WorldWideScience

Sample records for modelling studies aiming

  1. Study of vibrational spectra and hydrogen bonding network in dimeric and tetrameric model of ampicillin using DFT and AIM approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Anuradha; Khan, Eram; Tandon, Poonam; Sinha, Kirti

    2017-03-01

    Ampicillin is a β-lactam antibiotic that is active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and is widely used for the treatment of infections. In this work, molecular properties of ampicillin are calculated on the basis of calculations on its dimeric and tetrameric models using DFT/B3LYP/6-311G(d,p). HOMO-LUMO energy gap shows that chemical reactivity of tetrameric model of ampicillin is higher than the dimeric and monomeric model of ampicillin. To get a better understanding of intra and intermolecular bonding and interactions among bonds, NBO analysis is carried out with tetrameric model of ampicillin, and is further finalized with an 'quantum theory of atoms-in-molecules' (QTAIM) analysis. The binding energy of dimeric model of ampicillin is calculated as -26.84 kcal/mol and -29.34 kcal/mol using AIM and DFT calculations respectively. The global electrophilicity index (ω = 2.8118 eV) of tetrameric model of ampicillin shows that this behaves as a strong electrophile in comparison to dimeric and monomeric model of ampicillin. The FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra were recorded in the solid phase, and interpreted in terms of potential energy distribution analysis. A collective theoretical and experimental vibrational analysis approves the presence of hydrogen bonds in the ampicillin molecule.

  2. Simulation of AIMS measurements using rigorous mask 3D modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Shiang; Huang, Hsu-Ting; Chu, Fu-Sheng; Chu, Yuan-Chih; Huang, Wen-Chun; Liu, Ru-Gun; Gau, Tsai-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    Aerial image measurement system (AIMSTM) has been widely used for wafer level inspection of mask defects. Reported inspection flows include die-to-die (D2D) and die-to-database (D2DB) methods. For patterns that do not repeat in another die, only the D2DB approach is applicable. The D2DB method requires accurate simulation of AIMS measurements for a mask pattern. An optical vectorial model is needed to depict the mask diffraction effect in this simulation. To accurately simulate the imaging results, a rigorous electro-magnetic field (EMF) model is essential to correctly take account of the EMF scattering induced by the mask topography, which is usually called the mask 3D effect. In this study, the mask 3D model we use is rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA), which calculates the diffraction fields from a single plane wave incidence. A hybrid Hopkins-Abbe method with RCWA is used to calculate the EMF diffraction at a desired accuracy level while keeping the computation time practical. We will compare the speed of the hybrid Hopkins-Abbe method to the rigorous Abbe method. The matching between simulation and experiment is more challenging for AIMS than CD-SEM because its measurements provide full intensity information. Parameters in the mask 3D model such as film stack thickness or film optical properties, is optimized during the fitting process. We will report the fitting results of AIMS images for twodimensional structures with various pitches. By accurately simulating the AIMS measurements, it provides a necessary tool to perform the mask inspection using the D2DB approach and to accurately predict the mask defects.

  3. TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS MODELING AIMING TO IMPROVE ITS OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mihajlović

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modeling procedure of one real technological system. In this study, thecopper extraction from the copper flotation waste generated at the Bor Copper Mine (Serbia, werethe object of modeling. Sufficient data base for statistical modeling was constructed using theorthogonal factorial design of the experiments. Mathematical model of investigated system wasdeveloped using the combination of linear and multiple linear statistical analysis approach. Thepurpose of such a model is obtaining optimal states of the system that enable efficient operationsmanagement. Besides technological and economical, ecological parameters of the process wereconsidered as crucial input variables.

  4. A review of intervention studies aimed at household energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamse, W.; Steg, L.; Vlek, C.; Rothengatter, T. [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Psychology

    2005-09-15

    This article reviews and evaluates the effectiveness of interventions aiming to encourage households to reduce energy consumption. Thirty-eight studies performed within the field of (applied) social and environmental psychology are reviewed, and categorized as involving either antecedent strategies (i.e. commitment, goal setting, information, modeling) or consequence strategies (i.e. feedback, rewards). Particular attention is given to the following evaluation criteria: (1) to what extent did the intervention result in behavioral changes and/or reductions in energy use, (2) were underlying behavioral determinants examined (e.g. knowledge, attitudes), (3) to what extent could effects be attributed to the interventions and, (4) were effects maintained over longer periods of time? Interestingly, most studies focus on voluntary behavior change, by changing individual knowledge and/or perceptions rather than changing contextual factors (i.e. pay-off structure) which may determine households' behavioral decisions. Interventions have been employed with varying degrees of success. Information tends to result in higher knowledge levels, but not necessarily in behavioral changes or energy savings. Rewards have effectively encouraged energy conservation, but with rather short-lived effects. Feedback has also proven its merits, in particular when given frequently. Some important issues cloud these conclusions, such as methodological problems. Also, little attention is given to actual environmental impact of energy savings. Often, an intervention's effectiveness is studied without examining underlying psychological determinants of energy use and energy savings. Also, it is not always clear whether effects were maintained over a longer period of time. Recommendations are given to further improve intervention planning and to enhance the effectiveness of interventions. (author)

  5. Modelling constructed wetlands: scopes and aims - a comparative review

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, D; Chazarenc, Florent; Claveau Mallet, D.; Dittmer, D; Forquet, N.; Molle, P.; Morvannou, A.; Palfy, T.; Petitjean, A; Rizzo, A.; Samso Campa, R.; Scholz, M.; Soric, Audrey; Langergraber, G.

