Full Text Available Numerous studies are currently being carried out on personalized services based on data analysis to find and provide valuable information about information overload. Furthermore, the number of studies on data analysis of teaching-learning activities for personalized services in the field of teaching-learning is increasing, too. This paper proposes a learning style recency-frequency-durability (LS-RFD model for quantified analysis on the level of activities of learners, to provide the elements of teaching-learning activities according to the learning style of the learner among various parameters for personalized service. This is to measure preferences as to teaching-learning activity according to recency, frequency and durability of such activities. Based on the results, user characteristics can be classified into groups for teaching-learning activity by categorizing the level of preference and activity of the learner.
Maia, Poliana Flavia; Justi, Rosaria
This paper presents and discusses students' learning process of chemical equilibrium from a modelling-based approach developed from the use of the "Model of Modelling" diagram. The investigation was conducted in a regular classroom (students 14-15 years old) and aimed at discussing how modelling-based teaching can contribute to students…
"How can we make sure our students learn what we want them to?" is the number one question in teaching. This paper is intended to provide the reader with: i) a general answer to this question based on the theory of constructive alignment by John Biggs; ii) relevant insights for bringing this answ...... from theory to practice; and iii) specific insights and experiences from using constructive alignment in teaching model-based design for concurrency (as a case study in implementing alignment)......."How can we make sure our students learn what we want them to?" is the number one question in teaching. This paper is intended to provide the reader with: i) a general answer to this question based on the theory of constructive alignment by John Biggs; ii) relevant insights for bringing this answer...
Budinski, Natalija; Takaci, Djurdjica
This paper proposes modelling based learning as a tool for learning and teaching mathematics. The example of modelling real world problems leading to the exponential function as the solution of differential equations is described, as well as the observations about students' activities during the process. The students were acquainted with the…
Blais, Mark A; Hopwood, Christopher J
Psychological assessment is a complex professional skill. Competence in assessment requires an extensive knowledge of personality, neuropsychology, social behavior, and psychopathology, a background in psychometrics, familiarity with a range of multimethod tools, cognitive flexibility, skepticism, and interpersonal sensitivity. This complexity makes assessment a challenge to teach and learn, particularly as the investment of resources and time in assessment has waned in psychological training programs over the last few decades. In this article, we describe 3 conceptual models that can assist teaching and learning psychological assessments. The transtheoretical model of personality provides a personality systems-based framework for understanding how multimethod assessment data relate to major personality systems and can be combined to describe and explain complex human behavior. The quantitative psychopathology-personality trait model is an empirical model based on the hierarchical organization of individual differences. Application of this model can help students understand diagnostic comorbidity and symptom heterogeneity, focus on more meaningful high-order domains, and identify the most effective assessment tools for addressing a given question. The interpersonal situation model is rooted in interpersonal theory and can help students connect test data to here-and-now interactions with patients. We conclude by demonstrating the utility of these models using a case example.
Peterson, Forest; Fischer, Martin; Wingate, Thomas; Seppänen, Olli; Tutti, Tomi; See, Richard
The purpose of this paper is to outline teaching integrated scope-cost methods in a course on fabrication and construction planning using model-based tools. Through project-based active discovery using project documents students create an integrated takeoff, schedule and cost estimate. The goal is to illustrate the processes and interrelation between professions required to effectively obtain the scope, schedule and cost of a proposed project. Students who are provided with a scope-time-cost ...
The subject of this diploma thesis is activating teaching methods in french language teaching. This thesis outlines the issues acitvating teaching methods in the concept of other teaching methods. There is a definition of teaching method, classification of teaching methods and characteristics of each activating method. In the practical part of this work are given concrete forms of activating teaching methods appropriate for teaching of french language.
Pozo, Pablo; Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Pérez-Ordás, Raquel
The purpose of this study was to conduct a review of research on the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility model-based programme within physical education. Papers selected for analysis were found through searches of Web of Science, SportDiscus (EBSCO), SCOPUS, and ERIC (ProQuest) databases. The keywords "responsibility model" and…
Wang, Xin-Hong; Wang, Jing-Ping; Wen, Fu-Ji; Wang, Jun; Tao, Jian-Qing
SPOC is characterized by improving teaching effectiveness. Currently open teaching mode is the popular trend, which is mainly related to several aspects: how to carry out teaching practice by using MOOC proprietary, high-quality online teaching resources in open education, that is, deep integration of curriculum resources and teaching design. On…
Activating teaching is an educational concept which is based on active participation of students in the study process. It is becoming an alternative to more typical approach where the teacher will just lecture and the students will take notes. The study described in this paper considers student a...... activating teaching methods focusing on those based on knowledge dissemination. The practical aspects of the implemented teaching method are considered, and employed assessment methods and tools are discussed.......Activating teaching is an educational concept which is based on active participation of students in the study process. It is becoming an alternative to more typical approach where the teacher will just lecture and the students will take notes. The study described in this paper considers student...
In August 2014, a new school reform was implemented in the Danish primary and secondary school system. In the new prolonged school days’ movement activities is introduced as a tool to increase the pupils’ health, cognitive learning and wellbeing. By introducing movement activities in the literate......-teaching the movement activities must be integrated in the academic and creative subjects as active teaching and brain breaks etc. or as organized activities during the extended school day. Movement activities has become a part of all subjects and all teachers’ professional task. Since these movement activities...... is a new obligation the teachers are facing some pedagogical challenges (Jensen, 2015). The new school reform forces the teachers to teach in a way they are not educated, trained in or experienced. The teachers’ role is changing. This study investigates how teachers in different subjects and with different...
will give a brief introduction to meta-analyses and syntheses of educational research related to student achievement (Hattie, 2009, 2011). And then point to teaching methods that are manageable in classes of any size, are engaging to students, and qualified for increasing and developing students’ abilities......It seems unsatisfactory that much teaching practice is based on ideas with only weak or sometimes even no documentation for their effect. Many resources in terms of money and time have been lost on implementing ideas that after a short while must be dropped because they did not function well...... in practice, or had no relevant importance for student outcomes. In education we have quite often witnessed introduction of strategies and methods based on personal beliefs, habits, fancy and fads; not research findings and evidence. Fields like education that frequently are occupied with ill defined problems...
J.F.P. van den Akker; A.P.J.M. Siebes (Arno)
textabstractThis report defines DEGAS, an advanced active data model that is novel in two ways. The first innovation is object autonomy, an extreme form of distributed control. In comparison to more traditional approaches, autonomous objects also encapsulate rule definitions to make them active. The
Christensen, Hans Peter; Vigild, Martin Etchells; Thomsen, Erik Vilain
Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching. The resulting learning outcome is discussed.......Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching. The resulting learning outcome is discussed....
Christensen, Hans Peter; Vigild, Martin Etchells; Thomsen, Erik Vilain
Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching.......Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching....
Full Text Available In traditional teaching most of the class time is spent with the professor lecturing and the students watching and listening. The students work individually, and cooperation is discouraged. On the other hand, active learning changes the focus of activity from the teacher to the learners, in which students solve problems, answer questions, formulate questions of their own, discuss, explain, debate during class; moreover, students work in teams on problems and projects under conditions that assure positive interdependence and individual accountability. Although student-centered methods have repeatedly been shown to be superior to the traditional teacher-centered approach to instruction, the literature regarding the efficacy of various teaching methods is inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to compare the student perceptions of course and instructor effectiveness, course difficulty, and amount learned between the active learning and lecture sections in Health Sciences´ courses by statistical data from Anhembi Morumbi University. Results indicated significant difference between active learning and traditional teaching. Our conclusions were that strategies promoting active learning to traditional lectures could increase knowledge and understanding.
Sutherland, Richard; Knight, Richard
Describes a German language class in which a videodisk player is used to enhance oral proficiency. The basis for this model of instruction and the structuralist theory of learning developed by Jerome Bruner are discussed. The teaching steps of the model as applied to foreign language instruction are presented. (Author/LMO)
Christensen, Hans Peter; Vigild, Martin E.; Thomsen, Erik; Szabo, Peter; Horsewell, Andy
Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching. The resulting learning outcome is discussed. Peer Reviewed
De Silva, Liyanage C.; Vinod, V. V.; Sengupta, Kuntal
This paper presents a novel idea of a visual communication system, which can support distance teaching using a network of computers. Here the author's main focus is to enhance the quality of distance teaching by reducing the barrier between the teacher and the student, which is formed due to the remote connection of the networked participants. The paper presents an effective way of improving teacher-student communication link of an IT (Information Technology) based distance teaching scenario, using facial expression recognition results and face global and local motion detection results of both the teacher and the student. It presents a way of regenerating the facial images for the teacher-student down-link, which can enhance the teachers facial expressions and which also can reduce the network traffic compared to usual video broadcasting scenarios. At the same time, it presents a way of representing a large volume of facial expression data of the whole student population (in the student-teacher up-link). This up-link representation helps the teacher to receive an instant feed back of his talk, as if he was delivering a face to face lecture. In conventional video tele-conferencing type of applications, this task is nearly impossible, due to huge volume of upward network traffic. The authors utilize several of their previous publication results for most of the image processing components needs to be investigated to complete such a system. In addition, some of the remaining system components are covered by several on going work.
Turnip, Betty; Wahyuni, Ida; Tanjung, Yul Ifda
One of the factors that can support successful learning activity is the use of learning models according to the objectives to be achieved. This study aimed to analyze the differences in problem-solving ability Physics student learning model Inquiry Training based on Just In Time Teaching [JITT] and conventional learning taught by cooperative model…
Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaz
Evolutionary games are studied where the teaching activity of players can evolve in time. Initially all players following either the cooperative or defecting strategy are distributed on a square lattice. The rate of strategy adoption is determined by the payoff difference and a teaching activity characterizing the donor's capability to enforce its strategy on the opponent. Each successful strategy adoption process is accompanied by an increase in the donor's teaching activity. By applying an optimum value of the increment, this simple mechanism spontaneously creates relevant inhomogeneities in the teaching activities that support the maintenance of cooperation for both the prisoner's dilemma and the snowdrift game
Full Text Available This study investigated the challenges students face when learning chemical reactions in a first-year chemistry course and the effectiveness of a curriculum and software implementation that was used to teach and assess student understanding of chemical reactions and equations. This study took place over a two year period in a public suburban high-school, in southwestern USA. Two advanced placement (AP chemistry classes participated, referred to here as study group A (year 1, N = 14; and study group B (year 2, N = 21. The curriculum for a first-year chemistry course (group A was revised to include instruction on reaction-types. The second year of the study involved the creation and implementation of a software solution which promoted mastery learning of reaction-types. Students in both groups benefited from the reaction-type curriculum and achieved proficiency in chemical reactions and equations. The findings suggest there was an added learning benefit to using the reaction-type software solution. This study also found that reaction knowledge was a moderate to strong predictor of chemistry achievement. Based on regression analysis, reaction knowledge significantly predicted chemistry achievement for both groups.
Webb, G. Scott; Thomas, Stephanie P.; Liao-Troth, Sara
The SCOR (Supply Chain Operations Reference) Model Supply Chain Classroom Simulation is an in-class experiential learning activity that helps students develop a holistic understanding of the processes and challenges of supply chain management. The simulation has broader learning objectives than other supply chain related activities such as the…
Milana, Marcella; Bernt Sorensen, Tore
education. Among these projects, the Teaching European Active Citizenship (TEACh)-course was considered worth of a closer examination due to several reasons. Firstly, the course constitutes a follow-up of a Socrates research project which was co-financed by the European Commission within the same action...... scheme. The influence of prior research activity that was carried out at European level on the TEACh-course is evident in both the curriculum and the pedagogical approach applied. In this respect the course represents an example of dissemination of research results of EU co-financed projects as well....... The case study presented here is based on results from desk research and field work carried out over 9 months (autumn 2006-summer 2007). Data was collected by a combination of qualitative methods. The main source of information was participant observation at the TEACh course held in Milan (Italy...
Hernández, María Isabel; Couso, Digna; Pintó, Roser
The study we have carried out aims to characterize 15- to 16-year-old students' learning progressions throughout the implementation of a teaching-learning sequence on the acoustic properties of materials. Our purpose is to better understand students' modeling processes about this topic and to identify how the instructional design and actual enactment influences students' learning progressions. This article presents the design principles which elicit the structure and types of modeling and inquiry activities designed to promote students' development of three conceptual models. Some of these activities are enhanced by the use of ICT such as sound level meters connected to data capture systems, which facilitate the measurement of the intensity level of sound emitted by a sound source and transmitted through different materials. Framing this study within the design-based research paradigm, it consists of the experimentation of the designed teaching sequence with two groups of students ( n = 29) in their science classes. The analysis of students' written productions together with classroom observations of the implementation of the teaching sequence allowed characterizing students' development of the conceptual models. Moreover, we could evidence the influence of different modeling and inquiry activities on students' development of the conceptual models, identifying those that have a major impact on students' modeling processes. Having evidenced different levels of development of each conceptual model, our results have been interpreted in terms of the attributes of each conceptual model, the distance between students' preliminary mental models and the intended conceptual models, and the instructional design and enactment.
This study aimed on the process of teaching taxicab geometry, a non-Euclidean geometry that is easy to understand and similar to Euclidean geometry with its axiomatic structure. In this regard, several teaching activities were designed such as measuring taxicab distance, defining a taxicab circle, finding a geometric locus in taxicab geometry, and…
Andersen, Shuang Ma
A group of teaching methodes to active engineer students have been tried out. The methodes are developed based on the Pedagogical Cyclic Workflow (PCW). Comparing with earlier evaluation, positive feedback is achieved among the students.......A group of teaching methodes to active engineer students have been tried out. The methodes are developed based on the Pedagogical Cyclic Workflow (PCW). Comparing with earlier evaluation, positive feedback is achieved among the students....
Hernández, Oscar E; Zurek, Eduardo E
We present a software tool called SENB, which allows the geometric and biophysical neuronal properties in a simple computational model of a Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) axon to be changed. The aim of this work is to develop a didactic and easy-to-use computational tool in the NEURON simulation environment, which allows graphical visualization of both the passive and active conduction parameters and the geometric characteristics of a cylindrical axon with HH properties. The SENB software offers several advantages for teaching and learning electrophysiology. First, SENB offers ease and flexibility in determining the number of stimuli. Second, SENB allows immediate and simultaneous visualization, in the same window and time frame, of the evolution of the electrophysiological variables. Third, SENB calculates parameters such as time and space constants, stimuli frequency, cellular area and volume, sodium and potassium equilibrium potentials, and propagation velocity of the action potentials. Furthermore, it allows the user to see all this information immediately in the main window. Finally, with just one click SENB can save an image of the main window as evidence. The SENB software is didactic and versatile, and can be used to improve and facilitate the teaching and learning of the underlying mechanisms in the electrical activity of an axon using the biophysical properties of the squid giant axon.
Background We present a software tool called SENB, which allows the geometric and biophysical neuronal properties in a simple computational model of a Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) axon to be changed. The aim of this work is to develop a didactic and easy-to-use computational tool in the NEURON simulation environment, which allows graphical visualization of both the passive and active conduction parameters and the geometric characteristics of a cylindrical axon with HH properties. Results The SENB software offers several advantages for teaching and learning electrophysiology. First, SENB offers ease and flexibility in determining the number of stimuli. Second, SENB allows immediate and simultaneous visualization, in the same window and time frame, of the evolution of the electrophysiological variables. Third, SENB calculates parameters such as time and space constants, stimuli frequency, cellular area and volume, sodium and potassium equilibrium potentials, and propagation velocity of the action potentials. Furthermore, it allows the user to see all this information immediately in the main window. Finally, with just one click SENB can save an image of the main window as evidence. Conclusions The SENB software is didactic and versatile, and can be used to improve and facilitate the teaching and learning of the underlying mechanisms in the electrical activity of an axon using the biophysical properties of the squid giant axon. PMID:23675833
Wang, Lei; Chang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenzhou; Pu, Jiantao; Yang, Xiaodong
Active contour models are popular and widely used for a variety of image segmentation applications with promising accuracy, but they may suffer from limited segmentation performances due to the presence of intensity inhomogeneity. To overcome this drawback, a novel region-based active contour model based on two different local fitted images is proposed by constructing a novel local hybrid image fitting energy, which is minimized in a variational level set framework to guide the evolving of contour curves toward the desired boundaries. The proposed model is evaluated and compared with several typical active contour models to segment synthetic and real images with different intensity characteristics. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model outperforms these models in terms of accuracy in image segmentation.
Guo, Yujie; Shen, Jie; Ye, Xuchun; Chen, Huali; Jiang, Anli
This paper aims to report the design and test the effectiveness of an innovative caring teaching model based on the theoretical framework of caring in the Chinese context. Since the 1970's, caring has been a core value in nursing education. In a previous study, a theoretical framework of caring in the Chinese context is explored employing a grounded theory study, considered beneficial for caring education. A caring teaching model was designed theoretically and a one group pre- and post-test quasi-experimental study was administered to test its effectiveness. From Oct, 2009 to Jul, 2010, a cohort of grade-2 undergraduate nursing students (n=64) in a Chinese medical school was recruited to participate in the study. Data were gathered through quantitative and qualitative methods to evaluate the effectiveness of the caring teaching model. The caring teaching model created an esthetic situation and experiential learning style for teaching caring that was integrated within the curricula. Quantitative data from the quasi-experimental study showed that the post-test scores of each item were higher than those on the pre-test (p<0.01). Thematic analysis of 1220 narratives from students' caring journals and reports of participant class observation revealed two main thematic categories, which reflected, from the students' points of view, the development of student caring character and the impact that the caring teaching model had on this regard. The model could be used as an integrated approach to teach caring in nursing curricula. It would also be beneficial for nursing administrators in cultivating caring nurse practitioners. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Austin, Rebekah; Label, Ken A.; Sampson, Mike J.; Evans, John; Witulski, Art; Sierawski, Brian; Karsai, Gabor; Mahadevan, Nag; Schrimpf, Ron; Reed, Robert A.
This presentation will cover why modeling is useful for radiation hardness assurance cases, and also provide information on Model-Based Assurance Case+ (MBAC+), NASAs Reliability Maintainability Template, and Fault Propagation Modeling.
ways because they feel like teachers, but they feel like teachers because they act like teachers. Methods/methodologyShort term (Pink & Morgan, 2013) and focused (Knoblauch, 2005) ethnographic fieldwork was carried out in two Danish primary schools for approximately 15 days at each school....... The researcher was following an age-integrated class in grade 0-2 and a class in grade 5. The two classes were followed throughout the school day through the different subjects and with their different teachers. The observations were mainly non-participating but at some occasions the researcher was participating......In August 2014, a new school reform was implemented in the Danish primary and secondary school system. In the new prolonged school days’ movement activities is introduced as a tool to increase the pupils’ health, cognitive learning and wellbeing. By introducing movement activities in the literate...
Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Saiki, M.
Much concern has been expressed lately about the decline of teaching and research activities in radiochemistry in many countries, as was discussed in an IAEA Technical Meeting in Antalya, Turkey, in 2002, and also at MTAA-11 in Guildford, UK. In the IAEA meeting, a survey was presented about the current situation in different regions of the world (Eastern Europe, East and West Asia, Africa, North America and Latin America) by experts of each region. In the case of Brazil, which has nuclear research reactors and also cyclotrons in operation, the teaching and research activities in radiochemistry are concentrated in the three main institutes of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, in the University of Sao Paulo and in other universities, in different regions of the country. In the present paper, a closer look is given to the radiochemistry teaching and research activities that are being conducted nowadays in Brazil, comprising: number of radiochemistry courses and students being formed, main research areas being conducted, as well as research and production of radioisotopes for nuclear medicine, using nuclear reactors and cyclotrons. (author)
Hunter, William J.
In the first two parts of this series, ("Teaching for Engagement: Part 1: Constructivist Principles, Case-Based Teaching, and Active Learning") and ("Teaching for Engagement: Part 2: Technology in the Service of Active Learning"), William J. Hunter sought to outline the theoretical rationale and research basis for such active…
Izadi, Dina; Milner-Bolotin, Marina
Today more than ever before, the future depends on students' ability to apply the knowledge they learn in the classroom to solve real life problems such as global warming, climate change, air pollution, waste disposal, energy generation, world poverty and food production. In the incessantly changing world, students of the twenty-first century are very different from the students of the past. This requires educators to think continuously about how to change their teaching to empower and engage modern students, which makes educational innovations imminent. Contemporary students must be proactive in seeking relevant information and applying it to solve real life problems. However, the way we teach hasn't changed sufficiently to reflect these changes. Like in the earlier centuries, the dominant pedagogy in many contemporary science classrooms is still teacher-centered instruction, relying on route memorization and passive learning. To help science educators make a transition from passive to active learning in order to engage students in meaningful learning process, "Active Learning by Innovation in Teaching" (ALIT) model is introduced. This model offers a way of finding different approaches to engage students in meaningful science learning and apply their knowledge to solve real life problems.
Wojtczyk, Martin; Panin, Giorgio; Röder, Thorsten; Lenz, Claus; Nair, Suraj; Heidemann, Rüdiger; Goudar, Chetan; Knoll, Alois
After utilizing robots for more than 30 years for classic industrial automation applications, service robots form a constantly increasing market, although the big breakthrough is still awaited. Our approach to service robots was driven by the idea of supporting lab personnel in a biotechnology laboratory. After initial development in Germany, a mobile robot platform extended with an industrial manipulator and the necessary sensors for indoor localization and object manipulation, has been shipped to Bayer HealthCare in Berkeley, CA, USA, a global player in the sector of biopharmaceutical products, located in the San Francisco bay area. The determined goal of the mobile manipulator is to support the off-shift staff to carry out completely autonomous or guided, remote controlled lab walkthroughs, which we implement utilizing a recent development of our computer vision group: OpenTL - an integrated framework for model-based visual tracking.
Salazar, Jorge Andrés González; Santos, Ilmar
This is part II of a twofold paper series dealing with the design and implementation of model-based controllers meant for assisting the hybrid and developing the feedback-controlled lubrication regimes in active tilting pad journal bearings (active TPJBs). In both papers theoretical and experimen...... derived in part I. Results show further suppression of resonant vibrations when using the feedback-controlled or active lubrication, overweighting the reduction already achieved with hybrid lubrication, thus improving the whole machine dynamic performance.......This is part II of a twofold paper series dealing with the design and implementation of model-based controllers meant for assisting the hybrid and developing the feedback-controlled lubrication regimes in active tilting pad journal bearings (active TPJBs). In both papers theoretical...... and experimental analyses are presented with focus on the reduction of rotor lateral vibration. This part is devoted to synthesising model-based LQG optimal controllers (LQR regulator + Kalman Filter) for the feedback-controlled lubrication and is based upon the mathematical model of the rotor-bearing system...
This article provides three movement-based activities for teaching health concepts to elementary school students. Two activities focus on nutrition concepts and the other focuses on teaching body systems. Diagrams are provided to show the setup of activities, as well as links for accessing materials to help implement the activities.
Hvidsten, Connie J.
Connie J. Hvidsten September 2016 Education Secondary Science Teachers Making Sense of Model-Based Classroom Instruction: Understanding the Learning and Learning Pathways Teachers Describe as Supporting Changes in Teaching Practice This dissertation consists of three papers analyzing writings and interviews of experienced secondary science teachers during and after a two-year professional development (PD) program focused on model-based reasoning (MBR). MBR is an approach to science instruction that provides opportunities for students to use conceptual models to make sense of natural phenomena in ways that are similar to the use of models within the scientific community. The aim of this research is to better understand the learning and learning pathways teachers identified as valuable in supporting changes in their teaching practice. To accomplish this aim, the papers analyze the ways teachers 1) ascribe their learning to various aspects of the program, 2) describe what they learned, and 3) reflect on the impact the PD had on their teaching practice. Twenty-one secondary science teachers completed the Innovations in Science Instruction through Modeling (ISIM) program from 2007 through 2009. Commonalities in the written reflections and interview responses led to a set of generalizable findings related to the impacts and outcomes of the PD. The first of the three papers describes elements of the ISIM program that teachers associated with their own learning. One of the most frequently mentioned PD feature was being in the position of an adult learner. Embedding learning in instructional practice by collaboratively developing and revising lessons, and observing the lessons in one-another's classrooms provided a sense of professional community, accountability, and support teachers reported were necessary to overcome the challenges of implementing new pedagogical practices. Additionally, teachers described that opportunities to reflect on their learning and connect their
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Problem Solving learning model based Just in Time Teaching (JiTT on students' science process skills (SPS on structure and function of plant tissue concept. This research was conducted at State Senior High School in South Tangerang .The research conducted using the quasi-experimental with Nonequivalent pretest-Postest Control Group Design. The samples of this study were 34 students for experimental group and 34 students for the control group. Data was obtained using a process skill test instrument (essai type that has been tested for its validity and reliability. Result of data analysis by ANACOVA, show that there were significant difference of postest between experiment and control group, by controlling the pretest score (F = 4.958; p <0.05. Thus, the problem-solving learning based on JiTT proved to improve students’ SPS. The contribution of this treatment in improving the students’ SPS was 7.2%. This shows that there was effect of problem solving model based JiTT on students’ SPS on the Structure and function of plant tissue concept.
Chan, Zenobia C Y
By promoting hope and providing care to patients, nurses serve as both artists and professionals in clinical contexts. However, current nursing education mainly emphasises the teaching of medical knowledge and skills. The aim of this study is to explore the perspectives of year one nursing undergraduates on the definitions of artistry and the relationship of artistry with the sciences and nursing care. A qualitative approach with content analysis was adopted in this study. Seventeen students from a nursing problem-based learning (PBL) class participated in three artistic activities, namely composing songs, writing poems, and drawing, and in two rounds of interviews. Content analysis and peer checking was implemented to ensure that the generated results were trustworthy. According to the participants, it is probable that the artistic activities encouraged them to relate the arts to their daily lives. Some participants stated that they would like to show their consideration for patients through the arts. Although there was no consensus among the participants on the relation between artistry and the sciences/nursing, most of the students gained a better understanding of artistry and some were able to link nursing care with artistry. Nursing educators are encouraged to think beyond the boundaries of traditional teaching approaches and nurture their students with the artistry of clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Minenkova Olena V.
Full Text Available The article proposes the methodical approach to assessment of activity of enterprise on the basis of its models, based on the balanced scorecard. The content is presented and the following components of the methodical approach are formed: tasks, input information, list of methods and models, as well as results. Implementation of this methodical approach provides improvement of management and increase of results of enterprise activity. The place of assessment models in management of enterprise activity and formation of managerial decision has been defined. Recommendations as to the operations of decision-making procedures to increase the efficiency of enterprise have been provided.
This study was designed to determine the effect of Information sharing on research and teaching activities of Academic Scientists in Federal Universities in the North- East Nigeria. Investigation was done on the activities of information sharing and the effect of information sharing on teaching and research activities. Survey ...
Pilakouta, M.; Savidou, A.; Vasileiadou, S.
This paper presents an educational approach for teaching natural radioactivity using commercial granite samples. A laboratory activity focusing on the topic of natural radioactivity is designed to develop the knowledge and understanding of undergraduate university students on the topic of radioactivity, to appreciate the importance of environmental radioactivity and familiarize them with the basic technology used in radioactivity measurements. The laboratory activity is divided into three parts: (i) measurements of the count rate with a Geiger-Muller counter of some granite samples and the ambient background radiation rate, (ii) measurement of one of the samples using gamma ray spectrometry with a NaI detector and identification of the radioactive elements of the sample, (iii) using already recorded 24 h gamma ray spectra of the samples from the first part (from the Granite Gamma-Ray Spectrum Library (GGRSL) of our laboratory) and analyzing selected peaks in the spectrum, students estimate the contribution of each radioactive element to the total specific activity of each sample. A brief description of the activity as well as some results and their interpretation are presented.
Alex Kai-Yuan Lo
Full Text Available We report on the model-based development of a monkey robot that is capable of performing continuous brachiation locomotion on swingable rod, as the intermediate step toward studying brachiation on the soft rope or on horizontal ropes with both ends fixed. The work is different from other previous works where the model or the robot swings on fixed bars. The model, which is composed of two rigid links, was inspired by the dynamic motion of primates. The model further served as the design guideline for a robot that has five degree of freedoms: two on each arm for rod changing and one on the waist to initiate a swing motion. The model was quantitatively formulated, and its dynamic behavior was analyzed in simulation. Further, a two-stage controller was developed within the simulation environment, where the first stage used the natural dynamics of a two-link pendulum-like model, and the second stage used the angular velocity feedback to regulate the waist motion. Finally, the robot was empirically built and evaluated. The experimental results confirm that the robot can perform model-like swing behavior and continuous brachiation locomotion on rods.
Michael C. Wittmann
Full Text Available We report on the development of students’ ideas of probability and probability density in a University of Maine laboratory-based general education physics course called Intuitive Quantum Physics. Students in the course are generally math phobic with unfavorable expectations about the nature of physics and their ability to do it. We describe a set of activities used to teach concepts of probability and probability density. Rudimentary knowledge of mechanics is needed for one activity, but otherwise the material requires no additional preparation. Extensions of the activities include relating probability density to potential energy graphs for certain “touchstone” examples. Students have difficulties learning the target concepts, such as comparing the ratio of time in a region to total time in all regions. Instead, they often focus on edge effects, pattern match to previously studied situations, reason about necessary but incomplete macroscopic elements of the system, use the gambler’s fallacy, and use expectations about ensemble results rather than expectation values to predict future events. We map the development of their thinking to provide examples of problems rather than evidence of a curriculum’s success.
Han, Yongseung; Ryan, Michael
This paper examines the use of a simple classroom activity, in which students are asked to take action representing either collusion or competition for extra credit to teach strategic thinking required in an oligopolistic market. We suggest that the classroom activity is first initiated prior to the teaching of oligopoly and then the instructor…
Pierart Vásquez, Fabián Gonzalo
work, the control signal design is based on a theoretical model. This approach enables easy modifications of any of the numerous physical parameters in the system if needed. The theoretical model used is based on a modifed version of Reynolds equation where an extra term is added in order to include...... the critical speeds. In order to overcome such limitations, a mechatronic device has been proposed as a possible solution. This device named "hybrid active radial gas bearing" or simply "active gas bearing", combines an aerodynamic gas journal bearing with piezoelectrically controlled injectors. In the present...... frequencies and damping ratios of the rotor-bearing system) is performed and finally to design controllers that allows improvement of the dynamic properties of the rotor-active gas bearings system and lets the systemto safely cross the critical speeds, using the theoretical model as a design tool. The results...
Smalley, Scott W.; Retallick, Michael S.; Paulsen, Thomas H.
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which cooperating teachers deem required student teaching skills and activities relevant to the agricultural education student teaching experience. The population for this descriptive study consisted of individuals who served as cooperating teachers in Iowa and South Dakota during the last 5…
Marotta, Sebastian M.; Hargis, Jace
In this article, we present a large list of low-threshold active teaching methods categorized so the instructor can efficiently access and target the deployment of conceptually based lessons. The categories include teaching strategies for lecture on large and small class sizes; student action individually, in pairs, and groups; games; interaction…
Cundiff David K
Full Text Available Abstract Background An accurate system of determining the relationship of macronutrient profiles of foods and beverages to the long-term weight impacts of foods is necessary for evidence-based, unbiased front-of-the-package food labels. Methods Data sets on diet, physical activity, and BMI came from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, the World Health Organization (WHO, the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT, and Epidemiology Diabetes Intervention and Complications (EDIC. To predict future BMI of individuals, multiple regression derived FAO/WHO and DCCT/EDIC formulas related macronutrient profiles and physical activity (independent variables to BMI change/year (dependent variable. Similar formulas without physical activity related macronutrient profiles of individual foods and beverages to four-year weight impacts of those items and compared those forecasts to published food group profiling estimates from three large prospective studies by Harvard nutritional epidemiologists. Results FAO/WHO food and beverage formula: four-year weight impact (pounds=(0.07710 alcohol g+11.95 (381.7+carbohydrates g per serving*4/(2,613+kilocalories per serving–304.9 (30.38+dietary fiber g per serving/(2,613+kilocalories per serving+19.73 (84.44+total fat g*9/(2,613+kilocalories per serving–68.57 (20.45+PUFA g per serving*9/(2,613+kilocalories per serving*2.941–12.78 (n=334, R2=0.29, P 2=0.03, P P = 0.0004. Formula predictions did not correlate with food group profiling findings for potatoes and dairy products (n=10, r= −0.33 P=0.36. A formula based diet and exercise analysis tool is available to researchers and individuals: http://thehealtheconomy.com/healthTool/. Conclusions Two multiple regression derived formulas from dissimilar databases produced markedly similar estimates of future BMI for 1,055 individuals with type 1 diabetes and female and male cohorts from 167 countries. These formulas predicted the long-term weight impacts of
Bird, P.; Kreemer, C.; Kagan, Y. Y.; Jackson, D. D.
Global Earthquake Activity Rate (GEAR) models have usually been based on either relative tectonic motion (fault slip rates and/or distributed strain rates), or on smoothing of seismic catalogs. However, a hybrid approach appears to perform better than either parent, at least in some retrospective tests. First, we construct a Tectonic ('T') forecast of shallow (≤ 70 km) seismicity based on global plate-boundary strain rates from version 2 of the Global Strain Rate Map. Our approach is the SHIFT (Seismic Hazard Inferred From Tectonics) method described by Bird et al. [2010, SRL], in which the character of the strain rate tensor (thrusting and/or strike-slip and/or normal) is used to select the most comparable type of plate boundary for calibration of the coupled seismogenic lithosphere thickness and corner magnitude. One difference is that activity of offshore plate boundaries is spatially smoothed using empirical half-widths [Bird & Kagan, 2004, BSSA] before conversion to seismicity. Another is that the velocity-dependence of coupling in subduction and continental-convergent boundaries [Bird et al., 2009, BSSA] is incorporated. Another forecast component is the smoothed-seismicity ('S') forecast model of [Kagan & Jackson, 1994, JGR; Kagan & Jackson, 2010, GJI], which was based on optimized smoothing of the shallow part of the GCMT catalog, years 1977-2004. Both forecasts were prepared for threshold magnitude 5.767. Then, we create hybrid forecasts by one of 3 methods: (a) taking the greater of S or T; (b) simple weighted-average of S and T; or (c) log of the forecast rate is a weighted average of the logs of S and T. In methods (b) and (c) there is one free parameter, which is the fractional contribution from S. All hybrid forecasts are normalized to the same global rate. Pseudo-prospective tests for 2005-2012 (using versions of S and T calibrated on years 1977-2004) show that many hybrid models outperform both parents (S and T), and that the optimal weight on S
Objective. To design instructional methods that would promote long-term retention of knowledge of antimicrobial pharmacology, particularly the spectrum of activity for antimicrobial agents, in pharmacy students. Design. An active-learning approach was used to teach selected sessions in a required antimicrobial pharmacology course. Students were expected to review key concepts from the course reader prior to the in-class sessions. During class, brief concept reviews were followed by active-learning exercises, including a novel schematic method for learning antimicrobial spectrum of activity ("flower diagrams"). Assessment. At the beginning of the next quarter (approximately 10 weeks after the in-class sessions), 360 students (three yearly cohorts) completed a low-stakes multiple-choice examination on the concepts in antimicrobial spectrum of activity. When data for students was pooled across years, the mean number of correct items was 75.3% for the items that tested content delivered with the active-learning method vs 70.4% for items that tested content delivered via traditional lecture (mean difference 4.9%). Instructor ratings on student evaluations of the active-learning approach were high (mean scores 4.5-4.8 on a 5-point scale) and student comments were positive about the active-learning approach and flower diagrams. Conclusion. An active-learning approach led to modestly higher scores in a test of long-term retention of pharmacology knowledge and was well-received by students.
Full Text Available We propose a medical image segmentation approach based on the Active Shape Model theory. We apply this method for cervical vertebra detection. The main advantage of this approach is the application of a statistical model created after a training stage. Thus, the knowledge and interaction of the domain expert intervene in this approach. Our application allows the use of two different models, that is, a global one (with several vertebrae and a local one (with a single vertebra. Two modes of segmentation are also proposed: manual and semiautomatic. For the manual mode, only two points are selected by the user on a given image. The first point needs to be close to the lower anterior corner of the last vertebra and the second near the upper anterior corner of the first vertebra. These two points are required to initialize the segmentation process. We propose to use the Harris corner detector combined with three successive filters to carry out the semiautomatic process. The results obtained on a large set of X-ray images are very promising.
Full Text Available Abstract The role of the statistical model-based voice activity detector (SMVAD is to detect speech regions from input signals using the statistical models of noise and noisy speech. The decision rule of SMVAD is based on the likelihood ratio test (LRT. The LRT-based decision rule may cause detection errors because of statistical properties of noise and speech signals. In this article, we first analyze the reasons why the detection errors occur and then propose two modified decision rules using reliable likelihood ratios (LRs. We also propose an effective weighting scheme considering spectral characteristics of noise and speech signals. In the experiments proposed in this study, with almost no additional computations, the proposed methods show significant performance improvement in various noise conditions. Experimental results also show that the proposed weighting scheme provides additional performance improvement over the two proposed SMVADs.
Kim, Younggwan; Suh, Youngjoo; Kim, Hoirin
The role of the statistical model-based voice activity detector (SMVAD) is to detect speech regions from input signals using the statistical models of noise and noisy speech. The decision rule of SMVAD is based on the likelihood ratio test (LRT). The LRT-based decision rule may cause detection errors because of statistical properties of noise and speech signals. In this article, we first analyze the reasons why the detection errors occur and then propose two modified decision rules using reliable likelihood ratios (LRs). We also propose an effective weighting scheme considering spectral characteristics of noise and speech signals. In the experiments proposed in this study, with almost no additional computations, the proposed methods show significant performance improvement in various noise conditions. Experimental results also show that the proposed weighting scheme provides additional performance improvement over the two proposed SMVADs.
Silk, Eli M.; Higashi, Ross; Shoop, Robin; Schunn, Christian D.
Over the past three years, the authors have conducted research in middle and high school classrooms in an effort to improve the effectiveness of robotics to teach science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education--their focus has been on math. The authors have found that subtle changes in the design and setup of the lesson make a…
Djouad, Tarek; Mille, Alain
Although learning indicators are now properly studied and published, it is still very difficult to manage them freely within most distance learning platforms. As all activity indicators need to collect and analyze properly traces of the learning activity, we propose to use these traces as a starting point for a platform independent Trace…
He, Nana; Zhang, Xiaolong; Zhao, Juanjuan; Zhao, Huilan; Qiang, Yan
While the popular thin layer scanning technology of spiral CT has helped to improve diagnoses of lung diseases, the large volumes of scanning images produced by the technology also dramatically increase the load of physicians in lesion detection. Computer-aided diagnosis techniques like lesions segmentation in thin CT sequences have been developed to address this issue, but it remains a challenge to achieve high segmentation efficiency and accuracy without much involvement of human manual intervention. In this paper, we present our research on automated segmentation of lung parenchyma with an improved geodesic active contour model that is geodesic active contour model based on similarity (GACBS). Combining spectral clustering algorithm based on Nystrom (SCN) with GACBS, this algorithm first extracts key image slices, then uses these slices to generate an initial contour of pulmonary parenchyma of un-segmented slices with an interpolation algorithm, and finally segments lung parenchyma of un-segmented slices. Experimental results show that the segmentation results generated by our method are close to what manual segmentation can produce, with an average volume overlap ratio of 91.48%.
