of their bodies, women can start a more refined self-care process and experience of the body-mind unit. The fear for their own and their baby's life, due to the risks posed by obesity, appears to be a great potentializing factor for change. The relationship with the professionals of the health care team plays an important role in the motivational support of the obese pregnant woman. PMID:26529600

  12. Prevention of mother to child transmission lay counsellors: Are they adequately trained?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine H. Thurling

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected women requires a comprehensive health care approach to pregnancy because of the added risk of their HIV status. As a result of the shortage of health care workers in South Africa, lay counsellors play important roles in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT.There is no standardization of training of lay counsellors in South Africa, and training varies in length depending on the training organisation.The study aimed to investigate the training of lay counsellors by analysing their training curricula and interviewing lay counsellors about their perceptions of their training.A two phase research method was applied. Phase one documented an analysis of the training curricula. Phase two was semi-structured interviews with the participants. Purposive sampling was undertaken for this study. The total sample size was 13 people, with a final sample of 9 participants, determined at the point of data saturation.The research was qualitative, descriptive and contextual in design. The curricula analysed had different styles of delivery, and the approaches to learning and courses varied, resulting in inconsistent training outcomes. A need for supervision and mentorship in the working environment was also noted.The training of lay counsellors needs to be adapted to meet the extended roles that they are playing in PMTCT. The standardization of training programmes, and the incorporation of a system of mentorship in the work environment, would ensure that the lay counsellors are adequately prepared for their role in PMTCT.

  13. Do Foley catheters adequately drain the bladder? Evidence from CT imaging studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avulova, Svetlana; Li, Valery J.; Khusid, Johnathan A. [Department of Urology, SUNY Downstate College of Medicine, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Choi, Woo S. [Radiology, SUNY Downstate College of Medicine, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Weiss, Jeffrey P., E-mail: johnathan.khusid@downstate.edu [Department of Urology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Introduction: The Foley catheter has been widely assumed to be an effective means of draining the bladder. However, recent studies have brought into question its efficacy. The objective of our study is to further assess the adequacy of Foley catheter for complete drainage of the bladder. Materials and Methods: Consecutive catheterized patients were identified from a retrospective review of contrast enhanced and non-contrast enhanced computed tomographic (CT) abdomen and pelvis studies completed from 7/1/2011-6/30/2012. Residual urine volume (RUV) was measured using 5mm axial CT sections as follows: The length (L) and width (W) of the bladder in the section with the greatest cross sectional area was combined with bladder height (H) as determined by multiplanar reformatted images in order to calculate RUV by applying the formula for the volume (V) of a sphere in a cube:V=(π/6)⁎L⁎W⁎H). Results: RUVs of 167 (mean age 67) consecutively catheterized men (n=72) and women (n=95) identified by CT abdomen and pelvis studies were calculated. The mean RUV was 13.2 mL (range: 0.0 mL-859.1 mL, standard deviation: 75.9 mL, margin of error at 95% confidence:11.6 mL). Four (2.4%) catheterized patients had RUVs of >50 mL, two of whom had an improperly placed catheter tip noted on their CT-reports. Conclusions: Previous studies have shown that up to 43% of catheterized patients had a RUV greater than 50 mL, suggesting inadequacy of bladder drainage via the Foley catheter. Our study indicated that the vast majority of patients with Foley catheters (97.6%), had adequately drained bladders with volumes of <50 mL. (author)

  14. Inside Autoplot: an Interface for Representing Science Data in Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faden, J. B.; Weigel, R. S.; Vandegriff, J. D.; Friedel, R. H.; Merka, J.

    2009-12-01

    Autoplot is software for plotting and manipulating data sets that come from a variety of sources and applications, and a flexible interface for representing data has been developed. QDataSet is the name for the "data model" which has evolved over a decade from previous models implemented by the author. A "data model" is similar to a "metadata model." Whereas a metadata model has terms that describe various aspects of data sets, a data model has terms and conventions for representing data along with conventions for numerical operations. The QDataSet model re-uses several concepts from the NetCDF and CDF data models and has novel ideas that extend the reach to include more types of data. Irregular spectrograms and timeseries can be represented, but also new types like events lists, annotations, tuples of data, and N-dimensional bounding boxes. While file formats are central to many models, QDataSet is an interface with a thin syntax layer, and semantics give structure to data. It's been implemented in Java and Python for Autoplot, but can be easily implemented in C, IDL or XML. A survey of other models is presented, as are the fundamental ideas of the interface, along with use cases. Autoplot will be presented as well, to demonstrate how QDataSet and QDataSet operators can be used to accomplish science tasks.

  15. Representing Object Colour in Language Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Louise

    2007-01-01

    Embodied theories of cognition hold that mentally representing something "red" engages the neural subsystems that respond to environmental perception of that colour. This paper examines whether implicit perceptual information on object colour is represented during sentence comprehension even though doing so does not necessarily facilitate task…

  16. Adequate levothyroxine doses for the treatment of hypothyroidism newly discovered during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalovich, Marcos; Vázquez, Adriana; Alcaraz, Graciela; Kitaigrodsky, Ariela; Szuman, Gabriela; Calabrese, Cristina; Astarita, Graciela; Frydman, Mario; Gutiérrez, Silvia

