WorldWideScience

Sample records for modelling thin film

  1. Anisotropic Heisenberg model in thin film geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akıncı, Ümit

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the anisotropy in the exchange interaction on the phase diagrams and magnetization behavior of the Heisenberg thin film has been investigated with effective field formulation in a two spin cluster using the decoupling approximation. Phase diagrams and magnetization behaviors have been obtained for several different cases, by grouping the systems in accordance with, whether the surfaces/interior of the film has anisotropic exchange interaction or not. - Highlights: • Phase diagrams of the anisotropic Heisenberg model on the thin film obtained • Dependence of the critical properties on the film thickness obtained • Effect of the anisotropy on the magnetic properties obtained.

  2. Thermoviscoelastic models for polyethylene thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jun; Kwok, Kawai; Pellegrino, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a constitutive thermoviscoelastic model for thin films of linear low-density polyethylene subject to strains up to yielding. The model is based on the free volume theory of nonlinear thermoviscoelasticity, extended to orthotropic membranes. An ingredient of the present approach...... is that the experimentally inaccessible out-of-plane material properties are determined by fitting the model predictions to the measured nonlinear behavior of the film. Creep tests, uniaxial tension tests, and biaxial bubble tests are used to determine the material parameters. The model has been validated experimentally...

  3. Optical modeling and simulation of thin-film photovoltaic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Krc, Janez

    2013-01-01

    In wafer-based and thin-film photovoltaic (PV) devices, the management of light is a crucial aspect of optimization since trapping sunlight in active parts of PV devices is essential for efficient energy conversions. Optical modeling and simulation enable efficient analysis and optimization of the optical situation in optoelectronic and PV devices. Optical Modeling and Simulation of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices provides readers with a thorough guide to performing optical modeling and simulations of thin-film solar cells and PV modules. It offers insight on examples of existing optical models

  4. Modeling plasmonic scattering combined with thin-film optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, M; Klenk, R; Lux-Steiner, M Ch; Topic, M; Krc, J

    2011-01-14

    Plasmonic scattering from metal nanostructures presents a promising concept for improving the conversion efficiency of solar cells. The determination of optimal nanostructures and their position within the solar cell is crucial to boost the efficiency. Therefore we established a one-dimensional optical model combining plasmonic scattering and thin-film optics to simulate optical properties of thin-film solar cells including metal nanoparticles. Scattering models based on dipole oscillations and Mie theory are presented and their integration in thin-film semi-coherent optical descriptions is explained. A plasmonic layer is introduced in the thin-film structure to simulate scattering properties as well as parasitic absorption in the metal nanoparticles. A proof of modeling concept is given for the case of metal-island grown silver nanoparticles on glass and ZnO:Al/glass substrates. Using simulations a promising application of the nanoparticle integration is shown for the case of CuGaSe(2) solar cells.

  5. A hysteresis model for an orthogonal thin-film magnetometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de René M.; Fluitman, Jan H.

    1990-01-01

    The operation of a ferromagnetic thin-film magnetometer using the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect in a permalloy film is discussed. Measurements showed the presence of a hysteresis effect not predicted by available models. It is shown that the sensitivity of the magnetometer is predicted by app

  6. Modeling the buckling and delamination of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagla, E. A.

    2007-02-01

    I study numerically the problem of delamination of a thin film elastically attached to a rigid substrate. A nominally flat elastic thin film is modeled using a two-dimensional triangular mesh. Both compression and bending rigidities are included to simulate compression and bending of the film. The film can buckle (i.e., abandon its flat configuration) when enough compressive strain is applied. The buckled configurations of a piece of film with stripe geometry are investigated as a function of the compressive strain. It is found that the stable configuration depends strongly on the applied strain and the Poisson ratio of the film. Next, the film is considered to be attached to a rigid substrate by springs that can break when the detaching force exceeds a threshold value, producing partial delamination of the film. Delamination is induced by a mismatch of the relaxed configurations of film and substrate. The morphology of the delaminated film can be followed and compared with available experimental results as a function of model parameters. “Telephone-cord,” polygonal, and “brainlike” patterns qualitatively similar to experimentally observed configurations are obtained in different parameter regions. The main control parameters that select the different patterns are the strain mismatch between film and substrate and the degree of in-plane relaxation within the unbuckled regions.

  7. A dynamic rheological model for thin-film lubrication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiang-Jun; Huang Ying; Guo Yan-Bao; Tian Yu; Meng Yong-Gang

    2013-01-01

    In this study,the effects of the non-Newtonian rheological properties of the lubricant in a thin-film lubrication regime between smooth surfaces were investigated.The thin-film lubrication regime typically appears in Stribeck curves with a clearly observable minimum coefficient of friction (COF) and a low-COF region,which is desired for its lower energy dissipation.A dynamic rheology of the lubricant from the hydrodynamic lubrication regime to the thin-film lubrication regime was proposed based on the convected Maxwell constitutive equation.This rheology model includes the increased relaxation time and the yield stress of the confined lubricant thin film,as well as their dependences on the lubricant film thickness.The Deborah number (De number) was adopted to describe the liquid-solid transition of the confined lubricant thin film under shearing.Then a series of Stribeck curves were calculated based on Tichy's extended lubrication equations with a perturbation of the De number.The results show that the minimum COF points in the Stribeck curve correspond to a critical De number of 1.0,indicating a liquid-to-solid transition of the confined lubricant film.Furthermore,the two proposed parameters in the dynamic rheological model,namely negative slipping length b (indicating the lubricant interfacial effect) and the characteristic relaxation time λ0,were found to determine the minimum COF and the width of the low-COF region,both of which were required to optimize the shape of the Stribeck curve.The developed dynamic rheological model interprets the correlation between the rheological and interfacial properties of lubricant and its lubrication behavior in the thin-film regime.

  8. A model for pressurized hydrogen induced thin film blisters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, R.A.J.M.; Reshetniak, V.; Lee, Christopher James; Benschop, Jozef Petrus Henricus; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a model for hydrogen induced blister formation in nanometer thick thin films. The model assumes that molecular hydrogen gets trapped under a circular blister cap causing it to deflect elastically outward until a stable blister is formed. In the first part, the energy balance required

  9. A model for pressurized hydrogen induced thin film blisters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, van den R.A.J.M.; Reshetniak, V.; Lee, C.J.; Benschop, J.P.H.; Bijkerk, F.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a model for hydrogen induced blister formation in nanometer thick thin films. The model assumes that molecular hydrogen gets trapped under a circular blister cap causing it to deflect elastically outward until a stable blister is formed. In the first part, the energy balance required fo

  10. A scattering model for surface-textured thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jäger, K.; Zeman, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a mathematical model that relates the surface morphology of randomly surface-textured thin films with the intensity distribution of scattered light. The model is based on the first order Born approximation [see e.g., M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University

  11. A scattering model for surface-textured thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jäger, K.; Zeman, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a mathematical model that relates the surface morphology of randomly surface-textured thin films with the intensity distribution of scattered light. The model is based on the first order Born approximation [see e.g., M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University

  12. Computational modeling of muscular thin films for cardiac repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böl, Markus; Reese, Stefanie; Parker, Kevin Kit; Kuhl, Ellen

    2009-03-01

    Motivated by recent success in growing biohybrid material from engineered tissues on synthetic polymer films, we derive a computational simulation tool for muscular thin films in cardiac repair. In this model, the polydimethylsiloxane base layer is simulated in terms of microscopically motivated tetrahedral elements. Their behavior is characterized through a volumetric contribution and a chain contribution that explicitly accounts for the polymeric microstructure of networks of long chain molecules. Neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes cultured on these polymeric films are modeled with actively contracting truss elements located on top of the sheet. The force stretch response of these trusses is motivated by the cardiomyocyte force generated during active contraction as suggested by the filament sliding theory. In contrast to existing phenomenological models, all material parameters of this novel model have a clear biophyisical interpretation. The predictive features of the model will be demonstrated through the simulation of muscular thin films. First, the set of parameters will be fitted for one particular experiment documented in the literature. This parameter set is then used to validate the model for various different experiments. Last, we give an outlook of how the proposed simulation tool could be used to virtually predict the response of multi-layered muscular thin films. These three-dimensional constructs show a tremendous regenerative potential in repair of damaged cardiac tissue. The ability to understand, tune and optimize their structural response is thus of great interest in cardiovascular tissue engineering.

  13. A model for pressurized hydrogen induced thin film blisters

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, R. A. J. M. van den; Reshetniak, V.; Lee, C. J.; Benschop1, J; Bijkerk, F

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a model for hydrogen induced blister formation in nanometer thick thin films. The model assumes that molecular hydrogen gets trapped under a circular blister cap causing it to deflect elastically outward until a stable blister is formed. In the first part, the energy balance required for a stable blister is calculated. From this model, the adhesion energy of the blister cap, the internal pressure and the critical H-dose for blister formation can be calculated. In the second part,...

  14. A multiscale model for thin film AMR sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartok, Andras [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique de Paris, CNRS (UMR 8507)/SUPELEC/UPMC/Univ Paris-Sud, 11 rue Joliot Curie, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Daniel, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.daniel@lgep.supelec.fr [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique de Paris, CNRS (UMR 8507)/SUPELEC/UPMC/Univ Paris-Sud, 11 rue Joliot Curie, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Materials Science Centre, University of Manchester, M1 7HS Manchester (United Kingdom); Razek, Adel [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique de Paris, CNRS (UMR 8507)/SUPELEC/UPMC/Univ Paris-Sud, 11 rue Joliot Curie, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2013-01-15

    AMR sensors are among the most widely deployed magnetic field sensors. In contrast to other technologies it has a simple structure and a low production cost. In this paper a multiscale modeling strategy is proposed to describe the performance of these sensors taking their specific features into account. The prediction of the behavior of a typical AMR thin film sensor has been studied and the results are compared to experimental measurements from the literature. The proposed micro-macro model offers an opportunity to investigate optimal material composition, crystallographic texture, film thickness or bias field level for specific applications. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A multiscale strategy for the modeling of thin film AMR sensors is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The approach is based on the changes under external loading of the free energy at the magnetic domains scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small thickness and crystallographic texture effects are introduced in the modeling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The behavior of commercial AMR sensors is satisfactorily modeled. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The role of the bias field and of the film thickness is discussed.

  15. Modeling surface imperfections in thin films and nanostructured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul-Erik; Madsen, J. S.; Jensen, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate scatterometry and ellipsometry characterization of non-perfect thin films and nanostructured surfaces are challenging. Imperfections like surface roughness make the associated modelling and inverse problem solution difficult due to the lack of knowledge about the imperfection on the surf......Accurate scatterometry and ellipsometry characterization of non-perfect thin films and nanostructured surfaces are challenging. Imperfections like surface roughness make the associated modelling and inverse problem solution difficult due to the lack of knowledge about the imperfection...... classes of imperfections are examined. The imperfections are introduced as periodic structures with a super cell periods ten times larger than the simple grating period. Two classes of imperfections concern the grating and one class concern the substrate. It is shown that imperfections of a few nanometers...

  16. Black Hole Entropy Calculation in a Modified Thin Film Model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jingyi Zhang

    2011-03-01

    The thin film model is modified to calculate the black hole entropy. The difference from the original method is that the Parikh–Wilczek tunnelling framework is introduced and the self-gravitation of the emission particles is taken into account. In terms of our improvement, if the entropy is still proportional to the area, then the emission energy of the particles will satisfy = /360.

  17. Random field distributed Heisenberg model on a thin film geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akıncı, Ümit, E-mail: umit.akinci@deu.edu.tr

    2014-11-15

    The effects of the bimodal random field distribution on the thermal and magnetic properties of the Heisenberg thin film have been investigated by making use of a two spin cluster with the decoupling approximation. Particular attention has been devoted to the obtaining of phase diagrams and magnetization behaviors. The physical behaviors of special as well as tricritical points are discussed for a wide range of selected Hamiltonian parameters. For example, it is found that when the strength of a magnetic field increases, the locations of the special point (which is the ratio of the surface exchange interaction and the exchange interaction of the inner layers that makes the critical temperature of the film independent of the thickness) in the related plane decrease. Moreover, tricritical behavior has been obtained for higher values of the magnetic field, and influences of the varying Hamiltonian parameters on its behavior have been elucidated in detail in order to have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the considered system. - Highlights: • Effect of bimodal random field distribution within the Heisenberg model is investigated. • Phase diagrams of the random field Heisenberg model in a thin film geometry are obtained. • Effect of the random field on the magnetic properties is obtained. • Variation of the special point with random field is determined. • Variation of the tricritical point with random field is determined.

  18. Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benmouss

    2003-01-01

    the optical absorption are consistent with the film color changes. Finally, the optical and electrochromic properties of the films prepared by this method are compared with those of our sputtered films already studied and with other works.

  19. Optical Thin Film Modeling: Using FTG's FilmStar Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Every material has basic optical properties that define its interaction with light: The index of refraction (n) and extinction coefficient (k) vary for the material as a function of the wavelength of the incident light. Also significant are the phase velocity and polarization of the incident light These inherent properties allow for the accurate modeling of light s behavior upon contact with a surface: Reflectance, Transmittance, Absorptance.

  20. FDTD subcell graphene model beyond the thin-film approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Valuev, Ilya; Bogdanova, Maria; Kotov, Oleg; Lozovik, Yurii

    2016-01-01

    A subcell technique for calculation of optical properties of graphene with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is presented. The technique takes into account the surface conductivity of graphene which allows the correct calculation of its dispersive response for arbitrarily polarized incident waves interacting with the graphene.The developed technique is verified for a planar graphene sheet configuration against the exact analytical solution. Based on the same test case scenario, we also show that the subcell technique demonstrates a superior accuracy and numerical efficiency with respect to the widely used thin-film FDTD approach for modeling graphene. We further apply our technique to the simulations of a graphene metamaterial containing periodically spaced graphene strips (graphene strip-grating) and demonstrate good agreement with the available theoretical results.

  1. Model of a thin film optical fiber fluorosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egalon, Claudio O.; Rogowski, Robert S.

    1991-03-01

    The efficiency of core-light injection from sources in the cladding of an optical fiber is modeled analytically by means of the exact field solution of a step-profile fiber. The analysis is based on the techniques by Marcuse (1988) in which the sources are treated as infinitesimal electric currents with random phase and orientation that excite radiation fields and bound modes. Expressions are developed based on an infinite cladding approximation which yield the power efficiency for a fiber coated with fluorescent sources in the core/cladding interface. Marcuse's results are confirmed for the case of a weakly guiding cylindrical fiber with fluorescent sources uniformly distributed in the cladding, and the power efficiency is shown to be practically constant for variable wavelengths and core radii. The most efficient fibers have the thin film located at the core/cladding boundary, and fibers with larger differences in the indices of refraction are shown to be the most efficient.

  2. A model for pressurized hydrogen induced thin film blisters

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, R. A. J. M.; Reshetniak, V.; Lee, C. J.; Benschop, J.; Bijkerk, F.

    2016-12-01

    We introduce a model for hydrogen induced blister formation in nanometer thick thin films. The model assumes that molecular hydrogen gets trapped under a circular blister cap causing it to deflect elastically outward until a stable blister is formed. In the first part, the energy balance required for a stable blister is calculated. From this model, the adhesion energy of the blister cap, the internal pressure, and the critical H-dose for blister formation can be calculated. In the second part, the flux balance required for a blister to grow to a stable size is calculated. The model is applied to blisters formed in a Mo/Si multilayer after being exposed to hydrogen ions. From the model, the adhesion energy of the Mo/Si blister cap was calculated to be around 1.05 J/m2 with internal pressures in the range of 175-280 MPa. Based on the model, a minimum ion dose for the onset of blister formation was calculated to be d = 4.2 × 1018 ions/cm2. From the flux balance equations, the diffusion constant for the Mo/Si blister cap was estimated to be DH2=(10 ±1 )×10-18 cm2/s .

  3. Modeling thin-film piezoelectric polymer ultrasonic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M. G.; Sorichetti, P. A.; Santiago, G. D.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a model suitable to design and characterize broadband thin film sensors based on piezoelectric polymers. The aim is to describe adequately the sensor behavior, with a reasonable number of parameters and based on well-known physical equations. The mechanical variables are described by an acoustic transmission line. The electrical behavior is described by the quasi-static approximation, given the large difference between the velocities of propagation of the electrical and mechanical disturbances. The line parameters include the effects of the elastic and electrical properties of the material. The model was validated with measurements of a poly(vinylidene flouride) sensor designed for short-pulse detection. The model variables were calculated from the properties of the polymer at frequencies between 100 Hz and 30 MHz and at temperatures between 283 K and 313 K, a relevant range for applications in biology and medicine. The simulations agree very well with the experimental data, predicting satisfactorily the influence of temperature and the dielectric properties of the polymer on the behavior of the sensor. Conversely, the model allowed the calculation of the material dielectric properties from the measured response of the sensor, with good agreement with the published values.

  4. Modeling and fabrication of a planar thin film airflow sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, Richard J.; Tanner, Philip G.; Thiel, David V.

    2001-11-01

    A thin film airflow transducer based on the hot wire anemometer principle was designed using current MEMS modelling & simulation software. Flow sensors are commonly implemented with thermal isolation of the sensor from the bulk substrate mass using methods such as reverse side etching or sacrificial layers, however this paper will present a sensor relying on thermal insulation only. This insulation may be provided by layers of material exhibiting relatively poor thermal conduction characteristics such as silicon dioxide or polyimide, giving rise to a number of advantages such as removing the process of reverse side etching. Limiting fabrication to use of simple processes such as photolithography and sputtering/evaporative deposition also simplifies this design and assists in greatly increasing the compatibility with standard CMOS fabrication processes and materials. A combination of both theoretical computer modelling and physical fabrication and testing has been the approach to this research. Preliminary testing of this design has demonstrated small yet measurable temperature gradients across the device surface during steady state operation. The novel approach to this device is the investigation of pulsed operation, effectively a transient analysis that allows the thermal conduction effects of the bulk mass to be significantly reduced, leading to a significant increase of both efficiency and response time. Electro-thermo-mechanical and computational fluid dynamic analysis of the structure successfully model the thermal conduction, radiation and forced convection effects of the device during and after ohmic heating of the sensor's heating element.

  5. Gold Incorporated Mesoporous Silica Thin Film Model Surface as a Robust SERS and Catalytically Active Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandakumari Chandrasekharan Sunil Sekhar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-small gold nanoparticles incorporated in mesoporous silica thin films with accessible pore channels perpendicular to the substrate are prepared by a modified sol-gel method. The simple and easy spin coating technique is applied here to make homogeneous thin films. The surface characterization using FESEM shows crack-free films with a perpendicular pore arrangement. The applicability of these thin films as catalysts as well as a robust SERS active substrate for model catalysis study is tested. Compared to bare silica film our gold incorporated silica, GSM-23F gave an enhancement factor of 103 for RhB with a laser source 633 nm. The reduction reaction of p-nitrophenol with sodium borohydride from our thin films shows a decrease in peak intensity corresponding to –NO2 group as time proceeds, confirming the catalytic activity. Such model surfaces can potentially bridge the material gap between a real catalytic system and surface science studies.

  6. Design, Modeling and Optimization of a Piezoelectric Pressure Sensor based on a Thin-Film PZT Membrane Containing Nanocrystalline Powders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vahid Mohammadi; Mohammad Hossein Sheikhi

    2009-01-01

    ...^ thin film has been presented and then a pressure sensor based on multilayer thin-film PZT diaphragm contain of Lead Zirconate Titanate nanocrystalline powders was designed, modeled and optimized...

  7. Thin film superfluid optomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, Christopher G; McAuslan, David L; Sachkou, Yauhen; He, Xin; Bowen, Warwick P

    2016-01-01

    Excitations in superfluid helium represent attractive mechanical degrees of freedom for cavity optomechanics schemes. Here we numerically and analytically investigate the properties of optomechanical resonators formed by thin films of superfluid $^4$He covering micrometer-scale whispering gallery mode cavities. We predict that through proper optimization of the interaction between film and optical field, large optomechanical coupling rates $g_0>2\\pi \\times 100$ kHz and single photon cooperativities $C_0>10$ are achievable. Our analytical model reveals the unconventional behaviour of these thin films, such as thicker and heavier films exhibiting smaller effective mass and larger zero point motion. The optomechanical system outlined here provides access to unusual regimes such as $g_0>\\Omega_M$ and opens the prospect of laser cooling a liquid into its quantum ground state.

  8. Using atomistic simulations to model cadmium telluride thin film growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Kenny, Steven D.

    2016-03-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is an excellent material for low-cost, high efficiency thin film solar cells. It is important to conduct research on how defects are formed during the growth process, since defects lower the efficiency of solar cells. In this work we use computer simulation to predict the growth of a sputter deposited CdTe thin film. On-the-fly kinetic Monte Carlo technique is used to simulate the CdTe thin film growth on the (1 1 1) surfaces. The results show that on the (1 1 1) surfaces the growth mechanisms on surfaces which are terminated by Cd or Te are quite different, regardless of the deposition energy (0.1∼ 10 eV). On the Te-terminated (1 1 1) surface the deposited clusters first form a single mixed species layer, then the Te atoms in the mixed layer moved up to form a new layer. Whilst on the Cd-terminated (1 1 1) surface the new Cd and Te layers are formed at the same time. Such differences are probably caused by stronger bonding between ad-atoms and surface atoms on the Te layer than on the Cd layer.

  9. Modeling surface imperfections in thin films and nanostructured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, P.-E.; Madsen, J. S.; Jensen, S. A.; Madsen, M. H.; Karamehmedovic, M.

    2017-06-01

    Accurate scatterometry and ellipsometry characterization of non-perfect thin films and nanostructured surfaces are challenging. Imperfections like surface roughness make the associated modelling and inverse problem solution difficult due to the lack of knowledge about the imperfection on the surface. Combining measurement data from several instruments increases the knowledge of non-perfect surfaces. In this paper we investigate how to incorporate this knowledge of surface imperfection into inverse methods used in scatterometry and ellipsometry using the Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis. Three classes of imperfections are examined. The imperfections are introduced as periodic structures with a super cell periods ten times larger than the simple grating period. Two classes of imperfections concern the grating and one class concern the substrate. It is shown that imperfections of a few nanometers can severely change the reflective response on silicon gratings. Inverse scatterometry analyses of gratings with imperfection using simulated data with white noise have been performed. The results show that scatterometry is a robust technology that is able to characterize grating imperfections provided that the imperfection class is known.

  10. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  11. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  12. Modeling flux pinning in thin undoped and BazRo3-doped YBCO films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paturi, P.; Irjala, M.; Huhtinen, H.

    2009-01-01

    A simple model based on distributions of twin boundaries, dislocations, and BaZrO3 nanorods is presented to describe the Jc properties of undoped and BaZrO3 (BZO)-doped YBa2Cu3Ox thin films. The model accurately describes the shape of Jc(B,T) curves of the films, when the pinning site distributions...

  13. TWO-LAYER MODEL DESCRIPTION OF POLYMER THIN FILM DYNAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-dong Peng; Ran-xing Nancy Li; Chi-hang Lam; Ophelia K.C.Tsui

    2013-01-01

    Experiments in the past two decades have shown that the glass transition temperature of polymer films can become noticeably different from that of the bulk when the film thickness is decreased below ca.100 nm.It is broadly believed that these observations are caused by a nanometer interfacial layer with dynamics faster or slower than that of the bulk.In this paper,we examine how this idea may be realized by using a two-layer model assuming a hydrodynamic coupling between the interfacial layer and the remaining,bulk-like layer in the film.Illustrative examples will be given showing how the two-layer model is applied to the viscosity measurements of polystyrene and polymethylmethacrylate films supported by silicon oxide,where divergent thickness dependences are observed.

  14. A stochastic model of solid state thin film deposition: Application to chalcopyrite growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Lovelett

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Developing high fidelity quantitative models of solid state reaction systems can be challenging, especially in deposition systems where, in addition to the multiple competing processes occurring simultaneously, the solid interacts with its atmosphere. In this work, we develop a model for the growth of a thin solid film where species from the atmosphere adsorb, diffuse, and react with the film. The model is mesoscale and describes an entire film with thickness on the order of microns. Because it is stochastic, the model allows us to examine inhomogeneities and agglomerations that would be impossible to characterize with deterministic methods. We demonstrate the modeling approach with the example of chalcopyrite Cu(InGa(SeS2 thin film growth via precursor reaction, which is a common industrial method for fabricating thin film photovoltaic modules. The model is used to understand how and why through-film variation in the composition of Cu(InGa(SeS2 thin films arises and persists. We believe that the model will be valuable as an effective quantitative description of many other materials systems used in semiconductors, energy storage, and other fast-growing industries.

  15. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  16. Asymptotic heat transfer model in thin liquid films

    CERN Document Server

    Chhay, Marx; Gisclon, Marguerite; Ruyer-Quil, Christian

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present a modelling of heat transfer occuring through a liquid film flowing down a vertical wall. This model is formally derived thanks to asymptotic developpment, by considering the physical ratio of typical length scales of the study. A new Nusselt thermal solution is proposed, taking into account the hydrodynamic free surface variations and the contributions of the higher order terms in the asymptotic model are numerically pointed out. The comparisons are provided against the resolution of the full Fourier equations in a steady state frame.

  17. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  18. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  19. Optical bandgap modeling of thermal annealed ZnO:Ga thin films using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Eun; Moon, Pyung; Yun, Ilgu [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemoon-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea); Kim, Sungyeon; Myoung, Jae-Min [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemoon-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea); Jang, Hyeon Woo; Bang, Jungsik [LG Chem, Ltd., Research Park, 104-1 Moonji-Dong, Yuseng-Gu, Daejeon 305-380 (Korea)

    2010-07-15

    In this paper, the thermal annealing process modeling for the optical bandgap of ZnO:Ga thin films for transparent conductive oxide was presented using neural network (NNets) based on error backpropagation (BPNN) algorithm and multilayer perceptron (MLP). The thermal annealing process of ZnO:Ga thin films were analyzed by general factorial experimental design. The annealing temperature and film thickness were considered as input factors. To model the nonlinear annealing process, 6 experiments were trained by BPNN which has 2-4-1 structures and 2 additional samples were experimented to verify the predicted models. The output response model on optical bandgap and carrier concentration of ZnO:Ga thin films trained by BPNN was represented by surface plot of response surface model. Based on the modeling results, NNets can provide sufficient correspondence between the predicted output values and the measured. The optical bandgap variation of ZnO:Ga thin films by annealing is due to increased carrier concentration and explained by Burstein-Moss effect. The thermal annealing process is nonlinear and complex but the output response can be predicted by the NNets model. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Current distribution effects in AC impedance spectroscopy of electroceramic point contact and thin film model electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Jacobsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The Finite-Element-Method (FEM) was used for the simulations of the effect of a changing current distribution during AC impedance spectrum recording on electroceramic point contact and thin film model electrodes. For pure electronic conducting point contact electrodes the transition from the prim......The Finite-Element-Method (FEM) was used for the simulations of the effect of a changing current distribution during AC impedance spectrum recording on electroceramic point contact and thin film model electrodes. For pure electronic conducting point contact electrodes the transition from...... regarding its significance is provided. The associated characteristic impedance spectrum shape change is simulated and its origin discussed. Furthermore, the characteristic shape of impedance spectra of thin electroceramic film electrodes with lateral ohmic resistance is studied as a function...

  1. Biomimetic thin film synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, G.L.; Campbell, A.A.; Gordon, N.R.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop a new process for forming thin film coatings and to demonstrate that the biomimetic thin film technology developed at PNL is useful for industrial applications. In the biomimetic process, mineral deposition from aqueous solution is controlled by organic functional groups attached to the underlying substrate surface. The coatings process is simple, benign, inexpensive, energy efficient, and particularly suited for temperature sensitive substrate materials (such as polymers). In addition, biomimetic thin films can be deposited uniformly on complex shaped and porous substrates providing a unique capability over more traditional line-of-sight methods.

  2. Understanding geometric instabilities in thin films via a multi-layer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, Emma; Javili, Ali; Linder, Christian

    2016-01-21

    When a thin stiff film adhered to a compliant substrate is subject to compressive stresses, the film will experience a geometric instability and buckle out of plane. For high film/substrate stiffness ratios with relatively low levels of strain, the primary mode of instability will either be wrinkling or buckling delamination depending on the material and geometric properties of the system. Previous works approach these systems by treating the film and substrate as homogenous layers, either consistently perfectly attached, or perfectly unattached at interfacial flaws. However, this approach neglects systems where the film and substrate are uniformly weakly attached or where interfacial layers due to surface modifications in either the film or substrate are present. Here we demonstrate a method for accounting for these additional thin surface layers via an analytical solution verified by numerical results. The main outcome of this work is an improved understanding of how these layers influence global behavior. We demonstrate the utility of our model with applications ranging from buckling based metrology in ultrathin films, to an improved understanding of the formation of a novel surface in carbon nanotube bio-interface films. Moving forward, this model can be used to interpret experimental results, particularly for systems which deviate from traditional behavior, and aid in the evaluation and design of future film/substrate systems.

  3. Numerical Modeling of Melting Process of Thin Metal Films Subjected to the Short Laser Pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Majchrzak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thin metal film subjected to a short-pulse laser heating is considered. The parabolic two-temperature model describing the temporal and spatial evolution of the lattice and electrons temperatures is discussed and the melting process of thin layer is taken into account. At the stage of numerical computations the finite difference method is used. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations are shown.

  4. Weak solutions to a thin film model with capillary effects and insoluble surfactant

    CERN Document Server

    Escher, Joachim; Laurencot, Philippe; Walker, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The paper focuses on a model describing the spreading of an insoluble surfactant on a thin viscous film with capillary effects taken into account. The governing equation for the film height is degenerate parabolic of fourth order and coupled to a second order parabolic equation for the surfactant concentration. It is shown that nonnegative weak solutions exist under natural assumptions on the surface tension coefficient.

  5. Thin film device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Inderjeet

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials created ab initio by the process of condensation of atoms, molecules, or ions, called thin films, have unique properties significantly different from the corresponding bulk materials as a result of their physical dimensions, geometry, nonequilibrium microstructure, and metallurgy. Further, these characteristic features of thin films can be drasti­ cally modified and tailored to obtain the desired and required physical characteristics. These features form the basis of development of a host of extraordinary active and passive thin film device applications in the last two decades. On the one extreme, these applications are in the submicron dimensions in such areas as very large scale integration (VLSI), Josephson junction quantum interference devices, magnetic bubbles, and integrated optics. On the other extreme, large-area thin films are being used as selective coatings for solar thermal conversion, solar cells for photovoltaic conver­ sion, and protection and passivating layers. Ind...

  6. Multifunctional thin film surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozik, Susan M.; Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Dirk, Shawn M.

    2015-10-13

    A thin film with multiple binding functionality can be prepared on an electrode surface via consecutive electroreduction of two or more aryl-onium salts with different functional groups. This versatile and simple method for forming multifunctional surfaces provides an effective means for immobilization of diverse molecules at close proximities. The multifunctional thin film has applications in bioelectronics, molecular electronics, clinical diagnostics, and chemical and biological sensing.

  7. Carbon nanotube thin film strain sensor models assembled using nano- and micro-scale imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo Mi; Loh, Kenneth J.; Yang, Yuan-Sen

    2017-02-01

    Nanomaterial-based thin films, particularly those based on carbon nanotubes (CNT), have brought forth tremendous opportunities for designing next-generation strain sensors. However, their strain sensing properties can vary depending on fabrication method, post-processing treatment, and types of CNTs and polymers employed. The objective of this study was to derive a CNT-based thin film strain sensor model using inputs from nano-/micro-scale experimental measurements of nanotube physical properties. This study began with fabricating ultra-low-concentration CNT-polymer thin films, followed by imaging them using atomic force microscopy. Image processing was employed for characterizing CNT dispersed shapes, lengths, and other physical attributes, and results were used for building five different types of thin film percolation-based models. Numerical simulations were conducted to assess how the morphology of dispersed CNTs in its 2D matrix affected bulk film electrical and electromechanical (strain sensing) properties. The simulation results showed that CNT morphology had a significant impact on strain sensing performance.

  8. Carbon nanotube thin film strain sensor models assembled using nano- and micro-scale imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo Mi; Loh, Kenneth J.; Yang, Yuan-Sen

    2017-07-01

    Nanomaterial-based thin films, particularly those based on carbon nanotubes (CNT), have brought forth tremendous opportunities for designing next-generation strain sensors. However, their strain sensing properties can vary depending on fabrication method, post-processing treatment, and types of CNTs and polymers employed. The objective of this study was to derive a CNT-based thin film strain sensor model using inputs from nano-/micro-scale experimental measurements of nanotube physical properties. This study began with fabricating ultra-low-concentration CNT-polymer thin films, followed by imaging them using atomic force microscopy. Image processing was employed for characterizing CNT dispersed shapes, lengths, and other physical attributes, and results were used for building five different types of thin film percolation-based models. Numerical simulations were conducted to assess how the morphology of dispersed CNTs in its 2D matrix affected bulk film electrical and electromechanical (strain sensing) properties. The simulation results showed that CNT morphology had a significant impact on strain sensing performance.

  9. Modeling and optimization of white paint back reflectors for thin-film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipovšek, B.; Krč, J.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.; Topič, M.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusive dielectric materials such as white paint have been demonstrated as effective back reflectors in the photovoltaic technology. In this work, a one-dimensional (1D) optical modeling approach for simulation of white paint films is developed and implemented in a 1D optical simulator for thin-fi

  10. Modeling and optimization of white paint back reflectors for thin-film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipovšek, B.; Krč, J.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.; Topič, M.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusive dielectric materials such as white paint have been demonstrated as effective back reflectors in the photovoltaic technology. In this work, a one-dimensional (1D) optical modeling approach for simulation of white paint films is developed and implemented in a 1D optical simulator for thin-fi

  11. The model thin film alumina catalyst support suitable for catalysis-oriented surface science studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nartova, Anna V., E-mail: avnartova@gmail.com [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS, Lavrentieva Ave., 5, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova St., 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Bukhtiyarov, Andrey V., E-mail: avb@catalysis.ru [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS, Lavrentieva Ave., 5, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Kvon, Ren I., E-mail: kvon@catalysis.ru [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS, Lavrentieva Ave., 5, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Bukhtiyarov, Valerii I., E-mail: vib@catalysis.ru [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS, Lavrentieva Ave., 5, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova St., 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • New model catalyst on “AlOx-thin film/FeCrAl” support is presented. • Metal substrate minimizes sample charging, allows fast and uniform heating. • Surface is rough to model the catalyst support's morphology. • Planar alumina is stable in air/gases/solutions and similar to γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • New model support is suitable for in situ XPS, STM, TPD, TPR, etc. - Abstract: The preparation of thin continuous alumina film at the surface of metal substrate in UHV (ultra high vacuum) conditions is described. The peculiarities of the obtained films studied by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and STM (scanning tunneling microscopy) are discussed. The long-term durability of the oxide film was tested and proved both under ambient conditions and in acidic aqueous solutions. The stability of the planar alumina samples toward oxidation by oxygen was checked in the wide ranges of gas pressure and sample temperature. The suggested procedure ensures the controlled and reproducible preparation of thin alumina filmsmodel support appropriate for wet chemistry catalyst preparation, suitable for STM and for other Surface Science techniques studies of alumina supported metal catalysts.

  12. A new analytical model of high voltage silicon on insulator (SOI) thin film devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Sheng-Dong; Zhang Bo; Li Zhao-Ji

    2009-01-01

    A new analytical model of high voltage silicon on insulator (SOI) thin film devices is proposed, and a formula of silicon critical electric field is derived as a function of silicon film thickness by solving a 2D Poisson equation from an effective ionization rate, with a threshold energy taken into account for electron multiplying. Unlike a conventional silicon critical electric field that is constant and independent of silicon film thickness, the proposed silicon critical electric field increases sharply with silicon film thickness decreasing especially in the case of thin films, and can come to 141 V/μm at a film thickness of 0.1 μm which is much larger than the normal value of about 30 V/μm. From the proposed formula of silicon critical electric field, the expressions of dielectric layer electric field and vertical breakdown voltage (VB,V) are obtained. Based on the model, an ultra thin film can be used to enhance dielectric layer electric field and so increase vertical breakdown voltage for SOI devices because of its high silicon critical electric field, and with a dielectric layer thickness of 2 μm the vertical breakdown voltages reach 852 and 300V for the silicon film thicknesses of 0.1 and 5μm, respectively. In addition, a relation between dielectric layer thickness and silicon film thickness is obtained, indicating a minimum vertical breakdown voltage that should be avoided when an SOI device is designed. 2D simulated results and some experimental results are in good agreement with analytical results.

  13. Dispersion-model-free determination of optical constants: application to materials for organic thin film devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flämmich, Michael; Danz, Norbert; Michaelis, Dirk; Bräuer, Andreas; Gather, Malte C; Kremer, Jonas H-W M; Meerholz, Klaus

    2009-03-10

    We describe a method to determine the refractive index and extinction coefficient of thin film materials without prior knowledge of the film thickness and without the assumption of a dispersion model. A straightforward back calculation to the optical parameters can be performed starting from simple measurements of reflection and transmission spectra of a 100-250 nm thick supported film. The exact film thickness is found simultaneously by fulfilling the intrinsic demand of continuity of the refractive index as a function of wavelength. If both the layer and the substrate are homogeneous and isotropic media with plane and parallel interfaces, effects like surface roughness, scattering, or thickness inhomogeneities can be neglected. Then, the accuracy of the measurement is approximately 10(-2) and 10(-3) for the refractive index and the extinction coefficient, respectively. The error of the thin film thickness determination is well below 1 nm. Thus this technique is well suited to determine the input parameters for optical simulations of organic thin film devices, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) or organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. We apply the method to the electroluminescent polymer poly(2,5-dioctyl-p-phenylene vinylene) (PDO-PPV) and show its applicability by comparing the measured and calculated reflection and transmission spectra of OLED stacks with up to five layers.

  14. Modeling of cardiac muscle thin films: pre-stretch, passive and active behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jongmin; Grosberg, Anna; Nawroth, Janna C; Parker, Kevin Kit; Bertoldi, Katia

    2012-03-15

    Recent progress in tissue engineering has made it possible to build contractile bio-hybrid materials that undergo conformational changes by growing a layer of cardiac muscle on elastic polymeric membranes. Further development of such muscular thin films for building actuators and powering devices requires exploring several design parameters, which include the alignment of the cardiac myocytes and the thickness/Young's modulus of elastomeric film. To more efficiently explore these design parameters, we propose a 3-D phenomenological constitutive model, which accounts for both the passive deformation including pre-stretch and the active behavior of the cardiomyocytes. The proposed 3-D constitutive model is implemented within a finite element framework, and can be used to improve the current design of bio-hybrid thin films and help developing bio-hybrid constructs capable of complex conformational changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Heat and mass transfer in nanofluid thin film over an unsteady stretching sheet using Buongiorno's model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasim, M.; Khan, Z. H.; Lopez, R. J.; Khan, W. A.

    2016-01-01

    The heat and mass transport of a nanofluid thin film over an unsteady stretching sheet has been investigated. This is the first paper on nanofluid thin film flow caused by unsteady stretching sheet using Buongiorno's model. The model used for the nanofluid film incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The self-similar non-linear ordinary differential equations are solved using Maple's built-in BVP solver. The results for pure fluid are found to be in good agreement with the literature. Present analysis shows that free surface temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction increase with both unsteadiness and magnetic parameters. The results reveal that effect of both nanofluid parameters and viscous dissipation is to reduce the heat transfer rate.

  16. An accurate model for the thin film flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Ait Abderahmane; Georgios H. Vatistas

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the linear stability of a liquid film flowing down an inclined plane. The Navier-Stokes equations were reduced into four evolution equations that describe the development of the film depth, the flow rate, the free surface velocity, and the wall shear stress, using the Karman-Polhausen boundary layer integral method. Thus, we were able to determine the stability threshold and approach well the critical wave number for long waves. The obtained results were found to be in good agreement with the experiments of Liu et al.

  17. Modeling the sensing characteristics of chemi-resistive thin film semi-conducting gas sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhishek; Majumder, S B

    2017-08-30

    For chemi-resistive thin film gas sensors a generic theoretical model is proposed to predict the variation of sensor response with the operating temperature and thickness of the sensing film. A diffusion equation is formulated assuming that inflammable target gases move through the sensing film by Knudsen diffusion and react with the adsorbed oxygen following first-order kinetics. We have assumed a realistic non-linear variation between the conductance and test gas concentration and derived a general expression relating the sensor response to the operating temperature and thickness of the film. Assuming Langmuir adsorption kinetics, we have theoretically predicted the response and recovery transients during gas sensing using thin film sensing elements. It is predicted that for irreversible type sensing, the response time is reduced with an increase in test gas concentration, whereas for reversible sensing, the response time is independent of test gas concentration. For zinc oxide thin film sensors, an excellent match is obtained between the model prediction and experimental data for their thickness (122 nm to 380 nm) and temperature variation (200 °C to 325 °C) in 500 ppm carbon monoxide (CO) sensing. The maximum CO response% (∼53%) was achieved in 320 nm thick ZnO films. The conductance transients for response and recovery for CO sensing closely follow Langmuir adsorption kinetics and as predicted theoretically, indeed for irreversible sensing, the response time reduces from 350 s to 220 s with an increase in test gas concentration from 20 to 550 ppm. In the case of reversible sensing we found that the response time is ∼55 s irrespective of the CO gas concentration in the range of 5-500 ppm. The models developed in the present work are quite generic in nature and we have discussed their applicability to a wide variety of sensing materials with various types of surface morphologies.

  18. Dynamics of a spreading thin film with gravitational counterflow using slip model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Naveen Tiwari

    2015-05-01

    Thin liquid films can be made to spread along a solid surface by application of temperature gradients at the liquid–gas interface. The surface tension of usual liquids decreases linearly with temperature thus producing the driving thermocapillary stresses due to the applied temperature gradient. These spreading films are susceptible to a fingering instability at the advancing solid–liquid–vapor contact line, which is linked to the development of a capillary ridge near the advancing front. A thin film climbing up on a vertical substrate against gravity shows interesting dynamics due to strong opposing gravitational counterflow. At the contact-line of the spreading film, slip-model is used to alleviate the stress-singularity due to more usual no-slip boundary condition. It is shown that depending upon the magnitude of a gravitational drainage parameter the steady-profiles of the spreading films show qualitatively different dynamics. The dynamics is in agreement with the experimentally observed profiles in the literature as well as computed profiles using precursor-film model at the contact-line in some earlier theoretical studies. Briefly, their stability behavior is also discussed.

  19. A Model of the Growth of Copper Selenide Thin Films Controlled by Diffusion and Chemical Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Bottecchia,Otávio Luiz

    1998-01-01

    A model of the growth of thin films of copper selenides is proposed. A mathematical equation that describes the kinetics of the growth is derived. Simulated results and a discussion on the results of the model are presented. A fitting procedure of literature data with the derived equation is carried out. The diffusion coefficient of copper(I) ions in copper selenide is roughly estimated.

  20. Thin film ceramic thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  1. Biomimetic thin film deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, P. C.; Campbell, A. A.; Tarasevich, B. J.; Fryxell, G. E.; Bentjen, S. B.

    1991-04-01

    Surfaces derivatized with organic functional groups were used to promote the deposition of thin films of inorganic minerals. These derivatized surfaces were designed to mimic the nucleation proteins that control mineral deposition during formation of bone, shell, and other hard tissues in living organisms. By the use of derivatized substrates control was obtained over the phase of mineral deposited, the orientation of the crystal lattice and the location of deposition. These features are of considerable importance in many technically important thin films, coatings, and composite materials. Methods of derivatizing surfaces are considered and examples of controlled mineral deposition are presented.

  2. Design optimization of thin-film/wafer-based tandem junction solar cells using analytical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Lauren; Toor, Fatima

    2016-03-01

    Several research groups are developing solar cells of varying designs and materials that are high efficiency as well as cost competitive with the single junction silicon (Si) solar cells commercially produced today. One of these solar cell designs is a tandem junction solar cell comprised of perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) and silicon (Si). Loper et al.1 was able to create a 13.4% efficient tandem cell using a perovskite top cell and a Si bottom cell, and researchers are confident that the perovskite/Si tandem cell can be optimized in order to reach higher efficiencies without introducing expensive manufacturing processes. However, there are currently no commercially available software capable of modeling a tandem cell that is based on a thin-film based bottom cell and a wafer-based top cell. While PC1D2 and SCAPS3 are able to model tandem cells comprised solely of thin-film absorbers or solely of wafer-based absorbers, they result in convergence errors if a thin-film/wafer-based tandem cell, such as the perovskite/ Si cell, is modeled. The Matlab-based analytical model presented in this work is capable of modeling a thin-film/wafer-based tandem solar cell. The model allows a user to adjust the top and bottom cell parameters, such as reflectivity, material bandgaps, donor and acceptor densities, and material thicknesses, in order to optimize the short circuit current, open circuit voltage, and quantum efficiency of the tandem solar cell. Using the Matlab-based analytical model, we were able optimize a perovskite/Si tandem cell with an efficiency greater than 30%.

  3. Qualitative Behaviour of Solutions in Two Models of Thin Liquid Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Michal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the thin-film model of a viscous flow which originates from lubrication approximation and has a full nonlinear curvature term, we prove existence of nonnegative weak solutions. Depending on initial data, we show algebraic or exponential dissipation of an energy functional which implies dissipation of the solution arc length that is a well known property for a Hele-Shaw flow. For the classical thin-film model with linearized curvature term, under some restrictions on parameter and gradient values, we also prove analytically the arc length dissipation property for positive solutions. We compare the numerical solutions for both models, with nonlinear and with linearized curvature terms. In regimes when solutions develop finite time singularities, we explain the difference in qualitative behaviour of solutions.

  4. Thin-film metal hydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remhof, Arndt; Borgschulte, Andreas

    2008-12-01

    The goal of the medieval alchemist, the chemical transformation of common metals into nobel metals, will forever be a dream. However, key characteristics of metals, such as their electronic band structure and, consequently, their electric, magnetic and optical properties, can be tailored by controlled hydrogen doping. Due to their morphology and well-defined geometry with flat, coplanar surfaces/interfaces, novel phenomena may be observed in thin films. Prominent examples are the eye-catching hydrogen switchable mirror effect, the visualization of solid-state diffusion and the formation of complex surface morphologies. Thin films do not suffer as much from embrittlement and/or decrepitation as bulk materials, allowing the study of cyclic absorption and desorption. Therefore, thin-metal hydride films are used as model systems to study metal-insulator transitions, for high throughput combinatorial research or they may be used as indicator layers to study hydrogen diffusion. They can be found in technological applications as hydrogen sensors, in electrochromic and thermochromic devices. In this review, we discuss the effect of hydrogen loading of thin niobium and yttrium films as archetypical examples of a transition metal and a rare earth metal, respectively. Our focus thereby lies on the hydrogen induced changes of the electronic structure and the morphology of the thin films, their optical properties, the visualization and the control of hydrogen diffusion and on the study of surface phenomena and catalysis.

  5. Semi-analytical Single-domain Modeling of Magnetoresistive Multilayer Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oti, John O.

    1997-03-01

    Sub-micrometer magnetoresistive (MR) multilayer thin films show great promise as active elements of future-generation magnetic recording read heads and sensors, and non-volatile magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices. In very small films the transition lengths of internal Neel magnetic domain walls films may become larger than the dimensions of the films, thereby rendering the films incapable of sustaining domain walls. The films then display a predominant single-domain behavior. This greatly simplifies the mathematical modeling of very small MR multilayers. Simulated size dependence properties of the MR behavior of spin-valve read heads and MRAMs, using a semi-analytical single-domain model [1,2], are presented. The model forms part of a personal computer based semi-analytical micromagnetics design tool we have developed. The program utilizes a convenient graphical windowing interface that facilitates the design and analysis of the system, and enables the 3-D rendering of the interacting films and animation of their magnetization reversals. A real-time demonstration of the program will be given as part of the presentation. [1] C. E. Johnson, J. Appl. Phys. 33, 2515 (1962). [2] J. O. Oti, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 6386 (1996).

  6. Thin film metal-oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Shriram

    2009-01-01

    Presents an account of the fundamental structure-property relations in oxide thin films. This title discusses the functional properties of thin film oxides in the context of applications in the electronics and renewable energy technologies.

  7. Thin films for material engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasa, Kiyotaka

    2016-07-01

    Thin films are defined as two-dimensional materials formed by condensing one by one atomic/molecular/ionic species of matter in contrast to bulk three-dimensional sintered ceramics. They are grown through atomic collisional chemical reaction on a substrate surface. Thin film growth processes are fascinating for developing innovative exotic materials. On the basis of my long research on sputtering deposition, this paper firstly describes the kinetic energy effect of sputtered adatoms on thin film growth and discusses on a possibility of room-temperature growth of cubic diamond crystallites and the perovskite thin films of binary compound PbTiO3. Secondly, high-performance sputtered ferroelectric thin films with extraordinary excellent crystallinity compatible with MBE deposited thin films are described in relation to a possible application for thin-film MEMS. Finally, the present thin-film technologies are discussed in terms of a future material science and engineering.

  8. Investigating the magnetic field-dependent conductivity in magnetite thin films by modelling the magnetorefractive effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Chris S; Naughton, James; Benson, Emma; Bradley, Ruth C; Lazarov, Vlado K; Thompson, Sarah M; Matthew, Jim A D

    2014-01-22

    A model of the magnetorefractive effect is developed for metallic oxides which allows the MRE to be used to study the magnetic dependence of their transport and phononic properties. This model is successfully applied to Fe3O4 and compared to experiments on a series of magnetite thin films of varying thickness (10, 18, 37, 64 and 110 nm) deposited on MgO(111) substrates. Reflection spectra were modelled as a function of film thickness, calculated from the Fresnel equations using an Fe3O4 dielectric function consisting of Drude, hopping, phononic and d-s transition conductivity processes. The reflectivity spectra of the different thickness films are reasonably reproduced by the model and reveal that the Fe3O4 18.5 μm phonon peak is shifted to a shorter wavelength in the thin films, approaching the bulk value for t > 110 nm. The MRE spectra are modelled by introducing a magnetic field dependence to the hopping and phononic terms, where previous models have considered the magnetic dependence to be on the Drude term only. In addition, the position of the Fe3O4 18.5 μm phonon peak was also found to shift in energy in the applied magnetic field by 0.05 μm. These results demonstrate the potential for using the MRE technique for probing the underlying magnetoelectronic properties of thin film oxides in a quick and non-destructive way.

  9. Drying of thin colloidal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routh, Alexander F.

    2013-04-01

    When thin films of colloidal fluids are dried, a range of transitions are observed and the final film profile is found to depend on the processes that occur during the drying step. This article describes the drying process, initially concentrating on the various transitions. Particles are seen to initially consolidate at the edge of a drying droplet, the so-called coffee-ring effect. Flow is seen to be from the centre of the drop towards the edge and a front of close-packed particles passes horizontally across the film. Just behind the particle front the now solid film often displays cracks and finally the film is observed to de-wet. These various transitions are explained, with particular reference to the capillary pressure which forms in the solidified region of the film. The reasons for cracking in thin films is explored as well as various methods to minimize its effect. Methods to obtain stratified coatings through a single application are considered for a one-dimensional drying problem and this is then extended to two-dimensional films. Different evaporative models are described, including the physical reason for enhanced evaporation at the edge of droplets. The various scenarios when evaporation is found to be uniform across a drying film are then explained. Finally different experimental techniques for examining the drying step are mentioned and the article ends with suggested areas that warrant further study.

  10. Rare Earth Oxide Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Fanciulli, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Thin rare earth (RE) oxide films are emerging materials for microelectronic, nanoelectronic, and spintronic applications. The state-of-the-art of thin film deposition techniques as well as the structural, physical, chemical, and electrical properties of thin RE oxide films and of their interface with semiconducting substrates are discussed. The aim is to identify proper methodologies for the development of RE oxides thin films and to evaluate their effectiveness as innovative materials in different applications.