Full Text Available This paper presents a double loop controller for a 7-DoF automobile electrohydraulic active suspension via T-S fuzzy modelling technique. The outer loop controller employs a modified H-infinity feedback control based on a T-S fuzzy model to provide the actuation force needed to ensure better riding comfort and handling stability. The resulting optimizing problem is transformed into a linear matrix inequalities solution issue associated with stability analysis, suspension stroke limit, and force constraints. Integrating these via parallel distributed compensation method, the feedback gains are derived to render the suspension performance dependent on the perturbation size and improve the efficiency of active suspensions. Adaptive Robust Control (ARC is then adopted in the inner loop design to deal with uncertain nonlinearities and improve tracking accuracy. The validity of improvements attained from this controller is demonstrated by comparing with conventional Backstepping control and a passive suspension on a 7-DoF simulation example. It is shown that the T-S fuzzy model based controller can achieve favourable suspension performance and energy conservation under both mild and malevolent road inputs.
I have been involved in research on collaborative activities for improving the quality of teaching and learning high school science. Initially the collaborative activities we researched involved the uses of coteaching and cogenerative dialogue in urban middle and high schools in Philadelphia and New York (currently I have active research sites in New York and Brisbane, Australia). The research not only transformed practices but also produced theories that informed the development of additional collaborative activities and served as interventions for research and creation of heuristics for professional development programs and teacher certification courses. The presentation describes a collage of collaborative approaches to teaching and learning science, including coteaching, cogenerative dialogue, radical listening, critical reflection, and mindful action. For each activity in the collage I provide theoretical frameworks and empirical support, ongoing research, and priorities for the road ahead. I also address methodologies used in the research, illustrating how teachers and students collaborated as researchers in multilevel investigations of teaching and learning and learning to teach that included ethnography, video analysis, and sophisticated analyses of the voice, facial expression of emotion, eye gaze, and movement of the body during classroom interactions. I trace the evolution of studies of face-to-face interactions in science classes to the current focus on emotions and physiological aspects of teaching and learning (e.g., pulse rate, pulse strength, breathing patterns) that relate to science participation and achievement.
Holzbecher, J.; Chatt, A.
The Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor (DUSR) has been operating since July 1976 and has proven to be an invaluable tool in many teaching programs. These reactors are inherently safe and are designed to serve teaching and research needs of the universities, research centers, hospitals, etc. Since the DUSR has been, from its inception, associated with the Trace Analysis Research Centre, which is the Analytical Chemistry Division of the Department of Chemistry, the main thrust of its use continues to be in the field of nuclear analytical chemistry. Both teaching and research programs involve trace element analysis by neutron activation
Full Text Available The article presents the experience of designing the educational module "Special and Developmental Teaching" of School Psychology Master’s program. The modular-sized program includes practical training and research activity in each module in a networking, it complies with Federal State Educational Standard and professional teaching and educational psychology standarts. Practice-oriented education Master’s training model based on the activity and competence approaches is productive. We have shown the advantages of networking and the need to divert more resources towards practical training and to include research activity in particular module. It is necessary to teach educational psychologists not only to "know", but also to "knows how", to have professional thinking and metasubject competencies, to have the capacity for reflection, i. e. to operate in an uncertain environment for new schemes on the basis of the scientific method. It is important that the modular principle design allows adding training subjects from one of educational program to other and so developing new programs.
Rule, Audrey C.; Dockstader, C. Jolene; Stewart, Roger A.
Object box and environmental print card activities and kinesthetic/oral activities used in two before school programs for Title 1 students are presented for teaching phonological awareness concepts to students in primary grades. A small program evaluation study in which the two experimental groups made similar improvements and larger gains than a…
Johnson, Brian J.; Graham, Kate J.
This paper will describe a guided inquiry activity for teaching ligand field theory. Previous research suggests the guided inquiry approach is highly effective for student learning. This activity familiarizes students with the key concepts of molecular orbital theory applied to coordination complexes. Students will learn to identify factors that…
Sommer, Christian; Volk, Norbert; Pietzsch, Markus
A process for the production of a thermostable variant of a microbial transglutaminase was developed. The transglutaminase variant produced, carried a single amino acid exchange (serine replaced by proline at position 2) and showed a nearly doubled specific activity of 46.1 Umg(-1) compared to the wild-type enzyme. Based on a model based optimization strategy, intracellular soluble production in Escherichia coli was optimized. After parameter identification and only two fed-batch cultivations, a space time yield of 1438 U(TG)L(-1)h(-1) was obtained which is 175% higher than the highest values published so far (extracellular production using Corynebacterium ammoniagenes). High carbon source concentrations during expression were found to increase the product formation. Prior to the fed-batch cultivation, the host strain was adapted from complex medium to minimal medium by serial dilution. Upon transfer to the minimal medium, initially the maximal growth rate dropped to 0.13 h(-1). After the six consecutive cultivations the rate increased to 0.47 h(-1) and the portion of the complex medium was reduced to 1 ppm. Using the adapted cells, temperature after induction and IPTG-concentration were investigated by satellite batch cultivation according to a Design of Experiment (DoE) plan. The product yield was strongly influenced by the temperature after induction but not by the inductor concentration. The highest specific activity of 1386 Ug(-1) bio dry mass was obtained at 29°C and 0.7 mM IPTG. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Arriola, David; Thielecke, Frank
Electromechanical actuators have become a key technology for the onset of power-by-wire flight control systems in the next generation of commercial aircraft. The design of robust control and monitoring functions for these devices capable to mitigate the effects of safety-critical faults is essential in order to achieve the required level of fault tolerance. A primary flight control system comprising two electromechanical actuators nominally operating in active-active mode is considered. A set of five signal-based monitoring functions are designed using a detailed model of the system under consideration which includes non-linear parasitic effects, measurement and data acquisition effects, and actuator faults. Robust detection thresholds are determined based on the analysis of parametric and input uncertainties. The designed monitoring functions are verified experimentally and by simulation through the injection of faults in the validated model and in a test-rig suited to the actuation system under consideration, respectively. They guarantee a robust and efficient fault detection and isolation with a low risk of false alarms, additionally enabling the correct reconfiguration of the system for an enhanced operational availability. In 98% of the performed experiments and simulations, the correct faults were detected and confirmed within the time objectives set.
Troelsen, Jens; Klinker, Charlotte Demant; Breum, Lars
specifies that factors at multiple levels can influence PA behavior, and emphasizes the importance of behavior-specific models. On this theoretical basis the three mentioned multi-level interventions were planned and implemented. Based on the empirical studies we argue that site-specific factors have......Settings for Physical Activity – Developing a Site-specific Physical Activity Behavior Model based on Multi-level Intervention Studies Introduction: Ecological models of health behavior have potential as theoretical framework to comprehend the multiple levels of factors influencing physical...... activity (PA). The potential is shown by the fact that there has been a dramatic increase in application of ecological models in research and practice. One proposed core principle is that an ecological model is most powerful if the model is behavior-specific. However, based on multi-level interventions...
The main contribution of this paper is a proposal for a universal pedagogical pattern categorization based on teaching values and activities. This categorization would be more sustainable than the arbitrary categorization implied by pedagogical pattern language themes. Pedagogical patterns from two......-based categorization, we have combined it with a categorization based on teaching activities. The catalogue could be seen as a tool for combining pedagogical theories and patterns and it is a proposal for a solution to the problem of organizing pedagogical patterns....
Ann H. Williams
Full Text Available Teaching Biology concepts such as molecular genetics and inheritance patterns to students in K-12 and college is challenging. The created Super Bowl Activity uses kinesthetic and visual models and a "hook" to engage students in the material. Through guided inquiry and modeling, this lesson reviews concepts of DNA, mutations, genotype/phenotype, transcription, translation, homozygous/heterozygous, and inheritance patterns while entertaining the students with a story of a football player with sickle cell trait who couldn’t play in the Super Bowl. The students create a mutated and normal folded hemoglobin protein model based on amino acid chemical character and use them to simulate Mendelian genetics, inheritance patters, and heterozygous advantage. This lesson can be used by teachers and professors teaching middle/high school Biology courses as well as Undergraduate Introductory and non-major Biology courses. This teaching model was created to address content areas where students perform poorly on standardized Biology exams and was presented at a series of professional development workshops for secondary and undergraduate Biology teachers. One Biology instructor utilized it successfully in her Biology course as a review for end of course exams and felt the students were very engaged in the activity and material.
Full Text Available The students often find some problems in practising English speaking. The problem frequently found is that their native language causes them difficult to use the foreign language. Other reason is because of motivation lack to practice the second language in daily conversation. They are also too shy and afraid to take part in the conversation. Many factors can cause the problem of the students’ speaking skills namely the students’ interest, the material, and the media among others including the technique in teaching English. There are many ways that can be done by the students to develop their ability in speaking English. The appropriate technique used by the English teacher also supports their interested in practising their speaking. One of the techniques that can be applied is role play.
Müftüler, Mine; İnce, Mustafa Levent
This study examined how a physical activity course based on the Trans-Contextual Model affected the variables of perceived autonomy support, autonomous motivation, determinants of leisure-time physical activity behavior, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and leisure-time physical activity behaviors. The participants were 70 Turkish university students (M age=23.3 yr., SD=3.2). A pre-test-post-test control group design was constructed. Initially, the participants were randomly assigned into an experimental (n=35) and a control (n=35) group. The experimental group followed a 12 wk. trans-contextual model-based intervention. The participants were pre- and post-tested in terms of Trans-Contextual Model constructs and of self-reported leisure-time physical activity behaviors. Multivariate analyses showed significant increases over the 12 wk. period for perceived autonomy support from instructor and peers, autonomous motivation in leisure-time physical activity setting, positive intention and perceived behavioral control over leisure-time physical activity behavior, more fulfillment of psychological needs, and more engagement in leisure-time physical activity behavior in the experimental group. These results indicated that the intervention was effective in developing leisure-time physical activity and indicated that the Trans-Contextual Model is a useful way to conceptualize these relationships.
Nine undergraduates in a psychology of aging course evaluated 13 experiential activities. Elder Mentor Project and Cognitive Assessment Demonstration received the highest ratings. Highly interpersonal activities had the most value for learning. (SK)
Gebre, Engida; Saroyan, Alenoush; Aulls, Mark W.
This paper examined professors' conceptions of effective teaching in the context of a course they were teaching in active learning classrooms and how the conceptions related to the perceived role and use of computers in their teaching. We interviewed 13 professors who were teaching in active learning classrooms in winter 2011 in a large research…
Tomcho, Thomas J.; Foels, Rob; Walter, Mark I.; Yerkes, Kyle; Brady, Brittany; Erdman, Molly; Dantoni, Lindsay; Venables, Megan; Manry, Allison
A primary objective for researchers who publish teaching activities and methods in the "Teaching of Psychology" (ToP) is to inform best practices in classroom teaching. Beyond the learning effect in the classroom, these ToP teaching activity and method articles may also have a "scientific" effect that heretofore researchers…
Weiner, Esther B.
Presents hands-on spring science activities to help elementary students think and act like scientists. Students use the scientific process to make connections between life, physical, and earth science. Activities look at insects, flowers, trees, the sun, and the earth's rotation around the sun. (SM)
Hampden-Thompson, Gillian; Bennett, Judith
The purpose of this analysis is to describe the variation in students' reports of engagement in science across science teaching and learning activities. In addition, this study examines student and school characteristics that may be associated with students' levels of engagement in science. Data are drawn from the Programme for International…
Olgun, Ozlem Sila
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of active learning on preservice teachers' dignity, energy, self-management, community, and awareness (DESCA) abilities, attitudes toward teaching, and attitudes toward science. Third year preservice teachers (n = 77) from two different classes were involved in the study. One intact…
Items where respondents scored less than the median of 67 (interquartile range 21) were categorised as displaying a negative attitude. Results. Patients (60%) did not favour the bedside teaching activities. No significant association was found with age, sex, occupation, literacy level, duration of hospital stay, and ward.
The role of active teaching programmes in academic skills enhancement of Grade 12 Learners in the Stellenbosch Region. ... The premise of this study focused on the holistic approach to the human body, mainly the connection between the brain and the body. Learners attend school as holistic beings and both the body ...
ICT IN TEACHING AND LEARNING CHEMISTRY. ACTIVITIES ON THE IPAD. G. Robert ... “We need to understand the learning needs and different learning styles of our students to equip them to contribute to using the tools of chemistry ... MahjongChemStetson University Free. ACS Mobile American Chemical Society Free.
Guan, Jianmin; McBride, Ron; Xiang, Ping
In this study we examined Chinese physical educators' attitudes toward teaching physical activity and fitness. We then compared the Chinese teacher attitudes to their American counterparts. Participants were 330 Chinese elementary, middle and high school physical educators. The Teachers' Attitudes Toward Curriculum in Physical Education (TATCPE)…
James, Abigail Norfleet; Allison, Sandra Boyd; McKenzie, Caitlin Zimmerman
If you're tired of repeating yourself to students who aren't listening, try a little less talk and a lot more action. The authors follow the best-selling "Teaching the Male Brain and Teaching the Female Brain" with this ready-to-use collection of mathematics, language arts, science, and classroom management strategies. Designed for active,…
Mohamad, Siti Nurul Mahfuzah; Salam, Sazilah; Bakar, Norasiken; Sui, Linda Khoo Mei
The theories of Multiple Intelligence (MI) used in this paper apply to students with interpersonal intelligence who is encouraged to work together in cooperative groups where interpersonal interaction is practiced. In this context, students used their knowledge and skills to help the group or partner to complete the tasks given. Students can interact with each other as they learn and the process of learning requires their verbal and non-verbal communication skills, co-operation and empathy in the group. Meanwhile educators can incorporate cooperative learning in groups in the classroom. On-MITT provides various tools to facilitate lecturers in preparing e-content that applies interpersonal intelligence. With minimal knowledge of Information and Technology (IT) skills, educators can produce creative and interesting teaching activities and teaching materials. The objective of this paper is to develop On-MITT prototype for interpersonal teaching activities. This paper addressed initial prototype of this study. An evaluation of On-MITT has been completed by 20 lecturers of Malaysian Polytechnics. Motivation Survey Questionnaire is used as the instrument to measure four motivation variables: ease of use, enjoyment, usefulness and self-confidence. Based on the findings, the On-MITT can facilitate educators to prepare teaching materials that are compatible for interpersonal learner.
Lundahl, Brad W.
To complement traditional learning activities in a masters-level research methodology course, social work students worked on a formal research project which involved: designing the study, constructing measures, selecting a sampling strategy, collecting data, reducing and analyzing data, and finally interpreting and communicating the results. The…
This unit contains activities dealing with wastes, the Greenhouse Effect, ozone depletion, energy, deforestation, and species extinction. Each section has a text to explain the issues and a crossword puzzle to reinforce the vocabulary. There are diagrams with questions that can be used as handouts or as transparency masters. (EH)
Woodburn, John H.
This publication is a sourcebook for science teachers. It provides guides for basic laboratory work in nuclear energy, suggesting various teacher and student demonstrations. Ideas for science clubs, science fairs, and project research seminars are presented. Problem-solving activities for both science and mathematics classes are included, as well…
Ingham, Gerard; O'Meara, Peter; Fry, Jennifer; Crothers, Natalie
There is little empirical information on how general practitioner (GP) supervisors teach and the reasons for the variation in their teaching methods. Could the variation be due to differing motivations to teach? Supervisors from one regional training provider who attended educational workshops in 2013 were surveyed, seeking infor-mation on their motivation to become and remain a supervisor, and the frequency of use of selected teaching activities. The majority of respondents cited intrinsic motivators, including enjoying teaching (84%), contribution to the profession and community (82%), adding variety (78%) and workforce/succession planning (69%), as reasons for becoming GP supervisors. The expected relationships between motivations and teaching activities were not found. Variation in teaching activities used by supervisors does not appear to be associated with differing motivations. Measuring the use of teaching activities is not a mechanism to determine a supervisor's commitment to teaching.
Full Text Available The article’s starting point is the problem of perception and understanding of history –which is essential to create a critical citizenship- by future citizens (primary school students as well as future educators (teachers training university students. The article proposes two models of teaching and learning history and its development in two case studies adapted to different ages and geographical contexts (case 1: teachers training degree students of a Spanish university and case 2: Portuguese primary education pupils. Results of the development of the teaching and learning model in both contexts are presented at the same time that the social, curricular and geographical transversality of the model proposed is exposed.
Uderlei Donizete Silveira Covizzi
Full Text Available The traditional teaching method has been widely questioned on the development of skills and abilities in training healthcare professionals. In the traditional methodology the main transmitter of knowledge is the teacher while students assume passive spectator role. Some Brazilian institutions broke with this model, structuring the curriculum to student-centered learning. Some medical schools have adopted the Problem Based Learning (PBL, a methodology that presents problem questions, to be encountered by future physicians, for resolution in small tutorial groups. Our work proposes to apply an active teaching-learning methodology addressing carbohydrate metabolism during the discipline of biochemistry for under graduation students from pharmacy course. Thus, the academic content was presented through brief and objective talks. Later, learners were split into tutorial groups for the resolution of issues in context. During the activities, the teacher drove the discussion to the issues elucidation. At the end of the module learners evaluated the teaching methodology by means of an applied questionnaire and the developed content was evaluated by an usual individual test. The questionnaire analysis indicates that students believe they have actively participated in the teaching-learning process, being encouraged to discuss and understand the theme. The answers highlight closer ties between students and tutor. According to the professor, there is a greater student engagement with learning. It is concluded that an innovative methodology, where the primary responsibility for learning is centered in the student himself, besides to increase the interest in learning, facilitates learning by cases discussion in groups. The issues contextualization establishes a narrowing between theory and practice.
Glória Solé; Nayra Llonch
The article’s starting point is the problem of perception and understanding of history –which is essential to create a critical citizenship- by future citizens (primary school students) as well as future educators (teachers training university students). The article proposes two models of teaching and learning history and its development in two case studies adapted to different ages and geographical contexts (case 1: teachers training degree students of a Spanish university and case 2: Portug...
Gonzalez, Paul F.; Ochoa, Cesar A.; Cabrera, Paola A.; Castillo, Luz M.; Quinonez, Ana L.; Solano, Lida M.; Espinosa, Franklin O.; Ulehlova, Eva; Arias, Maria O.
Research on teaching listening and speaking skills has been conducted at many levels. The purpose of this study was to analyze the current implementation of classroom and extracurricular activities, as well as the use of educational resources for teaching both skills in public senior high schools in the Amazon region of Ecuador, particularly in…
This paper describes a method for teaching planetary retrograde motion, and the Ptolemaic and Copernican accounts of retrograde motion, by means of a series kinesthetic learning activities (KLAs). In the KLAs described, the students literally walk through the motions of the planets in both systems. A retrospective statistical analysis shows that students who participated in these activities performed better on examination questions pertaining to retrograde motion than students who did not. Potential explanations for this result, including the breaking of classroom routine, the effect of body movement on conceptual memory, and egocentric spatial proprioception, are considered.
This paper reports on the learning designs, teaching methods and activities most commonly employed within the disciplines in six universities in Australia. The study sought to establish if there were significant differences between the disciplines in learning designs, teaching methods and teaching activities in the current Australian context, as…
Tomcho, Thomas J.; Foels, Rob
Teaching researchers commonly employ group-based collaborative learning approaches in Teaching of Psychology teaching activities. However, the authors know relatively little about the effectiveness of group-based activities in relation to known psychological processes associated with group dynamics. Therefore, the authors conducted a meta-analytic…
Keers, H.; Rondenay, S.; Harlap, Y.; Nordmo, I.
We give an overview of our experience in teaching two computational geophysics classes at the undergraduate level. In particular we describe The first class is for most students the first programming class and assumes that the students have had an introductory course in geophysics. In this class the students are introduced to basic Matlab skills: use of variables, basic array and matrix definition and manipulation, basic statistics, 1D integration, plotting of lines and surfaces, making of .m files and basic debugging techniques. All of these concepts are applied to elementary but important concepts in earthquake and exploration geophysics (including epicentre location, computation of travel time curves for simple layered media plotting of 1D and 2D velocity models etc.). It is important to integrate the geophysics with the programming concepts: we found that this enhances students' understanding. Moreover, as this is a 3 year Bachelor program, and this class is taught in the 2nd semester, there is little time for a class that focusses on only programming. In the second class, which is optional and can be taken in the 4th or 6th semester, but often is also taken by Master students we extend the Matlab programming to include signal processing and ordinary and partial differential equations, again with emphasis on geophysics (such as ray tracing and solving the acoustic wave equation). This class also contains a project in which the students have to write a brief paper on a topic in computational geophysics, preferably with programming examples. When teaching these classes it was found that active learning techniques, in which the students actively participate in the class, either individually, in pairs or in groups, are indispensable. We give a brief overview of the various activities that we have developed when teaching theses classes.
Full Text Available Background and objectives: Osteoporosis, a current silent epidemic, is of high importance due to its high prevalence and complications among women. It is a preventable disease whose high-risk population includes young girls. This study investigated the impacts of a health belief model-based education program about osteoporosis prevention on physical activity of junior high school students in in Kalaleh (Iran during 2012.Method: The present experimental study was conducted on 140 female students of the second-grade of junior high school in Kalaleh. The subjects were selected and allocated to the case and control groups (n = 70 each using multistage random sampling. Data were collected through standard questionnaires on the application of health belief model in osteoporosis and physical activity. The collected data were analyzed with independent and paired t-tests in SPSS 16 version.Results: There were no significant differences between the case and control groups in terms of household size and parents’ demographic characteristics. Before the intervention, the two groups had no significant differences in the mean scores of awareness and the health belief model constructs. However, the intervention could significantly increase the case group’s scores (P < 0.001. In addition, two months after the intervention, the mean scores of physical activity significantly increased in the case group (P < 0.001.Conclusion: The health belief model-based education program was efficient in increasing the students’ awareness which in turn created a favorable attitude toward physical activity among the participants.
Skinder-Meredith, Amy E
Courses in anatomy have traditionally relied on lectures and cadaver dissection laboratories. In speech and hearing sciences, there tends to be less access to cadavers than in medical schools and other allied health professions. It is more typical to use anatomical models, diagrams and lecture slides. Regardless of the resources available, anatomy is a subject that lends itself to hands-on learning. This article briefly reviews teaching methods and describes a variety of innovative activities to enhance learning of anatomical concepts and clinical relevance of anatomy for speech production. Teaching strategies and activities were developed to capitalize on students' multimodal learning preferences as revealed by responses to a survey administered to 49 undergraduates in the beginning of an anatomy of speech production course. At the end of the semester, students completed a second survey. A five-point Likert scale was used to assess the usefulness of each activity as a learning tool or level of clinical relevance and the level of enjoyability. The responses were overwhelmingly positive with level of usefulness and level of clinical relevance rated higher on average than the level of enjoyment.
Braxton, John M.; Berger, Joseph B.
A summary of articles on the relationship between faculty research and college teaching finds that faculty scholarship does not adversely affect teaching norms, teacher effectiveness, student cognitive development, or currency of course content. However, research activity affects two teaching dimensions detrimentally: rigor of course examinations…
Rabin, Marla J.; Spinrad, Paul R.; Fall, Thomas C.
Systems that assess the real world must cope with evidence that is uncertain, ambiguous, and spread over time. Typically, the most important function of an assessment system is to identify when activities are occurring that are unusual or unanticipated. Model based temporal reasoning addresses both of these requirements. The differences among temporal reasoning schemes lies in the methods used to avoid computational intractability. If we had n pieces of data and we wanted to examine how they were related, the worst case would be where we had to examine every subset of these points to see if that subset satisfied the relations. This would be 2n, which is intractable. Models compress this; if several data points are all compatible with a model, then that model represents all those data points. Data points are then considered related if they lie within the same model or if they lie in models that are related. Models thus address the intractability problem. They also address the problem of determining unusual activities if the data do not agree with models that are indicated by earlier data then something out of the norm is taking place. The models can summarize what we know up to that time, so when they are not predicting correctly, either something unusual is happening or we need to revise our models. The model based reasoner developed at Advanced Decision Systems is thus both intuitive and powerful. It is currently being used on one operational system and several prototype systems. It has enough power to be used in domains spanning the spectrum from manufacturing engineering and project management to low-intensity conflict and strategic assessment.
Goncharov, N.P.; Sufi, S.B.; Donaldson, A.; Jeffcoate, S.L.
The Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction of the World Health Organization has recognized from its beginning that training is a key component of its activities, including its immunoassay standardization programme. Since the start of the Special Programme more than 250 scientists have received training in RIA and related procedures and 27 training courses have been held in various countries. Many of the courses have been held in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency, and these co-operative activities have established a core of scientific expertise worldwide which has contributed to the increased availability of modern diagnostic techniques in many countries. The increasing number of medical and non-medical applications of immunoassays and the special expertise required for some immunoassay methods create a continuing demand for training in RIA techniques. Both WHO and the IAEA have responded by organizing courses to 'train the trainers' and by supporting national and regional courses based on centrally provided material, as well as by commissioning the production of additional teaching documents and audio-visual aids in English and Spanish. It is envisaged that such materials, complete with centrally provided materials for practicals and other teaching aids, will be made available to national reagent programmes and will be used in the future as a well characterized, standardized core around which local organizers can construct training programmes geared to local needs and drawing upon local experience. (author)
Lazarev V. S
Full Text Available Project activities of students regarded as a form of developmental teaching. Coping with domestic school crisis is possible using the activity-related forms of education. Author believes that initiating of students project activities widely used in the practice of the last decade should be assessed positively. In most cases, what is presented as “project activity”, in fact is not. Project activity contains significant opportunities for the realization of the idea of developmental education developed in the scientific school of cultural-historical psychology. Hypothesizing and experimental confirmation of the leading role of education in the development of the human mentality and working out the theory of developmental education are the biggest achievements of the scientific school. The theory of developmental education determines the educational activity in primary school and poorly designed for its middle and senior levels. It has inner problems that need to solve for further progress in building a new practice of schooling. It is shown how using the features of project activities can expand the boundaries of the implementation of the developmental education ideas
Ge Shuzhi S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a non-invasive neuroimaging technique that recently has been developed to measure the changes of cerebral blood oxygenation associated with brain activities. To date, for functional brain mapping applications, there is no standard on-line method for analysing NIRS data. Methods In this paper, a novel on-line NIRS data analysis framework taking advantages of both the general linear model (GLM and the Kalman estimator is devised. The Kalman estimator is used to update the GLM coefficients recursively, and one critical coefficient regarding brain activities is then passed to a t-statistical test. The t-statistical test result is used to update a topographic brain activation map. Meanwhile, a set of high-pass filters is plugged into the GLM to prevent very low-frequency noises, and an autoregressive (AR model is used to prevent the temporal correlation caused by physiological noises in NIRS time series. A set of data recorded in finger tapping experiments is studied using the proposed framework. Results The obtained results suggest that the method can effectively track the task related brain activation areas, and prevent the noise distortion in the estimation while the experiment is running. Thereby, the potential of the proposed method for real-time NIRS-based brain imaging was demonstrated. Conclusions This paper presents a novel on-line approach for analysing NIRS data for functional brain mapping applications. This approach demonstrates the potential of a real-time-updating topographic brain activation map.
Petersen, Christina I.; Gorman, Kristen S.
This chapter provides practical strategies for addressing common challenges that arise for teachers in active learning classrooms. Our strategies come from instructors with experience teaching in these environments.
de Vries, Siebrich; Jansen, Ellen P.W.A.; Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; van de Grift, Wim J.C.M.
Teacher learning is essential to the teaching profession, because it has been strongly linked to improved teaching practices and teacher quality. The source for teacher learning is initial teacher education, a crucial phase in the learning-to-teach continuum. To gain insight into this influential
Chong, M.S.; Nesic, D.; Kuhlmann, L.; Postoyan, R.; Varsavsky, A.; Cook, M.
Full text: Epilepsy is a common neurological disease that affects 0.5-1 % of the world's population. In cases where known treatments cannot achieve complete recovery, seizure prediction is essential so that preventive measures can be undertaken to prevent resultant injury. The elcctroencephalogram (EEG) is a widely used diagnostic tool for epilepsy. However, the EEG does not provide a detailed view of the underlying seizure causing neuronal mechanisms. Knowing the dynamics of the neuronal population is useful because tracking the evolution of the neuronal mechanisms will allow us to track the brain's progression from interictal to ictal state. Wendling and colleagues proposed a parameterised mathematical model that represents the activity of interconnected neuronal populations. By modifying the parameters, this model is able to reproduce signals that are very similar to the real EEG depicting commonly observed patterns during interictal and ictal periods. The transition from non-seizure to seizure activity, as seen in the EEG. is hypothesised to be due to the impairment of inhibition. Using Wendling's model, we designed a deterministic nonlinear estimator to recover the average membrane potential of the neuronal populations from a single channel EEG signal. for any fixed and known parameter values. Our nonlinear estimator is analytically proven to asymptotically converge to the true state of the model and illustrated in simulations. We were able to computationally observe the dynamics of the three neuronal populations described in the model: excitatory, fast and slow inhibitory populations. This forms a first step towards the prediction of epileptic seiwres. (author)
Wang, Chengwen; Quan, Long; Zhang, Shijie; Meng, Hongjun; Lan, Yuan
Hydraulic servomechanism is the typical mechanical/hydraulic double-dynamics coupling system with the high stiffness control and mismatched uncertainties input problems, which hinder direct applications of many advanced control approaches in the hydraulic servo fields. In this paper, by introducing the singular value perturbation theory, the original double-dynamics coupling model of the hydraulic servomechanism was reduced to a integral chain system. So that, the popular ADRC (active disturbance rejection control) technology could be directly applied to the reduced system. In addition, the high stiffness control and mismatched uncertainties input problems are avoided. The validity of the simplified model is analyzed and proven theoretically. The standard linear ADRC algorithm is then developed based on the obtained reduced-order model. Extensive comparative co-simulations and experiments are carried out to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zheng, Qiang; Li, Honglun; Fan, Baode; Wu, Shuanhu; Xu, Jindong
Active contour model (ACM) has been one of the most widely utilized methods in magnetic resonance (MR) brain image segmentation because of its ability of capturing topology changes. However, most of the existing ACMs only consider single-slice information in MR brain image data, i.e., the information used in ACMs based segmentation method is extracted only from one slice of MR brain image, which cannot take full advantage of the adjacent slice images' information, and cannot satisfy the local segmentation of MR brain images. In this paper, a novel ACM is proposed to solve the problem discussed above, which is based on multi-variate local Gaussian distribution and combines the adjacent slice images' information in MR brain image data to satisfy segmentation. The segmentation is finally achieved through maximizing the likelihood estimation. Experiments demonstrate the advantages of the proposed ACM over the single-slice ACM in local segmentation of MR brain image series.
Park, Ji Hun; Shin, Min Hwa; Kim, Hong Kook
In this paper, a voice activity detection (VAD) method for dual-channel noisy speech recognition is proposed on the basis of statistical models constructed by spatial cues and log energy. In particular, spatial cues are composed of the interaural time differences and interaural level differences of dual-channel speech signals, and the statistical models for speech presence and absence are based on a Gaussian kernel density. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed VAD method, speech recognition is performed using only speech signals segmented by the proposed VAD method. The performance of the proposed VAD method is then compared with those of conventional methods such as a signal-to-noise ratio variance based method and a phase vector based method. It is shown from the experiments that the proposed VAD method outperforms conventional methods, providing the relative word error rate reductions of 19.5% and 12.2%, respectively.
Tipping, Tracy N.
The Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory (NETL) at the University of Texas at Austin performs a wide variety of educational activities for students at various levels. Regular on-site courses in the areas of health physics, radiochemistry, and reactor operations are offered for university credit. Along with on-site courses, access to the reactor facility via a remote console connection allows students in an off-site classroom to conduct experiments via a "virtual" control console. In addition to the regularly scheduled courses, other programs, such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Summer Nuclear Engineering Institute and Office of Naval Research partnerships with Historically Black Colleges and Universities, provide access to the facility for students from other universities both domestic and foreign. And NETL hosts professional development programs such as training programs for Nuclear Regulatory Commission personnel and International Atomic Energy Agency fellowships.
Full Text Available Cloud computing and virtualization are new but indispensable components of computer engineering and information systems curricula for universities and higher education institutions. Learning about these topics is important for students preparing to work in the IT industry. In many companies, information technology operates under tight financial constraints. Virtualization, (for example storage, desktop, and server virtualization, reduces overall IT costs through the consolidation of systems. It also results in reduced loads and energy savings in terms of the power and cooling infrastructure. Therefore it is important to investigate the practical aspects of this topic both for industry practice and for teaching purposes. This paper demonstrates some activities undertaken recently by students at the Eastern Institute of Technology New Zealand and concludes with general recommendations for IT educators, software developers, and other IT professionals
Full Text Available To strengthen the integration of the primary and secondary systems, a concept of Cyber Physical Systems (CPS is introduced to construct a CPS in Power Systems (Power CPS. The most basic work of the Power CPS is to build an integration model which combines both a continuous process and a discrete process. The advanced form of smart grid, the Active Distribution Network (ADN is a typical example of Power CPS. After designing the Power CPS model architecture and its application in ADN, a Hybrid System based model and control method of Power CPS is proposed in this paper. As an application example, ADN flexible load is modeled and controlled with ADN feeder power control by a control strategy which includes the normal condition and the underpowered condition. In this model and strategy, some factors like load power consumption and load functional demand are considered and optimized. In order to make up some of the deficiencies of centralized control, a distributed control method is presented to reduce model complexity and improve calculation speed. The effectiveness of all the models and methods are demonstrated in the case study.
Nottingham, Sara; Verscheure, Susan
Active learning is a teaching methodology with a focus on student-centered learning that engages students in the educational process. This study implemented active learning techniques in an orthopedic assessment laboratory, and the effects of these teaching techniques. Mean scores from written exams, practical exams, and final course evaluations…
In most clinical teaching settings, case presentation is the most frequently used teaching and learning activity. From an educational viewpoint, the two important roles of case presentations are the presenter's reflective opportunity and the clinician educator's clues to diagnose the presenter. When a presenter prepares for a case presentation, he/she has to organize all the information collected from a patient. The presenter sometimes does not recall what to ask or to examine with relation to pertinent differential diagnoses while seeing a patient, and afterward he/she might note that more information should have been collected. He/she is able to note the processes by reflection-on-action and improve the processes the next time. Such a reflective process is the most important role of case conference for a presenter. When a clinician has a consultation with a patient, early problem representation determines the quality of differential diagnoses. Clinicians make a "big picture" while listening to the patient (sometimes only a glance is enough to diagnose a patient) as problem representation to narrow down clinical areas to ask questions. If the early problem representation is far from the optimal direction, the possibility of misdiagnosis will be higher. To correct the cognitive processes that lead to misdiagnosis, disclosure of uncertainty will be the key. If the teaching environment among residents or young clinicians is too competitive, some might feel reluctant to disclose incorrect reasoning processes to their peers. Or, if a clinician educator is too authoritative, students may hide key information from the educator. The educator should construct the best environment for students to be able to disclose such uncertainty. The main role of clinician educators is to facilitate and evaluate case presentations and to suggest points for improvement. Neher et al's "five microskills" are a typical example of these processes, after a short presentation of an outpatient
Full Text Available In most clinical teaching settings, case presentation is the most frequently used teaching and learning activity. From an educational viewpoint, the two important roles of case presentations are the presenter's reflective opportunity and the clinician educator's clues to diagnose the presenter. When a presenter prepares for a case presentation, he/she has to organize all the information collected from a patient. The presenter sometimes does not recall what to ask or to examine with relation to pertinent differential diagnoses while seeing a patient, and afterward he/she might note that more information should have been collected. He/she is able to note the processes by reflection-on-action and improve the processes the next time. Such a reflective process is the most important role of case conference for a presenter. When a clinician has a consultation with a patient, early problem representation determines the quality of differential diagnoses. Clinicians make a “big picture” while listening to the patient (sometimes only a glance is enough to diagnose a patient as problem representation to narrow down clinical areas to ask questions. If the early problem representation is far from the optimal direction, the possibility of misdiagnosis will be higher. To correct the cognitive processes that lead to misdiagnosis, disclosure of uncertainty will be the key. If the teaching environment among residents or young clinicians is too competitive, some might feel reluctant to disclose incorrect reasoning processes to their peers. Or, if a clinician educator is too authoritative, students may hide key information from the educator. The educator should construct the best environment for students to be able to disclose such uncertainty. The main role of clinician educators is to facilitate and evaluate case presentations and to suggest points for improvement. Neher et al's “five microskills” are a typical example of these processes, after a short
Sinnema, Claire; Meyer, Frauke; Aitken, Graeme
Given widespread acceptance of the role of teaching in improving student outcomes, it is not surprising that policy makers have turned to teaching standards as a lever for educational improvement. There are, however, long-standing critiques of standards that suggest they are reductionist and promote a dualism between theory and practice. Our…
The Quest for Less provides hands-on lessons and activities, enrichment ideas, journal writing assignments, and other educational tools related to preventing and reusing waste. This document includes factsheets, activities, and teaching notes for 6-8
Full Text Available This study aims to design learning Problem Based Learning Model based on syntax study recommendations and content issues on Physics Impulse materials through experiments. This research is a development research with Kemp model. The reference for making the learning design is the result of the syntax study and the content of existing PBL implementation problems from Agustina research. This instructional design is applied to the physics material about Impulse done through experimental activity. Limited trials were conducted on the SWCU Physics Education Study Program students group Salatiga, while the validity test was conducted by high school teachers and physics education lecturers. The results of the trial evaluation are limited and the validity test is used to improve the designs that have been made. The conclusion of this research is the design of learning by using PBL model on Impuls material by referring the result of syntax study and the problem content of existing PBL implementation can be produced by learning activity designed in laboratory experiment activity. The actual problem for Impuls material can be used car crash test video at factory. The results of validation tests and limited trials conducted by researchers assessed that the design of learning made by researchers can be used with small revisions. Suggestions from this research are in making learning design by using PBL model to get actual problem can by collecting news that come from newspaper, YouTube, internet, and television.
Carreker, Suzanne; Birsh, Judith R.