    2013-11-01

    Recent guidelines recommend thyrotropin (TSH) target levels of ≤2.5 mIU/L for the first trimester and ≤3 mIU/L for the subsequent trimesters. Euthyroidism should be attained as soon as possible, but there are no precise indications about the initial levothyrorine (LT4) dose. The aim of our study was to determine the appropriate LT4 doses in order to normalize TSH levels in patients with newly discovered subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) during pregnancy, and to correlate them with basal TSH levels. The adequate LT4 doses for women with SCH were also compared to those required in pregnant women with overt hypothyroidism (OH). Seventy-seven patients with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism during pregnancy were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were assigned to group 1 (n = 64) with SCH or group 2 (n = 13) with OH. SCH patients were subdivided into two groups: group 1a serum TSH >2.5 (1st trimester) or >3 (2nd or 3rd trimester) to 4.2 mIU/L; and group 1b TSH level > 4.21-10 mIU/L. All patients were treated with LT4 as soon as hypothyroidism was diagnosed. The dose that allowed a TSH of ≤2.5 mIU/L to be reached in the first trimester or one that allowed a TSH of ≤3 mIU/L to be reached during the second and third trimesters was considered the appropriate one. A significant difference (p women with SCH and in 10/13 (76.92%) women with OH, the appropriate LT4 dose coincided with the initial dose. Only 11% and 23% respectively required additional adjustments. Once the appropriate dose of LT4 was prescribed, the time at which euthyroidism (mean ± SD, weeks) was confirmed was similar in patients with SCH (6.06 ± 3.3) and OH (5.3 ± 1.8). There were no miscarriages or premature deliveries. When hypothyroidism is newly discovered during pregnancy, we suggest initiating the treatment with the following LT4 doses: 1.20 μg/kg/day for SCH with TSH ≤ 4.2  mIU/L, 1.42 μg/kg/day with TSH > 4.2-10, and 2.33 μg/kg/day for OH. By taking this approach

  17. Global Uranium And Thorium Resources: Are They Adequate To Satisfy Demand Over The Next Half Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation will consider the adequacy of global uranium and thorium resources to meet realistic nuclear power demand scenarios over the next half century. It is presented on behalf of, and based on evaluations by, the Uranium Group - a joint initiative of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, of which the author is a Vice Chair. The Uranium Group produces a biennial report on Uranium Resources, Production and Demand based on information from some 40 countries involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, which also briefly reviews thorium resources. Uranium: In 2008, world production of uranium amounted to almost 44,000 tonnes (tU). This supplied approximately three-quarters of world reactor requirements (approx. 59,000 tU), the remainder being met by previously mined uranium (so-called secondary sources). Information on availability of secondary sources - which include uranium from excess inventories, dismantling nuclear warheads, tails and spent fuel reprocessing - is incomplete, but such sources are expected to decrease in market importance after 2013. In 2008, the total world Reasonably Assured plus Inferred Resources of uranium (recoverable at less than 130/kgU) amounted to 5.4 million tonnes. In addition, it is clear that there are vast amounts of uranium recoverable at higher costs in known deposits, plus many as yet undiscovered deposits. The Uranium Group has concluded that the uranium resource base is more than adequate to meet projected high-case requirements for nuclear power for at least half a century. This conclusion does not assume increasing replacement of uranium by fuels from reprocessing current reactor wastes, or by thorium, nor greater reactor efficiencies, which are likely to ameliorate future uranium demand. However, progressively increasing quantities of uranium will need to be mined, against a backdrop of the relatively small number of producing facilities around the world, geopolitical uncertainties and

  18. Examining the Resilience of Crop Production, Livestock Carrying Capacity, and Woodland Density in a Rural Zimbabwean Socio-Ecological System Using Agent-Based Models Representing Human Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitzel Solera, M. V.; Neves, K.; Veski, A.; Solera, J.; Omoju, O. E.; Mawere Ndlovu, A.; Wilson, K.

    2016-12-01

    As climate change increases the pressures on arid ecosystems by changing timing and amount of rainfall, understanding the ways in which human management choices affect the resilience of these systems becomes key to their sustainability. On marginal farmland in Mazvihwa, Midlands Province, the historical carrying capacity of livestock has been consistently surprisingly high. We explore this phenomenon by building an agent-based model in NetLogo from a wealth of long-term data generated by the community-based participatory research team of The Muonde Trust, a Zimbabwean non-governmental organization. We combine the accumulated results of 35 years of indigenous and local knowledge with national datasets such as rainfall records. What factors keep the carrying capacity high? What management choices can maintain crops, livestock, and woodland at levels necessary for the community's survival? How do these choices affect long-term sustainability, and does increasing resilience at one scale reduce resilience at another scale? We use our agent-based model to explore the feedbacks between crops, livestock, and woodland and the impacts of various human choices as well as temporal and spatial ecological variation. By testing different scenarios, we disentangle the complex interactions between these components. We find that some factors out of the community's control can strongly affect the sustainability of the system through times of drought, and that supplementary feed may maintain livestock potentially at the expense of other resources. The challenges to resilience encountered by the farmers in Mazvihwa are not unique - many indigenous and rural people face drought and the legacies of colonialism, which contribute to lowered resilience to external challenges such as climate change, epidemics, and political instability. Using the agent-based model as a tool for synthesis and exploration initiates discussion about resilience-enhancing management choices for Mazvihwa's farmer-researchers.

  19. 7 CFR 1205.20 - Representative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative period. 1205.20 Section 1205.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... period means the 2006 calendar year....

  20. Enhancing policy innovation by redesigning representative democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    . Two Danish case studies indicate that collaboration between politicians and relevant and affected stakeholders can promote policy innovation, but also that a redesign of representative democracy is needed in order to establish a productive combination of political leadership, competition...