    2015-01-01

    International audience; During the last two decades a couple of models were developed for constructed wetlands with differing purposes. Meanwhile the usage of this kind of tool is generally accepted, but the misuse of the models still confirms the skepticism. Generally three some groups of models can be distinguished: On one hand mechanistic models try to display the complex and diffuse interaction of occurring processes, on the other hand the same kind of models is are used to investigate si...

  6. A Mobile Forensic Readiness Model aimed at Minimizing Cyber Bullying

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Victor R Kebande; Nickson M Karie; Stacey Omeleze

    2016-01-01

    .... Trends of cyber-bullying, for example, are on the increase and recent studies in South Africa have shown that the use of mobile devices among school pupils between the ages of 2 to 17 years is at 60...

  7. Religious Studies, Religious Education and the Aims of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, L. Philip

    2015-01-01

    This article interacts with a recent article by Denise Cush and Catherine Robinson in which they call for a new dialogue between religious studies in universities and religious education, and identify a number of developments in religious studies that have implications for the practice of religious education in schools. Cush and Robinson are…

  8. About the aims, objects and problems in Brazilian research on Mathematical Modeling in Mathematics Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of scientific communications published in the IV Mathematical Modeling National Conference (CNMEM in the Brazilian abbreviation, which took place in 2005. The analysis consists of a meta-analytical and content qualitative approach, aided by the software Atlas T.i. The data collected was originated in the above mentioned conference which is the first of the three which will be analyzed in the study that aims to unveil the research on Mathematical Modeling in Brazil. The categories established in this paper and which will be interpreted are: a Meta-study on Mathematics Modeling; b Modeling application; c Articulation between Modeling and other theories, and d Modeling and teachers education.

  9. The Model Proposal Which Aims to build up a Balanced Scorecard in Thermal Tourism Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    GENÇAY, İ. Cemal

    2014-01-01

    According to the Balanced Scorecard named as “corporate performance scorecard”, corporate performance, finance, customer, internal processes, learning and development must be evaluated with dimensions. Balanced Scorecard proposes that businesses are supposed to be managed with a strategic management system mainly based on measurement and evaluation. This study aims to present the model objectives, criteria and the process that guides about how to build up the corporate performance (Bala...

  10. The National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) Foundation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongkolwat, Pattanasak; Kleper, Vladimir; Talbot, Skip; Rubin, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge contained within in vivo imaging annotated by human experts or computer programs is typically stored as unstructured text and separated from other associated information. The National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) Foundation information model is an evolution of the National Institute of Health's (NIH) National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Cancer Bioinformatics Grid (caBIG®) AIM model. The model applies to various image types created by various techniques and disciplines. It has evolved in response to the feedback and changing demands from the imaging community at NCI. The foundation model serves as a base for other imaging disciplines that want to extend the type of information the model collects. The model captures physical entities and their characteristics, imaging observation entities and their characteristics, markups (two- and three-dimensional), AIM statements, calculations, image source, inferences, annotation role, task context or workflow, audit trail, AIM creator details, equipment used to create AIM instances, subject demographics, and adjudication observations. An AIM instance can be stored as a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) structured reporting (SR) object or Extensible Markup Language (XML) document for further processing and analysis. An AIM instance consists of one or more annotations and associated markups of a single finding along with other ancillary information in the AIM model. An annotation describes information about the meaning of pixel data in an image. A markup is a graphical drawing placed on the image that depicts a region of interest. This paper describes fundamental AIM concepts and how to use and extend AIM for various imaging disciplines.

  11. Low Power and Shutdown PSA Modeling using AIMS-PSA and SIMA Script

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Hoon; Lim, Ho Gon; Park, Jin Hee; Joon Eon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    KAERI has been developing an integrated PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) software package, called OCEANS. OCEANS includes software for Level- 1, 2 and 3 PSAs, fire PSA, seismic PSA, and shutdown PSA. OCEANS is being developed to simplify and automate the modeling and quantification procedures in PSA. The AIMS-PSA software plays a key role in OCEANS, which takes charge of the event tree and fault tree modeling, as well as automates the quantification procedure. The first low power and shutdown (LPSD) PSA in Korea was performed for the purpose of estimating the risk during the LPSD operation for YGN 5 and 6 in 2000. The LPSD PSA requires a lot of time and effort for the following 2 reasons: 1) The risk is analyzed for 14 POSs (Plant Operating States). A PSA for each POS corresponds to a full power PSA. The size of a LPSD PSA can be as large as 14 times a full power PSA. 2) The states of systems/components are changed for every overhaul. The LPSD PSA should be revised for every overhaul to reflect the overhaul schedule. Another study was performed to improve the quality and enhance the methodology for the LPSD PSA in 2006. A method to use the conditioning gate was introduced for the purpose of handling a change in the state of a component. This approach has a benefit compared with the previous one, but still requires modifying the model manually. An approach has been developed in this study to simply the modeling of the LPSD PSA by using a script, called SIMA (Script Interpreter for Mapping Algorithm), in conjunction with AIMS-PSA. The SIMA script consists of a series of script commands to describe the changes in the fault tree model, which enables modifying the system fault trees of a full power PSA automatically to incorporate the situation of LPSD, so as not to modify the fault tree manually. The approach developed in this study was tested and verified for the LPSD PSA model developed in 2006

  12. An automated model-based aim point distribution system for solar towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzbözl, Peter; Rong, Amadeus; Macke, Ansgar; Säck, Jan-Peter; Ulmer, Steffen

    2016-05-01

    Distribution of heliostat aim points is a major task during central receiver operation, as the flux distribution produced by the heliostats varies continuously with time. Known methods for aim point distribution are mostly based on simple aim point patterns and focus on control strategies to meet local temperature and flux limits of the receiver. Lowering the peak flux on the receiver to avoid hot spots and maximizing thermal output are obviously competing targets that call for a comprehensive optimization process. This paper presents a model-based method for online aim point optimization that includes the current heliostat field mirror quality derived through an automated deflectometric measurement process.