With this companion workbook to Judith Birsh's bestselling resource, "Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills, Second Edition," students and practitioners alike will improve their knowledge of multisensory teaching and hone their language and instruction skills. Ideal for both preservice teacher education courses and inservice professional…
Full Text Available Business subjects in any national economy perform activities results of which are products, services or goods directly distributed to the market network. Volume of products differs according to the level of operational facilities, number of producers and the level of their facilities. Based on the development of information technology, there arise new specialization fields and new ranges of goods. Classification criteria are developed to qualify level of production and for enlistment of a firm to a particular branch. Currently the criteria of production classification are being developed. The understanding of these principles is particularly important on the bachelor level of the specialization Trade Management, where students are getting acquainted with the characteristics of goods, creative and degradation influences on utility, etc. Students are encouraged to understand how the quality and criteria mentioned above influence market prices. Teaching emphasis is put on the complexity of food assortment and the knowledge of Czech and EU legalislation relating to hygienic aspects and health quality of production, processing, and selling of food products. This complex procedure enables to obtain an overall survey of the origin of particular products, their catering, and sales. This means that the students obtain an idea about the complexity of relations existing among the origin of products, their sales and their consumption.
Vitor de Almeida Fernandes
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To describe the fifth-year medical students' self-evaluation based on the reflexive discourse of the Activities Diaries (portfolio from the Pediatric Internship I and Child Care Rotations. METHODS Cross sectional, qualitative and descriptive study using the collective subject discourse of the diaries used during the internship of the Medical School, in Catanduva, São Paulo, from January to November, 2011. The registered students' testimonials in the portfolio sections called self-assessment and students' impression were assessed according to their central ideas (discipline organization, breastfeeding outpatient clinic, number of admissions in the pediatric hospital ward and satisfaction with the Child Health training , related to the teaching of Pediatrics and Child Care. The portfolios with incomplete registers were excluded. RESULTS The testimonials of 47 interns (75% of the students were analyzed, and 21.3% of them expressed satisfaction with the discipline organization and 27.7% praised the inclusion of the breastfeeding outpatient clinics in the course. For 25.5% of the academics, the number of admissions in the pediatric wards was insufficient for an ideal learning; however, 70.2% were satisfied with the Child Health training. CONCLUSIONS This critical analysis allowed a summary of the reflections, suggestions and critics registered by the interns and can be used as a tool for improvement of the professional cycle.
Dewi Amaliah Nafiati
Full Text Available This research aims to describe factors that influence dehumanization of teaching and learning processes. The population of this research was 158 students. The research used a proportional cluster random sampling and 40 students were analyzed as samples. Data were collected by using documentation, observation and questionnaire. The data then quantitatively and qualitatively classified due to the influence of teaching and learning factors on Social Science subject in order to draw the conclusion easily. Findings show that the influence of dehumanization factors on teaching and learning processes are teaching method by 77.9%, curriculum factor by 85%, teacher-student relationship by 63.7%, school discipline by 75.4%, homework by 65.4%, school time by 63.7%, learning equipment by 70.8%, over-standard lesson by 81% and building condition by 80%. The most dominant factor influencing the dehumanization of teaching and learning processes is curriculum by 85%. Thus, teachers are required to improve their competences and capabilities to create a more humanistic teaching learning processes which are more appropriate to the goals of education. In order to achieve the goals, it is recommended to the school administrators to improve the facilities and infrastructure for more conducive teaching and learning processes with more representative spaces and facilities.
Windsor, Elroi J.; Carroll, Alana M.
Effectively teaching sociological theories to undergraduate students is challenging. Students often enroll in theory courses due to major requirements, not personal interest. Consequently, many students approach the study of theory with anxiety. This study examined the effectiveness of an experiential learning activity designed to teach Karl…
Many competing ideas exist around teaching "standard" high school social studies subjects such as history, government, geography, and economics. The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential of social studies teaching and learning as a moral activity. I first propose that current high school curriculum standards in the United States often…
Luik, Piret; Taimalu, Merle
The blog as a type of social software has been used in education for several years, and its positive effect in the field has been asserted in many studies. This study presents the factors of participants and blogs that predict blogging activeness during teaching practice and induction year. During the teaching practice and induction year all…
Previous studies on the interactive response system (IRS) have generally adopted the lecture method to facilitate teaching and learning, while few have made efforts to investigate the learning effects of instructional methods and IRS activities on learning and teaching. The purpose of the present study was therefore to explore whether the use of…
In this article, the author shares how her daughter, who was diagnosed with a profound hearing loss when she was a year old, taught her to teach, and demonstrates the importance of active communication. Teaching her daughter English as her second language has posed many challenges, but has also revealed successful strategies that the author has…
Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Oladrostam, Elnaz
Teaching grammar in a way that enables students to use grammatical structures correctly in their active use has always been one of the intricate tasks for most practitioners. This study compared the effectiveness of three instructional methods: games, dialogues practiced through role-play, and unfocused tasks for teaching grammar. Forty-eight…
Smalley, Scott W.; Retallick, Michael S.; Paulsen, Thomas H.
The purpose of this descriptive survey study was to determine the extent to which student teachers deem traditional student teaching skills and activities relevant as part of the capstone student teaching experience. The study population consisted of all (N = 140) fall 2012 and spring 2013 agricultural education student teachers in the North…
Full Text Available Instruction using the Web as a vehicle for content dissemination has increasingly dominated debates related to online learning (Nash, 2004 and there is little doubt that the exponential growth in the use of the internet and web-based instruction continues to present educators with considerable opportunities and challenges (Boettcher, 1999; McNaught & Lam, 2005. Many teachers and researchers (Wood, 1997; Littlejohn et al., 1999 point out that the organization and reflection necessary to effectively teach online often improves an instructor’s traditional teaching. This is a theme continued by Downing (2001 who identifies the eventual success or failure of online teaching as largely due to the same factors that have always been central to the provision of a quality learning experience. These factors include the energy, commitment and imagination of those responsible for providing the teaching and learning environment, whether it is virtual or actual. It is within this context that the authors of this paper set themselves the task of designing innovative online teaching and learning activities which add value to the student experience and genuinely assist learning traditionally difficult and dynamic concepts. The increasing adoption of outcomes based teaching and learning environments in universities around the world has provided wide-ranging opportunities to reflect on current learning and teaching practice. Whilst outcomes based teaching and learning is not a new idea (Biggs, 1999, many academic colleagues are actively seeking ways to leverage information technology solutions to design constructively aligned online teaching and learning activities which add value to the student learning experience and significantly assist in the understanding of difficult concepts and processes. This paper will describe and demonstrate the innovative development of online teaching and learning activities which adhere to the principles of both outcomes based
Full Text Available Teach them to Fly: Strategies for Encouraging Active Online Learning Karen HARDIN Cameron University Lawton, OK, USA PROBLEM One of the hot topics in education in the past 10 years has been the shift of the role of the educator. Whereas, he has traditionally been the owner and deliverer of the knowledge (Sage on the stage, now his role is shifting to a guide and facilitator (guide by the side. The purpose is to give the students ownership in their own learning process. As technology becomes more sophisticated, automation is replacing students problem solving skills, critical thinking and sometimes patience. On one of my evaluations in a 1999 online course, a student criticized that, shes not doing the teaching, Im doing the learning. Of course in my desire to encourage active learning, I took the response as a compliment, but the student meant it as a criticism. I began pondering the reluctance of students to take control of the learning process. Ive noticed this lack of problem solving, critical thinking and patience with young adults in the workplace. For example, I often visit Sams, a warehouse store owned by Wal-Mart. When I check out, I pay with a check. The computerized register will print the check for me, so I allow the cashier to do that. I often ask him or her to add $15 to the total to give me cash back. Its amazing how long it takes these young adults to add $15 to the total because of their reliance on computers. In another situation, when I was in an outlet shoe store in Texas, I purchased a pair of sandals. After I checked out, I noticed a sign that promoted, buy one, get a second for one cent. Of course, I wanted to take advantage of this opportunity, so I told the cashier that I wanted to find another pair of shoes. She replied, Its too late, your transaction is complete. I wouldnt know what to do. I said, Its simple, I owe you one cent. She said, I dont know how to make the computer fix it
Zander, Justyna; Mosterman, Pieter J
What the experts have to say about Model-Based Testing for Embedded Systems: "This book is exactly what is needed at the exact right time in this fast-growing area. From its beginnings over 10 years ago of deriving tests from UML statecharts, model-based testing has matured into a topic with both breadth and depth. Testing embedded systems is a natural application of MBT, and this book hits the nail exactly on the head. Numerous topics are presented clearly, thoroughly, and concisely in this cutting-edge book. The authors are world-class leading experts in this area and teach us well-used
Background: Many critical curriculum theorists in physical education have advocated a model- or models-based approach to teaching in the subject. This paper explores the literature base around models-based practice (MBP) and asks if this multi-models approach to curriculum planning has the potential to be the great white hope of pedagogical change…
Edafe, Ovie; Brooks, William S; Laskar, Simone N; Benjamin, Miles W; Chan, Philip
This study examines the perceived impact of a novel clinical teaching method based on FAIR principles (feedback, activity, individuality and relevance) on students' learning on clinical placement. This was a qualitative research study. Participants were third year and final year medical students attached to one UK vascular firm over a four-year period (N=108). Students were asked to write a reflective essay on how FAIRness approach differs from previous clinical placement, and its advantages and disadvantages. Essays were thematically analysed and globally rated (positive, negative or neutral) by two independent researchers. Over 90% of essays reported positive experiences of feedback, activity, individuality and relevance model. The model provided multifaceted feedback; active participation; longitudinal improvement; relevance to stage of learning and future goals; structured teaching; professional development; safe learning environment; consultant involvement in teaching. Students perceived preparation for tutorials to be time intensive for tutors/students; a lack of teaching on medical sciences and direct observation of performance; more than once weekly sessions would be beneficial; some issues with peer and public feedback, relevance to upcoming exam and large group sizes. Students described negative experiences of "standard" clinical teaching. Progressive teaching programmes based on the FAIRness principles, feedback, activity, individuality and relevance, could be used as a model to improve current undergraduate clinical teaching.
Brooks, William S.; Laskar, Simone N.; Benjamin, Miles W.; Chan, Philip
Objectives This study examines the perceived impact of a novel clinical teaching method based on FAIR principles (feedback, activity, individuality and relevance) on students’ learning on clinical placement. Methods This was a qualitative research study. Participants were third year and final year medical students attached to one UK vascular firm over a four-year period (N=108). Students were asked to write a reflective essay on how FAIRness approach differs from previous clinical placement, and its advantages and disadvantages. Essays were thematically analysed and globally rated (positive, negative or neutral) by two independent researchers. Results Over 90% of essays reported positive experiences of feedback, activity, individuality and relevance model. The model provided multifaceted feedback; active participation; longitudinal improvement; relevance to stage of learning and future goals; structured teaching; professional development; safe learning environment; consultant involvement in teaching. Students perceived preparation for tutorials to be time intensive for tutors/students; a lack of teaching on medical sciences and direct observation of performance; more than once weekly sessions would be beneficial; some issues with peer and public feedback, relevance to upcoming exam and large group sizes. Students described negative experiences of “standard” clinical teaching. Conclusions Progressive teaching programmes based on the FAIRness principles, feedback, activity, individuality and relevance, could be used as a model to improve current undergraduate clinical teaching. PMID:26995588
Full Text Available Some problems during the course of chemical education in junior colleges may arise due to the usage of prescribed text books and fixed education plans and programs. Considering that the goal of modern chemical education is the training of qualified, research-capable students, it appears necessary to carry out investigation in chemical education as a whole, starting with elementary and all the way to the university level. The purpose of such investigations is the increased efficiency and quality of student knowledge. Knowing that modern chemical teaching is independent student work, students should be active subjects in the teaching process. It is expected that students are capable to make decisions by themselves and to take full responsibility for them. So, in order for students to be active subjects in the teaching process, it is necessary to modernize teaching, which assumes active work techniques.
Kneale, Pauline; Winter, Jennie; Turner, Rebecca; Spowart, Lucy; Hughes, Jane; McKenna, Colleen; Muneer, Reema
This toolkit is developed as a resource for providers of teaching-related continuing professional development (CPD) in higher education (HE). It focuses on capturing the longer-term value and impact of CPD for teachers and learners, and moving away from immediate satisfaction measures. It is informed by the literature on evaluating higher…
The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes and practices of students related to oral hygiene teaching by mean of a questionnaire submitted to patients attending the clinics of the Department of Dentistry of Dakar. Method: A KPC study (Knowledge, Practices and Coverage) focusing on dental students was conducted ...
Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Jane
There are several variations of resonance laboratory activities used to determine the speed of sound. This is "not" one of them. This activity uses the resonance tube idea to teach "resonance," not to verify the speed of sound. Prior to this activity, the speed of sound has already been measured using computer sound-sensors and…
Nogaj, Luiza A.
This article describes the conversion of a lecture-based molecular biology course into an active learning environment in a studio classroom. Specific assignments and activities are provided as examples. The goal of these activities is to involve students in collaborative learning, teach them how to participate in the learning process, and give…
Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.
The relationship between prospective elementary teachers' attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions to teach science using hands-on activities at least twice a week during their first year of employment was investigated. The findings suggest that measuring prospective teachers' attitudes toward science cannot adequately predict nor provide a satisfactory explanation of their science teaching behaviors. The findings also provide clear support for two hypotheses derived from Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action regarding the predictability of prospective teachers' intentions to teach science from their attitudes and subjective norms.Received: 25 October 1985
Nielsen, Michael Havbro Faber; Nielsen, Linda
In the present paper we take basis in the basic postulate that the objective of education and teaching is value creation. With this setout we take up two implications, namely: i) decision analysis is the logical choice of management framework for conceiving, designing, implementing and operating...... (CDIO) education and teaching activities and ii) a thorough, transparent and continuously informed discourse is necessary among all stakeholders to education on what this “value” actually is....
Kul, Umit; Celik, Sedef
This paper has been conducted to determine future teachers' mathematical beliefs and to explore the relationship between their mathematical beliefs and initial teaching practice in a classroom setting, in terms of how they design the content of teaching activities, they employed the style of teaching in mathematics, and they engaged with pupils. A…
Scientific reasoning is particularly pertinent to science education since it is closely related to the content and methodologies of science and contributes to scientific literacy. Much of the research in science education investigates the appropriate framework and teaching methods and tools needed to promote students' ability to reason and evaluate in a scientific way. This paper aims (a) to contribute to an extended understanding of the nature and pedagogical importance of model-based reasoning and (b) to exemplify how using computer simulations can support students' model-based reasoning. We provide first a background for both scientific reasoning and computer simulations, based on the relevant philosophical views and the related educational discussion. This background suggests that the model-based framework provides an epistemologically valid and pedagogically appropriate basis for teaching scientific reasoning and for helping students develop sounder reasoning and decision-taking abilities and explains how using computer simulations can foster these abilities. We then provide some examples illustrating the use of computer simulations to support model-based reasoning and evaluation activities in the classroom. The examples reflect the procedure and criteria for evaluating models in science and demonstrate the educational advantages of their application in classroom reasoning activities.
José Roberto Lourenço
Full Text Available This article presents part of research conducted in the field of Corpus Linguistics about the use of corpora in English Language Teaching specifically directed to corporate secretarial activities. The study developed at the doctoral level had FATEC-SP students as voluntary respondents to a questionnaire on corporate secretarial activities; the responses presented as one of the most important and frequent secretarial activities, "Reading, Preparation and Presentation of Administrative Report". We present a model of practice in English Teaching with an initial focus on "Company History, Strategies and Structure".
Pollard, William B.
This paper looks at an activity that breaks the normal classroom teaching pattern (where students are often content to be reluctant, inactive participants in the learning process) with an activity that is likely a new experience for most students--letting the students create and solve their own problems. This is done within a problem structure…
Fried, Stephen B.; Mehrotra, Chandra M.
Covering 10 topical areas, this annotated bibliography offers a guide to journal articles, book chapters, monographs, and books useful for teaching diversity and aging through active learning. Active learning experiences may help expand students' awareness of elements of their own diversity, broaden their world view, and enhance their culturally…
Nolan, Kathleen A.
Reports on four experiments and/or activities that were used to stimulate student interest in environmental science. Makes the case that varying classroom activities in the environmental science classroom makes the teaching and learning experience more alive and vital to both instructor and student. (Author/MM)
Krajsek, Simona Strgulc; Vilhar, Barbara
We developed and tested a lesson plan for active teaching of diffusion in secondary schools (grades 10-13), which stimulates understanding of the thermal (Brownian) motion of particles as the principle underlying diffusion. During the lesson, students actively explore the Brownian motion through microscope observations of irregularly moving small…
Marble, Stephen; Fowler, Marilyn, Ed.
This teachers guide contains activities and materials created to teach astronomy concepts to children from grades K-8. It is organized into four units: (1) Earth and Stars; (2) Spheres and Orbits; (3) Stars and Gravity; and (4) Scales and Measurement. Activities are arranged within each unit around six content topics: (1) Earth; (2) Solar System;…
Eisen, Laura; Marano, Nadia; Glazier, Samantha
We describe an activity-based approach for teaching aqueous solubility to introductory chemistry students that provides a more balanced presentation of the roles of energy and entropy in dissolution than is found in most general chemistry textbooks. In the first few activities, students observe that polar substances dissolve in water, whereas…
LoPresto, Michael C.; Slater, Timothy F.
Although traditional lectures are still the dominant form of undergraduate instruction, there have been relatively few studies comparing various learner-centered and active learning teaching strategies to one another in order to guide professors in making informed instructional decisions. To study the impact of different active learning…
Focuses on the activity system of school-teaching mathematics and the impact of mathematical modeling. Describes the Applications of and Modeling in School Mathematics Project (AMSMAP) which investigates teachers' mathematical modeling and its relationship to a hypothesized school mathematical modeling activity system. Discusses the notion of an…
Thrasher, Linda; And Others
It is proposed that the most effective technique for teaching about aging and the aged at the secondary level is through the use of intergenerational activities, providing opportunities for the interaction of young and old. Including older adults in various class activities is suggested. Using these individuals as guest instructors and aides in…
Cristiano Henrique Antonelli da Veiga
Full Text Available The world debate focused on preserving the environment, such a s that held during the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio +20, in conjunction with Brazil’s growing foreign trade requires a study of all these topics in management courses. The central premise of this paper is to investigate the systematization of trade concepts through the use of business games. Two asymmetric scenarios for exporting and importing teams were developed using action research and qualitative data analysis. The longitudinal study was conducted on four separate, sequential classes from the Foreign Trade discipline of two universities from southern Brazilian. The students were able to discuss a variety of foreign trade topics and interact autonomously among themselves using business games that stimulate business negotiations through role playing dynamics, demonstrating that this teaching strategy can be used as a foreign trade teaching support tool. The final proposal was to change the game scenarios to focus on the decision between lowest costs and sustainable manufacturing processes without losing the aspects developed previously. The results showed that students’ decisions are more linked to their prior personal environmental concepts than to competition strategies developed for the company.
Inra, Jennifer A; Pelletier, Stephen; Kumar, Navin L; Barnes, Edward L; Shields, Helen M
Traditional didactic lectures are the mainstay of teaching for graduate medical education, although this method may not be the most effective way to transmit information. We created an active learning curriculum for Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) gastroenterology fellows to maximize learning. We evaluated whether this new curriculum improved perceived knowledge acquisition and knowledge base. In addition, our study assessed whether coaching faculty members in specific methods to enhance active learning improved their perceived teaching and presentation skills. We compared the Gastroenterology Training Exam (GTE) scores before and after the implementation of this curriculum to assess whether an improved knowledge base was documented. In addition, fellows and faculty members were asked to complete anonymous evaluations regarding their learning and teaching experiences. Fifteen fellows were invited to 12 lectures over a 2-year period. GTE scores improved in the areas of stomach ( p active learning curriculum. Scores in hepatology, as well as biliary and pancreatic study, showed a trend toward improvement ( p >0.05). All fellows believed the lectures were helpful, felt more prepared to take the GTE, and preferred the interactive format to traditional didactic lectures. All lecturers agreed that they acquired new teaching skills, improved teaching and presentation skills, and learned new tools that could help them teach better in the future. An active learning curriculum is preferred by GI fellows and may be helpful for improving transmission of information in any specialty in medical education. Individualized faculty coaching sessions demonstrating new ways to transmit information may be important for an individual faculty member's teaching excellence.
Rowe, Sidney E.
In September 2007, the Engineering Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) created the Design System Focus Team (DSFT). MSFC was responsible for the in-house design and development of the Ares 1 Upper Stage and the Engineering Directorate was preparing to deploy a new electronic Configuration Management and Data Management System with the Design Data Management System (DDMS) based upon a Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Product Data Management (PDM) System. The DSFT was to establish standardized CAD practices and a new data life cycle for design data. Of special interest here, the design teams were to implement Model Based Definition (MBD) in support of the Upper Stage manufacturing contract. It is noted that this MBD does use partially dimensioned drawings for auxiliary information to the model. The design data lifecycle implemented several new release states to be used prior to formal release that allowed the models to move through a flow of progressive maturity. The DSFT identified some 17 Lessons Learned as outcomes of the standards development, pathfinder deployments and initial application to the Upper Stage design completion. Some of the high value examples are reviewed.
Sobral, Fernanda Ribeiro; Campos, Claudinei José Gomes
The objective of this integrative review was to identify and analyze the scientific publications regarding the use of active methodologies in nursing care and teaching in Brazil. The survey included national publications, from 1999 to 2009, using the following databases: LILACS, BDENF, MEDLINE and SciELO. A total of 28 articles were selected. The results and analysis pointed to problematization as the primary active methodology used, the lack of theoretical frameworks to plan the pedagogical action, and the excessive use of teaching techniques that do not always characterize innovation. In conclusion, the implementation of innovative methodologies requires further studies and more investment in research and dissemination on the subject.
Monteiro, Marco Aurélio Alvarenga; ITA - São Paulo; Monteiro, Isabel Cristina de Castro; UNESP/Guaratinguetá - SP; Gaspar, Alberto; UNESP/Guaratinguetá-SP; Germano, Jóse Silvério Edmundo; ITA-SP
To teach concepts of Thermodynamics for students of high school, primarily those relating to the Second Law, is not trivial task, in view of the rare activities proposed to approach these concepts in the classroom. The aim of this article is to offer a proposal for construction activity from simple, inexpensive and easy to use in the classroom so that it can be used by teachers of Physical of the high school aiming teach concepts relating to the Second Law of Thermodynamics. La enseñanza d...
Girardin, G.; Chawla, R.
CROCUS is a zero-power critical facility used mainly for educational purposes at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne, Switzerland. It is a low-enriched-uranium fuelled, light-water moderated reactor, with the fission power limited to 100 W. The presentation will discuss the crucial role of CROCUS in teaching -- both as framework for reactor practicals offered to physics students at EPFL and as key educational tool in the recently established Swiss Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering. Regular development work is needed for the various instruments and components associated with the facility. As illustration, the recently completed refurbishment of the control rod system and the related calibration experiments will also be discussed.
Frey, Lawrence R.; Palmer, David L.
In this rejoinder to this forum's respondents to the stimulus essay, "Communication Activism Pedagogy and Research: Communication Education Scholarship to Promote Social Justice," Lawrence Frey and David Palmer state that the forum editors asked them and the invited respondents to focus on communication activism pedagogy (CAP) research…
Walsh, Allyn; Koppula, Sudha; Antao, Viola; Bethune, Cheri; Cameron, Stewart; Cavett, Teresa; Clavet, Diane; Dove, Marion
The move to competency-based medical education has created new challenges for medical teachers, including the need to reflect on and further develop their own competencies as teachers. Guidance is needed to ensure comprehensive and coherent programs of faculty development to meet the needs of teachers. The Working Group on Faculty Development of the College of Family Physicians of Canada developed a new concept, Fundamental Teaching Activities (FTAs), to describe the day-to-day work of teachers. These activities are intended to guide teacher professional development. Using task analysis and iterative reviews with teachers and educational leaders, these FTAs were organized into a framework for teachers to identify the actions involved in various teaching tasks, and to reflect on their teaching performance and next steps in personal development. In addition to use by teachers for personal development, the framework is being employed to guide the development of comprehensive faculty development offerings and curriculum, and to organize the beginnings of a national repository of teaching tools. Designed to support and aid teachers and those charged with faculty development, the Fundamental Teaching Activities Framework holds promise for all teachers in health sciences education.
By far, the tastiest technology learning activity that the author's students work on is the development of the design of a chocolate candy bar. This article describes how the author implemented the candy bar activity. The activity gives students an opportunity to design a product and to take it from concept through to production.
Rule, Audrey C., Ed.; McIntyre, Sandra, Ed.; Ranous, Meg, Ed.
Twenty-three mathematics activities that use environmental print materials are presented, along with two activities that focus on music education, one that highlights history concepts, and five science activities. The environmental print materials are words and images cut from food or other product packaging and mounted on mat board cards.…
Full Text Available In English language teaching and learning, an essential role is played by grammar and vocabulary. The main question stated in the study lays on how grammar is taught in our English classes, inductively or deductively? In EFL classes, it is thought that grammar is not particularly special, but studies show that teaching it communicatively enables student to improve communicative ability in foreign language. This paper focuses on: How grammar and vocabulary are taught? What is their importance in language learning? What kind of strategies and activities may be used to facilitate teaching in English classes? What is the perception of students about communicative activities used in class? This paper is based on theoretical analysis and practical analyses. When the purpose of learning is to achieve communication, skills and microskills are learned in meaningful contexts.
Denise Westphal Merazzi
Full Text Available The main theme of this paper is the science teaching in Adults and Youth Education. It was investigated the students' perceptions of adult and youth education (elementary school and their teachers, from science content's development through the works involving practical activities of everyday life. In this context, the methodology used in the research process was based on a survey of qualitative and quantitative approach, with hermeneutic content analysis' methodology and technique. In quantitative terms, we used the average ranking and statistical tests of Wilcoxon. Analyzing the data obtained, it was observed that the use of practical activities in science teaching in adult education is a satisfactory strategy for teaching and learning process and that there is a need to instill these practices in young and adults' education
Pratama Irwin Talenta
Full Text Available The aims of this study are to: (1 evaluate using MONU – MONU game as fun activity to teach vocabulary in writing procedure text, seen from content, visual identity, and teaching method. (2 Problems faced by students and teachers in using the game through computer and mobile phone. The researcher used descriptive evaluative, that is by examining ex-post program evaluation to determine whether a game based on information technology in accordance with the wishes of the user. Furthermore, this research proposes operationally in the form of action as an effort to improve and develop the process of further activities. From the results of this study can be concluded that a game based on ICT need to develop more in supporting teaching and learning, especially for young learners.
Hunt, Maree J.; Macaskill, Anne C.
Taking an ethical approach to using nonhuman animals in teaching requires assessment of the learning benefits of using animals and how these compare to the benefits of alternative teaching practices. It is also important to consider whether students have ethical reservations about completing exercises with animals. We compared upper level…
The purposes of this dissertation study are to better understand what specific types of scientific knowledge and practice three elementary teachers exhibit, and to examine how they use their scientific knowledge in their classroom teaching practice to provide students' opportunities to learn science when teaching condensation in the context of a unit on the water cycle. By comparing and contrasting three cases of elementary classroom teaching, this study discusses what kinds of scientific knowledge and practice are fundamental for teaching elementary science for scientific understanding. The data include structured interviews (content, pre- and post- observation, and stimulated recall), videotaped classroom observations, and collections of teachers' and students' written artifacts. Data were collected prior to, during, and after the three teachers taught condensation to fifth grade students. The data were analyzed in three contexts: interviews, teaching practices, and students' classroom activities. This made it possible to clarify which characteristics of teacher's scientific knowledge influenced which aspects of their teaching practice. Data analysis shows that teachers' scientific knowledge were closely associated with their teaching practice and students' classroom activities. Two characteristics of the teachers' scientific reasoning emerged as especially important. The first concerned how teachers connected observations of condensation with patterns in those observations (e.g., condensation occurs when warm moist air cools) and with explanations for those patterns (e.g., condensation is water vapor that changes to liquid water). Two teachers were careful to connect observations with patterns in their own thinking and in their classroom teaching. One of those teachers also connected the observations and patterns to scientific explanations. In contrast, the third teacher focused on listing scientific terms with little elaboration with specific observations and
This paper discusses some ideas on activities teachers of young learners make young learners do by way of materials. The paper also gives a number of suggested analyses of selecting or designing an activity to use with young learners. The suggested analyses of the activity deal with goals, input, procedures, outcome, teacher role, learner role and organization. The idea is not only to help young learners understand the language they hear but also to encourage young learners, who developmental...
Christensen, H.-P.; Vos, Henk; de Graaff, E.; Lemoult, B.
The introduction of active learning in engineering education is often started by enthusiastic teachers or change agents. They usually encounter resistance from stakeholders such as colleagues, department boards or students. For a successful introduction these stakeholders all have to learn what active learning involves for them. This means that active learning has to take place on three levels: the students, the staff, and the organisation. These three actors have each to learn from experienc...
Ikke Dewi Pratama
Full Text Available Cross Cultural Understanding (CCU is one of required courses in English Language Teaching which aims at connecting language and culture so that language learners can use foreign language appropriately, i.e. appropriate forms of language for appropriate context of situation. However, some obstacles usually occur during the course, for examples: students’ lack of understanding that lead to opinions stating that this is a boring and useless course, and large number of students within a class where lecturer must teach more than 40 students in one class. Considering the importance of CCU course as well as the needs to overcome the problems during this course, this paper proposes some particular teaching strategies to help students in apprehending CCU materials through students’ active participations. Active learning strategies are preferred by means of raising students’ participation and critical thinking so that the class would run more effectively. Other consideration in composing the strategies is to prepare English Education students to be future English language teachers by training their ability in teaching performance as well as connecting language and culture in English Language Teaching (ELT. Keywords: language, culture, strategies, media, ELT
In recent years McMurry University's introductory physics curriculum has gone through a series of significant changes to achieve better integration of traditional course components (lecture/lab/discussion) by means of instructional design and technology. A system of flexible curriculum modules with emphasis on inquiry-based teaching and collaborative active learning has been introduced. To unify module elements, a technology suite has been used that consists of Tablet PC's and software applications including Physlets, tablet-adapted personal response system, PASCO data acquisition systems, and MS One-note collaborative writing software. Adoption of the new teaching model resulted in reevaluation of existing instructional spaces. The new teaching space will be created during the renovation of the McMurry Science Building. This space will allow for easy transitions between lecture and laboratory modes. Movable partitions will be used to accommodate student groups of different sizes. The space will be supportive of small peer-group activities with easy-to-reconfigure furniture, multiple white and black board surfaces and multiple projection screens. The new space will be highly flexible to account for different teaching functions, different teaching modes and learning styles.
Full Text Available For approximately twenty-years, Web-enhanced learning environments have been popular in higher education. Much research has examined how best practices can integrate technology, pedagogical theories, and resources to enhance learning. Numerous studies of hybrid teaching have revealed mostly positive effects. Yet, very little research has examined how to teach a successful physical activity course using a hybrid format. Review of the literature: We reviewed the research regarding the design and implementation of a Web-enhanced physical activity course in a college population using pedagogical principles of learning and the10 self-determination theory. Method: Data were collected from students at the beginning and end of the course. The hybrid course consisted of completing weekly online activities, and selecting and participating in a face-to-face physical activity based on student’s choice. Conclusion: The authors propose this template as a model to assist faculty in designing and implementing a blended physical activity course.
Kreiner, David S.
This article describes 14 problem-based group activities for a sensation and perception course. The intent was to provide opportunities for students to practice applying their knowledge to real-world problems related to course content. Student ratings of how effectively the activities helped them learn were variable but relatively high. Students…
This article describes the Learning Activities Questionnaire (LAQ) and how it can be employed to evaluate learning tasks not typically examined in course evaluation instruments such as readings and assignments. Drawing from behavioral theory in its focus on specific activities, this instrument is simple to interpret and provides clear direction…
Holles, Joseph H.
The people and history of chemical engineering surround us: Gibbs free energy, Arrhenius Equation, and Reynolds number. Since these seminal figures appear in almost every classroom lecture, they provide an opportunity for a historically focused activity break. Each activity break provides the students with an image of the historical figure along…
Hernandez, Barbara L. Michiels; Ozmun, Michelle; Keeton, Gladys
As a result of competitive dance television shows, interest in tap dance seems to have increased in the past few years. Tap dance is a challenging and fun lifetime physical activity that is appropriate for people of all ages. It is an excellent activity for K-12 physical education programs, higher education, parks and recreation facilities,…
Victoria A. Skakunova
Full Text Available This article considers information-and-active approach in teaching foreign languages as a new approach in the sphere of modern pedagogy with the use of information and communication technologies in teaching practice. Furthermore, the work features changes in several aspects of teacher’s activity in modern information-based society.
Liberatore, Matthew W.
The delivery of a material and energy balances course is enhanced through a series of in-class and out-of-class exercises. An active learning classroom is achieved, even at class sizes over 150 students, using multiple instructors in a single classroom, problem solving in teams, problems based on YouTube videos, and just-in-time teaching. To avoid…
Boyraz, Celal; Serin, Gökhan
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of science instruction given through the game and physical activities course in accordance with interdisciplinary teaching approaches on students' science achievement and retention. The participants were 82 third grade students from a public elementary school. Three classes were chosen as…
Mullins, Mary H.
Active learning approaches have shown to improve student learning outcomes and improve the experience of students in the classroom. This article compares a Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning style approach to a more traditional teaching method in an undergraduate research methods course. Moving from a more traditional learning environment to…
This paper presents four teaching strategies, grounded in pedagogical theory, to encourage an active, challenging, creative, and meaningful experience for journalism and mass communication students grappling with moral issues, and developing higher order thinking in ethical decision-making processes. Strategies emphasizing critical thinking and…
de Vries, Siebrich; Jansen, Ellen P. W. A.; Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; van de Grift, Willem
Career-long teacher learning is essential to the teaching profession because it is strongly connected with teacher quality and practices. Student teachers in the first stage of their career-long learning continuum, however, vary in the extent to which they participate in learning activities. This
Claiborne, Lily L.; Miller, Calvin F.
We present a new laboratory activity for teaching radioactive decay by using hydrodynamic processes as an analog and an evaluation of its efficacy in the classroom. A fluid flowing from an upper beaker into a lower beaker (shampoo in this case) behaves mathematically identically to radioactive decay, mimicking the exponential decay process,…
Sadeghi, Karim; Sharifi, Faranak
Considering the significant role of vocabulary in learning a language, and teachers' great responsibility in providing opportunities to facilitate this learning, many studies have focused on the best means of achieving a good knowledge of vocabulary. This study set out to investigate the effect of four post-teaching activities, namely game,…
Marbach-Ad, Gili; McGinnis, J. Randy; Pease, Rebecca; Dai, Amy H.; Schalk, Kelly A.; Benson, Spencer
We investigated a pedagogical innovation in an undergraduate microbiology course (Microbes and Society) for non-majors and education majors. The goals of the curriculum and pedagogical transformation were to promote active learning and concentrate on clarity in teaching. This course was part of a longitudinal project (Project Nexus) which…
Martin, Jeffrey J.; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Eklund, Robert C.; Reed, Brett
Investigated elementary and secondary teachers' intentions to teach physically active physical education classes, examining a model hypothesizing that teachers' intentions were determined by subjective norm, attitude, perceived behavioral control, and self-efficacy. Teacher surveys supported the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior.…
Urology cover is commonly available out-of-hours in most teaching hospitals. However, increased pressure to reduce hospital expenditure has forced many institutions to consider removing middle grade cover outside of normal working hours. The aim of this study was to audit the emergency urology activity in our institution over a 12-month period.
The aim of this study was to determine pre-service social studies teachers' skills to plan and apply the activity-based teaching and contribute to their development of these skills. In the study, the action research design of qualitative research was used. The sample of the study consisted of 6 pre-service teachers who were 4th year students at…
de Vries, Siebrich; Roorda, Gerrit
Activating and cognitively demanding teaching behavior is problematic for many teachers in Dutch secondary education, in particular for the less experienced advanced beginners. In the context of a Professional Learning Community (PLC) for both less and more experienced teachers of mathematics,
Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Silverman, Stephen
A multiple-phase study was conducted to develop a reliable and valid instrument to examine teachers' attitudes toward teaching physical activity and fitness. Thirty-one subjects participated in the preliminary study involving the development of an attitude instrument. Subjects for the content validity study were 28 experts in physical education…
Wornyo, Albert Agbesi
This study was a classroom-based action research. In this study, constructive teaching and learning activities were used to help learners improve on their grammar and usage with a focus on how to help them internalize subject verb agreement rules. The purpose of the research was to assist learners to improve upon their performance in grammar and…
The purpose of this study was to determine the active learning and teaching methods and techniques which are employed by the social studies teachers working in state schools of Turkey. This usage status was assessed using different variables. This was a case study, wherein the research was limited to 241 social studies teachers. These teachers…
Stewart, Alice C.; Houghton, Susan M.; Rogers, Patrick R.
This research used a quasi-experimental design with two conditions to test the impact of active learning in the context of integrated instructional design. The control condition was a traditional approach to teaching an undergraduate strategy capstone class. The intervention condition was an undergraduate strategy capstone class that was designed…
Full Text Available This paper discusses some ideas on activities teachers of young learners make young learners do by way of materials. The paper also gives a number of suggested analyses of selecting or designing an activity to use with young learners. The suggested analyses of the activity deal with goals, input, procedures, outcome, teacher role, learner role and organization. The idea is not only to help young learners understand the language they hear but also to encourage young learners, who developmentally have shorter attention span composed to adults, to learn English naturally.
Dolin, R.M.; Hefele, J.
This report describes a Models Based Engineering (MBE) philosophy and implementation strategy that has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Center for Advanced Engineering Technology. A major theme in this discussion is that models based engineering is an information management technology enabling the development of information driven engineering. Unlike other information management technologies, models based engineering encompasses the breadth of engineering information, from design intent through product definition to consumer application.