  11. NMR characterization of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2008-11-25

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  12. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Weisenbach, L.A.; Anderson, M.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    This project is developing inorganic thin films as membranes for gas separation applications, and as discriminating coatings for liquid-phase chemical sensors. Our goal is to synthesize these coatings with tailored porosity and surface chemistry on porous substrates and on acoustic and optical sensors. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, air, and natural gas constituents at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. We are focusing on improving permeability and molecular sieve properties of crystalline zeolitic membranes made by hydrothermally reacting layered multicomponent sol-gel films deposited on mesoporous substrates. We also used acoustic plate mode (APM) oscillator and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor elements as substrates for sol-gel films, and have both used these modified sensors to determine physical properties of the films and have determined the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors to aqueous chemical species.

  13. Reduced model for precessional switching of thin-film nanomagnets under the influence of spin torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Ross G.; Chaves-O'Flynn, Gabriel D.; Kent, Andrew D.; Muratov, Cyrill B.

    2016-10-01

    We study the magnetization dynamics of thin-film magnetic elements with in-plane magnetization subject to a spin current flowing perpendicular to the film plane. We derive a reduced partial differential equation for the in-plane magnetization angle in a weakly damped regime. We then apply this model to study the experimentally relevant problem of switching of an elliptical element when the spin polarization has a component perpendicular to the film plane, restricting the reduced model to a macrospin approximation. The macrospin ordinary differential equation is treated analytically as a weakly damped Hamiltonian system, and an orbit-averaging method is used to understand transitions in solution behaviors in terms of a discrete dynamical system. The predictions of our reduced model are compared to those of the full Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski equation for a macrospin.

  14. Note on the hydrodynamic description of thin nematic films: strong anchoring model

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Te-Sheng; Archer, Andrew J; Kondic, Lou; Thiele, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the long-wave hydrodynamic model for a thin film of nematic liquid crystal in the limit of strong anchoring at the free surface and at the substrate. Our aim is to clarify how the elastic energy enters the evolution equation for the film thickness; several models exist in the literature that result in qualitatively different behaviour. We consolidate the various approaches and show that the long-wave model derived through an asymptotic expansion of the full nemato-hydrodynamic equations with consistent boundary conditions agrees with the equation one obtains by employing a thermodynamically motivated gradient dynamics formulation based on an underlying free energy functional. As a result, we find that the elastic distortion energy is always stabilising in the case of strong anchoring. To support the discussion in the main part of the paper, an appendix gives the full derivation of the evolution equation for the film thickness via asymptotic expansion.

  15. Zapping thin film transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golo-Tosic, N.; Kuper, F.G.; Mouthaan, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    It was expected that hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film transistors (alpha-Si:H TFTs) behave similarly to crystalline silicon transistors under electrostatic discharge (ESD) stress. It will be disproved in this paper. This knowledge is necessary in the design of the transistors used in a ESD

  16. A liquid-like model for the morphology evolution of ion bombarded thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repetto, L., E-mail: luca.repetto@unige.it [Department of Physics and Nanomed Labs, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Lo Savio, R. [Department of Physics and Nanomed Labs, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Šetina Batič, B. [Inštitut Za Kovinske Materiale in Tehnologije, Lepi pot 11, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Firpo, G.; Angeli, E.; Valbusa, U. [Department of Physics and Nanomed Labs, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    Thin solid films exposed to ion irradiation exhibit a peculiar evolution that can differ substantially from what is observed for bulk samples. The phenomenology of the patterns that self-organize on the substrate is very rich, with morphologies that display several degrees of order upon the modification of initial film characteristics and irradiation parameters. This richness paves the way for the fabrication of novel functional surfaces, but it is also an indication of the complexity of the underlying driving mechanisms. A remarkable simplification for the comprehension of these phenomena can come from the noteworthy similarity of the obtained patterns with those showing up when liquids dewet from their substrates. Here, we analyze the possibility to apply a liquid-like model to explain the morphology evolution of ion bombarded thin films for the whole phenomenology showing up in experiments. In establishing this connection between liquids and ion bombarded thin films, we propose to use also for liquids the insight gained for our system with recent experiments that stress the importance of the substrate topography for the selection of the dewetting mechanism. If confirmed, this result would lead to a reconsideration of the importance of capillary waves in spinodal dewetting, and will help to understand the low reproducibility of the related experimental results.

  17. Development of Mathematical Models for Detecting Micron Scale Volumetric Defects in Thin Film Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaigals G.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the present research is to investigate possibilities of volumetric defect detection in thin film coatings on glass substrates by means of high definition imaging with no complex optical systems, such as lenses, and to determine development and construction feasibility of a defectoscope employing the investigated methods. Numerical simulations were used to test the proposed methods. Three theoretical models providing various degrees of accuracy and feasibility were studied.

  18. Thin films under chemical stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The goal of work on this project has been develop a set of experimental tools to allow investigators interested in transport, binding, and segregation phenomena in composite thin film structures to study these phenomena in situ. Work to-date has focuses on combining novel spatially-directed optical excitation phenomena, e.g. waveguide eigenmodes in thin dielectric slabs, surface plasmon excitations at metal-dielectric interfaces, with standard spectroscopies to understand dynamic processes in thin films and at interfaces. There have been two main scientific thrusts in the work and an additional technical project. In one thrust we have sought to develop experimental tools which will allow us to understand the chemical and physical changes which take place when thin polymer films are placed under chemical stress. In principle this stress may occur because the film is being swelled by a penetrant entrained in solvent, because interfacial reactions are occurring at one or more boundaries within the film structure, or because some component of the film is responding to an external stimulus (e.g. pH, temperature, electric field, or radiation). However all work to-date has focused on obtaining a clearer understanding penetrant transport phenomena. The other thrust has addressed the kinetics of adsorption of model n-alkanoic acids from organic solvents. Both of these thrusts are important within the context of our long-term goal of understanding the behavior of composite structures, composed of thin organic polymer films interspersed with Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and self-assembled monolayers. In addition there has been a good deal of work to develop the local technical capability to fabricate grating couplers for optical waveguide excitation. This work, which is subsidiary to the main scientific goals of the project, has been successfully completed and will be detailed as well. 41 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Nanogoniometry with scanning force microscopy: a model study of CdTe thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Lidón, Elisa; Guanter, Luis; Zúñiga-Pérez, Jesús; Muñoz-Sanjosé, Vicente; Colchero, Jaime

    2007-03-01

    In this paper scanning force microscopy is combined with simple but powerful data processing to determine quantitatively, on a sub-micrometer scale, the orientation of surface facets present on crystalline materials. A high-quality scanning force topography image is used to determine an angular histogram of the surface normal at each image point. In addition to the known method for the assignment of Miller indices to the facets appearing on the surface, a quantitative analysis is presented that allows the characterization of the relative population and morphological quality of each of these facets. Two different CdTe thin films are used as model systems to probe the capabilities of this method, which enables further information to be obtained about the thermodynamic stability of particular crystallographic facets. The method, which is referred to as nanogoniometry, will be a powerful tool to study in detail the surface of crystalline materials, particularly thin films, with sub-micrometer resolution.

  20. Degradation and device physics modeling of SWCNT/CdTe thin film photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshmand, Mohammad; Zandi, M. Hossein; Gorji, Nima E.

    2015-12-01

    We propose single walled carbon nanotubes as the n-type window partner of CdTe layer in a conventional CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells. The semiconductor nanotubes have superior optical and electrical properties i.e. controllable high band gap, being highly conductive and non-diffusive (not mobile). We modeled current-voltage characteristics of hybrid SWCNT/CdTe structure using Sah-Noyce-Shockley theory instead of Schottky barrier theory. The former theory is rather strong since it is based on carrier transport in the depletion region of a pn junction and considers the defect density within the depletion width. Also, a time dependent approach is used to simulate the degradation of device metrics under bias, illumination and temperature. It is discussed how a nanolayer can reduce the degradation rate of a thin film solar cell by surpassing grain boundaries and mobile ions migration towards junction.

  1. Characterization and modeling tools for light management in heterogeneous thin film layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Rouzo, J.; Duché, D.; Ruiz, C. M.; Thierry, F.; Carlberg, M.; Berginc, G.; Pasquinelli, M.; Simon, J.-J.; Escoubas, L.; Flory, F.

    2016-09-01

    The extraordinary progresses in the design and realization of structures in inorganic or organic thin films, whether or not including nanoparticles, make it possible to develop devices with very specific properties. Mastering the links between the macroscopic optical properties and the opto-geometrical parameters of these heterogeneous layers is thus a crucial issue. We propose to present the tools used to characterize and to model thin film layers, from an optical point of view, highlighting the interest of coupling both experimental and simulation studies for improving our knowledge on the optical response of the structure. Different examples of studies are presented on CIGS, Perovskite, P3HT:ZnO, PC70BM, organic layer containing metallic nanoparticles and colored solar cells.

  2. [Spectral emissivity of thin films].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, D

    2001-02-01

    In this paper, the contribution of multiple reflections in thin film to the spectral emissivity of thin films of low absorption is discussed. The expression of emissivity of thin films derived here is related to the thin film thickness d and the optical constants n(lambda) and k(lambda). It is shown that in the special case d-->infinity the emissivity of thin films is equivalent to that of the bulk material. Realistic numerical and more precise general numerical results for the dependence of the emissivity on d, n(lambda) and k(lambda) are given.

  3. Dispersion model for optical thin films applicable in wide spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franta, Daniel; Nečas, David; Ohlídal, Ivan; Giglia, Angelo

    2015-09-01

    In the optics industry thin film systems are used to construct various interference devices such as antireflective coatings, high-reflectance mirrors, beam splitters and filters. The optical characterization of complex optical systems can not be performed by measurements only in the short spectral range in which the interference devices will be employed because the measured data do not contain sufficient information about all relevant parameters of these systems. The characterization of film materials requires the extension of the spectral range of the measurements to the IR region containing phonon absorption and to the UV region containing the electronic excitations. However, this leads to necessity of a dispersion model suitable for the description of the dielectric response in the wide spectral range. Such model must respect the physical conditions following from theory of dispersion, particularly Kramers-Kronig relations and integrability imposed by sum rules. This work presents the construction of a universal dispersion model composed from individual contributions representing both electronic and phonon excitations. The efficiency of presented model is given by the fact that all the contributions are described by analytical expressions. It is shown that the model is suitable for precise modeling of spectral dependencies of optical constants of a broad class of materials used in the optical industry for thin film systems such as MgF2, SiO2, Al2O3, HfO2, Ta2O5 and TiO2 in the spectral range from far IR to vacuum UV.

  4. Modeling a spheroidal microswimmer and cooperative swimming in thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Theers, Mario; Gompper, Gerhard; Winkler, Roland G

    2016-01-01

    We propose a hydrodynamic model for a spheroidal microswimmer with two tangential surface velocity modes. This model is analytically solvable and reduces to Lighthill's and Blake's spherical squirmer model in the limit of equal major and minor semi-axes. Furthermore, we present an implementation of such a spheroidal squirmer by means of multiparticle collision dynamics simulations. We investigate its properties as well as the scattering of two spheroidal squirmers in a slit geometry. Thereby we find a stable fixed point, where two pullers swim cooperatively forming a wedge-like conformation with a small constant angle.

  5. Predictive modeling of nanoscale domain morphology in solution-processed organic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Cyrus; Jenkins, Michael; Morehouse, Robell; Stanfield, Dane; McDowall, Stephen; Johnson, Brad L.; Patrick, David L.

    2017-09-01

    The electronic and optoelectronic properties of molecular semiconductor thin films are directly linked to their extrinsic nanoscale structural characteristics such as domain size and spatial distributions. In films prepared by common solution-phase deposition techniques such as spin casting and solvent-based printing, morphology is governed by a complex interrelated set of thermodynamic and kinetic factors that classical models fail to adequately capture, leaving them unable to provide much insight, let alone predictive design guidance for tailoring films with specific nanostructural characteristics. Here we introduce a comprehensive treatment of solution-based film formation enabling quantitative prediction of domain formation rates, coverage, and spacing statistics based on a small number of experimentally measureable parameters. The model combines a mean-field rate equation treatment of monomer aggregation kinetics with classical nucleation theory and a supersaturation-dependent critical nucleus size to solve for the quasi-two-dimensional temporally and spatially varying monomer concentration, nucleation rate, and other properties. Excellent agreement is observed with measured nucleation densities and interdomain radial distribution functions in polycrystalline tetracene films. Numerical solutions lead to a set of general design rules enabling predictive morphological control in solution-processed molecular crystalline films.

  6. Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Bernard R.

    1995-12-26

    A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

  7. Characterization of thin-film silicon materials and solar cells through numerical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, B.E.

    2008-01-01

    At present most commercially available solar cells are made of crystalline silicon (c-Si). The disadvantages of crystalline silicon solar cells are the high material cost and energy consumption during production. A cheaper alternative can be found in thin-film silicon solar cells. The thin-film sili

  8. Chiral atomically thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheol-Joo; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Ziegler, Zack; Ogawa, Yui; Noguez, Cecilia; Park, Jiwoong

    2016-06-01

    Chiral materials possess left- and right-handed counterparts linked by mirror symmetry. These materials are useful for advanced applications in polarization optics, stereochemistry and spintronics. In particular, the realization of spatially uniform chiral films with atomic-scale control of their handedness could provide a powerful means for developing nanodevices with novel chiral properties. However, previous approaches based on natural or grown films, or arrays of fabricated building blocks, could not offer a direct means to program intrinsic chiral properties of the film on the atomic scale. Here, we report a chiral stacking approach, where two-dimensional materials are positioned layer-by-layer with precise control of the interlayer rotation (θ) and polarity, resulting in tunable chiral properties of the final stack. Using this method, we produce left- and right-handed bilayer graphene, that is, a two-atom-thick chiral film. The film displays one of the highest intrinsic ellipticity values (6.5 deg μm-1) ever reported, and a remarkably strong circular dichroism (CD) with the peak energy and sign tuned by θ and polarity. We show that these chiral properties originate from the large in-plane magnetic moment associated with the interlayer optical transition. Furthermore, we show that we can program the chiral properties of atomically thin films layer-by-layer by producing three-layer graphene films with structurally controlled CD spectra.

  9. Carbon Superatom Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canning, A. [Cray Research, PSE, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Canning, A.; Galli, G. [Institut Romand de Recherche Numerique en Physique des Materiaux (IRRMA), IN-Ecublens, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Kim, J. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    1997-06-01

    We report on quantum molecular dynamics simulations of C{sub 28} deposition on a semiconducting surface. Our results show that under certain deposition conditions C{sub 28} {close_quote}s act as building blocks on a nanometer scale to form a thin film of nearly defect-free molecules. The C{sub 28} {close_quote}s behave as carbon superatoms, with the majority of them being threefold or fourfold coordinated, similar to carbon atoms in amorphous systems. The microscopic structure of the deposited film supports recent suggestions about the stability of a new form of carbon, the hyperdiamond solid. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Finite element analysis and equivalent parallel-resistance model for conductive multilayer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Yi; Juang, Jia-Yang

    2016-07-01

    The standard collinear four-point probe method is an indispensable tool and has been extensively used for characterizing conductive thin films with homogeneous and isotropic electrical properties. In this paper, we conduct three-dimensional (3D) finite element simulations on conductive multilayer films to study the relationship between the reading of the four-point probe and the conductivity of the individual layers. We find that a multilayer film may be modeled as a simple equivalent circuit with multiple resistances, connected in parallel for a wide range of resistivity and thickness ratios, as long as its total thickness is smaller than approximately half of the probe spacing. As a result, we may determine the resistivity of each layer sequentially by applying the four-point probe, with the original correction factor π/ln(2), after deposition of each layer.

  11. A physical surface-potential-based drain current model for polysilicon thin-film transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiyue; Deng Wanling; Huang Junkai

    2012-01-01

    A physical drain current model of polysilicon thin-film transistors based on the charge-sheet model,the density of trap states and surface potential is proposed.The model uses non-iterative calculations,which are single-piece and valid in all operation regions above flat-band voltage.The distribution of the trap states,including both Gaussian deep-level states and exponential band-tail states,is also taken into account,and parameter extraction of trap state distribution is developed by the optoelectronic modulation spectroscopy measurement method.Comparisons with the available experimental data are accomplished,and good agreements are obtained.

  12. Biomimetic thin film deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieke, P.R.; Graff, G.E.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.; Baskaran, S.; Song, L.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Fryxell, G.E.

    1995-09-01

    Biological mineral deposition for the formation of bone, mollusk shell and other hard tissues provides materials scientists with illustrative materials processing strategies. This presentation will review the key features of biomineralization and how these features can be of technical importance. We have adapted existing knowledge of biomineralization to develop a unique method of depositing inorganic thin films and coating. Our approach to thin film deposition is to modify substrate surfaces to imitate the proteins found in nature that are responsible for controlling mineral deposition. These biomimetic surfaces control the nucleation and growth of the mineral from a supersaturated aqueous solution. This has many processing advantages including simple processing equipment, environmentally benign reagents, uniform coating of highly complex shapes, and enhanced adherence of coating. Many different types of metal oxide, hydroxide, sulfide and phosphate materials with useful mechanical, optical, electronic and biomedical properties can be deposited.

  13. Thin film processes

    CERN Document Server

    Vossen, John L

    1978-01-01

    Remarkable advances have been made in recent years in the science and technology of thin film processes for deposition and etching. It is the purpose of this book to bring together tutorial reviews of selected filmdeposition and etching processes from a process viewpoint. Emphasis is placed on the practical use of the processes to provide working guidelines for their implementation, a guide to the literature, and an overview of each process.

  14. Thin liquid films dewetting and polymer flow

    CERN Document Server

    Blossey, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    This book is a treatise on the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of thin liquid films at solid surfaces and, in particular, their rupture instabilities. For the quantitative study of these phenomena, polymer thin films haven proven to be an invaluable experimental model system.   What is it that makes thin film instabilities special and interesting, warranting a whole book? There are several answers to this. Firstly, thin polymeric films have an important range of applications, and with the increase in the number of technologies available to produce and to study them, this range is likely to expand. An understanding of their instabilities is therefore of practical relevance for the design of such films.   Secondly, thin liquid films are an interdisciplinary research topic. Interdisciplinary research is surely not an end to itself, but in this case it leads to a fairly heterogeneous community of theoretical and experimental physicists, engineers, physical chemists, mathematicians and others working on the...

  15. Handbook of thin film technology

    CERN Document Server

    Frey, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    “Handbook of Thin Film Technology” covers all aspects of coatings preparation, characterization and applications. Different deposition techniques based on vacuum and plasma processes are presented. Methods of surface and thin film analysis including coating thickness, structural, optical, electrical, mechanical and magnetic properties of films are detailed described. The several applications of thin coatings and a special chapter focusing on nanoparticle-based films can be found in this handbook. A complete reference for students and professionals interested in the science and technology of thin films.

  16. Thin film interconnect processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Farid

    Interconnects and associated photolithography and etching processes play a dominant role in the feature shrinkage of electronic devices. Most interconnects are fabricated by use of thin film processing techniques. Planarization of dielectrics and novel metal deposition methods are the focus of current investigations. Spin-on glass, polyimides, etch-back, bias-sputtered quartz, and plasma-enhanced conformal films are being used to obtain planarized dielectrics over which metal films can be reliably deposited. Recent trends have been towards chemical vapor depositions of metals and refractory metal silicides. Interconnects of the future will be used in conjunction with planarized dielectric layers. Reliability of devices will depend to a large extent on the quality of the interconnects.

  17. Inkjet-based deposition of polymer thin films enabled by a lubrication model incorporating nano-scale parasitics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Shrawan; Meissl, Mario J.; Bonnecaze, Roger T.; Sreenivasan, S. V.

    2013-09-01

    Thin film lubrication theory has been widely used to model multi-scale fluid phenomena. Variations of the same have also found application in fluid-based manufacturing process steps for micro- and nano-scale devices over large areas where a natural disparity in length scales exists. Here, a novel inkjet material deposition approach has been enabled by an enhanced thin film lubrication theory that accounts for nano-scale substrate parasitics. This approach includes fluid interactions with a thin flexible superstrate towards a new process called Jet and Coat of Thin-films (JCT). Numerical solutions of the model have been verified, and also validated against controlled experiments of polymer film deposition with good agreement. Understanding gleaned from the experimentally validated model has then been used to facilitate JCT process synthesis resulting in substantial reduction in the influence of parasitics and a concomitant improvement in the film thickness uniformity. Polymer films ranging from 20 to 500 nm mean thickness have been demonstrated with standard deviation of less than 2% of the mean film thickness. The JCT process offers advantages over spin coating which is not compatible with roll-to-roll processing and large area processing for displays. It also improves over techniques such as knife edge coating, slot die coating, as they are limited in the range of thicknesses of films that can be deposited without compromising uniformity.

  18. Thin films of soft matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2007-01-01

    A detailed overview and comprehensive analysis of the main theoretical and experimental advances on free surface thin film and jet flows of soft matter is given. At the theoretical front the book outlines the basic equations and boundary conditions and the derivation of low-dimensional models for the evolution of the free surface. Such models include long-wave expansions and equations of the boundary layer type and are analyzed via linear stability analysis, weakly nonlinear theories and strongly nonlinear analysis including construction of stationary periodic and solitary wave and similarity solutions. At the experimental front a variety of very recent experimental developments is outlined and the link between theory and experiments is illustrated. Such experiments include spreading drops and bubbles, imbibitions, singularity formation at interfaces and experimental characterization of thin films using atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry and contact angle measurements and analysis of patterns using Minkows...

  19. Analytical drain current model for amorphous IGZO thin-film transistors in abovethreshold regime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Hongyu; Zheng Xueren

    2011-01-01

    An analytical drain current model is presented for amorphous In-Ga-Zn-oxide thin-film transistors in the above-threshold regime,assuming an exponential trap states density within the bandgap.Using a charge sheet approximation,the trapped and free charge expressions are calculated,then the surface potential based drain current expression is developed.Moreover,threshold voltage based drain current expressions are presented using the Taylor expansion to the surface potential based drain current expression.The calculated results of the surface potential based and threshold voltage based drain current expressions are compared with experimental data and good agreements are achieved.

  20. An Improved Thin Film Brick-Wall Model of Black Hole Entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-Biao; ZHAO Zheng

    2001-01-01

    We improve the brick-wall model to take only the contribution of a thin film near the event horizon into account. This improvement not only gives us a satisfactory result, but also avoids some drawbacks in the original brick wall method such as the little mass approximation, neglecting logarithm term, and taking the term L3 as the contribution of the vacuum surrounding a black hole. It is found that there is an intrinsic relation between the event horizon and the entropy. The event horizon is the characteristic of a black hole, so the entropy calculating of a black hole is also naturally related to its horizon.

  1. Simulation of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells - model calibration and sensitivity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teodoreanu, Ana-Maria; Leendertz, Caspar; Sontheimer, Tobias; Rech, Bernd [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Kekulestr. 5. 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    To gain a better insight into the efficiency-limiting processes in polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin film solar cells, we developed a simulation model for the J-V characteristics and minority carrier lifetime based on experimental results using the numerical 1D simulation program AFORS-HET. The calibration of the model has been achieved through simultaneously fitting the measured dark and light J-V curves of twelve poly-Si thin film minimodules with dissimilar thickness and absorber doping concentration. Effective defect density, capture cross section products of 10..100 cm{sup -1} have been determined in the poly-Si absorber by this procedure. Transient photoconductance decay measurements of the poly-Si absorbers have also been conducted in the low injection regime (4.5.10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}). High lifetimes of 100 {mu} s have been found which can be explained within our simulation model by field effect passivation. Furthermore simulations indicate that this field effect leads to a strong injection-dependence of carrier lifetime in the operation range of the solar cell. The sensitivity analysis performed with our calibrated model shows that the defects in the absorber layer are crucial for the cell efficiency. Thus, the improvement of the emitter and back surface field layers becomes important only if the absorber itself is of better quality. Moreover we discuss the optimum absorber thickness subject to different doping levels and absorber defect densities.

  2. Structural and optical modeling of electro deposited CuInSe2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessaïs B.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ternary semiconductor CuInSe2 is one of the most advantageous materials for the manufacturing of thin film solar cells. In this study, CuInSe2 thin films were prepared at room temperature using the electrodepositing method. The as-prepared films were found to be amorphous. The CuInSe2 films were crystallized in a tubular resistive furnace, and characterized by means of the the X-ray diffraction (XRD and UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy techniques. The parameters to optimize are the temperature and duration of the annealing time, and the Cu/In ratio in the precursors.

  3. Analytical model for thin-film SOI PIN-diode leakage current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Andrei; Dreiner, Stefan; Vogt, Holger; Goehlich, Andreas; Paschen, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    An analytical model for the thin-film silicon-on-insulator pin-diode leakage current is presented. Particularly the back-gate potential influence on the leakage current is addressed. The two-dimensional Poisson equation is simplified and then solved including the influence of the back-gate potential. Subsequently the analytical model is verified by comparison with numerical simulation and measurements. For the verification of the model the dependence on the back-gate potential, reverse voltage, device geometry, doping concentration and -polarity is considered. In this procedure the interface recombination velocity is used as fitting parameter. The model verification shows an accurate modeling of the leakage current at full depletion in combination with a back-gate potential dependence. The usage of the model is limited to back-gate and reverse potentials close to full depletion state of the pin-diode.

  4. Three-dimensional modelling of thin liquid films over spinning disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Wray, Alex; Yang, Junfeng; Matar, Omar

    2016-11-01

    In this research the dynamics of a thin film flowing over a rapidly spinning, horizontal disk is considered. A set of non-axisymmetric evolution equations for the film thickness, radial and azimuthal flow rates are derived using a boundary-layer approximation in conjunction with the Karman-Polhausen approximation for the velocity distribution in the film. These highly nonlinear partial differential equations are then solved numerically in order to reveal the formation of two and three-dimensional large-amplitude waves that travel from the disk inlet to its periphery. The spatio-temporal profile of film thickness provides us with visualization of flow structures over the entire disk and by varying system parameters(volumetric flow rate of fluid and rotational speed of disk) different wave patterns can be observed, including spiral, concentric, smooth waves and wave break-up in exceptional conditions. Similar types of waves can be found by experimentalists in literature and CFD simulation and our results show good agreement with both experimental and CFD results. Furthermore, the semi-parabolic velocity profile assumed in our model under the waves is directly compared with CFD data in various flow regimes in order to validate our model. EPSRC UK Programme Grant EP/K003976/1.

  5. Investigation on Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The preparation, current status and trends are investigated for silicon thin film solar cells. The advantages and disadvantages of amorphous silicon thin film, polycrystalline silicon thin film and mono-crystalline silicon thin film solar cells are compared. The future development trends are pointed out. It is found that polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells will be more promising for application with great potential.

  6. Nonlinear optical thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Thomas M.

    1993-01-01

    A focused approach to development and evaluation of organic polymer films for use in optoelectronics is presented. The issues and challenges that are addressed include: (1) material synthesis, purification, and the tailoring of the material properties; (2) deposition of uniform thin films by a variety of methods; (3) characterization of material physical properties (thermal, electrical, optical, and electro-optical); and (4) device fabrication and testing. Photonic materials, devices, and systems were identified as critical technology areas by the Department of Commerce and the Department of Defense. This approach offers strong integration of basic material issues through engineering applications by the development of materials that can be exploited as the active unit in a variety of polymeric thin film devices. Improved materials were developed with unprecedented purity and stability. The absorptive properties can be tailored and controlled to provide significant improvement in propagation losses and nonlinear performance. Furthermore, the materials were incorporated into polymers that are highly compatible with fabrication and patterning processes for integrated optical devices and circuits. By simultaneously addressing the issues of materials development and characterization, keeping device design and fabrication in mind, many obstacles were overcome for implementation of these polymeric materials and devices into systems. We intend to considerably improve the upper use temperature, poling stability, and compatibility with silicon based devices. The principal device application that was targeted is a linear electro-optic modulation etalon. Organic polymers need to be properly designed and coupled with existing integrated circuit technology to create new photonic devices for optical communication, image processing, other laser applications such as harmonic generation, and eventually optical computing. The progression from microscopic sample to a suitable film

  7. Absorption coefficient modeling of microcrystalline silicon thin film using Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Hui; Wang, Hsuan-Wen; Chang, Ting-Wei

    2012-03-12

    Considering the Mott-Davis density of state model and Rayleigh scattering effect, we present an approach to model the absorption profile of microcrystalline silicon thin films in this paper. Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory was applied to analyze the absorption curves. To validate the model, several experimental profiles have been established and compared with those results from the model. With the assistance of the genetic algorithm, our results show that the absorption curves from the model are in good agreement with the experiments. Our findings also indicate that, as the crystal volume fraction increases, not only do the defects in amorphous silicon reduce, but the bulk scattering effect is gradually enhanced as well.

  8. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  9. Modeling the influence of the seeding layer on the transition behavior of a ferroelectric thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oubelkacem, A.; Essaoudi, I. [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux et Modelisation des Systemes, Unite Associee au CNRST, URAC: 08, University of Moulay Ismail, Faculty of Sciences, Physics Department, B.P. 11201, Meknes (Morocco); Ainane, A., E-mail: ainane@pks.mpg.de [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux et Modelisation des Systemes, Unite Associee au CNRST, URAC: 08, University of Moulay Ismail, Faculty of Sciences, Physics Department, B.P. 11201, Meknes (Morocco); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik Complexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Str. 38 D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Denses (LPMD) Institut de Chimie, Physique et Materiaux (ICPM), 1 Bd. Arago, 57070, Metz (France); INFM-Dip. Fisica. Univ. Padova, via Marzolo 8, 54124 Padova (Italy); Saber, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux et Modelisation des Systemes, Unite Associee au CNRST, URAC: 08, University of Moulay Ismail, Faculty of Sciences, Physics Department, B.P. 11201, Meknes (Morocco); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik Complexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Str. 38 D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Dujardin, F. [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Denses (LPMD) Institut de Chimie, Physique et Materiaux (ICPM), 1 Bd. Arago, 57070, Metz (France)

    2011-10-31

    The transition properties of a ferroelectric thin film with seeding layers were studied using the effective field theory with a probability distribution technique that accounts for the self-spin correlation functions. The effect of interaction parameters for the seeding layer on the phase diagram was also examined. We calculated the critical temperature and the polarization of the ferroelectric thin film for different seeding layer structures. We found that the seeding layer can greatly increase the Curie temperature and the polarization.

  10. Thin Film Evaporation Model with Retarded Van Der Waals Interaction (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    large heat transfer rates within evaporators and condensers. At the contact line present between a wetting liquid and a solid, there exists a thin...silicon. In contrast, a non- wetting thin film becomes thinner until it ruptures to produce discrete droplets on the substrate. The net attractive...Interline Heat-Transfer Coefficient of an Evaporating Wetting Film, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 19 (1976) 487-492 [5] Hallinan K.P. & Chebaro H.C

  11. Note on the hydrodynamic description of thin nematic films: Strong anchoring model

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Te-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the long-wave hydrodynamic model for a thin film of nematic liquid crystal in the limit of strong anchoring at the free surface and at the substrate. We rigorously clarify how the elastic energy enters the evolution equation for the film thickness in order to provide a solid basis for further investigation: several conflicting models exist in the literature that predict qualitatively different behaviour. We consolidate the various approaches and show that the long-wave model derived through an asymptotic expansion of the full nemato-hydrodynamic equations with consistent boundary conditions agrees with the model one obtains by employing a thermodynamically motivated gradient dynamics formulation based on an underlying free energy functional. As a result, we find that in the case of strong anchoring the elastic distortion energy is always stabilising. To support the discussion in the main part of the paper, an appendix gives the full derivation of the evolution equation for the film thickness via asymptotic expansion. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  12. Polycrystalline thin films : A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valvoda, V. [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mathematics and Physics

    1996-09-01

    Polycrystalline thin films can be described in terms of grain morphology and in terms of their packing by the Thornton`s zone model as a function of temperature of deposition and as a function of energy of deposited atoms. Grain size and preferred grain orientation (texture) can be determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. A review of XRD analytical methods of texture analysis is given with main attention paid to simple empirical functions used for texture description and for structure analysis by joint texture refinement. To illustrate the methods of detailed structure analysis of thin polycrystalline films, examples of multilayers are used with the aim to show experiments and data evaluation to determine layer thickness, periodicity, interface roughness, lattice spacing, strain and the size of diffraction coherent volumes. The methods of low angle and high angle XRD are described and discussed with respect to their complementary information content.

  13. First Thin Film Festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Philippe

    2005-05-01

    The constant evolution of the satellite market is asking for better technical performances and reliability for a reduced cost. Solar array is in front line of this challenge. This can be achieved by present technologies progressive improvement in cost reduction or by technological breakthrough. To reach an effective End Of Live performance100 W/kg of solar array is not so easy, even if you suppose that the mass of everything is nothing! Thin film cells are potential candidate to contribute to this challenge with certain confidence level and consequent development plan validation and qualification on ground and flight. Based on a strong flight heritage in flexible Solar Array design, the work has allowed in these last years, to pave the way on road map of thin film technologies . This is encouraged by ESA on many technological contracts put in concurrent engineering. CISG was selected cell and their strategy of design, contributions and results will be presented. Trade-off results and Design to Cost solutions will discussed. Main technical drivers, system design constraints, market access, key technologies needed will be detailed in this paper and the resulting road-map and development plan will be presented.

  14. Re-orientation transition in molecular thin films: Potts model with dipolar interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Danh-Tai; Kasperski, Maciej; Puszkarski, Henryk; Diep, H T

    2013-02-06

    We study the low-temperature behavior and the phase transition of a thin film by Monte Carlo simulation. The thin film has a simple cubic lattice structure where each site is occupied by a Potts parameter which indicates the molecular orientation of the site. We take only three molecular orientations in this paper, which correspond to the three-state Potts model. The Hamiltonian of the system includes (i) the exchange interaction J(ij) between nearest-neighbor sites i and j, (ii) the long-range dipolar interaction of amplitude D truncated at a cutoff distance r(c), and (iii) a single-ion perpendicular anisotropy of amplitude A. We allow J(ij) = J(s) between surface spins, and J(ij) = J otherwise. We show that the ground state depends on the ratio D/A and r(c). For a single layer, for a given A, there is a critical value D(c) below (above) which the ground-state (GS) configuration of molecular axes is perpendicular (parallel) to the film surface. When the temperature T is increased, a re-orientation transition occurs near D(c): the low-T in-plane ordering undergoes a transition to the perpendicular ordering at a finite T, below the transition to the paramagnetic phase. The same phenomenon is observed in the case of a film with a thickness. Comparison with the Fe/Gd experiment is given. We show that the surface phase transition can occur below or above the bulk transition depending on the ratio J(s)/J. Surface and bulk order parameters as well as other physical quantities are shown and discussed.

  15. Characterization of thin-film multilayers using magnetization curves and modeling of low-angle X-ray diffraction data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, M. [Emory & Henry College, VA (United States); Chaiken, A.; Michel, R.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    We have characterized thin-film multilayers grown by ion-beam sputtering using magnetization curves and modeling of low-angle x-ray diffraction data. In our films, we use ferromagnetic layer = Co, Fe, and NiFe and spacer layer = Si, Ge, FeSi{sub 2}, and CoSi{sub 2}. We have studied the effects of (1) deposition conditions; (2) thickness of layers; (3) different layer materials; and (4) annealing. We find higher magnetization in films grown at 1000V rather than 500V and in films with spacer layers of 50{angstrom} rather than 100{angstrom}. We find higher coercivity in films with cobalt grown on germanium rather than silicon, metal grown on gold underlayers rather than on glass substrates, and when using thinner spacer layers. Finally, modeling reveals that films grown with disilicide layers are more thermally stable than films grown with silicon spacer layers.

  16. Tricriticality of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in thin films of stacked triangular lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hog, Sahbi; Diep, H. T.

    2016-03-01

    We study in this paper the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in a thin film of stacked triangular lattices. The model is described by three parameters: bilinear exchange interaction between spins J, quadratic exchange interaction K and single-ion anisotropy D. The spin Si at the lattice site i takes three values (-1, 0, +1). This model can describe the mixing phase of He-4 (Si = +1,-1) and He-3 (Si = 0) at low temperatures. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we show that there exists a critical value of D below (above) which the transition is of second-(first-)order. In general, the temperature dependence of the concentrations of He-3 is different from layer by layer. At a finite temperature in the superfluid phase, the film surface shows a deficit of He-4 with respect to interior layers. However, effects of surface interaction parameters can reverse this situation. Effects of the film thickness on physical properties will be also shown as functions of temperature.

  17. Thin Film Equations with Soluble Surfactant and Gravity: Modeling and Stability of Steady States

    CERN Document Server

    Escher, Joachim; Laurençot, Philippe; Walker, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    A thin film on a horizontal solid substrate and coated with a soluble surfactant is considered. The governing degenerate parabolic equations for the film height and the surfactant concentrations on the surface and in the bulk are derived using a lubrication approximation when gravity is taken into account. It is shown that the steady states are asymptotically stable.

  18. Thin Film Inorganic Electrochemical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-07-01

    determined that thin film cathodes of LiCoO2 can be readily performed by either spray pyrolysis or spin coating . These cathodes are electrochemically...active. We have also determined that thin film anodes of Li4Ti5O12 can be prepared by spray pyrolysis or spin coating . These anodes are also

  19. Thin-film solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, J.W.; Kuznetsov, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a thin-film solar cell provided with at least one p-i-n junction comprising at least one p-i junction which is at an angle alpha with that surface of the thin-film solar cell which collects light during operation and at least one i-n junction which is at an angle beta with

  20. Geometrical nonlinear deformation model and its experimental study on bimorph giant magnetostrictive thin film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei LIU; Zhenyuan JIA; Fuji WANG; Yongshun ZHANG; Dongming GUO

    2008-01-01

    The geometrical nonlinearity of a giant magne-tostrictive thin film (GMF) can be clearly detected under the magnetostriction effect. Thus, using geometrical linear elastic theory to describe the strain, stress, and constitutive relationship of GMF is inaccurate. According to nonlinear elastic theory, a nonlinear deformation model of the bimorph GMF is established based on assumptions that the magnetostriction effect is equivalent to the effect of body force loaded on the GMF. With Taylor series method, the numerical solution is deduced. Experiments on TbDyFe/Polyimide (PI)/SmFe and TbDyFe/Cu/SmFe are then conducted to verify the proposed model, respectively. Results indicate that the nonlinear deflection curve model is in good conformity with the experimental data.

  1. Processing and modeling issues for thin-film solar cell devices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Institute of Energy Conversion

    1997-11-01

    During the third phase of the subcontract, IEC researchers have continued to provide the thin film PV community with greater depth of understanding and insight into a wide variety of issues including: the deposition and characterization of CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2}, a-Si, CdTe, CdS, and TCO thin films; the relationships between film and device properties; and the processing and analysis of thin film PV devices. This has been achieved through the systematic investigation of all aspects of film and device production and through the analysis and quantification of the reaction chemistries involved in thin film deposition. This methodology has led to controlled fabrications of 15% efficient CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} solar cells over a wide range of Ga compositions, improved process control of the fabrication of 10% efficient a-Si solar cells, and reliable and generally applicable procedures for both contacting and doping films. Additional accomplishments are listed below.

  2. Spinodal dewetting of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Prabhat K.; Puri, S.

    2009-01-01

    Stable thin liquid films are of various scientific and technological applications, e.g., in optical coating, painting technologies, coating thin wires and fibers, lubricants, adhesives, etc. However, the instabilities in a thin film may lead to rupture, hole formation, and other morphological changes which amplify the nonuniformity in the thin film [1]. This morphological evolution in an unstable thin film is generally known as `dewetting' [2]. There have recently been a number of theoretical and experimental studies on dewetting in thin films [3-6]. The process of `spinodal dewetting' comes into the category of a general class of phenomena, spinodal decomposition [7]. The pattern formation taking place during dewetting can also be of great importance in nanotechnology, e.g., for preparing quantum dots [8], nanorings [9], etc. We numerically solve the nonlinear two-dimensional thin film equation [2] for a thin liquid film subjected to the long range van der Waals attraction and short range Born repulsion. The simulation results for the temporal evolution of domains and height profile along diagonal direction of the lattice show the `hills and valleys' short of structures which is the typical morphology obtained during the spinodal dewetting [10]. We obtain the dynamical correlation function and structure factor showing the existence of a characteristic length scale in the system at late time. We give the scaling arguments for the length scale of the drops to be proportional to t1/3 which is in agreement with our numerical results for the domain growth.

  3. Modelling Defects Acceptors And Determination Of Electric Model From The Nyquist Plot And Bode In Thin Film CIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demba Diallo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The performance of the chalcopyrite material CuInGaSe2 CIGS used as an absorber layer in thin-film photovoltaic devices is significantly affected by the presence of native defects. Multivalent defects e.g. double acceptors or simple acceptor are important immaterial used in solar cell production in general and in chalcopyrite materials in particular. We used the thin film solar cell simulation software SCAPS to enable the simulation of multivalent defects with up to five different charge states.Algorithms enabled us to simulate an arbitrary number of possible states of load. The presented solution method avoids numerical inaccuracies caused by the subtraction of two almost equal numbers. This new modelling facility is afterwards used to investigate the consequences of the multivalent character of defects for the simulation of chalcopyrite based CIGS. The capacitance increase with the evolution of the number of defects C- f curves have found to have defect dependence.

  4. Polyimide Aerogel Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann; Guo, Haiquan

    2012-01-01

    Polyimide aerogels have been crosslinked through multifunctional amines. This invention builds on "Polyimide Aerogels With Three-Dimensional Cross-Linked Structure," and may be considered as a continuation of that invention, which results in a polyimide aerogel with a flexible, formable form. Gels formed from polyamic acid solutions, end-capped with anhydrides, and cross-linked with the multifunctional amines, are chemically imidized and dried using supercritical CO2 extraction to give aerogels having density around 0.1 to 0.3 g/cubic cm. The aerogels are 80 to 95% porous, and have high surface areas (200 to 600 sq m/g) and low thermal conductivity (as low as 14 mW/m-K at room temperature). Notably, the cross-linked polyimide aerogels have higher modulus than polymer-reinforced silica aerogels of similar density, and can be fabricated as both monoliths and thin films.

  5. From a thin film model for passive suspensions towards the description of osmotic biofilm spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Trinschek, Sarah; Thiele, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are ubiquitous macro-colonies of bacteria that develop at various interfaces (solid-liquid, solid-gas or liquid-gas). The formation of biofilms starts with the attachment of individual bacteria to an interface, where they proliferate and produce a slimy polymeric matrix - two processes that result in colony growth and spreading. Recent experiments on the growth of biofilms on agar substrates under air have shown that for certain bacterial strains, the production of the extracellular matrix and the resulting osmotic influx of nutrient-rich water from the agar into the biofilm are more crucial for the spreading behaviour of a biofilm than the motility of individual bacteria. We present a model which describes the biofilm evolution and the advancing biofilm edge for this spreading mechanism. The model is based on a gradient dynamics formulation for thin films of biologically passive liquid mixtures and suspensions, supplemented by bioactive processes which play a decisive role in the osmotic spreading o...

  6. Modeling chiral sculptured thin films as platforms for surface-plasmonic-polaritonic optical sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Mackay, Tom G

    2010-01-01

    Biomimetic nanoengineered metamaterials called chiral sculptured thin films (CSTFs) are attractive platforms for optical sensing because their porosity, morphology and optical properties can be tailored to order. Furthermore, their ability to support more than one surface-plasmon-polariton (SPP) wave at a planar interface with a metal offers functionality beyond that associated with conventional SPP--based sensors. An empirical model was constructed to describe SPP-wave propagation guided by the planar interface of a CSTF--infiltrated with a fluid which supposedly contains analytes to be detected--and a metal. The inverse Bruggeman homogenization formalism was first used to determine the nanoscale model parameters of the CSTF. These parameters then served as inputs to the forward Bruggeman homogenization formalism to determine the reference relative permittivity dyadic of the infiltrated CSTF. By solving the coresponding boundary-value problem for a modified Kretschmann configuration, the characteristics of t...

  7. Theoretical model for thin ferroelectric films and the multilayer structures based on them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkov, A. S., E-mail: starkov@iue.tuwien.ac.at; Pakhomov, O. V. [St. Petersburg National Research Univeristy ITMO, Institute of Refrigeration and Biotechnologies (Russian Federation); Starkov, I. A. [Vienna University of Technology, Institute for Microelectronics (Austria)

    2013-06-15

    A modified Weiss mean-field theory is used to study the dependence of the properties of a thin ferroelectric film on its thickness. The possibility of introducing gradient terms into the thermodynamic potential is analyzed using the calculus of variations. An integral equation is introduced to generalize the well-known Langevin equation to the case of the boundaries of a ferroelectric. An analysis of this equation leads to the existence of a transition layer at the interface between ferroelectrics or a ferroelectric and a dielectric. The permittivity of this layer is shown to depend on the electric field direction even if the ferroelectrics in contact are homogeneous. The results obtained in terms of the Weiss model are compared with the results of the models based on the correlation effect and the presence of a dielectric layer at the boundary of a ferroelectric and with experimental data.

  8. Thin films for micro solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckel, D.; Bieberle-Hütter, A.; Harvey, A.; Infortuna, A.; Muecke, U. P.; Prestat, M.; Rupp, J. L. M.; Gauckler, L. J.

    Thin film deposition as applied to micro solid oxide fuel cell (μSOFC) fabrication is an emerging and highly active field of research that is attracting greater attention. This paper reviews thin film (thickness ≤1 μm) deposition techniques and components relevant to SOFCs including current research on nanocrystalline thin film electrolyte and thin-film-based model electrodes. Calculations showing the geometric limits of μSOFCs and first results towards fabrication of μSOFCs are also discussed.

  9. Insect thin films as solar collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, B D; Miaoulis, L N

    1994-10-01

    A numerical method for simulation of microscale radiation effects in insect thin-film structures is described. Accounting for solar beam and diffuse radiation, the model calculates the reflectivity and emissivity of such structures. A case study examines microscale radiation effects in butterfuly wings, and results reveal a new function of these multilayer thin films: thermal regulation. For film thicknesses of the order of 0.10 µm, solar absorption levels vary by as much as 25% with small changes in film thickness; for certain existing structures, absorption levels reach 96%., This is attributed to the spectral distribution of the reflected radiation, which consists of a singular reflectance peak within the solar spectrum.

  10. X-ray microstructural analysis of nanocrystalline TiZrN thin films by diffraction pattern modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar, D. [Laboratorio de Física del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Km. 9 Vía al Magdalena, Manizales (Colombia); PCM Computacional Applications, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Km. 9 Vía al Magdalena, Manizales (Colombia); Ospina, R. [Laboratorio de Física del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Km. 9 Vía al Magdalena, Manizales (Colombia); Gómez, A.G. [Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Seccional Cali, Facultad de Ingeniería, Departamento de Ciencias de la Ingeniería y la Producción (Colombia); Restrepo-Parra, E., E-mail: erestrepopa@unal.edu.co [Laboratorio de Física del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Km. 9 Vía al Magdalena, Manizales (Colombia); PCM Computacional Applications, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Km. 9 Vía al Magdalena, Manizales (Colombia); Arango, P.J. [Laboratorio de Física del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Km. 9 Vía al Magdalena, Manizales (Colombia)

    2014-02-15

    A detailed microstructural characterization of nanocrystalline TiZrN thin films grown at different substrate temperatures (T{sub S}) was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Total diffraction pattern modeling based on more meaningful microstructural parameters, such as crystallite size distribution and dislocation density, was performed to describe the microstructure of the thin films more precisely. This diffraction modeling has been implemented and used mostly to characterize powders, but the technique can be very useful to study hard thin films by taking certain considerations into account. Nanocrystalline films were grown by using the cathodic pulsed vacuum arc technique on stainless steel 316L substrates, varying the temperature from room temperature to 200 °C. Further surface morphology analysis was performed to study the dependence of grain size on substrate temperature using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The crystallite and surface grain sizes obtained and the high density of dislocations observed indicate that the films underwent nanostructured growth. Variations in these microstructural parameters as a function of T{sub S} during deposition revealed a competition between adatom mobility and desorption processes, resulting in a specific microstructure. These films also showed slight anisotropy in their microstructure, and this was incorporated into the diffraction pattern modeling. The resulting model allowed for the films' microstructure during synthesis to be better understood according to the experimental results obtained. - Highlights: • Mobility and desorption competition generates a critical temperature. • A microstructure anisotropy related to the local strain was observed in thin films. • Adatom mobility and desorption influence grain size and microstrain.

  11. A developed model for the determination of the dielectric function for some absorbing thin films using pseudo-Urbach tail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falahatgar, S.S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Namjoo Ave., P.O. Box: 41335-1914 Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghodsi, F.E., E-mail: feghodsi@guilan.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Namjoo Ave., P.O. Box: 41335-1914 Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-01

    The proposed model is presented to manipulate the dielectric functions of Tauc–Lorentz–Urbach (TLU) model for determining optical constants in some absorbing thin films within the energy range 1.5–3 eV. This approach is applicable for strong absorbing thin films that their transmittance decreases with increasing energy in the visible region. In the proposed approach, the exponential function (similar to Urbach tail) is added to the Tauc–Lorentz dielectric function for the energy ranges above energy gap. The presented model provided more accurate estimates of the optical constants in the above band gap region compared to Tauc–Lorentz–Urbach (TLU) or Tauc–Lorentz (TL) model for the investigated strong absorbing thin films. The accuracy of the proposed parametric dielectric function model is verified by the use of some literature data. Also, the validity and applicability of this model is confirmed by the results of the optimization process for retrieving of the optical constants and thickness of thin film by a single transmission spectrum. The results of this approach are in good agreement with the optical constants and thickness of literature data and our experimental data.

  12. Measurement and modeling of dielectric properties of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ferroelectric thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoud, Raphaël; Borderon, Caroline; Gundel, Hartmut W

    2011-09-01

    In this study, the real and imaginary parts of the complex permittivity of lead zirconate titanate ferroelectric thin films are studied in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 100 MHz. The permittivity is well fitted by the Cole-Cole model. The variation of the relaxation time with the temperature is described by the Arrhenius law and an activation energy of 0.38 eV is found. Because of its nonlinear character, the dielectric response of the ferroelectric sample depends on the amplitude of the applied ac electric field. The permittivity is composed of three different contributions: the first is due to intrinsic lattice, the second is due to domain wall vibrations, and the third is due to domain wall jumps between pinning centers. This last contribution depends on the electric field, so it is important to control the field amplitude to obtain the desired values of permittivity and tunability.

  13. Thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Brendel, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    This introduction to the physics of silicon solar cells focuses on thin cells, while reviewing and discussing the current status of the important technology. An analysis of the spectral quantum efficiency of thin solar cells is given as well as a full set of analytical models. This is the first comprehensive treatment of light trapping techniques for the enhancement of the optical absorption in thin silicon films.

  14. Modelling of an ultra-thin silicatene/silicon-carbide hybrid film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlexer, Philomena; Pacchioni, Gianfranco

    2016-09-01

    Recently, a well-ordered silicatene/silicon-carbide hybrid thin-film supported on Ru(0 0 0 1) has been reported (2015 Surf. Sci. 632 9-13). The thin-film consist of a monolayer of corner sharing (SiO4)-tetrahedra on top of a (Si2C3) monolayer supported on the Ru(0 0 0 1) surface. This silicatene/silicon-carbide hybrid system may exhibit interesting properties for nano-technological applications and represents another example of a 2D material. We explore the physical and chemical properties of the silicatene/silicon-carbide thin-film using DFT and compare the vibrational spectra with existing experimental data. The characteristics of the silicatene/silicon-carbide hybrid system are compared with those of the bilayer-silicatene (pure SiO2 film). We found large differences in the adsorption modes of the two thin-films on the Ru(0 0 0 1) support. Whereas the bilayer-silicatene physisorbs on the Ru(0 0 0 1) surface, the silicatene/silicon-carbide layer binds via chemisorption. The chemical properties of the two thin-films were probed by adsorption of H atoms at various positions, as well as by Al-doping and the formation of hydroxyl groups (Al-OH). These results show that despite the similar structure of the top layer and the identical metal support (Ru), the mixed silicatene/silicon-carbide system behaves quite differently from the pure silica two-layer counterpart.