  13. Numerical modeling of laser-driven experiments aiming to demonstrate magnetic field amplification via turbulent dynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeferacos, P.; Rigby, A.; Bott, A.; Bell, A. R.; Bingham, R.; Casner, A.; Cattaneo, F.; Churazov, E. M.; Emig, J.; Flocke, N.; Fiuza, F.; Forest, C. B.; Foster, J.; Graziani, C.; Katz, J.; Koenig, M.; Li, C.-K.; Meinecke, J.; Petrasso, R.; Park, H.-S.; Remington, B. A.; Ross, J. S.; Ryu, D.; Ryutov, D.; Weide, K.; White, T. G.; Reville, B.; Miniati, F.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Froula, D. H.; Gregori, G.; Lamb, D. Q.

    2017-04-01

    The universe is permeated by magnetic fields, with strengths ranging from a femtogauss in the voids between the filaments of galaxy clusters to several teragauss in black holes and neutron stars. The standard model behind cosmological magnetic fields is the nonlinear amplification of seed fields via turbulent dynamo to the values observed. We have conceived experiments that aim to demonstrate and study the turbulent dynamo mechanism in the laboratory. Here, we describe the design of these experiments through simulation campaigns using FLASH, a highly capable radiation magnetohydrodynamics code that we have developed, and large-scale three-dimensional simulations on the Mira supercomputer at the Argonne National Laboratory. The simulation results indicate that the experimental platform may be capable of reaching a turbulent plasma state and determining the dynamo amplification. We validate and compare our numerical results with a small subset of experimental data using synthetic diagnostics.

  14. Numerical modeling of laser-driven experiments aiming to demonstrate magnetic field amplification via turbulent dynamo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzeferacos, P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, United Kingdom; Rigby, A. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, United Kingdom; Bott, A. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, United Kingdom; Bell, A. R. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, United Kingdom; Bingham, R. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX, United Kingdom; Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG, United Kingdom; Casner, A. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon, France; Cattaneo, F. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Churazov, E. M. [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, D-85741 Garching, Germany; Space Research Institute (IKI), Moscow 117997, Russia; Emig, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA; Flocke, N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Fiuza, F. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA; Forest, C. B. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA; Foster, J. [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, West Berkshire, RG7 4PR, United Kingdom; Graziani, C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Katz, J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623, USA; Koenig, M. [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation de Lasers Intenses, UMR7605, CNRS CEA, Université Paris VI Ecole Polytechnique, France; Li, C. -K. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; Meinecke, J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, United Kingdom; Petrasso, R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; Park, H. -S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA; Remington, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA; Ross, J. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA; Ryu, D. [Department of Physics, UNIST, Ulsan 689-798, South Korea; Ryutov, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA; Weide, K. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; White, T. G. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, United Kingdom; Reville, B. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, United Kingdom; Miniati, F. [Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland; Schekochihin, A. A. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, United Kingdom; Froula, D. H. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623, USA; Gregori, G. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, United Kingdom; Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Lamb, D. Q. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA

    2017-03-22

    The universe is permeated by magnetic fields, with strengths ranging from a femtogauss in the voids between the filaments of galaxy clusters to several teragauss in black holes and neutron stars. The standard model behind cosmological magnetic fields is the nonlinear amplification of seed fields via turbulent dynamo to the values observed. We have conceived experiments that aim to demonstrate and study the turbulent dynamo mechanism in the laboratory. Here, we describe the design of these experiments through simulation campaigns using FLASH, a highly capable radiation magnetohydrodynamics code that we have developed, and large-scale three-dimensional simulations on the Mira supercomputer at the Argonne National Laboratory. The simulation results indicate that the experimental platform may be capable of reaching a turbulent plasma state and determining the dynamo amplification. We validate and compare our numerical results with a small subset of experimental data using synthetic diagnostics.

  15. Measurements of AIM for Visible Wavelength Based on Individual Eye Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; WANG Zhao-Qi; WANG Yan; ZUO Tong; ZHAO Kan-Xing

    2006-01-01

    We measure and calculate the aerial image modulation (AIM) of human retina for visible wavelengths based on the individual eye model. By employing the optical design software ZEMAX, we obtain the modulation transfer function (MTF) of human eye in visible wavelengths. Using CSV-1000 and VAF-1000, the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) and the visual acuity (VA) for the same eye are measured. Then the AIM of human retina could be acquired by the relations between MTF and CSF and between MTF and VA. The AIM of human retina is independent of MTF, and the values of AIM for normal eyes (without retina disease) are similar, so the assembly average for large numbers of normal eyes can be a standard AIM curve, which is helpful for the diagnosis of diseases in the retina system.

  16. Modeling Training of Future Teachers Aimed on Innovation Activities Based on the System of Design Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury S. Tyunnikov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of training system of future teachers aimed on innovation activities performed in a certain project logic and procedures, which is possible only through a specific set of design features, based on capability and peculiar properties of the university. The article is formulated and solved the problem of design features, revealing in its set the characteristic properties, organization and functioning of training system aimed on innovation in specific terms of professional education.