Full Text Available Jennifer A Inra,1,2 Stephen Pelletier,2 Navin L Kumar,1,2 Edward L Barnes,3,4 Helen M Shields1,2 1Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endoscopy, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 3Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 4University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Objectives: Traditional didactic lectures are the mainstay of teaching for graduate medical education, although this method may not be the most effective way to transmit information. We created an active learning curriculum for Brigham and Women’s Hospital (BWH gastroenterology fellows to maximize learning. We evaluated whether this new curriculum improved perceived knowledge acquisition and knowledge base. In addition, our study assessed whether coaching faculty members in specific methods to enhance active learning improved their perceived teaching and presentation skills.Methods: We compared the Gastroenterology Training Exam (GTE scores before and after the implementation of this curriculum to assess whether an improved knowledge base was documented. In addition, fellows and faculty members were asked to complete anonymous evaluations regarding their learning and teaching experiences.Results: Fifteen fellows were invited to 12 lectures over a 2-year period. GTE scores improved in the areas of stomach (p<0.001, general gastroenterology (p=0.005, esophagus (p<0.001, and small bowel (p=0.001, and the total score (p=0.001 between pre- and postimplementation of the active learning curriculum. Scores in hepatology, as well as biliary and pancreatic study, showed a trend toward improvement (p>0.05. All fellows believed the lectures were helpful, felt more prepared to take the GTE, and preferred the interactive format to traditional didactic lectures. All lecturers agreed that they acquired new teaching skills, improved teaching and presentation skills, and
Minei, Elizabeth M.; Shearer Dunn, Karen
Courses: Introduction to Communication; small group; interpersonal. Objectives: This single activity demonstrates: (1) how interdependence can lead to better group outcomes than individual outcomes can; (2) how diversity of knowledge from multiple contributors helps group functioning; and (3) how students can be introduced to members of the…
Epigenetics involves heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve alterations in the DNA sequence. I developed an active-learning approach to convey this topic to students in a college genetics course. I posted a brief summary of the topic before class to stimulate exchange in cooperative groups. During class, we discussed the…
Cain, Peggy W.
This activity manual is divided into 15 units which focus on: the nature of science; metric measurements; properties of matter; energy; atomic structure; chemical reactions; acids, bases, and salts; temperature and heat; readioactivity; mechanics; wave motion, sound, and light; static charges and current electricity magnetism and electromagnetism;…
Jones, Karyn Dayle; Granello, Paul F.
Ezines (electronic zines) are independently made, online publications that can provide creative, pedagogical possibilities for constructivist learning in counselor education and, specifically, the diagnosis class. Making ezines about mental disorders and psychopathology allows students to engage in active learning about important topics while…
Christensen, H.-P.; Vos, Henk; de Graaff, E.; Lemoult, B.
The introduction of active learning in engineering education is often started by enthusiastic teachers or change agents. They usually encounter resistance from stakeholders such as colleagues, department boards or students. For a successful introduction these stakeholders all have to learn what
Froh, Jeffrey J., Ed.; Parks, Acacia C., Ed.
Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding area of study that is of great interest to students at the graduate, undergraduate, and high school levels. But the field is so broad that teachers who want to cover all the bases when designing a positive psychology course may have difficulty locating and selecting materials. "Activities for Teaching…
Zhang, Dingqiang; Zhao, Hongyuan; Yang, Hong
The reflective ability in mathematics is a highly individual mental process, which is engaged in the course of certain types of mathematics activity. This article describes the basic meaning, characteristics, and developmental features of reflectivity in mathematics. It is suggested that reflective ability in mathematics and its relations with…
Goltz, Sonia M.; Hietapelto, Amy B.
Few learning experiences give students immediate feedback on ethical and unethical behaviors and provide opportunities to repeatedly practice effective behaviors. This article describes how the authors have used challenge course activities to stimulate students to observe their own and others' ethical and unethical behaviors. Specifically, these…
Spataro, Sandra E.; Bloch, Janel
Listening is a critical communication skill and therefore an essential element of management education. "Active" listening surpasses passive listening or simple hearing to establish a deeper connection between speaker and listener, as the listener gives the speaker full attention via inquiry, reflection, respect, and empathy. This…
Ko, Lauren N; Rana, Jasmine; Burgin, Susan
Challenge: Although lecturing is an efficient method for the dissemination of information, it has long been criticized for learner passivity and diminished knowledge retention. Active learning strategies to engage the audience in the learning process can facilitate a bidirectional flow of ideas and content between teacher and students during a lecture to keep learners engaged and participating. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.
Ann H. Williams
Full Text Available In Microbiology courses, concepts such as chemotaxis can be difficult to visualize for students. Described here is a short visual playacting activity where students simulate E.coli moving towards an attractant source using a biased random walk. This short interactive activity is performed in the lecture course of General Microbiology that contains mostly Biology major juniors or seniors prior to the lecture on the subject of chemotaxis and flagellar movements. It is utilized to help students (class of 30–40 understand and visualize the process of chemotaxis and the concepts of random walk, biased random walk, runs, tumbles and directed movement of flagella in response to attractants and repellents.
Juliana ferreira de Vales
Full Text Available With the change of the profile of the student, the educational institutions are following new forms for teaching-learning; and within this scenario the Active Methodologies have a great role to provide students with autonomy. The article aims to present the use of Active Methodologies as a teaching and learning tool in the logistics technical course, using the methods Flipped Classroom and Problem-Based Learning (PBL, with the aim of showing the effectiveness of both methods in technical education. For the elaboration of this article the methods used were: bibliographic research and direct observation. The implementation of the Active Methodologies makes the students more interested in the course, besides being an excellent pedagogical resource and an additional motivation for the students.
González-Sancho, José Manuel; Sánchez-Pacheco, Aurora; Lasa, Marina; Molina, Susana; Vara, Francisco; del Peso, Luis
This article describes the transition from a traditional instructor-centered course, based on lectures, to a student-centered course based on active learning methodologies as part of the reform of the Spanish higher education system within the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Specifically, we describe the use of active learning methodologies to teach metabolism to students of nutrition and dietetics during the first year of their professional training in a 4-year undergraduate degree (Bachelor of Human Nutrition and Dietetics). In the new course design, the number of didactic lectures was largely reduced and complemented with a series of activities (problems/case studies, discussion workshops, self-assessment quizzes) aimed to get students actively engaged, to encourage self-learning, and to promote sustained work throughout the length of the course. The article presents quantitative data demonstrating a clear and significant improvement in students' performance when an active approach was implemented. Importantly, the improved performance was achieved without work overload. Finally, students' responses to this new teaching methodology have been very positive and overall satisfaction high. In summary, our results strongly argue in favor of the teaching model described herein. Copyright © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Shen, Chen; Chu, Chen; Geng, Yini; Jin, Jiahua; Chen, Fei; Shi, Lei
Voluntary participation, as an additional strategy involved in repeated games, has been proved to be an efficient way to promote the evolution of cooperation theoretically and empirically. Besides, current studies show that the coevolution of teaching activity can promote cooperation. Thus, inspired by aforementioned above, we investigate the effect of coevolution of teaching activity on the evolution of cooperation for prisoner's dilemma game with voluntary participation: when the focal player successfully enforces its strategy on the opponent, his teaching ability will get an increase. Through numerical simulation, we have shown that voluntary participation could effectively promote the fraction of cooperation, which is also affected by the value of increment. Furthermore, we investigate the influence of the increment value on the density of different strategies and find that there exists an optimal increment value that plays an utmost role on the evolutionary dynamics. With regard to this observation, we unveil that an optimal value of increment can lead to strongest heterogeneity in agents' teaching ability, further promoting the evolution of cooperation.
Full Text Available Voluntary participation, as an additional strategy involved in repeated games, has been proved to be an efficient way to promote the evolution of cooperation theoretically and empirically. Besides, current studies show that the coevolution of teaching activity can promote cooperation. Thus, inspired by aforementioned above, we investigate the effect of coevolution of teaching activity on the evolution of cooperation for prisoner's dilemma game with voluntary participation: when the focal player successfully enforces its strategy on the opponent, his teaching ability will get an increase. Through numerical simulation, we have shown that voluntary participation could effectively promote the fraction of cooperation, which is also affected by the value of increment. Furthermore, we investigate the influence of the increment value on the density of different strategies and find that there exists an optimal increment value that plays an utmost role on the evolutionary dynamics. With regard to this observation, we unveil that an optimal value of increment can lead to strongest heterogeneity in agents' teaching ability, further promoting the evolution of cooperation.
Gerardo Ignacio Sánchez-Sánchez
Full Text Available Developed in a regional campus of a university located 200 miles south of Santiago de Chile, the research showed the initial awareness of 50 senior students majoring in three High School Teaching Training Programs: Spanish Language; History; and Math, in regards to their own teaching process The qualitative approach used in this research is supported by the grounded theory. The critical incident technique was used to obtain the information about the individuals mentioned above, after their first period as in-practice High School teachers. Results show that the assessment teaching functions are mostly mentioned as essential to improve their teaching activities focused on the learning process of high school students. However, Teacher Training Programs should also emphasize real challenges and the abilities that a teacher must successfully develop during the process, instead of mainly focusing on measurement instruments and theoretical outlines
M. Kosmatin Fras
Full Text Available Fast technological developments in photogrammetry and remote sensing areas demand quick and steady changes in the education programme and its realization. The university teachers and assistants are faced with ensuring the learning materials, data and software for practical lessons, as well as project proposals for student’s team work and bachelor or master thesis. In this paper the emerging topics that already have a considerable impact in the practice are treated mostly from the educational aspect. These relatively new topics that are considered in this paper are unmanned aerial systems for spatial data collection, terrestrial and aerial laser scanning, mobile mapping systems, and novelties in satellite remote sensing. The focus is given to practical implementation of these topics into the teaching and learning programme of Geodesy and Geoinformation at the University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, and experiences gained by the authors so far. Together with the technological advances, the teaching approaches must be modernized as well. Classical approaches of teaching, where a lecturer gives lecture ex cathedra and students are only listeners, are not effective enough. The didactics science of teaching has developed and proved in the practice many useful approaches that can better motivate students for more active learning. We can use different methods of team work like pro et contra debate, buzzing groups, press conference, moderated discussion etc. An experimental study on active teaching methods in the class of students of the Master programme of Geodesy and Geoinformation has been made and the results are presented. After using some new teaching methods in the class, the students were asked to answer two types of a questionnaire. First questionnaire was the standard form developed by Noel Entwistle, an educational psychologist who developed the Approaches to Studying Inventory (ASI for identifying deep and
Full Text Available We report on a German-Indonesian design research project, which aims to significantly increase the mathematical skills of secondary school students. Since results of international comparative studies have shown that there exists a relationship between metacognition and learning success, a learning environment for the beginning with secondary school mathematics in class seven has been developed, in order to significantly enhance metacognitive and discursive activities of students and teachers. The effectiveness of the approach has been tested in a secondary school several times. In this paper the theoretical background for the design of the learning environment is described, some sample exercises are presented and student productions from the project lessons analysed.
This instructional article is about an innovative teaching approach for enhancing student engagement and active learning in higher education through a combination of just-in-time teaching and the use of PowerPoint technology. The central component of this approach was students' pre-lecture preparation of a short PowerPoint presentation in which…
The purpose of this article is to offer teaching ideas in the treatment of the definite integral concept and the Riemann sums in a technology-supported environment. Specifically, the article offers teaching ideas and activities for classroom for the numerical methods of approximating a definite integral via left- and right-hand Riemann sums, along…
Isomottonen, Ville; Tirronen, Ville
Lecturing is known to be a controversial form of teaching. With massed classrooms, in particular, it tends to constrain the active participation of students. One of the remedies applied to programming education is to use technology that can vitalize interaction in the classroom, while another is to base teaching increasingly on programming…
Nilson Varella Rübenich
Full Text Available Knowledge and its acquisition, creation and development have awakened the attention of researchers and organizations once there is a knowledge dependence of the individuals that act in the organization. On the other side, organizations are increasingly dependent on the knowledge of the individuals within the organization. In this context this article aims to examine how ‘knowing’ and ‘sensemaking’ can be found back in teacher’s work when writing course curricula and create lesson plans, as part of the learning content and activities at higher education institutions - HEI - and in distance learning courses. The study was conducted with newly hired teachers working in the Centre of Distance Education – CEAD – of a HEI that is part of a nationwide Brazilian educational network. In the development of the case study involved participant observation to elaborate field diaries. Were analyzed institutional documents, and after then was conducted open questionnaires with the teachers involved. The results served as an indication as to what degree the knowing and sensemaking are present in the environment that transforms knowledge into action. The renewal occurs when actions are permeated by senses where knowledge has meanings and is intensively used contributing a profound value added element.
Full Text Available We report on a German-Indonesian design research project, which aims to significantly increase the mathematical skills of secondary school students. Since results of international comparative studies have shown that there exists a relationship between metacognition and learning success, a learning environment for the beginning with secondary school mathematics in class seven has been developed, in order to significantly enhance metacognitive and discursive activities of students and teachers. The effectiveness of the approach has been tested in a secondary school several times. In this paper the theoretical background for the design of the learning environment is described, some sample exercises are presented and student productions from the project lessons analysed.Keywords: Metacognition, Microworlds, Mental models, Metaphors, Integers DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.2.1.777.15-40
Full Text Available Modes of teaching and assessment need to take cognisance of all aspects of "special education needs" for these students to reach their potential and some talent shown by these children is not lost to society. Attitudes, practices, values and beliefs about that every student belongs and feels membership in the community are essential for the inclusive school. Curriculum for these children needs some principles: course delivery modes and learning activities should take account the outcomes and the learning capacities of students with special education needs; course study materials should be made available in appropriate formats and, students with disabilities should not be disadvantaged by the time taken for learning; teaching and strategies should be adjusted to meet the learning needs of disabled students, including the provision of additional support; some activities conducted in non-classroom settings, such as field trips, should be designed.
Lúcia Helena Sasseron Roberto
Full Text Available This a report of an indigenous teachers' trainning experience undertaken by the São Paulo State Education Secretariat for Terena, Kaingang, Krenak, Guarani e Tupi-Guarani ethnic groups. Bilingual and intercultural teaching is an old demand and has been made obligatory through the I996-Brazilian Education Legislation (LDB. The planning for an Indigenous Teachers Trainning Course started in 1999 and the first course was held in 2002. Sixty Indians graduated the 2,220-hour course - 360h of which were face-to-face teaching -In September 2003. The course was based on themes of interest of the students among which: garbage disposal, biodiversity, life cycles, solar system and electricity. The teaching group faced problemas when it chose to present non Indigenous concepts about the universe and were questioned by the students. They presented their interpretation of scientific concepts. These were the most productive and successful teaching/learning moments as they were dedicated to investigate problems according to the students' own perceptions and value system. The building of concepts and intellectual I development were the highlights of the activities and representative of the Indigenous world vision and their way of building scientific knowledge based on their own culture
Full Text Available Teaching Turkish as a foreign language (TTFL has recently gained much importance in modern life. For some reason, a large number of people and students with dissimilar background come from other countries so as to start off a new life primarily in İstanbul and/or many other cities in Turkey. Many of whom need to ensure their arrival and long term accommodations by visiting a language center. Some language institutes and foreign language centers, therefore have been trying to meet these needs and give a certificate in accordance with European language portfolio (ELP levels. Through this paper it was attempted to clarify some certain questions showing up in this teaching performance of this outstanding language “Turkish”: “What type of challenges foreign students face in Turkish courses and how language teachers/instructors help them to get through these problems, what activities teachers carry out in the classroom and what materials and games they use in courses.” This paper reports the findings of a study aiming to reveal what mistakes the students make while learning their first, second or even more foreign languages and this study evaluates them through the more frequently used language teaching methods. Abbreviations: TTFL: Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language L: Language FL: Foreign Language
Irina О. Antipina
Full Text Available The aim of the research is to reveal various ways for developing the independent mechanisms of education quality assessment.Methods involve the analysis of the existing views concerning the quality assessment of teaching staff activities.Results: The research findings demonstrate functional specificity of comprehensive schools, the main phases of socio-pedagogic assessment of teaching staff activities, and the main criteria and indices of their monitoring. The author considers professional educational activity as a general assessment criterion. The main feature of socio-pedagogic assessment procedures involves participation of different categories of teaching and research staff, along with students’ parents and the neighboring society members.Scientific novelty: The author specifies the concept of socio-pedagogic assessment of teaching staff activities.Practical significance: Implementation of the research outcomes can stimulate professional activity of pedagogical society in developing the independent system of education quality assessment.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the educational administrators’ technological leadership efficacy (TLE and perceptions towards implementation levels of teaching and learning activities (ITLA, and then to present the contribution of the TLE as a predictor of the ITLA. We collected data from 112 educational administrators who are working in Tokat. According to the results of this study, educational administrators’ TLE level was “adequate” for only Digital age learning culture, for the other factors and the total of the TLE levels were “intermediate” level. According to ITLA results, all the sub-factors and total of the scale were “strongly agree” level. The technological leadership efficacy and perceptions towards implementation levels of teaching and learning activities differ according to educational administrators’ age, school type and working in town/city. There is a positive, medium level and significant correlation between educational administrators’ total scores of the TLE and ITLA. A simple linear regression was calculated to predict administrators’ perceptions towards implementation levels of teaching and learning activities based on their technological leadership efficacy, and TLE explains only 29% of the variation in ITLA.
Full Text Available Purpose: Information & Communication Technologies (ICT can be a fundamental aid for the design of new teaching methods that better adapt to the framework of the European Higher Education Area. In this context, this study aims to develop and assess a complex and truly interactive ICT-based teaching tool for instruction in OM.Design/methodology/approach: A multimedia application for Just-in-Time (JIT / Lean Production has been conceived, designed and assessed. A constructivist focus was followed in its conception and design to encourage active and flexible learning adapted to each individual’s own requirements. Using empirical research the tool has been assessed by students and compared to the traditional teaching methods.Findings: The interactive multimedia application has been clearly valued for the way it conveys information and for its usability, for the way the application is structured and the improvements to students’ understanding of the knowledge. Students are also in favour of ICT being incorporated into teaching over more traditional methods. The assessment took students’ gender and the average overall mark on their academic records as control variables but, broadly-speaking, no significant differences were found. Research limitations/implications: The study was carried out in a controlled environment and not in the normal on-site university teaching process. Conclusions could be extended to OM and other related subjects, especially if they make use of similar tools to the one described in this paper. Practical implications: This study provides a contribution that allows reflections to be made on the design of specific software for OM and students’ perceptions when using it.Originality/value: Through this paper we contribute to an improvement in learning methods in general and to higher education in OM in particular.
Owens, Larry W.; Miller, J. Jay; Grise-Owens, Erlene
This article describes how to develop a comprehensive teaching philosophy from articulation through implementation to evaluation. Using literature and teaching-learning experiences, we discuss pragmatic steps for using a teaching philosophy to inform, engage, and evaluate teaching-learning. We promote an integrated teaching philosophy to ensure…
White, Paul J.; Larson, Ian; Styles, Kim; Yuriev, Elizabeth; Evans, Darrell R.; Rangachari, P. K.; Short, Jennifer L.; Exintaris, Betty; Malone, Daniel T.; Davie, Briana; Eise, Nicole; Mc Namara, Kevin; Naidu, Somaiya
The conventional lecture has significant limitations in the higher education context, often leading to a passive learning experience for students. This paper reports a process of transforming teaching and learning with active learning strategies in a research-intensive educational context across a faculty of 45 academic staff and more than 1,000…
Higgins, RN; Hogg, P; Robinson, L
Aim: To evaluate the learning experience of a level 5 (year 2) student cohort within a research-informed teaching (RiT) activity and to map findings against learning outcomes and level descriptors using constructive alignment. \\ud \\ud Method: An online questionnaire was used to explore the level 5 student experience of a Research-informed Teaching (RiT) activity. Responses were retrospectively mapped against Framework for Higher Education Qualifications (FHEQ) level descriptors for level 5 us...
Full Text Available Teaching grammar in a way that enables students to use grammatical structures correctly in their active use has always been one of the intricate tasks for most practitioners. This study compared the effectiveness of three instructional methods: games, dialogues practiced through role-play, and unfocused tasks for teaching grammar. Forty eight pre-intermediate female students participated in this study. The structures chosen were Conditional Sentence Type 2 and Wish structures for expressing present desires. A posttest was administered to assess the subjects' productive knowledge of the grammatical patterns. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the performance of groups. In other words, all three methods were equally effective to boost students' grammatical knowledge of the two structures.
Drebenstedt, C. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau
As globalisation extends in all fields of life, university teaching must cope by integrating internationalisation in its teaching subjects. In the case of raw materials resources and mining, the case is quite clear: Industrialized countries like Germany are big consumers of raw materials, most of which must be imported. Mining companies, including German mining companies, have extended their activities world-wide, and German producers of mining machinery and sytems, consultants and mining specialists are exporting technology and know-how into raw materials producing countries. Universities must take account of these trends if they are to train students for tomorrow's international market. The TU Bergakademie Freiberg is presented as an example. (orig.)
Maria Kalamas Hedden
Full Text Available In this paper we present our rationale for using an active learning constructivist approach to teach sustainability-related topics in a higher education. To push the boundaries of ecological literacy, we also develop a theoretical model for sustainability knowledge co-creation. Drawing on the experiences of faculty at a major Southeastern University in the United States, we present case studies in architecture, engineering, geography, and marketing. Four Sustainability Faculty Fellows describe their discipline-specific case studies, all of which are project-based learning experiences, and include details regarding teaching and assessment. Easily replicated in other educational contexts, these case studies contribute to the advancement of sustainability education.
Aldi, Catarina; Crigler, Alexandra; Kates-McElrath, Kelly; Long, Brian; Smith, Hillary; Rehak, Kim; Wilkinson, Lisa
Video modeling has been shown to be effective in teaching a number of skills to learners diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this study, we taught two young men diagnosed with ASD three different activities of daily living skills (ADLS) using point-of-view video modeling. Results indicated that both participants met criterion for all ADLS. Participants did not maintain mastery criterion at a 1-month follow-up, but did score above baseline at maintenance with and without video modeling. • Point-of-view video models may be an effective intervention to teach daily living skills. • Video modeling with handheld portable devices (Apple iPod or iPad) can be just as effective as video modeling with stationary viewing devices (television or computer). • The use of handheld portable devices (Apple iPod and iPad) makes video modeling accessible and possible in a wide variety of environments.
Bennani, Aziza; El-Kettani, Amina; Hançali, Amina; El-Rhilani, Houssine; Alami, Kamal; Youbi, Mohamed; Rowley, Jane; Abu-Raddad, Laith; Smolak, Alex; Taylor, Melanie; Mahiané, Guy; Stover, John; Korenromp, Eline L
Evolving health priorities and resource constraints mean that countries require data on trends in sexually transmitted infections (STI) burden, to inform program planning and resource allocation. We applied the Spectrum STI estimation tool to estimate the prevalence and incidence of active syphilis in adult women in Morocco over 1995 to 2016. The results from the analysis are being used to inform Morocco's national HIV/STI strategy, target setting and program evaluation. Syphilis prevalence levels and trends were fitted through logistic regression to data from surveys in antenatal clinics, women attending family planning clinics and other general adult populations, as available post-1995. Prevalence data were adjusted for diagnostic test performance, and for the contribution of higher-risk populations not sampled in surveys. Incidence was inferred from prevalence by adjusting for the average duration of infection with active syphilis. In 2016, active syphilis prevalence was estimated to be 0.56% in women 15 to 49 years of age (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.3%-1.0%), and around 21,675 (10,612-37,198) new syphilis infections have occurred. The analysis shows a steady decline in prevalence from 1995, when the prevalence was estimated to be 1.8% (1.0-3.5%). The decline was consistent with decreasing prevalences observed in TB patients, fishermen and prisoners followed over 2000-2012 through sentinel surveillance, and with a decline since 2003 in national HIV incidence estimated earlier through independent modelling. Periodic population-based surveys allowed Morocco to estimate syphilis prevalence and incidence trends. This first-ever undertaking engaged and focused national stakeholders, and confirmed the still considerable syphilis burden. The latest survey was done in 2012 and so the trends are relatively uncertain after 2012. From 2017 Morocco plans to implement a system to record data from routine antenatal programmatic screening, which should help update and re
In this paper we present a model-based version management system. Version Management System (VMS) a branch of software configuration management (SCM) aims to provide a controlling mechanism for evolution of software artifacts created during software development process. Controlling the evolution requires many activities to perform, such as, construction and creation of versions, identification of differences between versions, conflict detection and merging. Traditional VMS systems are file-based and consider software systems as a set of text files. File based VMS systems are not adequate for performing software configuration management activities such as, version control on software artifacts produced in earlier phases of the software life cycle. New challenges of model differencing, merge, and evolution control arise while using models as central artifact. The goal of this work is to present a generic framework model-based VMS which can be used to overcome the problem of tradition file-based VMS systems and provide model versioning services. (author)
Tripathi, Raakhi K; Sarkate, Pankaj V; Jalgaonkar, Sharmila V; Rege, Nirmala N
Current teaching in pharmacology in undergraduate medical curriculum in India is primarily drug centered and stresses imparting factual knowledge rather than on pharmacotherapeutic skills. These skills would be better developed through active learning by the students. Hence modules that will encourage active learning were developed and compared with traditional methods within the Seth GS Medical College, Mumbai. After Institutional Review Board approval, 90 second year undergraduate medical students who consented were randomized into six sub-groups, each with 15 students. Pre-test was administered. The three sub-groups were taught a topic using active learning modules (active learning groups), which included problems on case scenarios, critical appraisal of prescriptions and drug identification. The remaining three sub-groups were taught the same topic in a conventional tutorial mode (tutorial learning groups). There was crossover for the second topic. Performance was assessed using post-test. Questionnaires with Likert-scaled items were used to assess feedback on teaching technique, student interaction and group dynamics. The active and tutorial learning groups differed significantly in their post-test scores (11.3 ± 1.9 and 15.9 ± 2.7, respectively, P active learning session as interactive (vs. 37/90 students in tutorial group) and enhanced their understanding vs. 56/90 in tutorial group), aroused intellectual curiosity (47/90 students of active learning group vs. 30/90 in tutorial group) and provoked self-learning (41/90 active learning group vs. 14/90 in tutorial group). Sixty-four students in the active learning group felt that questioning each other helped in understanding the topic, which was the experience of 25/90 students in tutorial group. Nevertheless, students (55/90) preferred tutorial mode of learning to help them score better in their examinations. In this study, students preferred an active learning environment, though to pass examinations, they
Full Text Available This paper studies a science teaching problem related to students in the Bachelor of Preschool Education at the Seville University, Spain. Preservice teachers face difficulties when designing child-guided activities (also called, free activities. This type of tasks is desirable in preschool classrooms, because they promote creativity, observation capacity, inquiry and children autonomy. With the aim of improving the formation in the Bachelor, two university teachers have asked 136 preservice teachers of the third course to design a ‘children´s corner in their future classroom’ about a specific issue related to the science area in preschool education, according to the Spanish legislation. It is shown the headings of the students´ report as a result of their work. It has been analyzed the quality of the child-guided designed activities. It has been observed the need of improving the explicit instruction about the design of free activities for the first educational level.
Larsen, K.; Kirk, K. B.; Manduca, C. A.; Ledley, T. S.; Schmitt, L.
The Science Education Resource Center (SERC) has created a portal to information for K12 educators to provide high-quality grade level appropriate materials from a wide variety of projects and topics. These materials were compiled across the SERC site, showcasing materials that were created for, or easily adaptable to, K12 classrooms. This resource will help support implementation of Next Generation Science Standards by assisting educators in finding innovative resources to address areas of instruction that are conceptually different than previous national and state science standards. Specifically, the K12 portal assists educators in learning about approaches that address the cross-cutting nature of science concepts, increasing students quantitative reasoning and numeracy skills, incorporating technology such as GIS in the classroom, and by assisting educators of all levels of K12 instruction in using relevant and meaningful ways to teach science concepts. The K12 portal supports educators by providing access to hundreds of teaching activities covering a wide array of science topics and grade levels many of which have been rigorously reviewed for pedagogic quality and scientific accuracy. The portal also provides access to web pages that enhance teaching practices that help increase student's system thinking skills, make lectures interactive, assist instructors in conducting safe and effective indoor and outdoor labs, providing support for teaching energy and climate literacy principles, assisting educators in addressing controversial content, provide guidance in engaging students affective domain, and provides a collection of tools for making teaching relevant in 21st century classrooms including using GIS, Google Earth, videos, visualizations and simulations to model and describe scientific concepts. The portal also provides access to material for specific content and audiences by (1) Supporting AGIs 'Map your World' week to specifically highlight teaching
Redchenko, Nadezhda N.
The authors of this article suggest a thesis about the purpose of teaching a foreign language--it is student's communicative activities, i.e. learning a foreign language in practice. The teacher's task is to encourage activities of every student and to create situations to develop their creative activities in a learning process. New information…
The vision of model-based software engineering is to make models the main focus of software development and to automatically generate software from these models. Part of that idea works already today. But, there are still difficulties when it comes to behaviour. Actually, there is no lack in models...
Melda, Dida; Rosnija, Eni; Suhartono, Luwandi
This research is focused on teaching reading comprehension on analytical exposition text through schema activation strategy. It is a pre experimental design with one group pre-test and post-test design. The subject is Grade XI IPA 1 of the eleventh grade students of SMA Negeri 1 Sekadau in academic year 2012/2013, numbering twenty nine students. The data were collected by giving 30 multiple choice items to the 29 students. The data were analyzed by t-test and effect size formula. The result i...
Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Jane
There are several variations of resonance laboratory activities used to determine the speed of sound. This is not one of them. This activity uses the resonance tube idea to teach resonance, not to verify the speed of sound. Prior to this activity, the speed of sound has already been measured using computer sound-sensors and timing echoes produced in long tubes like carpet tubes. There are other methods to determine the speed of sound. Some methods are referenced at the end of this article. The students already know the speed of sound when they are confronted with data that contradict their prior knowledge. Here, the mystery is something the students solve with the help of a series of demonstrations by the instructor.
Full Text Available Background: Introducing RCTM (Research-Centered Teaching Method by the author, showed the method provokes enthusiasm and anxiety, correlated with cognition. By linking the broaden-and-build theory and emotional intelligence theory, it becomes apparent that the knowledge and use of positive emotions constitute an important skill set for effective functioning. Purpose: To investigate the effects of provoked students motivations on their learning and recall was the purpose of this study. Methods: Renal Physiology was actively taught to 70 medical students, instructed to answer thoughtful questions asked by the lecturer and other students in class. It was emphasized that participation in the acid-base balance session is of great importance, due to the complexity and its management. Reinforcing them by few grades and assuring them to be skillful physicians when they face such problems in future. Before the midterm exam, a questionnaire was distributed, asking to write down the topic they recall most precisely, and choosing the reasons. The final exam was held one month later. Results: Acid-base balance was the mentioned topic, and teaching method was the most correlated factor among the reasons of their recollection (r <0.773. The grade for ‘ Students’ Questions” was the highest among the questions categories. In the final exam the grades of acid-base balance questions were raised significantly (p<0.015. Conclusions: The improvement of students academic achievements were possibly due to the context of reinforcing their positive emotions in class. Keywords: MEDICAL STUDENTS, ACTIVE TEACHING METHOD, POSITIVE EMOTIONS, LEARNING, LONG -TERM MEMORY
Conradie, Dirk CU
Full Text Available of the year where visibility on the road near sunrise and sunset would be severely impaired, possibly contributing to accidents. One of the advantages of a visual based simulation is that non-technical role players can visualise problems and it enables them... to work with professional, scientific and technical designers. The vector graphic part of the simulation environment can be conveniently built by means of standard CAD programs such as AutoCAD, AutoDesk Revit, 3D Studio Max or MicroGDS. Although...
Potter, Tracey C S; Bryce, Nessa V; Hartley, Catherine A
Reinforcement learning theory distinguishes "model-free" learning, which fosters reflexive repetition of previously rewarded actions, from "model-based" learning, which recruits a mental model of the environment to flexibly select goal-directed actions. Whereas model-free learning is evident across development, recruitment of model-based learning appears to increase with age. However, the cognitive processes underlying the development of model-based learning remain poorly characterized. Here, we examined whether age-related differences in cognitive processes underlying the construction and flexible recruitment of mental models predict developmental increases in model-based choice. In a cohort of participants aged 9-25, we examined whether the abilities to infer sequential regularities in the environment ("statistical learning"), maintain information in an active state ("working memory") and integrate distant concepts to solve problems ("fluid reasoning") predicted age-related improvements in model-based choice. We found that age-related improvements in statistical learning performance did not mediate the relationship between age and model-based choice. Ceiling performance on our working memory assay prevented examination of its contribution to model-based learning. However, age-related improvements in fluid reasoning statistically mediated the developmental increase in the recruitment of a model-based strategy. These findings suggest that gradual development of fluid reasoning may be a critical component process underlying the emergence of model-based learning. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Orlaineta-Agüero, S.; Del Sol-Fernández, S.; Sánchez-Guzmán, D.; García-Salcedo, R.
In the present work we show the implementation of a learning sequence based on an active learning methodology for teaching Physics, this proposal tends to promote a better learning in high school students with the use of a comic book and it combines the use of different low-cost experimental activities for teaching the electrical concepts of Current, Resistance and Voltage. We consider that this kind of strategy can be easily extrapolated to higher-education levels like Engineering-college/university level and other disciplines of Science. To evaluate this proposal, we used some conceptual questions from the Electric Circuits Concept Evaluation survey developed by Sokoloff and the results from this survey was analysed with the Normalized Conceptual Gain proposed by Hake and the Concentration Factor that was proposed by Bao and Redish, to identify the effectiveness of the methodology and the models that the students presented after and before the instruction, respectively. We found that this methodology was more effective than only the implementation of traditional lectures, we consider that these results cannot be generalized but gave us the opportunity to view many important approaches in Physics Education; finally, we will continue to apply the same experiment with more students, in the same and upper levels of education, to confirm and validate the effectiveness of this methodology proposal.
Full Text Available Mubariz Ahmad, Nourah AlHennawi, Maaham AhmedManchester Medical School, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UKWe read with great interest the article by Inra et al1 which discusses the benefits of using an active learning curriculum to improve faculty teaching skills and help fellows retain more knowledge compared to traditional teaching methods. As current medical students, we can vouch for the effectiveness of this approach in improving the way material can be taught, hence would like to offer our perspective on this. Authors’ replyJennifer A Inra,1,2 Stephen Pelletier,2 Navin L Kumar,1,2 Edward L Barnes,3,4 Helen M Shields1,21Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endoscopy, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 3Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 4University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USAWe appreciate the thoughtful comments received from Ahmed et al regarding our article “An active learning curriculum improves fellows’ knowledge and faculty teaching”.1 The educational literature supports the recommendation that the optimal timing for a lecture is 10-15 minutes, as a student’s attention may wander or wane after that time.2 This ideal time limit stems from a paperby Hartley in 1978, which recommends this optimal time frame.3View the original paper by Inra and colleagues
Bishop, Christopher M
Several decades of research in the field of machine learning have resulted in a multitude of different algorithms for solving a broad range of problems. To tackle a new application, a researcher typically tries to map their problem onto one of these existing methods, often influenced by their familiarity with specific algorithms and by the availability of corresponding software implementations. In this study, we describe an alternative methodology for applying machine learning, in which a bespoke solution is formulated for each new application. The solution is expressed through a compact modelling language, and the corresponding custom machine learning code is then generated automatically. This model-based approach offers several major advantages, including the opportunity to create highly tailored models for specific scenarios, as well as rapid prototyping and comparison of a range of alternative models. Furthermore, newcomers to the field of machine learning do not have to learn about the huge range of traditional methods, but instead can focus their attention on understanding a single modelling environment. In this study, we show how probabilistic graphical models, coupled with efficient inference algorithms, provide a very flexible foundation for model-based machine learning, and we outline a large-scale commercial application of this framework involving tens of millions of users. We also describe the concept of probabilistic programming as a powerful software environment for model-based machine learning, and we discuss a specific probabilistic programming language called Infer.NET, which has been widely used in practical applications.
This dissertation study examines the effects of four teacher-led reading activities recommended by the reading teaching policy and student independent reading activity on the development of English language learners (ELL) reading proficiency at fourth grade in U.S. elementary schools. In this study, I first introduce the significance of studying…
With the rise of Web 2.0, a multitude of new possibilities on how to use these online technologies for active learning has intrigued researchers. While most instructors have used Twitter for in-class discussions, this study explores the teaching practice of Twitter as an active, informal, outside-of-class learning tool. Through a comparative…
Tenuto, Penny L.; Gardiner, Mary E.; Yamamoto, Julie K.
This teaching case describes school administrators in action performing day-to-day leadership tasks, managing public funds in school activities, and interacting with others appropriately. The case focuses on administrative challenges in handling and managing school activity funds. A method for processing emotion is discussed to assist…
Full Text Available and validation activities beginning in the conceptual design phase and continuing throughout development and later life cycle phases”. Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) employs modelling languages, such as Systems Modelling Language (SysML) or Unified...). Model Based Systems Engineering General Concepts MBSE is defined as the formalized application of modeling to support system requirements, design, analysis, verification and validation activities throughout the system life cycle phases (Gau...
The research and teaching efficiencies of 45 Turkish state universities are evaluated by using Multi-Activity Data Envelopment Analysis (MA-DEA) model developed by Beasley (1995). Universities are multi-purpose institutions, therefore they face multiple production functions simultaneously associated with research and teaching activities. MA-DEA allows assigning priorities and allocating shared resources to these activities.
Elison de Souza Sevalho
Full Text Available This paper reports the experience of the extension project entitled “DNA in the time tunnel”. This project was developed with high school finalists students of a public school in the city of Coari, State of Amazonas, Brazil, aiming to provide students and teachers of biology and chemistry, teaching and learning about the historical context of the elucidation of DNA. The intervention was carried out in two stages: the first was the bibliographic research and planning and preparation of materials with playful bias, showing the contribution of each researcher and a gymkhana as an instrument to contribute to the learning of biology and the execution of extensionist activities with students and teachers. The project actions have contributed to the planning of the dynamic pedagogical practices, which granted the needs and interests of the involved students; to the enrichment of the knowledge on the subject addressed by secondary students, training them with matters of biology that are in the National Secondary Education Examination (ENEM and other selective processes of entry to higher education; to the teaching and learning of biological disciplines of the curriculum of the respective college freshmen courses of the Institute of health and biotechnology.
Waldrop, Lindsay D; Adolph, Stephen C; Diniz Behn, Cecilia G; Braley, Emily; Drew, Joshua A; Full, Robert J; Gross, Louis J; Jungck, John A; Kohler, Brynja; Prairie, Jennifer C; Shtylla, Blerta; Miller, Laura A
This article provides a summary of the ideas discussed at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology society-wide symposium on Leading Students and Faculty to Quantitative Biology through Active Learning. It also includes a brief review of the recent advancements in incorporating active learning approaches into quantitative biology classrooms. We begin with an overview of recent literature that shows that active learning can improve students' outcomes in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Education disciplines. We then discuss how this approach can be particularly useful when teaching topics in quantitative biology. Next, we describe some of the recent initiatives to develop hands-on activities in quantitative biology at both the graduate and the undergraduate levels. Throughout the article we provide resources for educators who wish to integrate active learning and technology into their classrooms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: email@example.com.