  15. Modeling and Analysis of Entropy Generation in Light Heating of Nanoscaled Silicon and Germanium Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ernesto Nájera-Carpio

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the irreversible processes in light heating of Silicon (Si and Germanium (Ge thin films are examined. Each film is exposed to light irradiation with radiative and convective boundary conditions. Heat, electron and hole transport and generation-recombination processes of electron-hole pairs are studied in terms of a phenomenological model obtained from basic principles of irreversible thermodynamics. We present an analysis of the contributions to the entropy production in the stationary state due to the dissipative effects associated with electron and hole transport, generation-recombination of electron-hole pairs as well as heat transport. The most significant contribution to the entropy production comes from the interaction of light with the medium in both Si and Ge. This interaction includes two processes, namely, the generation of electron-hole pairs and the transferring of energy from the absorbed light to the lattice. In Si the following contribution in magnitude comes from the heat transport. In Ge all the remaining contributions to entropy production have nearly the same order of magnitude. The results are compared and explained addressing the differences in the magnitude of the thermodynamic forces, Onsager’s coefficients and transport properties of Si and Ge.

  16. Thin-film solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, J.W.; Kuznetsov, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a thin-film solar cell provided with at least one p-i-n junction comprising at least one p-i junction which is at an angle alpha with that surface of the thin-film solar cell which collects light during operation and at least one i-n junction which is at an angle beta with t

  17. Thin-film solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, J.W.; Kuznetsov, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a thin-film solar cell provided with at least one p-i-n junction comprising at least one p-i junction which is at an angle alpha with that surface of the thin-film solar cell which collects light during operation and at least one i-n junction which is at an angle beta with t

  18. Energy stability of droplets and dry spots in a thin film model of hanging drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ka-Luen; Chou, Kai-Seng

    2017-10-01

    The 2-D thin film equation describing the evolution of hang drops is studied. All radially symmetric steady states are classified, and their energy stability is determined. It is shown that the droplet with zero contact angle is the only global energy minimizer and the dry spot with zero contact angle is a strict local energy minimizer.

  19. A Two-Dimensional Landau-Lifshitz Model in Studying Thin Film Micromagnetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingna Li

    2009-01-01

    equation which was first raised by A. DeSimone and F. Otto, and so fourth, when studying thin film micromagnetics. We get the existence of a local weak solution by approximating it with a higher-order equation. Penalty approximation and semigroup theory are employed to deal with the higher-order equation.

  20. A model for drying control cosolvent selection for spin-coating uniformity: the thin film limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, Dunbar P

    2013-07-23

    Striation defects in spin-coated thin films are a result of unfavorable capillary forces that develop due to the physical processes commonly involved in the spin-coating technique. Solvent evaporation during spinning causes slight compositional changes in the coating during drying, and these changes lead to instability in the surface tension, which causes lateral motions of the drying fluid up to the point where it gels and freezes in the thickness variations. In an earlier publication, we looked at the case where evaporation happens fast enough that the compositional depletion is mostly a surface effect. In terms of the mass transport rate competition within the coating solution, that work covered the thick film limit of this instability problem. However, in many cases, the coatings are thin enough or diffusion of solvent within the coating is fast enough to require a different solvent mixing strategy, which is developed here. A simple perturbation analysis of surface roughness is developed, and evaporation is allowed in the thin film limit. The perturbation analysis allows for a simple rubric to be laid out for cosolvent additions that can reduce the Marangoni effect during the later stages of coating deposition and drying when the thin film limit applies.

  1. Modeling of wide-area thin-film metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors for LIDAR applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinz, Andreas P.; Morrison, Charles B.; Zhu, Zheng

    1998-07-01

    We report calculations of the collection current of interdigitated InGaAs metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors. We show how interdigital spacing and thickness of the semiconductor layer influence the collection current. Both front and back illumination of devices carried on thin film membranes by means of epitaxial liftoff are examined.

  2. Semi-coherent optical modelling of thin film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walder, Cordula; Lacombe, Juergen; Maydell, Karsten von; Agert, Carsten [EWE-Forschungszentrum fuer Energietechnologie e.V., Carl-von-Ossietzky-Strasse 15, 26129 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    At NEXT ENERGY the experimental investigation of thin film silicon solar cells is combined with numerical simulations using the software Sentaurus TCAD from Synopsys. We present the results of optical modelling with Sentaurus TCAD based on the one-dimensional semi-coherent optical model by Janez Krc. The idea of this model is that after interacting with a rough interface the incident light is split into a direct coherent part treated as electromagnetic waves and in a diffuse incoherent part treated as light beams. The proportion of either direct or diffuse part is determined by the haze parameter which can be obtained from spectrometer data. In order to describe the scattering effects at rough interfaces the intensities of the diffuse light are scaled with angular distribution functions. These functions are obtained from angle resolved scattering measurements. The optical model will be verified by experimental data and compared to the Raytracer and the Transfer Matrix Model. Furthermore the influence of different angles of incidence and of the spectral dependency on the solar cell performance will be investigated.

  3. Modeling the transport properties of epitaxially grown thermoelectric oxide thin films using spectroscopic ellipsometry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.

    2012-02-01

    The influence of oxygen vacancies on the transport properties of epitaxial thermoelectric (Sr,La)TiO3 thin films is determined using electrical and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements. Oxygen vacancy concentration was varied by ex-situ annealing in Ar and Ar/H2. All films exhibited degenerate semiconducting behavior, and electrical conductivity decreased (258–133 S cm−1) with increasing oxygen content. Similar decrease in the Seebeck coefficient is observed and attributed to a decrease in effective mass (7.8–3.2 me ), as determined by SE. Excellent agreement between transport properties deduced from SE and direct electrical measurements suggests that SE is an effective tool for studying oxide thin film thermoelectrics.

  4. Size effects in thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Tellier, CR; Siddall, G

    1982-01-01

    A complete and comprehensive study of transport phenomena in thin continuous metal films, this book reviews work carried out on external-surface and grain-boundary electron scattering and proposes new theoretical equations for transport properties of these films. It presents a complete theoretical view of the field, and considers imperfection and impurity effects.

  5. Thin film corrosion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raut, M.K.

    1980-06-01

    Corrosion of chromium/gold (Cr/Au) thin films during photolithography, prebond etching, and cleaning was evaluated. Vapors of chromium etchant, tantalum nitride etchant, and especially gold etchant were found to corrosively attack chromium/gold films. A palladium metal barrier between the gold and chromium layers was found to reduce the corrosion from gold etchant.

  6. Numerical and experimental modeling of liquid metal thin film flows in a quasi-coplanar magentic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, Neil B. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Liquid metal film protection of plasma-facing surfaces in fusion reactors is proposed in an effort to counter the adverse effects of high heat and particle fluxes from the burning plasma. Concerns still exist about establishing the required flow in presence of strong magnetic fields and plasma momentum flux typical of a reactor environment. In this work, the flow behavior of the film is examined under such conditions. Analysis of MHD equations as they apply to liquid metal flows with a free surface in the fully-developed limit was undertaken. Solution yields data for velocity profiles and uniform film heights vs key design parameters (channel size, magnetic field magnitude/orientation, channel slope, wall conductivity). These results are compared to previous models to determine accuracy of simplifying assumptions, in particular Hartmann averaging of films along {rvec B}. Effect of a plasma momentum flux on the thin films is also analyzed. The plasma momentum is strong enough in the cases examined to seriously upset the film, especially for lighter elements like Li. Ga performed much better and its possible use is bolstered by calculations. In an experiment in the MeGA-loop MHD facility, coplanar, wide film flow was found to be little affected by the magnetic field due to the elongated nature of the film. Both MHD drag and partial laminarization are observed, supporting the fully- developed film model predictions of the onset of MHD drag and duct flow estimations for flow laminarization.

  7. Thin Film Deposition Techniques (PVD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeiss, E.

    The most interesting materials for spin electronic devices are thin films of magnetic transition metals and magnetic perovskites, mainly the doped La-manganites [1] as well as several oxides and metals for passivating and contacting the magnetic films. The most suitable methods for the preparation of such films are the physical vapor deposition methods (PVD). Therefore this report will be restricted to these deposition methods.

  8. Multiple oscillator models for the optical constants of polycrystalline zinc oxide thin films over a wide wavelength range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoshman, J.M., E-mail: khoshman@ahu.edu.jo [Department of Physics, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, Maan 71111 (Jordan); College of Engineering, University of Dammam, Dammam 31451 (Saudi Arabia); Hilfiker, J.N. [J.A. Woollam Company, 645 M Street, Suite 102, Lincoln, NE 68508 (United States); Tabet, N. [Physics Department, Center of Research Excellence in Renewable Energy, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Kordesch, M.E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) films were prepared on Si(1 1 1) and quartz substrates using RF-magnetron sputtering in N₂ plasma at room temperature. From the X-ray diffraction observations, it was found that all films are polycrystalline with a preferred orientation of (1 0 1). X ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to analyze the chemical composition of the films by observing the behavior of the Zn2p3, O1s, N1s, and C1s lines. The thicknesses and optical constants of the ZnO thin films were determined using variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry through the Genosc™ Herzinger–Johs parameterized semiconductor oscillator functions and multiple Gaussian oscillator models. Combining multiple oscillator types provided a very flexible approach to fitting optical constants over a wavelength range 190–1400 nm while simultaneously enforcing Kramers–Kronig consistency in the fitted ellipsometric parameters. Refractive indices of the films were determined to be in the range 1.68–1.93 and extinction coefficients in the range 4.56 × 10⁻⁶–0.23. A direct bandgap of 3.38 ± 0.03 eV was calculated from the extinction coefficient. Low temperature photoluminescence studies of the films exhibited one prominent peak at 3.41 eV. The equality of the ZnO thin films was obtained through the depolarization measurements.

  9. Modelling and experimental investigations of thin films of Mg phosphorus-doped tungsten bronzes obtained by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokanović, V; Nedić, Z; Colović, B

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the synthesis of thin films of Mg phosphorus doped tungsten bronzes (MgPTB; MgHPW(12)O(40).29H(2)O) by the self-assembly of nano-structured particles of MgPTB obtained using the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method was investigated. As the precursor, MgPTB, prepared by the ionic exchange method, was used. Nano-structured particles of MgPTB were obtained using the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. The nano-structure of the particles used as the building blocks in the MgPTB thin film were investigated experimentally and theoretically, applying the model given in this article. The obtained data for the mean particle size and their size distribution show a high degree of agreement. These previously tailored particles used for the preparation of thin films during the next synthesis step, by their self-assembly over slow deposition on a silica glass substrate, show how it is possible to create thin MgPTB films under advance projected conditions of the applied physical fields with a fully determined nanostructure of their building block particles, with a relatively small roughness and unique physical properties.

  10. The local autocorrelation time in thin film and semi-infinite model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneta, W.; Pytel, Z.

    1984-05-01

    The nearest-neighbour Ising model of a film in which exchange couplings in surface layers can differ from exchange couplings in other layers is considered. The dependence of the local autocorrelation time on distances to surfaces of the film, temperature and surface exchange couplings is discussed. The behaviour of the local autocorrelation time in a three-dimensional semi-infinite model is obtained assuming that the thickness of the film tends to infinity.

  11. Processing and modeling issues for thin-film solar cell devices: Annual subcontract report, January 16, 1995 -- January 15, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmire, R W; Phillips, J E; Buchanan, W A; Eser, E; Hegedus, S S; McCandless, B E; Meyers, P V; Shafarman, W N [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The overall mission of the Institute of Energy Conversion is the development of thin film photovoltaic cells, modules, and related manufacturing technology and the education of students and professionals in photovoltaic technology. The objectives of this four-year NREL subcontract are to advance the state of the art and the acceptance of thin film PV modules in the areas of improved technology for thin film deposition, device fabrication, and material and device characterization and modeling, relating to solar cells based on CuInSe{sub 2} and its alloys, on a-Si and its alloys, and on CdTe. In the area of CuInSe{sub 2} and its alloys, EEC researchers have produced CuIn{sub 1-x}GaxSe{sub 2} films by selenization of elemental and alloyed films with H{sub 2}Se and Se vapor and by a wide variety of process variations employing co-evaporation of the elements. Careful design, execution and analysis of these experiments has led to an improved understanding of the reaction chemistry involved, including estimations of the reaction rate constants. Investigation of device fabrication has also included studies of the processing of the Mo, US and ZnO deposition parameters and their influence on device properties. An indication of the success of these procedures was the fabrication of a 15% efficiency CuIn{sub 1-x}GaxSe{sub 2} solar cell.

  12. Study of the Thin Film Pulse Transformer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bao-yuan; SHI Yu; WEN Qi-ye

    2005-01-01

    A new thin film pulse transformer for using in ISND and model systems is fabricated by a mask sputtering process. This novel pulse transformer consists of four I-shaped CoZrRe nanometer crystal magnetic-film cores and a Cu thin film coil, deposited on the micro-crystal glass substrate directly. The thickness of thin film core is between 1 and 3 μm, and the area is between 4mm×6 mm and 12mm×6 mm. The coils provide a relatively high induce of 0.8 μm and can be well operated in a frequency range of 0.001~20 MHz.

  13. From a thin film model for passive suspensions towards the description of osmotic biofilm spreading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin John

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are ubiquitous macro-colonies of bacteria that develop at various interfaces (solid- liquid, solid-gas or liquid-gas. The formation of biofilms starts with the attachment of individual bac- teria to an interface, where they proliferate and produce a slimy polymeric matrix - two processes that result in colony growth and spreading. Recent experiments on the growth of biofilms on agar substrates under air have shown that for certain bacterial strains, the production of the extracellular matrix and the resulting osmotic influx of nutrient-rich water from the agar into the biofilm are more crucial for the spreading behaviour of a biofilm than the motility of individual bacteria. We present a model which de- scribes the biofilm evolution and the advancing biofilm edge for this spreading mechanism. The model is based on a gradient dynamics formulation for thin films of biologically passive liquid mixtures and suspensions, supplemented by bioactive processes which play a decisive role in the osmotic spreading of biofilms. It explicitly includes the wetting properties of the biofilm on the agar substrate via a dis- joining pressure and can therefore give insight into the interplay between passive surface forces and bioactive growth processes.

  14. A quantitative comparison between the flow factor approach model and the molecular dynamics simulation results for the flow of a confined molecularly thin fluid film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongbin

    2015-06-01

    Quantitative comparisons were made between the flow factor approach model and the molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) results both of which describe the flow of a molecularly thin fluid film confined between two solid walls. Although these two approaches, respectively, calculate the flow of a confined molecularly thin fluid film by different ways, very good agreements were found between them when the Couette and Poiseuille flows, respectively, calculated from them were compared. It strongly indicates the validity of the flow factor approach model in modeling the flow of a confined molecularly thin fluid film.

  15. Thermal conductivity of nanoscale thin nickel films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Shiping; JIANG Peixue

    2005-01-01

    The inhomogeneous non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) scheme is applied to model phonon heat conduction in thin nickel films. The electronic contribution to the thermal conductivity of the film is deduced from the electrical conductivity through the use of the Wiedemann-Franz law. At the average temperature of T = 300 K, which is lower than the Debye temperature ()D = 450 K,the results show that in a film thickness range of about 1-11 nm, the calculated cross-plane thermal conductivity decreases almost linearly with the decreasing film thickness, exhibiting a remarkable reduction compared with the bulk value. The electrical and thermal conductivities are anisotropic in thin nickel films for the thickness under about 10 nm. The phonon mean free path is estimated and the size effect on the thermal conductivity is attributed to the reduction of the phonon mean free path according to the kinetic theory.

  16. Birefringent non-polarizing thin film design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Hongji; HONG Ruijin; HE Hongbo; SHAO Jianda; FAN Zhengxiu

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, 2×2 characteristic matrices of uniaxially anisotropic thin film for extraordinary and ordinary wave are deduced at oblique incidence. Furthermore, the reflectance and transmittance of thin films are calculated separately for two polarizations, which provide a new concept for designing non-polarizing thin films at oblique incidence. Besides, using the multilayer birefringent thin films, non-polarizing designs, such as beam splitter thin film at single wavelength, edge filter and antireflection thin film over visible spectral region are obtained at oblique incidence.

  17. Modeling of Thin Film Solar Photovoltaic Based on Zno/Sns Oxide-Absorber Substrate Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Verma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing awareness for using clean energy and therefore greater demand for relying more on the renewable sources which solar photovoltaic are part of because they pose very little or no threat to the environment comparatively, there is growing pressure for reducing electricity generation costs from solar photovoltaic (PV modules. Hence there is need for alternative new light absorbing materials that can provide conversion efficiencies which would be comparable to the current technologies based on crystalline silicon and CdTe or CIGS thin films at lower manufacturing costs and therefore providing cost effective solutions. In this paper we have evaluated the tin based absorber material (based on tin monosulfide; SnS as the next generation of Photovoltaic cells that can provide the desired performance in the long term. Therefore it explores the potential use of tin mono-sulfide as photovoltaic material for conversion of light into electricity. Zinc Oxide (ZnO thin films have been recognized as good candidates in photovoltaic devices acting as wide-band gap window layer. The results are presented through the numerical analysis done by AMPD-1D simulator tool to explore the possibility of using thin film and stable ZnO/SnS solar photovoltaic device with aim to achieve comparable conversion efficiencies.

  18. Magnetowetting of Ferrofluidic Thin Liquid Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenneti, Srinivas; Subramanian, Sri Ganesh; Chakraborty, Monojit; Soni, Gaurav; Dasgupta, Sunando

    2017-03-01

    An extended meniscus of a ferrofluid solution on a silicon surface is subjected to axisymmetric, non-uniform magnetic field resulting in significant forward movement of the thin liquid film. Image analyzing interferometry is used for accurate measurement of the film thickness profile, which in turn, is used to determine the instantaneous slope and the curvature of the moving film. The recorded video, depicting the motion of the film in the Lagrangian frame of reference, is analyzed frame by frame, eliciting accurate information about the velocity and acceleration of the film at any instant of time. The application of the magnetic field has resulted in unique changes of the film profile in terms of significant non-uniform increase in the local film curvature. This was further analyzed by developing a model, taking into account the effect of changes in the magnetic and shape-dependent interfacial force fields.

  19. MOF thin films: existing and future applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhah, O; Liu, J; Fischer, R A; Wöll, Ch

    2011-02-01

    The applications and potentials of thin film coatings of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) supported on various substrates are discussed in this critical review. Because the demand for fabricating such porous coatings is rather obvious, in the past years several synthesis schemes have been developed for the preparation of thin porous MOF films. Interestingly, although this is an emerging field seeing a rapid development a number of different applications on MOF films were either already demonstrated or have been proposed. This review focuses on the fabrication of continuous, thin porous films, either supported on solid substrates or as free-standing membranes. The availability of such two-dimensional types of porous coatings opened the door for a number of new perspectives for functionalizing surfaces. Also for the porous materials themselves, the availability of a solid support to which the MOF-films are rigidly (in a mechanical sense) anchored provides access to applications not available for the typical MOF powders with particle sizes of a few μm. We will also address some of the potential and applications of thin films in different fields like luminescence, QCM-based sensors, optoelectronics, gas separation and catalysis. A separate chapter has been devoted to the delamination of MOF thin films and discusses the potential to use them as free-standing membranes or as nano-containers. The review also demonstrates the possibility of using MOF thin films as model systems for detailed studies on MOF-related phenomena, e.g. adsorption and diffusion of small molecules into MOFs as well as the formation mechanism of MOFs (101 references).

  20. Thin-film forces in pseudoemulsion films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, V.; Radke, C.J. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Use of foam for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has shown recent success in steam-flooding field applications. Foam can also provide an effective barrier against gas coning in thin oil zones. Both of these applications stem from the unique mobility-control properties a stable foam possesses when it exists in porous media. Unfortunately, oil has a major destabilizing effect on foam. Therefore, it is important for EOR applications to understand how oil destroys foam. Studies all indicate that stabilization of the pseudoemulsion film is critical to maintain foam stability in the presence of oil. Hence, to aid in design of surfactant formulations for foam insensitivity to oil the authors pursue direct measurement of the thin-film or disjoining forces that stabilize pseudoemulsion films. Experimental procedures and preliminary results are described.

  1. Design, Modeling and Optimization of a Piezoelectric Pressure Sensor based on a Thin-Film PZT Membrane Containing Nanocrystalline Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid MOHAMMADI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper fabrication of a 0-3 ceramic/ceramic composite lead zirconate titanate, Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 thin film has been presented and then a pressure sensor based on multilayer thin-film PZT diaphragm contain of Lead Zirconate Titanate nanocrystalline powders was designed, modeled and optimized. Dynamics characteristics of this multilayer diaphragm have been investigated by ANSYS® FE software. By this simulation the effective parameters of the multilayer PZT diaphragm for improving the performance of a pressure sensor in different ranges of pressure are optimized. The optimized thickness ratio of PZT layer to SiO2 was given in the paper to obtain the maximum deflection of the multilayer thin-film PZT diaphragm. A 0-3 ceramic/ceramic composite lead zirconate titanate, Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 film has been developed to fabricate the pressure sensor by a hybrid sol gel process. PZT nanopowders fabricated via conventional sol gel method and uniformly dispersed in PZT precursor solution by an attrition mill. XRD analysis shows that perovskite structure would be formed due to the presence of a significant amount of ceramic nanopowders. This texture has a good effect on piezoelectric properties of perovskite structure. The film forms a strongly bonded network and less shrinkage occurs, so the films do not crack during process. Also the aspect ratio through this process would be increased. SEM micrographs indicated that PZT films were uniform, crack free and have a composite microstructure and a piezoelectric coefficient d31 of -40 pC.N-1 and d33 ranged from 50pm.N-1 to 60pm.N-1.

  2. Characterization and Modeling of Nano-organic Thin Film Phototransistors Based on 6,13(Triisopropylsilylethynyl)-Pentacene: Photovoltaic Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouili, A.; Mansouri, S.; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; El Mir, L.; Farooq, W. A.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2017-04-01

    Organic thin film transistors based on 6,13(triisopropylsilylethynyl)-pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) with various channel widths and thicknesses of the active layer (300 nm and 135 nm) were photo-characterized. The photoresponse behavior and the gate field dependence of the charge transport were analyzed in detail. The surface properties of TIPS-pentacene deposited on silicon dioxide substrate were investigated using an atomic force microscope. We confirm that the threshold voltage values of the TIPS-pentacene transistor depend on the intensity of white light illumination. With the multiple trapping and release model, we have developed an analytical model that was applied to reproduce the experimental output characteristics of organic thin film transistors based on TIPS-pentacene under dark and under light illumination.

  3. Characterization and Modeling of Nano-organic Thin Film Phototransistors Based on 6,13(Triisopropylsilylethynyl)-Pentacene: Photovoltaic Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouili, A.; Mansouri, S.; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; El Mir, L.; Farooq, W. A.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2016-12-01

    Organic thin film transistors based on 6,13(triisopropylsilylethynyl)-pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) with various channel widths and thicknesses of the active layer (300 nm and 135 nm) were photo-characterized. The photoresponse behavior and the gate field dependence of the charge transport were analyzed in detail. The surface properties of TIPS-pentacene deposited on silicon dioxide substrate were investigated using an atomic force microscope. We confirm that the threshold voltage values of the TIPS-pentacene transistor depend on the intensity of white light illumination. With the multiple trapping and release model, we have developed an analytical model that was applied to reproduce the experimental output characteristics of organic thin film transistors based on TIPS-pentacene under dark and under light illumination.

  4. Study of BaxSr1-xTiO3 thin films using transverse-field Ising model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Yong-Mei; Jiang Qing

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of doping on the thermodynamic properties of BaxSr1-xTiO3 (BST) thin film are investigated, based on the transverse-field Ising model (TIM) within the framework of mean field theory. We apply the double-peak distribution model of related parameters to mimic doping. The lattice expansion arising from doping with large Ba2+ was also taken into account. We concentrate on the doping concentration dependence of peak temperature (Tm), spontaneous polarization and dielectric susceptibility. It is found that the doping concentration has great influence on the dielectric properties and phase transition properties of BST thin films. We also discuss the quantum effect arising from doping.

  5. Engineering and validation of a novel lipid thin film for biomembrane modeling in lipophilicity determination of drugs and xenobiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonna Udochi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determination of lipophilicity as a tool for predicting pharmacokinetic molecular behavior is limited by the predictive power of available experimental models of the biomembrane. There is current interest, therefore, in models that accurately simulate the biomembrane structure and function. A novel bio-device; a lipid thin film, was engineered as an alternative approach to the previous use of hydrocarbon thin films in biomembrane modeling. Results Retention behavior of four structurally diverse model compounds; 4-amino-3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid (ADBA, naproxen (NPX, nabumetone (NBT and halofantrine (HF, representing 4 broad classes of varying molecular polarities and aqueous solubility behavior, was investigated on the lipid film, liquid paraffin, and octadecylsilane layers. Computational, thermodynamic and image analysis confirms the peculiar amphiphilic configuration of the lipid film. Effect of solute-type, layer-type and variables interactions on retention behavior was delineated by 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and quantitative structure property relationships (QSPR. Validation of the lipid film was implemented by statistical correlation of a unique chromatographic metric with Log P (octanol/water and several calculated molecular descriptors of bulk and solubility properties. Conclusion The lipid film signifies a biomimetic artificial biological interface capable of both hydrophobic and specific electrostatic interactions. It captures the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB in the determination of lipophilicity of molecules unlike the pure hydrocarbon film of the prior art. The potentials and performance of the bio-device gives the promise of its utility as a predictive analytic tool for early-stage drug discovery science.

  6. Beryllium thin films for resistor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiet, O.

    1972-01-01

    Beryllium thin films have a protective oxidation resistant property at high temperature and high recrystallization temperature. However, the experimental film has very low temperature coefficient of resistance.

  7. Quantitative characterization of morphological evolution in Q=2 Potts model aluminum thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, DH; Stach, EA; de Hosson, JTM; Aziz, MJ; Bartelt, NC; Berbezier,; Hannon, JB; Hearne, SJ

    2003-01-01

    In this research, we have focused on the morphological evolution of a model metal film / silicon substrate system. When aluminum (Al) is physical vapor deposited on (100) oriented single crystal silicon (Si) at 280degreesC it grows heteroepitaxially. Crystallographically, the resulting films are a P

  8. Thin-film solar cell

    OpenAIRE

    Metselaar, J.W.; Kuznetsov, V. I.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a thin-film solar cell provided with at least one p-i-n junction comprising at least one p-i junction which is at an angle alpha with that surface of the thin-film solar cell which collects light during operation and at least one i-n junction which is at an angle beta with the light-collecting surface. In this context, the relationships 45 < alpha < 135 degrees and 45 < beta < 135 degrees apply. The invention also relates to a panel provided with a plurality of such t...

  9. Thin-film solar cell

    OpenAIRE

    Metselaar, J.W.; V. I. Kuznetsov

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a thin-film solar cell provided with at least one p-i-n junction comprising at least one p-i junction which is at an angle alpha with that surface of the thin-film solar cell which collects light during operation and at least one i-n junction which is at an angle beta with the light-collecting surface. In this context, the relationships 45 < alpha < 135 degrees and 45 < beta < 135 degrees apply. The invention also relates to a panel provided with a plurality of such t...

  10. Current-induced surface roughness reduction in conducting thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lin; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2017-03-01

    Thin film surface roughness is responsible for various materials reliability problems in microelectronics and nanofabrication technologies, which requires the development of surface roughness reduction strategies. Toward this end, we report modeling results that establish the electrical surface treatment of conducting thin films as a physical processing strategy for surface roughness reduction. We develop a continuum model of surface morphological evolution that accounts for the residual stress in the film, surface diffusional anisotropy and film texture, film's wetting of the layer that is deposited on, and surface electromigration. Supported by linear stability theory, self-consistent dynamical simulations based on the model demonstrate that the action over several hours of a sufficiently strong and properly directed electric field on a conducting thin film can reduce its surface roughness and lead to a smooth planar film surface. The modeling predictions are in agreement with experimental measurements on copper thin films deposited on silicon nitride layers.

  11. Magnetite thin films: A simulational approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazo-Zuluaga, J. [Grupo de Estado Solido y Grupo de Instrumentacion Cientifica y Microelectronica, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226 Medellin (Colombia)]. E-mail: jomazo@fisica.udea.edu.co; Restrepo, J. [Grupo de Estado Solido y Grupo de Instrumentacion Cientifica y Microelectronica, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226 Medellin (Colombia)

    2006-10-01

    In the present work the study of the magnetic properties of magnetite thin films is addressed by means of the Monte Carlo method and the Ising model. We simulate LxLxd magnetite thin films (d being the film thickness and L the transversal linear dimension) with periodic boundary conditions along transversal directions and free boundary conditions along d direction. In our model, both the three-dimensional inverse spinel structure and the interactions scheme involving tetrahedral and octahedral sites have been considered in a realistic way. Results reveal a power-law dependence of the critical temperature with the film thickness accordingly by an exponent {nu}=0.81 and ruled out by finite-size scaling theory. Estimates for the critical exponents of the magnetization and the specific heat are finally presented and discussed.

  12. Thin power law film flow down an inclined plane: consistent shallow water models and stability under large scale perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we derive consistent shallow water equations for thin films of power law fluids down an incline. These models account for the streamwise diffusion of momentum which is important to describe accurately the full dynamic of the thin film flows when instabilities like roll-waves arise. These models are validated through a comparison with Orr Sommerfeld equations for large scale perturbations. We only consider laminar flow for which the boundary layer issued from the interaction of the flow with the bottom surface has an influence all over the transverse direction to the flow. In this case the concept itself of thin film and its relation with long wave asymptotic leads naturally to flow conditions around a uniform free surface Poiseuille flow. The apparent viscosity diverges at the free surface which, in turn, introduces a singularity in the formulation of the Orr-Sommerfeld equations and in the derivation of shallow water models. We remove this singularity by introducing a weaker formulation of Cauc...

  13. Detailed modelling of delamination buckling of thin films under global tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, F; Rammerstorfer, F G; Cordill, M J; Fischer, F D

    2013-04-01

    Tensile specimens of metal films on compliant substrates are widely used for determining interfacial properties. These properties are identified by the comparison of experimentally observed delamination buckling and a mathematical model which contains the interface properties as parameters. The current two-dimensional models for delamination buckling are not able to capture the complex stress and deformation states arising in the considered uniaxial tension test in a satisfying way. Therefore, three-dimensional models are developed in a multi-scale approach. It is shown that, for the considered uniaxial tension test, the buckling and associated delamination process are initiated and driven by interfacial shear in addition to compressive stresses in the film. The proposed model is able to reproduce all important experimentally observed phenomena, like cracking stress of the film, film strip curvature and formation of triangular buckles. Combined with experimental data, the developed computational model is found to be effective in determining interface strength properties.

  14. Adhesion energies of Cr thin films on polyimide determined from buckling: Experiment and model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordill, M.J., E-mail: megan.cordill@oeaw.ac.at [Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austrian Academy of Sciences and Department of Material Physics, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Leoben 8700 (Austria); Fischer, F.D. [Institute of Mechanics, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Leoben 8700 (Austria); Rammerstorfer, F.G. [Institute of Lightweight Design and Structural Biomechanics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna 1040 (Austria); Dehm, G. [Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austrian Academy of Sciences and Department of Material Physics, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Leoben 8700 (Austria)

    2010-09-15

    For the realization of flexible electronic devices, the metal-polymer interfaces upon which they are based need to be optimized. These interfaces are prone to fracture in such systems and hence form a weak point. In order to quantify the interfacial adhesion, novel mechanical tests and modeling approaches are required. In this study, a tensile testing approach that induces buckling of films by lateral contraction of the substrate is employed to cause delamination of the film. Based on a newly developed energy balance model, the adhesion energy of Cr films on polyimide substrates is determined by measuring the buckle geometry induced by the tensile test. The obtained minimum values for the adhesion energy (about 4.5 J m{sup -2}) of 50-190 nm thick films compare well to those found in the literature for metal films on polymer substrates.

  15. Quantitative Raman characterization of cross-linked collagen thin films as a model system for diagnosing early osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Durney, Krista M.; Fomovsky, Gregory; Ateshian, Gerard A.; Vukelic, Sinisa

    2016-03-01

    The onset of osteoarthritis (OA)in articular cartilage is characterized by degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Specifically, breakage of cross-links between collagen fibrils in the articular cartilage leads to loss of structural integrity of the bulk tissue. Since there are no broadly accepted, non-invasive, label-free tools for diagnosing OA at its early stage, Raman spectroscopyis therefore proposed in this work as a novel, non-destructive diagnostic tool. In this study, collagen thin films were employed to act as a simplified model system of the cartilage collagen extracellular matrix. Cross-link formation was controlled via exposure to glutaraldehyde (GA), by varying exposure time and concentration levels, and Raman spectral information was collected to quantitatively characterize the cross-link assignments imparted to the collagen thin films during treatment. A novel, quantitative method was developed to analyze the Raman signal obtained from collagen thin films. Segments of Raman signal were decomposed and modeled as the sum of individual bands, providing an optimization function for subsequent curve fitting against experimental findings. Relative changes in the concentration of the GA-induced pyridinium cross-links were extracted from the model, as a function of the exposure to GA. Spatially resolved characterization enabled construction of spectral maps of the collagen thin films, which provided detailed information about the variation of cross-link formation at various locations on the specimen. Results showed that Raman spectral data correlate with glutaraldehyde treatment and therefore may be used as a proxy by which to measure loss of collagen cross-links in vivo. This study proposes a promising system of identifying onset of OA and may enable early intervention treatments that may serve to slow or prevent osteoarthritis progression.

  16. Intrinsic instability of thin liquid films on nanostructured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokoni, Arif; Hu, Han; Sun, Liyong; Sun, Ying

    2016-11-01

    The instability of a thin liquid film on nanostructures is not well understood but is important in liquid-vapor two-phase heat transfer (e.g., thin film evaporation and boiling), lubrication, and nanomanufacturing. In thin film evaporation, the comparison between the non-evaporating film thickness and the critical film breakup thickness determines the stability of the film: the film becomes unstable when the critical film breakup thickness is larger than the non-evaporating film thickness. In this study, a closed-form model is developed to predict the critical breakup thickness of a thin liquid film on 2D periodic nanostructures based on minimization of system free energy in the limit of a liquid monolayer. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed for water thin films on square nanostructures of varying depth and wettability and the simulations agree with the model predictions. The results show that the critical film breakup thickness increases with the nanostructure depth and the surface wettability. The model developed here enables the prediction of the minimum film thickness for stable thin film evaporation on a given nanostructure.

  17. Thin Film Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar Panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David JOHNSTON

    2008-01-01

    A solar panel is described.in which thin films of semiconductor are deposited onto a metal substrate.The semiconductor-metal combination forms a thin film photovoltaic cell,and also acts as a reflector,absorber tandem, which acts as a solar selective surface,thus enhancing the solar thermal performance of the collector plate.The use of thin films reduces the distance heat is required to flow from the absorbing surface to the metal plate and heat exchange conduits.Computer modelling demonstrated that,by suitable choice of materials,photovohaic efficiency call be maintained,with thermal performance slishtly reduced,compared to that for thermal-only panels.By grading the absorber layer-to reduce the band gap in the lower region-the thermal performance can be improved,approaching that for a thermal-only solar panel.

  18. Conical surface structures on model thin-film electrodes and tape-cast electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, R.; Proell, J.; Bruns, M.; Ulrich, S.; Seifert, H. J.; Pfleging, W.

    2013-07-01

    Three-dimensional structures in cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries were investigated in this study. For this purpose, laser structuring of lithium cobalt oxide was investigated at first for a thin-film model system and in a second step for conventional tape-cast electrode materials. The model thin-film cathodes with a thickness of 3 μm were deposited using RF magnetron sputtering on stainless steel substrates. The films were structured via excimer laser radiation with a wavelength of 248 nm. By adjusting the laser fluence, self-organized conical microstructures were formed. Using conventional electrodes, tape-cast cathodes made of LiCoO2 with a film thickness of about 80 μm on aluminum substrates were studied. It was shown that self-organizing surface structures could be formed by adjustment of the laser parameters. To investigate the formation mechanisms of the conical topography, the element composition was studied by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Electrochemical cycling using a lithium anode and conventional electrolyte was applied to study the influence of the laser processing procedures on cell performance. For the model electrode system, a significantly higher discharge capacity of 80 mAh/g could be obtained after 110 cycles by laser structuring compared to 8 mAh/g of the unstructured thin film. On conventional tape-cast electrodes self-organized surface structures could also increase the cycling stability resulting in an 80 % increase in capacity after 110 cycles in comparison to the unstructured electrode.

  19. One-dimensional analytical model for oxide thin film growth on Ti metal layers during laser heating in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Pérez, J. L.; Sakanaka, P. H.; Algatti, M. A.; Mendoza-Alvarez, J. G.; Cruz Orea, A.

    2001-05-01

    This paper presents the theoretical and experimental results for oxide thin film growth on titanium films previously deposited over glass substrate. Ti films of thickness 0.1 μm were heated by Nd:YAG laser pulses in air. The oxide tracks were created by moving the samples with a constant speed of 2 mm/s, under the laser action. The micro-topographic analysis of the tracks was performed by a microprofiler. The results taken along a straight line perpendicular to the track axis revealed a Gaussian profile that closely matches the laser's spatial mode profile, indicating the effectiveness of the surface temperature gradient on the film's growth process. The sample's micro-Raman spectra showed two strong bands at 447 and 612 cm -1 associated with the TiO 2 structure. This is a strong indication that thermo-oxidation reactions took place at the Ti film surface that reached an estimated temperature of 1160 K just due to the action of the first pulse. The results obtained from the numerical integration of the analytical equation which describes the oxidation rate (Wagner equation) are in agreement with the experimental data for film thickness in the high laser intensity region. This shows the partial accuracy of the one-dimensional model adopted for describing the film growth rate.

  20. Comparing kinetic Monte Carlo and thin-film modeling of transversal instabilities of ridges on patterned substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewes, Walter; Buller, Oleg; Heuer, Andreas; Thiele, Uwe; Gurevich, Svetlana V.

    2017-03-01

    We employ kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations and a thin-film continuum model to comparatively study the transversal (i.e., Plateau-Rayleigh) instability of ridges formed by molecules on pre-patterned substrates. It is demonstrated that the evolution of the occurring instability qualitatively agrees between the two models for a single ridge as well as for two weakly interacting ridges. In particular, it is shown for both models that the instability occurs on well defined length and time scales which are, for the KMC model, significantly larger than the intrinsic scales of thermodynamic fluctuations. This is further evidenced by the similarity of dispersion relations characterizing the linear instability modes.

  1. Shielding superconductors with thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Posen, Sam; Catelani, Gianluigi; Liepe, Matthias U; Sethna, James P

    2015-01-01

    Determining the optimal arrangement of superconducting layers to withstand large amplitude AC magnetic fields is important for certain applications such as superconducting radiofrequency cavities. In this paper, we evaluate the shielding potential of the superconducting film/insulating film/superconductor (SIS') structure, a configuration that could provide benefits in screening large AC magnetic fields. After establishing that for high frequency magnetic fields, flux penetration must be avoided, the superheating field of the structure is calculated in the London limit both numerically and, for thin films, analytically. For intermediate film thicknesses and realistic material parameters we also solve numerically the Ginzburg-Landau equations. It is shown that a small enhancement of the superheating field is possible, on the order of a few percent, for the SIS' structure relative to a bulk superconductor of the film material, if the materials and thicknesses are chosen appropriately.

  2. Thin Film Research. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-30

    1928), and later by Coper, Frommer and Zocher (1931), followed. From that time, when thin film technology was in its early stages of evolution, we...personal communication (1983). Cau, Marcel, Comtes Rendues 186, 1293 (1928). Coper, H. K., Frommer , L., and Zocher, H., Ztschr. Elektrochem. 37, 571

  3. 3D Field Simulation of Magnetic Thin Film Inductor

    OpenAIRE

    FUJIWARA, Toshiyasu; CHOI, Kyung-Ku; SATO, SHIGEKI

    2006-01-01

    The 3D magnetic field simulations with FEM (finite element method) have been performed to predictand understand the performance of Magnetic Thin Film Inductor (MTFl). Inductor structures of planar electroplated Cu spiralcoil, which are sandwiched and underlaid with magnetic thin films, are considered as the simulation models. The inductance increment of 300% compared to air-core inductor was predicted when the sandwiched 5μm thickness magnetic thin film with relative permeability of 600 was a...

  4. Mathematical modeling of the formation of surface nanostructures in thin solid films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Margo S.

    The self-assembly of quantum dots (QDs) in thin solid films is an important area of nanotechnology with many relevant applications. In the present thesis, three problems related to the growth and self-assembly of QDs are investigated. In Chapter 1, a new instability mechanism for the formation of QDs associated with strong surface energy anisotropy coupled with wetting interactions between the film and the substrate is proposed. A nonlinear anisotropic evolution equation describing the shape of a thin solid film deposited on a solid substrate is derived and the stability analysis of a planar film is performed. The wetting interactions are found to change the instability spectrum from long-wave to short-wave, leading to the possibility of the formation of stable regular arrays of QDs. Near the short-wave instability threshold, it is found that the formation of stable hexagonal arrays of QDs is possible. In Chapter 2, the effects of wetting interactions on another mechanism of QD formation are investigated. This mechanism is associated with the Asaro-Tiller-Grinfeld instability that releases epitaxial stress caused by the lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate. The elasticity problem in the long-wave approximation is solved and a nonlocal integro-differential equation governing the evolution of the film surface is derived. It is shown that wetting interactions can change instability spectrum from the spinodal decomposition type to the Turing type leading to the possibility of pattern formation. For typical semiconductor systems, hexagonal arrays of QDs are found to be unstable as a result of a subcritical bifurcation. It is shown that the QDs coarsen after formation and the coarsening dynamics are studied by numerical simulations. In Chapter 3, the formation of an epitaxial film by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), which precedes the formation of QDs, is investigated. The Burton-Cabrera-Frank theory for the growth of a stepped crystal surface is studied when

  5. Phase transitions in pure and dilute thin ferromagnetic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneta, W.; Pytel, Z.

    1983-10-01

    The mean-field model of a thin ferromagnetic film where the nearest-neighbor exchange coupling in surface layers can be different from that inside the film is considered. The phase diagram, equations for the second-order phase-transition lines, and the spontaneous magnetization profiles near the phase transitions are given. It is shown that there is no extra-ordinary transition in a thin film. If the thickness of the film tends to infinity the well-known results for the mean-field model of a semi-infinite ferromagnet are obtained. The generalization for disordered dilute thin ferromagnetic films and semi-infinite ferromagnets is also given.

  6. Ferroelectric Thin Film Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-10

    less. The film temper- ature is monitored by thermocouple sensors. Process gases pass through the chamber during the process. An advantage of RTP is the...semiconductor InSe ,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 86, pp. 5687–5691, November 1999. 37. R. Mollers and R. Memming Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem., vol. 76, 1972. 38. M

  7. Model of orbital populations for voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy in transition-metal thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Lukashev, Pavel V.; Jaswal, Sitaram S.; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    2017-07-01

    Voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) is an efficient way to manipulate the magnetization states in nanomagnets and is promising for low-power spintronic applications. The underlying physical mechanism for VCMA is known to involve a change in the d orbital occupation on the transition-metal interface atoms with an applied electric field. However, a simple qualitative picture of how this occupation controls the magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) and even why in certain cases the MCA has the opposite sign remains elusive. In this paper, we exploit a simple model of orbital populations to elucidate a number of features typical for the interface MCA, and the effect of the electric field on it, for 3 d transition-metal thin films used in magnetic tunnel junctions. We find that in all considered cases, including the Fe(001) surface, clean F e1 -xC ox(001 ) /MgO interface, and oxidized Fe(001)/MgO interface, the effects of alloying and the electric field enhance the MCA energy with electron depletion, which is largely explained by the occupancy of the minority-spin dx z ,y z orbitals. However, the hole-doped Fe(001) exhibits an inverse VCMA in which the MCA enhancement is achieved when electrons are accumulated at the Fe (001)/MgO interface with the applied electric field. In this regime, we predict a significantly enhanced VCMA that exceeds 1 pJ/Vm. Realizing this regime experimentally may be favorable for the practical purpose of voltage-driven magnetization reversal.

  8. Recent progress in thin film organic photodiodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inganäs, Olle; Roman, Lucimara S.; Zhang, Fengling; Johansson, D.M.; Andersson, M.R.; Hummelen, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    We review current developments in organic photodiodes, with special reference to multilayer thin film optics, and modeling of organic donor-acceptor photodiodes. We indicate possibilities to enhance light absorption in devices by nanopatterning as well as by blending, and also discuss materials

  9. Recent progress in thin film organic photodiodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inganäs, Olle; Roman, Lucimara S.; Zhang, Fengling; Johansson, D.M.; Andersson, M.R.; Hummelen, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    We review current developments in organic photodiodes, with special reference to multilayer thin film optics, and modeling of organic donor-acceptor photodiodes. We indicate possibilities to enhance light absorption in devices by nanopatterning as well as by blending, and also discuss materials scie

  10. Polarization Fatigue in Ferroelectric Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忆; K.H.WONG; 吴文彬

    2002-01-01

    The fatigue problem in ferroelectric thin films is investigated based on the switched charge per unit area versus switching cycles. The temperature, dielectric permittivity, voltage bias, frequency and defect valence dependent switching polarization properties are calculated quantitatively with an extended Dawber-Scott model. The results are in agreement with the recent experiments.

  11. Resistance contact thin-film resistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spirin V. G.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The analytical model of the calculation of the contact resistance of the thin-film resistor is Offered. The Explored dependency of the contact resistance from wedge of the pickling. The Considered influence adhesive layer on warm-up stability of the resistor. They Are Received formulas of the calculation systematic and casual inaccuracy contributed by contact resistance.

  12. A finite element model for the analysis of buckling driven delaminations of thin films on rigid substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruttmann, F.; Pham, V. D.

    2008-02-01

    The delamination process of thin films on rigid substrates is investigated. Such systems are typically subject to high residual compression and modest adhesion causing them to buckling driven blisters. In certain cases buckles with the shape of telephone cords are observed. A finite element model for quasi-static delamination growth is developed. Applying a Reissner-Mindlin shell kinematic for the film allows C 0- continuous shape functions. The traction vector at the film-substrate interface is obtained from the derivative of a cohesive free energy. Incorporation of loading and unloading conditions is considered for the irreversible process. The equilibrium state is computed iteratively in dependence of the compressive residual stresses. The computed telephone cord delaminations are stable asymmetric configurations whereas the symmetric configurations are unstable.

  13. A multiscale coupled finite-element and phase-field framework to modeling stressed grain growth in polycrystalline thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamshidian, M., E-mail: jamshidian@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Structural Mechanics, Bauhaus-University Weimar, Marienstrasse 15, 99423 Weimar (Germany); Thamburaja, P., E-mail: prakash.thamburaja@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi 43600 (Malaysia); Rabczuk, T., E-mail: timon.rabczuk@tdt.edu.vn [Division of Computational Mechanics, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2016-12-15

    A previously-developed finite-deformation- and crystal-elasticity-based constitutive theory for stressed grain growth in cubic polycrystalline bodies has been augmented to include a description of excess surface energy and grain-growth stagnation mechanisms through the use of surface effect state variables in a thermodynamically-consistent manner. The constitutive theory was also implemented into a multiscale coupled finite-element and phase-field computational framework. With the material parameters in the constitutive theory suitably calibrated, our three-dimensional numerical simulations show that the constitutive model is able to accurately predict the experimentally-determined evolution of crystallographic texture and grain size statistics in polycrystalline copper thin films deposited on polyimide substrate and annealed at high-homologous temperatures. In particular, our numerical analyses show that the broad texture transition observed in the annealing experiments of polycrystalline thin films is caused by grain growth stagnation mechanisms. - Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Developing a theory for stressed grain growth in polycrystalline thin films. • Implementation into a multiscale coupled finite-element and phase-field framework. • Quantitative reproduction of the experimental grain growth data by simulations. • Revealing the cause of texture transition to be due to the stagnation mechanisms.

  14. Thin-liquid-film evaporation at contact line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao WANG; Zhenai PAN; Zhao CHEN

    2009-01-01

    When a liquid wets a solid wall, the extended meniscus near the contact line may be divided into three regions: a nonevaporating region, where the liquid is adsorbed on the wall; a transition region or thin-film region, where effects of long-range molecular forces (disjoining pressure) are felt; and an intrinsic meniscus region, where capillary forces dominate. The thin liquid film, with thickness from nanometers up to micrometers, covering the transition region and part of intrinsic meniscus, is gaining interest due to its high heat transfer rates. In this paper, a review was made of the researches on thin-liquid-film evaporation. The major characteristics of thin film, thin-film modeling based on continuum theory, simulations based on molecular dynamics, and thin-film profile and temperature measurements were summarized.

  15. Design and Simulation of the Thin Film Pulse Transformer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bao-yuan; SHI Yu; WEN Qi-ye

    2005-01-01

    A new thin film pulse transformer for using in ISND and ADSL systems has been designed based on a domain wall pinning model, the parameters of nano-magnetic thin film such as permeability and coercivity can be calculated. The main properties of the thin film transformer including the size,parallel inductance, Q value and turn ratio have been simulated and optimized. Simulation results show that the thin film transformer can be fairly operated in a frequency range of 0. 001~20 MHz.

  16. Integrated experimental and modeling study of the ionic conductivity of samaria-doped ceria thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanghavi, Rahul P.; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Kovarik, Libor; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Prasad, Shalini

    2011-12-12

    Oxygen diffusion and ionic conductivity of samaria-doped ceria (SDC) thin films have been studied as a function of composition using experiment and atomistic simulation. SDC thin films were grown on Al2O3 (0001) substrates by oxygen plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (OPA-MBE) technique. The experimental results show a peak in electrical conductivity of SDC at 15 mol% Sm2O3. The oxygen diffusion coefficient obtained from molecular dynamics simulation of the same system shows a peak at about 13 mol% Sm2O3. The activation energy for oxygen diffusion was found to be in the range from 0.8 to 1.0 eV by simulations depending on the Sm2O3 content, which compares well with the range from 0.6 to 0.9 eV given by the experimental work. The simulations also show that oxygen vacancies prefer Sm3+ ions as first neighbors over Ce4+ ions. The present results reveal that the optimum samaria content for ionic conductivity in single crystals of SDC is less than that in polycrystals, which can be related to the preferential segregation of dopant cations to grain boundaries in polycrystals.

  17. Thin-Film Metamaterials called Sculptured Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2010-01-01

    Morphology and performance are conjointed attributes of metamaterials, of which sculptured thin films (STFs) are examples. STFs are assemblies of nanowires that can be fabricated from many different materials, typically via physical vapor deposition onto rotating substrates. The curvilinear--nanowire morphology of STFs is determined by the substrate motions during fabrication. The optical properties, especially, can be tailored by varying the morphology of STFs. In many cases prototype devices have been fabricated for various optical, thermal, chemical, and biological applications.

  18. Atomic Structure Control of Silica Thin Films on Pt(111)

    KAUST Repository

    Crampton, Andrew S

    2015-05-27

    Metal oxide thin films grown on metal single crystals are commonly used to model heterogeneous catalyst supports. The structure and properties of thin silicon dioxide films grown on metal single crystals have only recently been thoroughly characterized and their spectral properties well established. We report the successful growth of a three- dimensional, vitreous silicon dioxide thin film on the Pt(111) surface and reproduce the closed bilayer structure previously reported. The confirmation of the three dimensional nature of the film is unequivocally shown by the infrared absorption band at 1252 cm−1. Temperature programmed desorption was used to show that this three-dimensional thin film covers the Pt(111) surface to such an extent that its application as a catalyst support for clusters/nanoparticles is possible. The growth of a three-dimensional film was seen to be directly correlated with the amount of oxygen present on the surface after the silicon evaporation process. This excess of oxygen is tentatively attributed to atomic oxygen being generated in the evaporator. The identification of atomic oxygen as a necessary building block for the formation of a three-dimensional thin film opens up new possibilities for thin film growth on metal supports, whereby simply changing the type of oxygen enables thin films with different atomic structures to be synthesized. This is a novel approach to tune the synthesis parameters of thin films to grow a specific structure and expands the options for modeling common amorphous silica supports under ultra high vacuum conditions.