  17. NEURO-SYSTEM OF AIMING AND STABILIZING WITH A REGULATOR ON THE BASIS OF STANDARD MODEL MODEL REFERENCE CONTROLLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.I. Kuznetsov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the synthesis of neural network aiming and stabilization system for the special equipment of moving objects with neuro-controller on the basis of standard model and performance comparison of the neural network system with the neural network predictive control. Build a block diagram of the neural network aiming and stabilization system, based on the subject control principle with PD-regulator in the position loop and with neuro-controller on the basis of standard model in the in the velocity loop. The neuro-controller on the basis of standard model Model Reference Controller is synthesized in the MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox and system simulation is performed. The studies show that the transient state variables of the system are oscillatory. Therefore, the neuro-controller with the prediction NN Predictive Controller should be used for aiming and stabilizing system to provide high dynamic characteristics achieved at the cost of higher complexity and computational cost.

  18. Professional Development Program Aimed at Physicians to Develop Drug Utilization Studies

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    Yacelis Dahilet Cisneros Nápoles

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: one of the deficiencies presented by physicians in their professional activity is related to the development of drug utilization studies. Objective: to design a professional development program aimed at physicians to develop drug utilization studies. Methods: an educational research was conducted at the Faculty of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos during the 2011-2012 academic year. Theoretical methods such as the analytic-synthetic, the inductive-deductive, the historical-logical, modeling and system approach were used in the methodological and theoretical process. Results: the program aims at training physicians to develop drug utilization studies and its contents include: drug-related problems; criteria for selecting a drug in the prescription process; Pharmacoepidemiology; objectives, types of studies, characteristics and steps for the design and development of drug utilization studies; drug therapy and aspects on the selection and analysis of drug information sources. The methods are based on reflection and research itself developed by physicians during the activities for their professional development. Discussion and presentation of essays and research projects will be used to assess learning in the program, which integrates forms of professional development including specialized conferences, self-study, postgraduate courses, workshops and consultancies. Conclusions: the program serves as a reference to design the different activities required to train physicians for the development of drug utilization studies and it can be integrated in the graduate strategy of the university.

  19. Spectroscopic and molecular modeling study on the separate and simultaneous bindings of alprazolam and fluoxetine hydrochloride to human serum albumin (HSA): With the aim of the drug interactions probing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangkoob, Faeze; Housaindokht, Mohmmad Reza; Asoodeh, Ahmad; Rajabi, Omid; Rouhbakhsh Zaeri, Zeinab; Verdian Doghaei, Asma

    2015-02-01

    The objective of the present research is to study the interaction of separate and simultaneous of alprazolam (ALP) and fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLX) with human serum albumin (HSA) in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) using different kinds of spectroscopic, cyclic voltammetry and molecular modeling techniques. The absorbance spectra of protein, drugs and protein-drug showed complex formation between the drugs and HSA. Fluorescence analysis demonstrated that ALP and FLX could quench the fluorescence spectrum of HSA and demonstrated the conformational change of HSA in the presence of both drugs. Also, fluorescence quenching mechanism of HSA-drug complexes both separately and simultaneously was suggested as static quenching. The analysis of UV absorption data and the fluorescence quenching of HSA in the binary and ternary systems showed that FLX decreased the binding affinity between ALP and HSA. On the contrary, ALP increased the binding affinity of FLX and HSA. The results of synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra indicated that the binding of drugs to HSA would modify the microenvironment around the Trp and Tyr residues and the conformation of HSA. The distances between Trp residue and the binding sites of the drugs were estimated according to the Förster theory, and it was demonstrated that non-radiative energy transfer from HSA to the drugs occurred with a high probability. Moreover, according to CV measurements, the decrease of peak current in the cyclic voltammogram of the both drugs in the presence of HSA revealed that they interacted with albumin and binding constants were calculated for binary systems which were in agreement with the binding constants obtained from UV absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The prediction of the best binding sites of ALP and FLX in binary and ternary systems in molecular modeling approach was done using of Gibbs free energy.

  20. A molecular-modeling toolbox aimed at bridging the gap between medicinal chemistry and computational sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Sameh; Zalewski, Adam; Smieško, Martin; Ernst, Beat; Vedani, Angelo

    2013-01-04

    In the current era of high-throughput drug discovery and development, molecular modeling has become an indispensable tool for identifying, optimizing and prioritizing small-molecule drug candidates. The required background in computational chemistry and the knowledge of how to handle the complex underlying protocols, however, might keep medicinal chemists from routinely using in silico technologies. Our objective is to encourage those researchers to exploit existing modeling technologies more frequently through easy-to-use graphical user interfaces. In this account, we present two innovative tools (which we are prepared to share with academic institutions) facilitating computational tasks commonly utilized in drug discovery and development: (1) the VirtualDesignLab estimates the binding affinity of small molecules by simulating and quantifying their binding to the three-dimensional structure of a target protein; and (2) the MD Client launches molecular dynamics simulations aimed at exploring the time-dependent stability of ligand-protein complexes and provides residue-based interaction energies. This allows medicinal chemists to identify sites of potential improvement in their candidate molecule. As a case study, we present the application of our tools towards the design of novel antagonists for the FimH adhesin.

  1. Aims of Education: How to Resist the Temptation of Technocratic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardarson, Alti

    2017-01-01

    A technocratic model of curriculum design that has been highly influential since the middle of last century assumes that the aims of education can be, and should be: 1. Causally brought about by administering educational experiences; 2. Specified as objectives that can be attained, reached or completed; 3. Changes in students that are described in…

  2. Important treatment aims at the end of life: a nationwide study among GPs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, S.J.J.; Echteld, M.A.; Francke, A.L.; Block, L. van den; Donker, G.A.; Deliens, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little is known about treatment aims during the last 3 months of life. Aim: To investigate important treatment aims in the last 3 months of patients' lives in cases of on-sudden death. Design and setting: Mortality follow-back study in the Netherlands. Method: data were collected retrosp

  3. Parents' Views Regarding the Values Aimed to be Taught in Social Studies Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Bayram; Yildirim, Kasim