Meta-teaching is the knowledge and reflection on teaching based on meta-ideas. It is the teaching about teaching, a teaching process with practice consciously guided by thinking, inspiring teachers to teach more effectively. Meta-teaching is related to the knowledge, inspection and amendment of teaching activities in terms of their design,…
Full Text Available Security testing aims at validating software system requirements related to security properties like confidentiality, integrity, authentication, authorization, availability, and non-repudiation. Although security testing techniques are available for many years, there has been little approaches that allow for specification of test cases at a higher level of abstraction, for enabling guidance on test identification and specification as well as for automated test generation. Model-based security testing (MBST is a relatively new field and especially dedicated to the systematic and efficient specification and documentation of security test objectives, security test cases and test suites, as well as to their automated or semi-automated generation. In particular, the combination of security modelling and test generation approaches is still a challenge in research and of high interest for industrial applications. MBST includes e.g. security functional testing, model-based fuzzing, risk- and threat-oriented testing, and the usage of security test patterns. This paper provides a survey on MBST techniques and the related models as well as samples of new methods and tools that are under development in the European ITEA2-project DIAMONDS.
Eder Pires de Camargo
Full Text Available In this paper we present the analysis of two physics teaching activities that were developed for and applied in a group of visually impaired students. The content of the activities was focused on the concept of gravitational acceleration. In the first activity the concept was explored by means of the movement of an object in an inclined plane; in the second, it was explored through the movement of a metallic disk inside a tube. Both experimental setting emitted audible signals. In this sense, all the “observational” practice were based in the audible perception of the gravitational phenomena, which permitted discussion among the students, in small groups, and a debate aiming at a general conclusion. The analysis of the data was based in a category labeled “comprehension”, which illuminated some attitudes of the students throughout the experiments such as: the sharing of ideas, the defense and arguing of meanings, and the reconstruction of meanings. As conclusions we can say that the activities were valuable for motivating the students and for giving to them some background for: (1 performing experiments; (2 observing a phenomena through an audible via; (3 collecting and analyzing data related to the variation of speed; (4 sharing, arguing and reformulating hypothesis during the discussions.
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the conception of curriculum with broaden character in Physical Education and Davidov and Leontiev’s learning theory as possibility of focusing on human education in the omnilateral perspective. We endorse the necessity that the curriculum dynamics – dealing with knowledge, school systematization and standardization of school practices – becomes effective in a curriculum of broaden character. We consider that dealing with knowledge involves the necessity to create conditions that promote the transmission and assimilation of school knowledge. We refer therefore to a scientific direction of the teaching process, in other words, that the teacher leads the student to enter into study activity; from abstract knowledge rising to concrete theoretical knowledge, which is brought about by curriculum organization from a broaden conception.
Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Lu, Hua; Yang, Bin
The tracking of the locations of moving objects in large indoor spaces is important, as it enables a range of applications related to, e.g., security and indoor navigation and guidance. This paper presents a graph model based approach to indoor tracking that offers a uniform data management...... infrastructure for different symbolic positioning technologies, e.g., Bluetooth and RFID. More specifically, the paper proposes a model of indoor space that comprises a base graph and mappings that represent the topology of indoor space at different levels. The resulting model can be used for one or several...... indoor positioning technologies. Focusing on RFID-based positioning, an RFID specific reader deployment graph model is built from the base graph model. This model is then used in several algorithms for constructing and refining trajectories from raw RFID readings. Empirical studies with implementations...
Two relatively new approaches to model-based biosignal interpretation, qualitative simulation and modelling by causal probabilistic networks, are compared to modelling by differential equations. A major problem in applying a model to an individual patient is the estimation of the parameters. The available observations are unlikely to allow a proper estimation of the parameters, and even if they do, the task appears to have exponential computational complexity if the model is non-linear. Causal probabilistic networks have both differential equation models and qualitative simulation as special cases, and they can provide both Bayesian and maximum-likelihood parameter estimates, in most cases in much less than exponential time. In addition, they can calculate the probabilities required for a decision-theoretical approach to medical decision support. The practical applicability of causal probabilistic networks to real medical problems is illustrated by a model of glucose metabolism which is used to adjust insulin therapy in type I diabetic patients.
Goodwillie, A. M.; Kluge, S.
GeoMapApp Learning Activities ( http://serc.carleton.edu/geomapapp/collection.html ) can help educators to expose undergraduate students to a range of earth science concepts using high-quality data sets in an easy-to-use map-based interface called GeoMapApp. GeoMapApp Learning Activities require students to interact with and analyse research-quality geoscience data as a means to explore and enhance their understanding of underlying content and concepts. Each activity is freely available through the SERC-Carleton web site and offers step-by-step student instructions and answer sheets. Also provided are annotated educator versions of the worksheets that include teaching tips, additional content and suggestions for further work. The activities can be used "off-the-shelf". Or, since the educator may require flexibility to tailor the activities, the documents are provided in Word format for easy modification. Examples of activities include one on the concept of seafloor spreading that requires students to analyse global seafloor crustal age data to calculate spreading rates in different ocean basins. Another activity has students explore hot spots using radiometric age dating of rocks along the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain. A third focusses upon the interactive use of contours and profiles to help students visualise 3-D topography on 2-D computer screens. A fourth activity provides a study of mass wasting as revealed through geomorphological evidence. The step-by-step instructions and guided inquiry approach reduce the need for teacher intervention whilst boosting the time that students can spend on productive exploration and learning. The activities can be used, for example, in a classroom lab with the educator present and as self-paced assignments in an out-of-class setting. GeoMapApp Learning Activities are funded through the NSF GeoEd program and are aimed at students in the introductory undergraduate, community college and high school levels. The activities are
Al-Azmi, Darwish; Mustapha, Amidu O.; Karunakara, N.
Simple procedures for teaching practical radioactivity are presented in a way that attracts students' attention and does not make them apprehensive about their safety. The radiation source is derived from the natural environment. It is based on the radioactivity of radon, a ubiquitous inert gas, and the adsorptive property of activated charcoal.…
Nikolova, Nikolina; Stefanov, Krassen; Todorova, Cornelia; Stefanova, Eliza; Ilieva, Miroslava; Sligte, Henk; Hernández-Leo, Davinia
Nikolova, N., Stefanov, K., Todorova, K., Stefanova, E., Ilieva, M., Sligte, H., & Hernández-Leo, D. (2010). TENCompetence tools and I*Teach methodology in action: development of an active web-based teachers’ community. In D. Griffiths, & R. Koper (Eds.), Rethinking Learning and Employment at a
Zeng, Howard Z.; Leung, Raymond; Liu, Wenhao; Hipscher, Michael
This study examined the features and correlations between teaching behaviors and learning activities in urban high school physical education (PE) class settings using direct instruction model. Participants were sixteen urban high school PE teachers and their students. Results indicated that the teachers spent their class times on the major…
Fabian, Khristin; MacLean, Donald
This article summarises the methodology and outcomes of an interventionist/action research project to assess the benefits, and potential pitfalls, of the use of mobile devices in learning and teaching activities in a Further Education environment. A bank of 15 tablet devices were purchased and prepared for classroom use. Staff members were…
Berger, Allen, Ed.; Smith, Blanche Hope, Ed.
This book contains over fifty ideas and activities related to language development at all educational levels. Suggestions are provided for teaching composition, critical reading of newspapers and magazines, folklore, creative writing, vocabulary development, poetry, epics and films, interviewing techniques, metaphors, choral speaking, silent…
Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Silverman, Stephen
Developed an instrument to examine teachers' attitudes toward teaching physical activity and fitness. Tested the instrument in a content-validity study with 29 experts and a reliability and validity study involving 253 teachers. Results support the use of the instrument. (SLD)
Al-Rawahi, Nasser; Al-Yarabi, Ali
This study aims at investigating the relationship between physical education teachers' attitudes toward participation in physical activity and their motives toward choosing physical education as a teaching profession. Two questionnaires with a sample of 98 participants were employed as a data collection vehicle. The results showed that…
Adams, W. Clifton; Cox, E. Sam
This article presents the results of a content analysis of 10 current public-speaking textbooks to determine the nature and extent to which they teach listening in an integrated approach with public speaking as an oral activity. Lewis and Nichols (1965) predicted that listening would increasingly be taught especially in an integrated approach with…
Engaging Students through Active Learning: A paper examining university teacher teaching & professional development ideas to help in-service junior and senior high school teachers move toward MEXT goals of teaching English in English and more active learning
This paper offers a brief examination of active learning and its role in helping students to become more engaged in the classroom. It points to societal, historical, and institutional barriers that add to the persistence of the status quo of preferred teaching strategies, particularly at the traditional university, and secondary-school level in Japan. Without calling for a moratorium on using lectures as a medium for the delivery of knowledge, it offers some definitions and examples of active...
Rogers, Joseph W.
This article surveys information resources, contemporary issues and trends, and selected instructional strategies useful in teaching undergraduate criminology. Instructional resources reviewed include textbooks, professional journals, and reference works. Twelve issues and trends are identified and three exemplary learning activities are…
Osmar de Souza
Full Text Available This article have to present the contributions of a Extension Program of FURB - Regional University of Blumenau. The Program, until 2008, was entitled “Senses for reading and writting activities at school” - this article corresponds to a glance on the development of the Program in two years: 2007 and 2008. The contemplated communities are public schools of Blumenau, more precisely, groups of fourth series of the Fundamental Teaching. In the first contact with the groups, questionnaires were hand out to students, aiming to notice the children's knowledge regarding the proposed themes (community and family. In the other visits - one per week -, reading and writting activities were developed. The students were, still, guests to research: in the library, questioning relatives or residents of the street in that they live. One of the results - that will be presented in full detail along the article - is the enlargement of the knowledge on local history - for students, teachers and academics involved. In spite of there are objectives propellers of the Program - as "to create conditions to students of fourth series read and write texts, more precisely about family and community -, one of the conclusions, regarding the development of the Program, is the possibility to contribute in the dimensions institutional, academic and social. Sometimes, those contributions can't be imagined when a Program is idealized.
José Roberto Bittencourt Costa
Full Text Available The prevailing undergraduate medical training process still favors disconnection and professional distancing from social needs. The Brazilian Ministries of Education and Health, through the National Curriculum Guidelines, the Incentives Program for Changes in the Medical Curriculum (PROMED, and the National Program for Reorientation of Professional Training in Health (PRO-SAÚDE, promoted the stimulus for an effective connection between medical institutions and the Unified National Health System (SUS. In accordance to the new paradigm for medical training, the Centro Universitário Serra dos Órgãos (UNIFESO established a teaching plan in 2005 using active methodologies, specifically problem-based learning (PBL. Research was conducted through semi-structured interviews with third-year undergraduate students at the UNIFESO Medical School. The results were categorized as proposed by Bardin's thematic analysis, with the purpose of verifying the students' impressions of the new curriculum. Active methodologies proved to be well-accepted by students, who defined them as exciting and inclusive of theory and practice in medical education.
Ethics teaching in engineering can be problematic because of student perceptions of its subjective, ambiguous and philosophical content. The use of discipline-specific case studies has helped to address such perceptions, as has practical decision making and problem solving approaches based on some ethical frameworks. However, a need exists for a wider range of creative methods in ethics education to help complement the variety of activities and learning experiences within the engineering curriculum. In this work, a novel approach is presented in which first-year undergraduate students are responsible for proposing ethics education activities of relevance to their peers and discipline area. The students are prepared for the task through a short introduction on engineering ethics, whereby generic frameworks for moral and professional conduct are discussed, and discipline and student-relevance contexts provided. The approach has been used in four departments of engineering at Imperial College London, and has led to the generation of many creative ideas for wider student engagement in ethics awareness, reflection and understanding. The paper presents information on the premise of the introductory sessions for supporting the design task, and an evaluation of the student experience of the course and task work. Examples of proposals are given to demonstrate the value of such an approach to teachers, and ultimately to the learning experiences of the students themselves.
Chamnanwong, Pornpaka; Thathong, Kongsak
In preparing a science lesson plan, teachers may deal with numerous difficulties. Having a deep understanding of their problems and their demands is extremely essential for the teachers in preparing themselves for the job. Moreover, it is also crucial for the stakeholders in planning suitable and in-need teachers' professional development programs, in school management, and in teaching aid. This study aimed to investigate the primary school science teachers' opinion toward practice of teaching and learning activities in science learning area. Target group was 292 primary science teachers who teach Grade 4 - 6 students in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand in the academic year of 2014. Data were collected using Questionnaire about Investigation the opinions of the primary science teachers toward practice of teaching and learning activities in science learning area. The questionnaires were consisted of closed questions scored on Likert scale and open-ended questions that invite a sentence response to cover from LS Process Ideas. Research findings were as follow. The primary science teachers' level of opinion toward teaching and learning science subject ranged from 3.19 - 3.93 (mean = 3.43) as "Moderate" level of practice. The primary school science teachers' needs to participate in a training workshop based on LS ranged from 3.66 - 4.22 (mean = 3.90) as "High" level. The result indicated that they were interested in attending a training course under the guidance of the Lesson Study by training on planning of management of science learning to solve teaching problems in science contents with the highest mean score 4.22. Open-ended questions questionnaire showed the needs of the implementation of the lesson plans to be actual classrooms, and supporting for learning Medias, innovations, and equipment for science experimentation.
Geotrivia is an educational game which aims at the enhancement of geoscience teaching in secondary education, through an interactive group-based activity. As behavioural teaching methods no longer excite students in a multitask society, new approaches should be implemented to keep up with novel learning methodologies and team-based techniques. Thus, the main aim of the experiment was to come up with an alternative learning process on geology and geography in order to upgrade and attract more students to Geosciences. Geotrivia is based on the techniques of motivation (competition to be the winner) and enjoyable educational time (it is funny to play a game) in terms of team-based student collaboration. Pedagogical aims of Geotrivia consist of team-based work, independency, autonomy and initiative, active participation, student self-evaluation and metacognition. Geotrivia is a card game, consisting of about 150 playing cards, a whistle and an hourglass. Each playing card contains a geology- or geography-related question and the answer to the question is given in the lower part of the card. Class students are divided in about 4 groups of about 5 students each. The aim of each group is to collect as many cards as possible. The hourglass is flipped and a member of the team takes the pack of cards and uses it to ask questions to his team; the other members have to answer as many questions. The team wins a card when they give a correct answer. The game is played at the end of each curriculum unit; a comprehensive version of the game is held at end of the school year. Most -but not all- questions are based on the course syllabus, which deals with the geology and geography of Europe at junior high school level (e.g. what is the cause of high seismicity in Greece?). Accordingly, Geotrivia questions can be adjusted to each country school book of geology - geography at any grade. To evaluate the results of Geotrivia, we used the methodology of pretest and posttest, an
Oyarzabal, Omar A; Rowe, Ellen
The terms hazard and risk are significant building blocks for the organization of risk-based food safety plans. Unfortunately, these terms are not clear for some personnel working in food manufacturing facilities. In addition, there are few examples of active learning modules for teaching adult participants the principles of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP). In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of an active learning module to teach hazard and risk to participants of HACCP classes provided by the University of Vermont Extension in 2015 and 2016. This interactive module is comprised of a questionnaire; group playing of a dice game that we have previously introduced in the teaching of HACCP; the discussion of the terms hazard and risk; and a self-assessment questionnaire to evaluate the teaching of hazard and risk. From 71 adult participants that completed this module, 40 participants (56%) provided the most appropriate definition of hazard, 19 participants (27%) provided the most appropriate definition of risk, 14 participants (20%) provided the most appropriate definitions of both hazard and risk, and 23 participants (32%) did not provide an appropriate definition for hazard or risk. Self-assessment data showed an improvement in the understanding of these terms (P < 0.05). Thirty participants (42%) stated that the most valuable thing they learned with this interactive module was the difference between hazard and risk, and 40 participants (65%) responded that they did not attend similar presentations in the past. The fact that less than one third of the participants answered properly to the definitions of hazard and risk at baseline is not surprising. However, these results highlight the need for the incorporation of modules to discuss these important food safety terms and include more active learning modules to teach food safety classes. This study suggests that active learning helps food personnel better understand important food safety
Zeller, Benjamin E.
This article considers the challenges inherent when teaching about new religious movements ("cults"), how successful instructors have surmounted them, and how teacher-scholars in other fields of religious studies can benefit from a discussion of the successful teaching of new religions. I note that student-centered pedagogies are crucial…
Saadah Abdullah, Nurhanim; Aziz, Mohd Ismail Abd; Ismail, Affero; Hashim, Suhaizal
Preparing insightful teaching and learning materials for a lesson does need the effort from the educators. Educators should make some research of suitable ways to improve their teaching and learning sessions. In this 21st century, technologies are widely used as tools for education. Even so, there are educators that willing to support and some who do not agree to change. The aim of this study is to develop an innovation teaching materials by applying web 2.0 tools. The intention is to broaden knowledge and in the same time getting response and feedback from people regarding the teaching and learning session materials produced with proper instruction. Action research was used to give a structured flow of this study. The outcome of this study was encouraging and the reflection of this study can help educators in improvising their teaching and learning sessions and materials using action research.
Full Text Available Functionally-oriented linguistic theories, such as cognitive grammar (CG, offer nuanced descriptions of the meanings and uses of grammatical features. A simplified characterization of the semantics of the English active and passive voice grounded in CG terms and based on the reference point model is presented, as it is the basis of the instructional treatment offered to one of the groups in the quasiexperimental study reported in the paper. The study compares the effects of feature- focused grammatical instruction covering the form and meaning/use of the English voices based on CG with those of teaching based on standard pedagogical grammar rules. The results point to relatively high effectiveness of both instructional options in fostering the use of the target structures in both more controlled and more spontaneous performance, with traditional instruction being more successful than that based on CG with respect to the latter. A possible explanation of this superiority is that the subset of the participants (n = 27 exposed to the traditional explanations found them simple and easy to apply, contrary to the situation in the other group.
N. G. Murayeva
Full Text Available The paper deals with the model fostering the socio-cultural competence of the higher school students. The model in question is based on the integration of project activities and Web 2.0 information technologies, the methods facilitating its implementation being described along with the teaching means and forms, and socio-cultural competence formation levels. The author demonstrates the complex of problematic tasks which become more complicated depending on the acquired level of the above competence, and mastered skills and abilities. The tree types of socio-cultural projects are recommended according to the achieved levels: mini-project, web quest and web project. The suggested model fulfills the idea of pedagogic facilitation of the foreign language learning by using the meaning formation mechanism in socio- cultural educational environment. The author argues that its introduction into the higher school training process can promote the students’ interest to the different culture and mentality, and their readiness for the cross-cultural dialog over the internet.
Marco Antonio Ferreira Randi
Full Text Available This study evaluates the use of role-playing games (RPGs as a methodological approach for teaching cellular biology, assessing student satisfaction, learning outcomes, and retention of acquired knowledge. First-year undergraduate medical students at two Brazilian public universities attended either an RPG-based class (RPG group or a lecture (lecture-based group on topics related to cellular biology. Pre- and post-RPG-based class questionnaires were compared to scores in regular exams and in an unannounced test one year later to assess students' attitudes and learning. From the 230 students that attended the RPG classes, 78.4% responded that the RPG-based classes were an effective tool for learning; 55.4% thought that such classes were better than lectures but did not replace them; and 81% responded that they would use this method. The lecture-based group achieved a higher grade in 1 of 14 regular exam questions. In the medium-term evaluation (one year later, the RPG group scored higher in 2 of 12 questions. RPG classes are thus quantitatively as effective as formal lectures, are well accepted by students, and may serve as educational tools, giving students the chance to learn actively and potentially retain the acquired knowledge more efficiently.
Overman, Michelle; Vermunt, Jan D.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Brekelmans, Mieke
Context-based curriculum reforms in chemistry education are thought to bring greater diversity to the ways in which chemistry teachers organize their teaching. First and foremost, students are expected to perceive this diversity. However, empirical research on how students perceive their teacher's teaching in context-based chemistry classrooms, and whether this teaching differs from traditional chemistry lessons, is scarce. This study aims to develop our understanding of what teaching looks like, according to students, in context-based chemistry classrooms compared with traditional chemistry classrooms. As such, it might also provide a better understanding of whether teachers implement and attain the intentions of curriculum developers. To study teacher behaviour we used three theoretical perspectives deemed to be important for student learning: a content perspective, a learning activities perspective, and an interpersonal perspective. Data were collected from 480 students in 24 secondary chemistry classes in the Netherlands. Our findings suggest that, according to the students, the changes in teaching in context-based chemistry classrooms imply a lessening of the emphasis on fundamental chemistry and the use of a teacher-centred approach, compared with traditional chemistry classrooms. However, teachers in context-based chemistry classrooms seem not to display more 'context-based' teaching behaviour, such as emphasizing the relation between chemistry, technology, and society and using a student-centred approach. Furthermore, students in context-based chemistry classrooms perceive their teachers as having less interpersonal control and showing less affiliation than teachers in traditional chemistry classrooms. Our findings should be interpreted in the context of former and daily experiences of both teachers and students. As only chemistry is reformed in the schools in which context-based chemistry is implemented, it is challenging for both students and teachers to
The Science Camp Model based on maker movement and tinkering activity for developing concept of electricity in middle school students to meet standard evaluation of ordinary national educational test (O-NET)
The standard evaluation of Thai education relies excessively on the Ordinary National Educational Test, widely known as O-NET. However, a focus on O-Net results can lead to unsatisfactory teaching practices, especially in science subjects. Among the negative consequences, is that schools frequently engage in "cramming" practices in order to elevate their O-NET scores. Higher education, which is committed to generating and applying knowledge by socially engaged scholars, needs to take account of this situation. This research article portrays the collaboration between the faculty of education at Chiang Mai University and an educational service area to develop the model of science camp. The activities designed for the Science Camp Model were based on the Tinkering and Maker Movement. Specifically, the Science Camp Model was designed to enhance the conceptualization of electricity for Middle School Students in order to meet the standard evaluation of the Ordinary National Educational Test. The hands-on activities consisted of 5 modules which were simple electrical circuits, paper circuits, electrical measurement roleplay motor art robots and Force from Motor. The data were collected by 11 items of Electricity Socratic-based Test adapted from cumulative published O-NET tests focused on the concept of electricity concept. The qualitative data were also collected virtually via Flinga.com. The results indicated that students after participating in 5modules of science camp based on the Maker Movement and tinkering activity developed average percentage of test scores from 33.64 to 65.45. Gain score analysis using dependent t-test compared pretest and posttest mean scores. The p value was found to be statistically significant (less than 0.001). The posttest had a considerably higher mean score compared with the pretest. Qualitative data also indicated that students could explain the main concepts of electrical circuits, and the transformation of electrical energy to
Teaching introductory International Relations (IR) and peace and conflict studies can be challenging, as undergraduate teaching frequently involves large student groups that limit student activity to listening and taking notes. According to pedagogic research, this is not the optimal structure for learning. Rather, although a teacher can pass on…
The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to…
Full Text Available This study examines what happens when online and campus students participate in real time in the same campus classroom. Before this study, postgraduate students studying online in a course intended primarily as professional development for language educators were taking the course through reading the course literature including assigned articles, writing reflective texts in the asynchronous forum and doing the course assignments. They had a very different experience than the campus students who met weekly for discussion of the reading. Some online students were not active enough in the course, and showed low levels of engagement. The online students were invited to participate in scheduled campus classes via Skype on iPads. After some hesitation, four of the six online students took up this real-time participation option. Initial difficulties with the technology were addressed after seeking input from campus and online students. A series of adjustments were made and evaluated, including a move to a model in which three online students in different locations participated in a single Skype group video call on a laptop in the campus classroom rather than on multiple individual Skype calls on iPads. After the course, the online and campus students were asked to evaluate the experience of having physical and virtual participants sharing a physical space and to relate this experience to the asynchronous channels previously available to the participants. The comments of both groups of participants were interpreted in the light of previous work on social presence and of activity theory. It appears that student beliefs and student expectations lead to hidden challenges associated with mixing these groups of students, and the study concludes that unless teaching assistance is available, it is not easy to afford online students the same right to speak as campus students.
Full Text Available The paper describes a strategy that uses problem solving to teach the thermokinetic concept, based on student’s previously established proficiency in thermochemistry and kinetics. Chemistry teachers often use this method because it ensures easy achievement of both formative and informative science skills. This teaching strategy is tailored for students that prove special intellectual resources, Olympiad participants and to those who find chemistry a potential professional route
Tomopoulos, Suzy; Valdez, Purnima T; Dreyer, Benard P; Fierman, Arthur H; Berkule, Samantha B; Kuhn, Maggie; Mendelsohn, Alan L
To determine whether electronic media exposure is associated with decreased parental reading and teaching activities in the homes of preschool children. A convenience sample presenting for well-child care to an urban hospital pediatric clinic was enrolled. Inclusion criteria were: child's age 3 to 5 years and not yet in kindergarten. Electronic media exposure (TV, movies/video, computer/video games) was assessed with a 24-hour recall diary and characterized on the basis of industry ratings. Reading aloud and teaching activities were assessed with the StimQ-Preschool READ and PIDA (Parental Involvement in Developmental Advance) subscales, respectively. A total of 77 families were assessed. Children were exposed to a mean (SD) of 200.8 (128.9) minutes per day of media, including 78.2 (63.7) minutes of educational young child-oriented, 62.0 (65.6) minutes of noneducational young child-oriented, 14.8 (41.4) minutes of school age/teen-oriented, and 29.2 (56.6) minutes of adult-oriented media, as well as to 16.6 (47.5) minutes of media of unknown type. A total of 79.2% watched 2 or more hours per day. Noneducational young child-oriented exposure was associated with fewer reading (semipartial correlation coefficient [SR] = -0.24, P = .02) and teaching (SR = -0.27, P = .01) activities; similar relationships were not found for other media categories. Children exposed to 2 or more hours of total electronic media per day had 1.6 (95% confidence interval, 0.4-2.9) fewer days per week of reading than children exposed to less than 2 hours (SR = -0.27, P = .01). This study found an association between increased exposure to noneducational young child-oriented media and decreased teaching and reading activities in the home. This association represents a mechanism by which media exposure could adversely affect development.
Full Text Available Over the past 15 years the Web has transformed the ways in which we search for information and use it. In more recent years, we have seen the emergence of a new array of innovative tools that collectively go under the name of ‘Web 2.0’, in which the information user is also increasingly an information producer (i.e., prosumer, by sharing or creating content.The success of Web 2.0 tools for personal use is only partially replicated in the professional sphere and, particularly, in the academic environment in relation with research and teaching.To date, very few studies have explored the level of adoption of Web 2.0 among academic researchers in their research and teaching activity. It is not known in what way how and how much Web 2.0 is currently used within research communities, and we are not aware of the drivers and the drawbacks of the use of Web 2.0 tools in academia, where the majority of people is focused either on research or on teaching activities.To analyse these issues, i.e. the combined adoption of Web 2.0 tools in teaching and research, the authors carried out a survey among teaching and researching staff of the University of Breda in The Netherlands. This country was chosen mainly because it is on the cutting edge as far as innovation is concerned. An important driver in choosing the Breda University’s academic community was the fact that one of the two authors of this survey works as senior researcher at this university.The purpose of our survey was to explore the level of adoption of Web 2.0 tools among the academic communities. We were interested in investigating how they were using these tools in the creation of scientific knowledge both in their research and teaching activity. We were also interested in analysing differences in the level of adoption of Web 2.0 tools with regard to researchers’ position, age, gender, and research field.Finally, in our study we explored the issue of peer reviewing in the Web 2.0 setting
Higgins, R; Hogg, P; Robinson, L
To evaluate the learning experience of a level 5 (year 2) student cohort within a research-informed teaching (RiT) activity and to map findings against learning outcomes and level descriptors using constructive alignment. An online questionnaire was used to explore the level 5 student experience of a Research-informed Teaching (RiT) activity. Responses were retrospectively mapped against Framework for Higher Education Qualifications (FHEQ) level descriptors for level 5 using constructive alignment. Thirty one out of 46 level 5 students completed the questionnaire (67% response rate). Analysis of the questionnaire supported the integration of this RiT activity within the curriculum in terms of learning and research skill development by students. However, it was identified that this activity could be revised further to better align with level 5 descriptors and incorporate additional higher level cognitive processes. Learning outcomes for this RiT activity were constructively aligned with FHEQ level 5 descriptors. Recommendations are provided on how these could be further refined to ensure students undertake a more critical approach to the application of theory into practice. Discussion also considers how this process could be used to develop a similar RiT activity at level 6 (year 3). Copyright © 2016 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The comparative analysis of success of educational activity of students of task medical force is conducted. Students reeved the different variants of teaching on the program of the special valeological practical work. Information was used about success of educational activity more than 430 in relation to healthy students and more than 290 students of task medical force. It is rotined that success of teaching of students on the program of valeological practical work is higher than success of other students. The most effective variant of teaching is exposed on this program.
Granero Lucchetti, Alessandra Lamas; Ezequiel, Oscarina da Silva; Oliveira, Isabella Noceli de; Moreira-Almeida, Alexander; Lucchetti, Giancarlo
The present study aims to investigate the effect of two educational strategies to teach geriatrics (flipped classroom-FL and traditional lectures-TR) in relation to a control group (no intervention) on students' competences. An intervention study was conducted during the third year of medicine. Two different educational strategies (flipped classroom and traditional lectures) were incorporated into a theoretical-practical discipline of geriatrics. Students were evaluated about their attitudes towards older persons (Maxwell-Sullivan, UCLA geriatric attitudes), empathy (Maxwell-Sullivan), knowledge (Palmore and cognitive knowledge), skills (standardized patient assessment), and satisfaction with the activities. A total of 243 students were assessed. The FL group demonstrated greater gains in knowledge among students and improved attitude compared to the TR. We found no differences in the skills using a standardized patient. In addition, students exposed to FL felt more prepared to treat older people, believed they had more knowledge, were more satisfied, and evaluated the discipline's format better in relation to the traditional group. Strategies in teaching geriatrics can impact students' knowledge, attitudes, and satisfaction with the course. We found that the way this teaching is delivered can influence students' learning, since there were differences between active and traditional strategies.
Apiwan, Suttinee; Puttharugsa, Chokchai; Khemmani, Supitch
The purposes of this research were to help students to perform Physics laboratory by themselves and to provide guidelines for high school teacher to develop active learning on fluid mechanics by using Torricelli's tank experiment. The research was conducted as follows: 1) constructed an appropriate Torricelli's tank experiment for high school teaching and investigated the condition for maximum water falling distance. As a consequence, it was found that the distance of the falling water measured from the experiment was shorter than that obtained from the theory of ideal fluid because of the energy loss during a flow, 2) developed instructional manual for high school teaching that encourages active learning by using problem based learning (PBL) approach, which is consistent with the trend of teaching and learning in 21st century. The content validity of our instructional manual using Index of Item-objective Congruence (IOC) as evaluated by three experts was over 0.67. The manual developed was therefore qualified for classroom practice.
Ercolino, Immacolata; Maraffi, Sabina; Sacerdoti, Francesco M.
Motivating students is one of the most challenging things we do as educators. We know that students need to be engaged to fully appreciate and learn what has been taught; the secret consists in nurturing student engagement. One of the newer ways to involve students and foster motivation in their Science learning consists in focusing on their usage and on applying knowledge and skills in their real-life. Students usually are engaged in authentic teaching pathway. Learning focusing on the experience helps teachers to improve classroom management by gathering students around a common organized activity. Hands-on activities support problem-based approaches to learning by focusing on the experience and process of investigating, proposing and creating solutions developing critical thinking skills and enlarge student's scientific glossary. We utilized in our classroom some lab activities that we learned at an ESA/GTTP Teacher training Workshop 2014 program at the Lorentz Center Leiden, Netherlands. "Cooking a comet - Ingredients for life" "Demonstration of the second Kepler's law using marbles" New media equipment, as student's own smartphones, can increase the teaching impact speaking the same language used by the students every day. They can measure magnetic fields, their GPS coordinates (longitude and latitude), and so on. In this way we can measure distances as parallax using mobile devices and simulating distance measurements in the classroom, on the school campus. The smartphone is the device with which the students answer questions, take decisions, and solve quests. Students infact can observe the Universe from their classroom and scientifically they can watch the Sun with "Google sky map" or "Star walk" are excellent tools to learn your way around the night sky .As teachers we used these apps in the classroom when Sun goes through the constellations so our students don't believe in horoscopes. This paper is focused on hands on activities and the effects of the
Huang, Grace C; Sacks, Heather; Devita, Michael; Reynolds, Robby; Gammon, Wendy; Saleh, Michael; Gliva-McConvey, Gayle; Owens, Tamara; Anderson, Julie; Stillsmoking, Kristina; Cantrell, Mary; Passiment, Morgan
In September 2011, the Association of American Medical Colleges released the results of a survey conducted in 2010 on simulation activities at its member medical schools and teaching hospitals. In this commentary, we offer a synthesis of data and conclude that (1) simulation is used broadly at Association of American Medical Colleges member institutions, for many types of learners, including other health care professionals; (2) it addresses core training competencies and has many educational purposes; (3) its use in learner assessment is more prevalent at medical schools but is still significant at teaching hospitals; and (4) it requires a considerable investment of money, space, personnel, and time. These data confirm general perceptions about the state of simulation in North America for physician training. Future endeavors should include a more granular examination of how simulation is integrated into curricula, a similar survey of other health care-related institutions and professions, and a periodic assessment to characterize trends over time.
太田, 伸幸; 児嶋, 文寿
In this study, it was distributed that recorded video for one’s own micro teaching in teaching methods of education Ⅱ on the moment. It was examined that effects of upgrading of the teaching abilities particularly ability for self-modeling and for evaluation by a class of oneself looking back on contents of a description of a report made from self-evaluation prior to, just after and after micro teaching, class evaluation from the undergraduates who became students role. In a self-evaluation r...
The purpose of this study was to identify student teachers use and implementation of Science in a Bag when it was no longer a required course-based assessment. This take-home science activity acted as the elaboration component of the 5Es lesson teacher candidates designed and taught in the classroom, utilized household items, and directly involved parents in their child's education. The purposeful sample was comprised of six teacher candidates during their student teaching practicum, the last semester of the childhood education teacher certification program. This collective case study centered on student teachers' use of the focused activity, Science in a Bag, in order to gain knowledge of challenges faced in applying take-home science kits and working with parents. Data collection was comprised of student teacher and parent interviews, candidate reflections, as well as in-class observations and discussions carried out during weekly seminars. Data collection occurred throughout the seven-week student teaching practicum. The four research questions were: 1) What factors do teacher candidates identify as interfering with their ability to implement Science in a Bag during student teaching placements? 2) What factors do teacher candidates identify as enhancing their ability to carry out Science in a Bag? 3) What forms of support do teacher candidates believe are important to their success in implementing Science in a Bag during student teaching? 4) How do teacher candidates deal with obstacles when implementing Science in a Bag? Despite the fact that no student teacher was prohibited from implementing Science in a Bag, the level to which candidates valued and utilized this instructional strategy varied compared to how they were taught and practiced it during the science methods course. Some student teachers attempted to hide their feelings toward Science in a Bag, however their actions revealed that they were simply carrying out the instructional strategy because they
The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to significantly greater increases in knowledge but was equivalent in terms of confidence. Both forms of teaching were rated positively, but face to face teaching received significantly higher ratings than the online activity. The study suggests that short online game informed learning activities may offer an effective alternative for health professional training where face to face training is not possible. Further research is needed on the longer term impact of both types of training on practice.
Cost-per-student assessments resulting from changes in the Scientific and Medical University of Grenoble's statutes to improve accountability, including budgeting changes, and measures to improve teaching loads and human resource management suggest that the French university system is ill-adapted to efforts to improve performance. (Author/MSE)
Depradine, Colin; Gay, Glenda
With the strong link between programming and the underlying technology, the incorporation of computer technology into the teaching of a programming language course should be a natural progression. However, the abstract nature of programming can make such integration a difficult prospect to achieve. As a result, the main development tool, the…
Much of the current focus on maximizing the potential of ICT to enhance teaching and learning is on learning tasks rather than the technology. These learning tasks increasingly employ a constructivist, problem-based methodology especially one based around authentic learning. The problem-based nature of history provides fertile ground for this…
Carlson, Kieth A.; Winquist, Jennifer R.
The study evaluates a semester-long workbook curriculum approach to teaching a college level introductory statistics course. The workbook curriculum required students to read content before and during class and then work in groups to complete problems and answer conceptual questions pertaining to the material they read. Instructors spent class…
This article presents a framework for the elaboration of Foreign Language Teaching (FLT) grammar materials for adults based on the application to SLA of Skill Acquisition Theory (SAT). This theory is argued to compensate for the major drawbacks of FLT settings in comparison with second language contexts (lack of classroom learning time and limited…
Zhang, Kaili Chen
This article concerns social skills interventions for children with emotional/behavioral disorders. Drawing on the author's teaching experience and the findings of research on social skills training in schools, and exploring effective ways to facilitate children's social skill development, the paper describes how social skills interventions can be…
Levintova, Ekaterina M.; Mueller, Daniel W.
One of the difficulties in teaching global sustainability in the introductory political science classes is the different emphases placed on this concept and the absence of the consensus on where the overall balance between environmental protection, economic development, and social justice should reside. Like many fuzzy concepts with which students…
Nielsen, Michael Havbro Faber; Nielsen, Linda
In the present paper we take basis in the basic postulate that the objective of education and teaching is value creation. With this setout we take up two implications, namely: i) decision analysis is the logical choice of management framework for conceiving, designing, implementing and operating...
Oliveira, Paulo C.; Oliveira, Cristina G.
In this paper, we present a teaching proposal used in an Introductory Physics course to civil engineering students from Porto's Engineering Institute/Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto (ISEP). The proposal was born from the need to change students' perception and motivation for learning physics. It consists in the use of an integrator…
Pragmatic competence, or the ability to use language appropriately in a variety of contexts, is a critical skill for communication in a second language (L2). Thus, teaching that focuses on developing students' abilities to communicate effectively in an L2 must also include a focus on developing students' pragmatic competence. This article…
Erdogu Yilmaz, Sule
Teaching Turkish as a foreign language (TTFL) has recently gained much importance in modern life. For some reason, a large number of people and students with dissimilar background come from other countries so as to start off a new life primarily in Istanbul and/or many other cities in Turkey. Many of whom need to ensure their arrival and long term…
Kasim, Tengku Sarina Aini Tengku; Yusoff, Yusmini Md
Islamic education has always recognized spiritual and moral values as significant elements in developing a "balanced" human being. One way of demonstrating spiritual and moral concepts is through effective teaching methods that integrate and forefront these values. This article offers an investigation of how the authors' teaching…
Rezende-Filho, Flávio Moura; da Fonseca, Lucas José Sá; Nunes-Souza, Valéria; Guedes, Glaucevane da Silva; Rabelo, Luiza Antas
Teaching physiology, a complex and constantly evolving subject, is not a simple task. A considerable body of knowledge about cognitive processes and teaching and learning methods has accumulated over the years, helping teachers to determine the most efficient way to teach, and highlighting student's active participation as a means to improve learning outcomes. In this context, this paper describes and qualitatively analyzes an experience of a student-centered teaching-learning methodology based on the construction of physiological-physical models, focusing on their possible application in the practice of teaching physiology. After having Physiology classes and revising the literature, students, divided in small groups, built physiological-physical models predominantly using low-cost materials, for studying different topics in Physiology. Groups were followed by monitors and guided by teachers during the whole process, finally presenting the results in a Symposium on Integrative Physiology. Along the proposed activities, students were capable of efficiently creating physiological-physical models (118 in total) highly representative of different physiological processes. The implementation of the proposal indicated that students successfully achieved active learning and meaningful learning in Physiology while addressing multiple learning styles. The proposed method has proved to be an attractive, accessible and relatively simple approach to facilitate the physiology teaching-learning process, while facing difficulties imposed by recent requirements, especially those relating to the use of experimental animals and professional training guidelines. Finally, students' active participation in the production of knowledge may result in a holistic education, and possibly, better professional practices.