  19. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Pohl, P.I.; Brinker, C.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Separating light gases using membranes is a technology area for which there exists opportunities for significant energy savings. Examples of industrial needs for gas separation include hydrogen recovery, natural gas purification, and dehydration. A membrane capable of separating H{sub 2} from other gases at high temperatures could recover hydrogen from refinery waste streams, and facilitate catalytic dehydrogenation and the water gas shift (CO + H{sub 2}O {yields} H{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}) reaction. Natural gas purification requires separating CH{sub 4} from mixtures with CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, H{sub 2}O, and higher alkanes. A dehydrating membrane would remove water vapor from gas streams in which water is a byproduct or a contaminant, such as refrigeration systems. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, natural gas constituents, and water vapor at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. It is in applications such as these that the authors expect inorganic molecular sieve membranes to compete most effectively with current gas separation technologies. Cryogenic separations are very energy intensive. Polymer membranes do not have the thermal stability appropriate for high temperature hydrogen recovery, and tend to swell in the presence of hydrocarbon natural gas constituents. The authors goal is to develop a family of microporous oxide films that offer permeability and selectivity exceeding those of polymer membranes, allowing gas membranes to compete with cryogenic and adsorption technologies for large-scale gas separation applications.

  20. Studies in thin film flows

    CERN Document Server

    McKinley, I S

    2000-01-01

    the general case of non-zero capillary number numerically. Using the lubrication approximation to the Navier-Stokes equations we investigate the evolution and stability of a thin film of incompressible Newtonian fluid on a planar substrate subjected to a jet of air blowing normally to the substrate. For the simple model of the air jet we adopt, the initially axisymmetric problems we study are identical to those of a drop spreading on a turntable rotating at constant angular velocity (the simplest model for spin coating). We consider both drops without a dry patch (referred to as 'non-annular') and drops with a dry patch at their centre (referred to as 'annular'). First, both symmetric two-dimensional and axisymmetric three-dimensional drops are considered in the quasi-static limit of small capillary number. The evolution of both non-annular and annular drops and the stability of equilibrium solutions to small perturbations with zero wavenumber are determined. Using a specially developed finite-difference code...

  1. Hysteresis in single and polycrystalline iron thin films: Major and minor loops, first order reversal curves, and Preisach modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Yue; Xu, Ke [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Jiang, Weilin; Droubay, Timothy; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Edwards, Danny; Johnson, Bradley R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); McCloy, John, E-mail: john.mccloy@wsu.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Hysteretic behavior was studied in a series of Fe thin films, grown by molecular beam epitaxy, having different grain sizes and grown on different substrates. Major and minor loops and first order reversal curves (FORCs) were collected to investigate magnetization mechanisms and domain behavior under different magnetic histories. The minor loop coefficient and major loop coercivity increase with decreasing grain size due to higher defect concentration resisting domain wall movement. First order reversal curves allowed estimation of the contribution of irreversible and reversible susceptibilities and switching field distribution. The differences in shape of the major loops and first order reversal curves are described using a classical Preisach model with distributions of hysterons of different switching fields, providing a powerful visualization tool to help understand the magnetization switching behavior of Fe films as manifested in various experimental magnetization measurements. - Highlights: • Iron thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) with different substrates and conditions. • Major and minor loops, first order reversal curves (FORCs) measured on same samples. • Parameters from various magnetic measurements compared and correlated. • Hysteresis modeling used to understand different switching field distributions caused by defects.

  2. Optimized grid design for thin film solar panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Klerk, L.; Barink, M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a gap in efficiency between record thin film cells and mass produced thin film solar panels. In this paper we quantify the effect of monolithic integration on power output for various configurations by modeling and present metallization as a way to improve efficiency of solar panels. Grid d

  3. Thin layer flow and film decay modeling for grease lubricated rolling bearings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venner, Cornelis H.; van Zoelen, M.T.; Lugt, Pieter Martin

    2012-01-01

    A model is presented to predict lubricant supply layer changes on tracks in rolling bearings due to centrifugal forces and elastohydrodynamic contact pressure. Experimental validation is shown for centrifugal force driven free surface flow, and layer thickness (film thickness) decay in single elasto

  4. Epitaxy, thin films and superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagd Christensen, Morten

    1997-05-01

    This report is the result of structural investigations of 3d transition metal superlattices consisting of Fe/V, Cr/Mn, V/Mn and Fe/Mn, and a structural and magnetic study of a series of Ho/Pr alloys. The work includes preparation and characterization of substrates as well as growth of thin films and Fe/V superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy, including in-situ characterization by reflection high energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. Structural characterization has been done by x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on the rotating copper anode at Risoe, and at synchrotron facilities in Hamburg and Brookhaven, and the neutron scattering was done at the Danish research reactor DR3 at Risoe. In addition to longitudinal scans, giving information about the structural parameters in the modulation direction, non-specular scans were also performed. This type of scans gives information about in-plane orientation and lattice parameters. From the analysis, structural information is obtained about lattice parameters, epitaxial strain, coherence lengths and crystallographic orientation for the superlattice systems, except Fe/Mn superlattices, which could not be modelled. For the Ho/Pr alloys, x-ray magnetic scattering was performed, and the crystal and magnetic structure was investigated. (au) 14 tabs.; 58 ills., 96 refs.

  5. Electronic characterisation and computer modelling of thin film materials and devices for optoelectronic applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zollondz, J

    2001-01-01

    lock-in techniques. A comparison was made of the two-beam photogating experiment, with a single beam current-voltage measurement, which is also influenced by trapped space charge, as indicators of defect distributions. It was found that the photogating measurement is a more accurate indicator of the distribution of space charge, and hence defects, within a device. Application of the photogating effect in a colour detector is introduced and detector structure proposed. The simple structure and the thin film technique of a-Si:H deposition suggests the possibility of a low cost photodetector with high colour resolution. Double beam collection efficiency measurements have been carried out on hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n devices. Apparent collection efficiencies higher than unity were observed, and explained by a process identified as photogating, in which a low intensity weakly absorbed probe beam modulates the photocurrent produced by a high intensity strongly absorbed bias beam. Computer simulations wer...

  6. Simulation on Mechanical Properties of Tungsten Carbide Thin Films Using Monte Carlo Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliam C. Agudelo-Morimitsu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the mechanical behavior of a system composed by substrate-coating using simulation methods. The contact stresses and the elastic deformation were analyzed by applying a normal load to the surface of the system consisting of a tungsten carbide (WC thin film, which is used as a wear resistant material and a stainless steel substrate. The analysis is based on Monte Carlo simulations using the Metropolis algorithm. The phenomenon was simulated from a fcc facecentered crystalline structure, for both, the coating and the substrate, assuming that the uniaxial strain is taken in the z-axis. Results were obtained for different values of normal applied load to the surface of the coating, obtaining the Strain-stress curves. From this curve, the Young´s modulus was obtained with a value of 600 Gpa, similar to the reports.

  7. Photoconductivity of thin organic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Nikolai V.; Chukharev, Vladimir; Kaplas, Petra; Tolkki, Antti; Efimov, Alexander; Haring, Kimmo; Viheriälä, Jukka; Niemi, Tapio; Lemmetyinen, Helge

    2010-04-01

    Thin organic films were deposited on silicon oxide surfaces with golden interdigitated electrodes (interelectrode gap was 2 μm), and the film resistivities were measured in dark and under white light illumination. The compounds selected for the measurements include molecules widely used in solar cell applications, such as polythiophene ( PHT), fullerene ( C60), pyrelene tetracarboxylic diimide ( PTCDI) and copper phthalocyanine ( CuPc), as well as molecules potentially interesting for photovoltaic applications, e.g. porphyrin-fullerene dyads. The films were deposited using thermal evaporation (e.g. for C60 and CuPc films), spin coating for PHT, and Langmuir-Schaeffer for the layer-by-layer deposition of porphyrin-fullerene dyads. The most conducting materials in the series are films of PHT and CuPc with resistivities 1.2 × 10 3 Ω m and 3 × 10 4 Ω m, respectively. Under light illumination resistivity of all films decreases, with the strongest light effect observed for PTCDI, for which resistivity decreases by 100 times, from 3.2 × 10 8 Ω m in dark to 3.1 × 10 6 Ω m under the light.

  8. Photoconductivity of thin organic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachenko, Nikolai V. [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland); Chukharev, Vladimir, E-mail: Vladimir.Chukharev@tut.fi [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland); Kaplas, Petra; Tolkki, Antti; Efimov, Alexander [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland); Haring, Kimmo; Viheriaelae, Jukka; Niemi, Tapio [Optoelectronics Research Centre, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland); Lemmetyinen, Helge [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2010-04-01

    Thin organic films were deposited on silicon oxide surfaces with golden interdigitated electrodes (interelectrode gap was 2 {mu}m), and the film resistivities were measured in dark and under white light illumination. The compounds selected for the measurements include molecules widely used in solar cell applications, such as polythiophene (PHT), fullerene (C{sub 60}), pyrelene tetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) and copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), as well as molecules potentially interesting for photovoltaic applications, e.g. porphyrin-fullerene dyads. The films were deposited using thermal evaporation (e.g. for C{sub 60} and CuPc films), spin coating for PHT, and Langmuir-Schaeffer for the layer-by-layer deposition of porphyrin-fullerene dyads. The most conducting materials in the series are films of PHT and CuPc with resistivities 1.2 x 10{sup 3} {Omega} m and 3 x 10{sup 4} {Omega} m, respectively. Under light illumination resistivity of all films decreases, with the strongest light effect observed for PTCDI, for which resistivity decreases by 100 times, from 3.2 x 10{sup 8} {Omega} m in dark to 3.1 x 10{sup 6} {Omega} m under the light.

  9. Flexible thin film magnetoimpedance sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurlyandskaya, G.V., E-mail: galina@we.lc.ehu.es [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic sensoric, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Fernández, E. [BCMaterials UPV-EHU, Vizcaya Science and Technology Park, 48160 Derio (Spain); Svalov, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic sensoric, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Burgoa Beitia, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); García-Arribas, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); BCMaterials UPV-EHU, Vizcaya Science and Technology Park, 48160 Derio (Spain); Larrañaga, A. [SGIker, Servicios Generales de Investigación, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2016-10-01

    Magnetically soft thin film deposited onto polymer substrates is an attractive option for flexible electronics including magnetoimpedance (MI) applications. MI FeNi/Ti based thin film sensitive elements were designed and prepared using the sputtering technique by deposition onto rigid and flexible substrates at different deposition rates. Their structure, magnetic properties and MI were comparatively analyzed. The main structural features were sufficiently accurately reproduced in the case of deposition onto cyclo olefine polymer substrates compared to glass substrates for the same conditions. Although for the best condition (28 nm/min rate) of the deposition onto polymer a significant reduction of the MI field sensitivity was found satisfactory for sensor applications sensitivity: 45%/Oe was obtained for a frequency of 60 MHz. - Highlights: • [FeNi/Ti]{sub 3}/Cu/[FeNi/Ti]{sub 3} films were prepared by sputtering at different deposition rates. • Polymer substrates insure sufficiently accurate reproducibility of the film structure. • High deposition rate of 28 nm/min insures the highest values of the magnetoimpedance sensitivity. • Deposition onto polymer results in the satisfactory magnetoimpedance sensitivity of 45%/Oe.

  10. Selective epitaxial growth for YBCO thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, C.A.J.; Smilde, H.-J.H.; Blank, D.H.A.; Rogalla, H.

    1998-01-01

    A novel selective epitaxial growth (SEG) technique for (YBCO) thin films is presented. The method involves the deposition of a thin (about 10 nm) metal layer, in the desired pattern, on a substrate before the deposition of the superconducting thin film. During growth the metal reacts with the YBCO,

  11. A compact model and direct parameters extraction techniques For amorphous gallium-indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Oana; Castro-Carranza, Alejandra; Cerdeira, Antonio; Estrada, Magali; Barquinha, Pedro; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira; Miljakovic, Slobodan; Iñiguez, Benjamin

    2016-12-01

    An advanced compact and analytical drain current model for the amorphous gallium indium zinc oxide (GIZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) is proposed. Its output saturation behavior is improved by introducing a new asymptotic function. All model parameters were extracted using an adapted version of the Universal Method and Extraction Procedure (UMEM) applied for the first time for GIZO devices in a simple and direct form. We demonstrate the correct behavior of the model for negative VDS, a necessity for a complete compact model. In this way we prove the symmetry of source and drain electrodes and extend the range of applications to both signs of VDS. The model, in Verilog-A code, is implemented in Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools, such as Smart Spice, and compared with measurements of TFTs. It describes accurately the experimental characteristics in the whole range of GIZO TFTs operation, making the model suitable for the design of circuits using these types of devices.

  12. Hysteresis in single and polycrystalline iron thin films: Major and minor loops, first order reversal curves, and Preisach modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yue; Xu, Ke; Jiang, Weilin; Droubay, Timothy; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Edwards, Danny; Johnson, Bradley R.; McCloy, John

    2015-12-01

    Hysteretic behavior was studied in a series of Fe thin films, grown by molecular beam epitaxy, having different grain sizes and grown on different substrates. Major and minor loops and first order reversal curves (FORCs) were collected to investigate magnetization mechanisms and domain behavior under different magnetic histories. The minor loop coefficient and major loop coercivity increase with decreasing grain size due to higher defect concentration resisting domain wall movement. First order reversal curves allowed estimation of the contribution of irreversible and reversible susceptibilities and switching field distribution. The differences in shape of the major loops and first order reversal curves are described using a classical Preisach model with distributions of hysterons of different switching fields, providing a powerful visualization tool to help understand the magnetization switching behavior of Fe films as manifested in various experimental magnetization measurements.

  13. Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A unified treatment of the theories, data, and technologies underlying physical vapor deposition methods With electronic, optical, and magnetic coating technologies increasingly dominating manufacturing in the high-tech industries, there is a growing need for expertise in physical vapor deposition of thin films. This important new work provides researchers and engineers in this field with the information they need to tackle thin film processes in the real world. Presenting a cohesive, thoroughly developed treatment of both fundamental and applied topics, Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films incorporates many critical results from across the literature as it imparts a working knowledge of a variety of present-day techniques. Numerous worked examples, extensive references, and more than 100 illustrations and photographs accompany coverage of: * Thermal evaporation, sputtering, and pulsed laser deposition techniques * Key theories and phenomena, including the kinetic theory of gases, adsorption and condensation, high-vacuum pumping dynamics, and sputtering discharges * Trends in sputter yield data and a new simplified collisional model of sputter yield for pure element targets * Quantitative models for film deposition rate, thickness profiles, and thermalization of the sputtered beam

  14. Processing and modeling issues for thin-film solar cell devices. Annual subcontract report, January 16, 1994--January 15, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Buchanan, W.A.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E.; Shafarman, W.N. [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Inst. of Energy Conversion

    1995-06-01

    This report describes results achieved during the second phase of a four year subcontract to develop and understand thin film solar cell technology related to a-Si and its alloys, CuIn{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2}, and CdTe. Accomplishments during this phase include, development of equations and reaction rates for the formation of CuIn{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} films by selenization, fabrication of a 15% efficient CuIn{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} cell, development of a reproducible, reliable Cu-diffused contact to CdTe, investigation of the role of CdTe-CdS interdiffusion on device operation, investigation of the substitution of HCl for CdCl{sub 2} in the post-deposition heat treatment of CdTe/CdS, demonstration of an improved reactor design for deposition of a-Si films, demonstration of improved process control in the fabrication of a ten set series of runs producing {approximately}8% efficient a-Si devices, demonstration of the utility of a simplified optical model for determining quantity and effect of current generation in each layer of a triple stacked a-Si cell, presentation of analytical and modeling procedures adapted to devices produced with each material system, presentation of baseline parameters for devices produced with each material system, and various investigations of the roles played by other layers in thin film devices including the Mo underlayer, CdS and ZnO in CuIn{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} devices, the CdS in CdTe devices, and the ZnO as window layer and as part of the back surface reflector in a-Si devices. In addition, collaborations with over ten research groups are briefly described. 73 refs., 54 figs., 34 tabs.

  15. Rashba-Dirac cones at the tungsten surface: Insights from a tight-binding model and thin film subband structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirczenow, George

    2016-11-01

    A tight-binding model of bcc tungsten that includes spin-orbit coupling is developed and applied to the surface states of (110) tungsten thin films. The model describes accurately the anisotropic Dirac conelike dispersion and Rashba-like spin polarization of the surface states, including the crucial effect of the relaxation of the surface atomic layer of the tungsten towards the bulk. It is shown that the surface relaxation affects the tungsten surface states because it results in increased overlaps between atomic orbitals of the surface atomic layer and nearby layers, whereas electric fields that are due to charge transfer between the tungsten and the vacuum near the surface or between the bulk and surface layers do not significantly affect the Rashba-Dirac surface states. It is found that hybridization with bulk modes has differing strengths for thin film surface states belonging to the upper and lower Rashba-Dirac cones and results in reversal of the directions of travel of spin ↑ and ↓ electrons in most of the upper Rashba-Dirac cone relative to those expected from phenomenology. It is also shown that intrasite (not intersite) matrix elements of the spin-orbit Hamiltonian are primarily responsible for the formation of the Rashba-Dirac cones and their spin polarization. This finding should be considered when modeling topological insulators, the spin Hall effect, and related phenomena.

  16. Axisymmetric modeling of ultrashort-pulse laser interactions with thin metal film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Majchrzak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The hyperbolic two-temperature model is used in order to describe the heat propagation in metal film subjected to an ultrashort-pulse laser heating. An axisymmetric heat soureceewith Gaussian temporeal and spatial distributions has been taken into account. At the stage of numerical computations the finite difference method is used. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations are shown.

  17. Asymptotic Modeling of the Thin Film Flow with a Pressure-Dependent Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Marušić-Paloka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the lubrication process with incompressible fluid taking into account the dependence of the viscosity on the pressure. Assuming that the viscosity-pressure relation is given by the well-known Barus law, we derive an effective model using asymptotic analysis with respect to the film thickness. The key idea is to conveniently transform the governing system and then apply two-scale expansion technique.

  18. On Ginzburg-Landau Vortices of Superconducting Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Jin DING; Qiang DU

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the vortex structure of the superconducting thin films placed in a magnetic field. We show that the global minimizer of the functional modelling the superconducting thin films has a bounded number of vortices when the applied magnetic field hex < Hc1 + K log |log ε|where Hc1 is the lower critical field of the film obtained by Ding and Du in SIAM J. Math. Anal.,2002. The locations of the vortices are also given.

  19. Multiscale level-set method for accurate modeling of immiscible two-phase flow with deposited thin films on solid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Al-Saud, Moataz O.; Riaz, Amir; Tchelepi, Hamdi A.

    2017-03-01

    We developed a multiscale sharp-interface level-set method for immiscible two-phase flow with a pre-existing thin film on solid surfaces. The lubrication approximation theory is used to model the thin-film equation efficiently. The incompressible Navier-Stokes, level-set, and thin-film evolution equations are coupled sequentially to capture the dynamics occurring at multiple length scales. The Hamilton-Jacobi level-set reinitialization is employed to construct the signed-distance function, which takes into account the deposited thin-film on the solid surface. The proposed multiscale method is validated and shown to match the augmented Young-Laplace equation for a static meniscus in a capillary tube. Viscous bending of the advancing interface over the precursor film is captured by the proposed level-set method and agrees with the Cox-Voinov theory. The advancing bubble surrounded by a wetting film inside a capillary tube is considered, and the predicted film thickness compares well with both theory and experiments. We also demonstrate that the multiscale level-set approach can model immiscible two-phase flow with a capillary number as low as 10-6.

  20. Mechanical properties of UO2 thin films under heavy ion irradiation using nanoindentation and finite element modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbakhshwan, Mohamed S.; Miao, Yinbin; Stubbins, James F.; Heuser, Brent J.

    2016-10-01

    The mechanical response of UO2 to irradiation is becoming increasingly important due to the shift to higher burn-up rates in the next generation of nuclear reactors. In the current study, thin films of UO2 were deposited on YSZ substrates using reactive-gas magnetron sputtering. Nanoindentation was used to measure the mechanical properties of the as-grown and irradiated films. Finite element modeling was used to account for the substrate effect on the measurements. In order to study the effect of displacement cascades accompanying gas bubbles, 5000 Å UO2 films were irradiated with 600 keV Kr+ ions at 25 °C and 600 °C. These irradiation conditions were used to confine radiation damage effects and implanted gas within the film. Results showed an increase in the film hardness and yield strength with dose, while elastic modulus initially decreased with irradiation and then kept increasing with dose. The change in hardness and elastic modulus is attributed to the introduction of gas bubbles and displacement cascade damage. Irradiation at 600 °C resulted in a decrease in the hardness and elastic modulus after irradiation using 600 keV Kr+ at a dose of 1E14 ions/cm2. Both hardness and elastic modulus then increased with irradiation dose. This behavior is attributed to recrystallization during irradiation at 600 °C and the formation of nanocrystallite regions with diameter and density that increase with dose. The calculation of the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) demonstrated that nanocrystals are the primary cause for film hardening based on the Orowan hardening mechanism.

  1. Modelling of Indirect Laser-induced Thin-film Ablation of Epoxy for Local Exposing of Carbon Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emonts, Michael; Fischer, Kai; Schmitt, Stefan; Schares, Richard Ludwig

    Laser radiation is used as enabling technology for intrinsic joining of high-strength CFRP laminates and fiber-reinforced thermoplastic injection moulding compounds by exposure of surface-near carbon fibers. Short-pulsed NIR laser sources represent an acceptable compromise with respect to ablation performance, remote process capability by use of compact 3D scanner and the capability for closed-loop process control. However, using such a laser source means also minimizing heat-affected zones (HAZ). Based on literature research about laser ablation of thin metal films, heat flow at CFRP and thermo-mechanical behavior in FRP by pyrolysis, an analytical model was generated for thin-film ablation of cured epoxy resins at the surface of CFRP laminates by lift-off of resin chips. A comparison between simulation and experimental results confirms the capability of the model to predict the exposure area and the HAZ with deviations below 15%. Threshold fluences for the HAZ (>1 J/cm2) and the resin ablation (>3 J/cm2) have been confirmed.

  2. Thin films for emerging applications v.16

    CERN Document Server

    Francombe, Maurice H

    1992-01-01

    Following in the long-standing tradition of excellence established by this serial, this volume provides a focused look at contemporary applications. High Tc superconducting thin films are discussed in terms of ion beam and sputtering deposition, vacuum evaporation, laser ablation, MOCVD, and other deposition processes in addition to their ultimate applications. Detailed treatment is also given to permanent magnet thin films, lateral diffusion and electromigration in metallic thin films, and fracture and cracking phenomena in thin films adhering to high-elongation substrates.

  3. Thin film fuel cell electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, W. J.; Batzold, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Earlier work shows that fuel cell electrodes prepared by sputtering thin films of platinum on porous vycor substrates avoid diffusion limitations even at high current densities. The presented study shows that the specific activity of sputtered platinum is not unusually high. Performance limitations are found to be controlled by physical processes, even at low loadings. Catalyst activity is strongly influenced by platinum sputtering parameters, which seemingly change the surface area of the catalyst layer. The use of porous nickel as a substrate shows that pore size of the substrate is an important parameter. It is noted that electrode performance increases with increasing loading for catalyst layers up to two microns thick, thus showing the physical properties of the sputtered layer to be different from platinum foil. Electrode performance is also sensitive to changing differential pressure across the electrode. The application of sputtered catalyst layers to fuel cell matrices for the purpose of obtaining thin total cells appears feasible.

  4. Stretchable, adhesive and ultra-conformable elastomer thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nobutaka; Murata, Atsushi; Fujie, Toshinori; Takeoka, Shinji

    2016-11-16

    Thermoplastic elastomers are attractive materials because of the drastic changes in their physical properties above and below the glass transition temperature (Tg). In this paper, we report that free-standing polystyrene (PS, Tg: 100 °C) and polystyrene-polybutadiene-polystyrene triblock copolymer (SBS, Tg: -70 °C) thin films with a thickness of hundreds of nanometers were prepared by a gravure coating method. Among the mechanical properties of these thin films determined by bulge testing and tensile testing, the SBS thin films exhibited a much lower elastic modulus (ca. 0.045 GPa, 212 nm thickness) in comparison with the PS thin films (ca. 1.19 GPa, 217 nm thickness). The lower elastic modulus and lower thickness of the SBS thin films resulted in higher conformability and thus higher strength of adhesion to an uneven surface such as an artificial skin model with roughness (Ra = 10.6 μm), even though they both have similar surface energies. By analyzing the mechanical properties of the SBS thin films, the elastic modulus and thickness of the thin films were strongly correlated with their conformability to a rough surface, which thus led to a high adhesive strength. Therefore, the SBS thin films will be useful as coating layers for a variety of materials.

  5. Exotic thin films made from cobalt ferrite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisfi, A.; Lisfi, A.; Williams, C.M.; Johnson, A.; Chang, P.; Corcoran, H.; Nguyen, L.T.; Lodder, J.C.; Morgan, W.; Soohoo, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Epitaxial CoFe2O4 thin films have been grown by PLD on (100) MgO substrate. Two types of spin-reorientation have been observed in such films upon annealing or increasing the film-thickness. In the as-deposited layers and at low thickness the easy axis is confined to the normal to the film plane

  6. Design and characterization of thin film microcoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBounty, Chris; Shakouri, Ali; Bowers, John E.

    2001-04-01

    Thin film coolers can provide large cooling power densities compared to bulk thermoelectrics due to the close spacing of hot and cold junctions. Important parameters in the design of such coolers are investigated theoretically and experimentally. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element simulator (ANSYS) is used to model self-consistently thermal and electrical properties of a complete device structure. The dominant three-dimensional thermal and electrical spreading resistances acquired from the 3D simulation are also used in a one-dimensional model (MATLAB) to obtain faster, less rigorous results. Heat conduction, Joule heating, thermoelectric and thermionic cooling are included in these models as well as nonideal effects such as contact resistance, finite thermal resistance of the substrate and the heat sink, and heat generation in the wire bonds. Simulations exhibit good agreement with experimental results from InGaAsP-based thin film thermionic emission coolers which have demonstrated maximum cooling of 1.15 °C at room temperature. With the nonideal effects minimized, simulations predict that single stage thin film coolers can provide up to 20-30 °C degrees centigrade cooling with cooling power densities of several 1000 W/cm2.

  7. Cathodoluminescence degradation of PLD thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, H. C.; Coetsee, E.; Terblans, J. J.; Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.; Nsimama, P. D.; Dejene, F. B.; Dolo, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    The cathodoluminescence (CL) intensities of Y2SiO5:Ce3+, Gd2O2S:Tb3+ and SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+ phosphor thin films that were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) were investigated for possible application in low voltage field emission displays (FEDs) and other infrastructure applications. Several process parameters (background gas, laser fluence, base pressure, substrate temperature, etc.) were changed during the deposition of the thin films. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to determine the surface roughness and particle size of the different films. The layers consist of agglomerated nanoparticle structures. Samples with good light emission were selected for the electron degradation studies. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and CL spectroscopy were used to monitor changes in the surface chemical composition and luminous efficiency of the thin films. AES and CL spectroscopy were done with 2 keV energy electrons. Measurements were done at 1×10-6 Torr oxygen pressure. The formation of different oxide layers during electron bombardment was confirmed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). New non-luminescent layers that formed during electron bombardment were responsible for the degradation in light intensity. The adventitious C was removed from the surface in all three cases as volatile gas species, which is consistent with the electron stimulated surface chemical reaction (ESSCR) model. For Y2SiO5:Ce3+ a luminescent SiO2 layer formed during the electron bombardment. Gd2O3 and SrO thin films formed on the surfaces of Gd2O2S:Tb3+ and SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+, respectively, due to ESSCRs.

  8. Mechanism and characters of thin film lubrication at nanometer scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雒建斌; 温诗铸

    1996-01-01

    Thin film lubrication is a transition region between elastohydrodynamic lubrication and boundary lubrication, A technique of relative optical interference intensity with the resolution of 0.5 nm in the vertical direction and 1.5 nm in the horizontal direction is used in a pure rolling process to measure the film thickness with different lubricants, speeds, loads and substrate surface energy. Experimental data show that the characteristics of thin film lubrication are different from those of elastohydrodynamic lubrication and boundary lubrication. As the rolling speed decreases, a critical film thickness can be found to distinguish thin film lubrication from elastohydrodynamic lubrication. Such thickness is related to the substrate surface energy, atmospheric viscosity of lubricant, etc. A physical model of thin film lubrication with the fluid layer, the ordered liquid layer and the adsorbed layer is proposed and the functions of these different layers are discussed.

  9. Quantum-dot size and thin-film dielectric constant: precision measurement and disparity with simple models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinolds, Darcy D W; Brown, Patrick R; Harris, Daniel K; Bulovic, Vladimir; Bawendi, Moungi G

    2015-01-14

    We study the dielectric constant of lead sulfide quantum dot (QD) films as a function of the volume fraction of QDs by varying the QD size and keeping the ligand constant. We create a reliable QD sizing curve using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), thin-film SAXS to extract a pair-distribution function for QD spacing, and a stacked-capacitor geometry to measure the capacitance of the thin film. Our data support a reduced dielectric constant in nanoparticles.

  10. Optical modeling of thin film silicon solar cells by combination of the transfer-matrix method and the Raytracer algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, Cordula; Lacombe, Jürgen; von Maydell, Karsten; Agert, Carsten

    2012-06-01

    This article deals with an optical model which describes silicon thin film solar cells with rough interfaces in a fast and easy way. In order to simulate thin layer stacks with rough interfaces diffuse scattering as well as interference effects have to be taken into account. Algorithms like the Finite-Difference Time-Domain method (FDTD) solve the Maxwell Equations and therefore fulfil these demands. Yet they take up a considerable amount of simulation time and computation capacity. To overcome these drawbacks an optical model was developed which combines the Transfer- Matrix-Method (TMM) and the Raytracer algorithm. The fraction of TMM and Raytracer in the model is determined by a separating function which can be interpreted as the integral haze. In order to verify the combined optical model a series of amorphous silicon single cells with varying intrinsic layer thicknesses was produced on two different kinds of textured substrates. The results of the combined optical model are compared to measured data as well as to the simulation results of the FDTD method. It can be shown that the combined optical model yields good results at low simulation time.

  11. Low temperature acetone detection by p-type nano-titania thin film: Equivalent circuit model and sensing mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, B.; Dutta, K.; Hazra, A.; Bhattacharyya, P.

    2014-09-01

    Undoped nanocrystalline anatase p-type TiO2 thin film was deposited by sol-gel method on thermally oxidized p-Si (2-5 Ω cm, ) substrates. The thin film was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) to confirm the formation of nanocrystalline anatase titania and to determine the crystallite size (∼7 nm). The resistive sensor structure was fabricated employing two lateral Pd electrodes on top of the TiO2 sensing layer. The developed sensor was tested in the temperature range of 50-200 °C for the detection of low ppm acetone (0.5-50 ppm). The maximum response of ∼115% was obtained at 150 °C with response/recovery time of 14 s/22 s at 50 ppm acetone (in air). Moreover, the sensors were capable of detecting acetone as low as 0.5 ppm with acceptable response magnitude. As titania acetone sensors are mostly n-TiO2 based, the acetone sensing mechanism for p-TiO2 is yet to be established authentically. To address the issue, an equivalent circuit model, based on the corresponding band diagram of nanocrystalline p-TiO2 with Pd electrode, was developed to describe the electron transfer mechanism through grain, grain boundary and Pd electrode under the influence of acetone vapor.

  12. Electrostatic Discharge Effects on Thin Film Resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Michael J.; Hull, Scott M.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, open circuit failures of individual elements in thin film resistor networks have been attributed to electrostatic discharge (ESD) effects. This paper will discuss the investigation that came to this conclusion and subsequent experimentation intended to characterize design factors that affect the sensitivity of resistor elements to ESD. The ESD testing was performed using the standard human body model simulation. Some of the design elements to be evaluated were: trace width, trace length (and thus width to length ratio), specific resistivity of the trace (ohms per square) and resistance value. However, once the experiments were in progress, it was realized that the ESD sensitivity of most of the complex patterns under evaluation was determined by other design and process factors such as trace shape and termination pad spacing. This paper includes pictorial examples of representative ESD failure sites, and provides some options for designing thin film resistors that are ESD resistant. The risks of ESD damage are assessed and handling precautions suggested.

  13. Ellipsometric Studies on Silver Telluride Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pandiaraman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver telluride thin films of thickness between 45 nm and 145 nm were thermally evaporated on well cleaned glass substrates at high vacuum better than 10 – 5 mbar. Silver telluride thin films are polycrystalline with monoclinic structure was confirmed by X-ray diffractogram studies. AFM and SEM images of these films are also recorded. The phase ratio and amplitude ratio of these films were recorded in the wavelength range between 300 nm and 700 nm using spectroscopic ellipsometry and analysed to determine its optical band gap, refractive index, extinction coefficient, and dielectric functions. High absorption coefficient determined from the analysis of recorded spectra indicates the presence of direct band transition. The optical band gap of silver telluride thin films is thickness dependent and proportional to square of reciprocal of thickness. The dependence of optical band gap of silver telluride thin films on film thickness has been explained through quantum size effect.

  14. On the pressure effect in energetic deposition of Cu thin films by modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering: A global plasma model and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, B. C.; Meng, D.; Che, H. L.; Lei, M. K.

    2015-05-01

    The modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering (MPPMS) discharge processes are numerically modeled and experimentally investigated, in order to explore the effect of the pressure on MPPMS discharges as well as on the microstructure of the deposited thin films. A global plasma model has been developed based on a volume-averaged global description of the ionization region, considering the loss of electrons by cross-B diffusion. The temporal variations of internal plasma parameters at different pressures from 0.1 to 0.7 Pa are obtained by fitting the model to duplicate the experimental discharge data, and Cu thin films are deposited by MPPMS at the corresponding pressures. The surface morphology, grain size and orientation, and microstructure of the deposited thin films are investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. By increasing the pressure from 0.1 to 0.7 Pa, both the ion bombardment energy and substrate temperature which are estimated by the modeled plasma parameters decrease, corresponding to the observed transition of the deposited thin films from a void free structure with a wide distribution of grain size (zone T) into an underdense structure with a fine fiber texture (zone 1) in the extended structure zone diagram (SZD). The microstructure and texture transition of Cu thin films are well-explained by the extended SZD, suggesting that the primary plasma processes are properly incorporated in the model. The results contribute to the understanding of the characteristics of MPPMS discharges, as well as its correlation with the microstructure and texture of deposited Cu thin films.

  15. Electromagnetic modelling and rational design of GLAD thin films for optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontyev, Viktor A.

    This thesis presents a theoretical study of columnar films, fabricated by glancing angle deposition (GLAD), as photonic bandgap structures and metamaterials with predictable dielectric and magnetic response. Glancing angle deposition (GLAD) employs extremely oblique vapour incidence and computerized substrate motion to produce nanocolumns with a variety of shapes. Columns grow in random or periodic arrays and may be periodic in one, two, or three dimensions. The films' optical properties were studied using finite-difference time-domain and finite-difference frequency-domain methods, as well as effective medium theories, with support from experimental research. A large part of the thesis is devoted to column arrays with subwavelength intercolumnar distance and periodically modulated column shape. Among them, s-shaped columns were designed as polarizers for linearly polarized light. Simulations have shown a competitive effect from two structural anisotropy sources, causing a band gap suppression for one of two linear polarizations, and high polarizing ability. Simulations were compared to the measurements with a very good agreement in spectral response. Subwavelength column arrays were further explored as anisotropic interference mirrors with omnidirectional reflection bands. Index graded vertical post films were designed, having up to four times wider reflection bands than in the isotropic analogs. Band gap properties of 3D periodic GLAD columns were studied on the example of square-spiral photonic crystals. A significant influence of column cross-section was shown, that currently prevents fabrication of square spirals with a 3D band gap in the visible range. Inverted square-spiral films have better performance, which is further improved by material redistribution along the spiral. Lastly, this work studies the effective dielectric response of porous columnar films with metal particles. Characteristic matrix formalism was combined with finite-difference modelling to

  16. Investigation of a Simplified Mechanism Model for Prediction of Gallium Nitride Thin Film Growth through Numerical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Kai Hu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A numerical procedure was performed to simplify the complicated mechanism of an epitaxial thin-film growth process. In this study, three numerical mechanism models are presented for verifying the growth rate of the gallium nitride (GaN mechanism. The mechanism models were developed through rate of production analysis. All of the results can be compared in one schematic diagram, and the differences among these three mechanisms are pronounced at high temperatures. The simplified reaction mechanisms were then used as input for a two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code FLUENT, enabling the accurate prediction of growth rates. Validation studies are presented for two types of laboratory-scale reactors (vertical and horizontal. A computational study including thermal and flow field was also performed to investigate the fluid dynamic in those reactors. For each study, the predictions agree acceptably well with the experimental data, indicating the reasonable accuracy of the reaction mechanisms.

  17. A theoretical modeling of photocurrent generation and decay in layered MoS2 thin-film transistor photosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Ji-Hyun; Park, Junghak; Jeon, Sanghun

    2017-02-01

    A model that universally describes the characteristics of photocurrent in molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) thin-film transistor (TFT) photosensors in both ‘light on’ and ‘light off’ conditions is presented for the first time. We considered possible material-property dependent carrier generation and recombination mechanisms in layered MoS2 channels with different numbers of layers. We propose that the recombination rates that are mainly composed of direct band-to-band recombination and interface trap-involved recombination change on changing the light condition and the number of layers. By comparing the experimental results, it is shown that the model performs well in describing the photocurrent behaviors of MoS2 TFT photosensors, including the photocurrent generation under illumination and a hugely long time persistent trend of the photocurrent decay in the dark condition, for a range of MoS2 layer numbers.

  18. Optical properties of aluminum oxide thin films and colloidal nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koushki, E., E-mail: ehsan.koushki@yahoo.com [Photonics Laboratory, Physics Faculty, Kharazmi University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi, S.H. [INM—Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Campus D2 2, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Jafari Mohammadi, S.A. [INM—Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Campus D2 2, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Islamshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Majles Ara, M.H. [Photonics Laboratory, Physics Faculty, Kharazmi University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Oliveira, P.W. de [INM—Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Campus D2 2, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we prepared thin films of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) with different thicknesses, using a wet chemical process. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles with an average size of 40 nm were dispersed in water and deposited on soda glass substrates. The morphology of the resulting thin films was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy. The optical properties of the thin films were studied by measuring reflectance and transmittance. A theoretical description of the reflection and transmission mechanism of the films was developed by measuring the thickness and spectral behavior of the refractive index. Numerical evaluations were used for modeling the optical spectra of the thin films of alumina. By fitting numerical curves to the experimental data, the extinction coefficient and refractive index were obtained. The dielectric constant and optical properties of the colloidal solution of the particles were also studied. - Highlights: • Optical properties of alumina thin films and nanocolloids were investigated. • New theoretical depiction of transmission and reflection from the thin films was evaluated. • Interference in reflection from thin films was studied. • Real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant for alumina nanoparticles were calculated. • Using a novel method, evaluation of optical dispersion and UV–visible absorption were performed.

  19. Raman spectroscopy of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, James Shaw

    Raman spectroscopy was used in conjunction with x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to elucidate structural and compositional information on a variety of samples. Raman was used on the unique La 2NiMnO6 mixed double perovskite which is a member of the LaMnO3 family of perovskites and has multiferroic properties. Raman was also used on nanodiamond films as well as some boron-doped carbon compounds. Finally, Raman was used to identify metal-dendrimer bonds that have previously been overlooked. Vibrational modes for La2NiMnO6 were ascribed by comparing spectra with that for LaMnO3 bulk and thin film spectra. The two most prominent modes were labeled as an asymmetric stretch (A g) centered around 535 cm-1 and a symmetric stretch (B g) centered around 678 cm. The heteroepitaxial quality of La2NiMnO 6 films on SrTiO3 (100) and LaAlO3 (100) substrates were examined using the Raman microscope by way of depth profile experiments and by varying the thickness of the films. It was found that thin films (10 nm) had much greater strain on the LaAlO3 substrate than on the SrTiO3 substrate by examining the shifts of the Ag and the Bg modes from their bulk positions. Changes in the unit cell owing to the presence of oxygen defects were also monitored using Raman spectroscopy. It was found that the Ag and Bg modes shifted between samples formed with different oxygen partial pressures. These shifts could be correlated to changes in the symmetry of the manganese centers due to oxygen defects. Raman spectroscopy was used to examine the structural and compositional characteristics of carbon materials. Nanocrystalline diamond coated cutting tools were examined using the Raman Microscope. Impact, abrasion, and depth profile experiments indicated that delamination was the primary cause of film failure in these systems. Boron doped material of interest as catalyst supports were also examined. Monitoring of the G-mode and intensities of the D- and G-modes indicated that

  20. Electrostatic thin film chemical and biological sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelas, Mark A.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Tompson, Jr., Robert V.; Viswanath, Dabir; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

    2010-01-19

    A chemical and biological agent sensor includes an electrostatic thin film supported by a substrate. The film includes an electrostatic charged surface to attract predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A charge collector associated with said electrostatic thin film collects charge associated with surface defects in the electrostatic film induced by the predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A preferred sensing system includes a charge based deep level transient spectroscopy system to read out charges from the film and match responses to data sets regarding the agents of interest. A method for sensing biological and chemical agents includes providing a thin sensing film having a predetermined electrostatic charge. The film is exposed to an environment suspected of containing the biological and chemical agents. Quantum surface effects on the film are measured. Biological and/or chemical agents can be detected, identified and quantified based on the measured quantum surface effects.

  1. Intrinsically conductive polymer thin film piezoresistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillemose, Michael; Spieser, Martin; Christiansen, N.O.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the piezoresistive effect in the intrinsically conductive polymer, polyaniline. A process recipe for indirect patterning of thin film polyaniline has been developed. Using a specially designed chip, the polyaniline thin films have been characterised with respect to resistivity...

  2. Electrical resistivity of thin metal films

    CERN Document Server

    Wissmann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give an actual survey on the resistivity of thin metal and semiconductor films interacting with gases. We discuss the influence of the substrate material and the annealing treatment of the films, presenting our experimental data as well as theoretical models to calculate the scattering cross section of the conduction electrons in the frame-work of the scattering hypothesis. Main emphasis is laid on the comparison of gold and silver films which exhibit nearly the same lattice structure but differ in their chemical activity. In conclusion, the most important quantity for the interpretation is the surface charging z while the correlation with the optical data or the frustrated IR vibrations seems the show a more material-specific character. Z can be calculated on the basis of the density functional formalism or the self-consistent field approximation using Mulliken’s population analysis.

  3. Weakly nonlinear stability of ultra-thin slipping films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Guohui

    2005-01-01

    A weakly nonlinear theory is presented to study the effects of slippage on the stability of the ultra-thin polymer films.The nonlinear mathematical model is constructed for perturbations of small finite amplitude based on hydrodynamic equations with the long wave approximation. Results reveal that the nonlinearity always accelerates the rupture of the films. The influences of the slip length, film thickness, and initial amplitude of perturbations on the rupture of the films are investigated.

  4. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. (Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Electro-Optics Technology Center); Wei, G. (Mobil Solar Energy Corp., Billerica, MA (United States)); Yu, P.C. (PPG Industries, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors' institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  5. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Electro-Optics Technology Center; Wei, G. [Mobil Solar Energy Corp., Billerica, MA (United States); Yu, P.C. [PPG Industries, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors` institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  6. Magnetostrictive thin films for microwave spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, D E; Shelford, L R; Wadley, P; Holý, V; Wang, M; Hindmarch, A T; van der Laan, G; Campion, R P; Edmonds, K W; Cavill, S A; Rushforth, A W

    2013-01-01

    Multiferroic composite materials, consisting of coupled ferromagnetic and piezoelectric phases, are of great importance in the drive towards creating faster, smaller and more energy efficient devices for information and communications technologies. Such devices require thin ferromagnetic films with large magnetostriction and narrow microwave resonance linewidths. Both properties are often degraded, compared to bulk materials, due to structural imperfections and interface effects in the thin films. We report the development of epitaxial thin films of Galfenol (Fe81Ga19) with magnetostriction as large as the best reported values for bulk material. This allows the magnetic anisotropy and microwave resonant frequency to be tuned by voltage-induced strain, with a larger magnetoelectric response and a narrower linewidth than any previously reported Galfenol thin films. The combination of these properties make epitaxial thin films excellent candidates for developing tunable devices for magnetic information storage, processing and microwave communications.

  7. Carbon nanotube based transparent conductive thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X; Rajamani, R; Stelson, K A; Cui, T

    2006-07-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) based optically transparent and electrically conductive thin films are fabricated on plastic substrates in this study. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are chemically treated with a mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid and nitric acid before being dispersed in aqueous surfactant-contained solutions. SWNT thin films are prepared from the stable SWNT solutions using wet coating techniques. The 100 nm thick SWNT thin film exhibits a surface resistivity of 6 kohms/square nanometer with an average transmittance of 88% on the visible light range, which is three times better than the films prepared from the high purity as-received SWNTs.

  8. Nanostructured thin films and coatings functional properties

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2010-01-01

    The second volume in ""The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings"" set, this book focuses on functional properties, including optical, electronic, and electrical properties, as well as related devices and applications. It explores the large-scale fabrication of functional thin films with nanoarchitecture via chemical routes, the fabrication and characterization of SiC nanostructured/nanocomposite films, and low-dimensional nanocomposite fabrication and applications. The book also presents the properties of sol-gel-derived nanostructured thin films as well as silicon nanocrystals e

  9. Dynamic Characterization of Thin Film Magnetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wei

    A broadband dynamic method for characterizing thin film magnetic material is presented. The method is designed to extract the permeability and linewidth of thin magnetic films from measuring the reflection coefficient (S11) of a house-made and short-circuited strip line testing fixture with or without samples loaded. An adaptive de-embedding method is applied to remove the parasitic noise of the housing. The measurements were carried out with frequency up to 10GHz and biasing magnetic fields up to 600 Gauss. Particular measurement setup and 3-step experimental procedures are described in detail. The complex permeability of a 330nm thick continuous FeGaB, 435nm thick laminated FeGaB film and a 100nm thick NiFe film will be induced dynamically in frequency-biasing magnetic field spectra and compared with a theoretical model based on Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equations and eddy current theories. The ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) phenomenon can be observed among these three magnetic materials investigated in this thesis.

  10. Determination of the Optical GAP in Thin Films of Amorphous Dilithium Phthalocyanine Using the Tauc and Cody Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry N. Reider-Burstin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Semiconducting thin films were grown on quartz substrates and crystalline silicon wafers, using dilithium phthalocyanine and the organic ligands 2,6-dihydroxyanthraquinone and 2,6-diaminoanthraquinone as the starting compounds. The films, thus obtained, were characterized by Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR, fast atomic bombardment (FAB+ mass and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopies. The surface morphology of these films was analyzed by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was found that the temperature-dependent electric current in all cases showed a semiconductor behavior with conductivities on the order of 10−6·S cm−1, whereas the highest value corresponded to the thin film based upon the bidentate amine. The Tauc and Cody optical band gap values of thin films were calculated from the absorption coefficients and were found to be around 1.5 eV, with another strong band between 2.3 and 2.43 eV, arising from non-direct transitions. The curvature in the Tauc plot influencing the determination of the optical gap, the Tauc optical gap corresponding to the thicker film is smaller. The dependence of the Cody optical gap on the film thickness was negligible.

  11. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLY-CRYSTALLINE SILICON THIN FILM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.F. Hu; H. Shen; Z.Y. Liu; L.S. Wen

    2003-01-01

    Poly-crystalline silicon thin film has big potential of reducing the cost of solar cells.In this paper the preparation of thin film is introduced, and then the morphology of poly-crystalline thin film is discussed. On the film we developed poly-crystalline silicon thin film solar cells with efficiency up to 6. 05% without anti-reflection coating.

  12. Stress in Thin Films; Diffraction Elastic Constants and Grain Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Untextured bulk polycrystals usually possess macroscopically isotropic elastic properties whereas for most thin films transverse isotropy is expected, owing to the limited dimensionality. The usually applied models for the calculation of elastic constants of polycrystals from single crystal elastic constants (so-called grain interaction models) erroneously predict macroscopic isotropy for an (untextured) thin film. This paper presents a summary of recent work where it has been demonstrated for the first time by X-ray diffraction analysis of stresses in thin films that elastic grain interaction can lead to macroscopically elastically anisotropic behaviour (shown by non-linear sin2ψ plots). A new grain interaction model, predicting the macroscopically anisotropic behaviour of thin films, is proposed.

  13. Thermal Expansion Coefficients of Thin Crystal Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The formulas for atomic displacements and Hamiltonian of a thin crystal film in phonon occupation number representation are obtained with the aid of Green's function theory. On the basis of these results, the formulas for thermal expansion coefficients of the thin crystal film are derived with the perturbation theory, and the numerical calculations are carried out. The results show that the thinner films have larger thermal expansion coefficients.

  14. Vector hysteresis model identification for iron–silicon thin films from micromagnetic simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quondam Antonio, S., E-mail: simonequondam87@gmail.com [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Faba, A. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Carlotti, G. [Department of Physics, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Cardelli, E. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy)

    2016-04-01

    In this paper a phenomenological approach, based on a generalization in two dimensions of the classical scalar Preisach model, is exploited and identified to reproduce the magnetization curves obtained by accurate micromagnetic simulations of both isotropic and anisotropic polycrystalline Fe–Si films with different values of the anisotropy constants. The identification problem is realized using a suitable set of analytical equations and performing a best fit procedure to the data obtained from micromagnetic simulations of both scalar and rotational loops. The correct reconstruction of all the magnetization processes, as well as of the associated magnetic losses, is achieved through the choice of a small number of either circular or elliptical hysterons, as well as by the implementation of a simple “moving technique” that is necessary to take into account the non-collinearity between the field and the magnetization that occurs in presence of a global uniaxial anisotropy.

  15. Modeling and simulation of boron-doped nanocrystalline silicon carbide thin film by a field theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Liming; Chen, Youping; Lee, James D

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents the application of a multiscale field theory in modeling and simulation of boron-doped nanocrystalline silicon carbide (B-SiC). The multiscale field theory was briefly introduced. Based on the field theory, numerical simulations show that intergranular glassy amorphous films (IGFs) and nano-sized pores exist in triple junctions of the grains for nanocrystalline B-SiC. Residual tensile stress in the SiC grains and compressive stress on the grain boundaries (GBs) were observed. Under tensile loading, it has been found that mechanical response of 5 wt% boron-SiC exhibits five characteristic regimes. Deformation mechanism at atomic scale has been revealed. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of nanocrystalline SiC were accurately reproduced.

  16. BDS thin film damage competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, C J; Thomas, M D; Griffin, A J

    2008-10-24

    A laser damage competition was held at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium in order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state-of-the-art of high laser resistance coatings since they are all tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. A normal incidence high reflector multilayer coating was selected at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The substrates were provided by the submitters. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials, and layer count will also be shared.

  17. Thin film bioreactors in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Scheld, H. W.

    1989-01-01

    Studies from the Skylab, SL-3 and D-1 missions have demonstrated that biological organisms grown in microgravity have changes in basic cellular functions such as DNA, mRNA and protein synthesis, cytoskeleton synthesis, glucose utilization, and cellular differentiation. Since microgravity could affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells at a subcellular and molecular level, space offers an opportunity to learn more about basic biological systems with one inmportant variable removed. The thin film bioreactor will facilitate the handling of fluids in microgravity, under constant temperature and will allow multiple samples of cells to be grown with variable conditions. Studies on cell cultures grown in microgravity would make it possible to identify and quantify changes in basic biological function in microgravity which are needed to develop new applications of orbital research and future biotechnology.