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at learning parents' ideas about the values aimed to be taught in Social Studies lessons in the 4th and 5th grades of the primary education and about values education. Study data were collected by administering "the Values Education I" and "Values Education II" questionnaire forms developed by the researchers.…

  4. An Economic Aspect of the AVOID Programme: Analysis Using the AIM/CGE Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ken'ichi; Masui, Toshihiko

    2010-05-01

    This presentation purposes to show the results of the analysis that the AIM/CGE [Global] model contributed to Work Stream 1 of the AVOID programme. Three economic models participate in this WS to analyze the economic aspects of defined climate policies, and the AIM/CGE [Global] model is one of them. The reference scenario is SRES A1B and five policy scenarios (2016.R2.H, 2016.R4.L, 2016.R5.L, 2030.R2.H, and 2030.R5.L) are considered. The climate policies are expressed as emissions pathways of several gases such as greenhouse gases and aerosols. The AIM/CGE [Global] model is a recursive dynamic global CGE model with 21 industrial sectors and 24 world regions. These definitions are based on the GTAP6 database and it is used as the economic data of the base year. Some important characteristics of this model can be summarized as follows: power generation by various sources (from non-renewables to renewables) are considered; CCS technology is modeled; biomass energy (both traditional and purpose-grown) production and consumption are included; not only CO2 emissions but also other gases are considered; international markets are modeled for international trade of some fossil fuels; relationships between the costs and resource reserves of fossil fuels are modeled. The model is run with 10-year time steps until 2100. For the reference case, there are no constraints and the model is run based on the drivers (assumptions on GDP and population for A1B) and AEEI. The reference case does not have the same emissions pathways as the prescribed emissions for A1B in AVOID. For scenario cases, the model is run under emissions constraints. In particular, for each policy scenario, the constraint on each gas in each 10-year step is derived. The percentage reduction in emissions that occurs between the AVOID A1B scenario and the particular policy scenario, for each gas in each 10-year period is first calculated, and then these percentage reductions are applied to the AIM reference case

  5. Aiming accuracy in preferred and non-preferred limbs: implications for programing models of motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, David E

    2014-01-01

    Most models of motor programing contend that one can perform learned actions with different muscle groups or limbs demonstrating the concept of motor equivalence. The goal of this review is to determine the generality of this concept within the context of aiming movements performed by both preferred and non-preferred limbs. Theoretical approaches to motor programing are described, followed by a comparison of a variety of kinematic measures taken from preferred and non-preferred limbs from simple and more complex aiming tasks. In general, the support for motor equivalency is strong for one- and two-dimensional aiming tasks and for simultaneous bimanual movements, but mixed for unconstrained throwing tasks and tasks that require feedback-based corrections.

  6. Study protocol: The Adherence and Intensification of Medications (AIM study - a cluster randomized controlled effectiveness study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selby Joe

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients with diabetes have poor blood pressure (BP control. Pharmacological therapy is the cornerstone of effective BP treatment, yet there are high rates both of poor medication adherence and failure to intensify medications. Successful medication management requires an effective partnership between providers who initiate and increase doses of effective medications and patients who adhere to the regimen. Methods In this cluster-randomized controlled effectiveness study, primary care teams within sites were randomized to a program led by a clinical pharmacist trained in motivational interviewing-based behavioral counseling approaches and authorized to make BP medication changes or to usual care. This study involved the collection of data during a 14-month intervention period in three Department of Veterans Affairs facilities and two Kaiser Permanente Northern California facilities. The clinical pharmacist was supported by clinical information systems that enabled proactive identification of, and outreach to, eligible patients identified on the basis of poor BP control and either medication refill gaps or lack of recent medication intensification. The primary outcome is the relative change in systolic blood pressure (SBP measurements over time. Secondary outcomes are changes in Hemoglobin A1c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, medication adherence determined from pharmacy refill data, and medication intensification rates. Discussion Integration of the three intervention elements - proactive identification, adherence counseling and medication intensification - is essential to achieve optimal levels of control for high-risk patients. Testing the effectiveness of this intervention at the team level allows us to study the program as it would typically be implemented within a clinic setting, including how it integrates with other elements of care. Trial Registration The ClinicalTrials.gov registration number is NCT

  7. NEURO-SYSTEM OF AIMING AND STABILIZING WITH A REGULATOR ON THE BASIS OF STANDARD MODEL MODEL REFERENCE CONTROLLER

    OpenAIRE

    B. I. Kuznetsov; T.E. Vasilets; Varfolomiyev, O. O.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is the synthesis of neural network aiming and stabilization system for the special equipment of moving objects with neuro-controller on the basis of standard model and performance comparison of the neural network system with the neural network predictive control. Build a block diagram of the neural network aiming and stabilization system, based on the subject control principle with PD-regulator in the position loop and with neuro-controller on the basis of standard model ...

  8. Online decision support based on modeling with the aim of increased irrigation efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dövényi-Nagy, Tamás; Bakó, Károly; Molnár, Krisztina; Rácz, Csaba; Vasvári, Gyula; Nagy, János; Dobos, Attila