Witus, Gary; Weathersby, Marshall
Visual target discrimination has occurred when the observer can say "I see a target THERE!" and can designate the target location. Target discrimination occurs when a perceived shape is sufficiently similar one or more of the instances the observer has been trained on. Marr defined vision as "knowing what is where by seeing." Knowing "what" requires prior knowledge. Target discrimination requires model-based visual processing. Model-based signature metrics attempt to answer the question "to what extent does the target in the image resemble a training image?" Model-based signature metrics attempt to represent the effects of high-level top-down visual cognition, in addition to low-level bottom-up effects. Recent advances in realistic 3D target rendering and computer-vision object recognition have made model-based signature metrics more practical. The human visual system almost certainly does NOT use the same processing algorithms as computer vision object recognition, but some processing elements and the overall effects are similar. It remains to be determined whether model-based metrics explain the variance in human performance. The purpose of this paper is to explain and illustrate the model-based approach to signature metrics.
Marvasi, Massimiliano; Davila-Vazquez, Yarely C; Martinez, Lilliam Casillas
We have designed a three-week experiment that can complement any microbiology course, to teach main geomicrobiology concepts for non-geology majors. One of the most difficult concepts for non-geology majors to comprehend is how bacteria serve as a platform for different mineralization reactions. In our three-week laboratory practice, students learn the main principles and conditions required for an induced bacterial mineralization. Upon completion of the laboratory experience, students will: 1) learn how microbial-induced mineralization (such as calcium carbonate formation) is affected by differential media and growth conditions; 2) understand how bacterial physiology affects any induced in situ or in vitro mineralization; 3) comprehend how growing conditions and bacterial physiologies interrelate, resulting in differential crystal formation. The teaching-learning process was assessed using a pre-/posttest with an increase from 26% to 76% in the number of positive answers from the students. We also measured the students' proficiency while conducting specific technical tasks, revealing no major difficulties while conducting the experiments. A final questionnaire was provided with satisfactory evaluations from the students regarding the organization and content of the practices. 84-86% of the students agreed that the exercises improved their knowledge in geomicrobiology and would like to attend similar laboratories in the future. Such response is the best indicator that the laboratory practice can be implemented in any undergraduate/graduate microbiology course to effectively teach basic geomicrobiology concepts to non-geology majors.
Communication: Journalism Education Today, 1998
Outlines nine objectives students should be able to accomplish after completing the activities in the unit on typography presented in the previous articles in this journal. Offers eight tips for teaching typography. Includes a short list of books about typography and a list of seven organizations. (SR)
"Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...
Tetti Nauli Panjaitan
Full Text Available The title of the research was Interaction of Verbal Communication of the Teacher from thePhilippines in the Teaching Activity for Nursery II Students at the Singapore International School Medan. The objective of the research was to find out the verbal Interaction communicationin the teaching activity of the teacher from the Philippines in Nursery II Class at the Singapore International School Medan. The school is one of the international schools with foreign teachers. It uses English as the teaching medium in the teaching-learning process. The teacher in this class comes from the Philippines and the students are from 3 to 4 years old.The result of the research showed that the teaching activity in the Nursery II class at the Singapore International School Medan was done in two ways between teacher and students the teacher used more verbal communication while non-verbal communication was used as a supporting method. The learning process was done through singing telling stories games and using teaching tools like television pictures and toys in the communication process in order to make the students easier to understand what had been conveyed by the teacher.
Pozo, Antonio M.; Rubiño, Manuel; Hernández-Andrés, Javier; Nieves, Juan L.
In this work, we present a teaching methodology using active-learning techniques in the course "Devices and Instrumentation" of the Erasmus Mundus Master's Degree in "Color in Informatics and Media Technology" (CIMET). A part of the course "Devices and Instrumentation" of this Master's is dedicated to the study of image sensors and methods to evaluate their image quality. The teaching methodology that we present consists of incorporating practical activities during the traditional lectures. One of the innovative aspects of this teaching methodology is that students apply the concepts and methods studied in class to real devices. For this, students use their own digital cameras, webcams, or cellphone cameras in class. These activities provide students a better understanding of the theoretical subject given in class and encourage the active participation of students.
Laight, David W
Concept maps that integrate and relate concepts in a nonlinear fashion are widely accepted as an educational tool that can underpin meaningful learning in medical education. However, student take-up may be affected by a number of cognitive and non-cognitive influences. In the present study, student attitudes to pre-prepared concept maps introduced in Stage 2 conjoint MPharm and BSc Pharmacology lectures were examined in relation to preferred learning styles according to the Felder-Silverman model. There was no statistically significant influence of dichotomous learning style dimension (sensing/intuitive; visual/verbal; active/reflector; sequential/global) on the self-reported utility of such concept maps to learning. However, when strength of preference was analysed within each dimension, moderate/strong verbal learners were found to be significantly less likely to self-report concept maps as useful relative to mild verbal learners. With this important exception, these data now suggest that student attitudes to concept maps are broadly not influenced by preferred learning styles and furthermore highlight the potential of concept maps to address a variety of different learning styles and thereby facilitate 'teaching to all types'. Concept maps could therefore potentially assist motivation, engagement and deep learning in medical and biomedical science education when used as a supplement to more traditional teaching/learning activities.
Nielsen, Birgitte Lund
In average 64% reported a high or a very high degree of outcomes related to own teaching. Answers about collaboration have been more divided, with variations between schools, but with a positive trend from the first to the last module. In general teachers reporting positively about changing classroom...... and her class from 4th to 6th grade confirms the importance of individual teacher’s agency. This teacher’s beliefs that students need to explore to learn science were confirmed, she grew to be more confident and explicit about student learning, and this contributed to her experience of benefitting from...
Eddy, Sarah L.; Converse, Mercedes; Wenderoth, Mary Pat
There is extensive evidence that active learning works better than a completely passive lecture. Despite this evidence, adoption of these evidence-based teaching practices remains low. In this paper, we offer one tool to help faculty members implement active learning. This tool identifies 21 readily implemented elements that have been shown to…
The aim of the present study is investigate that the effectiveness of a teaching method which is based on subjective well-being increasing activities and engagement increasing activities, has been developed for university students in the present study. The method of the present study is a mixed method. Thus, the most important feature of it has…
Full Text Available The growing complexities of software and the demand for shorter time to market are two important challenges that face today’s IT industry. These challenges demand the increase of both productivity and quality of software. Model-based testing is a promising technique for meeting these challenges. Traceability modeling is a key issue and challenge in model-based testing. Relationships between the different models will help to navigate from one model to another, and trace back to the respective requirements and the design model when the test fails. In this paper, we present an approach for bridging the gaps between the different models in model-based testing. We propose relation definition markup language (RDML for defining the relationships between models.
Al-Azmi, Darwish; Mustapha, Amidu O.; Karunakara, N.
Simple procedures for teaching practical radioactivity are presented in a way that attracts students' attention and does not make them apprehensive about their safety. The radiation source is derived from the natural environment. It is based on the radioactivity of radon, a ubiquitous inert gas, and the adsorptive property of activated charcoal. Radon gas from ambient air in the laboratory was adsorbed into about 70 g of activated charcoal inside metallic canisters. Gamma radiation was subsequently emitted from the canisters, following the radioactive decay of radon and its progenies. The intensities of the emitted gamma-rays were measured at suitable intervals using a NaI gamma-ray detector. The counts obtained were analysed and used to demonstrate the radioactive decay law and determine the half-life of radon. In addition to learning the basic properties of radioactivity the students also get practical experience about the existence of natural sources of radiation in the environment.
Blanca Rosa Fernández-Carela
Full Text Available This research has as aim to devise a proposal of math activities that they guarantee to increase the development of knowledge, habits and skills that contribute to the development of teaching-learning process of Mathematics in the schoolchildren with severe mental retard. For that, it was selected a sample of schoolchild and teachers, equallythe methodological treatments, the systems of skills and the number of hour’s classes of the subject "Elementary Notions of Mathematics" were analyzed; andthey were conducted interviews to teachers and to the parents of schoolchildren. Analyzing these preliminary results it was elaborated 18 math activities, and they were subjected to valuation using empirical methods, that showed that they contribute to the development of the skills cognitive of the schoolchildren.
Simple procedures for teaching practical radioactivity are presented in a way that attracts students' attention and does not make them apprehensive about their safety. The radiation source is derived from the natural environment. It is based on the radioactivity of radon, an ubiquitous inert gas, and the adsorptive property of activated charcoal. Radon gas from ambient air in the laboratory was adsorbed into about 70 gram of activated charcoal inside metallic canisters. Gamma radiation was subsequently emitted from the canisters, following the radioactive decay of radon and its progenies. The intensities of the emitted gamma-rays were measured at suitable intervals using a NaI gamma-ray detector. The counts obtained were analysed and used to demonstrate the radioactive decay law and determine the half-life of radon. In addition to learning the basic properties of radioactivity, the students also get practical experience about the existence of natural sources of radiation in the environment. (author)
Sørensen, Kresten Kjær
This thesis is concerned with the development of model based control for the Star Cool refrigerated container (reefer) with the objective of reducing energy consumption. This project has been carried out under the Danish Industrial PhD programme and has been financed by Lodam together with the Da......This thesis is concerned with the development of model based control for the Star Cool refrigerated container (reefer) with the objective of reducing energy consumption. This project has been carried out under the Danish Industrial PhD programme and has been financed by Lodam together...
Ihor V. Korsun
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to prove the advisability of using the e-learning of quantum physics in the Moodle environment to help students achieve better success in this difficult subject area. The possibilities of Moodle in a distance learning environment have been analysed. E-learning tool of quantum physics in the Moodle environment has been described, and its educational opportunities have been determined. The need for material models and thought models for teaching of quantum physics has been proven. Modeling method and thought experiments explain phenomena of physics help to better understand real experiments and the essence of physics theories. The method of creation of computer models using Easy Gif Animator has been discussed. The requirements for material models have been identified, and an example of material model of Large Hadron Collider has been demonstrated. Results showed that e-learning of quantum physics increases the level of students' cognitive activity. This technique can be used for teaching other sections of physics and other natural sciences.
Sera, Dezso; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro
This work presents the construction of a model for a PV panel using the single-diode five-parameters model, based exclusively on data-sheet parameters. The model takes into account the series and parallel (shunt) resistance of the panel. The equivalent circuit and the basic equations of the PV cell...
van der Bijl, H.M.; Rensink, Arend; Tretmans, G.J.
In model based testing (MBT) test cases are derived from a specification of the system that we want to test. In general the specification is more abstract than the implementation. This may result in 1) test cases that are not executable, because their actions are too abstract (the implementation
Wessels, P.W.; Basten, T.G.H.; Eerden, F.J.M. van der
In this paper the approach for an acoustical model based monitoring network is demonstrated. This network is capable of reconstructing a noise map, based on the combination of measured sound levels and an acoustic model of the area. By pre-calculating the sound attenuation within the network the
Model-based design allows teams to start the design process from a high-level model that is gradually refined through abstraction levels to ultimately yield a prototype. This book describes the main facets of heterogeneous system design. It focuses on multi-core methodological issues, real-time analysis, and modeling and validation
Gurbuz, Havva Gulay; Tekinerdogan, Bedir
Testing safety-critical systems is crucial since a failure or malfunction may result in death or serious injuries to people, equipment, or environment. An important challenge in testing is the derivation of test cases that can identify the potential faults. Model-based testing adopts models of a
Dekker, H.J.; Sturm, W.L.
Model based development of engine control systems has several advantages. The development time and costs are strongly reduced because much of the development and optimization work is carried out by simulating both engine and control system. After optimizing the control algorithm it can be executed
Model-based diagnosis is an area of abductive inference that uses a system model, together with observations about system behavior, to isolate sets of faulty components (diagnoses) that explain the observed behavior, according to some minimality criterion. This thesis presents greedy approximation
Weigand, H.; Elsas, P.
The recent financial crisis has renewed interest in the value of the owner-ordered auditing tradition that starts from society's long-term interest rather than management interest. This tradition uses a model-based auditing approach in which control requirements are derived in a principled way. A
Holmes, Karen Y.; Dodd, Brett A.
In this article, we discuss a collection of active learning activities derived from classic psychology studies that illustrate the appropriate use of descriptive and inferential statistics. (Contains 2 tables.)
Auerbach, Anna Jo; Schussler, Elisabeth E.
Active learning (or learner-centered) pedagogies have been shown to enhance student learning in introductory biology courses. Student collaboration has also been shown to enhance student learning and may be a critical part of effective active learning practices. This study focused on documenting the use of individual active learning and group…
Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Silverman, Stephen; Deng, Xiaofen
This study investigated the relationship between physical education teachers' attitudes toward physical activity and fitness and what they taught in their classes. Participants were 42 elementary and secondary physical education teachers selected according to high physical activity and fitness attitude or low physical activity and fitness attitude…
Full Text Available This article summarises the methodology and outcomes of an interventionist/action research project to assess the benefits, and potential pitfalls, of the use of mobile devices in learning and teaching activities in a Further Education environment. A bank of 15 tablet devices were purchased and prepared for classroom use. Staff members were approached to scope potential activities and uses for the tablet devices. Three departments took part in the research activity: the Language School, Social and Vocational Studies and the Hairdressing department. Use of the tablets was varied in nature and included: use of multimedia tools, use of apps, creation and use of a bespoke app, multimedia manipulation and sharing, and creation of an online e-portfolio. Staff and student feedback was gathered during and after the project, and project authors were present during classroom activities for observation and recording purposes. Overall feedback was very positive, but there were issues with tablet use and administration. One of the major issues was the onerous nature of the security setup, and app administration.
Ksenia Pavlovna Zaytseva
Full Text Available In this work we will consider features of formation of communicative abilities of younger school students as a basis of their social adaptation. For this purpose we will reveal features of the teaching and educational activity of younger school students creating conditions for formation of their communicative abilities and we will show as the communicative abilities formed in teaching and educational activity can be directed on training of younger school students for social adaptation.Purpose. In the Federal state educational standard of the general education (FGOS of the second generation transition from minimizatsionny approach in education is designated. Communicative abilities are a basis not only productive inclusion of pupils in interpersonal relationship with contemporaries and adults in educational activity, socially important for them, but also basis for an exit in system of broader social relationship with people and the world in general.Methodology. The basis of research is formed by the empirical – studying and the analysis of literature, normative documents and textbooks for elementary school; supervision, poll (oral and written.Results. Results of work consists preparation of methodical ensuring process of formation of communicative abilities of younger school students in teaching and educational activity as bases of their social adaptation: Socialization programs.Practical implications. Results of research can be used by elementary school teachers in teaching and educational activity, and also students when writing theses and carrying out experiment.
Bhasin, Kul; Barnes, Patrick; Reinert, Jessica; Golden, Bert
System engineering practices for complex systems and networks now require that requirement, architecture, and concept of operations product development teams, simultaneously harmonize their activities to provide timely, useful and cost-effective products. When dealing with complex systems of systems, traditional systems engineering methodology quickly falls short of achieving project objectives. This approach is encumbered by the use of a number of disparate hardware and software tools, spreadsheets and documents to grasp the concept of the network design and operation. In case of NASA's space communication networks, since the networks are geographically distributed, and so are its subject matter experts, the team is challenged to create a common language and tools to produce its products. Using Model Based Systems Engineering methods and tools allows for a unified representation of the system in a model that enables a highly related level of detail. To date, Program System Engineering (PSE) team has been able to model each network from their top-level operational activities and system functions down to the atomic level through relational modeling decomposition. These models allow for a better understanding of the relationships between NASA's stakeholders, internal organizations, and impacts to all related entities due to integration and sustainment of existing systems. Understanding the existing systems is essential to accurate and detailed study of integration options being considered. In this paper, we identify the challenges the PSE team faced in its quest to unify complex legacy space communications networks and their operational processes. We describe the initial approaches undertaken and the evolution toward model based system engineering applied to produce Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) PSE products. We will demonstrate the practice of Model Based System Engineering applied to integrating space communication networks and the summary of its
Soukup, Gregory J.; Warhol, John; Lillis, Tom; Hatten, Timothy; Matlock, Rian; Hefty, Tim; Crawford, Scott A. G. M.; Severe, Bridget
The most qualified and effective teacher should teach. Departments should have a process to evaluate instructors, improve deficiencies, and remove ineffective instructors. Input from students, teachers, and administrators should be considered. Graduate assistants have many advantages. Most are closer in age to undergraduate students and seem…
The handbook offers the first comprehensive reference guide to the interdisciplinary field of model-based reasoning. It highlights the role of models as mediators between theory and experimentation, and as educational devices, as well as their relevance in testing hypotheses and explanatory functions. The Springer Handbook merges philosophical, cognitive and epistemological perspectives on models with the more practical needs related to the application of this tool across various disciplines and practices. The result is a unique, reliable source of information that guides readers toward an understanding of different aspects of model-based science, such as the theoretical and cognitive nature of models, as well as their practical and logical aspects. The inferential role of models in hypothetical reasoning, abduction and creativity once they are constructed, adopted, and manipulated for different scientific and technological purposes is also discussed. Written by a group of internationally renowned experts in ...
de Toledo Sérgio
Full Text Available Abstract Background The fourth-year Obstetrics and Gynaecology course at our institution had previously been taught using theory classes alone. A new teaching model was introduced to provide a better link with professional practice. We wished to evaluate the impact of the introduction of case discussions and other practical activities upon students' perceptions of the learning process. Methods Small-group discussions of cases and practical activities were introduced for the teaching of a fourth-year class in 2003 (Group II; 113 students. Comparisons were made with the fourth-year class of 2002 (Group I; 108 students, from before the new programme was introduced. Students were asked to rate their satisfaction with various elements of the teaching programme. Statistical differences in their ratings were analysed using the chi-square and Bonferroni tests. Results Group II gave higher ratings to the clarity of theory classes and lecturers' teaching abilities (p Conclusions Students were very receptive to the new teaching model.
Matos, Andreia; Carvalho, Antonio P. O.; Fernandes, Joao C. S.
The noise levels made by different clinical handpieces and laboratory engines are considered to be the main descriptors of acoustical comfort in learning spaces in a dental medicine school. Sound levels were measured in five types of classrooms and teaching laboratories at the University of Porto Dental Medicine School. Handpiece noise measurements were made while instruments were running free and during operations with cutting tools (tooth, metal, and acrylic). Noise levels were determined using a precision sound level meter, which was positioned at ear level and also at one-meter distance from the operator. Some of the handpieces were brand new and the others had a few years of use. The sound levels encountered were between 60 and 99 dB(A) and were compared with the noise limits in A-weighted sound pressure level for mechanical equipments installed in educational buildings included in the Portuguese Noise Code and in other European countries codes. The daily personal noise exposure levels (LEP,d) of the students and professors were calculated to be between 85 and 90 dB(A) and were compared with the European legal limits. Some noise limits for this type of environment are proposed and suggestions for the improvement of the acoustical environment are given.
Jasti, Chandana; Hug, Barbara; Waters, Jillian L.; Whitaker, Rachel J.
Recent scientific studies are providing increasing evidence for how microbes living in and on us are essential to our good health. However, many students still think of microbes only as germs that harm us. The classroom activities presented here are designed to shift student thinking on this topic. In these guided inquiry activities, students…
Gonzalez-Sancho, Jose Manuel; Sanchez-Pacheco, Aurora; Lasa, Marina; Molina, Susana; Vara, Francisco; del Peso, Luis
This article describes the transition from a traditional instructor-centered course, based on lectures, to a student-centered course based on active learning methodologies as part of the reform of the Spanish higher education system within the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Specifically, we describe the use of active learning methodologies…
Studies show that children may not be able to conceptualize some of the topics associated with anatomy, including internal organs and involuntary muscles, because the concepts are too abstract and are not easily visualized. Thus, this article presents activities that incorporate a variety of models and hands-on activities designed to provide…
Richardson, Matthew L.
Students in life science classes need an introduction to biomes, including an introduction to the concept, key biotic and abiotic features of biomes, and geographic locations of biomes. In this activity, students in seventh- and eighth-grade science classes used a directed exploratory Internet activity to learn about biomes. The author tested…
Kariuki, Patrick N.; Kent, Holly D.
The purpose of this study was to examine the difference between students' scores in comprehension (English Language Arts) tests when they are led in Brain Gym® activities before class instruction and when they are taught using traditional teaching strategies. The sample for this study consisted of 11 males and 9 females. Data were collected by…
An, Song A.; Tillman, Daniel A.
The purpose of the current research was to examine the effects of a sequence of classroom activities that integrated mathematics content with music elements aimed at providing teachers an alternative approach for teaching mathematics. Two classes of third grade students (n = 56) from an elementary school in the west coast of the United States…
Wahsheh, Rula; Alhawamdeh, Haifa
The study aimed to identify the role of female teachers in activating effective teaching skills and methods among high school students from the teachers' perspective--Najran, KSA. The researcher used the descriptive analytical approach. Instrument of the study is a questionnaire with (76) items distributing to (3) domains: the first domain is…
Full Text Available The article differentiates the concepts of “subject” integration and “procedural” integration. The essential characteristics of procedural integration stages have been clarified in terms of philosophical definition of “integration”, didactic survey, psychology studies, and linguistic research. The possibility of interconnected learning of a foreign language and one of the subjects relating to educational or professional activity on the basis of procedural integration has been substantiated. The succession of psychological and pedagogical actions for reaching high acquisition quality of these subjects within an integrated educational process has been established. It has been observed that these actions form groups and fall into three stages: 1 linguistic and conceptual stage with dominating foreign language speech activity over professional activity aimed at learning foreign language means of expression relevant to professional activity; 2 subject and speech stage with foreign language speech activity equivalent to educational speech activity providing the possibility of mastering the basic content of the training course by means of a foreign language; 3 professional and activity-based stage with the dominance of attention on the practical application of educational (professional knowledge along with foreign language usage.
Traditionally in the center of the interest on quantum physics referring to schools the question lies, whether electrons or photons are now particles or waves, a question, which is often characterized by the phrase ''wave-particle dualism'', which notoriously not exists in its original meaning. Against that by the author - on the base of important preparatory works of Kueblbeck and Mueller - a new concept of quantum physics for the school was proposed, which puts ''basic facts'' in the foreground, comparable with the Kueblbeck-Mueller ''characteristic features''. The ''basic facts'' are similar to axioms of quantum physics, by means of them a large number of experiments and phenomena can be ''explained'' at least qualitatively - in a heuristic way -. Instead of the so-called ''wave-particle dualism'' uncertainty and complementarity are put in the foreground. The new concept is in the Internet under http://www.forphys.de extensively presented with many further materials. In the partial volumes of this publication manifold and carefully elaborated teaching materials are presented, by which scholars can get themselves the partial set of quantum physics referring to schools by different methods like learning at stations, short referates, Internet-research, group puzzle, the query-sheet or the card-index method etc. In the present 3. part materials are prepared, by which scholars can get foundations of atomic physics and interpret in the sense of the ''basic facts or quantum physics''. Here deals it thus with discrete energy levels, the linear potential box, with atomic models, the atomic structure, the tunnel effect, and - because curricula it often require - also with the Schroedinger equation. The materials can also be usefully applied in other concepts.
Jasti, Chandana; Hug, Barbara; Waters, Jillian L; Whitaker, Rachel J
Recent scientific studies are providing increasing evidence for how microbes living in and on us are essential to our good health. However, many students still think of microbes only as germs that harm us. The classroom activities presented here are designed to shift student thinking on this topic. In these guided inquiry activities, students investigate human-microbe interactions as they work together to interpret and analyze authentic data from published articles and develop scientific models. Through the activities, students learn and apply ecological concepts as they come to see the human body as a fascinatingly complex ecosystem.
JASTI, CHANDANA; HUG, BARBARA; WATERS, JILLIAN L.; WHITAKER, RACHEL J.
Recent scientific studies are providing increasing evidence for how microbes living in and on us are essential to our good health. However, many students still think of microbes only as germs that harm us. The classroom activities presented here are designed to shift student thinking on this topic. In these guided inquiry activities, students investigate human–microbe interactions as they work together to interpret and analyze authentic data from published articles and develop scientific models. Through the activities, students learn and apply ecological concepts as they come to see the human body as a fascinatingly complex ecosystem. PMID:25520526
Dewey, Jessica; Bento, Janet
Recent interest in the teaching of thinking skills within education has led to an increase in thinking skills packages available to schools. However many of these are not based on scientific evaluation (DfEE, 1999). This paper endeavours to examine the effectiveness of one approach, that of infusion, to teaching thinking. To investigate the impact of an infusion methodology, activating children's thinking skills (ACTS), on the cognitive, social, and emotional development of children in Year 4-6 in primary schools. This is a sister project to research being conducted in Northern Ireland (McGuinness, 2006). The study involved 404 children from 8 primary schools in one local authority. These were divided into 160 in the experimental group and 244 in the waiting list control group. A quasi-experimental design was used with pre-, post-, and delayed post-tests to ascertain changes in children's cognitive abilities, self-perceptions, and social/behavioural skills using quantitative measures. In addition qualitative techniques were used with pupils and teachers to evaluate effectiveness. The experimental group made significantly greater gains in cognitive ability skills over a 2 year period compared to the waiting list control. Qualitative data demonstrated a positive impact on children's social and emotional development. In addition teacher professional development was reported to be enhanced. This research indicated that children's cognitive abilities can be developed following a 2 year period of the ACTS infusion intervention. While some positive effects were evidenced on the social and emotional development of children, further study will be necessary to examine these in more detail.
Dukes, Alexandra Marie
The pilot study is led by the Integration Engineering group in NASA's Launch Services Program (LSP). The Integration Engineering (IE) group is responsible for managing the interfaces between the spacecraft and launch vehicle. This pilot investigates the utility of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) with respect to managing and verifying interface requirements. The main objectives of the pilot are to model several key aspects of the Mars 2020 integrated operations and interface requirements based on the design and verification artifacts from Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) and to demonstrate how MBSE could be used by LSP to gain further insight on the interface between the spacecraft and launch vehicle as well as to enhance how LSP manages the launch service. The method used to accomplish this pilot started through familiarization of SysML, MagicDraw, and the Mars 2020 and MSL systems through books, tutorials, and NASA documentation. MSL was chosen as the focus of the model since its processes and verifications translate easily to the Mars 2020 mission. The study was further focused by modeling specialized systems and processes within MSL in order to demonstrate the utility of MBSE for the rest of the mission. The systems chosen were the In-Flight Disconnect (IFD) system and the Mass Properties process. The IFD was chosen as a system of focus since it is an interface between the spacecraft and launch vehicle which can demonstrate the usefulness of MBSE from a system perspective. The Mass Properties process was chosen as a process of focus since the verifications for mass properties occur throughout the lifecycle and can demonstrate the usefulness of MBSE from a multi-discipline perspective. Several iterations of both perspectives have been modeled and evaluated. While the pilot study will continue for another 2 weeks, pros and cons of using MBSE for LSP IE have been identified. A pro of using MBSE includes an integrated view of the disciplines, requirements, and
Pirmagambet Z. Ishanov
Full Text Available The article deals with new approaches to organization of pedagogical education of a teacher in institutions of higher learning. Here we consider cult urological, personal, multiobjective (dialogic and individual-creative approaches. In this case, pedagogical activity is considered as a form of active correlation to the world, transformation experience of culture into pedagogue’s professional wealth. So, one of the factors determining the university teacher’s effectiveness is his psycho-pedagogical culture.
Maria de Cássia Passos B. Gonçalves
Full Text Available This paper results from a research on the “Teacher Education Programme for the Professional Education of Young People and Adults”, whose objective was to understand both the programme’s pedagogical conception and the articulation of theoretical knowledge with practical teaching knowledge, as well as to verify the conception of teaching activity implicit in the project of the course, which took place at the Federal Institute of Bahia (former CEFET-BA. Empirical works were based on a qualitative approach with documentary analysis. Although the course has a multidisciplinary proposal that highlights teaching knowledge, in practice the purposes were not satisfactorily achieved: curriculum contents were organised in a linear and hierarchical way and there wasn’t a convincing articulation between theoretical knowledge and the practical knowledge of the teachers who participated in the course.
Tosa, Sachiko; Qian, Lingbo
This study examines the extent to which inquiry-based teaching is practiced in Chinese high-school physics in comparison with US high schools. Data were collected through lesson observations and the administration of a teacher survey (N = 19). Results show that both US and Chinese teachers are well aware of the importance of the elements that are associated with inquiry-based teaching. However, in practice, little inquiry-based teaching was observed in either of the countries by different reasons. US physics lessons often lacked rigorous content development to help students understand physics concepts, while many of the Chinese lessons failed to include opportunities for students to present and test their own thoughts. It is advocated that the implementation of active learning strategies at the college level physics would help the situation in both of the countries.
Oliver, T. Emerson; Anzalone, Evan; Geohagan, Kevin; Bernard, Bill; Park, Thomas
The SLS Program chose to implement a Model-based Design and Model-based Requirements approach for managing component design information and system requirements. This approach differs from previous large-scale design efforts at Marshall Space Flight Center where design documentation alone conveyed information required for vehicle design and analysis and where extensive requirements sets were used to scope and constrain the design. The SLS Navigation Team has been responsible for the Program-controlled Design Math Models (DMMs) which describe and represent the performance of the Inertial Navigation System (INS) and the Rate Gyro Assemblies (RGAs) used by Guidance, Navigation, and Controls (GN&C). The SLS Navigation Team is also responsible for the navigation algorithms. The navigation algorithms are delivered for implementation on the flight hardware as a DMM. For the SLS Block 1-B design, the additional GPS Receiver hardware is managed as a DMM at the vehicle design level. This paper provides a discussion of the processes and methods used to engineer, design, and coordinate engineering trades and performance assessments using SLS practices as applied to the GN&C system, with a particular focus on the Navigation components. These include composing system requirements, requirements verification, model development, model verification and validation, and modeling and analysis approaches. The Model-based Design and Requirements approach does not reduce the effort associated with the design process versus previous processes used at Marshall Space Flight Center. Instead, the approach takes advantage of overlap between the requirements development and management process, and the design and analysis process by efficiently combining the control (i.e. the requirement) and the design mechanisms. The design mechanism is the representation of the component behavior and performance in design and analysis tools. The focus in the early design process shifts from the development and
Full Text Available The fundamental challenge to a solution to improve software quality is in the people and processes that develop software products. Imparting real world experiences in software development best practices to undergraduate students is often a challenge due to the lack of effective learning tools. This pedagogical requirement is important because graduates are expected to develop software that meets rigorous quality standards. Certain best practices are difficult to comprehend by course lectures alone and are enhanced with supplemental learning tools. Realizing the necessity of such teaching tools, we designed and developed six (6 delivery hours of case study videos for use in courses that impart knowledge on Software Verification & Validation (SV&V topics viz. requirements engineering, and software reviews. We see case study videos as an effective active learning tool in our flipped classroom approach. We present our design of the case study video in its generic components envisioning how it may be used in general. To evaluate our active learning tools we mapped the learning objectives of the case Study videos to the expected learning outcomes for ABET accreditation of an undergraduate engineering program. Our implementation has been disseminated to partner institutions. Results of delivery in a faculty workshop and in two different university courses are shared.
Wagner, Julie; Keuky, Lim; Fraser-King, Lorraine; Kuoch, Theanvy; Scully, Mary
Type 2 diabetes is a pressing public health concern in Cambodia, a country with limited human resource capacity due to genocide. Cambodian village health support guides (Guides) promote health at the local level. This paper reports preliminary results of training Guides in diabetes prevention. The curriculum, called Eat, Walk, Sleep was delivered to Guides in Siem Reap province once over 3 h. Participants completed a pretest and posttest on diabetes knowledge. Guides were offered continuing education through Eat, Walk, Sleep resources and were encouraged to teach Eat, Walk, Sleep in their villages. For each of 6 months following their training, Guides completed a checklist regarding their activities. One hundred eighty-five Guides attended one of ten trainings. Knowledge scores increased significantly from pretest to posttest. During 6 months of follow-up, n = 159 Guides (85 %) completed at least one monthly checklist. Guides reported high rates of uptake and delivery of the Eat, Walk, Sleep curriculum and moderate rates of continuing education about diabetes. Diabetes prevention in Cambodia is nascent. Guides show excellent uptake and dissemination of the curriculum. Future research should examine effect of support for Guide activities and the effect of the curriculum on villager health behaviors, and ultimately, on rates of type 2 diabetes.
The purpose of this workshop is to equip chemistry educators with practical activities and logistical training to incorporate Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) into their chemistry curriculum. During this workshop, participants will gain hands-on experience using technology such as iPads and a variety of ...
Dickinson, Paige E.; Schwarzmueller, April; Martin, Bret
This study empirically tested the effectiveness of a brief, inexpensive aging simulation activity to educate traditional-aged students about sensory declines and their potential causes in older adulthood development. Students in a life-span development course wore specific props (e.g., thick gloves, earplugs, and obscured glasses) to simulate…
Stovall, Steven Austin
In works by Van Fleet and Wren and by Smith, a strong case is made for including a greater emphasis on the historical aspects of management in undergraduate introductory-level management courses. This article builds on these two works by providing specific experiential activities to assist instructors who wish to offer more depth to their…
Chilcoat, George W.
By using propaganda commercial radio broadcasts which occurred during the Second World War as the basis for classroom activities, teachers can help students capture the emotional drama of various topics of the war, as well as certain themes still applicable in contemporary society, and stimulate student curiosity about the past. (RM)
Invasive species, defined as exotic species that reach pest status, are major threats to global biodiversity. Although invasive species can belong to any taxonomic group, general characteristics such as rapid growth and reproduction are shared by many invasive species. "Invented Invaders" is a collaborative activity in which students…
This article reports on a small-scale investigation of how teachers organise goal-oriented learning in Swedish preschools. The revised Swedish curriculum (National Agency for Education 2011) highlights the need for children to develop their mathematics skills through activities that integrate play and learning. This study investigates how…
Sahin, Mehmet; Sule, St.; Seçer, Y. E.
This study aims to find out the challenges encountered in the use of video as audio-visual material as a warm-up activity in aviation English course at high school level. This study is based on a qualitative study in which focus group interview is used as the data collection procedure. The participants of focus group are four instructors teaching…
Connecting ordinary devices to the Internet is a defining characteristic of the Internet of Things. In this hands-on lab activity, students will connect a wireless doorbell to the Internet using a Raspberry Pi computer. By modifying and running a program on the Raspberry Pi to send an email or text message notifying a recipient that someone is at…
The activities in this manual explore some of the issues of the 1960s and 1970s that reflected changes in U.S. patterns of thought: minorities sought their share of the American pie; young people challenged established authority; massive protests erupted against the Vietnam War; political corruption was found in high office and a marked change…
Pataki, Sherri P.; Mackenzie, Scott A.
To inform students about global violence against women and to empower them to take action, the authors developed an interdisciplinary course focused on experiential learning and theatre education. Their article discusses the development of the course; the implementation of active learning strategies to develop critical thinking, empathy, and…
Luciano Costa Santos
Full Text Available The product-process matrix is a well-known framework proposed by Hayes and Wheelwright (1979 that is commonly used to identify processes types and to analyze the alignment of these processes with the products of a company. For didactic purposes, the matrix helps undergraduates beginners from Production Engineering to understand the logic of production systems, providing knowledge that will be essential for various course subjects. Considering the high level of abstraction of the concepts underlying the product-process matrix, this paper presents a way to facilitate the learning of them through the application of a hands-on activity which relies on the active learning philosophy. The proposed dynamic uses colored plastic sheets and PVC pipes as main materials, differing from the original proposal of Penlesky and Treleven (2005 . In addition to presenting an extremely simple exercise, which encourages its application in the classroom, another contribution of this paper is to define a complete roadmap for conducting the activity. This roadmap describes the assembly of fictitious products in customization and standardization scenarios for the comparison of two processes types of product-process matrix, job shop and assembly line. The activity revealed very successful after its application to two groups of Production Engineering undergraduates, confirmed with positive feedback from the students surveyed.
Maurer, Trent W.; Keim, Cassidy
This study presents a three-year replication and extension of Maurer's (2013) evaluation of a classroom activity to reduce prejudice and discrimination. Students in six sections of an introductory family science course were assigned to one of three conditions and one of two target marginalized groups for a 3x2 design. Results differed…
Agyei, Douglas; Voogt, Joke
In this study, 12 pre-service mathematics teachers worked in teams to develop their knowledge and skills in using teacher-led spreadsheet demonstrations to help students explore mathematics concepts, stimulate discussions and perform authentic tasks through activity-based lessons. Pre-service
Cotton, Jennifer M.; Sheldon, Nathan D.
The call for reform of science education is nearly three decades old (National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983), but the implementation of such education improvements in the form of active learning techniques in large enrollment classes remains difficult. Here we present a class project designed to increase student involvement and…
The Australian Federal Government and Australian universities have embarked on a bid to raise the profile of learning and teaching (L&T) in universities. Current strategies include increased funding of competitive grants for L&T projects, a wider range of teaching awards and fellowships and a controversial new national competitive Learning…
Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Whitworth, Brooke A.
The purpose of this investigation was to explore changes in undergraduate and graduate teaching assistants' (TAs') content knowledge and beliefs about teaching within the context of an inquiry-based laboratory course. TAs received professional development (PD), which was informed by the TA training literature base and was designed for TAs…
Overman, Michelle; Vermunt, Jan D.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Brekelmans, Mieke
Context-based curriculum reforms in chemistry education are thought to bring greater diversity to the ways in which chemistry teachers organize their teaching. First and foremost, students are expected to perceive this diversity. However, empirical research on how students perceive their teacher's teaching in context-based chemistry classrooms,…
Schwab, Keri; Greenwood, Brian; Dustin, Daniel
In this article, we turn the tripartite responsibility of teaching, scholarship, and service inside out. Rather than considering service to be a poor stepchild to scholarship and teaching, we reason that service as engaged scholarship should be the centerpiece of academic life, especially in an applied discipline like parks, recreation, and…
Brewer, Michael S.; Gardner, Grant E.