  18. Thin film bioreactors in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Scheld, H. W.

    Studies from the Skylab, SL-3 and D-1 missions have demonstrated that biological organisms grown in microgravity have changes in basic cellular functions such as DNA, mRNA and protein synthesis, cytoskeleton synthesis, glucose utilization and cellular differentiation. Since microgravity could affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells at a subcellular and molecular level, space offers us an opportunity to learn more about basic biological systems with one important variable removed. The thin film bioreactor will facilitate the handling of fluids in microgravity, under constant temperature and will allow multiple samples of cells to be grown with variable conditions. Studies on cell cultures grown in microgravity would enable us to identify and quantify changes in basic biological function in microgravity which are needed to develop new applications of orbital research and future biotechnology.

  19. Magnetization in permalloy thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rachana Gupta; Mukul Gupta; Thomas Gutberlet

    2008-11-01

    Thin films of permalloy (Ni80Fe20) were prepared using an Ar+N2 mixture with magnetron sputtering technique at ambient temperature. The film prepared with only Ar gas shows reflections corresponding to the permalloy phase in X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. The addition of nitrogen during sputtering results in broadening of the peaks in XRD pattern, which finally leads to an amorphous phase. The - loop for the sample prepared with only Ar gas is matching well with the values obtained for the permalloy. For the samples prepared with increased nitrogen partial pressure the magnetic moment decreased rapidly and the values of coercivity increased. The polarized neutron reflectivity measurements (PNR) were performed in the sample prepared with only Ar gas and with nitrogen partial pressure of 5 and 10%. It was found that the spin-up and spin-down reflectivities show exactly similar reflectivity for the sample prepared with Ar gas alone, while PNR measurements on 5 and 10% sample show splitting in the spin-up and spin-down reflectivity.

  20. The in vitro behavior of as-prepared and pre-immersed RF-sputtered calcium phosphate thin films in a rat bone marrow cell model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, E. van de; Vredenberg, A.M.; Brugge, P.J. ter; Wolke, J.G.C.; Jansen, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the behavior of radio frequency (RF)-sputtered calcium phosphate (CaP) thin films in a rat bone marrow (RBM) cell model. Two issues are addressed. Firstly, we benchmarked the in vitro cell behavior of these CaP coatings by comparing their proliferation, differentiation and

  1. Micromotors using magnetostrictive thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeyssen, Frank; Le Letty, Ronan; Barillot, Francois; Betz, Jochen; MacKay, Ken; Givord, Dominique; Bouchilloux, Philippe

    1998-07-01

    This study deals with a micromotor based on the use of magnetostrictive thin films. This motor belongs to the category of the Standing Wave Ultrasonic Motors. The active part of the motor is the rotor, which is a 100 micrometers thick ring vibrating in a flexural mode. Teeth (300 micrometers high) are placed on special positions of the rotor and produce an oblique motion which can induce the relative motion of any object in contact with them. The magnetic excitation field is radial and uses the transverse coupling of the 4 micrometers thick magnetostrictive film. The film, deposited by sputtering on the ring, consists of layers of different rare-earth/iron alloys and was developed during a European Brite-Euram project. The finite element technique was used in order to design a prototype of the motor and to optimize the active rotor and the energizer coil. The prototype we built delivered a speed of 30 turns per minute with a torque of 2 (mu) N.m (without prestress applied on the rotor). Our experimental results show that the performance of this motor could easily be increased by a factor of 5. The main advantage of this motor is the fact that it is remotely powered and controlled. The excitation coil, which provides both power and control, can be placed away from the active rotor. Moreover, the rotor is completely wireless and is not connected to its support or to any other part. It is interesting to note that it would not be possible to build this type of motor using piezoelectric technology. Medical applications of magnetostrictive micromotors could be found for internal microdistributors of medication (the coil staying outside the body). Other applications include remote control micropositioning, micropositioning of optical components, and for the actuation of systems such as valves, electrical switches, and relays.

  2. TiO2 thin film photocatalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jiaguo

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin films strongly depends on the preparing methods and post-treatment conditions, since they have a decisive influence on the chemical and physical properties of TiO2 thin films.Therefore, it is necessary to elucidate the influence of the preparation process and post-treatment conditions on the photocatalytic activity and surface microstructures of the films. This review deals with the preparation of TiO2 thin film photocatalysts by wet-chemical methods (such as sol-gel, reverse micellar and liquid phase deposition) and the comparison of various preparation methods as well as their advantage and disadvantage. Furthermore, it is discussed that the advancement of photocatalytic activity, super-hydrophilicity and bactericidal activity of TiO2 thin film photocatalyst in recent years.

  3. Molecular simulation of freestanding amorphous nickel thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, T.Q. [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 Boulevard Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée, Cedex 2 (France); Hoang, V.V., E-mail: vvhoang2002@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Institute of Technology, National University of Ho Chi Minh City, 268 Ly Thuong Kiet Street, District 10, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Lauriat, G. [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 Boulevard Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée, Cedex 2 (France)

    2013-10-31

    Size effects on glass formation in freestanding Ni thin films have been studied via molecular dynamics simulation with the n-body Gupta interatomic potential. Atomic mechanism of glass formation in the films is determined via analysis of the spatio-temporal arrangements of solid-like atoms occurred upon cooling from the melt. Solid-like atoms are detected via the Lindemann ratio. We find that solid-like atoms initiate and grow mainly in the interior of the film and grow outward. Their number increases with decreasing temperature and at a glass transition temperature they dominate in the system to form a relatively rigid glassy state of a thin film shape. We find the existence of a mobile surface layer in both liquid and glassy states which can play an important role in various surface properties of amorphous Ni thin films. We find that glass formation is size independent for models containing 4000 to 108,000 atoms. Moreover, structure of amorphous Ni thin films has been studied in details via coordination number, Honeycutt–Andersen analysis, and density profile which reveal that amorphous thin films exhibit two different parts: interior and surface layer. The former exhibits almost the same structure like that found for the bulk while the latter behaves a more porous structure containing a large amount of undercoordinated sites which are the origin of various surface behaviors of the amorphous Ni or Ni-based thin films found in practice. - Highlights: • Glass formation is analyzed via spatio-temporal arrangements of solid-like atoms. • Amorphous Ni thin film exhibits two different parts: surface and interior. • Mobile surface layer enhances various surface properties of the amorphous Ni thin films. • Undercoordinated sites play an important role in various surface activities.

  4. Coherency strain and its effect on ionic conductivity and diffusion in solid electrolytes--an improved model for nanocrystalline thin films and a review of experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, C; Keppner, J; Peters, A; Schichtel, N; Aydin, H; Janek, J

    2014-11-28

    A phenomenological and analytical model for the influence of strain effects on atomic transport in columnar thin films is presented. A model system consisting of two types of crystalline thin films with coherent interfaces is assumed. Biaxial mechanical strain ε0 is caused by lattice misfit of the two phases. The conjoined films consist of columnar crystallites with a small diameter l. Strain relaxation by local elastic deformation, parallel to the hetero-interface, is possible along the columnar grain boundaries. The spatial extent δ0 of the strained hetero-interface regions can be calculated, assuming an exponential decay of the deformation-forces. The effect of the strain field on the local ionic transport in a thin film is then calculated by using the thermodynamic relation between (isostatic) pressure and free activation enthalpy ΔG(#). An expression describing the total ionic transport relative to bulk transport of a thin film or a multilayer as a function of the layer thickness is obtained as an integral average over strained and unstrained regions. The expression depends only on known material constants such as Young modulus Y, Poisson ratio ν and activation volume ΔV(#), which can be combined as dimensionless parameters. The model is successfully used to describe own experimental data from conductivity and diffusion studies. In the second part of the paper a comprehensive literature overview of experimental studies on (fast) ion transport in thin films and multilayers along solid-solid hetero-interfaces is presented. By comparing and reviewing the data the observed interface effects can be classified into three groups: (i) transport along interfaces between extrinsic ionic conductors (and insulator), (ii) transport along an open surface of an extrinsic ionic conductor and (iii) transport along interfaces between intrinsic ionic conductors. The observed effects in these groups differ by about five orders of magnitude in a very consistent way. The

  5. Interfacial Effects on Pentablock Ionomer Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etampawala, Thusitha; Ratnaweera, Dilru; Osti, Naresh; Shrestha, Umesh; Perahia, Dvora; Majewski, Jaroslaw

    2011-03-01

    The interfacial behavior of multi block copolymer thin films results from a delicate balance between inherent phase segregation due to incompatibility of the blocks and the interactions of the individual blocks with the interfaces. Here in we report a study of thin films of ABCBA penta block copolymers, anionically synthesized, comprising of centered randomly sulfonated polystyrene block to which rubbery poly-ethylenebutalene is connected, terminated by blocks of poly-t-butylstyrene, kindly provided by Kraton. AFM and neutron reflectometry studies have shown that the surface structure of pristine films depends on film thickness and ranges from trapped micelles to thin layered films. Annealing above Tg for the styrene block results in rearrangements into relatively featureless air interface. Neutron reflectivity studies have shown that annealed films forms layers whose plane are parallel to the solid substrate with the bulky block at the air interface and the ionic block at the solid interface.

  6. Plasmonic modes in thin films: quo vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio ePolitano

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we discuss the status and the prospect of plasmonic modes in thin films. Plasmons are collective longitudinal modes of charge fluctuation in metal samples excited by an external electric field. Surface plasmons (SPs are waves that propagate along the surface of a conductor with applications in magneto-optic data storage, optics, microscopy, and catalysis. In thin films the electronic response is influenced by electron quantum confinement. Confined electrons modify the dynamical screening processes at the film/substrate interface by introducing novel properties with potential applications and, moreover, they affect both the dispersion relation of SP frequency and the damping processes of the SP.Recent calculations indicate the emergence of acoustic surface plasmons (ASP in Ag thin films exhibiting quantum well states and in graphene films. The slope of the dispersion of ASP decreases with film thickness. We also discuss open issues in research on plasmonic modes in graphene/metal interfaes.

  7. Transport physics and device modeling of zinc oxide thin-film transistors. Pt. II: Contact Resistance in Short Channel Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torricelli, F.; Meijboom, J.R.; Smits, E.; Tripathi, A.K.; Gelinck, G.H.; Colalongo, L.; Kovacs-Vajna, Z.M.; Leeuw, D. de; Cantatore, E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract—Short-channel zinc oxide (ZnO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) are investigated in a wide range of temperatures and bias conditions. Scaling down the channel length, the TFT performance is seriously affected by contact resistances, which depend on gate voltage and temperature. To account for t

  8. Transport physics and device modeling of zinc oxide thin-film transistors. Pt. I: Long-channel devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torricelli, F.; Meijboom, J.R.; Smits, E.; Tripathi, A.K.; Ferroni, M.; Federici, S.; Gelinck, G.H.; Colalongo, L.; Kovacs-Vajna, Z.M.; Leeuw, D. de; Cantatore, E.

    2011-01-01

    Thin-film transistors (TFTs), which use zinc oxide (ZnO) as an active layer, were fabricated and investigated in detail. The transport properties of ZnO deposited by spray pyrolysis (SP) on a TFT structure are studied in a wide range of temperatures, electrical conditions (i.e., subthreshold, above-

  9. Modeling of temperature cycles induced by pico- and nanosecond laser pulses in zinc oxide and molybdenum thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scorticati, D.; Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Huis in 't Veld, Bert; de Lange, D.F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the benefits of applying ultrashort pulsed lasers over nanosecond pulsed lasers for selective (i.e., superficial) heat treatment of materials in general and for selective heat treatment of thin films in particular. To this end, a background of the physics that gover

  10. Vortex motion in YBCO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, V.; Verdyan, A.; Lapsker, I.; Azoulay, J.

    1999-09-01

    Hall resistivity measurements as function of temperature in the vicinity of Tc were carried out on a thin films YBCO superconductors. A sign reversal of Hall voltage with external magnetic field applied along c axis have been observed upon crossing Tc. Hall voltage in the mixed state was found to be insensitive to the external magnetic field inversion. These effects are discussed and explained in terms of vortex motion under the influence of Magnus force balanced by large damping force. It is argued that in this model the flux-line velocity has component opposite to the superfluid current direction thus yielding a negative Hall voltage.

  11. Nonnegative global weak solutions for a degenerate parabolic system modeling thin films driven by capillarity

    CERN Document Server

    Matioc, Bogdan-Vasile

    2011-01-01

    We prove global existence of nonnegative weak solutions for a strongly coupled, fourth order degenerate parabolic system governing the motion of two thin fluid layers in a porous medium when capillarity is the sole driving mechanism.

  12. Nanomechanics of Ferroelectric Thin Films and Heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Chen , L.Q.

    2016-08-31

    The focus of this chapter is to provide basic concepts of how external strains/stresses altering ferroelectric property of a material and how to evaluate quantitatively the effect of strains/stresses on phase stability, domain structure, and material ferroelectric properties using the phase-field method. The chapter starts from a brief introduction of ferroelectrics and the Landau-Devinshire description of ferroelectric transitions and ferroelectric phases in a homogeneous ferroelectric single crystal. Due to the fact that ferroelectric transitions involve crystal structure change and domain formation, strains and stresses can be produced inside of the material if a ferroelectric transition occurs and it is confined. These strains and stresses affect in turn the domain structure and material ferroelectric properties. Therefore, ferroelectrics and strains/stresses are coupled to each other. The ferroelectric-mechanical coupling can be used to engineer the material ferroelectric properties by designing the phase and structure. The followed section elucidates calculations of the strains/stresses and elastic energy in a thin film containing a single domain, twinned domains to complicated multidomains constrained by its underlying substrate. Furthermore, a phase field model for predicting ferroelectric stable phases and domain structure in a thin film is presented. Examples of using substrate constraint and temperature to obtain interested ferroelectric domain structures in BaTiO3 films are demonstrated b phase field simulations.

  13. Thin film subsurface environments; Advanced X-ray spectroscopies and a novel Bayesian inference modeling algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Jonathan R.

    New condensed matter metrologies are being used to probe ever smaller length scales. In support of the diverse field of materials research synchrotron based spectroscopies provide sub-micron spatial resolutions and a breadth of photon wavelengths for scientific studies. For electronic materials the thinnest layers in a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) device have been reduced to just a few nanometers. This raises concerns for layer uniformity, complete surface coverage, and interfacial quality. Deposition processes like chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD) have been shown to deposit the needed high-quality films for the requisite thicknesses. However, new materials beget new chemistries and, unfortunately, unwanted side-reactions and by-products. CVD/ALD tools and chemical precursors provided by our collaborators at Air Liquide utilized these new chemistries and films were deposited for which novel spectroscopic characterization methods were used. The second portion of the thesis focuses on fading and decomposing paint pigments in iconic artworks. Efforts have been directed towards understanding the micro-environments causing degradation. Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) and variable kinetic energy X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (VKE-XPS) are advanced XPS techniques capable of elucidating both chemical environments and electronic band structures in sub-surface regions of electronic materials. HAXPES has been used to study the electronic band structure in a typical CMOS structure; it will be shown that unexpected band alignments are associated with the presence of electronic charges near a buried interface. Additionally, a computational modeling algorithm, Bayes-Sim, was developed to reconstruct compositional depth profiles (CDP) using VKE-XPS data sets; a subset algorithm also reconstructs CDP from angle-resolved XPS data. Reconstructed CDP produced by Bayes-Sim were most strongly correlated to the real

  14. Identification and design of novel polymer-based mechanical transducers: A nano-structural model for thin film indentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva, Joshua; Huang, Qian; Sirbuly, Donald J., E-mail: dsirbuly@ucsd.edu [Department of NanoEngineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2014-09-14

    Mechanical characterization is important for understanding small-scale systems and developing devices, particularly at the interface of biology, medicine, and nanotechnology. Yet, monitoring sub-surface forces is challenging with current technologies like atomic force microscopes (AFMs) or optical tweezers due to their probe sizes and sophisticated feedback mechanisms. An alternative transducer design relying on the indentation mechanics of a compressible thin polymer would be an ideal system for more compact and versatile probes, facilitating measurements in situ or in vivo. However, application-specific tuning of a polymer's mechanical properties can be burdensome via experimental optimization. Therefore, efficient transducer design requires a fundamental understanding of how synthetic parameters such as the molecular weight and grafting density influence the bulk material properties that determine the force response. In this work, we apply molecular-level polymer scaling laws to a first order elastic foundation model, relating the conformational state of individual polymer chains to the macroscopic compression of thin film systems. A parameter sweep analysis was conducted to observe predicted model trends under various system conditions and to understand how nano-structural elements influence the material stiffness. We validate the model by comparing predicted force profiles to experimental AFM curves for a real polymer system and show that it has reasonable predictive power for initial estimates of the force response, displaying excellent agreement with experimental force curves. We also present an analysis of the force sensitivity of an example transducer system to demonstrate identification of synthetic protocols based on desired mechanical properties. These results highlight the usefulness of this simple model as an aid for the design of a new class of compact and tunable nanomechanical force transducers.

  15. Theoretical modelling of X-ray production in thin films characterization with electron probe: Invariant embedding results

    CERN Document Server

    Heluani, S P

    2002-01-01

    Employing the invariant embedding principle, theoretical expressions for the detected characteristic X-ray intensities generated in electron probe microanalysis of thin films are obtained. Characteristic X-ray emission from the elements present in a solid is calculated from the probabilities of the backscattered and transmitted electron trajectories within the film and the substrate. The theoretical expressions mentioned provide for the possibility of developing procedures for microanalysis directly from the experimental results without making approaches for the estimation of the phi(rho z) function. The procedure used permits to calculate the recorded X-rays as a function of incident beam voltage and also as a function of the sample thickness. The method presented here gives the possibility of obtaining calibration curves for thin films and multi-layers. The results obtained are found to agree with experimental ones.

  16. Processing and modeling issues for thin-film solar cell devices. Annual subcontract report, January 16, 1993--January 15, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Buchanan, W.A.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E.; Shafarman, W.N.; Yokimcus, T.A. [Institute of Energy Conversion, Newark, DE (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The overall objective of the research presented in this report is to advance the development and acceptance of thin-film photovoltaic modules by increasing the understanding of film growth and processing and its relationship to materials properties and solar cell performance. The specific means toward meeting this larger goal include: (1) investigating scalable, cost-effective deposition processes; (2) preparing thin-film materials and device layers and completed cell structures; (3) performing detailed material and device analysis; and (4) participating in collaborative research efforts that address the needs of PV-manufacturers. These objectives are being pursued with CuInSe{sub 2}, CdTe and a-Si based solar cells.

  17. Ferroelectric thin-film active sensors for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bin; Giurgiutiu, Victor; Yuan, Zheng; Liu, Jian; Chen, Chonglin; Jiang, Jiechao; Bhalla, Amar S.; Guo, Ruyan

    2007-04-01

    Piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) have been proven a valuable tool in structural health monitoring. Piezoelectric wafer active sensors are able to send and receive guided Lamb/Rayleigh waves that scan the structure and detect the presence of incipient cracks and structural damage. In-situ thin-film active sensor deposition can eliminate the bonding layer to improve the durability issue and reduce the acoustic impedance mismatch. Ferroelectric thin films have been shown to have piezoelectric properties that are close to those of single-crystal ferroelectrics but the fabrication of ferroelectric thin films on structural materials (steel, aluminum, titanium, etc.) has not been yet attempted. In this work, in-situ fabrication method of piezoelectric thin-film active sensors arrays was developed using the nano technology approach. Specification for the piezoelectric thin-film active sensors arrays was based on electro-mechanical-acoustical model. Ferroelectric BaTiO3 (BTO) thin films were successfully deposited on Ni tapes by pulsed laser deposition under the optimal synthesis conditions. Microstructural studies by X-ray diffractometer and transmission electron microscopy reveal that the as-grown BTO thin films have the nanopillar structures with an average size of approximately 80 nm in diameter and the good interface structures with no inter-diffusion or reaction. The dielectric and ferroelectric property measurements exhibit that the BTO films have a relatively large dielectric constant, a small dielectric loss, and an extremely large piezoelectric response with a symmetric hysteresis loop. The research objective is to develop the fabrication and optimum design of thin-film active sensor arrays for structural health monitoring applications. The short wavelengths of the micro phased arrays will permit the phased-array imaging of smaller parts and smaller damage than is currently not possible with existing technology.

  18. First-principles modeling of strain in perovskite ferroelectric thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Diéguez, Oswaldo; Vanderbilt, David

    2008-01-01

    We review the role that first-principles calculations have played in understanding the effects of substrate-imposed misfit strain on epitaxially grown perovskite ferroelectric films. We do so by analyzing the case of BaTiO$_3$, complementing our previous publications on this subject with unpublished data to help explain in detail how these calculations are done. We also review similar studies in the literature for other perovskite ferroelectric-film materials.

  19. Separation Efficiency of Thin-film Evaporators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Billet

    2004-01-01

    The recovery of contaminants and useful substances from liquid wastes, the purification of production effluents and the separation of thermally instable mixtures are some of the multivarious applications of thin-film distillors in many processes of the chemical and allied industries and of the food industries. In a study carried out in pilot plants with distillation test systems there was found a good agreement between the experimental separation results and those obtained by computing with a theorectical model; the latter is based on the assumption of phase equilibrium between the vapour formed on an infinitely small element of area in a liquid film of any given concentric periphery of the vertically arranged evaporator. These tests were perfomed under various phase loads.

  20. Modeling of growth and prediction of properties of electronic nanomaterials: Silicon thin films and compound semiconductor quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sumeet C.

    The enhanced functionality and tunability of electronic nanomaterials enables the development of next-generation photovoltaic, optoelectronic, and electronic devices, as well as biomolecular tags. Design and efficient synthesis of such semiconductor nanomaterials require a fundamental understanding of the underlying process-structure/composition-property-function relationships. To this end, this thesis focuses on a systematic, comprehensive analysis of the physical and chemical phenomena that determine the composition and properties of semiconductor nanomaterials. Through synergistic combination of computational modeling and experimental studies, the thesis addresses the thermodynamics and kinetics that are relevant during synthesis and processing and their resulting impact on the properties of silicon thin films and ternary quantum dots (TQDs) of compound semiconductors. The thesis presents a computational study of the growth mechanisms of plasma deposited a-Si:H thin films based on kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations according to a transition probability database constructed by first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Based on the results, a comprehensive model is proposed for a-Si:H thin-film growth by plasma deposition under conditions that make the silyl (SiH3) radical the dominant deposition precursor. It is found that the relative roles of surface coordination defects are crucial in determining the surface composition of plasma deposited a-Si:H films and should be properly accounted for. The KMC predictions for the temperature dependence (over the range from 300 K to 700 K) of the surface concentration of SiHx(s) (x = 1,2,3) surface hydride species, the surface hydrogen content, and the surface dangling-bond coverage are in agreement with experimental measurements. In addition, the thesis details a systematic analysis of equilibrium compositional distribution in TQDs and their effects on the electronic and optoelectronic properties

  1. Ferromagnetic properties of fcc Gd thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertelli, T. P., E-mail: tambauh@gmail.com; Passamani, E. C.; Larica, C.; Nascimento, V. P.; Takeuchi, A. Y. [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Departamento de Física, Vitória/ES 29075-910 (Brazil); Pessoa, M. S. [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Departamento de Ciências Naturais, São Mateus/ES 29932-540 (Brazil)

    2015-05-28

    Magnetic properties of sputtered Gd thin films grown on Si (100) substrates kept at two different temperatures were investigated using X-ray diffraction, ac magnetic susceptibility, and dc magnetization measurements. The obtained Gd thin films have a mixture of hcp and fcc structures, but with their fractions depending on the substrate temperature T{sub S} and film thickness x. Gd fcc samples were obtained when T{sub S} = 763 K and x = 10 nm, while the hcp structure was stabilized for lower T{sub S} (300 K) and thicker film (20 nm). The fcc structure is formed on the Ta buffer layer, while the hcp phase grows on the fcc Gd layer as a consequence of the lattice relaxation process. Spin reorientation phenomenon, commonly found in bulk Gd species, was also observed in the hcp Gd thin film. This phenomenon is assumed to cause the magnetization anomalous increase observed below 50 K in stressed Gd films. Magnetic properties of fcc Gd thin films are: Curie temperature above 300 K, saturation magnetization value of about 175 emu/cm{sup 3}, and coercive field of about 100 Oe at 300 K; features that allow us to classify Gd thin films, with fcc structure, as a soft ferromagnetic material.

  2. Temperature effect on elastic modulus of thin films and nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lihong; Li, Meizhi; Qin, Fuqi; Wei, Yueguang

    2013-02-01

    The stability of nanoscale devices is directly related to elasticity and the effect of temperature on the elasticity of thin films and nanocrystals. The elastic instability induced by rising temperature will cause the failure of integrated circuits and other microelectronic devices in service. The temperature effect on the elastic modulus of thin films and nanocrystals is unclear although the temperature dependence of the modulus of bulk materials has been studied for over half a century. In this paper, a theoretical model of the temperature-dependent elastic modulus of thin films and nanocrystals is developed based on the physical definition of the modulus by considering the size effect of the related cohesive energy and the thermal expansion coefficient. Moreover, the temperature effect on the modulus of Cu thin films is simulated by the molecular dynamics method. The results indicate that the elastic modulus decreases with increasing temperature and the rate of the modulus decrease increases with reducing thickness of thin films. The theoretical predictions based on the model are consistent with the results of computational simulations, semi-continuum calculations and the experimental measurements for Cu, Si thin films and Pd nanocrystals.

  3. Thin films for geothermal sensing: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    The report discusses progress in three components of the geothermal measurement problem: (1) developing appropriate chemically sensitive thin films; (2) discovering suitably rugged and effective encapsulation schemes; and (3) conducting high temperature, in-situ electrochemical measurements. (ACR)

  4. Manganese ferrite thin films Part II: Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulscher, W.S.

    1972-01-01

    Some properties of evaporated manganese ferrite thin films are investigated, e.g. resistivity, magnetization reversal, Curie temperature, Faraday rotation and optical absorption. The properties are partly related to the partial oxygen pressure present during a preceding annealing process.

  5. Thin Film Photovoltaics: Markets and Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jäger-Waldau, Arnulf

    2012-01-01

    ...% of worldwide production. Between 2005 and 2009, thin film production capacity and volume increased more than the overall industry but did not keep up in 2010 and 2011 due to the rapid price decline for solar modules...

  6. Highly stretchable wrinkled gold thin film wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joshua; Park, Sun-Jun; Nguyen, Thao; Chu, Michael; Pegan, Jonathan D.; Khine, Michelle

    2016-02-01

    With the growing prominence of wearable electronic technology, there is a need to improve the mechanical reliability of electronics for more demanding applications. Conductive wires represent a vital component present in all electronics. Unlike traditional planar and rigid electronics, these new wearable electrical components must conform to curvilinear surfaces, stretch with the body, and remain unobtrusive and low profile. In this paper, the piezoresistive response of shrink induced wrinkled gold thin films under strain demonstrates robust conductive performance in excess of 200% strain. Importantly, the wrinkled metallic thin films displayed negligible change in resistance of up to 100% strain. The wrinkled metallic wires exhibited consistent performance after repetitive strain. Importantly, these wrinkled thin films are inexpensive to fabricate and are compatible with roll to roll manufacturing processes. We propose that these wrinkled metal thin film wires are an attractive alternative to conventional wires for wearable applications.

  7. Highly stretchable wrinkled gold thin film wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joshua, E-mail: joshuk7@uci.edu; Park, Sun-Jun; Nguyen, Thao [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Chu, Michael [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Pegan, Jonathan D. [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Khine, Michelle, E-mail: mkhine@uci.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2016-02-08

    With the growing prominence of wearable electronic technology, there is a need to improve the mechanical reliability of electronics for more demanding applications. Conductive wires represent a vital component present in all electronics. Unlike traditional planar and rigid electronics, these new wearable electrical components must conform to curvilinear surfaces, stretch with the body, and remain unobtrusive and low profile. In this paper, the piezoresistive response of shrink induced wrinkled gold thin films under strain demonstrates robust conductive performance in excess of 200% strain. Importantly, the wrinkled metallic thin films displayed negligible change in resistance of up to 100% strain. The wrinkled metallic wires exhibited consistent performance after repetitive strain. Importantly, these wrinkled thin films are inexpensive to fabricate and are compatible with roll to roll manufacturing processes. We propose that these wrinkled metal thin film wires are an attractive alternative to conventional wires for wearable applications.

  8. Thin solid-lubricant films in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, E. W.

    Low-friction films of thickness as low as 1 micron, created through sputter-deposition of low shear strength materials, are required in spacecraft applications requiring low power dissipation, such as cryogenic devices, and low torque noise, such as precision-pointing mechanisms. Due to their thinness, these coatings can be applied to high precision-machined tribological components without compromising their functional accuracy. Attention is here given to the cases of thin solid films for ball bearings, gears, and journal bearings.

  9. Design and Simulation of a 6-Bit Successive-Approximation ADC Using Modeled Organic Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huyen Thanh Pham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated a method for using proper models of pentacene P-channel and fullerene N-channel thin-film transistors (TFTs in order to design and simulate organic integrated circuits. Initially, the transistors were fabricated, and we measured their main physical and electrical parameters. Then, these organic TFTs (OTFTs were modeled with support of an organic process design kit (OPDK added in Cadence. The key specifications of the modeled elements were extracted from measured data, whereas the fitting ones were elected to replicate experimental curves. The simulating process proves that frequency responses of the TFTs cover all biosignal frequency ranges; hence, it is reasonable to deploy the elements to design integrated circuits used in biomedical applications. Complying with complementary rules, the organic circuits work properly, including logic gates, flip-flops, comparators, and analog-to-digital converters (ADCs as well. The proposed successive-approximation-register (SAR ADC consumes a power of 883.7 µW and achieves an ENOB of 5.05 bits, a SNR of 32.17 dB at a supply voltage of 10 V, and a sampling frequency of about 2 KHz.

  10. Experimental evidence for an optical interference model for vibrational sum frequency generation on multilayer organic thin film systems. II. Consideration for higher order terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Daniel B; Massari, Aaron M

    2015-01-14

    The generalized optical interference model for interfacial contributions to vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopic signals from organic thin film systems is extended to include a description of optical interferences contained in the thin film bulk response. This is based on electric quadrupolar interactions with the input fields and includes a discussion on possible contribution from the electric quadrupolar polarization. VSFG data from the first of this two part report are analyzed and include effects from higher order responses, for both bulk and higher order interfacial terms. The results indicate that although it is capable of capturing many of the data features, the electric dipole treatment is likely not a complete description of the VSFG intensity data from this system. An analysis based on the signs of the resulting response amplitudes is used to deduce the relative magnitude of the electric dipole and higher order interfacial terms. It is found that the buried interface is closer to satisfying the electric dipole approximation, consistent with smaller field gradients due to closer index matching between the organic thin film and substrate relative to air. The procedure outlined in this work allows for the difficult task of deducing a physical picture of average molecular orientation at the buried interface of a multilayer organic thin film system while including higher order effects.

  11. ZnO thin films as propane sensors: Band structure models to explicate the dependence between the structural and morphological properties on gas sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pozos, Heberto; Karthik, T. V. K.; de la L. Olvera, M.; Barrientos, Abel García; Cortés, Obed Pérez; Vega-Pérez, J.; Maldonado, A.; Pérez-Hernández, R.; Rodríguez-Lugo, V.

    2017-07-01

    Pure Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates by utilizing ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique (USP) and tested them as propane sensors. Propane sensitivity increased with decrease in the substrate temperature and water content in the feedstock solution. XRD analysis confirms that, the (002) directional ZnO which correspond to the hexagonal wurzite structure. Also, formations of rose like and spherical structures were confirmed by the SEM analysis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms the presence of loosely bound oxygen atoms on the surface of the low water content substrates. Two energy band structure models were proposed and explicated in detail for analyzing the effect of structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO thin films on propane sensing properties. Highest sensitivity ( 10) was obtained for ZnO films deposited with the lowest water content, at a deposition temperature of 400 °C and operated at 200 °C.

  12. Printable CIGS thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaojuan

    2014-03-01

    Among the various thin film solar cells in the market, CuInGaSe thin film cells have been considered as the most promising alternatives to silicon solar cells because of their high photo-electricity efficiency, reliability, and stability. However, many fabrication of CIGS thin film are based on vacuum processes such as evaporation sputtering techniques which are not cost efficient. This work develops a method using paste or ink liquid spin-coated on glass that would be to conventional ways in terms of cost effective, non-vacuum needed, quick processing. A mixture precursor was prepared by dissolving appropriate amounts of chemicals. After the mixture solution was cooled, a viscous paste prepared and ready for spin-coating process. A slight bluish CIG thin film substrate was then put in a tube furnace with evaporation of metal Se by depositing CdS layer and ZnO nanoparticle thin film coating to a solar cell fabrication. Structure, absorption spectrum, and photo-conversion efficiency for the as-grown CIGS thin film solar cell under study.

  13. Carbon Nanotube Thin-Film Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchades, Ivan; Rossi, Jamie E; Cress, Cory D; Naglich, Eric; Landi, Brian J

    2016-08-17

    Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) dipole antennas have been successfully designed, fabricated, and tested. Antennas of varying lengths were fabricated using flexible bulk MWCNT sheet material and evaluated to confirm the validity of a full-wave antenna design equation. The ∼20× improvement in electrical conductivity provided by chemically doped SWCNT thin films over MWCNT sheets presents an opportunity for the fabrication of thin-film antennas, leading to potentially simplified system integration and optical transparency. The resonance characteristics of a fabricated chlorosulfonic acid-doped SWCNT thin-film antenna demonstrate the feasibility of the technology and indicate that when the sheet resistance of the thin film is >40 ohm/sq no power is absorbed by the antenna and that a sheet resistance of antenna. The dependence of the return loss performance on the SWCNT sheet resistance is consistent with unbalanced metal, metal oxide, and other CNT-based thin-film antennas, and it provides a framework for which other thin-film antennas can be designed.

  14. Photophysical properties of Alq3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzka, A.; Płóciennik, P.; Strzelecki, J.; Łukasiak, Z.; Sahraoui, B.

    2013-11-01

    This work contains investigation results of the photophysical properties of aluminum (III) tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) thin films. The Alq3 thin films were successfully fabricated by Physical Vapor Deposition technique. The films were grown on transparent: (quartz and glass) and semiconductor (n-type silica) substrates kept at room temperature during the deposition process. Selected films were annealed after fabrication in ambient atmosphere for 12 h at the temperature equal to 100 °C and 150 °C. Morphology of the films was investigated by AFM technique. Photophysical properties were characterized via photoluminescence, transmission, second and third harmonic generation measurements. The thin films exhibit high structural quality regardless of the annealing process, but the stability of the film can be improved by using an appropriate temperature during the annealing process. Photoluminescence of Alq3 films obtained in air were efficient and stable. The measurements of transmission, SHG and THG spectra allowed us to determine optical constant of the films. We find that the photophysical properties were strictly connected with the morphology and the annealing process significantly changes the structural properties of the films.

  15. Stress-warping relation in thin film coated wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicker, J.; Khan, W. A.; Arnold, T.; Hirschl, C.

    2017-02-01

    A misfit strain or stress in a thin layer on the surface of a wafer lets the composite disk warp. When the wafer is thin and large, the Stoney estimation of the film stress as function of the curvature yields large errors. We present a nonlinear analytical model that describes the relationship between warpage and film stress on an anisotropic wafer, and give evidence for its suitability for large thin wafers by a comparison to finite element results. Finally, we show the confidence limit of the Stoney estimation and the benefit by the nonlinear model. For thin coatings, it can be succesfully used even without knowledge of the film properties, which was the main advantage of the Stoney estimation.

  16. Liquid phase deposition of electrochromic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Thomas J.; Rubin, Michael D.

    2000-08-18

    Thin films of titanium, zirconium and nickel oxides were deposited on conductive SnO2:F glass substrates by immersion in aqueous solutions. The films are transparent, conformal, of uniform thickness and appearance, and adhere strongly to the substrates. On electrochemical cycling, TiO2, mixed TiO2-ZrO2, and NiOx films exhibited stable electrochromism with high coloration efficiencies. These nickel oxide films were particularly stable compared with films prepared by other non-vacuum techniques. The method is simple, inexpensive, energy efficient, and readily scalable to larger substrates.

  17. A thin-film magnetoresistive angle detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Kees J.M.; Wieberdink, Johan W.; Fluitman, Jan H.J; Popma, Theo J.A.; Groot, Peter; Leeuwis, Henk

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of the results of our research on a contactless angle detector based on the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect (AMR effect) in a permalloy thin film. The results of high-temperature annealing treatment of the pemalloy film are discussed. Such a treatment suppresses the effects

  18. Adhesion and friction of thin metal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted in vacuum with thin films of titanium, chromium, iron, and platinum sputter deposited on quartz or mica substrates. A single crystal hemispherically tipped gold slider was used in contact with the films at loads of 1.0 to 30.0 and at a sliding velocity of 0.7 mm/min at 23 C. Test results indicate that the friction coefficient is dependent on the adhesion of two interfaces, that between the film and its substrate and the slider and the film. There exists a relationship between the percent d bond character of metals in bulk and in thin film form and the friction coefficient. Oxygen can increase adhesive bonding of a metal film (platinum) to a substrate.

  19. Microscale mechanics for metal thin film delamination along ceramic substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏悦广

    2000-01-01

    The metal thin film delamination along metal/ceramic interface in the case of large scale yielding is studied by employing the strain gradient plasticity theory and the material microscale effects are considered. Two different f racture process models are used in this study to describe the nonlinear delamination phenomena for metal thin films. A set of experiments have been done on the mechanism of copper films delaminating from silica substrates, based on which the peak interface separation stress and the micro-length scale of material, as well as the dislocation-free zone size are predicted.

  20. Microscale mechanics for metal thin film delamination along ceramic substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The metal thin film delamination along metal/ceramic interface in the case of large scale yielding is studied by employing the strain gradient plasticity theory and the material microscale effects are considered.Two different fracture process models are used in this study to describe the nonlinear delamination phenomena for metal thin films.A set of experiments have been done on the mechanism of copper films delaminating from silica substrates,based on which the peak interface separation stress and the micro-length scale of material,as well as the dislocation-free zone size are predicted.

  1. Thin Film Solar Cells and their Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Jurecka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report on the optical parameters of the semiconductor thin film for solar cell applications determination. The method is based on the dynamical modeling of the spectral reflectance function combined with the stochastic optimization of the initial reflectance model estimation. The spectral dependency of the thin film optical parameters computations is based on the optical transitions modeling. The combination of the dynamical modeling and the stochastic optimization of the initial theoretical model estimation enable comfortable analysis of the spectral dependencies of the optical parameters and incorporation of the microstructure effects on the solar cell properties. The results of the optical parameters ofthe i-a-Si thin film determination are presented.

  2. Flexible Thin Metal Film Thermal Sensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Donald Laurence (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A flexible thin metal film thermal sensing system is provided. A thermally-conductive film made from a thermally-insulating material is doped with thermally-conductive material. At least one layer of electrically-conductive metal is deposited directly onto a surface of the thermally-conductive film. One or more devices are coupled to the layer(s) to measure an electrical characteristic associated therewith as an indication of temperature.

  3. Rhodium particles supported by thin vanadia films as model systems for catalysis: An electron microscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S. [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Wang, D. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg, 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Schloegl, R. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg, 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Hayek, K. [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)]. E-mail: konrad.hayek@uibk.ac.at

    2005-07-22

    Well-shaped Rh particles grown epitaxially on NaCl surfaces were coated with a 25 nm layer of crystalline vanadium oxide by reactive deposition in 10{sup -4} mbar oxygen. The Rh/VO{sub x} film was subjected to consecutive heat treatments in 1 bar oxygen and in 1 bar hydrogen up to 673 K. The structural and morphological changes were monitored by (high-resolution) transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and electron energy-loss spectroscopy and compared to the alterations of a bare vanadium oxide film treated under equal conditions. The stoichiometry and structure of the VO{sub x} support depend on the temperature of the NaCl template and on the deposition rate. Low deposition rates and high substrate temperatures favour the generation of a pure V{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase, with both V{sub 2}O{sub 3} and the Rh particles in epitaxial relation to NaCl (001). A treatment in 1 bar O{sub 2} between 300 and 573 K converts the supporting oxide into mixed V{sub 2}O{sub 3}, VO{sub 2} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} phases. Oxidation at 673 K induces a complete reconstruction into a single V{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase, while an oxygen treatment at 723 K transforms also the Rh particles into ({beta})Rh{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Reduction of the bare V{sub 2}O{sub 5} film in 1 bar hydrogen yields cubic VO at 673 K, but reduction of the Rh/V{sub 2}O{sub 5} film leads to VO formation already at 473 K. Finally, a reduction of vanadia-supported Rh particles at and above 573 K results in the formation of Rh/V alloy structures.

  4. Polymer surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamm, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Neutron reflectometry can be used in various ways to investigate surfaces, interfaces and thin films of polymers. Its potential comes mostly from the possibilities offered by selective deuteration, where a particular component can be made visible with respect to its activity at the interface. In addition the depth resolution is much better than with most other direct techniques, and details of the profiles may be resolved. Several examples will be discussed including the segment diffusion at the interface between two polymer films, the determination of the narrow interfaces between incompatible polymer blends and the development of order in thin diblock copolymer films. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 38 refs.

  5. NLO properties of functionalized DNA thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, Oksana [University d' Angers, Laboratoire POMA CNRS UMR 6136, France, 2 Bd. Lavoisier, 49045 (France)], E-mail: okrupka@mail.ru; El-ghayoury, Abdelkrim [University d' Angers, UFR Sciences, Laboratoire CIMMA UMR CNRS 6200, 2 Bd. Lavoisier, 49045 (France); Rau, Ileana; Sahraoui, Bouchta [University d' Angers, Laboratoire POMA CNRS UMR 6136, France, 2 Bd. Lavoisier, 49045 (France); Grote, James G. [Air Force Research Laboratory Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, 3005 Hobson Way, Dayton, OH 45433-7707 (United States); Kajzar, Francois [University d' Angers, Laboratoire POMA CNRS UMR 6136, France, 2 Bd. Lavoisier, 49045 (France)

    2008-10-31

    In this paper we investigate the third-order nonlinear optical properties of spin deposited thin films of DNA-based complexes using the optical third harmonic generation (THG) technique at a fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm. We found that the third-order susceptibility, {chi}{sup (3)}(- 3{omega};{omega},{omega},{omega}), of DNA-based films was about one order of magnitude larger than that of our reference, a pure silica slab. In thin films doped with 5% of the chromophore disperse red 1 (DR1), a two order of magnitude larger value of {chi}{sup (3)}(- 3{omega};{omega},{omega},{omega}) was observed.

  6. Multiscale level-set method for accurate modeling of two-phase immiscible flow with deposited thin-films on solid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu AlSaud, M.; Riaz, A.; Tchelepi, H.

    2016-12-01

    We developed a multiscale sharp interface method based on the level-set for two-phase immiscible flow with pre-existing thin-films on solid surfaces. The lubrication approximation theory is used to model the thin-film equation efficiently. The incompressible Navier-Stokes, level-set, and thin-film evolution equation are coupled sequentially to capture the physics occurring at multiple length scales. The proposed multiscale method is validated through comparison with the augmented Young-Laplace equation that includes the Van der Waals intermolecular force for a static meniscus in a capillary tube. The viscous bending in the advancing interface over precursor film problem is captured by the numerical method and agrees with the Cox-Voinov theory. The problem of a moving-bubble inside a capillary tube is modeled, and the results compare well with both theory and experiments. In addition, the performance of the new approach is assessed by studying the spurious currents for capillary-dominated flows at low capillary numbers. The method is applicable for flows with a capillary number as low as Ca10-6.

  7. Thin Ice Films at Mineral Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilbaş, Merve; Boily, Jean-François

    2016-07-21

    Ice films formed at mineral surfaces are of widespread occurrence in nature and are involved in numerous atmospheric and terrestrial processes. In this study, we studied thin ice films at surfaces of 19 synthetic and natural mineral samples of varied structure and composition. These thin films were formed by sublimation of thicker hexagonal ice overlayers mostly produced by freezing wet pastes of mineral particles at -10 and -50 °C. Vibration spectroscopy revealed that thin ice films contained smaller populations of strongly hydrogen-bonded water molecules than in hexagonal ice and liquid water. Thin ice films at the surfaces of the majority of minerals considered in this work [i.e., metal (oxy)(hydr)oxides, phyllosilicates, silicates, volcanic ash, Arizona Test Dust] produced intense O-H stretching bands at ∼3400 cm(-1), attenuated bands at ∼3200 cm(-1), and liquid-water-like bending band at ∼1640 cm(-1) irrespective of structure and composition. Illite, a nonexpandable phyllosilicate, is the only mineral that stabilized a form of ice that was strongly resilient to sublimation in temperatures as low as -50 °C. As mineral-bound thin ice films are the substrates upon which ice grows from water vapor or aqueous solutions, this study provides new constraints from which their natural occurrences can be understood.

  8. Carrier lifetimes in thin-film photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Dohyun

    2015-09-01

    The carrier lifetimes in thin-film solar cells are reviewed and discussed. Shockley-Read-Hall recombination is dominant at low carrier density, Auger recombination is dominant under a high injection condition and high carrier density, and surface recombination is dominant under any conditions. Because the surface photovoltage technique is insensitive to the surface condition, it is useful for bulk lifetime measurements. The photoconductance decay technique measures the effective recombination lifetime. The time-resolved photoluminescence technique is very useful for measuring thin-film semiconductor or solar-cell materials lifetime, because the sample is thin, other techniques are not suitable for measuring the lifetime. Many papers have provided time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) lifetimes for copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) and CdTe thin-film solar cell. The TRPL lifetime strongly depends on open-circuit voltage and conversion efficiency; however, the TRPL life time is insensitive to the short-circuit current.

  9. Magnetoelectric thin film composites with interdigital electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piorra, A.; Jahns, R.; Teliban, I.; Gugat, J. L.; Gerken, M.; Knöchel, R.; Quandt, E.

    2013-07-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) thin film composites on silicon cantilevers are fabricated using Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.45)O3 (PZT) films with interdigital transducer electrodes on the top side and FeCoSiB amorphous magnetostrictive thin films on the backside. These composites without any direct interface between the piezoelectric and magnetostrictive phase are superior to conventional plate capacitor-type thin film ME composites. A limit of detection of 2.6 pT/Hz1/2 at the mechanical resonance is determined which corresponds to an improvement of a factor of approximately 2.8 compared to the best plate type sensor using AlN as the piezoelectric phase and even a factor of approximately 4 for a PZT plate capacitor.

  10. Tungsten-doped thin film materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Hauyee; Gao, Chen; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Schultz, Peter G.

    2003-12-09

    A dielectric thin film material for high frequency use, including use as a capacitor, and having a low dielectric loss factor is provided, the film comprising a composition of tungsten-doped barium strontium titanate of the general formula (Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.1-x)TiO.sub.3, where X is between about 0.5 and about 1.0. Also provided is a method for making a dielectric thin film of the general formula (Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.1-x)TiO.sub.3 and doped with W, where X is between about 0.5 and about 1.0, a substrate is provided, TiO.sub.2, the W dopant, Ba, and optionally Sr are deposited on the substrate, and the substrate containing TiO.sub.2, the W dopant, Ba, and optionally Sr is heated to form a low loss dielectric thin film.

  11. Film-thickness dependence of structure formation in ultra-thin polymer blend films

    CERN Document Server

    Gutmann, J S; Stamm, M

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the film-thickness dependence of structure formation in ultra-thin polymer blend films prepared from solution. As a model system we used binary blends of statistical poly(styrene-co-p-bromostyrene) copolymers of different degrees of bromination. Ultra-thin-film samples differing in miscibility and film thickness were prepared via spin coating of common toluene solutions onto silicon (100) substrates. The resulting morphologies were investigated with scanning force microscopy, reflectometry and grazing-incidence scattering techniques using both X-rays and neutrons in order to obtain a picture of the sample structure at and below the sample surface. (orig.)

  12. Nanostructured thin film polymer devices for constant-rate protein delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernards, Daniel A; Lance, Kevin D; Ciaccio, Natalie A; Desai, Tejal A

    2012-10-10

    Herein long-term delivery of proteins from biodegradable thin film devices is demonstrated, where a nanostructured polymer membrane controls release. Protein was sealed between two poly(caprolactone) films, which generated the thin film devices. Protein release for 210 days was shown in vitro, and stable activity was established through 70 days with a model protein. These thin film devices present a promising delivery platform for biologic therapeutics, particularly for application in constrained spaces.

  13. Self-consistent modelling of X-ray photoelectron spectra from air-exposed polycrystalline TiN thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greczynski, G.; Hultman, L.

    2016-11-01

    We present first self-consistent modelling of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) Ti 2p, N 1s, O 1s, and C 1s core level spectra with a cross-peak quantitative agreement for a series of TiN thin films grown by dc magnetron sputtering and oxidized to different extent by varying the venting temperature Tv of the vacuum chamber before removing the deposited samples. So-obtained film series constitute a model case for XPS application studies, where certain degree of atmosphere exposure during sample transfer to the XPS instrument is unavoidable. The challenge is to extract information about surface chemistry without invoking destructive pre-cleaning with noble gas ions. All TiN surfaces are thus analyzed in the as-received state by XPS using monochromatic Al Kα radiation (hν = 1486.6 eV). Details of line shapes and relative peak areas obtained from deconvolution of the reference Ti 2p and N 1 s spectra representative of a native TiN surface serve as an input to model complex core level signals from air-exposed surfaces, where contributions from oxides and oxynitrides make the task very challenging considering the influence of the whole deposition process at hand. The essential part of the presented approach is that the deconvolution process is not only guided by the comparison to the reference binding energy values that often show large spread, but in order to increase reliability of the extracted chemical information the requirement for both qualitative and quantitative self-consistency between component peaks belonging to the same chemical species is imposed across all core-level spectra (including often neglected O 1s and C 1s signals). The relative ratios between contributions from different chemical species vary as a function of Tv presenting a self-consistency check for our model. We propose that the cross-peak self-consistency should be a prerequisite for reliable XPS peak modelling as it enhances credibility of obtained chemical information, while relying

  14. Modelling and laboratory studies on the adhesion fatigue performance for thin-film asphalt and aggregate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongsheng; Yi, Junyan; Feng, Decheng

    2014-01-01

    Adhesion between asphalt and aggregate plays an important role in the performance of asphalt mixtures. A low-frequency adhesion fatigue test was proposed in this paper to study the effect of environment on the asphalt-aggregate adhesion system. The stress-based fatigue model had been utilized to describe the fatigue behavior of thin-film asphalt and aggregate system. The factors influencing the adhesion fatigue performance were also investigated. Experiment results show that asphalt has more important effect on the adhesion performance comparing with aggregate. Basalt, which is regarded as hydrophobic aggregates with low silica content, has better adhesion performance to asphalt binder when compared with granite. The effects of aging on the adhesion fatigue performance are different for PG64-22 and rubber asphalt. Long-term aging is found to reduce the adhesion fatigue lives for rubber asphalt and aggregate system, while the effect of long-term aging for aggregate and PG64-22 binder system is positive. Generally the increased stress amplitude and test temperature could induce greater damage and lead to less fatigue lives for adhesion test system.

  15. Numerical Modeling of Thermocapillary Deformation and Film Breakdown in a Locally Heated Thin Horizontal Volatile Liquid Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barakhovskaya Ella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of thermocapillary deformation and film breakdown in a thin horizontal layer of viscous incompressible liquid with a free surface is considered. The deformable liquid layer is locally heated. The problem of thermocapillary deformation of the locally heated horizontal liquid layer has been solved numerically for two-dimensional unsteady case. The lubrication approximation theory is used. Capillary pressure, viscosity and gravity are taken into account. Evaporating rate is supposed to be proportional to the temperature difference between the liquid and ambient. Heat transfer in the substrate is also simulated. The numerical algorithm for the joint solution of the energy equation and the evolution equation for the thickness of liquid layer has been developed. The model predicts the thermocapillary deformation of the liquid surface and the formation of dry spots. The dynamics of liquid surface, the dry spots formation and the velocity of the contact line have been calculated. The deformation of the free surface has been calculated for different values of the heating power and thickness of the liquid layer. The effect of surface tension coefficient and wetting contact angle on the velocity of the contact line motion has been analyzed. It has been obtained that the velocity of the contact line increases with the increase of the wetting contact angle value and of the surface tension coefficient.