    2015-04-01

    The significant changes in the structure of ownership and control of irrigation infrastructure in the past decades resultted in the decrease of total irrigable and irrigated area (Szilárd, 1999). In this paper, the development of a model-based online service is described whose aim is to aid reasonable irrigation practice and increase water use efficiency. In order to establish a scientific background for irrigation, an agrometeorological station network has been built up by the Agrometeorological and Agroecological Monitoring Centre. A website has been launched in order to provide direct access for local agricultural producers to both the measured weather parameters and results of model based calculations. The public site provides information for general use, registered partners get a handy model based toolkit for decision support at the plot level concerning irrigation, plant protection or frost forecast. The agrometeorological reference station network was established in the recent years by the Agrometeorological and Agroecological Monitoring Centre and is distributed to cover most of the irrigated cropland areas of Hungary. From the spatial aspect, the stations have been deployed mainly in Eastern Hungary with concentrated irrigation infrastructure. The meteorological stations' locations have been carefully chosen to represent their environment in terms of soil, climatic and topographic factors, thereby assuring relevant and up-to-date input data for the models. The measured parameters range from classic meteorological data (air temperature, relative humidity, solar irradiation, wind speed etc.) to specific data which are not available from other services in the region, such as soil temperature, soil water content in multiple depths and leaf wetness. In addition to the basic grid of reference stations, specific stations under irrigated conditions have been deployed to calibrate and validate the models. A specific modeling framework (MetAgro) has been developed

  9. Aims & Scope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  10. Aims & Scope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.

  11. Aims & Scope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.

  12. A 'small-world-like' model for comparing interventions aimed at preventing and controlling influenza pandemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sallé Anne-Violaine

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an influenza pandemic seemingly imminent, we constructed a model simulating the spread of influenza within the community, in order to test the impact of various interventions. Methods The model includes an individual level, in which the risk of influenza virus infection and the dynamics of viral shedding are simulated according to age, treatment, and vaccination status; and a community level, in which meetings between individuals are simulated on randomly generated graphs. We used data on real pandemics to calibrate some parameters of the model. The reference scenario assumes no vaccination, no use of antiviral drugs, and no preexisting herd immunity. We explored the impact of interventions such as vaccination, treatment/prophylaxis with neuraminidase inhibitors, quarantine, and closure of schools or workplaces. Results In the reference scenario, 57% of realizations lead to an explosive outbreak, lasting a mean of 82 days (standard deviation (SD 12 days and affecting 46.8% of the population on average. Interventions aimed at reducing the number of meetings, combined with measures reducing individual transmissibility, would be partly effective: coverage of 70% of affected households, with treatment of the index patient, prophylaxis of household contacts, and confinement to home of all household members, would reduce the probability of an outbreak by 52%, and the remaining outbreaks would be limited to 17% of the population (range 0.8%–25%. Reactive vaccination of 70% of the susceptible population would significantly reduce the frequency, size, and mean duration of outbreaks, but the benefit would depend markedly on the interval between identification of the first case and the beginning of mass vaccination. The epidemic would affect 4% of the population if vaccination started immediately, 17% if there was a 14-day delay, and 36% if there was a 28-day delay. Closing schools when the number of infections in the community

  13. Parameter Identification for a New Circuit Model Aimed to Predict Body Water Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE, A.-G.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular and extracellular water volumes in the human body have been computed using a sequence of models starting with a linear first order RC circuit (Cole model and finishing with the De Lorenzo model. This last model employs a fractional order impedance whose parameters are identified using the frequency characteristics of the impedance module and phase, the latter being not unique. While the Cole model has a two octaves frequency validity range, the De Lorenzo model can be used for three decades. A new linear RC model, valid for a three decades frequency range, is proposed. This circuit can be viewed as an extension of the Cole model for a larger frequency interval, unlike similar models proposed by the same authors.

  14. Basic principles and aims of model order reduction in compliant mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rösner

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Model order reduction appears to be beneficial for the synthesis and simulation of compliant mechanisms due to computational costs. Model order reduction is an established method in many technical fields for the approximation of large-scale linear time-invariant dynamical systems described by ordinary differential equations. Based on system theory, underlying representations of the dynamical system are introduced from which the general reduced order model is derived by projection. During the last years, numerous new procedures were published and investigated appropriate to simulation, optimization and control. Singular value decomposition, condensation-based and Krylov subspace methods representing three order reduction methods are reviewed and their advantages and disadvantages are outlined in this paper. The convenience of applying model order reduction in compliant mechanisms is quoted. Moreover, the requested attributes for order reduction as a future research direction meeting the characteristics of compliant mechanisms are commented.

  15. Prevalence of rheumatic diseases in adult population in Spain (EPISER 2016 study): Aims and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane-Mato, Daniel; Sánchez-Piedra, Carlos; Silva-Fernández, Lucía; Sivera, Francisca; Blanco, Francisco J; Pérez Ruiz, Fernando; Juan-Mas, Antonio; Pego-Reigosa, José M; Narváez, Javier; Quilis Martí, Neus; Cortés Verdú, Raúl; Antón-Pagés, Fred; Quevedo Vila, Víctor; Garrido Courel, Laura; Del Amo, Natividad Del Val; Paniagua Zudaire, Inmaculada; Añez Sturchio, Gustavo; Medina Varo, Fermín; Ruiz Tudela, María Del Mar; Romero Pérez, Antonio; Ballina, Javier; Brandy García, Anahy; Fábregas Canales, Dolores; Font Gayá, Teresa; Bordoy Ferrer, Carolina; González Álvarez, Beatriz; Casas Hernández, Laura; Álvarez Reyes, Fátima; Delgado Sánchez, Mónica; Martínez Dubois, Cristina; Sánchez-Fernández, Simón Ángel; Rojas Vargas, Luisa Marena; García Morales, Paula Virginia; Olivé, Alejandro; Rubio Muñoz, Paula; Larrosa, Marta; Navarro Ricos, Noemí; Graell Martín, Eduard; Chamizo, Eugenio; Chaves Chaparro, Lara; Rojas Herrera, Sara; Pons Dolset, Jordi; Polo Ostariz, Miguel Ángel; Ruiz-Alejos Garrido, Susana; Macía Villa, Cristina; Cruz Valenciano, Ana; González Gómez, María Luisa; Morcillo Valle, Mercedes; Palma Sánchez, Deseada; Moreno Martínez, María José; Mayor González, Marta; Atxotegi Sáenz de Buruaga, Joana; Urionagüena Onaindia, Irati; Blanco Cáceres, Boris Anthony; Díaz-González, Federico; Bustabad, Sagrario