Teaching population genetics provides a bridge between genetics and evolution by using examples of the mechanisms that underlie changes in allele frequencies over time. Existing methods of teaching these concepts often rely on computer simulations or hand calculations, which distract students from the material and are problematic for those with…
Kumar, Aditya; Viassolo, Daniel
The Model Based Fault Tolerant Control (MBFTC) task was conducted under the NASA Aviation Safety and Security Program. The goal of MBFTC is to develop and demonstrate real-time strategies to diagnose and accommodate anomalous aircraft engine events such as sensor faults, actuator faults, or turbine gas-path component damage that can lead to in-flight shutdowns, aborted take offs, asymmetric thrust/loss of thrust control, or engine surge/stall events. A suite of model-based fault detection algorithms were developed and evaluated. Based on the performance and maturity of the developed algorithms two approaches were selected for further analysis: (i) multiple-hypothesis testing, and (ii) neural networks; both used residuals from an Extended Kalman Filter to detect the occurrence of the selected faults. A simple fusion algorithm was implemented to combine the results from each algorithm to obtain an overall estimate of the identified fault type and magnitude. The identification of the fault type and magnitude enabled the use of an online fault accommodation strategy to correct for the adverse impact of these faults on engine operability thereby enabling continued engine operation in the presence of these faults. The performance of the fault detection and accommodation algorithm was extensively tested in a simulation environment.
Oliver, T. Emerson; Anzalone, Evan; Park, Thomas; Geohagan, Kevin
The SLS Program has implemented a Model-based Design (MBD) and Model-based Requirements approach for managing component design information and system requirements. This approach differs from previous large-scale design efforts at Marshall Space Flight Center where design documentation alone conveyed information required for vehicle design and analysis and where extensive requirements sets were used to scope and constrain the design. The SLS Navigation Team is responsible for the Program-controlled Design Math Models (DMMs) which describe and represent the performance of the Inertial Navigation System (INS) and the Rate Gyro Assemblies (RGAs) used by Guidance, Navigation, and Controls (GN&C). The SLS Navigation Team is also responsible for navigation algorithms. The navigation algorithms are delivered for implementation on the flight hardware as a DMM. For the SLS Block 1B design, the additional GPS Receiver hardware model is managed as a DMM at the vehicle design level. This paper describes the models, and discusses the processes and methods used to engineer, design, and coordinate engineering trades and performance assessments using SLS practices as applied to the GN&C system, with a particular focus on the navigation components.
Qazi, Arish A.; Kim, John; Jaffray, David A.; Pekar, Vladimir
The accurate delineation of anatomical structures is required in many medical image analysis applications. One example is radiation therapy planning (RTP), where traditional manual delineation is tedious, labor intensive, and can require hours of clinician's valuable time. Majority of automated segmentation methods in RTP belong to either model-based or atlas-based approaches. One substantial limitation of model-based segmentation is that its accuracy may be restricted by the uncertainties in image content, specifically when segmenting low-contrast anatomical structures, e.g. soft tissue organs in computed tomography images. In this paper, we introduce a non-parametric feature enhancement filter which replaces raw intensity image data by a high level probabilistic map which guides the deformable model to reliably segment low-contrast regions. The method is evaluated by segmenting the submandibular and parotid glands in the head and neck region and comparing the results to manual segmentations in terms of the volume overlap. Quantitative results show that we are in overall good agreement with expert segmentations, achieving volume overlap of up to 80%. Qualitatively, we demonstrate that we are able to segment low-contrast regions, which otherwise are difficult to delineate with deformable models relying on distinct object boundaries from the original image data.
The phenomenon of electric polarization is crucial to student understanding of forces exerted between charged objects and insulators or conductors, the process of charging by induction, and the behavior of electroscopes near charged objects. In addition, polarization allows for microscopic-level models of everyday-life macroscopic-level phenomena. Textbooks may adequately discuss polarization, but there is little material in active learning labs and tutorials on this topic. Since polarization of materials is a microscopic phenomenon, instructors often use diagrams and figures on the classroom board to explain the process in a lecture setting. In this paper I will describe a classroom activity where the students play the role of electrons as an alternative option.
Venny Eka Meidasari
Full Text Available Literary theory sees reception theory from the reader response that emphasizes the reader’s reception of a literary text. It is generally called audience reception in the analysis of communications models. In literary studies, reception theory originated from the work of Hans-Robert Jauss in the late 1960s. Communication only means that the original message will be clearly sent in its equivalent context to the target receptor. Similarly, the main role of translators is to send the message across without any form of distortion or emphasis. It is delivering the genuine context of the message to the language that the active receptor understands. A single mistake in a context translation can result to offensive message that can eventually lead to misunderstandings between active receptors. This paper proposes on the role of translator as the mediator between a writer of the original text and the active target language receptors of translated version in the course of communication which definitely affects the process and result of translation practice. It also reveals the emphasis on the creation text of the translation theories originated from the strategic communication theories, which hopefully leads to a dream of the most equivalence between the text and the translated version.
Demand of biomedical engineers continues to rise to meet the needs of healthcare industry. Current training of bioengineers follows the traditional and dominant model of theory-focused curricula. However, the unmet needs of the healthcare industry warrant newer skill sets in these engineers. Translational training strategies such as solving real world problems through active, adaptive, and experiential learning hold promise. In this paper, we report our findings of adding a real-world 4-week problem-based learning unit into a biomechanics capstone course for engineering students. Surveys assessed student perceptions of the activity and learning experience. While students, across three cohorts, felt challenged to solve a real-world problem identified during the simulation lab visit, they felt more confident in utilizing knowledge learned in the biomechanics course and self-directed research. Instructor evaluations indicated that the active and experiential learning approach fostered their technical knowledge and life-long learning skills while exposing them to the components of adaptive learning and innovation.
California Univ., Los Angeles. Dept. of Geography.
Because most graduate geography students will engage in professional teaching activities, the Teaching Preparation Program of UCLA's department of geography is viewed as an important part of graduate training. The program, co-directed by a graduate student and faculty member, is available to all graduate students on a voluntary basis and consists…
van de Grift, W.; van der Wal, M.; Torenbeek, M.
Teaching skills are observed in samples of primary schools in the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Slowakia, Croatia and Scotland. A sequential level of difficulty in teaching skills has been observed. Activities in the domains 'ensuring a safe and stimulating environment' and 'efficient lesson
Contains abstracts of presented papers which deal with teaching materials and methods in physiology. Includes papers on preconceptual notions in physiology, somatosensory activity recorded in the dorsal root ganglion of the bull frog, and the use of the Apple Macintosh microcomputer in teaching human anatomy and physiology. (TW)
OECD Publishing, 2015
Information and communication technology (ICT) use has been identified as one of the more active teaching practices, which promote skills students need for success. And yet, less than 40% of teachers across Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) countries report using ICT as a regular part of their teaching practice. Shortages in…
Sanchez, Christopher A.; Ruddell, Benjamin L.; Schiesser, Roy; Merwade, Venkatesh
Previous research has suggested that the use of more authentic learning activities can produce more robust and durable knowledge gains. This is consistent with calls within civil engineering education, specifically hydrology, that suggest that curricula should more often include professional perspective and data analysis skills to better develop the "T-shaped" knowledge profile of a professional hydrologist (i.e., professional breadth combined with technical depth). It was expected that the inclusion of a data-driven simulation lab exercise that was contextualized within a real-world situation and more consistent with the job duties of a professional in the field, would provide enhanced learning and appreciation of job duties beyond more conventional paper-and-pencil exercises in a lower-division undergraduate course. Results indicate that while students learned in both conditions, learning was enhanced for the data-driven simulation group in nearly every content area. This pattern of results suggests that the use of data-driven modeling and visualization activities can have a significant positive impact on instruction. This increase in learning likely facilitates the development of student perspective and conceptual mastery, enabling students to make better choices about their studies, while also better preparing them for work as a professional in the field.
Wiles, Amy M
Learning often improves when active learning techniques are used in place of traditional lectures. For many of these techniques, however, students are expected to apply concepts that they have already grasped. A challenge, therefore, is how to incorporate active learning into the classroom of courses with heavy content, such as molecular-based biology courses. An additional challenge is that visual literacy is often overlooked in undergraduate science education. To address both of these challenges, a technique called figure analysis was developed and implemented in three different levels of undergraduate biology courses. Here, students learn content while gaining practice in interpreting visual information by discussing figures with their peers. Student groups also make connections between new and previously learned concepts on their own while in class. The instructor summarizes the material for the class only after students grapple with it in small groups. Students reported a preference for learning by figure analysis over traditional lecture, and female students in particular reported increased confidence in their analytical abilities. There is not a technology requirement for this technique; therefore, it may be utilized both in classrooms and in nontraditional spaces. Additionally, the amount of preparation required is comparable to that of a traditional lecture. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):336-344, 2016. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
. This is because, on the one hand, control methods can decrease the cost of energy by keeping the turbine close to its maximum efficiency. On the other hand, they can reduce structural fatigue and therefore increase the lifetime of the wind turbine. The power produced by a wind turbine is proportional...... to the square of its rotor radius, therefore it seems reasonable to increase the size of the wind turbine in order to capture more power. However as the size increases, the mass of the blades increases by cube of the rotor size. This means in order to keep structural feasibility and mass of the whole structure...... reasonable, the ratio of mass to size should be reduced. This trend results in more flexible structures. Control of the flexible structure of a wind turbine in a wind field with stochastic nature is very challenging. In this thesis we are examining a number of robust model based methods for wind turbine...
Gran, Bjoern Axel; Fredriksen, Rune; Thunem, Atoosa P-J.
Traditional risk analysis and assessment is based on failure-oriented models of the system. In contrast to this, model-based risk assessment (MBRA) utilizes success-oriented models describing all intended system aspects, including functional, operational and organizational aspects of the target. The target models are then used as input sources for complementary risk analysis and assessment techniques, as well as a basis for the documentation of the assessment results. The EU-funded CORAS project developed a tool-supported methodology for the application of MBRA in security-critical systems. The methodology has been tested with successful outcome through a series of seven trial within the telemedicine and ecommerce areas. The CORAS project in general and the CORAS application of MBRA in particular have contributed positively to the visibility of model-based risk assessment and thus to the disclosure of several potentials for further exploitation of various aspects within this important research field. In that connection, the CORAS methodology's possibilities for further improvement towards utilization in more complex architectures and also in other application domains such as the nuclear field can be addressed. The latter calls for adapting the framework to address nuclear standards such as IEC 60880 and IEC 61513. For this development we recommend applying a trial driven approach within the nuclear field. The tool supported approach for combining risk analysis and system development also fits well with the HRP proposal for developing an Integrated Design Environment (IDE) providing efficient methods and tools to support control room systems design. (Author)
Tang, Xiaowei; Shao, Faxian
Group preparation for teaching contest, or lesson polishing, is a teacher professional development activity unique to China. Through participant observation and discourse analysis of a typical case, this study explores how a science lesson evolved through lesson-polishing process and how such process influenced individual learning and the development of local teaching community. Our work illustrates both the values and the issues of lesson polishing as a type of teacher professional development activity. On one hand, combining professional interactions and trial lessons, lesson-polishing activity opens up space for critical yet cooperative professional interactions and tryouts of different designs and teaching strategies, providing opportunities for individual learning and development of practical rationalities within local community. On the other hand, the functions of such activities are greatly limited by the tendency of refining every detail in lesson design, the existence of overriding dispositions and authorities with overriding power, as well as the focus on practical suggestions that can be directly implemented. Suggestions for improvement are made in the final discussion.
Hoa, H.; Lам, P.
Teachers’ pedagogical activities are constituted by many skills such as teaching skills, education skills, and skills of performing varied pedagogical ac- tivities. Each skill is formed from a variety of specifi c skills. Approaching teachers’ teaching skills based on pedagogical operation base can help us establish methods and develop skills for teachers. By doing so, we can assist teachers to enhance their teaching competence contributing to teaching quality improvement in schools
Objectives of this articles are to present the findings of video recorded communication between teacher candidates and peers during simulated micro-teaching. The micro-teaching activity in its entirety combines conventional face-to-face interaction, video micro-teaching, peer and instructor feedback, alongside self-reflection to undergird the…
interviewed by Roberto Polanco
Full Text Available As an introduction:To ask for someone’s experience turns out to be always a reasonable option, not for coping or merely imitate, but rather to compare, to look for similarities, differences, references or profitable suggestions for the development of an own critical thought. To entrust only the own experience; can result in a baneful imprisonment, a harmful exercise of simple auto reference. To get to know how others have approached similar issues to those that we ask ourselves can become a valuable and even essential learning experience to look at our problems from a new angle, stimulating new questions and challenges, concretely in the field of the university activity. Such it is the aim of this space that assembles the thought of 3 important references in the field of the science and of the psychobiology. We can only be grateful for the generosity of these presented authors, not only for their time, but for the concrete testimony of collaboration with this space, especially to Mario Bunge whose suggestions gave form to this interview.
Clovis Delor Mbeudeu
Full Text Available The teaching of English as a Foreign Language (EFL in the world in general and in Cameroon in particular has witnessed, over the last three decades, heated debates on which methodologies to adopt in the classroom and which learning strategies to apply for effective teaching and learning so that learners do not only acquire a linguistic competence but also communicative and sociolinguistic competences. This study aims at bringing to the limelight the so-criticised Grammar Translation Method in teaching/learning EFL in Cameroon. More specifically, this work investigates the perception of Anglophone and Francophone teachers of EFL on how the introduction of translation-based activities could be a step towards achieving accuracy in learners’ written productions. For data collection, a sample of certified secondary and high school EFL teachers were interviewed on the introduction of translation-based activities in their classroom practices. These teachers are unanimous that translation strategies must be adopted in the classroom for many reasons. This could foster students’ accuracy in writing; thus helping the achievement of another skill in learners namely, translation. But they all agree that the use of translation should be highly monitored by the classroom teacher; it should be mostly used at beginners’ level and gradually discarded as the learners progress to the end of the secondary school. From this, it is high time specialists in language planning and teaching policies rethought how the teaching of English should be done in Cameroon and this will go a long way to improve on educational success and effective official bilingualism.
Full Text Available For the authors of this paper, the teaching aids were and will always be a priority in their teaching activity. The contents of this paper is the result of a long strained period of efforts made to improve the teaching process, a period in which the teaching aids were permanently improved – as a result of attentively monitoring the students’ results. We can say that motivated students, who wanted to become mechanical engineers, used these teaching aids successfully in their learning activity.
Silva, Bárbara Gabriela; Chammas, Tiago Visacre; Zenari, Marcia Simões; Moreira, Renata Rodrigues; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Nemr, Kátia
To measure the risk of dysphonia in teachers, as well as investigate whether the perceptual-auditory and acoustic aspects of the voice of teachers in situations of silence and noise, the signal-to-noise ratio, and the noise levels in the classroom are associated with the presence of dysphonia. This is an observational cross-sectional research with 23 primary and secondary school teachers from a private school in the municipality of São Paulo, Brazil, divided into the groups without dysphonia and with dysphonia. We performed the following procedures: general Dysphonia Risk Screening Protocol (General-DRSP) and complementary to speaking voice - teacher (Specific-DRSP), voice recording during class and in an individual situation in a silent room, and measurement of the signal-to-noise ratio and noise levels of classrooms. We have found differences between groups regarding physical activity (General-DRSP) and particularities of the profession (Specific-DRSP), as well as in all aspects of the perceptual-auditory vocal analysis. We have found signs of voice wear in the group without dysphonia. Regarding the vocal resources in the situations of noise and silence, we have identified a difference for the production of abrupt vocal attack and the tendency of a more precise speech in the situation of noise. Both the signal-to-noise ratio and the room noise levels during class were high in both groups. Teachers in both groups are at high risk for developing dysphonia and have negative vocal signals to a greater or lesser extent. Signal-to-noise ratio was inadequate in most classrooms, considering the standards for both children with normal hearing and with hearing loss, as well as equivalent noise levels.
Bárbara Gabriela Silva
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To measure the risk of dysphonia in teachers, as well as investigate whether the perceptual-auditory and acoustic aspects of the voice of teachers in situations of silence and noise, the signal-to-noise ratio, and the noise levels in the classroom are associated with the presence of dysphonia. METHODS This is an observational cross-sectional research with 23 primary and secondary school teachers from a private school in the municipality of São Paulo, Brazil, divided into the groups without dysphonia and with dysphonia. We performed the following procedures: general Dysphonia Risk Screening Protocol (General-DRSP and complementary to speaking voice - teacher (Specific-DRSP, voice recording during class and in an individual situation in a silent room, and measurement of the signal-to-noise ratio and noise levels of classrooms. RESULTS We have found differences between groups regarding physical activity (General-DRSP and particularities of the profession (Specific-DRSP, as well as in all aspects of the perceptual-auditory vocal analysis. We have found signs of voice wear in the group without dysphonia. Regarding the vocal resources in the situations of noise and silence, we have identified a difference for the production of abrupt vocal attack and the tendency of a more precise speech in the situation of noise. Both the signal-to-noise ratio and the room noise levels during class were high in both groups. CONCLUSIONS Teachers in both groups are at high risk for developing dysphonia and have negative vocal signals to a greater or lesser extent. Signal-to-noise ratio was inadequate in most classrooms, considering the standards for both children with normal hearing and with hearing loss, as well as equivalent noise levels.
Chen, Alvin; Sabharwal, Sanjeeve; Akhtar, Kashif; Makaram, Navnit; Gupte, Chinmay M
The aim of this study was to conduct a time-driven activity based costing (TDABC) analysis of the clinical pathway for total knee replacement (TKR) and to determine where the major cost drivers lay. The in-patient pathway was prospectively mapped utilising a TDABC model, following 20 TKRs. The mean age for these patients was 73.4 years. All patients were ASA grade I or II and their mean BMI was 30.4. The 14 varus knees had a mean deformity of 5.32° and the six valgus knee had a mean deformity of 10.83°. Timings were prospectively collected as each patient was followed through the TKR pathway. Pre-operative costs including pre-assessment and joint school were £ 163. Total staff costs for admission and the operating theatre were £ 658. Consumables cost for the operating theatre were £ 1862. The average length of stay was 5.25 days at a total cost of £ 910. Trust overheads contributed £ 1651. The overall institutional cost of a 'noncomplex' TKR in patients without substantial medical co-morbidities was estimated to be £ 5422, representing a profit of £ 1065 based on a best practice tariff of £ 6487. The major cost drivers in the TKR pathway were determined to be theatre consumables, corporate overheads, overall ward cost and operating theatre staffing costs. Appropriate discounting of implant costs, reduction in length of stay by adopting an enhanced recovery programme and control of corporate overheads through the use of elective orthopaedic treatment centres are proposed approaches for reducing the overall cost of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gámez Montero, Pedro Javier; Raush Alviach, Gustavo Adolfo; Domènech Rubio, Luis Miguel; Castilla López, Roberto; García Vilchez, Mercedes; Moreno Llagostera, Hipòlit; Carbo Bech, Alberto Antonio
“Mechanics” and “Fluids” are familiar concepts for any newly-registered engineering student. However, when combined into the term “Fluid Mechanics”, students are thrust into the great unknown. The present article demonstrates the process of adaptation employed by the Fluid Mechanics course in the undergraduate engineering program, along with the teaching methodology, teaching materials and results obtained, evaluating the final objective in terms of student satsfaction and level of learning....
Full Text Available There is an on-going debate in cognitive (neuro science and philosophy between classical cognitive theory and embodied, embedded, extended, and enactive (“4-Es” views of cognition—a family of theories that emphasize the role of the body in cognition and the importance of brain-body-environment interaction over and above internal representation. This debate touches foundational issues, such as whether the brain internally represents the external environment, and “infers” or “computes” something. Here we focus on two (4-Es-based criticisms to traditional cognitive theories—to the notions of passive perception and of serial information processing—and discuss alternative ways to address them, by appealing to frameworks that use, or do not use, notions of internal modelling and inference. Our analysis illustrates that: an explicitly inferential framework can capture some key aspects of embodied and enactive theories of cognition; some claims of computational and dynamical theories can be reconciled rather than seen as alternative explanations of cognitive phenomena; and some aspects of cognitive processing (e.g., detached cognitive operations, such as planning and imagination that are sometimes puzzling to explain from enactive and non-representational perspectives can, instead, be captured nicely from the perspective that internal generative models and predictive processing mediate adaptive control loops.
Sari, Nenden Mutiara
This study aimed to know the effectiveness of Snow Cube Throwing (SCT) and Cooperative Model in Exploration-Based Math Learning in terms of the time required to complete the teaching materials and student engagement. This study was quasi-experimental research was conducted at SMPN 5 Cimahi, Indonesia. All student in grade VIII SMPN 5 Cimahi which consists of 382 students is used as population. The sample consists of two classes which had been chosen randomly with purposive sampling. First experiment class consists of 38 students and the second experiment class consists of 38 students. Observation sheet was used to observe the time required to complete the teaching materials and record the number of students involved in each meeting. The data obtained was analyzed by independent sample-t test and used the chart. The results of this study: SCT learning model based on exploration are more effective than cooperative learning models based on exploration in terms of the time required to complete teaching materials based on exploration and student engagement.
Petrosky, Lyman J.; Oppenheim, Irving J.
A robot that can duplicate humam motion capabilities in such activities as balancing, reaching, lifting, and moving has been built and tested. These capabilities are achieved through the use of real time Model-Based Control (MBC) techniques which have recently been demonstrated. MBC accounts for all manipulator inertial forces and provides stable manipulator motion control even at high speeds. To effectively demonstrate the unique capabilities of MBC, an experimental robotic manipulator was constructed, which stands upright, balancing on a two wheel base. The mathematical modeling of dynamics inherent in MBC permit the control system to perform functions that are impossible with conventional non-model based methods. These capabilities include: (1) Stable control at all speeds of operation; (2) Operations requiring dynamic stability such as balancing; (3) Detection and monitoring of applied forces without the use of load sensors; (4) Manipulator safing via detection of abnormal loads. The full potential of MBC has yet to be realized. The experiments performed for this research are only an indication of the potential applications. MBC has no inherent stability limitations and its range of applicability is limited only by the attainable sampling rate, modeling accuracy, and sensor resolution. Manipulators could be designed to operate at the highest speed mechanically attainable without being limited by control inadequacies. Manipulators capable of operating many times faster than current machines would certainly increase productivity for many tasks.
Liu, Dong; Zhang, Lei; Shi, Tu; Yang, Yongying; Chong, Shiyao; Miao, Liang; Huang, Wei; Shen, Yibing; Bai, Jian
A model-based phase-shifting interferometer (MPI) is developed, in which a novel calculation technique is proposed instead of the traditional complicated system structure, to achieve versatile, high precision and quantitative surface tests. In the MPI, the partial null lens (PNL) is employed to implement the non-null test. With some alternative PNLs, similar as the transmission spheres in ZYGO interferometers, the MPI provides a flexible test for general spherical and aspherical surfaces. Based on modern computer modeling technique, a reverse iterative optimizing construction (ROR) method is employed for the retrace error correction of non-null test, as well as figure error reconstruction. A self-compiled ray-tracing program is set up for the accurate system modeling and reverse ray tracing. The surface figure error then can be easily extracted from the wavefront data in forms of Zernike polynomials by the ROR method. Experiments of the spherical and aspherical tests are presented to validate the flexibility and accuracy. The test results are compared with those of Zygo interferometer (null tests), which demonstrates the high accuracy of the MPI. With such accuracy and flexibility, the MPI would possess large potential in modern optical shop testing.
Full Text Available Software configuration management is one of the most important disciplines within the software development project, which helps control the software evolution process and allows including into the end project only tested and validated changes. To achieve this, software management completes certain tasks. Concrete tools are used for technical implementation of tasks, such as version control systems, servers of continuous integration, compilers, etc. A correct configuration management process usually requires several tools, which mutually exchange information by generating various kinds of transfers. When it comes to introducing the configuration management process, often there are situations when tool installation is started, yet at that given moment there is no general picture of the total process. The article offers a model-based configuration management concept, which foresees the development of an abstract model for the configuration management process that later is transformed to lower abstraction level models and tools are indicated to support the technical process. A solution of this kind allows a more rational introduction and configuration of tools
Fault detection, diagnosis, and prognosis are essential tasks in the operation of autonomous spacecraft, instruments, and in situ platforms. One of NASA s key mission requirements is robust state estimation. Sensing, using a wide range of sensors and sensor fusion approaches, plays a central role in robust state estimation, and there is a need to diagnose sensor failure as well as component failure. Sensor validation can be considered to be part of the larger effort of improving reliability and safety. The standard methods for solving the sensor validation problem are based on probabilistic analysis of the system, from which the method based on Bayesian networks is most popular. Therefore, these methods can only predict the most probable faulty sensors, which are subject to the initial probabilities defined for the failures. The method developed in this work is based on a model-based approach and provides the faulty sensors (if any), which can be logically inferred from the model of the system and the sensor readings (observations). The method is also more suitable for the systems when it is hard, or even impossible, to find the probability functions of the system. The method starts by a new mathematical description of the problem and develops a very efficient and systematic algorithm for its solution. The method builds on the concepts of analytical redundant relations (ARRs).
Levitt, Tod S.; Hedgcock, Marcus W.
As a step toward computer assisted imagery interpretation, we are developing algorithms for computed radiography that allow a computer to recognize specific bones and joints, and to identify variations from normal in size, shape and density. In this paper we report on our approach to model-based computer recognition of hands in radiographs. First, image processing hypotheses of the imaged bones. Multiple hypotheses of the size and orientation of the imaged anatomy are matched against stored 3D models fof the relevant bones, obtained from statistically valid populations studies. Probabilities of the hypotheses are accrued using Bayesian inference techniques whose evaluation is guided by the structure of the hand model and the observed image-derived evidence such as anti-parallel edges, local contrast, etc. High probability matches between the hand model and the image data can cue additional image processing-based ssearch for bones, joints and soft-tissue to confirm hypotheses of the location of the imaged hand. At this point multipule disease detection techniques, automated bone age identification, etc. can be employed.
Jaffar, Maheran Mohd; Zain, Shaharir Mohamad; Jemain, Abdul Aziz
Most of the mudharabah and musyarakah contract funds are involved in debt financing. This does not support the theory that profit sharing contract is better than that of debt financing due to the sharing of risks and ownership of equity. Indeed, it is believed that Islamic banking is a financial model based on equity or musyarakah which emphasis on the sharing of risks, profit and loss in the investment between the investor and entrepreneur. The focus of this paper is to introduce the mathematical model that internalizes diminishing musyarakah, the sharing of profit and equity between entrepreneur and investor. The entrepreneur pays monthly-differed payment to buy out the equity that belongs to the investor (bank) where at the end of the specified period, the entrepreneur owns the business and the investor (bank) exits the joint venture. The model is able to calculate the amount of equity at any time for both parties and hence would be a guide in helping to estimate the value of investment should the entrepreneur or investor exit before the end of the specified period. The model is closer to the Islamic principles for justice and fairness.
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to improve students’ learning by designing a teaching model that seeks to increase student motivation to acquire new knowledge. To design the model, the methodology is based on the study of the students’ opinion on several aspects we think importantly affect the quality of teaching (such as the overcrowded classrooms, time intended for the subject or type of classroom where classes are taught, and on our experience when performing several experimental activities in the classroom (for instance, peer reviews and oral presentations. Besides the feedback from the students, it is essential to rely on the experience and reflections of lecturers who have been teaching the subject several years. This way we could detect several key aspects that, in our opinion, must be considered when designing a teaching proposal: motivation, assessment, progressiveness and autonomy. As a result we have obtained a teaching model based on instructional design as well as on the principles of fractal geometry, in the sense that different levels of abstraction for the various training activities are presented and the activities are self-similar, that is, they are decomposed again and again. At each level, an activity decomposes into a lower level tasks and their corresponding evaluation. With this model the immediate feedback and the student motivation are encouraged. We are convinced that a greater motivation will suppose an increase in the student’s working time and in their performance. Although the study has been done on a subject, the results are fully generalizable to other subjects.
Sloth Larsen, L.F.
The subject for this Ph.D. thesis is model based control of refrigeration systems. Model based control covers a variety of different types of controls, that incorporates mathematical models. In this thesis the main subject therefore has been restricted to deal with system optimizing control. The optimizing control is divided into two layers, where the system oriented top layers deals with set-point optimizing control and the lower layer deals with dynamical optimizing control in the subsystems. The thesis has two main contributions, i.e. a novel approach for set-point optimization and a novel approach for desynchronization based on dynamical optimization. The focus in the development of the proposed set-point optimizing control has been on deriving a simple and general method, that with ease can be applied on various compositions of the same class of systems, such as refrigeration systems. The method is based on a set of parameter depended static equations describing the considered process. By adapting the parameters to the given process, predict the steady state and computing a steady state gradient of the cost function, the process can be driven continuously towards zero gradient, i.e. the optimum (if the cost function is convex). The method furthermore deals with system constrains by introducing barrier functions, hereby the best possible performance taking the given constrains in to account can be obtained, e.g. under extreme operational conditions. The proposed method has been applied on a test refrigeration system, placed at Aalborg University, for minimization of the energy consumption. Here it was proved that by using general static parameter depended system equations it was possible drive the set-points close to the optimum and thus reduce the power consumption with up to 20%. In the dynamical optimizing layer the idea is to optimize the operation of the subsystem or the groupings of subsystems, that limits the obtainable system performance. In systems
Sidawi, Mai M.
This study described how students can apply science concepts to a Design and Technology task. It also examined whether the students could transfer their scientific knowledge to their design of technology. The study was conducted at an urban school in Philadelphia where a sample of 36 eighth grade students were taught a science unit, Energy, Machines, and Motion, and engaged in a technology design task that was chosen based on the scientific content of the unit. Two approaches of relating teaching science to technological design were observed and described. Through the first approach, the students were given technology lessons in addition to their science lessons. This was to provide them with the technological knowledge that they needed in designing technology such as learning about the design process, selection of appropriate materials, and selection of appropriate tools and how to use them. Also, the students were taught the social skills that will enable them to develop an effective collaborative relationship with their peers such as conflict-management and brainstorming. Through the second approach, the students were taught the science unit and then at the end of the unit the students were given the design task as an assessment of their scientific knowledge. The students' experience of designing technology for each approach was described. The study was conducted using multiple tools and instruments such as observation, videotaping, interviews, and testing. The students were also given the survey PATT-USA to measure their attitude toward technology. The study showed that the students' learning of science was impacted by their weak prerequisite knowledge in science, their poor verbal and written communication skills and their style as dependent learners. Also, the study showed the great impact of the school and classroom cultures on the participation of the students in a Design and Technology activity. The students in this study showed great resistant to
Kurien, James A.; Nayak, P. Pandurang; Williams, Brian C.; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)
Space missions have historically relied upon a large ground staff, numbering in the hundreds for complex missions, to maintain routine operations. When an anomaly occurs, this small army of engineers attempts to identify and work around the problem. A piloted Mars mission, with its multiyear duration, cost pressures, half-hour communication delays and two-week blackouts cannot be closely controlled by a battalion of engineers on Earth. Flight crew involvement in routine system operations must also be minimized to maximize science return. It also may be unrealistic to require the crew have the expertise in each mission subsystem needed to diagnose a system failure and effect a timely repair, as engineers did for Apollo 13. Enter model-based autonomy, which allows complex systems to autonomously maintain operation despite failures or anomalous conditions, contributing to safe, robust, and minimally supervised operation of spacecraft, life support, In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) and power systems. Autonomous reasoning is central to the approach. A reasoning algorithm uses a logical or mathematical model of a system to infer how to operate the system, diagnose failures and generate appropriate behavior to repair or reconfigure the system in response. The 'plug and play' nature of the models enables low cost development of autonomy for multiple platforms. Declarative, reusable models capture relevant aspects of the behavior of simple devices (e.g. valves or thrusters). Reasoning algorithms combine device models to create a model of the system-wide interactions and behavior of a complex, unique artifact such as a spacecraft. Rather than requiring engineers to all possible interactions and failures at design time or perform analysis during the mission, the reasoning engine generates the appropriate response to the current situation, taking into account its system-wide knowledge, the current state, and even sensor failures or unexpected behavior.
María Jesús Marrón Gaite
Full Text Available The main objective of the present paper is to introduce a didactic play designed in order to help the students of early years of primary education the understanding of the concept of scale. The understanding of this concept prepare them to the correct interpretation, in further years, of this conventionalism in plans and maps. Empirical research we have conducted on the effectiveness of this material, testing in schools in the city of Madrid, has shown a high degree of usefulness for teaching and learning the subject. The use of this material in the classroom has been done from active teaching, giving a central role to the ludic methodology, and has allowed the achievement of meaningful learning by the students from their previous ideas and conceptual representations.
Full Text Available A modeling based on the improved Elman neural network (IENN is proposed to analyze the nonlinear circuits with the memory effect. The hidden layer neurons are activated by a group of Chebyshev orthogonal basis functions instead of sigmoid functions in this model. The error curves of the sum of squared error (SSE varying with the number of hidden neurons and the iteration step are studied to determine the number of the hidden layer neurons. Simulation results of the half-bridge class-D power amplifier (CDPA with two-tone signal and broadband signals as input have shown that the proposed behavioral modeling can reconstruct the system of CDPAs accurately and depict the memory effect of CDPAs well. Compared with Volterra-Laguerre (VL model, Chebyshev neural network (CNN model, and basic Elman neural network (BENN model, the proposed model has better performance.
Jie, Shao; Li, Wang; WeiSong, Zhao; YaQin, Zhong; Malekian, Reza
A modeling based on the improved Elman neural network (IENN) is proposed to analyze the nonlinear circuits with the memory effect. The hidden layer neurons are activated by a group of Chebyshev orthogonal basis functions instead of sigmoid functions in this model. The error curves of the sum of squared error (SSE) varying with the number of hidden neurons and the iteration step are studied to determine the number of the hidden layer neurons. Simulation results of the half-bridge class-D power amplifier (CDPA) with two-tone signal and broadband signals as input have shown that the proposed behavioral modeling can reconstruct the system of CDPAs accurately and depict the memory effect of CDPAs well. Compared with Volterra-Laguerre (VL) model, Chebyshev neural network (CNN) model, and basic Elman neural network (BENN) model, the proposed model has better performance.
Ekaterina Nemtchinova's book "Teaching Listening" explores different approaches to teaching listening in second language classrooms. Presenting up-to-date research and theoretical issues associated with second language listening, Nemtchinova explains how these new findings inform everyday teaching and offers practical suggestions…
Overman, Michelle; Vermunt, Jan D.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Bulte, Astrid M W; Brekelmans, Mieke
Context-based curriculum reforms in chemistry education are thought to bring greater diversity to the ways in which chemistry teachers organize their teaching. First and foremost, students are expected to perceive this diversity. However, empirical research on how students perceive their teacher's
Crimmins, Michael T.; Midkiff, Brooke
Organic Chemistry is a required course for programs in chemistry, biology, and many health science careers. It has historically been considered a highly challenging course with significant failure rates. As with many science disciplines, the teaching of Organic Chemistry has traditionally focused on unstructured exposition-centered delivery of…
Walsh, David S.; Veri, Maria J.; Willard, Jason J.
The purpose of this article is to present university student mentors' perspectives on the impact of a teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) model youth program called the Kinesiology Career Club. Data sources in this qualitative case study included program observations, mentoring reflections, and semistructured interviews. Data…
This study aims to represent the developing status of pronunciation teaching and presents the current perspectives on pronunciation learning and teaching, coupled with innovative approaches and techniques/activities. It is argued that pronunciation teaching methodologies have changed over decades since the Reform Movement. The exact status of teaching pronunciation appeared first in the Audio Lingual Methods and continued in the Communicative Language Teaching methods; however, the ways of te...
Full Text Available Abstract: This paper proposes the implementation of reading-based classroom activitiesÂ for teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesia. Compared to other language skills, reading is viewed to provide a relatively stable foundation for Indonesian students to develop their communicative competenceÂ in English. It is argued that reading-focused activities stimulate confidence for Indonesian learners to get involved in listening, speaking, and writing related-activities in ways that are similar to normal daily lifeÂ communication. The reasons for the proposed implementation of reading-based classroom activitiesÂ in TEFLINÂ and the role of reading and its relation with other language skills are presented.
Piper, Susan; Shaw, Edward Lewis, Jr.
Although the teaching of photosynthesis occurs yearly in elementary classrooms, one thing that makes it challenging is the inclusion of English language learners (ELLs). This article presents several activities for teaching and assessing of photosynthesis in a third grade classroom. The activities incorporate the photosynthesis content, teaching…
Dang, Kien; Waddell, Andrea E.; Lofchy, Jodi
Objective: The training objectives for postgraduate education in the United States and Canada both state that teaching skills should be formally developed during training. This article reviews the development of the Teaching-to-Teach program at the University of Toronto Department of Psychiatry, the current curriculum, evaluation, and future…
Hawkins, G E; Mittner, M; Boekel, W; Heathcote, A; Forstmann, B U
People often "mind wander" during everyday tasks, temporarily losing track of time, place, or current task goals. In laboratory-based tasks, mind wandering is often associated with performance decrements in behavioral variables and changes in neural recordings. Such empirical associations provide descriptive accounts of mind wandering - how it affects ongoing task performance - but fail to provide true explanatory accounts - why it affects task performance. In this perspectives paper, we consider mind wandering as a neural state or process that affects the parameters of quantitative cognitive process models, which in turn affect observed behavioral performance. Our approach thus uses cognitive process models to bridge the explanatory divide between neural and behavioral data. We provide an overview of two general frameworks for developing a model-based cognitive neuroscience of mind wandering. The first approach uses neural data to segment observed performance into a discrete mixture of latent task-related and task-unrelated states, and the second regresses single-trial measures of neural activity onto structured trial-by-trial variation in the parameters of cognitive process models. We discuss the relative merits of the two approaches, and the research questions they can answer, and highlight that both approaches allow neural data to provide additional constraint on the parameters of cognitive models, which will lead to a more precise account of the effect of mind wandering on brain and behavior. We conclude by summarizing prospects for mind wandering as conceived within a model-based cognitive neuroscience framework, highlighting the opportunities for its continued study and the benefits that arise from using well-developed quantitative techniques to study abstract theoretical constructs. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available An anomaly in legislation is absence of completeness, consistency and other desirable properties, caused by different semantic, syntactic or pragmatic reasons. In general, the detection of anomalies in legislation comprises validation and verification. The basic idea of research, as presented in this paper, is modelling legislation by capturing domain knowledge of legislation and specifying it in a generic way by using commonly agreed and understandable modelling concepts of the Unified Modelling Language (UML. Models of legislation enable to understand the system better, support the detection of anomalies and help to improve the quality of legislation by validation and verification. By implementing model-based approach, the object of validation and verification moves from legislation to its model. The business domain of legislation has two distinct aspects: a structural or static aspect (functionality, business data etc., and a behavioural or dynamic part (states, transitions, activities, sequences etc.. Because anomalism can occur on two different levels, on the level of a model, or on the level of legislation itself, a framework for validation and verification of legal regulation and its model is discussed. The presented framework includes some significant types of semantic and syntactic anomalies. Some ideas for assessment of pragmatic anomalies of models were found in the field of software quality metrics. Thus pragmatic features and attributes can be determined that could be relevant for evaluation purposes of models. Based on analogue standards for the evaluation of software, a qualitative and quantitative scale can be applied to determine the value of some feature for a specific model.