  16. Study on the optical performance of thin-film light-emitting diodes using fractal micro-roughness surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Sheng; Tang, Yong; Li, Zong-Tao; Ding, Xin-Rui; Li, Zhi

    2017-07-01

    Although LEDs have been widely studied using optical simulations, there is no optical model considering the effect of micro-roughness surface (MRS) on the optical performance for packaged LEDs. In this work, we employ the finite-difference time-domain method and the direction-sensitive bidirectional scattering distribution function to characterize the optical properties of the MRS upon the n-GaN layer. The MRS is generated by the Weierstrass-Mandelbrot fractal function. Furthermore, thin-film LEDs (TFLEDs), blue TFLED devices, and white TFLED devices considering the MRS are investigated using the ray-tracing (RT) method. The results show that the MRS has different optical properties when the light propagates out and in the n-GaN layer. In turn, the difference in the scattering ability of various MRS causes a significant effect on the optical performance of packaged TFLEDs, including radiant efficacy, luminous efficacy, intensity pattern and spectrum, as well as the correlated color temperature.

  17. Thermal spike model interpretation of sputtering yield data for Bi thin films irradiated by MeV {sup 84}Kr{sup 15+} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mammeri, S. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger, B.P. 399, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger-gare, Algiers (Algeria); Ouichaoui, S., E-mail: souichaoui@gmail.com [Université des Sciences et de la Technologie H. Boumediene (USTHB), Faculté de Physique, Laboratoire SNIRM, B.P. 32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Ammi, H. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger, B.P. 399, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger-gare, Algiers (Algeria); Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, CPUT, P.O. Box 1906, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Dib, A. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger, B.P. 399, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger-gare, Algiers (Algeria); Msimanga, M. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P. Bag 11, Wits 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); Department of Physics, Tshwane University of Technology, P. Bag X680, Pretoria 001 (South Africa)

    2015-07-01

    A modified thermal spike model initially proposed to account for defect formation in metals within the high heavy ion energy regime is adapted for describing the sputtering of Bi thin films under MeV Kr ions. Surface temperature profiles for both the electronic and atomic subsystems have been carefully evaluated versus the radial distance and time with introducing appropriate values of the Bi target electronic stopping power for multi-charged Kr{sup 15+} heavy ions as well as different target physical proprieties like specific heats and thermal conductivities. Then, the total sputtering yields of the irradiated Bi thin films have been determined from a spatiotemporal integration of the local atomic evaporation rate. Besides, an expected non negligible contribution of elastic nuclear collisions to the Bi target sputtering yields and ion-induced surface effects has also been considered in our calculation. Finally, the latter thermal spike model allowed us to derive numerical sputtering yields in satisfactorily agreement with existing experimental data both over the low and high heavy ion energy regions, respectively, dominated by elastic nuclear collisions and inelastic electronic collisions, in particular with our data taken recently for Bi thin films irradiated by 27.5 MeV Kr{sup 15+} heavy ions. An overall consistency of our model calculation with the predictions of sputtering yield theoretical models within the target nuclear stopping power regime was also pointed out.

  18. Thickness dependent Curie temperature and power-law behavior of layering transitions in ferromagnetic classical and quantum thin films described by Ising, XY and Heisenberg models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yüksel, Yusuf, E-mail: yusuf.yuksel@deu.edu.tr; Akıncı, Ümit

    2015-04-01

    Ferromagnetic–paramagnetic phase transitions in classical and quantum thin films have been studied up to 50 mono-layers using effective field theory with two-site cluster approximation. Variation of the Curie temperature as a function of film thickness has been examined. The relative shift of the Curie temperature from the corresponding bulk value has been investigated in terms of the shift exponent λ. We have found that shift exponent λ clearly depends on the strength of the ferromagnetic exchange coupling of the surface. Moreover, we have not observed any significant difference between classical and quantum exponents for a particular model.

  19. Sprayed lanthanum doped zinc oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouznit, Y., E-mail: Bouznit80@gmail.com [Laboratory of Materials Study, Jijel University, Jijel 18000 (Algeria); Beggah, Y. [Laboratory of Materials Study, Jijel University, Jijel 18000 (Algeria); Ynineb, F. [Laboratory of Thin Films and Interface, University Mentouri, Constantine 25000 (Algeria)

    2012-01-15

    Lanthanum doped zinc oxide thin films were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates using a pneumatic spray pyrolysis technique. The films were prepared using different lanthanum concentrations at optimum deposition parameters. We studied the variations in structural, morphological and optical properties of the samples due to the change of doping concentration in precursor solutions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns show that pure and La-doped ZnO thin films are highly textured along c-axis perpendicular to the surface of the substrate. Scanning electron micrographs show that surface morphology of ZnO films undergoes a significant change according to lanthanum doping. All films exhibit a transmittance higher than 80% in the visible region.

  20. Sprayed lanthanum doped zinc oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouznit, Y.; Beggah, Y.; Ynineb, F.

    2012-01-01

    Lanthanum doped zinc oxide thin films were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates using a pneumatic spray pyrolysis technique. The films were prepared using different lanthanum concentrations at optimum deposition parameters. We studied the variations in structural, morphological and optical properties of the samples due to the change of doping concentration in precursor solutions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns show that pure and La-doped ZnO thin films are highly textured along c-axis perpendicular to the surface of the substrate. Scanning electron micrographs show that surface morphology of ZnO films undergoes a significant change according to lanthanum doping. All films exhibit a transmittance higher than 80% in the visible region.

  1. Nonlinear optics of astaxanthin thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, A.; Fisch, Herbert; Haas, Karl-Heinz; Haedicke, E.; Paust, J.; Schrof, Wolfgang; Ticktin, Anton

    1993-02-01

    Carotinoids exhibit large nonlinear optical properties due to their extended (pi) -electron system. Compared to other polyenes which show a broad distribution of conjugation lengths, carotinoids exhibit a well defined molecular structure, i.e. a well defined conjugation length. Therefore the carotinoid molecules can serve as model compounds to study the relationship between structure and nonlinear optical properties. In this paper the synthesis of four astaxanthins with C-numbers ranging from 30 to 60, their preparation into thin films, wavelength dispersive Third Harmonic Generation (THG) measurements and some molecular modelling calculations will be presented. Resonant (chi) (3) values reach 1.2(DOT)10-10 esu for C60 astaxanthin. In the nonresonant regime a figure of merit (chi) (3)/(alpha) of several 10-13 esu-cm is demonstrated.

  2. Thin Film Ceramic Strain Sensor Development for High Temperature Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Gonzalez, Jose M.; Laster, Kimala L.

    2008-01-01

    The need for sensors to operate in harsh environments is illustrated by the need for measurements in the turbine engine hot section. The degradation and damage that develops over time in hot section components can lead to catastrophic failure. At present, the degradation processes that occur in the harsh hot section environment are poorly characterized, which hinders development of more durable components, and since it is so difficult to model turbine blade temperatures, strains, etc, actual measurements are needed. The need to consider ceramic sensing elements is brought about by the temperature limits of metal thin film sensors in harsh environments. The effort at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to develop high temperature thin film ceramic static strain gauges for application in turbine engines is described, first in the fan and compressor modules, and then in the hot section. The near-term goal of this research effort was to identify candidate thin film ceramic sensor materials and provide a list of possible thin film ceramic sensor materials and corresponding properties to test for viability. A thorough literature search was conducted for ceramics that have the potential for application as high temperature thin film strain gauges chemically and physically compatible with the NASA GRCs microfabrication procedures and substrate materials. Test results are given for tantalum, titanium and zirconium-based nitride and oxynitride ceramic films.

  3. Modeling the Crystallization of Amorphous Silicon Thin Films Using a High Repetition Rate Scanning Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Černý

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimum design of experimental setup for the preparation of polycrystalline silicon (pc-Si films from amorphous layers applicable in the solar cell production is analyzed in the paper. In the computational simulations, the influence of basic characteristic parameters of the experimental procedure on the mechanisms of pc-Si lateral growth is studied. Among these parameters, the energy density of the applied laser and the thickness of the amorphous silicon (a-Si layer are identified as the most significant. As an optimum solution, the mechanism of pc-Si growth consisting in repeated melting of a part of already crystallized pc-Si layer by the scanning laser is proposed.

  4. Integrated Experimental and Modeling Study of Ionic Conductivity of Scandia-Stabilized Zirconia Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhongqing; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Jiang, Weilin; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Shutthanandan, V.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Wang, Chong M.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2010-03-12

    Scandia-stabilized zirconia films were epitaxially grown on sapphire (0001) substrates by oxygen-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The cubic phase was found to exist over a wider dopant concentration range than previously observed (4.6-17.6 mol% Sc2O3). The monoclinic phase was observed for dopant concentrations of 1.5 mol% and 22.5 mol %. An increase in the fraction of the monoclinic phase relative to the cubic phase decreased the ionic conductivity. The highest conductivity in the temperature range of 460-900 °C was observed for 9.9 mol % Sc2O3. Atomistic computer simulations show that the observed composition dependence can be related to changes in migration barriers for O2- ion transport with Sc3+ substitution of Zr4+ ions.

  5. Optical Constants of Cadmium Telluride Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithyakalyani, P.; Pandiaraman, M.; Pannir, P.; Sanjeeviraja, C.; Soundararajan, N.

    2008-04-01

    Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) is II-VI direct band gap semiconductor compound with potential application in Solar Energy conversion process. CdTe thin film of thickness 220 mn was prepared by thermal evaporation technique at a high vacuum better than 10-5 m.bar on well cleaned glass substrates of dimensions (l cm×3 cm). The transmittance spectrum and the reflectance spectrum of the prepared CdTc thin film was recorded using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer in the wavelength range between 300 nm and 900 nm. These spectral data were analyzed and the optical band and optical constants of CdTe Thin film have been determined by adopting suitable relations. The optical band gap of CdTe thin film is found to be 1.56 eV and this value is also agreeing with the published works of CdTe thin film prepared by various techniques. The absorption coefficient (α) has been higher than 106 cm-1. The Refractive index (n) and the Extinction Coefficient (k) are found to be varying from 3.0 to 4.0 and 0.1 Cm-1 to 0.5 Cm-1 respectively by varying the energy from l.0 eV to 4.0 eV. These results are also compared with the literature.

  6. Pulsed laser deposition of ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Somnath; McKnight, Steven H.; Sengupta, Louise C.

    1997-05-01

    It has been shown that in bulk ceramic form, the barium to strontium ratio in barium strontium titanium oxide (Ba1- xSrxTiO3, BSTO) affects the voltage tunability and electronic dissipation factor in an inverse fashion; increasing the strontium content reduces the dissipation factor at the expense of lower voltage tunability. However, the oxide composites of BSTO developed at the Army Research Laboratory still maintain low electronic loss factors for all compositions examined. The intent of this study is to determine whether such effects can be observed in the thin film form of the oxide composites. The pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method has been used to deposit the thin films. The different compositions of the compound (with 1 wt% of the oxide additive) chosen were: Ba0.3Sr0.7TiO3, Ba0.4Sr0.6TiO3, Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3, Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3, and Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3. The electronic properties investigated in this study were the dielectric constant and the voltage tunability. The morphology of the thin films were examined using the atomic force microscopy. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy was also utilized for optical characterization of the thin films. The electronic and optical properties of the thin films and the bulk ceramics were compared. The results of these investigations are discussed.

  7. Photoluminescence Study of Copper Selenide Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urmila, K. S.; Asokan, T. Namitha; Pradeep, B.

    2011-10-01

    Thin films of Copper Selenide of composition of composition Cu7Se4 with thickness 350 nm are deposited on glass substrate at a temperature of 498 K±5 K and pressure of 10-5 mbar using reactive evaporation, a variant of Gunther's three temperature method with high purity Copper (99.999%) and Selenium (99.99%) as the elemental starting material. The deposited film is characterized structurally using X-ray Diffraction. The structural parameters such as lattice constant, particle size, dislocation density; number of crystallites per unit area and strain in the film are evaluated. Photoluminescence of the film is analyzed at room temperature using Fluoro Max-3 Spectrofluorometer.

  8. Polycystalline silicon thin films for electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Christian Claus

    2012-01-15

    For the thin polycrystalline Si films fabricated with the aluminium-induced-layer-exchange (ALILE) process a good structural quality up to a layer-thickness value of 10 nm was determined. For 5 nm thick layers however after the layer exchange no closes poly-silicon film was present. In this case the substrate was covered with spherically arranged semiconductor material. Furthermore amorphous contributions in the layer could be determined. The electrical characterization of the samples at room temperature proved a high hole concentration in the range 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} up to 9.10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, which is influenced by the process temperature and the layer thickness. Hereby higher hole concentrations at higher process temperatures and thinner films were observed. Furthermore above 150-200 K a thermically activated behaviour of the electrical conductivity was observed. At lower temperatures a deviation of the measured characteristic from the exponential Arrhenius behaviour was determined. For low temperatures (below 20 K) the conductivity follows the behaviour {sigma}{proportional_to}[-(T{sub 0}/T){sup 1/4}]. The hole mobility in the layers was lowered by a passivation step, which can be explained by defect states at the grain boundaries. The for these very thin layers present situation was simulated in the framework of the model of Seto, whereby both the defect states at the grain boundaries (with an area density Q{sub t}) and the defect states at the interfaces (with an area density Q{sub it}) were regarded. By this the values Q{sub t}{approx}(3-4).10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} and Q{sub it}{approx}(2-5).10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} could be determined for these thin ALILE layers on quartz substrates. Additionally th R-ALILE process was studied, which uses the reverse precursor-layer sequence substrate/amorphous silicon/oxide/aluminium. Hereby two steps in the crystallization process of the R-ALILE process were found. First a substrate/Al-Si mixture/poly-Si layer structure

  9. Thin film calorimetry of polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhua; Rafailovich, Miriam; Sokolov, Jonathan; Salamon, William

    2000-03-01

    Polystryene and polymethylmethacrylate films for thicknesses ranging from 50nm to 500nm using a direct calorimetric technique (Lai et al, App. Phys. Lett. 67, p9(1995)). Samples were deposited on Ni foils(2-2.5um) and placed in a high vacuum oven. Calibrated heat pulses were input to the polymer films by current pulses to the Ni substrate and temperature changes were determined from the change in Ni resistance. Pulses producing temperature jumps of 3-8K were used and signal averaging over pulses reduced noise levels enough to identify glass transitions down to 50nm. Molecular weight dependence of thick films Tg was used as a temperature calibration.

  10. Dynamic buckling behavior of thin metal film lines from substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Xie, Huimin; Wang, Heling; Zhang, Jie; Li, Chuanwei

    2014-10-01

    The dynamic buckling behavior of thin films from substrate is studied in this work. The experimental results show that the buckling morphology of the constantan film lines from the polymer substrate is inconsistent and non-sinusoidal, which is different from the sinusoidal form of the buckling morphology under static loads. The plastic deformation of the film lines results in the non-sinusoidal buckling morphology and residual deformation when unloaded. Finite element modeling results with regard to the plastic dissipation of the constantan film lines reveal that the plastic dissipation suppresses the buckling-driven delaminating under impact loads. This study will give some new perspectives on the buckling behavior of thin film from substrate.

  11. Optical properties of nanostructured InSe thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nahass, M. M.; Saleh, Abdul-Basit A.; Darwish, A. A. A.; Bahlol, M. H.

    2012-03-01

    Thin films of InSe were prepared by thermal evaporation technique. The as-deposited films have nano-scale crystalline nature and the annealing enhanced the degree of crystallinity. The optical properties of nanocrystalline thin films of InSe were studied using spectrophotometric measurements of transmittance, T, and reflectance, R, at normal incidence of light in the wavelength range 200-2500 nm. The optical constants (refractive index, n, and absorption index, k) were calculated using a computer program based on Murmann's exact equations. The calculated optical constants are independent of the film thickness. The optical dispersion parameters have been analysed by single oscillator model. The type of transition in InSe films is indirect allowed with a value of energy gap equals to 1.10 eV, which increased to 1.23 eV upon annealing.

  12. Organic thin films and surfaces directions for the nineties

    CERN Document Server

    Ulman, Abraham

    1995-01-01

    Physics of Thin Films has been one of the longest running continuing series in thin film science consisting of 20 volumes since 1963. The series contains some of the highest quality studies of the properties ofvarious thin films materials and systems.In order to be able to reflect the development of todays science and to cover all modern aspects of thin films, the series, beginning with Volume 20, will move beyond the basic physics of thin films. It will address the most important aspects of both inorganic and organic thin films, in both their theoretical as well as technological aspects. Ther

  13. A continuum framework for grain boundary diffusion in thin film/substrate systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayas, Can; van der Giessen, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A two-dimensional continuum model is developed for stress relaxation in thin films through grain boundary (GB) diffusion. When a thin film with columnar grains is subjected to thermal stress, stress gradients along the GBs are relaxed by diffusion of material from the film surface into the GBs. The

  14. A Variational approach to thin film hydrodynamics of binary mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng

    2015-02-04

    In order to model the dynamics of thin films of mixtures, solutions, and suspensions, a thermodynamically consistent formulation is needed such that various coexisting dissipative processes with cross couplings can be correctly described in the presence of capillarity, wettability, and mixing effects. In the present work, we apply Onsager\\'s variational principle to the formulation of thin film hydrodynamics for binary fluid mixtures. We first derive the dynamic equations in two spatial dimensions, one along the substrate and the other normal to the substrate. Then, using long-wave asymptotics, we derive the thin film equations in one spatial dimension along the substrate. This enables us to establish the connection between the present variational approach and the gradient dynamics formulation for thin films. It is shown that for the mobility matrix in the gradient dynamics description, Onsager\\'s reciprocal symmetry is automatically preserved by the variational derivation. Furthermore, using local hydrodynamic variables, our variational approach is capable of introducing diffusive dissipation beyond the limit of dilute solute. Supplemented with a Flory-Huggins-type mixing free energy, our variational approach leads to a thin film model that treats solvent and solute in a symmetric manner. Our approach can be further generalized to include more complicated free energy and additional dissipative processes.

  15. Crystallization of zirconia based thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, D; Frison, R; Conder, K; Rupp, J L M; Scherrer, B; Martynczuk, J M; Gauckler, L J; Schneider, C W; Lippert, T; Wokaun, A

    2015-07-28

    The crystallization kinetics of amorphous 3 and 8 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (3YSZ and 8YSZ) thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), spray pyrolysis and dc-magnetron sputtering are explored. The deposited films were heat treated up to 1000 °C ex situ and in situ in an X-ray diffractometer. A minimum temperature of 275 °C was determined at which as-deposited amorphous PLD grown 3YSZ films fully crystallize within five hours. Above 325 °C these films transform nearly instantaneously with a high degree of micro-strain when crystallized below 500 °C. In these films the t'' phase crystallizes which transforms at T > 600 °C to the t' phase upon relaxation of the micro-strain. Furthermore, the crystallization of 8YSZ thin films grown by PLD, spray pyrolysis and dc-sputtering are characterized by in situ XRD measurements. At a constant heating rate of 2.4 K min(-1) crystallization is accomplished after reaching 800 °C, while PLD grown thin films were completely crystallized already at ca. 300 °C.

  16. Grain structure dependence of coercivity in thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Bachleitner-Hofmann, Anton; Satz, Armin; Suess, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    We investigated coercive fields of 200nm x 1200nm x 5nm rectangular nanocrystalline thin films as a function of grain size D using finite elements simulations. To this end, we created granular finite element models with grain sizes ranging from 5nm to 60nm, and performed micromagnetic hysteresis calculations along the y-axis (easy direction) as well as along the x-axis (hard direction). We then used an extended Random Anisotropy model to interpret the results and to illustrate the interplay of random and uniform anisotropy in thin films.

  17. Scattering from rough thin films: discrete-dipole-approximation simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, Hannu; Lumme, Kari

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the wave-optical light scattering properties of deformed thin circular films of constant thickness using the discrete-dipole approximation. Effects on the intensity distribution of the scattered light due to different statistical roughness models, model dependent roughness parameters, and uncorrelated, random, small-scale porosity of the inhomogeneous medium are studied. The suitability of the discrete-dipole approximation for rough-surface scattering problems is evaluated by considering thin films as computationally feasible rough-surface analogs. The effects due to small-scale inhomogeneity of the scattering medium are compared with the analytic approximation by Maxwell Garnett, and the results are found to agree with the approximation.

  18. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Tagantsev, Alexander K; Fousek, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films presents experimental findings and theoretical understanding of ferroic (non-magnetic) domains developed during the past 60 years. It addresses the situation by looking specifically at bulk crystals and thin films, with a particular focus on recently-developed microelectronic applications and methods for observation of domains with techniques such as scanning force microscopy, polarized light microscopy, scanning optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and surface decorating techniques. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films covers a large area of material properties and effects connected with static and dynamic properties of domains, which are extremely relevant to materials referred to as ferroics. In most solid state physics books, one large group of ferroics is customarily covered: those in which magnetic properties play a dominant role. Numerous books are specifically devoted to magnetic ferroics and cover a wide spectrum of magnetic domain phenomena. In co...

  19. Vibration welding system with thin film sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wayne W; Abell, Jeffrey A; Li, Xiaochun; Choi, Hongseok; Zhao, Jingzhou

    2014-03-18

    A vibration welding system includes an anvil, a welding horn, a thin film sensor, and a process controller. The anvil and horn include working surfaces that contact a work piece during the welding process. The sensor measures a control value at the working surface. The measured control value is transmitted to the controller, which controls the system in part using the measured control value. The thin film sensor may include a plurality of thermopiles and thermocouples which collectively measure temperature and heat flux at the working surface. A method includes providing a welder device with a slot adjacent to a working surface of the welder device, inserting the thin film sensor into the slot, and using the sensor to measure a control value at the working surface. A process controller then controls the vibration welding system in part using the measured control value.

  20. Solid surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Lüth, Hans

    2015-01-01

    This book emphasises both experimental and theoretical aspects of surface, interface and thin-film physics. As in previous editions the preparation of surfaces and thin films, their atomic and morphological structure, their vibronic and electronic properties as well as fundamentals of adsorption are treated. Because of their importance in modern information technology and nanostructure research, particular emphasis is paid to electronic surface and interface states, semiconductor space charge layers and heterostructures. A special chapter of the book is devoted to collective phenomena at interfaces and in thin films such as superconductivity and magnetism. The latter topic includes the meanwhile important issues giant magnetoresistance and spin-transfer torque mechanism, both effects being of high interest in information technology. In this new edition, for the first time, the effect of spin-orbit coupling on surface states is treated. In this context the class of the recently detected topological insulators,...

  1. Solid Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Lüth, Hans

    2010-01-01

    This book emphasises both experimental and theoretical aspects of surface, interface and thin film physics. As in previous editions the preparation of surfaces and thin films, their atomic and morphological, their vibronic and electronic properties as well as fundamentals of adsorption are treated. Because of their importance in modern information technology and nanostructure physics particular emphasis is paid to electronic surface and interface states, semiconductor space charge layers and heterostructures as well as to superconductor/semiconductor interfaces and magnetic thin films. The latter topic was significantly extended in this new edition by more details about the giant magnetoresistance and a section about the spin-transfer torque mechanism including one new problem as exercise. Two new panels about Kerr-effect and spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy were added, too. Furthermore, the meanwhile important group III-nitride surfaces and high-k oxide/semiconductor interfaces are shortly discu...

  2. Multifractal characteristics of titanium nitride thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ţălu Ştefan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a multi-scale microstructural characterization of three-dimensional (3-D micro-textured surface of titanium nitride (TiN thin films prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering in correlation with substrate temperature variation. Topographical characterization of the surfaces, obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM analysis, was realized by an innovative multifractal method which may be applied for AFM data. The surface micromorphology demonstrates that the multifractal geometry of TiN thin films can be characterized at nanometer scale by the generalized dimensions Dq and the singularity spectrum f(α. Furthermore, to improve the 3-D surface characterization according with ISO 25178-2:2012, the most relevant 3-D surface roughness parameters were calculated. To quantify the 3-D nanostructure surface of TiN thin films a multifractal approach was developed and validated, which can be used for the characterization of topographical changes due to the substrate temperature variation.

  3. Nanostructured thin films and coatings mechanical properties

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    The first volume in "The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings" set, this book concentrates on the mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, and adhesion, of thin films and coatings. It discusses processing, properties, and performance and provides a detailed analysis of theories and size effects. The book presents the fundamentals of hard and superhard nanocomposites and heterostructures, assesses fracture toughness and interfacial adhesion strength of thin films and hard nanocomposite coatings, and covers the processing and mechanical properties of hybrid sol-gel-derived nanocomposite coatings. It also uses nanomechanics to optimize coatings for cutting tools and explores various other coatings, such as diamond, metal-containing amorphous carbon nanostructured, and transition metal nitride-based nanolayered multilayer coatings.

  4. Evaluation and criterion determination of the low-k thin film adhesion by the surface acoustic waves with cohesive zone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xia; Qi, Haiyang; Sui, Xiaole; Kikkawa, Takamaro

    2017-03-01

    The cohesive zone model (CZM) is introduced in the surface acoustic wave (SAW) technique to characterize the interfacial adhesion property of the low-k thin film deposited on the Silicon substrate. The ratio of the two parameters in the CZM, the maximum normal traction and normal interface characteristic length, is derived to evaluate the interfacial adhesion properties quantitatively. In this study, the adhesion criterion to judge the adhesion property is newly proposed by the CZM-SAW technique. The criterion determination processes of two kinds of film, dense and porous Black Diamond with different film thicknesses, are presented in this paper. The interfacial adhesion properties of the dense and porous Black Diamond films with different thicknesses are evaluated by the CZM-SAW technique quantitatively and nondestructively. The quantitative adhesion properties are obtained by fitting the experimental dispersion curves with maximum frequency up to 220 MHz with the theoretical ones. Results of the nondestructive CZM-SAW technique and the destructive nanoscratch exhibit the same trend in adhesion properties, which means that the CZM-SAW technique is a promising method for determining the interfacial adhesion. Meanwhile, the adhesion properties of the detected samples are judged by the determined criterion. The test results show that different test film materials with different film thicknesses ranging from 300 nm to 1000 nm are in different adhered conditions. This paper exhibits the advantage of the CZM-SAW technique which can be a universal method to characterize the film adhesion.

  5. Photoluminescence studies in epitaxial CZTSe thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendler, Jan; Thevenin, Maxime; Werner, Florian; Redinger, Alex; Li, Shuyi; Hägglund, Carl; Platzer-Björkman, Charlotte; Siebentritt, Susanne

    2016-09-01

    Epitaxial Cu 2 ZnSnSe 4 (CZTSe) thin films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs(001) using two different growth processes, one containing an in-situ annealing stage as used for solar cell absorbers and one for which this step was omitted. Photoluminescences (PL) measurements carried out on these samples show no dependence of the emission shape on the excitation intensity at different temperatures ranging from 4 K to 300 K . To describe the PL measurements, we employ a model with fluctuating band edges in which the density of states of the resulting tail states does not seem to depend on the excited charge carrier density. In this interpretation, the PL measurements show that the annealing stage removes a defect level, which is present in the samples without this annealing.

  6. Phase Equilibria in Thin Polymer Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M.; Binder, K.; Albano, E. V.

    Within self-consistent field theory and Monte Carlo simulations the phase behavior of a symmetrical binary AB polymer blend confined into a thin film is studied. The film surfaces interact with the monomers via short ranged potentials. One surface attracts the A component and the corresponding semi-infinite system exhibits a first order wetting transition. The surface interaction of the opposite surface is varied as to study the crossover from capillary condensation for symmetric surface fields to interface localization/delocalization transition for antisymmetric surface fields. In the former case the phase diagram has a single critical point close to the bulk critical point. In the latter case the phase diagram exhibits two critical points which correspond to the prewetting critical points of the semi-infinite system. Only below a triple point there is a single two-phase coexistence region. The crossover between these qualitatively different limiting behaviors occurs gradually, however, the critical temperature and the critical composition exhibit a non-monotonic dependence on the surface field. The dependence of the phase behavior for antisymmetric boundaries is studied as a function of the film thickness and the strength of the surface interactions. Upon reducing the film thickness or decreasing the strength of the surface interactions we can change the order of the interface localization/delocalization transition from first to second. The role of fluctuations is explored via Monte Carlo simulations of a coarse grained lattice model. Close to the (prewetting) critical points we observe 2D Ising critical behavior. Also, there is a rich crossover behavior between Ising critical, tricritical and mean field behavior. At lower temperatures capillary waves of the AB interface lead to a pronounced dependence of the effective interface potential on the lateral system size.

  7. Magnetically actuated peel test for thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrowicki, G.T.; Sitaraman, S.K., E-mail: suresh.sitaraman@me.gatech.edu

    2012-03-30

    Delamination along thin film interfaces is a prevalent failure mechanism in microelectronic, photonic, microelectromechanical systems, and other engineering applications. Current interfacial fracture test techniques specific to thin films are limited by either sophisticated mechanical fixturing, physical contact near the crack tip, or complicated stress fields. Moreover, these techniques are generally not suitable for investigating fatigue crack propagation under cyclical loading. Thus, a fixtureless and noncontact experimental test technique with potential for fatigue loading is proposed and implemented to study interfacial fracture toughness for thin film systems. The proposed test incorporates permanent magnets surface mounted onto micro-fabricated released thin film structures. An applied external magnetic field induces noncontact loading to initiate delamination along the interface between the thin film and underlying substrate. Characterization of the critical peel force and peel angle is accomplished through in situ deflection measurements, from which the fracture toughness can be inferred. The test method was used to obtain interfacial fracture strength of 0.8-1.9 J/m{sup 2} for 1.5-1.7 {mu}m electroplated copper on natively oxidized silicon substrates. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-contact magnetic actuation test for interfacial fracture characterization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Applied load is determined through voltage applied to the driving electromagnet. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Displacement and delamination propagation is measured using an optical profiler. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical peel force and peel angle is measured for electroplated Cu thin-film on Si. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The measured interfacial fracture energy of Cu/Si interface is 0.8-1.9 J/m{sup 2}.

  8. Interpretation of the ultrafast photoinduced processes in pentacene thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlman, Thomas Scheby; Kongsted, Jacob; Mikkelsen, Kurt V.;

    2010-01-01

    Ambiguity remains in the models explaining the photoinduced dynamics in pentacene thin films as observed in pump-probe experiments. One model advocates exciton fission as governing the evolution of the initially excited species, whereas the other advocates the formation of an excimeric species...

  9. Capillary instabilities in thin films. I. Energetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srolovitz, D.J.; Safran, S.A.

    1986-07-01

    A stability theory is presented which describes the conditions under which thin films rupture. It is found that holes in the film will either grow or shrink, depending on whether their initial radius is larger or smaller than a critical value. If the holes grow large enough, they impinge to form islands; the size of which are determined by the surface energies. The formation of grooves where the grain boundary meets the free surface is a potential source of holes which can lead to film rupture. Equilibrium grain boundary groove depths are calculated for finite grain sizes. Comparison of groove depth and film thickness yields microstructural conditions for film rupture. In addition, pits which form at grain boundary vertices, where three grains meet, are another source of film instability.

  10. Tailoring electronic structure of polyazomethines thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Weszka

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work is to show how electronic properties of polyazomethine thin films deposited by chemical vapor deposition method (CVD can be tailored by manipulating technological parameters of pristine films preparation as well as modifying them while the as-prepared films put into iodine atmosphere.Design/methodology/approach: The recent achievements in the field of designing and preparation methods to be used while preparing polymer photovoltaic solar cells or optoelectronic devices.Findings: The method used allow for pure pristine polymer thin films to be prtepared without any unintentional doping taking place during prepoaration methods. This is a method based on polycondensation process, where polymer chain developing is running directly due to chemical reaction between molecules of bifunctional monomers. The method applied to prepare thin films of polyazomethines takes advantage of monomer transporting by mreans of neutral transport agent as pure argon is.Research limitations/implications: The main disadvantage of alternately conjugated polymers seems to be quite low mobility of charge carrier that is expected to be a consequence of their backbone being built up of sp2 hybridized carbon and nitrogen atoms. Varying technological conditions towards increasing reagents mass transport to the substrate is expected to give such polyazomethine thin films organization that phenylene rin stacking can result in special π electron systems rather than linear ones as it is the case.Originality/value: Our results supply with original possibilities which can be useful in ooking for good polymer materials for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications. These results have been gained on polyazomethine thin films but their being isoelectronic counterpart to widely used poly p-phenylene vinylene may be very convenient to develop high efficiency polymer solar cells

  11. Thin Film Electrodes for Rare Event Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgers, Kelly; Brown, Ethan; Lewis, Kim; Giordano, Mike; Freedberg, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    In detectors for rare physics processes, such as neutrinoless double beta decay and dark matter, high sensitivity requires careful reduction of backgrounds due to radioimpurities in detector components. Ultra pure cylindrical resistors are being created through thin film depositions onto high purity substrates, such as quartz glass or sapphire. By using ultra clean materials and depositing very small quantities in the films, low radioactivity electrodes are produced. A new characterization process for cylindrical film resistors has been developed through analytic construction of an analogue to the Van Der Pauw technique commonly used for determining sheet resistance on a planar sample. This technique has been used to characterize high purity cylindrical resistors ranging from several ohms to several tera-ohms for applications in rare event detectors. The technique and results of cylindrical thin film resistor characterization will be presented.

  12. Feasibility Study of Thin Film Thermocouple Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, thermopile detectors, generators, and refrigerators based on bulk materials have been used to measure temperature, generate power for spacecraft, and cool sensors for scientific investigations. New potential uses of small, low-power, thin film thermopiles are in the area of microelectromechanical systems since power requirements decrease as electrical and mechanical machines shrink in size. In this research activity, thin film thermopile devices are fabricated utilizing radio frequency sputter coating and photoresist lift-off techniques. Electrical characterizations are performed on two designs in order to investigate the feasibility of generating small amounts of power, utilizing any available waste heat as the energy source.

  13. Micro-sensor thin-film anemometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheplak, Mark (Inventor); McGinley, Catherine B. (Inventor); Spina, Eric F. (Inventor); Stephens, Ralph M. (Inventor); Hopson, Jr., Purnell (Inventor); Cruz, Vincent B. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A device for measuring turbulence in high-speed flows is provided which includes a micro-sensor thin-film probe. The probe is formed from a single crystal of aluminum oxide having a 14.degree. half-wedge shaped portion. The tip of the half-wedge is rounded and has a thin-film sensor attached along the stagnation line. The bottom surface of the half-wedge is tilted upward to relieve shock induced disturbances created by the curved tip of the half-wedge. The sensor is applied using a microphotolithography technique.

  14. Optimisation of superconducting thin films by TEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bals, S.; van Tendeloo, G.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Blank, David H.A.; Leca, V.; Salluzzo, M.

    2002-01-01

    High-resolution electron microscopy is used to study the initial growth of different REBa2Cu3O7−δ thin films. In DyBa2Cu3O7−δ ultra-thin films, deposited on TiO2 terminated SrTiO3, two different types of interface arrangements occur: bulk–SrO–TiO2–BaO–CuO–BaO–CuO2–Dy–CuO2–BaO–bulk and bulk–SrO–TiO2–

  15. Advances in thin-film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Dharmadasa, I M

    2012-01-01

    This book concentrates on the latest developments in our understanding of solid-state device physics. The material presented is mainly experimental and based on CdTe thin-film solar cells. It extends these new findings to CIGS thin-film solar cells and presents a new device design based on graded bandgap multilayer solar cells. This design has been experimentally tested using the well-researched GaAs/AlGaAs system and initial devices have shown impressive device parameters. These devices are capable of absorbing all radiation (UV, visible, and infra-red) within the solar spectrum and combines

  16. Emittance Theory for Thin Film Selective Emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Lowe, Roland A.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Thin films of high temperature garnet materials such as yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) doped with rare earths are currently being investigated as selective emitters. This paper presents a radiative transfer analysis of the thin film emitter. From this analysis the emitter efficiency and power density are calculated. Results based on measured extinction coefficients for erbium-YAG and holmium-YAG are presented. These results indicated that emitter efficiencies of 50 percent and power densities of several watts/sq cm are attainable at moderate temperatures (less than 1750 K).

  17. Environmentally stable sputter-deposited thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, D.J.

    1978-03-01

    Accelerated corrosion data are presented for the titanium-silver and chrome-gold thin film metallization systems presently used at Sandia Laboratories. Improvements in corrosion, hence reliability, as a result of interposing a thin intermediate layer of either platinum or palladium are shown. Potentiometric measurements showing the alteration of corrosion potential with the use of palladium for the titanium-silver system are also presented.

  18. Nonequilibrium structure and dynamics in a microscopic model of thin-film active gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Head, D.A.; Briels, W.J.; Gompper, G.

    2014-01-01

    In the presence of adenosine triphosphate, molecular motors generate active force dipoles that drive suspensions of protein filaments far from thermodynamic equilibrium, leading to exotic dynamics and pattern formation. Microscopic modeling can help to quantify the relationship between individual mo

  19. Dynamic order reduction of thin-film deposition kinetics models: A reaction factorization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adomaitis, Raymond A., E-mail: adomaiti@umd.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    A set of numerical tools for the analysis and dynamic dimension reduction of chemical vapor and atomic layer deposition (ALD) surface reaction models is developed in this work. The approach is based on a two-step process where in the first, the chemical species surface balance dynamic equations are factored to effectively decouple the (nonlinear) reaction rates, a process that eliminates redundant dynamic modes and that identifies conserved quantities. If successful, the second phase is implemented to factor out redundant dynamic modes when species relatively minor in concentration are omitted; if unsuccessful, the technique points to potential model structural problems. An alumina ALD process is used for an example consisting of 19 reactions and 23 surface and gas-phase species. Using the approach developed, the model is reduced by nineteen modes to a four-dimensional dynamic system without any knowledge of the reaction rate values. Results are interpreted in the context of potential model validation studies.

  20. Electrical analysis of niobium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graça, M.P.F., E-mail: mpfg@ua.pt [I3N & Physics Department, Aveiro University, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Saraiva, M. [I3N & Physics Department, Aveiro University, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Freire, F.N.A. [Mechanics Engineering Department, Ceará Federal University, Fortaleza (Brazil); Valente, M.A.; Costa, L.C. [I3N & Physics Department, Aveiro University, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2015-06-30

    In this work, a series of niobium oxide thin films was deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. The total pressure of Ar/O{sub 2} was kept constant at 1 Pa, while the O{sub 2} partial pressure was varied up to 0.2 Pa. The depositions were performed in a grounded and non-intentionally heated substrate, resulting in as-deposited amorphous thin films. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the absence of crystallinity. Dielectric measurements as a function of frequency (40 Hz–110 MHz) and temperature (100 K–360 K) were performed. The dielectric constant for the film samples with thickness (d) lower than 650 nm decreases with the decrease of d. The same behaviour was observed for the conductivity. These results show a dependence of the dielectric permittivity with the thin film thickness. The electrical behaviour was also related with the oxygen partial pressure, whose increment promotes an increase of the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} stoichiometry units. - Highlights: • Niobium oxide thin films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. • XRD showed a phase change with the increase of the P(O{sub 2}). • Raman showed that increasing P(O{sub 2}), Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} amorphous increases. • Conductivity tends to decrease with the increase of P(O{sub 2}). • Dielectric analysis indicates the inexistence of preferential grow direction.

  1. The influence of energetic bombardment on the structure formation of sputtered zinc oxide films. Development of an atomistic growth model and its application to tailor thin film properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehl, Dominik

    2011-02-17

    The focus of this work is the investigation of the growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films. It is demonstrated that with a modified, ion beam assisted sputtering (IBAS) process, zinc oxide films can be deposited which exhibit a markedly improved crystalline order. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that intense energetic oxygen ion bombardment can be utilized to change film texture from the typical (002)-self-texture to an a-axis texture where the (002)-planes are perpendicular to the substrate surface. An understanding of the underlying mechanisms is developed which also facilitates a more detailed understanding of the action of ion bombardment during zinc oxide film growth. It is shown that zinc oxide films are susceptible to the influence of ion bombardment particularly in the nucleation regime of growth and that this finding is generally true for all observed structural changes induced by ion bombardment with various species, energies and flux densities. It is demonstrated not only that the initial growth stage plays an important role in the formation of a preferred growth orientation but also that the action of texture forming mechanisms in subsequent growth stages is comparatively weak. (orig.)

  2. Perovskite Thin Films via Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sutherland, Brandon R.

    2014-10-30

    © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (Graph Presented) A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm-1.

  3. Transport properties of nanoperforated Nb thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trezza, M., E-mail: trezza@sa.infn.i [Laboratorio Regionale SuperMat, CNR-INFM Salerno and Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Baronissi I-84081 (Italy); Cirillo, C. [Laboratorio Regionale SuperMat, CNR-INFM Salerno and Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Baronissi (Saudi Arabia) I-84081 (Italy); Prischepa, S.L. [State University of Informatics and RadioElectronics, P. Brovka Street 6, Minsk 220013 (Belarus); Attanasio, C. [Laboratorio Regionale SuperMat, CNR-INFM Salerno and Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Baronissi I-84081 (Italy)

    2010-10-01

    Porous silicon, obtained by electrochemical etching, has been used as a substrate for the growth of nanoperforated Nb thin films. The films, deposited by UHV magnetron sputtering, inherited from the Si substrates their structure, made of holes of 10 nm diameter and of 20 and 40 nm spacing, which provide an artificial pinning lattice. Commensurability effects between the Abrikosov vortex lattice and the artificial array of holes were investigated by transport measurements.

  4. Silver buffer layers for YBCO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, J. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Center for Technol. Education Holon

    1999-09-01

    A simple economical conventional vacuum system was used for evaporation of YBCO thin films on as-deposited unbuffered Ag layers on MgO substrates. The subsequent heat treatment was carried out in low oxygen partial pressure at a relative low temperature and short dwelling time. The films thus obtained were characterized for electrical properties using dc four probe electrical measurements and inspected for structural properties and chemical composition by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). (orig.)

  5. Perovskite thin films via atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Brandon R; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Adachi, Michael M; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Wong, Chris T O; McDowell, Jeffrey J; Xu, Jixian; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Ning, Zhijun; Houtepen, Arjan J; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-01-01

    A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3 NH3 PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm(-1) .

  6. Numerical modelling of lawsonite thin film as radiative cooling minerals for dew harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlattar, M.; Laatioui, S.; Oualim, E. M.; Mazroui, M.; Mouhsen, A.; Harmouchi, M.

    Harvesting dew can be used as a renewable complementary source of water both for drinking and agriculture in specific arid or semi-arid water-stressed areas. Condensation of water vapor by nighttime radiative cooling is the phenomenon that can be explained the dew formation on plants or surfaces. In this paper, we propose the lawsonite mineral, as a potential radiative cooling material, for exploiting this natural phenomenon. Furthermore, a computer model that includes meteorological parameters, obtained from the coastal region of Southern Morrocco (Mirleft-South of Agadir), is used to determine the thermal balance and fit to dew mass evolution. In order to form global estimates of dew formation potential via our dew formation model, we combined different meteorological data with radiative properties of natural lawsonite condenser (CaAl2Si2O7(OH)2·H2O) to enhance the modelled dew yield. The daily modelled yields show that significant amounts of dew water can be calculated as a function of the condenser temperature, the thickness condenser as well as the wind speed.

  7. Non-equilibrium structure and dynamics in a microscopic model of thin film active gels

    CERN Document Server

    Head, D A; Gompper, G

    2013-01-01

    In the presence of ATP, molecular motors generate active force dipoles that drive suspensions of protein filaments far from thermodynamic equilibrium, leading to exotic dynamics and pattern formation. Microscopic modelling can help to quantify the relationship between individual motors plus filaments to the large-wavelength properties represented by "hydrodynamic" models. Here we present results of extensive numerical simulations of active gels where the motors and filaments are confined between two infinite parallel plates. Thermal fluctuations and excluded-volume interactions between filaments are included. A systematic variation of rates for motor motion, attachment and detachment, including a differential detachment rate from filament ends, reveals a range of non-equilibrium behaviour. Strong motor binding produces structured filament aggregates that we refer to as asters, bundles or layers, whose stability depends on motor speed and differential end-detachment. The gross features of the dependence of the...

  8. Nonequilibrium structure and dynamics in a microscopic model of thin-film active gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, D. A.; Briels, W. J.; Gompper, Gerhard

    2014-03-01

    In the presence of adenosine triphosphate, molecular motors generate active force dipoles that drive suspensions of protein filaments far from thermodynamic equilibrium, leading to exotic dynamics and pattern formation. Microscopic modeling can help to quantify the relationship between individual motors plus filaments to organization and dynamics on molecular and supramolecular length scales. Here, we present results of extensive numerical simulations of active gels where the motors and filaments are confined between two infinite parallel plates. Thermal fluctuations and excluded-volume interactions between filaments are included. A systematic variation of rates for motor motion, attachment, and detachment, including a differential detachment rate from filament ends, reveals a range of nonequilibrium behavior. Strong motor binding produces structured filament aggregates that we refer to as asters, bundles, or layers, whose stability depends on motor speed and differential end detachment. The gross features of the dependence of the observed structures on the motor rate and the filament concentration can be captured by a simple one-filament model. Loosely bound aggregates exhibit superdiffusive mass transport, where filament translocation scales with lag time with nonunique exponents that depend on motor kinetics. An empirical data collapse of filament speed as a function of motor speed and end detachment is found, suggesting a dimensional reduction of the relevant parameter space. We conclude by discussing the perspectives of microscopic modeling in the field of active gels.

  9. Dual conical conducting filament model in resistance switching TiO2 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Min; Park, Tae Hyung; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2015-01-19

    The resetting behaviors of Pt/TiO2/Pt resistive switching (RS) cell in unipolar RS operations were studied in detail through an experiment and by modeling. The experiment showed that the apparently highly arbitrary resetting current-voltage (I-V) curves could be grouped into three types: normal, delayed, and abnormal behaviors. A dual conical conducting filament (CF) model was conceived, and their electrothermal behaviors were analytically described from the heat-balance and charge-transport equations. The almost spontaneous resetting behavior of the normal reset could be easily understood from the mutually constructive interference effect between the Joule heating and temperature-dependent resistance effect along the CF. The delayed reset could be explained by the time-dependent increase in the reset voltage during the rest process, which was most probably induced in the more conical-shaped CF. The abnormal reset could be understood from the temporal transfer of oxygen ions near the kink positions of the two different-diameter portions of the more cylindrical CFs, which temporally decreases the overall resistance immediately prior for the actual reset to occur. The accuracy of the dual conical CF model was further confirmed by adopting a more thorough electrothermal simulation package, COMSOL.

  10. YBCO thin films in ac and dc films

    CERN Document Server

    Shahzada, S

    2001-01-01

    We report studies on the dc magnetization of YBCO thin films in simultaneously applied dc and ac fields. The effect of the ac fields is to decrease the irreversible magnetization drastically leading to complete collapse of the hysteresis loops for relatively small ac fields (250e). The magnitude of the decrease depends on the component of the ac field parallel to the c-axis. The decrease is non-linear with ac amplitude and is explained in the framework of the critical state response of ultra thin films in perpendicular geometry. The ac fields increase the relaxation rapidly at short times while the long time response appears unaffected. (author)

  11. Workshop on thin film thermal conductivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Albert; Balzaretti, Naira M.; Guenther, Arthur H.

    1998-04-01

    On a subject of considerable import to the laser-induced damage community, a two day workshop on the topic, Thin Film Thermal Conductivity Measurement was held as part of the 13th Symposium on Thermophysical Properties at the University of Colorado in Boulder CO, June 25 and 26, 1997. The Workshop consisted of 4 sessions of 17 oral presentations and two discussion sessions. Two related subjects of interest were covered; 1) methods and problems associated with measuring thermal conductivity ((kappa) ) of thin films, and 2) measuring and (kappa) of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond. On the subject of thin film (kappa) measurement, several recently developed imaginative techniques were reviewed. However, several authors disagreed on how much (kappa) in a film differs from (kappa) in a bulk material of the same nominal composition. A subject of controversy was the definition of an interface. In the first discussion session, several questions were addressed, a principal one being, how do we know that the values of (kappa) we obtain are correct and is there a role for standards in thin film (kappa) measurement. The second discussion session was devoted to a round-robin interlaboratory comparison of (kappa) measurements on a set of CVD diamond specimens and several other specimens of lower thermal conductivity. Large interlaboratory differences obtained in an earlier round robin had been attributed to specimen inhomogeneity. Unfortunately, large differences were also observed in the second round robin even though the specimens were more homogenous. There was good consistency among the DC measurements, however, the AC measurements showed much greater variability. There was positive feedback from most of the attenders regarding the Workshop with nearly all respondents recommending another Workshop in three or fewer years. There was general recognition that thin film thermal conductivity measurements are important for predicting the resistance of optical coating

  12. Mechanics of fragmentation of crocodile skin and other thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhao; Pugno, Nicola M; Buehler, Markus J

    2014-05-27

    Fragmentation of thin layers of materials is mediated by a network of cracks on its surface. It is commonly seen in dehydrated paintings or asphalt pavements and even in graphene or other two-dimensional materials, but is also observed in the characteristic polygonal pattern on a crocodile's head. Here, we build a simple mechanical model of a thin film and investigate the generation and development of fragmentation patterns as the material is exposed to various modes of deformation. We find that the characteristic size of fragmentation, defined by the mean diameter of polygons, is strictly governed by mechanical properties of the film material. Our result demonstrates that skin fragmentation on the head of crocodiles is dominated by that it features a small ratio between the fracture energy and Young's modulus, and the patterns agree well with experimental observations. Understanding this mechanics-driven process could be applied to improve the lifetime and reliability of thin film coatings by mimicking crocodile skin.

  13. Mechanics of fragmentation of crocodile skin and other thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhao; Pugno, Nicola M.; Buehler, Markus J.

    2014-05-01

    Fragmentation of thin layers of materials is mediated by a network of cracks on its surface. It is commonly seen in dehydrated paintings or asphalt pavements and even in graphene or other two-dimensional materials, but is also observed in the characteristic polygonal pattern on a crocodile's head. Here, we build a simple mechanical model of a thin film and investigate the generation and development of fragmentation patterns as the material is exposed to various modes of deformation. We find that the characteristic size of fragmentation, defined by the mean diameter of polygons, is strictly governed by mechanical properties of the film material. Our result demonstrates that skin fragmentation on the head of crocodiles is dominated by that it features a small ratio between the fracture energy and Young's modulus, and the patterns agree well with experimental observations. Understanding this mechanics-driven process could be applied to improve the lifetime and reliability of thin film coatings by mimicking crocodile skin.

  14. Surface scattering mechanisms of tantalum nitride thin film resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huey-Ru; Chen, Ying-Chung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Chu, Tian-Jian; Shih, Chih-Cheng; Chuang, Nai-Chuan; Wang, Kao-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, we utilize an electrical analysis method to develop a TaN thin film resistor with a stricter spec and near-zero temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) for car-used electronic applications. Simultaneously, we also propose a physical mechanism mode to explain the origin of near-zero TCR for the TaN thin film resistor (TFR). Through current fitting, the carrier conduction mechanism of the TaN TFR changes from hopping to surface scattering and finally to ohmic conduction for different TaN TFRs with different TaN microstructures. Experimental data of current-voltage measurement under successive increasing temperature confirm the conduction mechanism transition. A model of TaN grain boundary isolation ability is eventually proposed to influence the carrier transport in the TaN thin film resistor, which causes different current conduction mechanisms.