    2017-07-31

    To describe the methodology of the EPISER 2016 (study of the prevalence of rheumatic diseases in adult population in Spain), as well its strengths and limitations. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren's syndrome (SS), osteoarthritis (knee, hip, hands, and cervical and lumbar spine), fibromyalgia, gout and clinical osteoporotic fracture. Population-based, multicenter, cross-sectional study, with the participation of 45 municipalities in the 17 Spanish autonomous communities. The reference population will consist of adults aged 20 years and over residing in Spain. A computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) system will be used for data collection. Diagnostic suspicions and diagnoses received by the participants will be studied by rheumatologists in the referral hospitals in the selected municipalities. the prevalence of the rheumatic diseases will be calculated using estimators and their 95% confidence intervals. Weights will be calculated in each of the sampling stages in accordance with the probability of selection. The distribution of the population in Spain will be obtained from the Spanish Statistics Institute. Sociodemographic and lifestyle changes over the last 16 years justify EPISER 2016. This study will provide current data about the prevalences of RA, AS, PsA, SLE, SS, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, gout and clinical osteoporotic fracture. The results will allow comparisons with studies from other countries and EPISER 2000. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  16. Integrated Organic Farm; a model aimed at contributing to food security for indigenous communities in Talamanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Salazar-Díaz

    2015-06-01

    Traditional farming in Talamanca comes from the continuous and balanced relationship between humans and their natural environment; however, there is evidence of deterioration in this relationship. As a result of this initiative, this proposal intends to be a model to be replicated in neighboring communities and so contribute to sustainable human development in the region of Talamanca.

  17. New Seismic Hazard study in Spain Aimed at the revision of the Spanish Building Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Medina, A.; Benito, B.; Cabañas, L.; Martínez-Solares, J. M.; Ruíz, S.; Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Carreño, E.; Crespo, M.; García-Mayordomo, J.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we present a global overview of the recent study carried out in Spain for the new hazard map, which final goal is the revision of the Building Code in our country (NCSE-02). The study was carried our for a working group joining experts from The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) and the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) , being the different phases of the work supervised by an expert Committee integrated by national experts from public institutions involved in subject of seismic hazard. The PSHA method (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment) has been followed, quantifying the epistemic uncertainties through a logic tree and the aleatory ones linked to variability of parameters by means of probability density functions and Monte Carlo simulations. In a first phase, the inputs have been prepared, which essentially are: 1) a project catalogue update and homogenization at Mw 2) proposal of zoning models and source characterization 3) calibration of Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPE's) with actual data and development of a local model with data collected in Spain for Mw logic tree and their weights. Finally, the hazard estimation was done with the logic tree shown in figure 1, including nodes for quantifying uncertainties corresponding to: 1) method for estimation of hazard (zoning and zoneless); 2) zoning models, 3) GMPE combinations used and 4) regression method for estimation of source parameters. In addition, the aleatory uncertainties corresponding to the magnitude of the events, recurrence parameters and maximum magnitude for each zone have been also considered including probability density functions and Monte Carlo simulations The main conclusions of the study are presented here, together with the obtained results in terms of PGA and other spectral accelerations SA (T) for return periods of 475, 975 and 2475 years. The map of the coefficient of variation (COV) are also represented to give an idea of the zones where the dispersion among

  18. Occult cancer in specimens of reduction mammaplasty aimed at symmetrization. A multicentric study of 2718 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorin, T; Fyad, J P; Delay, E; Rouanet, P; Rimareix, F; Houpeau, J L; Classe, J M; Garrido, I; Tunon De Lara, C; Dauplat, J; Bendavid, C; Houvenaeghel, G; Clough, K B; Sarfati, I; Leymarie, N; Trudel, M; Salleron, J; Guillemin, F; Oldrini, G; Brix, M; Dolivet, G; Simon, E; Verhaeghe, J L; Marchal, F

    2015-06-01

    Women who have undergone surgical treatment for breast cancer often benefit from a contralateral reduction mammaplasty (CRM) aimed at symmetrization of the contralateral breast unaffected by the initial cancer. In our 7-year multicentric study (12 centers) of 2718 patients, incidence of CRM cancers (CRMc) was 1.47% (n = 40) [95% CI 1.05%-2.00%]. The CRMc group had significantly more initial mammary cancers of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC, 22.5% vs 12.0%) and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS, 35.0% vs 21.6%) types than the healthy CRM group (p = 0.017). 35.0% (n = 14) of patients had en bloc resection; 25.0% (n = 10) of surgical specimens were correctly oriented. En bloc resection and orientation of surgical specimens enable precise pinpointing of the CRMc. A salvage lumpectomy may be proposed as an option when margins are invaded. The histological distribution of the 40 CRMc (mean size 12.7 mm) was carcinoma in situ (CIS) 70%, ILC 12.5%, invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) 12.5% and tubular carcinoma (TC) 5.0%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Strategies for the synthesis and molecular modeling aiming to discover biorational agricultural insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane G. D. Khodyuk

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents two proposals for the synthesis of halogenated aryl thiosulfonates which are of biologically interesting compounds. Inhibitors    of proteases and juvenile hormone mimetizing are already successfully employed for managing pest-insects However, many of these products can be always improved in the aspects of specificity implying in low cost to the farmer. The major objective of this work is the synthesis of thiosulfonates analogues of commercial products which are inhibitors of serine-protease and juvenile hormone mimetizing compounds that can be applied as leads for production of insecticides that can contribute to the control of pest-insects in economically important plantation and stored grains. The scientific research group SINTMOLB (CNPq is involved with studies related to the synthesis of phenolic compounds with insecticidal potential. Some important results have already been obtained and, in this new project, it is being explored the synthesis of new compounds, computational analysis, and biological tests to evaluate protease inhibitory effect.