De Witte, Kristof; Van Klaveren, Chris
This paper examines which configuration of teaching activities maximizes student performance. For this purpose a nonparametric efficiency model is formulated that accounts for (1) self-selection of students and teachers in better schools and (2) complementary teaching activities. The analysis distinguishes both individual teaching (i.e., a…
Zettervall, Brenda T.
The activities of a field test site for the Software Engineering Institute's software process definition project are discussed. Products tested included the improvement model itself, descriptive modeling techniques, the CMM level 2 framework document, and the use of process definition guidelines and templates. The software process improvement model represents a five stage cyclic approach for organizational process improvement. The cycles consist of the initiating, diagnosing, establishing, acting, and leveraging phases.
Many challenges face English language teachers today, but two common problems in Ecuador specifically in universities are large class sizes and multi-level students. These problems can create boredom, anxiety, and over all lack of interest in English language learning. It is shown in this article how to combat these particular problems through various strategies utilized to teach to the students’ needs, help them work together and intrinsically motivate them to learn different English languag...
Gordon, Barrie; Doyle, Stephanie
The transfer of learning from the gym to other areas of participants' lives has always been a core component of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model. The degree to which transfer of learning is successfully facilitated in the reality of Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model-based teaching and coaching is, however,…
Nieves Chávez Mayra Araceli
Full Text Available Resumen:Este artículo ofrece resultados de una investigación sobre la vinculación entre ocio y práctica docente en maestros y maestras de educación primaria de la ciudad de Santiago de Querétaro, México. Se apoya en teorías sociológicas y educativas: Heller, Bourdieu, Freire, Gramsci; así como autores del ocio: Sue y Cuenca. Describe datos obtenidos de un estudio de caso sobre las vivencias de ocio, desde una narrativa fenomenológica, obtenidos de entrevistas. La etnografía en el aula se empleó para describir la práctica docente e identificar las estructuras de ésta. La hermenéutica auxilió en la interpretación de estos datos y en la construcción de los siguientes tipos ideales de ocio-práctica docente: un ocio aburrido se asocia a una maestra autoritaria, o, a un maestro que renuncia a educar; un ocio creativo a maestras y maestros emancipadores; un ocio híbrido a maestros y maestras en ciernes, que aún no definen un tipo de práctica docente. Se concluye que el ocio sí está presente en la práctica docente, que no hay fronteras per se entre lo público y privado. El maestro y maestra es más que un profesionista cuando está frente a grupo, es una persona que pone en juego lo que es y tiene. El ocio imprime una característica singular a la práctica docente como apropiación de conocimientos y cultura.Abstract: This article contains the results of a research study on the tie between leisure time activities and teaching methods among elementary school teachers in the City of Santiago de Querétaro, México. It is based on sociological and educational theories: Heller, Bourdieu, Freire, Gramsci, as well as authors who wrote about leisure time: Sue and Cuenca. It describes data obtained from a case study on leisure time activities, from a phenomenological narrative, obtained in interviews. Ethnography in the classroom was used to describe teaching methods and identify their structures. Hermeneutics aided in the
Michelsen, Axel Gottlieb; Stoustrup, Jakob; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh
This paper introduces model-based Plug and Play Process Control, a novel concept for process control, which allows a model-based control system to be reconfigured when a sensor or an actuator is plugged into a controlled process. The work reported in this paper focuses on composing a monolithic m...
ARL-TR-8042 ● JUNE 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Assessment of Energy -Efficient and Model- Based Control by Craig Lennon...originator. ARL-TR-8042 ● JUNE 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Assessment of Energy -Efficient and Model- Based Control by Craig...
Seel, Norbert M.
This article provides a review of theoretical approaches to model-based learning and related research. In accordance with the definition of model-based learning as an acquisition and utilization of mental models by learners, the first section centers on mental model theory. In accordance with epistemology of modeling the issues of semantics,…
Biju, Soly Mathew
Model-based testing is one of the best solutions for testing object-oriented software. It has a better test coverage than other testing styles. Model-based testing takes into consideration behavioural aspects of a class, which are usually unchecked in other testing methods. An increase in the complexity of software has forced the software industry…
Jungwirth, Patrick; Badawy, Abdel-Hameed
We present an introduction to model based design. Model based design is a visual representation, generally a block diagram, to model and incrementally develop a complex system. Model based design is a commonly used design methodology for digital signal processing, control systems, and embedded systems. Model based design's philosophy is: to solve a problem - a step at a time. The approach can be compared to a series of steps to converge to a solution. A block diagram simulation tool allows a design to be simulated with real world measurement data. For example, if an analog control system is being upgraded to a digital control system, the analog sensor input signals can be recorded. The digital control algorithm can be simulated with the real world sensor data. The output from the simulated digital control system can then be compared to the old analog based control system. Model based design can compared to Agile software develop. The Agile software development goal is to develop working software in incremental steps. Progress is measured in completed and tested code units. Progress is measured in model based design by completed and tested blocks. We present a concept for a video game controller and then use model based design to iterate the design towards a working system. We will also describe a model based design effort to develop an OS Friendly Microprocessor Architecture based on the RISC-V.
Irschik, Hans; Krommer, Michael
Mechanics and Model-Based Control of Advanced Engineering Systems collects 32 contributions presented at the International Workshop on Advanced Dynamics and Model Based Control of Structures and Machines, which took place in St. Petersburg, Russia in July 2012. The workshop continued a series of international workshops, which started with a Japan-Austria Joint Workshop on Mechanics and Model Based Control of Smart Materials and Structures and a Russia-Austria Joint Workshop on Advanced Dynamics and Model Based Control of Structures and Machines. In the present volume, 10 full-length papers based on presentations from Russia, 9 from Austria, 8 from Japan, 3 from Italy, one from Germany and one from Taiwan are included, which represent the state of the art in the field of mechanics and model based control, with particular emphasis on the application of advanced structures and machines.
Nur Ihsan Halil
Full Text Available This article is inspired by Howard Gardner's concept of linguistic intelligence and also from some authors' previous writings. All of them became the authors' reference in developing ideas on constructing a literary learning model based on linguistic intelligence. The writing of this article is not done by collecting data empirically, but by developing and constructing an existing concept, namely the concept of linguistic intelligence, which is disseminated into a literature-based learning of verbal-linguistic intelligence. The purpose of this paper is to answer the question of how to apply the literary learning model based on the verbal-linguistic intelligence. Then, regarding Gardner's concept, the author formulated a literary learning model based on the verbal-linguistic intelligence through a story-telling learning model with five steps namely arguing, discussing, interpreting, speaking, and writing about literary works. In short, the writer draw a conclusion that learning-based models of verbal-linguistic intelligence can be designed with attention into five components namely (1 definition, (2 characteristics, (3 teaching strategy, (4 final learning outcomes, and (5 figures.
Cornford, Steven L.; Feather, Martin S.
This report explores the current state of the art of Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) in projects that have shifted towards Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE). Its goal is to provide insight into how NASA's Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) should respond to this shift. In MBSE, systems engineering information is organized and represented in models: rigorous computer-based representations, which collectively make many activities easier to perform, less error prone, and scalable. S&MA practices must shift accordingly. The "Objective Structure Hierarchies" recently developed by OSMA provide the framework for understanding this shift. Although the objectives themselves will remain constant, S&MA practices (activities, processes, tools) to achieve them are subject to change. This report presents insights derived from literature studies and interviews. The literature studies gleaned assurance implications from reports of space-related applications of MBSE. The interviews with knowledgeable S&MA and MBSE personnel discovered concerns and ideas for how assurance may adapt. Preliminary findings and observations are presented on the state of practice of S&MA with respect to MBSE, how it is already changing, and how it is likely to change further. Finally, recommendations are provided on how to foster the evolution of S&MA to best fit with MBSE.
Arribas Garde, Enrique; Nájera López, Alberto; Beléndez Vázquez, Augusto; Francés Monllor, Jorge; Mora Ley, César Eduardo; Franco, María Teresa; Moratalla Mondéjar, Gonzalo
The proliferation of so-called smart phones (among which we include the iPhone) and tablets (iPad and iPod Touch) is leading to these devices to be focused by teachers and researchers. Their power of calculation and their graphic capabilities make them to be extremely attractive for trying to increase the process of teaching and learning in a highly significant manner. Smart phones and other similar devices provide new ways of learning that we believe it is necessary to explore. They are also...
Harlow, Danielle B.; Bianchini, Julie A.; Swanson, Lauren H.; Dwyer, Hilary A.
We used a "knowledge in pieces" perspective on teacher learning to document undergraduates' pedagogical resources in a model-based physics course for potential teachers. We defined pedagogical resources as small, discrete ideas about teaching science that are applied appropriately or inappropriately in specific contexts. Neither…
Professional Development as a Catalyst for Change in the Community College Science Classroom: How Active Learning Pedagogy Impacts Teaching Practices as Well as Faculty and Student Perceptions of Learning
Harmon, Melissa Cameron
Active learning, an engaging, student-centered, evidence-based pedagogy, has been shown to improve student satisfaction, engagement, and achievement in college classrooms. There have been numerous calls to reform teaching practices, especially in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM); however, the utilization of active learning is…
Full Text Available Model-based and model-free reinforcement learning (RL have been suggested as algorithmic realizations of goal-directed and habitual action strategies. Model-based RL is more flexible than model-free but requires sophisticated calculations using a learnt model of the world. This has led model-based RL to be identified with slow, deliberative processing, and model-free RL with fast, automatic processing. In support of this distinction, it has recently been shown that model-based reasoning is impaired by placing subjects under cognitive load--a hallmark of non-automaticity. Here, using the same task, we show that cognitive load does not impair model-based reasoning if subjects receive prior training on the task. This finding is replicated across two studies and a variety of analysis methods. Thus, task familiarity permits use of model-based reasoning in parallel with other cognitive demands. The ability to deploy model-based reasoning in an automatic, parallelizable fashion has widespread theoretical implications, particularly for the learning and execution of complex behaviors. It also suggests a range of important failure modes in psychiatric disorders.
Lübbert, Annika; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Dolan, Raymond J.
Model-based and model-free reinforcement learning (RL) have been suggested as algorithmic realizations of goal-directed and habitual action strategies. Model-based RL is more flexible than model-free but requires sophisticated calculations using a learnt model of the world. This has led model-based RL to be identified with slow, deliberative processing, and model-free RL with fast, automatic processing. In support of this distinction, it has recently been shown that model-based reasoning is impaired by placing subjects under cognitive load—a hallmark of non-automaticity. Here, using the same task, we show that cognitive load does not impair model-based reasoning if subjects receive prior training on the task. This finding is replicated across two studies and a variety of analysis methods. Thus, task familiarity permits use of model-based reasoning in parallel with other cognitive demands. The ability to deploy model-based reasoning in an automatic, parallelizable fashion has widespread theoretical implications, particularly for the learning and execution of complex behaviors. It also suggests a range of important failure modes in psychiatric disorders. PMID:26379239
Šekeljić, Goran V.; Stamatović, Milovan V.
The methods used in teaching physical education, as well as in every other very specific teaching area, have their own uniqueness and enormous importance in teaching. In the last fifty years literature showed many different methods systematized by several different criteria. Some were just taken from general didactics, some were tailored to the needs of physical education classes, and a few new ones were discovered. The special value of this work is that the existing methods are supplemented ...
Badiyepeymaie Jahromi, Zohreh; Mosalanejad, Leili
Web Quest is one of the new ways of teaching and learning that is based on research, and includes the principles of learning and cognitive activities, such as collaborative learning, social and cognitive learning, and active learning, and increases motivation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the Web Quest influence on students' learning behaviors. In this quasi-experimental study, which was performed on undergraduates taking a psychiatric course at Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, simple sampling was used to select the cases to be studied; the students entered the study through census and were trained according to Web Quest methodology. The procedure was to present the course as a case study and team work. Each topic included discussing concepts and then patient's treatment and the communicative principles for two weeks. Active participation of the students in response to the scenario and introduced problem was equal to preparing scientific videos about the disease and collecting the latest medical treatment for the disease from the Internet.Three questionnaires, including the self-directed learning Questionnaire, teamwork evaluation Questionnaire (value of team), and Buffard self-regulated Questionnaire, were the data gathering tools. The results showed that the average of self-regulated learning and self-directed learning (SDL) increased after the educational intervention. However, the increase was not significant. On the other hand, problem solving (P=0.001) and the value of teamwork (P=0.002), apart from increasing the average, had significant statistical values. In view of Web Quest's positive impacts on students' learning behaviors, problem solving and teamwork, the effective use of active learning and teaching practices and use of technology in medical education are recommended.
Vocabulary is central to English language teaching. Without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Teachers who find the task of teaching English vocabulary a little daunting are not alone! This book presents important issues from recent vocabulary research and theory so that teachers may approach…
Crawford, William J.
Grammar is a component in all language skills: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Teachers need to know rules of grammar (teacher knowledge) as well as techniques that help students use grammar effectively and effortlessly (teaching knowledge). Using reflective practice to help teachers become comfortable with teaching grammar, this…
Day, Richard R.
"Teaching Reading" uncovers the interactive processes that happen when people learn to read and translates them into a comprehensive easy-to-follow guide on how to teach reading. Richard Day's revelations on the nature of reading, reading strategies, reading fluency, reading comprehension, and reading objectives make fascinating…
Pedersen, Christian Fischer
The present teaching portfolio has been submitted for evaluation in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the teacher training programme for Assistant Professors at Department of Engineering, Aarhus University, Denmark.......The present teaching portfolio has been submitted for evaluation in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the teacher training programme for Assistant Professors at Department of Engineering, Aarhus University, Denmark....
Revier, Robert Lee; Henriksen, Birgit
Very little pedadagoy has been made available to teachers interested in teaching collocations in foreign and/or second language classroom. This paper aims to contribute to and promote efforts in developing L2-based pedagogy for the teaching of phraseology. To this end, it presents pedagogical...
Full Text Available The timely, accurate monitoring of social indicators, such as poverty or inequality, on a finegrained spatial and temporal scale is a crucial tool for understanding social phenomena and policymaking, but poses a great challenge to official statistics. This article argues that an interdisciplinary approach, combining the body of statistical research in small area estimation with the body of research in social data mining based on Big Data, can provide novel means to tackle this problem successfully. Big Data derived from the digital crumbs that humans leave behind in their daily activities are in fact providing ever more accurate proxies of social life. Social data mining from these data, coupled with advanced model-based techniques for fine-grained estimates, have the potential to provide a novel microscope through which to view and understand social complexity. This article suggests three ways to use Big Data together with small area estimation techniques, and shows how Big Data has the potential to mirror aspects of well-being and other socioeconomic phenomena.
Bai, B.; Li, Q.; Asma, E.; Leahy, R.M.; Holdsworth, C.H.; Chatziioannou, A.; Tai, Y.C.
We describe a method for normalization in 3D PET for use with maximum a posteriori (MAP) or other iterative model-based image reconstruction methods. This approach is an extension of previous factored normalization methods in which we include separate factors for detector sensitivity, geometric response, block effects and deadtime. Since our MAP reconstruction approach already models some of the geometric factors in the forward projection, the normalization factors must be modified to account only for effects not already included in the model. We describe a maximum likelihood approach to joint estimation of the count-rate independent normalization factors, which we apply to data from a uniform cylindrical source. We then compute block-wise and block-profile deadtime correction factors using singles and coincidence data, respectively, from a multiframe cylindrical source. We have applied this method for reconstruction of data from the Concorde microPET P4 scanner. Quantitative evaluation of this method using well-counter measurements of activity in a multicompartment phantom compares favourably with normalization based directly on cylindrical source measurements. (author)
Iwata, Curtis; Infeld, Samantha; Bracken, Jennifer Medlin; McGuire, Melissa; McQuirk, Christina; Kisdi, Aron; Murphy, Jonathan; Cole, Bjorn; Zarifian, Pezhman
Concurrent Engineering Centers (CECs) are specialized facilities with a goal of generating and maturing engineering designs by enabling rapid design iterations. This is accomplished by co-locating a team of experts (either physically or virtually) in a room with a narrow design goal and a limited timeline of a week or less. The systems engineer uses a model of the system to capture the relevant interfaces and manage the overall architecture. A single model that integrates other design information and modeling allows the entire team to visualize the concurrent activity and identify conflicts more efficiently, potentially resulting in a systems model that will continue to be used throughout the project lifecycle. Performing systems engineering using such a system model is the definition of model-based systems engineering (MBSE); therefore, CECs evolving their approach to incorporate advances in MBSE are more successful in reducing time and cost needed to meet study goals. This paper surveys space mission CECs that are in the middle of this evolution, and the authors share their experiences in order to promote discussion within the community.
This study investigates the relation of the Foreign Language Teaching with the Semiotic Approach that gains more importance recently and tries to explain how this concept has been used as Semiotic Approach in Foreign Language Teaching and Learning and teacher-learner roles, strong-weak sides, types of activities, etc. have been handled.
Koopman, R.; Hammer, M.H.M.; Hakkert, A.
Entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education is seen by all kind of people to be important for economic growth. Teaching entrepreneurship needs another approach. Active learning and the constructivism is mostly seen as essential. Other elements that are influencing the teaching process are the
Full Text Available This article is an investigation of the Dynamic Systems theory and its application to instruction and the learning process. Curricular suggestions are provided from the authors’ collaborative uses of library instruction within university academic courses. These suggestions address the use of environmental (classroom and task manipulations to provide students with choices within activities related to conducting literature reviews. A Four-Step Teaching Model, based on the “Ecological Task Analysis Model” (Davis and Burton, 1991, is also outlined, to give readers a step-by-step procedure to use when developing classroom curricula and delivery plans.
Albers, Lynn Alwine
Background In order to eliminate the fear-factor associated with learning FluidMechanics, a new instructional method was created. The new method is neatly packaged into hands-on activities (as defined in this dissertation) in order to ease implementation and dissemination into an engineering class. Because of variations in learning and teaching styles of students and lecturers , the hands-on activities are designed to help the lecturer communicate key concepts to a wider spectrum of students. Typically engineering lectures are biased towards intuitive, verbal, reflective and sequential learners whereas few engineering students fall into these categories.  The hands-on activities are meant to bridge the communication gap resulting in a positive educational experience. Purpose In order to assess the impact of the new instructional method, a new engineering education experimental design was created. Engineering Education research is very interdisciplinary in nature and therefore requires cooperation from multiple Colleges including, but not limited to, Engineering, Education, and Science (Statistics). Design/Method Two groups of engineering students were allocated to test the hypothesis, "Does being exposed to hands-on activities (a new instructional method) in a section of MAE 308 - Fluid Mechanics result in higher student achievement?" Comparison of the quiz results between the control group and experimental group assessed the effectiveness of the hands-on activities. The problems within each quiz correlated to a level of Bloom's Taxonomy. A comparison of the results on the problems assessed which level of Bloom's were impacted. NHST was performed to determine statistical significance while the effect size was calculated to determine practical significance. Results The hands-on activities have a positive effect on learning. 3.30% more students per class perform better on each problem on each quiz. The hands-on activity, Rainbow Layer Cake, was a superstar
Lamki, Neela; Marchand, Mark
A revolution in thinking and redefinition of traditional scholarship by prioritising teaching skills and achievements has led to the birth of the Teaching Portfolio, designed to carry a comprehensive and dynamic record of the teaching activities of the faculty. A teaching portfolio documents the faculty’s teaching scholarship and effectiveness. It is a record of selected information on one’s teaching achievements, skills and strategies and dynamically represents the faculty’s growth, progress...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present in this article a case study of the probabilistic approach to model-based diagnosis. Here, the diagnosed system is a real-world electrical power system,...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Within the area of systems health management, the task of prognostics centers on predicting when components will fail. Model-based prognostics exploits domain...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Model-based prognostics approaches rely on physics-based models that describe the behavior of systems and their components. These models must account for the several...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Model-based prognostics approaches employ do- main knowledge about a system, its components, and how they fail through the use of physics-based models. Compo- nent...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Model-based Avionic Prognostic Reasoner (MAPR) presented in this paper is an innovative solution for non-intrusively monitoring the state of health (SoH) and...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Within the area of systems health management, the task of prognostics centers on predicting when components will fail. Model-based prognostics exploits domain...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Model-based prognostics exploits domain knowl- edge of the system, its components, and how they fail by casting the underlying physical phenom- ena in a...
Young, Kenneth J; Siordia, Lawrence
The purpose of this study was to track the graduates of the Los Angeles College of Chiropractic (LACC) radiology residency program, review their scholarly productivity, and report those involved in teaching and leadership positions. Former LACC residents' career information was identified through publicly available electronic documents including Web sites and social media. PubMed and the Index to Chiropractic Literature databases were searched for chiropractic graduate job surveys, and proportional comparisons were made between the career paths of LACC radiology residency graduates and those of non-residency-trained chiropractors. Of 47 former LACC residents, 28 (60%) have or previously had careers in tertiary (chiropractic) education; and 12 (26%) have attained a department chair position or higher at tertiary teaching institutions. Twenty-two (47%) have or previously had private radiology practices, whereas 11 (23%) have or previously had clinical chiropractic practices. Often, residency graduates hold or have held 2 of these positions at once; and one, all 3. Chapters or books were authored by 13 (28%). Radiology residency LACC graduates are professionally active, particularly in education, and demonstrate scholarly productivity.
Ewing, Tracy S.
The present study examined young children's understanding of respiration and oxygen as a source of vital energy underlying physical activity. Specifically, the purpose of the study was to explore whether a coherent biological theory, characterized by an understanding that bodily parts (heart and lungs) and processes (oxygen in respiration) as part of a biological system, can be taught as a foundational concept to reason about physical activity. The effects of a biology-based intervention curriculum designed to teach preschool children about bodily functions as a part of the respiratory system, the role of oxygen as a vital substance and how physical activity acts an energy source were examined. Participants were recruited from three private preschool classrooms (two treatment; 1 control) in Southern California and included a total of 48 four-year-old children (30 treatment; 18 control). Findings from this study suggested that young children could be taught relevant biological concepts about the role of oxygen in respiratory processes. Children who received biology-based intervention curriculum made significant gains in their understanding of the biology of respiration, identification of physical and sedentary activities. In addition these children demonstrated that coherence of conceptual knowledge was correlated with improved accuracy at activity identification and reasoning about the inner workings of the body contributing to endurance. Findings from this study provided evidence to support the benefits of providing age appropriate but complex coherent biological instruction to children in early childhood settings.
Van Den Durpel, L.; Ruan, D.
The fuzzy model-based control of a nuclear power reactor is an emerging research topic world-wide. SCK-CEN is dealing with this research in a preliminary stage, including two aspects, namely fuzzy control and fuzzy modelling. The aim is to combine both methodologies in contrast to conventional model-based PID control techniques, and to state advantages of including fuzzy parameters as safety and operator feedback. This paper summarizes the general scheme of this new research project
Schwaninger, Markus; Grösser, Stefan N.
This paper introduces model-based theory building as a feature of system dynamics (SD) with large potential. It presents a systemic approach to actualizing that potential, thereby opening up a new perspective on theory building in the social sciences. The question addressed is if and how SD enables the construction of high-quality theories. This contribution is based on field experiment type projects which have been focused on model-based theory building, specifically the construction of a mi...
The potential for the use of possibility in the qualitative model-based diagnosis of spacecraft systems is described. The first sections of the paper briefly introduce the Model-Based Diagnostic (MBD) approach to spacecraft fault diagnosis; Qualitative Modeling (QM) methodologies; and the concepts of possibilistic modeling in the context of Generalized Information Theory (GIT). Then the necessary conditions for the applicability of possibilistic methods to qualitative MBD, and a number of potential directions for such an application, are described.
Aggarwal, Charu C.; Sathe, Saket; Papaioannou, Thanasis G.; Jeung, Ho Young; Aberer, Karl
In recent years, due to the proliferation of sensor networks, there has been a genuine need of researching techniques for sensor data acquisition and management. To this end, a large number of techniques have emerged that advocate model-based sensor data acquisition and management. These techniques use mathematical models for performing various, day-to-day tasks involved in managing sensor data. In this chapter, we survey the state-of-the-art techniques for model-based sensor data acquisition...
Yongsheng Ou; Schuster, E.; Luce, T.; Ferron, J.; Walker, M.; Humphreys, D.
There is consensus in the fusion community that control of the radial profiles of various plasma quantities (current, pressure, rotation, etc.) will be key to the optimization of burning plasma scenarios. It has been suggested, for instance, that global current profile control, eventually combined with pressure profile control, can be an effective mechanism for neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) control and avoidance. It has been also suggested that simultaneous real-time control of the current and pressure profiles could lead to the steady state sustainment of an internal transport barrier (ITB) and so to a stationary optimized plasma regime. A key goal in control of an advanced tokamak (AT) discharge is to maintain safety factor (q) and pressure profiles that are compatible with both MHD stability at high toroidal beta and a high fraction of the self-generated bootstrap current. This will enable high fusion gain and noninductive sustainment of 100% of the plasma current for steady-state operation. Active feedback control of the q profile evolution at DIII-D has been already demonstrated [J.R. Ferron, et al., '' Control of DIII-D Advanced Tokamak Discharges '', 32 nd EPS Conference on Plasma Physics, Tarragona, 27 June - 1 July 2005, ECA vol. 29C, p. 1,069 (2005)]. In this work we report progress towards enabling model-based active control of the current profile during both plasma current ramp-up and flattop phases. Initial results on modeling and simulation of the dynamic evolution of the poloidal flux profile are presented. Dynamic models will allow the exploitation of recent developments in the field of (nonlinear) control of distributed-parameter systems to solve present profile control problems in magnetic fusion energy. (author)
Eggers, Thomas E.; Dweiri, Yazan M.; McCallum, Grant A.; Durand, Dominique M.
Objective. Multi-channel cuff electrodes have recently been investigated for extracting fascicular-level motor commands from mixed neural recordings. Such signals could provide volitional, intuitive control over a robotic prosthesis for amputee patients. Recent work has demonstrated success in extracting these signals in acute and chronic preparations using spatial filtering techniques. These extracted signals, however, had low signal-to-noise ratios and thus limited their utility to binary classification. In this work a new algorithm is proposed which combines previous source localization approaches to create a model based method which operates in real time. Approach. To validate this algorithm, a saline benchtop setup was created to allow the precise placement of artificial sources within a cuff and interference sources outside the cuff. The artificial source was taken from five seconds of chronic neural activity to replicate realistic recordings. The proposed algorithm, hybrid Bayesian signal extraction (HBSE), is then compared to previous algorithms, beamforming and a Bayesian spatial filtering method, on this test data. An example chronic neural recording is also analyzed with all three algorithms. Main results. The proposed algorithm improved the signal to noise and signal to interference ratio of extracted test signals two to three fold, as well as increased the correlation coefficient between the original and recovered signals by 10–20%. These improvements translated to the chronic recording example and increased the calculated bit rate between the recovered signals and the recorded motor activity. Significance. HBSE significantly outperforms previous algorithms in extracting realistic neural signals, even in the presence of external noise sources. These results demonstrate the feasibility of extracting dynamic motor signals from a multi-fascicled intact nerve trunk, which in turn could extract motor command signals from an amputee for the end goal of
Full Text Available In order to build a modernized tool platform that can help students improve their English learning efficiency according to their mastery of knowledge and personality, this paper develops an online intelligent English learning system that uses Java and artificial intelligence language Prolog as the software system. This system is a creative reflection of the thoughts of expert system in artificial intelligence. Established on the Struts Spring Hibernate lightweight JavaEE framework, the system modules are coupled with each other in a much lower degree, which is convenient to future function extension. Combined with the idea of expert system in artificial intelligence, the system developed appropriate learning strategies to help students double the learning effect with half the effort; Finally, the system takes into account the forgetting curve of memory, on which basis the knowledge that has been learned will be tested periodically, intending to spare students’ efforts to do a sea of exercises and obtain better learning results.
Full Text Available Many challenges face English language teachers today, but two common problems in Ecuador specifically in universities are large class sizes and multi-level students. These problems can create boredom, anxiety, and over all lack of interest in English language learning. It is shown in this article how to combat these particular problems through various strategies utilized to teach to the students’ needs, help them work together and intrinsically motivate them to learn different English language skills, specifically grammar and sentence structure. These strategies include group work, task-based learning, the inverted or flipped classroom, role-play and intrinsic learning. The author explains how these strategies work in a specific group of university pupils in Ecuador to overcome these specific problems in a classroom, but without student participation they can be flawed.
Richmond, Aaron S.; Boysen, Guy A.; Gurung, Regan A. R.; Tazeau, Yvette N.; Meyers, Steven A.; Sciutto, Mark J.
In 2011, the Society for the Teaching of Psychology commissioned a presidential task force to document teaching criteria for model psychology teachers in undergraduate education. The resulting list of criteria reflects activities related to face-to-face course interaction and online teaching, training, and education; course design; implementation…
Full Text Available Background: The research of effective teaching is an actual problem of modern linguistics because of active promotion of its unequal manifestations and amplification of the functional load in various sectors of society. Purpose: The purpose of the analysis is to determine the qualifying and classifying features of creative and effective teacher. Results: A foreign language teacher should develop an attractive manner of communication with students. His straightforward behaviour may be expressed in non-verbal communication, through using sympathetic gestures, voice variation, smile and verbal communication expressed through a good sense of humour, personal examples, using words “we” and “our”. This manner of communication provides for a favourable condition for an atmosphere of open-mindedness and mutual understanding. A creative attitude of a teacher towards the organization of a teaching process is related to the updating of the features like fluidity understood as a spontaneous reaction during classes. The teacher as a person who creates and organises a teaching unit should possess leader’s features. Gaining a position of a group leader provides for an opportunity to arrange undisturbed work without any communication misunderstandings. Learners are given precisely formulated instructions, do the tasks in an effective and efficient manner. Therefore, it should be emphasized that a creative teacher should enjoy the features of a reflective practitioner. Being which constantly learns and improves his qualifications, studies and examines his teaching techniques, introduces changes and some time or another revisits his “beaten tracks”, breaking down routine and habits. Getting rid of habits and routines, teaching in harmony with himself, as well as appropriate selection of methods do guarantee a high comfort of work in a well-motivated group, where due to teacher’s creativity a teaching success is achieved, as expressed in
Chen, Wang-Kun; Wang, Ping
This study presents a student-centered teaching model based on concept mapping and problem-solving. The concept map is used as a tool to develop curriculum and evaluate teaching performance. Case-based teaching was implemented on the course of building energy conservation. The results of this study, which include teaching plans, evaluation tools,…
Voogt, Joke; Agyei, Douglas; McBride, Ron; Searson, Michael
This study examined 100 beginning teachers’ transfer of learning in utilizing Information Communication Technology-enhanced activity-based learning activities. The beginning teachers had participated in a professional development program characterized by ‘learning technology by collaborative design’
Agyei, D.D.; Voogt, J.
This study examined 100 beginning teachers’ transfer of learning when utilising Information Communication Technology-enhanced activity-based learning activities. The beginning teachers had participated in a professional development program that was characterised by ‘learning technology by
Any language teacher who has gone through some kind of training program for the teaching of English should be familiar with various specific language teaching models that constitute the core of the training process. A language teaching model is a guide that helps the trainee to sequence the activities designed for the expectations and needs of learners in a lesson. This paper reviews the common language teaching models in teacher training programs (PPP, OHE, III, TTT, TBLT, ESA, ARC) and disc...
Eddy, Sarah L; Converse, Mercedes; Wenderoth, Mary Pat
There is extensive evidence that active learning works better than a completely passive lecture. Despite this evidence, adoption of these evidence-based teaching practices remains low. In this paper, we offer one tool to help faculty members implement active learning. This tool identifies 21 readily implemented elements that have been shown to increase student outcomes related to achievement, logic development, or other relevant learning goals with college-age students. Thus, this tool both clarifies the research-supported elements of best practices for instructor implementation of active learning in the classroom setting and measures instructors' alignment with these practices. We describe how we reviewed the discipline-based education research literature to identify best practices in active learning for adult learners in the classroom and used these results to develop an observation tool (Practical Observation Rubric To Assess Active Learning, or PORTAAL) that documents the extent to which instructors incorporate these practices into their classrooms. We then use PORTAAL to explore the classroom practices of 25 introductory biology instructors who employ some form of active learning. Overall, PORTAAL documents how well aligned classrooms are with research-supported best practices for active learning and provides specific feedback and guidance to instructors to allow them to identify what they do well and what could be improved. © 2015 S. L. Eddy et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Jašinskaitė, Eglutė; Valaitytė, Vilija
The article present the survey of scientific pedagogical and psychological literature analyzing the essence of teaching/learning of adults, ideas of humanistic psychology, constructivist conception of learning, and the viewpoint of various scientific theories towards adult teaching/learning. On the basis of the data of the questionnaire given, reasons for learning of schools teachers, their expectations about their future profession, some psychological moments of their relationship with the t...
Outlines the methods of using football in teaching French in the American classroom by using French Canadian newspapers and other visual media available in the United States, in addition to specific language activities. (LG)
Ana María Correa Díaz
Full Text Available With the new approach to guide the learning process of students with a model based on the development of competences, and in comparison with the traditional lecture-based learning, it is necessary to start working with the teaching modalities that help to achieve this objective. With that in mind, the aim of the study reported in this article was to show that through the use of active teaching methods focusing on the development of competences we can improve the writing, speaking and research competences in English of the students who nowadays take university subjects in a foreign language in Colombia. The results showed that the support provided by the platform promotes student motivation in carrying out their self-learning, which contributes to the development of the mentioned competences.
Smith, Bonnie J
The Pfizer Distinguished Teacher Award, presented annually to a faculty member at each college or school of veterinary medicine in the United States, is the most prestigious teaching award in veterinary medicine. Originally this award was known as the Norden Award, named in honor of Carl J. Norden, founder of Norden Laboratories, but since 1963 it has been sponsored by Pfizer Animal Health. Awardees are selected by their individual colleges and schools based on the following criteria: teaching excellence in lectures, laboratories, and/or clinical settings; support of student learning and development outside of traditional venues, such as by counseling, advising of specialty clubs, and so on (extracurricular activities); and character and leadership. Students, peers, and administrators provide input into the various criteria. Each of the 28 colleges or schools of veterinary medicine in the United States is invited to submit the dossier of their awardee to a national selection committee sponsored by the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC). It gives me great pleasure to note that the committee has awarded the 2008 Pfizer Teaching Award to Dr. Bonnie Smith, Associate Professor of Anatomy, Embryology, and Physiology at the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine (VMRCVM) at Virginia Tech. Dr. Smith began her faculty service at VMRCVM in 1991, and previous to that spent four years on the faculty at North Carolina State University. Her ability to make a positive impact in the lives of students and their learning has become legendary over the years. Likewise, as a member of the Curriculum Board (Committee) and serving on various course design teams, Dr. Smith has been a steadying force in guiding the curriculum through various iterations. Helping students and faculty keep a sense of balance throughout these changes has been one of her major contributions. As a testament to her long-term teaching excellence, Dr. Bonnie Smith has
Assef, Amauri Amorin; Maia, Joaquim Miguel; Tavares Costa, Eduardo
Although widely employed in medical diagnostic applications, most of the available commercial ultrasound (US) scanners do not always fit the needs of research users. Access to raw US data, portability, flexibility and advanced user control are essential features to explore alternative biomedical signal and imaging processing algorithms. In this paper, we present the initial results of a reconfigurable, cost-effective and modular 128-channel FPGA and PC-based US system, specifically designed for teaching and medical imaging research. The proposed system exploits the advantages of the MD2131 (Microchip Technology Inc.) beamformer source driver to generate arbitrary waveforms and the analog front-end AFE5805 (Texas Instruments Inc.) to obtain the maximum flexibility and wide data access to the various US data streams. Two applications involving plane wave excitation and delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming are discussed. The results show that the open platform can help biomedical students and researchers to develop and evaluate different imaging strategies for medical US imaging and nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques, among other applications.
Kroll, Paul; Hofer, Alexandra; Ulonska, Sophia; Kager, Julian; Herwig, Christoph
Model-based methods are increasingly used in all areas of biopharmaceutical process technology. They can be applied in the field of experimental design, process characterization, process design, monitoring and control. Benefits of these methods are lower experimental effort, process transparency, clear rationality behind decisions and increased process robustness. The possibility of applying methods adopted from different scientific domains accelerates this trend further. In addition, model-based methods can help to implement regulatory requirements as suggested by recent Quality by Design and validation initiatives. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the state of the art of model-based methods, their applications, further challenges and possible solutions in the biopharmaceutical process life cycle. Today, despite these advantages, the potential of model-based methods is still not fully exhausted in bioprocess technology. This is due to a lack of (i) acceptance of the users, (ii) user-friendly tools provided by existing methods, (iii) implementation in existing process control systems and (iv) clear workflows to set up specific process models. We propose that model-based methods be applied throughout the lifecycle of a biopharmaceutical process, starting with the set-up of a process model, which is used for monitoring and control of process parameters, and ending with continuous and iterative process improvement via data mining techniques.
Love, Sharon B; Brown, Sarah; Weir, Christopher J; Harbron, Chris; Yap, Christina; Gaschler-Markefski, Birgit; Matcham, James; Caffrey, Louise; McKevitt, Christopher; Clive, Sally; Craddock, Charlie; Spicer, James; Cornelius, Victoria
Dose-finding trials are essential to drug development as they establish recommended doses for later-phase testing. We aim to motivate wider use of model-based designs for dose finding, such as the continual reassessment method (CRM). We carried out a literature review of dose-finding designs and conducted a survey to identify perceived barriers to their implementation. We describe the benefits of model-based designs (flexibility, superior operating characteristics, extended scope), their current uptake, and existing resources. The most prominent barriers to implementation of a model-based design were lack of suitable training, chief investigators' preference for algorithm-based designs (e.g., 3+3), and limited resources for study design before funding. We use a real-world example to illustrate how these barriers can be overcome. There is overwhelming evidence for the benefits of CRM. Many leading pharmaceutical companies routinely implement model-based designs. Our analysis identified barriers for academic statisticians and clinical academics in mirroring the progress industry has made in trial design. Unified support from funders, regulators, and journal editors could result in more accurate doses for later-phase testing, and increase the efficiency and success of clinical drug development. We give recommendations for increasing the uptake of model-based designs for dose-finding trials in academia.