  15. Fabrication and Modeling of Ambipolar Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Thin Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    that over 150 die can be fabricated on a single 2in Si wafer. Individual die are 4 -- ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - -- rM M- ri- PA NX RA "’K Kno ’--tx...Kusian, and B. Bullemer, "An Ambipolar Amorphous- Silicon Field-Effect Transistor," Siemens Forsch.-u. Entwickl.-Ber., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 114-119...1985. 99. H. Pfleiderer, W. Kusian, and B. Bullemer, "An Ambipolar Field-Effect Transistor Model," Siemens Forsch.-u. Entwicki.-Ber., vol. 14, no. 2, pp

  16. Pyroelectric coupling in thin film photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpov, Victor G.; Shvydka, Diana [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, OH (United States)

    2007-07-15

    We propose a theory of thin film photovoltaics in which one of the polycrystalline films is made of a pyroelectric material grains such as CdS. That film is shown to generate strong polarization improving the device open circuit voltage. Implications and supporting facts for the major photovoltaic types based on CdTe and CuIn(Ga)Se{sub 2} absorber layers are discussed. Band diagram of a pyroelectric (CdS) based PV junction. Arrows represent the charge carrier photo-generation. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Study of iron mononitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayal, Akhil, E-mail: mgupta@csr.res.in; Gupta, Mukul, E-mail: mgupta@csr.res.in; Phase, D. M., E-mail: mgupta@csr.res.in; Reddy, V. R., E-mail: mgupta@csr.res.in; Gupta, Ajay, E-mail: mgupta@csr.res.in [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore,-452001 (India)

    2014-04-24

    In this work we have studied the crystal structural and local ordering of iron and nitrogen in iron mononitride thin films prepared using dc magnetron sputtering at sputtering power of 100W and 500W. The films were sputtered using pure nitrogen to enhance the reactivity of nitrogen with iron. The x-ray diffraction (XRD), conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (SXAS) studies shows that the film crystallizes in ZnS-type crystal structure.

  18. Epitaxy of layered semiconductor thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahim Otsmane, L.; Emery, J. Y.; Jouanne, M.; Balkanski, M.

    1993-03-01

    Epilayers of InSe on InSe(00.1) and GaSe(00.1) have been grown by the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technique. Raman spectroscopy was used for a characterization of the structure and crystallinity in InSe/InSe(00.1) (homoepitaxy) and InSe/GaSe(00.1) (heteroepitaxy). The Raman spectra of the InSe thin films are identical to those of polytype γ-InSe. An activation of the E(LO) mode at 211 cm -1 is observed in these films here. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is also used to investigate surfaces of these films.

  19. Photoacoustic response of thin films: Thermal memory influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Mioljub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the generalized photoacoustic response model, which includes the influence of thermal memory on both thermoconducting and thermoelastic components, photoacoustic response of thin films is analyzed. It is demonstrated that the influence of thermal memory is manifested at frequencies above certain boundary frequency, which depends on thermal memory properties of the sample and its depth. A linear relation, linking heat propagation velocity and measured signal, is derived. Taking into account the confinement of the frequency range imposed by the measuring system, it is indicated that thermal memory properties of non-cristaline thin films can be determined in a photoacoustic experiment.

  20. Investigation of defects in highly photosensitive germanosilicate thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons-Potter, K.; Potter, B.G. Jr.; Warren, W.L.

    1997-02-01

    Germanosilicate glasses exhibit a significant photosensitive response which has been linked to the presence of oxygen-deficient germanium point defects in the glass structure. Based on this correlation, highly photosensitive thin films have been engineered which demonstrate the largest reported ultraviolet-induced refractive index perturbations (An) in an as-synthesized material. Our thin-film fabrication process avoids the use of hydrogen sensitizing treatments and, thus, yields stable films which retain their predisposition for large photosensitivity for over one year of storage. Understanding the nature of the defects in such films and their relationship to charge trapping and enhanced photosensitivity is of paramount importance in designing and optimizing the materials. Toward this end, our films have been studied using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), capacitance-voltage, and optical bleaching and absorption spectroscopies. We find experimental evidence suggesting a model in which a change in spin state and charge state of isolated paramagnetic neutral Ge dangling bonds form either diamagnetic positively or negatively charged Ge sites which are largely responsible for the charge trapping and photosensitivity in these thin films. We present experimental data and theoretical modeling to support our defect model and to show the relevance of the work.

  1. Real time ellipsometric study of boron nitride thin film growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertran, E.; Canillas, A.; Campmany, J.; El Kasmi, M.; Pascual, E.; Costa, J.; Andujar, J.L. [Univ. de Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Aplicada i Electronica

    1996-12-31

    The authors present an in situ study of the growth of boron nitride thin films by real time ellipsometry. Films were produced in a PEVCD reactor by rf glow discharge decomposition of ammonia (pure) and diborane (1% in hydrogen), on in-Cr coated c-Si substrates placed either on the powered electrode or on the grounded electrode of the reactor. A fast phase-modulated ellipsometer performed the real time monitoring of the growth processes at 350 nm. The ellipsometric angle trajectories were obtained through an autocalibrated method, especially suitable for the in situ optical analysis of transparent thin films. The authors applied several thin film growth optical models (homogeneous, two-layer, surface roughness) to analyze parameters of the films such as refractive index, extinction coefficient, roughness and deposition rate. In all the cases studied, the two-layer model fits well with the ellipsometric measurements, but a more sophisticated model considering a variable refractive index could better describe these films.

  2. Patterns and conformations in molecularly thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Prem B.

    Molecularly thin films have been a subject of great interest for the last several years because of their large variety of industrial applications ranging from micro-electronics to bio-medicine. Additionally, molecularly thin films can be used as good models for biomembrane and other systems where surfaces are critical. Many different kinds of molecules can make stable films. My research has considered three such molecules: a polymerizable phospholipid, a bent-core molecules, and a polymer. One common theme of these three molecules is chirality. The phospolipid molecules studied here are strongly chiral, which can be due to intrinsically chiral centers on the molecules and also due to chiral conformations. We find that these molecules give rise to chiral patterns. Bent-core molecules are not intrinsically chiral, but individual molecules and groups of molecules can show chiral structures, which can be changed by surface interactions. One major, unconfirmed hypothesis for the polymer conformation at surface is that it forms helices, which would be chiral. Most experiments were carried out at the air/water interface, in what are called Langmuir films. Our major tools for studying these films are Brewster Angle Microscopy (BAM) coupled with the thermodynamic information that can be deduced from surface pressure isotherms. Phospholipids are one of the important constituents of liposomes -- a spherical vesicle com-posed of a bilayer membrane, typically composed of a phospholipid and cholesterol bilayer. The application of liposomes in drug delivery is well-known. Crumpling of vesicles of polymerizable phospholipids has been observed. With BAM, on Langmuir films of such phospholipids, we see novel spiral/target patterns during compression. We have found that both the patterns and the critical pressure at which they formed depend on temperature (below the transition to a i¬‘uid layer). Bent-core liquid crystals, sometimes knows as banana liquid crystals, have drawn

  3. Growth Induced Magnetic Anisotropy in Crystalline and Amorphous Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Frances

    1998-10-03

    OAK B204 Growth Induced Magnetic Anisotropy in Crystalline and Amorphous Thin Films. The work in the past 6 months has involved three areas of magnetic thin films: (1) amorphous rare earth-transition metal alloys, (2) epitaxial Co-Pt and hTi-Pt alloy thin films, and (3) collaborative work on heat capacity measurements of magnetic thin films, including nanoparticles and CMR materials.

  4. Ternary compound thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmerski, L. L.

    1975-01-01

    A group of ternary compound semiconductor (I-III-VI2) thin films for future applications in photovoltaic devices is proposed. The consideration of these materials (CuInSe2, CuInTe2 and especially CuInS2) for long range device development is emphasized. Much of the activity to date has been concerned with the growth and properties of CuInX2 films. X-ray and electron diffraction analyses, Hall mobility and coefficient, resistivity and carrier concentration variations with substrate and film temperature as well as grain size data have been determined. Both p- and n-type films of CuInS2 and CuInSe2 have been produced. Single and double source deposition techniques have been utilized. Some data have been recorded for annealed films.

  5. Humidity sensing characteristics of hydrotungstite thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V Kunte; S A Shivashankar; A M Umarji

    2008-11-01

    Thin films of the hydrated phase of tungsten oxide, hydrotungstite (H2WO4.H2O), have been grown on glass substrates using a dip-coating technique. The -axis oriented films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical conductivity of the films is observed to vary with humidity and selectively show high sensitivity to moisture at room temperature. In order to understand the mechanism of sensing, the films were examined by X-ray diffraction at elevated temperatures and in controlled atmospheres. Based on these observations and on conductivity measurements, a novel sensing mechanism based on protonic conduction within the surface layers adsorbed onto the hydrotungstite film is proposed.

  6. Correlated dewetting patterns in thin polystyrene films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, Chiara [Department of Applied Physics, University of Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Jacobs, Karin [Department of Applied Physics, University of Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Seemann, Ralf [Department of Applied Physics, University of Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Blossey, Ralf [Centre for Bioinformatics, Saarland University, PO Box 151150, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Becker, Juergen [Institute of Applied Mathematics, University of Bonn, Beringstr. 6, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Gruen, Guenther [Institute of Applied Mathematics, University of Bonn, Beringstr. 6, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2003-01-15

    We describe preliminary results of experiments and simulations concerned with the dewetting of thin polystyrene films (thickness < 7 nm) on top of silicon oxide wafers. In the experiments we scratched an initially flat film with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip, producing dry channels in the film. Dewetting of the films was imaged in situ using AFM and a correlated pattern of holes ('satellite holes') was observed along the rims bordering the channels. The development of this complex film rupture process was simulated and the results of experiments and simulations are in good agreement. On the basis of these results, we attempt to explain the appearance of satellite holes and their positions relative to pre-existing holes.

  7. Correlated dewetting patterns in thin polystyrene films

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, C; Seemann, R; Blossey, R; Becker, J; Grün, G

    2003-01-01

    We describe preliminary results of experiments and simulations concerned with the dewetting of thin polystyrene films (thickness < 7 nm) on top of silicon oxide wafers. In the experiments we scratched an initially flat film with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip, producing dry channels in the film. Dewetting of the films was imaged in situ using AFM and a correlated pattern of holes ('satellite holes') was observed along the rims bordering the channels. The development of this complex film rupture process was simulated and the results of experiments and simulations are in good agreement. On the basis of these results, we attempt to explain the appearance of satellite holes and their positions relative to pre-existing holes.

  8. Fracture and Delamination of Chromium Thin Films on Polymer Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordill, M. J.; Taylor, A.; Schalko, J.; Dehm, G.

    2010-04-01

    New emerging technologies in the field of flexible electronic devices require that metal films adhere well and flex with polymer substrates. Common thin film materials used for these applications include copper (Cu) with an adhesion interlayer of chromium (Cr). Copper can be quite ductile and easily move with the polymer substrate. However, Cr is more brittle and fractures at lower strains than Cu. This study aims to examine the fracture and subsequent buckling and delamination of strained Cr films on polyimide (PI). In-situ scanning electron microscope (SEM) straining is used to systematically study the influence of film thickness on fracture and buckling strains. Film fracture and delamination depend on film thickness, and increases in crack and buckle density with decreasing thickness are explored by a shear lag model.

  9. Optimization of processing and modeling issues for thin film solar cell devices: Final report, February 3, 1997--September 1, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmire, R. W.; Phillips, J. E.; Shafarman, W. N.; Hegedus, S. S.; McCandless, B. E.

    2000-02-28

    This final report describes results achieved under a 20-month NREL subcontract to develop and understand thin-film solar cell technology associated to CuInSe{sub 2} and related alloys, a-Si and its alloys, and CdTe. Modules based on all these thin films are promising candidates to meet DOE's long-range efficiency, reliability and manufacturing cost goals. The critical issues being addressed under this program are intended to provide the science and engineering basis for the development of viable commercial processes and to improve module performance. The generic research issues addressed are: (1) quantitative analysis of processing steps to provide information for efficient commercial-scale equipment design and operation; (2) device characterization relating the device performance to materials properties and process conditions; (3) development of alloy materials with different bandgaps to allow improved device structures for stability and compatibility with module design; (4) development and improved window/heterojunction layers and contacts to improve device performance and reliability; and (5) evaluation of cell stability with respect to device structure and module encapsulation.

  10. Modeling the splitting of thin silicon films from porosified crystalline silicon upon high temperature annealing in hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghannam, Moustafa Y.; Raheem, Yaser Abdul; Alomar, Abdul Azeez [EE Department, College of Engineering and Petroleum, Kuwait University, Safat (Kuwait); Poortmans, Jef [IMEC, Leuven (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    The role of hydrogen in promoting thin film splitting from crystalline silicon wafers with pores or trenches during high temperature annealing is investigated. During the treatment, trenches are transformed into spherical voids that may laterally channel and split off the substrate. It is shown that the conditions necessary for hydrogen to contribute to the establishment of high stress levels around transformed voids or of pressure inside the voids are usually not satisfied. Hence promoting void coalescence by substantial void volume growth resulting from stress enhanced vacancy diffusion and/or exfoliation of separated voids are unlikely to occur. Also, there are no experimental evidence that confirms the role of hydrogen in triggering premature void collapse by Griffith fracture at relatively lower stress levels in conjunction with reduced surface energy. Therefore, it is concluded that splitting occurs during high temperature annealing only when neighboring voids are close enough to systematically coalesce. In that case, hydrogen may react at high temperature with the internal silicon surface of the voids (walls) and contribute to breaking the thin straps separating the voids which promotes channelling and film splitting (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Amorphous silicon for thin-film transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schropp, Rudolf Emmanuel Isidore

    1987-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) has considerable potential as a semiconducting material for large-area photoelectric and photovoltaic applications. Moreover, a-Si:H thin-film transistors (TFT’s) are very well suited as switching devices in addressable liquid crystal display panels and addres

  12. Electrostatic Discharge Effects in Thin Film Transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golo, Natasa

    2002-01-01

    Although amorphous silicon thin film transistors (α-Si:H TFT’s) have a very low electron mobility and pronounced instabilities of their electrical characteristics, they are still very useful and they have found their place in the semiconductors industry, as they possess some very good properties: th

  13. Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Wu, Nai-Juan; Ignatiev, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The development of thin-film solid oxide fuel cells (TFSOFCs) and a method of fabricating them have progressed to the prototype stage. This can result in the reduction of mass, volume, and the cost of materials for a given power level.

  14. Welding Wires To Thin Thermocouple Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, Raymond; Kim, Walter S.; Danzey, Gerald A.; Pencil, Eric; Wadel, Mary

    1993-01-01

    Parallel-gap resistance welding yields joints surviving temperatures of about 1,000 degrees C. Much faster than thermocompression bonding. Also exceeds conductive-paste bonding and sputtering thin films through porous flame-sprayed insulation on prewelded lead wires. Introduces no foreign material into thermocouple circuit and does not require careful control of thickness of flame-sprayed material.

  15. Intelligent Processing of Ferroelectric Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-31

    unsatisfactory. To detect the electroopic effects of thin films deposited on opaque substrates a waveguide refractometry of category 3 was reported. An advantage...of the waveguide refractometry is its capability of resolving the change in ordinary index from the change in the extraordinary index. Some successes

  16. Tailored piezoelectric thin films for energy harvester

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan, X.

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials are excellent materials to transfer mechanical energy into electrical energy, which can be stored and used to power other devices. PiezoMEMS is a good way to combine silicon wafer processing and piezoelectric thin film technology and lead to a variety of miniaturized and prem

  17. Incipient plasticity in metallic thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, W. A.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Minor, A. M.; Shan, Z.; Asif, S. A. Syed; Warren, O. L.

    2007-01-01

    The authors have compared the incipient plastic behaviors of Al and Al-Mg thin films during indentation under load control and displacement control. In Al-Mg, solute pinning limits the ability of dislocations to propagate into the crystal and thus substantially affects the appearance of plastic inst

  18. Rechargeable Thin-film Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, Xiaohua

    1993-08-01

    Rechargeable thin film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6 {mu}m thick, can be fabricated to any specified size, large or small, onto a variety of substrates including ceramics, semiconductors, and plastics. The cells that have been investigated include Li TiS{sub 2}, Li V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5, 3.6, and 4.2, respectively. The development of these batteries would not have been possible without the discovery of a new thin film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride, that is stable in contact with metallic lithium at these potentials. Deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2}, this material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25{degrees}C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The maximum practical current density obtained from the thin film cells is limited to about 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} due to a low diffusivity of Li{sup +} ions in the cathodes. In this work, the authors present a short review of their work on rechargeable thin film lithium batteries.

  19. Bilaterally Microstructured Thin Polydimethylsiloxane Film Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Yu, Liyun; Hassouneh, Suzan Sager;

    2015-01-01

    Thin PDMS films with complex microstructures are used in the manufacturing of dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) actuators, sensors and generators, to protect the metal electrode from large strains and to assure controlled actuation. The current manufacturing process at Danfoss Polypower A/...

  20. Flexible thin-film NFC tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myny, K.; Tripathi, A.K.; Steen, J.L. van der; Cobb, B.

    2015-01-01

    Thin-film transistor technologies have great potential to become the key technology for leafnode Internet of Things by utilizing the NFC protocol as a communication medium. The main requirements are manufacturability on flexible substrates at a low cost while maintaining good device performance char

  1. Bauschinger effect in unpassivated freestanding thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shishvan, S.S.; Nicola, L.; Van der Giessen, E.

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) discrete dislocation plasticity simulations are carried out to investigate the Bauschinger effect (BE) in freestanding thin films. The BE in plastic flow of polycrystalline materials is generally understood to be caused by inhomogeneous deformation during loading, leading to res

  2. Quasifree Mg–H thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldi, A.; Palmisano, V.; Gonzalez-Silveira, M.; Pivak, Y.; Slaman, M.; Schreuders, H.; Dam, B.; Griessen, R.

    2009-01-01

    The thermodynamics of hydrogen absorption in Pd-capped Mg films are strongly dependent on the magnesium thickness. In the present work, we suppress such dependency by inserting a thin Ti layer between Mg and Pd. By means of optical measurements, we show that the surface energy contribution to the de

  3. Flexoelectricity in barium strontium titanate thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Seol Ryung; Huang, Wenbin; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo; Jiang, Xiaoning, E-mail: xjiang5@ncsu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Shu, Longlong [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi' an Jiao Tong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Maria, Jon-Paul [Department of Material Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2014-10-06

    Flexoelectricity, the linear coupling between the strain gradient and the induced electric polarization, has been intensively studied as an alternative to piezoelectricity. Especially, it is of interest to develop flexoelectric devices on micro/nano scales due to the inherent scaling effect of flexoelectric effect. Ba{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}TiO{sub 3} thin film with a thickness of 130 nm was fabricated on a silicon wafer using a RF magnetron sputtering process. The flexoelectric coefficients of the prepared thin films were determined experimentally. It was revealed that the thin films possessed a transverse flexoelectric coefficient of 24.5 μC/m at Curie temperature (∼28 °C) and 17.44 μC/m at 41 °C. The measured flexoelectric coefficients are comparable to that of bulk BST ceramics, which are reported to be 10–100 μC/m. This result suggests that the flexoelectric thin film structures can be effectively used for micro/nano-sensing devices.

  4. Stabilized thin film heterostructure for electrochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The invention provides a method for the formation of a thin film multi-layered heterostructure upon a substrate, said method comprising the steps of: a. providing a substrate; b. depositing a buffer layer upon said substrate, said buffer layer being a layer of stable ionic conductor (B); c. depos...

  5. Electrical characterization of thin film ferroelectric capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiggelman, M.P.J.; Reimann, K.; Klee, M.; Beelen, D.; Keur, W.; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart

    2006-01-01

    Tunable capacitors can be used to facilitate the reduction of components in wireless technologies. The tunability of the capacitors is caused by the sensitivity of the relative dielectric constant to a change in polarization with electric field. Thin film ferroelectric MIM capacitors on silicon

  6. Surface roughness evolution of nanocomposite thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkin, A; Pei, Y.T.; Shaha, K.P.; Chen, C.Q.; Vainchtein, David; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of dynamic roughening and smoothening mechanisms of thin films grown with pulsed-dc magnetron sputtering is presented. The roughness evolution has been described by a linear stochastic equation, which contains the second- and fourth-order gradient terms. Dynamic smoothening of the growin

  7. Reliability growth of thin film resistors contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lugin A. N.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Necessity of resistive layer growth under the contact and in the contact zone of resistive element is shown in order to reduce peak values of current flow and power dissipation in the contact of thin film resistor, thereby to increase the resistor stability to parametric and catastrophic failures.

  8. Potentiostatic Deposition and Characterization of Cuprous Oxide Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Electrodeposition technique was employed to deposit cuprous oxide Cu2O thin films. In this work, Cu2O thin films have been grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) transparent conducting glass as a substrate by potentiostatic deposition of cupric acetate. The effect of deposition time on the morphologies, crystalline, and optical quality of Cu2O thin films was investigated.

  9. Monte Carlo simulation of magnetic nanostructured thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan Zhi-Qiang; Yutaka Abe; Jiang Dong-Hua; Lin Hai; Yoshitake Yamazakia; Wu Chen-Xu

    2004-01-01

    @@ Using Monte Carlo simulation, we have compared the magnetic properties between nanostructured thin films and two-dimensional crystalline solids. The dependence of nanostructured properties on the interaction between particles that constitute the nanostructured thin films is also studied. The result shows that the parameters in the interaction potential have an important effect on the properties of nanostructured thin films at the transition temperatures.

  10. Practical design and production of optical thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Willey, Ronald R

    2002-01-01

    Fundamentals of Thin Film Optics and the Use of Graphical Methods in Thin Film Design Estimating What Can Be Done Before Designing Fourier Viewpoint of Optical Coatings Typical Equipment for Optical Coating Production Materials and Process Know-How Process Development Monitoring and Control of Thin Film Growth Appendix: Metallic and Semiconductor Material Graphs Author IndexSubject Index

  11. Growth induced magnetic anisotropy in crystalline and amorphous thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, F.

    1998-07-20

    The work in the past 6 months has involved three areas of magnetic thin films: (1) amorphous rare earth-transition metal alloys, (2) epitaxial Co-Pt and Ni-Pt alloy thin films, and (3) collaborative work on heat capacity measurements of magnetic thin films, including nanoparticles and CMR materials. A brief summary of work done in each area is given.

  12. Nonlocal thin films in calculations of the Casimir force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esquivel-Sirvent, R.; Svetovoy, V.B.

    2005-01-01

    The Casimir force is calculated between plates with thin metallic coating. Thin films are described with spatially dispersive (nonlocal) dielectric functions. For thin films the nonlocal effects are more relevant than for half-spaces. However, it is shown that even for film thickness smaller than th

  13. Density functional study of ferromagnetism in alkali metal thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prasenjit Sen

    2010-04-01

    Electronic and magnetic structures of (1 0 0) films of K and Cs, having thicknesses of one to seven layers, are calculated within the plane-wave projector augmented wave (PAW) formalism of the density functional theory (DFT), using both local spin density approximation (LSDA) and the PW91 generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Only a six-layer Cs film is found to have a ferromagnetic (FM) state which is degenerate with a paramagnetic (PM) state within the accuracy of these calculations. These results are compared with those obtained from calculations on a finite-thickness uniform jellium model (UJM), and it is argued that within LSDA or GGA, alkali metal thin films cannot be claimed to have an FM ground state. Relevance of these results to the experiments on transition metal-doped alkali metal thin films and bulk hosts are also discussed.

  14. Structural study of symmetric diblock copolymer thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadegaard, Nikolaj

    2000-01-01

    Thin diblock copolymer film have been investigated by x-ray and neutron reflectivity as well as small angle x-ray and neutron scattering. Two model systems have been investigated. PS-PDMS (25 kg/mol-25 kg/mol), which has a glass transition temperature ofca. 100 deg.C for the PS-block. This means...

  15. Microwave induced elastic deformation of a metallic thin film

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, S B

    2013-01-01

    The microwave induced elastic deformation of a metallic thin film is computed numerically and we found that the deformation can be significantly enhanced at resonance. We show that an analytical transmission line model can reproduce the numerical results almost quantitatively and at the same time reveal the underlying physics.

  16. Bauschinger effect in thin metal films: Discrete dislocation dynamics study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davoudi, K.M.; Nicola, L.; Vlassak, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of dislocation climb on plastic deformation during loading and unloading are studied using a two-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics model. Simulations are performed for polycrystalline thin films passivated on both surfaces. Dislocation climb lowers the overall level of the stress

  17. Review of Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    the increase in ionized impurity scattering.       Figure 1.48: Resistivity versus %Ga [125]  ZnO:Ga films were also  deposited  by  spray   pyrolysis ...Ilican  [137]  deposited   In‐doped  ZnO  thin  films  onto  glass  substrates  by  the  spray   pyrolysis   method at 350 oC substrate temperature. The...structure  of  ZnO  presented  the  following  findings:     The Polycrystalline ZnO  thin  films were  deposited  on a glass  substrate by a  spray

  18. MISSE 5 Thin Films Space Exposure Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Kinard, William H.; Jones, James L.

    2007-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is a set of space exposure experiments using the International Space Station (ISS) as the flight platform. MISSE 5 is a co-operative endeavor by NASA-LaRC, United Stated Naval Academy, Naval Center for Space Technology (NCST), NASA-GRC, NASA-MSFC, Boeing, AZ Technology, MURE, and Team Cooperative. The primary experiment is performance measurement and monitoring of high performance solar cells for U.S. Navy research and development. A secondary experiment is the telemetry of this data to ground stations. A third experiment is the measurement of low-Earth-orbit (LEO) low-Sun-exposure space effects on thin film materials. Thin films can provide extremely efficacious thermal control, designation, and propulsion functions in space to name a few applications. Solar ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen are major degradation mechanisms in LEO. This paper is an engineering report of the MISSE 5 thm films 13 months space exposure experiment.

  19. Molecular Dynamic Simulation of Thin Film Growth Stress Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haifeng

    2011-12-01

    With the increasing demand for thin films across a wide range of technology, especially in electronic and magnetic applications, controlling the stresses in deposited thin films has become one of the more important challenges in modern engineering. It is well known that large intrinsic stress---in the magnitude of several gigapascals---can result during the thin film preparation. The magnitude of stress depends on the deposition technique, film thickness, types and structures of materials used as films and substrates, as well as other factors. Such large intrinsic stress may lead to film cracking and peeling in case of tensile stress, and delamination and blistering in case of compression. However it may also have beneficial effects on optoelectronics and its applications. For example, intrinsic stresses can be used to change the electronic band gap of semiconducting materials. The far-reaching fields of microelectronics and optoelectronics depend critically on the properties, behavior, and reliable performance of deposited thin films. Thus, understanding and controlling the origins and behavior of such intrinsic stresses in deposited thin films is a highly active field of research. In this study, on-going tensile stress evolution during Volmer-Weber growth mode was analyzed through numerical methods. A realistic model with semi-cylinder shape free surfaces was used and molecular dynamics simulations were conducted. Simulations were at room temperature (300 K), and 10 nanometer diameter of islands were used. A deposition rate that every 3 picoseconds deposit one atom was chosen for simulations. The deposition energy was and lattice orientation is [0 0 1]. Five different random seeds were used to ensure average behaviors. In the first part of this study, initial coalescence stress was first calculated by comparing two similar models, which only differed in the distance between two neighboring islands. Three different substrate thickness systems were analyzed to

  20. Poly-para-xylylene thin films: A study of the deposition chemistry, kinetics, film properties, and film stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Jeffrey Bernard

    Poly-para-xylylene, or parylene, thin films are chemically vapor deposited (CVD), conformal, pin-hole free polymeric thin films. They have found many industrial uses since there invention in 1947 and continue to find new applications in micro-electronics, biotechnology, and micro-electro-mechanical systems. In this study the deposition chemistry, deposition kinetics, film properties, and film stability were investigated. A differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to analyze the vapor species present during the CVD process. The identity of dimer contamination and its impact on the CVD process and film properties was studied. The quantitative conversion of dimer to monomer was investigated and it was found that conversion begins at around 385°C and by 565°C 100% conversion is obtained. The kinetics of the CVD process was analyzed for a range of substrate temperatures and chamber pressures. A new kinetic model based on a two-step adsorption was developed and fit the kinetic data well. This model should be appropriate for use with all parylene family polymers. Many of the properties of the films deposited in this study were analyzed. This includes a detailed study of surface morphology using atomic force microscopy which shows the interface width increases as a power law of film thickness. Other properties analyzed were the thermal stability, electrical properties, index of refraction, birefringence, hardness, and elastic modulus. The effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation of lambda ≥ 250 nm on the thermal stability, electrical, and optical properties of thin parylene films was studied. The thermal stability and electrical properties of UV treated films were seen to deteriorate as the radiation dose increased. The stability of parylene thin films receiving plasma etching was analyzed. The dielectric constant, dissipation factor, and leakage current of plasma etched thin parylene films were investigated and found to be stable for the range of

  1. Electro-optical evaluation of tungsten oxide and vanadium pentoxide thin films for modeling an electrochromic device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Najafi Ashtiani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, tungsten oxide and vanadium oxide electrochromic thin films were placed in vacuum and in a thickness of 200 nm on a transparent conductive substrate of SnO2:F using the physical method of thermal evaporation. Then they were studied for the optical characteristics in the wavelength range from 400 to 700 nm and for their electrical potentials in the range form +1.5 to -1.5 volts. The films were post heated in order to assess changes in energy gap with temperature, at temperatures120 , 300 and 500°C. Refractive and extinction coefficients and the transition type of films in the visible light range and in the thickness of 200 nm were determined and measured. X-ray diffraction pattern and SEM images and cyclic Voltammetry of layers were also studied. The results of this study due to the deposition of layers, the layer thickness selected, the type of substrate, the range of annealing temperatures and selected electrolyte were in full compliance with the works of other researchers [1,2,3]. Therefore, these layers with features such as crystal structure, refractive and even extinction coefficients in the range of visible light, the appropriate response of chromic switch in the replication potential, good adhesion to the substrate, and the high amount of optical transmition and so on, prove useful to be used in an electrochromic device

  2. Thin blend films of cellulose and polyacrylonitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Mao, Yimin; Briber, Robert; Wang, Howard

    Cellulose is the most abundant renewable, biocompatible and biodegradable natural polymer. Cellulose exhibits excellent chemical and mechanical stability, which makes it useful for applications such as construction, filtration, bio-scaffolding and packaging. To further expand the potential applications of cellulose materials, their alloying with synthetic polymers has been investigated. In this study, thin films of cotton linter cellulose (CLC) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) blends with various compositions spanning the entire range from neat CLC to neat PAN were spun cast on silicon wafers from common solutions in dimethyl sulfoxide / ionic liquid mixtures. The morphologies of thin films were characterized using optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray reflectivity. Morphologies of as-cast films are highly sensitive to the film preparation conditions; they vary from featureless smooth films to self-organized ordered nano-patterns to hierarchical structures spanning over multiple length scales from nanometers to tens of microns. By selectively removing the PAN-rich phase, the structures of blend films were studied to gain insights in their very high stability in hot water, acid and salt solutions.

  3. Thin-film semiconductor rectifier has improved properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Cadmium selenide-zinc selenide film is used as a thin film semiconductor rectifier. The film is vapor-deposited in a controlled concentration gradient into a glass substrate to form the required junctions between vapor-deposited gold electrodes.

  4. The thickness dependence of dielectric permittivity in thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkov, Ivan A.; Starkov, Alexander S.

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that the physical properties of thin films depend on their thickness. For a description of such dependences, it is proposed to use a classical model taking into account the presence of film interfaces. A dielectric ball near the half-space was chosen to adopt the approach. The dependence of the effective permittivity of the ball on geometrical and physical parameters of the system is analyzed. It is demonstrated that the dielectric constant of a film can be presented as a sum of the constant of a bulk material and the interface term.

  5. Nanoscale phenomena in ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganpule, Chandan S.

    Ferroelectric materials are a subject of intense research as potential candidates for applications in non-volatile ferroelectric random access memories (FeRAM), piezoelectric actuators, infrared detectors, optical switches and as high dielectric constant materials for dynamic random access memories (DRAMs). With current trends in miniaturization, it becomes important that the fundamental aspects of scaling of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties in these devices be studied thoroughly and their impact on the device reliability assessed. In keeping with this spirit of miniaturization, the dissertation has two broad themes: (a) Scaling of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties and (b) The key reliability issue of retention loss. The thesis begins with a look at results on scaling studies of focused-ion-beam milled submicron ferroelectric capacitors using a variety of scanning probe characterization tools. The technique of piezoresponse microscopy, which is rapidly becoming an accepted form of domain imaging in ferroelectrics, has been used in this work for another very important application: providing reliable, repeatable and quantitative numbers for the electromechanical properties of submicron structures milled in ferroelectric films. This marriage of FIB and SPM based characterization of electromechanical and electrical properties has proven unbeatable in the last few years to characterize nanostructures qualitatively and quantitatively. The second half of this dissertation focuses on polarization relaxation in FeRAMs. In an attempt to understand the nanoscale origins of back-switching of ferroelectric domains, the time dependent relaxation of remnant polarization in epitaxial lead zirconate titanate (PbZr0.2Ti0.8O 3, PZT) ferroelectric thin films (used as a model system), containing a uniform 2-dimensional grid of 90° domains (c-axis in the plane of the film) has been examined using voltage modulated scanning force microscopy. A novel approach of

  6. Thin Film Electrochemical Power Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Anion Intercalating Polymer Cathode", proceedings of symposium on Lithium Batteries, The Electrochemical Society , Hollywood, Florida. K. Naoi, W.H...of symposium on Lithium Batteries, The Electrochemical Society , Hollywood, Florida. M. Lien and W.H. Smyrl, "An Impedance Study of Polyvinylferrocene...Films", in Transient Techniques in Corrosion Science and Engineering, eds. W.H. Smyrl, et al., Electrochemical Society , 1989. K, Naoi, M.M. Lien and

  7. Quantitative measurements and modeling of electronic and atomic surface structure in epitaxial LaNiO3 thin films by ARPES, LEED-I(V), and DFT +DMFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Jacob; Nowadnick, Elizabeth; Park, Hyowon; King, Philip; Millis, Andrew; Schlom, Darrell; Shen, Kyle

    Careful exploration of the phase space available for artificially engineering emergent electronic properties in epitaxial thin films and superlattices of transition-metal oxides requires close feedback between materials synthesis, experimental characterization of both electronic and atomic structures, and modeling based on advanced computational methods. Here we apply this general strategy to the perovskite rare-earth nickelate LaNiO3, using molecular-beam epitaxy to synthesize thin films, performing in situangle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) measurements, and comparing our results with the predictions of density functional theory plus dynamical mean-field theory (DFT +DMFT). Our study establishes LaNiO3 as a moderately correlated metal in which the quasiparticle mass enhancement can be modeled with quantitative accuracy by DFT +DMFT. Finally, in view of efforts to produce eg orbital polarization in nickelate heterostructures as a means of mimicking single-band cuprate-like physics, we discuss the extent to which our ARPES and LEED results suggest that such effects are intrinsically present at film surfaces due to the existence of polar distortions, as reported by coherent Bragg rod analysis of surface x-ray diffraction.

  8. Measurement and Modeling of Short and Medium Range Order in Amorphous Ta2O5 Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Badri; Stone, Kevin H.; Bassiri, Riccardo; Fejer, Martin M.; Toney, Michael F.; Mehta, Apurva

    2016-08-01

    Amorphous films and coatings are rapidly growing in importance. Yet, there is a dearth of high-quality structural data on sub-micron films. Not understanding how these materials assemble at atomic scale limits fundamental insights needed to improve their performance. Here, we use grazing-incidence x-ray total scattering measurements to examine the atomic structure of the top 50-100 nm of Ta2O5 films; mirror coatings that show high promise to significantly improve the sensitivity of the next generation of gravitational-wave detectors. Our measurements show noticeable changes well into medium range, not only between crystalline and amorphous, but also between as-deposited, annealed and doped amorphous films. It is a further challenge to quickly translate the structural information into insights into mechanisms of packing and disorder. Here, we illustrate a modeling approach that allows translation of observed structural features to a physically intuitive packing of a primary structural unit based on a kinked Ta-O-Ta backbone. Our modeling illustrates how Ta-O-Ta units link to form longer 1D chains and even 2D ribbons, and how doping and annealing influences formation of 2D order. We also find that all the amorphousTa2O5 films studied in here are not just poorly crystalline but appear to lack true 3D order.

  9. Measurement and Modeling of Short and Medium Range Order in Amorphous Ta2O5 Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Badri; Stone, Kevin H.; Bassiri, Riccardo; Fejer, Martin M.; Toney, Michael F.; Mehta, Apurva

    2016-01-01

    Amorphous films and coatings are rapidly growing in importance. Yet, there is a dearth of high-quality structural data on sub-micron films. Not understanding how these materials assemble at atomic scale limits fundamental insights needed to improve their performance. Here, we use grazing-incidence x-ray total scattering measurements to examine the atomic structure of the top 50–100 nm of Ta2O5 films; mirror coatings that show high promise to significantly improve the sensitivity of the next generation of gravitational-wave detectors. Our measurements show noticeable changes well into medium range, not only between crystalline and amorphous, but also between as-deposited, annealed and doped amorphous films. It is a further challenge to quickly translate the structural information into insights into mechanisms of packing and disorder. Here, we illustrate a modeling approach that allows translation of observed structural features to a physically intuitive packing of a primary structural unit based on a kinked Ta-O-Ta backbone. Our modeling illustrates how Ta-O-Ta units link to form longer 1D chains and even 2D ribbons, and how doping and annealing influences formation of 2D order. We also find that all the amorphousTa2O5 films studied in here are not just poorly crystalline but appear to lack true 3D order. PMID:27562542

  10. Thin film bismuth iron oxides useful for piezoelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeches, Robert J.; Martin, Lane W.; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2016-05-31

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a thin film of BiFeO.sub.3 having a thickness ranging from 20 nm to 300 nm, a first electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film, and a second electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film; wherein the first and second electrodes are in electrical communication. The composition is free or essentially free of lead (Pb). The BFO thin film is has the piezoelectric property of changing its volume and/or shape when an electric field is applied to the BFO thin film.

  11. Terahertz transport dynamics in the metal-insulator transition of V2O3 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y. Y.; Su, F. H.; Zhang, C.; Zhong, L.; Pan, S. S.; Xu, S. C.; Wang, H.; Dai, J. M.; Li, G. H.

    2017-03-01

    The dynamic behavior of thermally-induced metal-insulator transition of V2O3 thin film on Si substrate grown by reactive magnetron sputtering was investigated by the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. It was found that the THz absorption and optical conductivity of the thin films are temperature-dependent, and the THz amplitude modulation can reach as high as 74.7%. The complex THz optical conductivity in the metallic state of the V2O3 thin films can be well-fitted by the Drude-Smith model, which offer the insight into the electron transport dynamic during the metal-insulator transition of the thin film.

  12. Polycrystalline thin film materials and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, B.N.; Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Shafarman, W.N.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Inst. of Energy Conversion)

    1992-10-01

    Results of Phase II of a research program on polycrystalline thin film heterojunction solar cells are presented. Relations between processing, materials properties and device performance were studied. The analysis of these solar cells explains how minority carrier recombination at the interface and at grain boundaries can be reduced by doping of windows and absorber layers, such as in high efficiency CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} based solar cells. The additional geometric dimension introduced by the polycrystallinity must be taken into consideration. The solar cells are limited by the diode current, caused by recombination in the space charge region. J-V characteristics of CuInSe{sub 2}/(CdZn)S cells were analyzed. Current-voltage and spectral response measurements were also made on high efficiency CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells prepared by vacuum evaporation. Cu-In bilayers were reacted with Se and H{sub 2}Se gas to form CuInSe{sub 2} films; the reaction pathways and the precursor were studied. Several approaches to fabrication of these thin film solar cells in a superstrate configuration were explored. A self-consistent picture of the effects of processing on the evolution of CdTe cells was developed.

  13. When are thin films of metals metallic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, E. W.; Dowben, P. A.

    1993-04-01

    There is an increasing body of experimental information suggesting that very thin films of materials, normally considered to be metals, exhibit behavior characteristic of a nonmetal. In almost all cases, there is a nonmetal-to-metal transition as a function of film density or thickness, frequently accompanied by a structural transition. Amazingly, this behavior seems to occur for metal films on metal substrates, as well as for metals on semiconductors. The identification of this phenomena and the subsequent explanation has been slow in developing, due to the inability to directly measure the conductivity of a submonolayer film. This paper will discuss the evidence accumulated from variety of spectroscopic experimental techniques for three systems: a Mott-Hubbard transition, a Peierls-like distortion, and a Wilson transition.

  14. Energetic deposition of thin metal films

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Busaidy, M S K

    2001-01-01

    deposited films. The primary aim of this thesis was to study the physical effect of energetic deposition metal thin films. The secondary aim is to enhance the quality of the films produced to a desired quality. Grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity (GIXR) measurements from a high-energy synchrotron radiation source were carried out to study and characterise the samples. Optical Profilers Interferometery, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Medium energy ion spectroscopy (MEIS), and the Electron microscope studies were the other main structural characterisation tools used. AI/Fe trilayers, as well as multilayers were deposited using a Nordico planar D.C. magnetron deposition system at different voltage biases and pressures. The films were calibrated and investigated. The relation between energetic deposition variation and structural properties was intensely researched. Energetic deposition refers to the method in which the deposited species possess higher kinetic energy and impact ...

  15. Thin Films for Coating Nanomaterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.M.Mukhopadhyay; P.Joshi; R.V.Pulikollu

    2005-01-01

    For nano-structured solids (those with one or more dimensions in the 1-100 nm range), attempts of surface modification can pose significant and new challenges. In traditional materials, the surface coating could be several hundreds nanometers in thickness, or even microns and millimeters. In a nano-structured material, such as particle or nanofibers, the coating thickness has to be substantially smaller than the bulk dimensions (100 nm or less), yet be durable and effective. In this paper, some aspects of effective nanometer scale coatings have been discussed. These films have been deposited by a non-line of sight (plasma)techniques; and therefore, they are capable of modifying nanofibers, near net shape cellular foams, and other high porosity materials. Two types of coatings will be focused upon: (a) those that make the surface inert and (b) those designed to enhance surface reactivity and bonding. The former has been achieved by forming 1-2 nm layer of -CF2- (and/or CF3) groups on the surface, and the latter by creating a nanolayer of SiO2-type compound. Nucleation and growth studies of the plasma-generated film indicate that they start forming as 2-3 nm high islands that grow laterally, and eventually completely cover the surface with 2-3nm film. Contact angle measurements indicate that these nano-coatings are fully functional even before they have achieved complete coverage of 2-3 nm. They should therefore be applicable to nano-structural solids.This is corroborated by application of these films on vapor grown nanofibers of carbon, and on graphitic foams. Coated and uncoated materials are infiltrated with epoxy matrix to form composites and their microstructure, as well as mechanical behaviors are compared. The results show that the nano-oxide coating can significantly enhance bond formation between carbon and organic phases, thereby enhancing wettability,dispersion, and composite behavior. The fluorocarbon coating, as expected, reduces bond formation, and

  16. Dataset demonstrating the modeling of a high performance Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber based thin film photovoltaic cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaduzzaman, Md; Bahar, Ali Newaz; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Maksudur Rahman

    2017-04-01

    The physical data of the semiconductor materials used in the design of a CIGS absorber based thin film photovoltaic cell have been presented in this data article. Besides, the values of the contact parameter and operating conditions of the cell have been reported. Furthermore, by conducting the simulation with data corresponding to the device structure: soda-lime glass (SLG) substrate/Mo back-contact/CIGS absorber/CdS buffer/intrinsic ZnO/Al-doped ZnO window/Al-grid front-contact, the solar cell performance parameters such as open circuit voltage [Formula: see text], short circuit current density [Formula: see text], fill factor [Formula: see text], efficiency [Formula: see text], and collection efficiency [Formula: see text] have been analyzed.

  17. Dataset demonstrating the modeling of a high performance Cu(In,GaSe2 absorber based thin film photovoltaic cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Asaduzzaman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The physical data of the semiconductor materials used in the design of a CIGS absorber based thin film photovoltaic cell have been presented in this data article. Besides, the values of the contact parameter and operating conditions of the cell have been reported. Furthermore, by conducting the simulation with data corresponding to the device structure: soda-lime glass (SLG substrate/Mo back-contact/CIGS absorber/CdS buffer/intrinsic ZnO/Al-doped ZnO window/Al-grid front-contact, the solar cell performance parameters such as open circuit voltage (Voc, short circuit current density Jsc, fill factor (FF, efficiency (η, and collection efficiency ηc have been analyzed.

  18. Numerical simulations of electrohydrodynamic evolution of thin polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borglum, Joshua Christopher

    Recently developed needleless electrospinning and electrolithography are two successful techniques that have been utilized extensively for low-cost, scalable, and continuous nano-fabrication. Rational understanding of the electrohydrodynamic principles underneath these nano-manufacturing methods is crucial to fabrication of continuous nanofibers and patterned thin films. This research project is to formulate robust, high-efficiency finite-difference Fourier spectral methods to simulate the electrohydrodynamic evolution of thin polymer films. Two thin-film models were considered and refined. The first was based on reduced lubrication theory; the second further took into account the effect of solvent drying and dewetting of the substrate. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based spectral method was integrated into the finite-difference algorithms for fast, accurately solving the governing nonlinear partial differential equations. The present methods have been used to examine the dependencies of the evolving surface features of the thin films upon the model parameters. The present study can be used for fast, controllable nanofabrication.

  19. Optical thin films and coatings from materials to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Flory, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Optical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. This book provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas.$bOptical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. Optical thin films and coatings provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas. Part one explores the design and manufacture of optical coatings. Part two highlights unconventional features of optical thin films including scattering properties of random structures in thin films, optical properties of thin film materials at short wavelengths, thermal properties and colour effects. Part three focusses on novel materials for optical thin films and coatings...

  20. Atomistic modelling of evaporation and explosive boiling of thin film liquid argon over internally recessed nanostructured surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad Nasim; Shavik, Sheikh Mohammad; Rabbi, Kazi Fazle; Haque, Mominul

    2016-07-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been carried out to investigate evaporation and explosive boiling phenomena of thin film liquid argon on nanostructured solid surface with emphasis on the effect of solid-liquid interfacial wettability. The nanostructured surface considered herein consists of trapezoidal internal recesses of the solid platinum wall. The wetting conditions of the solid surface were assumed such that it covers both the hydrophilic and hydrophobic conditions and hence effect of interfacial wettability on resulting evaporation and boiling phenomena was the main focus of this study. The initial configuration of the simulation domain comprised of a three phase system (solid platinum, liquid argon and vapor argon) on which equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) was performed to reach equilibrium state at 90 K. After equilibrium of the three-phase system was established, the wall was set to different temperatures (130 K and 250 K for the case of evaporation and explosive boiling respectively) to perform non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). The variation of temperature and density as well as the variation of system pressure with respect to time were closely monitored for each case. The heat flux normal to the solid surface was also calculated to illustrate the effectiveness of heat transfer for hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces in cases of both nanostructured surface and flat surface. The results obtained show that both the wetting condition of the surface and the presence of internal recesses have significant effect on normal evaporation and explosive boiling of the thin liquid film. The heat transfer from solid to liquid in cases of surface with recesses are higher compared to flat surface without recesses. Also the surface with higher wettability (hydrophilic) provides more favorable conditions for boiling than the low-wetting surface (hydrophobic) and therefore, liquid argon responds quickly and shifts from liquid to vapor phase faster in

  1. Molecular Dynamics of Ultra-thin Lubricating Films under Confined Shear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DINGJian-ning; CHENJun; FANZeng; CAILan; YANGJi-chang

    2004-01-01

    The molecular dynamics simulation of ultra-thin films under confined shear was performed to imvestigate the relation betwceen dynamic properties of ultra-thin films and their microstructure.the solid walls were modelled using an Au crystal and the fluid molecules were modeled using decane the simulation results indicate that the the microstructure of ultra-thin films is a kind of solid-like layering structure.the density and velocity profiles of the fluid molecules are symmetric the slip and shear thinning behavior was founded and interpreted.a math ematic model was set up according to the results of the simulation and experiments.

  2. Deposition and characterization of CuInS2 thin films deposited over copper thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Titu; Kumar, K. Rajeev; Kartha, C. Sudha; Vijayakumar, K. P.

    2015-06-01

    Simple, cost effective and versatile spray pyrolysis method is effectively combined with vacuum evaporation for the deposition of CuIns2 thin films for photovoltaic applications. In the present study In2s3 was spray deposited over vacuum evaporated Cu thin films and Cu was allowed to diffuse in to the In2S3 layer to form CuInS2. To analyse the dependence of precursor volume on the formation of CuInS2 films structural, electrical and morphological analzes are carried out. Successful deposition of CuInS2thin films with good crystallinity and morphology with considerably low resistivity is reported in this paper.

  3. Elucidating PID Degradation Mechanisms and In Situ Dark I–V Monitoring for Modeling Degradation Rate in CdTe Thin-Film Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacke, Peter; Spataru, Sergiu; Johnston, Steve; Terwilliger, Kent; VanSant, Kaitlyn; Kempe, Michael; Wohlgemuth, John; Kurtz, Sarah; Olsson, Anders; Propst, Michelle

    2016-11-01

    A progression of potential-induced degradation (PID) mechanisms are observed in CdTe modules, including shunting/junction degradation and two different manifestations of series resistance depending on the stress level and water ingress. The dark I-V method for in-situ characterization of Pmax based on superposition was adapted for the thin-film modules undergoing PID in view of the degradation mechanisms observed. An exponential model based on module temperature and relative humidity was fit to the PID rate for multiple stress levels in chamber tests and validated by predicting the observed degradation of the module type in the field.

  4. Tribological thin films on steel rolling element bearing surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ryan David

    Tribological thin films are of interest to designers and end-users of friction management and load transmission components such as steel rolling element bearings. This study sought to reveal new information about the properties and formation of such films, spanning the scope of their technical evolution from natural oxide films, to antiwear films from lubricant additives, and finally engineered nanocomposite metal carbide/amorphous hydrocarbon (MC/a-C:H) films. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed on the near-surface material (depth gear oil additives. Site-specific thinning of cross-section cone surface sections for TEM analyses was conducted using the focused ion beam milling technique. Two types of oxide surface films were characterized for the cones tested in mineral oil only, each one corresponding to a different lubrication severity. Continuous and adherent antiwear films were found on the cone surfaces tested with lubricant additives, and their composition depended on the lubrication conditions. A sharp interface separated the antiwear film and base steel. Various TEM analytical techniques were used to study the segregation of elements throughout the film volume. The properties of nanocomposite tantalum carbide/amorphous hydrocarbon (TaC/a-C:H) thin films depend sensitively on reactive magnetron sputtering deposition process conditions. TaC/a-C:H film growth was studied as a function of three deposition parameters in designed experiments: acetylene flow rate, applied d.c. bias voltage, and substrate carousel rotation rate. Empirical models were developed for the following film characteristics to identify process-property trend relationships: Ta/C atomic ratio, hydrogen content, film thickness. TaC crystallite size, Raman spectrum, compressive stress, hardness, and elastic modules. TEM measurements revealed the film base structure consisted of equiaxed cubic B1-TaC crystallites (< 5 nm) suspended in an a-C:H matrix. At the nanometer-scale, the

  5. PLD-grown thin film saturable absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellkamp, Friedjof

    2012-11-01

    The subject of this thesis is the preparation and characterization of thin films made of oxidic dielectrics which may find their application as saturable absorber in passively Q-switched lasers. The solely process applied for fabrication of the thin films was the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) which stands out against other processes by its flexibility considering the composition of the systems to be investigated. Within the scope of this thesis the applied saturable absorbers can be divided into two fundamentally different kinds of functional principles: On the one hand, saturable absorption can be achieved by ions embedded in a host medium. Most commonly applied bulk crystals are certain garnets like YAG (Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}) or the spinel forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}), in each case with chromium as dopant. Either of these media was investigated in terms of their behavior as PLD-grown saturable absorber. Moreover, experiments with Mg{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}, Ca{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}, Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and further garnets like YSAG or GSGG took place. The absorption coefficients of the grown films of Cr{sup 4+}:YAG were determined by spectroscopic investigations to be one to two orders of magnitude higher compared to commercially available saturable absorbers. For the first time, passive Q-switching of a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm with Cr{sup 4+}:YAG thin films could be realized as well as with Cr:Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films. On the other hand, the desirable effect of saturable absorption can also be generated by quantum well structures. For this purpose, several layer system like YAG/LuAG, Cu{sub 2}O/MgO, and ZnO/corumdum were investigated. It turned out that layer systems with indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) did not only grew in an excellent way but also showed up a behavior regarding their photo luminescence which cannot be explained by classical considerations. The observed luminescence at roughly 3 eV (410 nm) was assumed to be of excitonic nature and its

  6. Electrochromism in copper oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, T.J.; Slack, J.L.; Rubin, M.D.

    2000-08-15

    Transparent thin films of copper(I) oxide prepared on conductive SnO2:F glass substrates by anodic oxidation of sputtered copper films or by direct electrodeposition of Cu2O transformed reversibly to opaque metallic copper films when reduced in alkaline electrolyte. In addition, the same Cu2O films transform reversibly to black copper(II) oxide when cycled at more anodic potentials. Copper oxide-to-copper switching covered a large dynamic range, from 85% and 10% photopic transmittance, with a coloration efficiency of about 32 cm2/C. Gradual deterioration of the switching range occurred over 20 to 100 cycles. This is tentatively ascribed to coarsening of the film and contact degradation caused by the 65% volume change on conversion of Cu to Cu2O. Switching between the two copper oxides (which have similar volumes) was more stable and more efficient (CE = 60 cm2/C), but covered a smaller transmittance range (60% to 44% T). Due to their large electrochemical storage capacity and tolerance for alkaline electrolytes, these cathodically coloring films may be useful as counter electrodes for anodically coloring electrode films such as nickel oxide or metal hydrides.

  7. Thin film cadmium telluride solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, T. L.; Chu, Shirley S.; Ang, S. T.; Mantravadi, M. K.

    1987-08-01

    Thin-film p-CdTe/CdS/SnO2:F/glass solar cells of the inverted configuration were prepared by the deposition of p-type CdTe films onto CdS/SnO2:F/glass substrates using CVD or close-spaced sublimation (CSS) techniques based on the procedures of Chu et al. (1983) and Nicholl (1963), respectively. The deposition rates of p-CdTe films deposited by CSS were higher than those deposited by the CVD technique (4-5 min were sufficient), and the efficiencies higher than 10 percent were obtained. However, the resistivity of films prepared by CSS was not as readily controlled as that of the CVD films. The simplest technique to reduce the resistivity of the CSS p-CdTe films was to incorporate a dopant, such as As or Sb, into the reaction mixture during the preparation of the source material. The films with resistivities in the range of 500-1000 ohm cm were deposited in this manner.

  8. Magnetic Thin Films of Inorganic Nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Namba, Hiroaki; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2012-02-01

    Molecule-based magnets have been fascinating materials because of the potential applications in information storage, electronic and spintronic devices. However, such applications would require arraying the active materials on a substrate or interfacing with other components. Here, we focus on fabricating multi-functional magnetic films using inorganic nanosheets as a building block. The thin films could be prepared by the modified Langmuir-Blodgett, LB, technique or the layer-by-layer, LbL, method, which are representative wet-processings for film preparation. As the magnetic LB film, we chose semiconductive titania nanosheets and magnetic Prussian Blue. Upon band gap excitation of titania nanosheets, electron injection into Prussian Blue was achieved with scavenging interlayer water molecules, leading to photoreduction to Prussian White. As the magnetic LbL film, we chose magnetic layered double hydroxide, LDH, nanosheets and non-magnetic smectite nanosheets. In powdered LDH, a coercivity increased with expanding the interlayer spacing. On the other hand, despite the larger interlayer spacing for the LbL film, a coercivity was less than that of the comparative powdered LDH. It is indicated LDH nanosheets are integrated in an anisotropic manner in the LbL films.

  9. INVESTIGATION OF PHOTOELECTROCHROMIC THIN FILM AND DEVICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.J. Chen; H. Shen

    2005-01-01

    Photoelectrochromic device is a combination of dye-sensitized solar cells and electrochromic WO3 layers. Ectrochroelmic WO3 layer and TiO2 layer had been prepared by the sol-gel process, then be assembled to pohotoelectrochromic device. The effects of heating temperature on photoelectrochromic were investigated. The results showed that thin films prepared by dip-coating and spin-coating had good film quality and the device made by the method mentioned in the paper had good photoelectrochromie properties.

  10. Deformation of a Thin Film by a Wall Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Naima; Al-Housseiny, Talal; Stone, Howard

    2012-11-01

    A variety of industrial processes such as jet stripping or jet wiping involve a high speed stream of gas flowing over a liquid film. In this work, we model this kind of situation by considering a thin viscous liquid film, over which a high Reynolds number laminar wall jet (or Glauert jet) is flowing. We study the shape of the thin liquid film, which is deformed due to the shear stress induced by a jet of a low-viscosity fluid. The mechanics of the jet, which is modeled by boundary-layer theory, is coupled to the mechanics of the thin film, which includes the influence of surface tension and buoyancy. We describe the unsteady shape of the film using the lubrication description to derive a nonlinear PDE that is coupled to the Glauert jet via interfacial stresses. For the steady state, we obtain analytical solutions in different asymptotic regimes. We compare our theoretical findings to numerical simulations conducted with the finite volume solver FLUENT.

  11. Ferroelectric-Like Properties of Amorphous Metal Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuhuan

    1995-01-01

    Advances in the field of both optical and electrical integrated circuit devices require new thin film materials. Ferroelectric materials have attractive properties such as hysteresis behavior, pyroelectricity, piezoelectricity and nonlinear optical properties. Many ferroelectric thin films have been successfully prepared from metal organic compounds via sol-gel processing. Thus far, research has concentrated upon polycrystalline or epitaxial ferroelectric films. For amorphous ferroelectric thin films, preliminary experimental results in our laboratory indicated that these amorphous films possessed good ferroelectric -like properties. The purpose of this research is (1) to fabricate amorphous metal oxide thin films by the sol-gel technique, (2) to determine whether these amorphous metal oxide thin films have ferroelectric-like properties and (3) to propose a theoretical model ("ferrons model") to explain the ferroelectric-like properties of amorphous thin films, which deals with a structure of permanent dipoles of "partially ordered clusters" (ferrons) in the amorphous films. The theoretical model is based on our experimental results of thin films of two amorphous materials (barium titanite and lead zirconate titanate). This research may provide a new functional material which could be useful for producing integrated electronic and electrooptic devices.

  12. Novel metal-carbon(60) nanocrystalline magnetic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lingyi

    1999-11-01

    A novel type of nanocrystalline magnetic thin films consisting of ferromagnetic metals and C60 have been developed and investigated. CO-C 60, Fe-C60 and CoFe-C60 with different concentrations of C60 thin films have been manufactured by thermal vapor codeposition. The microstructures and magnetic properties of the films can be significantly enhanced by varying the concentrations of C60 in the films. The stability of C60 and the compatibility of C60 with the metallic matrices are confirmed by mass spectrometry, Raman, WDS, XRD and TEM. Strong metal- C60 interaction is indicated by higher desorption temperatures of C60 in the meta- C60 films than that in pure C60 and the peak shift in Raman spectra. TEM shows that the grain size of the matrix metal decreases proportionally with increasing C60 concentration. Nanosize uniform columnar grains with nanoscale dispersion of C60 on the grain boundaries are commonly observed in the metal-C60 films. A self- assembly grain growth model based on the size effect of C60 and the metal-C60 interaction is proposed to delineate the microstructural evolution by C60. Calculations based on this model are consistent with experimental observations and give a grain size vs. C60 (carbon) concentration relationship. Grain growth retardation by C60 is observed in a CO-C60 film. Out-plane magnetic remanence and coercivity are enhanced in both the CO-C60 and Fe-C60 films. In the in-plane direction, the coercivity deceases in CO- C60 films but increases slightly in Fe- C60 films with increasing C60 concentrations. In-plane magnetic anisotropy is detected in CO-C60 films but not in Fe-C60 films. Strong temperature-dependent magnetization remanence and saturation are found in both the Co- C60 and Fe-C60 films with high C60 concentrations due to the nanosize grain effects. Temperature effects on the coercivity of CO- C60 and Fe-C60 are different and determined by the intrinsic magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy. Coercivity of the CoFe-C60 films

  13. Universal dispersion model for characterization of optical thin films over a wide spectral range: application to hafnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franta, Daniel; Nečas, David; Ohlídal, Ivan

    2015-11-01

    A dispersion model capable of expressing the dielectric response of a broad class of optical materials in a wide spectral range from far IR to vacuum UV is described in detail. The application of this universal dispersion model to a specific material is demonstrated using the ellipsometric and spectrophotometric characterization of a hafnia film prepared by vacuum evaporation on silicon substrate. The characterization utilizes simultaneous processing of data from multiple techniques and instruments covering the wide spectral range and includes the characterization of roughness, nonuniformity, transition layer, and native oxide layer on the back of the substrate. It is shown how the combination of measurements in light reflected from both sides of the sample and transmitted light allows the separation of weak absorption in films and substrates. This approach is particularly useful in the IR region where the absorption structures in films and substrates often overlap and a prior measurement of the bare substrate may be otherwise necessary for precise separation. Individual phenomena that contribute to the dielectric response, i.e., interband electronic transitions, electronic excitations involving the localized states, and phonon absorption, are discussed in detail. A quantitative analysis of absorption on localized states, permitting the separation of transitions between localized states from transitions between localized and extended states, is utilized to obtain estimates of the density of localized states and film stoichiometry.

  14. Asymptotic behavior of local dipolar fields in thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, G.J., E-mail: gjb@phys.soton.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Stenning, G.B.G., E-mail: Gerrit.vanderlaan@diamond.ac.uk [Magnetic Spectroscopy Group, Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Laan, G. van der, E-mail: gavin.stenning@stfc.ac.uk [ISIS Neutron and Muon Source, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    A simple method, based on layer by layer direct summation, is used to determine the local dipolar fields in uniformly magnetized thin films. The results show that the dipolar constants converge ~1/m where the number of spins in a square film is given by (2m+1){sup 2}. Dipolar field results for sc, bcc, fcc, and hexagonal lattices are presented and discussed. The results can be used to calculate local dipolar fields in films with either ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, spiral, exponential decay behavior, provided the magnetic order only changes normal to the film. Differences between the atomistic (local fields) and macroscopic fields (Maxwellian) are also examined. For the latter, the macro B-field inside the film is uniform and falls to zero sharply outside, in accord with Maxwell boundary conditions. In contrast, the local field for the atomistic point dipole model is highly non-linear inside and falls to zero at about three lattice spacing outside the film. Finally, it is argued that the continuum field B (used by the micromagnetic community) and the local field B{sub loc}(r) (used by the FMR community) will lead to differing values for the overall demagnetization energy. - Highlights: • Point-dipolar fields in uniformly magnetized thin films are characterized by just three numbers. • Maxwell's boundary condition is partially violated in the point-dipole approximation. • Asymptotic values of point dipolar fields in circular monolayers scale as π/r.

  15. Multiferroic oxide thin films and heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chengliang; Hu, Weijin; Tian, Yufeng; Wu, Tom

    2015-06-01

    Multiferroic materials promise a tantalizing perspective of novel applications in next-generation electronic, memory, and energy harvesting technologies, and at the same time they also represent a grand scientific challenge on understanding complex solid state systems with strong correlations between multiple degrees of freedom. In this review, we highlight the opportunities and obstacles in growing multiferroic thin films with chemical and structural integrity and integrating them in functional devices. Besides the magnetoelectric effect, multiferroics exhibit excellent resistant switching and photovoltaic properties, and there are plenty opportunities for them to integrate with other ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. The challenges include, but not limited, defect-related leakage in thin films, weak magnetism, and poor control on interface coupling. Although our focuses are Bi-based perovskites and rare earth manganites, the insights are also applicable to other multiferroic materials. We will also review some examples of multiferroic applications in spintronics, memory, and photovoltaic devices.

  16. Multiferroic oxide thin films and heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chengliang, E-mail: cllu@mail.hust.edu.cn, E-mail: Tao.Wu@kaust.edu.sa [School of Physics and Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hu, Weijin; Wu, Tom, E-mail: cllu@mail.hust.edu.cn, E-mail: Tao.Wu@kaust.edu.sa [Physical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia); Tian, Yufeng [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Multiferroic materials promise a tantalizing perspective of novel applications in next-generation electronic, memory, and energy harvesting technologies, and at the same time they also represent a grand scientific challenge on understanding complex solid state systems with strong correlations between multiple degrees of freedom. In this review, we highlight the opportunities and obstacles in growing multiferroic thin films with chemical and structural integrity and integrating them in functional devices. Besides the magnetoelectric effect, multiferroics exhibit excellent resistant switching and photovoltaic properties, and there are plenty opportunities for them to integrate with other ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. The challenges include, but not limited, defect-related leakage in thin films, weak magnetism, and poor control on interface coupling. Although our focuses are Bi-based perovskites and rare earth manganites, the insights are also applicable to other multiferroic materials. We will also review some examples of multiferroic applications in spintronics, memory, and photovoltaic devices.

  17. Triboelectric Nanogenerator Using Lithium Niobate Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Juan; Zhang, Xinzheng; Kong, Yongfa; Xu, Jingjun

    2017-06-01

    We present a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) using a lithium niobate thin film, as one of the triboelectric pairs which was grown on a silicon substrate by laser molecule beam epitaxy (LMBE). The designed TENG has the advantages of simple structure, easy fabrication, small size (1.1*1.0*0.15 cm3). An open-circuit voltage of 136 V and a short-circuit current of 8.40 μA have been achieved. The maximum output power is 307.5μW under the load resistance of 10MΩ. This is the first time to use lithium niobate thin film as one of the friction pair, which may make it possible to expand the application of triboelectric nanogenerator to optical field.

  18. Thin Films of Polypyrrole on Particulate Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    C H R I S T O P H E R V E T T E R , X I A O N I N G Q I , S U B R A M A N Y A M V . K A S I S O M A Y A J U L A , A N D Thin Films of Polypyrrole on...1. REPORT DATE FEB 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Thin Films of Polypyrrole on...layer 3 Why Polypyrrole /Flake? Polypyrrole  Poor mechanical properties  Poor adhesion  Solubility issues  Continuous layer needed 4 Polypyrrole Coated

  19. Polycrystalline thin films FY 1992 project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K. [ed.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities and results of the Polycrystalline Thin Film Project during FY 1992. The purpose of the DOE/NREL PV (photovoltaic) Program is to facilitate the development of PV that can be used on a large enough scale to produce a significant amount of energy in the US and worldwide. The PV technologies under the Polycrystalline Thin Film project are among the most exciting ``next-generation`` options for achieving this goal. Over the last 15 years, cell-level progress has been steady, with laboratory cell efficiencies reaching levels of 15 to 16%. This progress, combined with potentially inexpensive manufacturing methods, has attracted significant commercial interest from US and international companies. The NREL/DOE program is designed to support the efforts of US companies through cost-shared subcontracts (called ``government/industry partnerships``) that we manage and fund and through collaborative technology development work among industry, universities, and our laboratory.

  20. Polycrystalline thin films FY 1992 project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K. (ed.)

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities and results of the Polycrystalline Thin Film Project during FY 1992. The purpose of the DOE/NREL PV (photovoltaic) Program is to facilitate the development of PV that can be used on a large enough scale to produce a significant amount of energy in the US and worldwide. The PV technologies under the Polycrystalline Thin Film project are among the most exciting next-generation'' options for achieving this goal. Over the last 15 years, cell-level progress has been steady, with laboratory cell efficiencies reaching levels of 15 to 16%. This progress, combined with potentially inexpensive manufacturing methods, has attracted significant commercial interest from US and international companies. The NREL/DOE program is designed to support the efforts of US companies through cost-shared subcontracts (called government/industry partnerships'') that we manage and fund and through collaborative technology development work among industry, universities, and our laboratory.

  1. Multiferroic oxide thin films and heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Chengliang

    2015-05-26

    Multiferroic materials promise a tantalizing perspective of novel applications in next-generation electronic, memory, and energy harvesting technologies, and at the same time they also represent a grand scientific challenge on understanding complex solid state systems with strong correlations between multiple degrees of freedom. In this review, we highlight the opportunities and obstacles in growing multiferroic thin films with chemical and structural integrity and integrating them in functional devices. Besides the magnetoelectric effect, multiferroics exhibit excellent resistant switching and photovoltaic properties, and there are plenty opportunities for them to integrate with other ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. The challenges include, but not limited, defect-related leakage in thin films, weak magnetism, and poor control on interface coupling. Although our focuses are Bi-based perovskites and rare earth manganites, the insights are also applicable to other multiferroic materials. We will also review some examples of multiferroic applications in spintronics, memory, and photovoltaic devices.

  2. Self-ordering of random intercalates in thin films of cuprate superconductors: Growth model and x-ray diffraction diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariosa, D.; Cancellieri, C.; Lin, P. H.; Pavuna, D.

    2007-05-01

    We propose a simple model for the nucleation of random intercalates during the growth of high-temperature superconductor (HTSC) films by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The model predicts a very particular spatial distribution of defects: a Markovian-like sequence of displacements along the growth direction ( c axis), as well as a two-component in-plane correlation function, characteristic of self-organized intercalates. A model for x-ray diffraction (XRD) on such structures is also developed and accounts for both c -axis and in-plane anomalies observed in XRD experiments. The method presented in this work constitutes a useful characterization tool in the optimization of deposition parameters for the growth of HTSC films.

  3. Silver nanowire composite thin films as transparent electrodes for Cu(In,Ga)Se₂/ZnS thin film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Yu; Liu, Ye-Xiang

    2014-05-20

    Solution processed silver nanowire indium-tin oxide nanoparticle (AgNW-ITONP) composite thin films were successfully applied as the transparent electrodes for Cu(In,Ga)Se₂ (CIGS) thin film solar cells with ZnS buffer layers. Properties of the AgNW-ITONP thin film and its effects on performance of CIGS/ZnS thin film solar cells were studied. Compared with the traditional sputtered ITO electrodes, the AgNW-ITONP thin films show comparable optical transmittance and electrical conductivity. Furthermore, the AgNW-ITONP thin film causes no physical damage to the adjacent surface layer and does not need high temperature annealing, which makes it very suitable to use as transparent conductive layers for heat or sputtering damage-sensitive optoelectronic devices. By using AgNW-ITONP electrodes, the required thickness of the ZnS buffer layers for CIGS thin film solar cells was greatly decreased.

  4. Finite deformation mechanics in buckled thin films on compliant supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hanqing; Khang, Dahl-Young; Song, Jizhou; Sun, Yugang; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2007-10-02

    We present detailed experimental and theoretical studies of the mechanics of thin buckled films on compliant substrates. In particular, accurate measurements of the wavelengths and amplitudes in structures that consist of thin, single-crystal ribbons of silicon covalently bonded to elastomeric substrates of poly(dimethylsiloxane) reveal responses that include wavelengths that change in an approximately linear fashion with strain in the substrate, for all values of strain above the critical strain for buckling. Theoretical reexamination of this system yields analytical models that can explain these and other experimental observations at a quantitative level. We show that the resulting mechanics has many features in common with that of a simple accordion bellows. These results have relevance to the many emerging applications of controlled buckling structures in stretchable electronics, microelectromechanical systems, thin-film metrology, optical devices, and others.

  5. Rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.B.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Dudney, N.J.; Luck, C.F.; Yu, Xiaohua

    1993-08-01

    Rechargeable thin-film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6-{mu}m thick, can be fabricated to any specified size, large or small, onto a variety of substrates including ceramics, semiconductors, and plastics. The cells that have been investigated include Li-TiS{sub 2}, Li-V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li-Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5, 3.6, and 4.2, respectively. The development of these batteries would not have been possible without the discovery of a new thin-film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride, that is stable in contact with metallic lithium at these potentials. Deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2}, this material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25{degrees}C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The maximum practical current density obtained from the thin-film cells is limited to about 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} due to a low diffusivity of Li{sup +} ions in the cathodes. In this work, the authors present a short review of their work on rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries.

  6. Incoherent and Laser Photodeposition on Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    mixing system. Both a carbon dioxide and dry chemical fire extinguisher were on hand in case a fire was initiated by the compounds. The dimethvlzinc was...summarizes three months of experimental effort devoted toward the production of thin films by the photodissociation of organometallic molecules containing the...that the threshold wavelength for the photodissociation of both Zn- 0 and Se- (CH3 )2 was approximately 2420A. Consequently, these laser photodeposition

  7. Quantized Nanocrystalline CdTe Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Nanocrystalline CdTe thin films were prepared by asymmetric rectangular pulse electrodeposition in organic solution at 110°C. STM image shows a porous network morphology constructed by interconnected spherical CdTe crystallites with a mean diameter of 4.2 nm. A pronounced size quantization was indicated in the action and absorption spectra. Potentials dependence dual conductive behavior was revealed in the photocurrent-potential (I-V) curves.

  8. Surface morphology of thin films polyoxadiazoles

    OpenAIRE

    J. Weszka; M.M. Szindler; M. Chwastek-Ogierman; BRUMA M.; P. Jarka; Tomiczek, B.

    2011-01-01

    urpose: The purpose of this paper was to analyse the surface morphology of thin films polyoxadiazoles. Design/methodology/approach: SSix different polymers which belong to the group of polyoxadiazoles were dissolved in the solvent NMP. Each of these polymer was deposited on a glass substrate and a spin coating method was applied with a spin speed of 1000, 2000 and 3000 rev/min. Changes in surface topography and roughness were observed. An atomic force microscope AFM Park System has been used....

  9. Interfacial Dynamics of Thin Viscoelastic Films and Drops

    CERN Document Server

    Barra, Valeria; Kondic, Lou

    2016-01-01

    We present a computational investigation of thin viscoelastic films and drops on a solid substrate subject to the van der Waals interaction force. The governing equations are obtained within a long-wave approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations with Jeffreys model for viscoelastic stresses. We investigate the effects of viscoelasticity, Newtonian viscosity, and the substrate slippage on the dynamics of thin viscoelastic films. We also study the effects of viscoelasticity on drops that spread or recede on a prewetted substrate. For dewetting films, the numerical results show the presence of multiple secondary droplets for higher values of elasticity, consistently with experimental findings. For drops, we find that elastic effects lead to deviations from the Cox-Voinov law for partially wetting fluids. In general, elastic effects enhance spreading, and suppress retraction, compared to Newtonian ones.

  10. Electrical transport properties and modelling of electrostrictive resonance phenomena in Ba2/3Sr1/3TiO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalem, A.; Huitema, L.; Crunteanu, A.; Rammal, M.; Trupina, L.; Nedelcu, L.; Banciu, M. G.; Dutheil, P.; Constantinescu, C.; Marchet, P.; Dumas-Bouchiat, F.; Champeaux, C.

    2016-11-01

    We present the conduction mechanisms of Ba2/3Sr1/3TiO3 thin films integrated in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors and the modelling of the frequency-dependent electrostrictive resonances (in the 100 MHz-10 GHz domain) induced in the devices upon applying different voltage biases. Au/BST/Ir MIM structures on MgO substrates have been fabricated and, depending on their specific polarization, we highlighted different conduction mechanisms in the devices. Depending on the dc bias polarity, the conduction current across the material shows a space-charge-limited-current behavior under negative polarization, whereas under positive bias, the conduction obeys an electrode-limited Schottky-type law at the Au/BST interface. The application of an electric field on the device induces the onset of acoustic resonances related to electrostrictive phenomena in the ferroelectric material. We modeled these acoustic resonances over a wide frequency range, by using a modified Lakin model, which takes into account the dispersions of acoustic properties near the lower electrode/thin film interface.

  11. Additives to silane for thin film silicon photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Patrick Timothy; Ridgeway, Robert Gordon; Hutchison, Katherine Anne; Langan, John Giles

    2013-09-17

    Chemical additives are used to increase the rate of deposition for the amorphous silicon film (.alpha.Si:H) and/or the microcrystalline silicon film (.mu.CSi:H). The electrical current is improved to generate solar grade films as photoconductive films used in the manufacturing of Thin Film based Photovoltaic (TFPV) devices.

  12. Interference effects in the sum frequency generation spectra of thin organic films. II: Applications to different thin-film systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yujin; Zhao, Yanbao; Li, Na; Ma, Yunsheng; Osawa, Masatoshi; Davies, Paul B; Ye, Shen

    2010-07-21

    In this paper, the results of the modeling calculations carried out for predicting the interference effects expected in the sum frequency generation (SFG) spectra of a specific thin-layer system, described in the accompanying paper, are tested by comparing them with the experimental spectra obtained for a real thin-layer film comprising an organic monolayer/variable thickness dielectric layer/gold substrate. In this system, two contributions to the SFG spectra arise, a resonant contribution from the organic film and a nonresonant contribution from the gold substrate. The modeling calculations are in excellent agreement with the experimental spectra over a wide range of thicknesses and for different polarization combinations. The introduction of another resonant monolayer adjacent to the gold substrate and with the molecules having a reverse orientation has a significant affect on the spectral shapes which is predicted. If a dielectric substrate such as CaF(2) is used instead of a gold substrate, only the spectral intensities vary with the film thickness but not the spectral shapes. The counterpropagating beam geometry will change both the thickness dependent spectral shapes and the intensity of different vibrational modes in comparison with a copropagating geometry. The influences of these experimental factors, i.e., the molecular orientational structure in the thin film, the nature of the substrate, and the selected incident beam geometry, on the experimental SFG spectra are quantitatively predicted by the calculations. The thickness effects on the signals from a SFG active monolayer contained in a thin liquid-layer cell of the type frequently used for in situ electrochemical measurements is also discussed. The modeling calculation is also valid for application to other thin-film systems comprising more than two resonant SFG active interfaces by appropriate choice of optical geometries and relevant optical properties.

  13. Titanium diffusion in gold thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, William E. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5050 (United States); Gregori, Giuliano, E-mail: g.gregori@fkf.mpg.d [California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5050 (United States); Mates, Thomas [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5050 (United States)

    2010-03-01

    In the present study, diffusion phenomena in titanium/gold (Ti/Au) thin films occurring at temperatures ranging between 200 and 400 {sup o}C are investigated. The motivation is twofold: the first objective is to characterize Ti diffusion into Au layer as an effect of different heat-treatments. The second goal is to prove that the implementation of a thin titanium nitride (TiN) layer between Ti and Au can remarkably reduce Ti diffusion. It is observed that Ti atoms can fully diffuse through polycrystalline Au thin films (260 nm thick) already at temperatures as a low as 250 {sup o}C. Starting from secondary ion mass spectroscopy data, the overall diffusion activation energy {Delta}E = 0.66 eV and the corresponding pre-exponential factor D{sub 0} = 5 x 10{sup -11} cm{sup 2}/s are determined. As for the grain boundary diffusivity, both the activation energy range 0.54 < {Delta}E{sub gb} < 0.66 eV and the pre-exponential factor s{sub 0}D{sub gb0} = 1.14 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}/s are obtained. Finally, it is observed that the insertion of a thin TiN layer (40 nm) between gold and titanium acts as an effective diffusion barrier up to 400 {sup o}C.

  14. Absorption spectra of C60 and C70 thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周维亚; 解思深; 钱生法; 周棠; 赵日安; 王刚; 钱露茜; 李文治

    1996-01-01

    The spectra of Cm and Cm thin films over a wide energy range (0.6 to 6.5eV) are measured by transmission spectroscopy and photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS), and the optical absorption coefficients are obtained. The optical transitions for the Cm and Cw thin films are analyzed according to the molecular orbital model. The weak absorption spectra of the fullerenes are similar to that of amorphous silicon. The optical energy gaps are given by Tauc’s plots as 1.75 and 1.65eV for C60 and C70 thin films, respectively. The disorders in the fullerene films, which resulted in band-tail state or defect state, are indicated by Urbach edge and sub-gap absorption. It is the disorder that brought the difficulty in determination of the energy gap for fullerenes. The effects of the deflection medium and substrate on the weak absorption spectra of fullerene films are also discussed.

  15. On dewetting of thin films due to crystallization (crystallization dewetting).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mehran; Rahimzadeh, Amin; Eslamian, Morteza

    2016-03-01

    Drying and crystallization of a thin liquid film of an ionic or a similar solution can cause dewetting in the resulting thin solid film. This paper aims at investigating this type of dewetting, herein termed "crystallization dewetting", using PbI2 dissolved in organic solvents as the model solution. PbI2 solid films are usually used in X-ray detection and lead halide perovskite solar cells. In this work, PbI2 films are fabricated using spin coating and the effect of major parameters influencing the crystallization dewetting, including the type of the solvent, solution concentration, drying temperature, spin speed, as well as imposed vibration on the substrate are studied on dewetting, surface profile and coverage, using confocal scanning laser microscopy. Simplified hydrodynamic governing equations of crystallization in thin films are presented and using a mathematical representation of the process, it is phenomenologically demonstrated that crystallization dewetting occurs due to the absorption and consumption of the solution surrounding a growing crystal. Among the results, it is found that a low spin speed (high thickness), a high solution concentration and a low drying temperature promote crystal growth, and therefore crystallization dewetting. It is also shown that imposed vibration on the substrate can affect the crystal size and crystallization dewetting.

  16. Grain growth in Al-2% Cu thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, J.E. Jr. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)); Frear, D.R. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Morris, J.W. Jr. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-06-01

    The grain size and grain growth kinetics in sputter deposited Al-2% Cu films on silicon substrates were determined by TEM for various film thicknesses and anneal times, temperatures and methods. Grain sizes were found to be typically lognormally distributed. The as- deposited grain size (d{sub o}) dependence on film thickness (TH) was found to be d{sub o} = C TH{sup {1/2}}, due to competitive grain growth during film formation. Annealed grain size (d) after Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) for time (t) at temperature (T) is described by the general equation d {minus} do = C TH{sup 0.7} {l brace}t exp ({minus}{Delta}E{sub a}/kT){r brace}{sup 1/8}, where {Delta}E{sub a} = 0.85 ev for 0.4 {mu}m films and {Delta}E{sub a} = 1.1 ev for 0.8 {mu}m films. Grain growth is largely saturated for these anneals. Grain growth is shown to be more extensive during RTA anneals than furnace annealing and more extensive in 0.4 {mu}m films than 0.8 {mu}m films for equivalent RTA cycles. The results are discussed in terms of models, simulations and previous results of grain growth in thin metal films. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Thin film cadmium telluride photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compaan, A.; Bohn, R. (Toledo Univ., OH (United States))

    1992-04-01

    This report describes research to develop to vacuum-based growth techniques for CdTe thin-film solar cells: (1) laser-driven physical vapor deposition (LDPVD) and (2) radio-frequency (rf) sputtering. The LDPVD process was successfully used to deposit thin films of CdS, CdTe, and CdCl{sub 2}, as well as related alloys and doped semiconductor materials. The laser-driven deposition process readily permits the use of several target materials in the same vacuum chamber and, thus, complete solar cell structures were fabricated on SnO{sub 2}-coated glass using LDPVD. The rf sputtering process for film growth became operational, and progress was made in implementing it. Time was also devoted to enhancing or implementing a variety of film characterization systems and device testing facilities. A new system for transient spectroscopy on the ablation plume provided important new information on the physical mechanisms of LDPVD. The measurements show that, e.g., Cd is predominantly in the neutral atomic state in the plume but with a fraction that is highly excited internally ({ge} 6 eV), and that the typical neutral Cd translational kinetic energies perpendicular to the target are 20 eV and greater. 19 refs.

  18. Mechanical integrity and adhesion of thin films for applications in electronics packaging and cell biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan Jin; Wan Kaitak; Chian Kermsin

    2003-01-22

    A new theoretical model was developed for a pull-off adhesion test using an axisymmetric flat punch and a rectangular flat punch adhered to a thin polymer film interface. An elastic solution was derived to portray the mechanical integrity of the thin film. A mechanical energy release rate was calculated numerically. As the punch was pulled away from the adhered film, the film deformed under mixed bending and stretching. Both stiffness and thickness of the film were allowed to vary. The derived solid-film 'pull-off' events sharply contrast with the abrupt pull-off in solid-solid adhesion as predicted by the classical JKR theory.

  19. Preparation and properties of antimony thin film anode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Shufa; CAO Gaoshao; ZHAO Xinbing

    2004-01-01

    Metallic antimony thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition. Electrochemical properties of the thin film as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were investigated and compared with those of antimony powder. It was found that both magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition are easily controllable processes to deposit antimony films with fiat charge/discharge potential plateaus. The electrochemical performances of antimony thin films, especially those prepared with magnetron sputtering, are better than those of antimony powder. The reversible capacities of the magnetron sputtered antimony thin film are above 400 mA h g-1 in the first 15 cycles.

  20. Sulfated cellulose thin films with antithrombin affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose thin films were chemically modified by in situ sulfation to produce surfaces with anticoagulant characteristics. Two celluloses differing in their degree of polymerization (DP: CEL I (DP 215–240 and CEL II (DP 1300–1400 were tethered to maleic anhydride copolymer (MA layers and subsequently exposed to SO3•NMe3 solutions at elevated temperature. The impact of the resulting sulfation on the physicochemical properties of the cellulose films was investigated with respect to film thickness, atomic composition, wettability and roughness. The sulfation was optimized to gain a maximal surface concentration of sulfate groups. The scavenging of antithrombin (AT by the surfaces was determined to conclude on their potential anticoagulant properties.

  1. Optical properties of thin polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasarova, Stefka N.; Sultanova, Nina G.; Petrova, Tzveta; Dragostinova, Violeta; Nikolov, Ivan

    2009-10-01

    In this report three types of optical polymer thin films deposited on glass substrates are investigated. Transmission spectra of the polymer samples are obtained in the range from 400 nm to 1500 nm. A laser microrefractometer has been used to measure the refractive indices of the examined materials at 406, 656, 910 and 1320 nm. Dispersion properties of the polymer films are analyzed on the base of the Cauchy-Schott's and Sellmeier`s approximations. Dispersion coefficients are calculated and dispersion charts in the visible and near infrared spectral regions are presented and compared. Abbe numbers of mean and partial dispersion of the polymer films are obtained. Calculation of refractive indices at many laser emission wavelengths in the considered spectral range is accomplished.

  2. Multiphonon hopping of carriers in CuO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serin, T.; Yildiz, A.; Şahin, Ş. H.; Serin, N.

    2011-10-01

    We have performed a detailed study of the electrical conduction process in CuO thin films deposited by the sol-gel dip coating technique in a temperature range 280-420 K. The electrical conduction is analyzed within the framework of various hopping conduction models. Multiphonon hopping conduction mechanism is found to dominate the electrical transport in the entire temperature region. Our results are consistent with this model of hopping conduction mechanisms with weak carrier-lattice coupling.

  3. Inorganic and Organic Solution-Processed Thin Film Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Morteza Eslamian

    2017-01-01

    Thin films and thin film devices have a ubiquitous presence in numerous conventional and emerging tech-nologies. This is because of the recent advances in nanotechnology, the development of functional and smart materials, conducting polymers, molecular semiconductors, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, and the employment of unique prop-erties of thin films and ultrathin films, such as high surface area, controlled nanostructure for effective charge transfer, and special physical and chemical properties, to develop new thin film devices. This paper is therefore intended to provide a concise critical review and research directions on most thin film devices, including thin film transistors, data storage memory, solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes, thermoelectric devices, smart materials, sensors, and actuators. The thin film devices may consist of organic, inorganic, and composite thin layers, and share similar functionality, properties, and fabrication routes. Therefore, due to the multidisciplinary nature of thin film devices, knowledge and advances already made in one area may be applicable to other similar areas. Owing to the importance of developing low-cost, scalable, and vacuum-free fabrication routes, this paper focuses on thin film devices that may be processed and deposited from solution.

  4. Parallel Critical Field in Thin Niobium Films: Comparison to Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, P. R.

    2017-10-01

    For the first time, a comparison to the predicted behavior for parallel critical field is carried out for the model of Kogan and the model of Hara and Nagai. In this study, thin niobium films in the moderately dirty regime were considered. Experimental values of the -C2 term are seen to be lower than those from the model of Hara and Nagai. A possible reason for this could be not including the non-spherical Fermi surface of niobium into the model. There is clearly disagreement with the model of Kogan as the films get cleaner and thinner, and two films which should be below his critical thickness still show positive values of -C2, in disagreement with his theory.

  5. Exact Calculation of Antiferromagnetic Ising Model on an Inhomogeneous Surface Recursive Lattice to Investigate Thermodynamics and Glass Transition on Surface/Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ran; Gujrati, Purushottam D.

    2017-01-01

    An inhomogeneous 2-dimensional recursive lattice formed by planar elements has been designed to investigate the thermodynamics of Ising spin system on the surface/thin film. The lattice is constructed as a hybrid of partial Husimi square lattice representing the bulk and 1D single bonds representing the surface. Exact calculations can be achieved with the recursive property of the lattice. The model has an anti-ferromagnetic interaction to give rise to an ordered phase identified as crystal, and a solution with higher energy to represent the amorphous/metastable phase. Free energy and entropy of the ideal crystal and supercooled liquid state of the model on the surface are calculated by the partial partition function. By analyzing the free energies and entropies of the crystal and supercooled liquid state, we are able to identify the melting and ideal glass transition on the surface. The results show that due to the variation of coordination number, the transition temperatures on the surface decrease significantly compared to the bulk system. Our calculation qualitatively agrees with both experimental and simulation works on the thermodynamics of surfaces and thin films conducted by others. Interactions between particles farther than the nearest neighbor distance are taken into consideration, and their effects are investigated. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11505110, the Shanghai Pujiang Talent Program under Grant No. 16PJ1431900, and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under Grant No. 2016M591666

  6. A New Method of Fabricating NASICON Thin Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WNGLing; SUNJialin; 等

    1998-01-01

    Nasicon thin films of 15 μm thick on YSZ sub-strates were prepared by means of solid state reaction at 1230℃ for 10 hours,Stuctural characteriza-tion of the films were performed by XRD ,SEM and EDX,A new tyype of CO2 gas sensor with Nasicon thin film as solid electrolyte was developed.

  7. Bismuth thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Teresa; Arronte, Miguel; Rodriguez, Eugenio; Ponce, Luis; Alonso, J. C.; Garcia, C.; Fernandez, M.; Haro, E.

    1999-07-01

    In the present work Bi thin films were obtained by Pulsed Laser Deposition, using Nd:YAG lasers. The films were characterized by optical microscopy. Raman spectroscopy and X-rays diffraction. It was accomplished the real time spectral emission characterization of the plasma generated during the laser evaporation process. Highly oriented thin films were obtained.

  8. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of Pb thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Michael

    2010-12-13

    The present thesis deals with the electronic structure, work function and single-atom contact conductance of Pb thin films, investigated with a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope. The electronic structure of Pb(111) thin films on Ag(111) surfaces is investigated using scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). Quantum size effects, in particular, quantum well states (QWSs), play a crucial role in the electronic and physical properties of these films. Quantitative analysis of the spectra yields the QWS energies as a function of film thickness, the Pb bulk-band dispersion in {gamma}-L direction, scattering phase shifts at the Pb/Ag interface and vacuum barrier as well as the lifetime broadening at anti {gamma}. The work function {phi} is an important property of surfaces, which influences catalytic reactivity and charge injection at interfaces. It controls the availability of charge carriers in front of a surface. Modifying {phi} has been achieved by deposition of metals and molecules. For investigating {phi} at the atomic scale, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has become a widely used technique. STM measures an apparent barrier height {phi}{sub a}, which is commonly related to the sample work function {phi}{sub s} by: {phi}{sub a}=({phi}{sub s}+{phi}{sub t}- vertical stroke eV vertical stroke)/2, with {phi}{sub t} the work function of the tunneling tip, V the applied tunneling bias voltage, and -e the electron charge. Hence, the effect of the finite voltage in STM on {phi}{sub a} is assumed to be linear and the comparison of {phi}{sub a} measured at different surface sites is assumed to yield quantitative information about work function differences. Here, the dependence of {phi}{sub a} on the Pb film thickness and applied bias voltage V is investigated. {phi}{sub a} is found to vary significantly with V. This bias dependence leads to drastic changes and even inversion of contrast in spatial maps of {phi}{sub a}, which are related to the QWSs in the Pb

  9. [Preparation and spectral characterization of CdS(y)Te(1-y) thin films].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Feng, Liang-Huan; Wu, Li-Li; Zhang, Jing-Quan; Li, Bing; Lei, Zhi; Cai, Ya-Ping; Zheng, Jia-Gui; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Dong-Min

    2008-03-01

    CdS(y)Te(1-y) (0 thin films were prepared on glass substrates by co-evaporation of powders of CdTe and CdS. For the characterization of the structure and composition of the CdS(y)Te(1-y) thin films the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used. The results indicate that the values of sulfur content y detected and controlled by the quartz wafer detector show good agreement with the EDS results. The films were found to be cubic for x or = 0.3. The 20-50 nm of grain sizes for CdS(y)Te(1-y) thin films were calculated using a method of XRD analysis. Finally, the optical properties of CdS(y)Te(1-y) thin films were characterized by UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy alone. According to a method from Swanepoel, together with the first-order Sellmeier model, the thickness, of d-535 nm, energy gap of E(g)-1.41 eV, absorption coefficient, alpha(lambda) and refractive index, n(lambda) of CdS(0.22) Te(0.78) thin films were determined from the transmittance at normal incidence of light in the wavelength range 300-2 500 nm. The results also indicate that the CdS(y)Te(1-y) thin films with any composition (0 thin films can be implemented for other semiconductor thin films.

  10. Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of thin-film silicon nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jellison, G.E. Jr.; Modine, F.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Doshi, P.; Rohatgi, A. [Georiga Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    We have measured and analyzed the optical characteristics of a series of silicon nitride thin films prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on silicon substrates for photovoltaic applications. Spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements were made by using a two-channel spectroscopic polarization modulator ellipsometer that measures N, S, and C data simultaneously. The data were fit to a model consisting of air / roughness / SiN / crystalline silicon. The roughness was modeled using the Bruggeman effective medium approximation, assuming 50% SiN, 50% voids. The optical functions of the SiN film were parameterized using a model by Jellison and Modine. All the {Chi}{sup 2} are near 1, demonstrating that this model works extremely well for all SiN films. The measured dielectric functions were used to make optimized SiN antireflection coatings for crystalline silicon solar cells.

  11. Optical and dielectric properties of double helix DNA thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soenmezoglu, Savas, E-mail: svssonmezoglu@kmu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Faculty of Kamil Ozdag Science, Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, 70100, Karaman (Turkey); Ates Soenmezoglu, Ozlem [Department of Biology, Faculty of Kamil Ozdag Science, Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, 70100, Karaman (Turkey)

    2011-12-01

    In this work, the thin film of wheat DNA was deposited by spin-coating technique onto glass substrate, and the optical and dielectric properties of the double helix DNA thin film were investigated. The optical constants such as refractive index, extinction coefficient, dielectric constant, dissipation factor, relaxation time, and optical conductivity were determined from the measured transmittance spectra in the wavelength range 190-1100 nm. Meanwhile, the dispersion behavior of the refractive index was studied in terms of the single oscillator Wemple-DiDomenico (W-D) model, and the physical parameters of the average oscillator strength, average oscillator wavelength, average oscillator energy, the refractive index dispersion parameter and the dispersion energy were achieved. Furthermore, the optical band gap values were calculated by W-D model and Tauc model, respectively, and the values obtained from W-D model are in agreement with those determined from the Tauc model. The analysis of the optical absorption data indicates that the optical band gap E{sub g} was indirect transitions. These results provide some useful references for the potential application of the DNA thin films in fiber optic, solar cell and optoelectronic devices. Highlights: {yields} The optical constants of DNA in full UV-vis spectrum were determined. {yields} The change in optical and dielectric property demonstrates that this material has potential to be used as a novel technology. {yields} DNA shows promise to be more suitable material than other materials currently being used for photonic devices.

  12. Low Temperature Electrical Resistivity Studies in Lead Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.W. Manjunath

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Thin lead films of thickness, 100 nm, 150 nm, 200 nm and 250 nm have been deposited using electron beam evaporation technique at room temperature onto glass substrates under high vacuum conditions. Films were investigated for electrical resistivity at low temperatures from 77 K to 300 K. Resistivity variation with temperature indicates transition from metallic to semiconductor behavior. Transition tem-perature increased with increasing film thickness. Temperature coefficient of resistance in the metallic re-gion has been determined for all the four films. Using Arrhenius relation, activation energy for conduction in metallic region has been determined. Mott’s small polaron hopping model has been employed to deter-mine activation energy in the semiconducting region. In a film of 250 nm thick, deviation from Mott’s small polaron hopping model for below 100 K was noted and that has been considered under Mott’s variable range hopping model. The complete understanding of electrical properties of Pb films has been necessitat-ed by the fact that the band gap in CdS decreases when Pb is incorporated into it, which in turn can be used to fabricated large efficient solar cells. It is for the first time that lead films of the present thickness have been investigated for low temperature resistivity.

  13. Cerium Dioxide Thin Films Using Spin Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Channei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium dioxide (CeO2 thin films with varying Ce concentrations (0.1 to 0.9 M, metal basis were deposited on soda-lime-silica glass substrates using spin coating. It was found that all films exhibited the cubic fluorite structure after annealing at 500°C for 5 h. The laser Raman microspectroscopy and GAXRD analyses revealed that increasing concentrations of Ce resulted in an increase in the degree of crystallinity. FIB and FESEM images confirmed the laser Raman and GAXRD analyses results owing to the predicted increase in film thickness with increasing Ce concentration. However, porosity and shrinkage (drying cracking of the films also increased significantly with increasing Ce concentrations. UV-VIS spectrophotometry data showed that the transmission of the films decreased with increasing Ce concentrations due to the increasing crack formation. Furthermore, a red shift was observed with increasing Ce concentrations, which resulted in a decrease in the optical indirect band gap.

  14. Electroless plating of thin gold films directly onto silicon nitride thin films and into micropores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Julie C; Karawdeniya, Buddini Iroshika; Bandara, Y M Nuwan D Y; Velleco, Brian D; Masterson, Caitlin M; Dwyer, Jason R

    2014-07-23

    A method to directly electrolessly plate silicon-rich silicon nitride with thin gold films was developed and characterized. Films with thicknesses plating free-standing ultrathin silicon nitride membranes, and we successfully plated the interior walls of micropore arrays in 200 nm thick silicon nitride membranes. The method is thus amenable to coating planar, curved, and line-of-sight-obscured silicon nitride surfaces.

  15. Gadolinium thin films as benchmark for magneto-caloric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Lars; Bartke, Marianne; Teichert, Niclas; Schleicher, Benjamin; Fähler, Sebastian; Hütten, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    We report on the preparation of Gadolinium thin films by means of sputter deposition on Silicon Oxide wafers. A series of samples with different buffer layers and various substrate temperatures has been produced. The film on an amorphous Tantalum buffer deposited at 773 K shows the highest increase of magnetization during the phase transition at the Curie temperature. Further detailed analysis of the magnetic properties has been conducted by VSM.

  16. Optical modeling of thin-film silicon solar cells by combination of the transfer-matrix method and the raytracer algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, Cordula; Lacombe, Jürgen; von Maydell, Karsten; Agert, Carsten

    2012-07-01

    We discuss an optical model which describes silicon thin-film solar cells with rough interfaces in a fast and easy way. In order to simulate thin layer stacks with rough interfaces diffuse scattering as well as interference effects have to be taken into account. Algorithms like the finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD) solve the Maxwell Equations, and therefore fulfil these demands; yet, they take a considerable amount of simulation time and computation capacity. To overcome these drawbacks, an optical model was developed which combines the transfer-matrix method (TMM) and the raytracer algorithm. The fraction of TMM and raytracer in the model is determined by a separating function which can be interpreted as the integral haze. In order to verify the combined optical model, a series of amorphous silicon single cells with varying intrinsic layer thicknesses was produced on two different kinds of textured substrates. The results of the combined optical model are compared to measured data and the simulation results of the FDTD method. We show that the combined optical model yields good results at low simulation time.

  17. Recent advances in thin film CdTe solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferekides, Chris S.; Ceekala, Vijaya; Dugan, Kathleen; Killian, Lawrence; Oman, Daniel; Swaminathan, Rajesh; Morel, Don

    1996-01-01

    CdTe thin film solar cells have been fabricated on a variety of glass substrates (borosilicate and soda lime). The CdS films were deposited to a thickness of 500-2000 Å by the chemical bath deposition (CBD), rf sputtering, or close spaced sublimation (CSS) processes. The CdTe films were deposited by CSS in the temperature range of 450-625 °C. The main objective of this work is to fabricate high efficiency solar cells using processes that can meet low cost manufacturing requirements. In an attempt to enhance the blue response of the CdTe cells, ZnS films have also been prepared (CBD, rf sputtering, CSS) as an alternative window layer to CdS. Device behavior has been found to be consistent with a recombination model.

  18. Optical properties of thin nanosilicon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchenko, Viktor V.; Rodionova, Tatiana V.; Sutyagina, Anastasia S.; Goloborodko, Andrey A.; Multian, Volodymyr V.; Uklein, Andrii V.; Gayvoronsky, Volodymyr Ya.

    2016-12-01

    Present paper is devoted to the investigation of the nanosilicon films internal structure effect on optical properties. Atomic force microscopy results reveal that the films with different thickness have fundamentally different grain size distribution (samples with the film thickness less than 50 nm have single-mode grain size distribution, while samples with the film thickness more than 50 nm have multi-mode distribution of grain size). The correlation between grain size of nanosilicon films, photoluminescence and scattering indicatrix was shown. Well-isolated vibronic structures were observed on the ultraviolet-visible photoluminescence spectrum from nanosilicon films with the thickness more than 10 nm. The photoluminescence spectra in the red range correlate with the nanosilicon grain size distribution due to the effect of the quantum confinement. However, due to the complex shape of the grains mathematical modeling of photoluminescence spectrum is complicated. Both scattering indicatrix and photoluminescence reveal the multi-mode grain size distribution of the films with thickness more than 50 nm. The comparative analysis of theoretical results of optical radiation scattering by nanosilicon films with experimental ones is illustrated. Mathematical modeling of the scattering indicatrix shows the correlation of average grain size from scattering and photoluminescence data.

  19. Theoretical investigation of the thermodynamic properties of metallic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Vu Van [Vietnam Education Publishing House, 81 Tran Hung Dao, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Phuong, Duong Dai [Hanoi National University of Education, 136 Xuan Thuy, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hoa, Nguyen Thi [University of Transport and Communications, Lang Thuong, Dong Da, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hieu, Ho Khac, E-mail: hieuhk@duytan.edu.vn [Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, K7/25 Quang Trung, Danang (Viet Nam)

    2015-05-29

    The thermodynamic properties of metallic thin films with face-centered cubic structure at ambient conditions were investigated using the statistical moment method including the anharmonicity effects of thermal lattice vibrations. The analytical expressions of Helmholtz free energy, lattice parameter, linear thermal expansion coefficient, specific heats at the constant volume and constant pressure were derived in terms of the power moments of the atomic displacements. Numerical calculations of thermodynamic properties have been performed for Au and Al thin films and compared with those of bulk metals. This research proposes that thermodynamic quantities of thin films approach the values of bulk when the thickness of thin film is about 70 nm. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic properties of thin films were investigated using the moment method. • Expressions of Helmholtz energy, expansion coefficient, specific heats were derived. • Calculations for Au, Al thin films were performed and compared with those of bulks.

  20. Metallic Thin-Film Bonding and Alloy Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Jack Merrill (Inventor); Campbell, Geoff (Inventor); Peotter, Brian S. (Inventor); Droppers, Lloyd (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion bonding a stack of aluminum thin films is particularly challenging due to a stable aluminum oxide coating that rapidly forms on the aluminum thin films when they are exposed to atmosphere and the relatively low meting temperature of aluminum. By plating the individual aluminum thin films with a metal that does not rapidly form a stable oxide coating, the individual aluminum thin films may be readily diffusion bonded together using heat and pressure. The resulting diffusion bonded structure can be an alloy of choice through the use of a carefully selected base and plating metals. The aluminum thin films may also be etched with distinct patterns that form a microfluidic fluid flow path through the stack of aluminum thin films when diffusion bonded together.