  20. RECYCLING OF PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS AIMING SILVER RECOVERY: A HYDROMETALLURGICAL ROUTE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Paulo Kohler Caldas; Viviane Tavares de Morae; Eduardo Junca; Jorge Alberto Soares Tenório; Denise Crocce Romano Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is characterize printed circuit board of computers and propose a hydrometallurgical route for silver recovery present in its composition. Initially, the printed circuit board was comminuted in both knife and hammer mills. The comminuted material was characterized by sieve analysis, chemical analysis by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and loss on ignition. Leaching tests were conducted in sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid in an ox...

  1. Advanced Integrated Multi-Sensor Surveillance (AIMS. Operator Machine Interface (OMI) Definition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    système est perfectionné par l’intégration de cinq capteurs à capacité de déclenchement actif en un cardan unique. Il pourra ainsi servir à une multitude...unique jusqu’à cinq capteurs , y compris des capacités de déclenchement actif et d’imagerie thermique. Il peut ainsi servir à une multitude de...AIMS) est en cours de développement. Ce système est perfectionné par l’intégration de cinq capteurs à capacité de déclenchement actif en un cardan unique

  2. RECYCLING OF PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS AIMING SILVER RECOVERY: A HYDROMETALLURGICAL ROUTE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paulo Kohler Caldas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is characterize printed circuit board of computers and propose a hydrometallurgical route for silver recovery present in its composition. Initially, the printed circuit board was comminuted in both knife and hammer mills. The comminuted material was characterized by sieve analysis, chemical analysis by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES and loss on ignition. Leaching tests were conducted in sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid in an oxidizing medium and nitric acid. The results indicated that the printed circuit board is mainly composed of copper (19.42%. Silver content of 0.045% was found. The route for silver recovery was leaching in sulfuric acid at 75°C for 18 hours. Then, leaching in sulfuric acid at 75°C in an oxidizing medium for 6 hours and nitric acid leaching at room temperature for 2 hours. Through of this route, 96.6% of silver was recovered.

  3. Cathodoluminescence study of SnO{sub 2} powders aimed for gas sensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korotcenkov, G. [Technical University of Moldova, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of)]. E-mail: ghkoro@yahoo.com; Nazarov, M. [Technical University of Moldova, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of); Zamoryanskaya, M.V. [A.F. Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg, Russia (Russian Federation); Ivanov, M. [Technical University of Moldova, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of); Cirera, A. [EME/CERMAE. Dep. Elect., University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Shimanoe, K. [Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    In this paper we report on cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra of SnO{sub 2} powders, synthesized using the wet chemical route. The analysis of influence of the modes of calcination (T {sub an}-450-800 deg. C), and doping by both Pd and Pt (0.01-10.0 wt.%) on CL spectra was made. It was found that the measurement of CL spectra could be an effective research method of nanostructured metal oxides, aimed for gas sensor applications. It was established that in nanocrystalline SnO{sub 2} the same system of energy levels, associated with radiative recombination, as in single crystalline and polycrystalline SnO{sub 2}, is retained. It was found that doping by both Pd and Pt modifies the structural properties of SnO{sub 2} grains. Also, there is an optimum doping; near 0.1-0.2 wt.%, at which a maximum intensity of cathodoluminescence is reached. It was concluded that for low concentrations of both Pd and Pt additives in SnO{sub 2} an improvement of the material's crystal structure is promoted, and is associated with a decrease in the non-radiating recombination rate.

  4. The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM): Studying the geophysics of small binaries, measuring asteroid deflection and studying impact physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, Michael; Michel, Patrick; AIM Team

    2016-10-01

    Binary asteroids and their formation mechanisms are of particular interest for understanding the evolution of the small bodies in the solar system. Also, hazards to Earth from impact of near-Earth asteroids and their mitigation have drawn considerable interest over the last decades.Those subjects are both addressed by ESA's Asteroid Impact mission, which is part of the Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) currently under study in collaboration between NASA and ESA. NASA's DART mission will impact a projectile into the minor component of the binary near-Earth asteroid (65803) Didymos in 2022. The basic idea is to demonstrate the effect of the impact on the orbital period of the secondary around the primary. ESA's AIM will monitor the Didymos system for several months around the DART impact time.AIM will be launched in aurumn 2020. It is foreseen to arrive at Didymos in April 2022. The mission takes advantage of a close approach of Didymos to Earth. The next opportunity would arise in 2040 only.AIM will stay near Didymos for approximately 6 months. Most of the time it will be placed on the illuminated side of the system, at distances of approximately 35 km and 10 km. AIM is expected to move away from Didymos for some time around the DART impact.The reference payload for AIM includes two visual imagers, a hyperspectral camera, a lidar, a thermal infrared imager, a monostatic high frequency radar, and a bistatic low frequency radar. In addition, AIM will deploy a small lander on the secondary asteroid, and two cubesats that will be used for additional, more risky investigations close to or on the surface of the asteroid.Major contributions from AIM are expected in the study of the geophysics of small asteroids (including for the first time, radar measurements of an interior structure), the formation of binary asteroids, the momentum enhancement factor from the DART impact (through measuring the mass and the change of orbit of the seondary), and impact physics

  5. Distributed Leadership with the Aim of "Reculturing": A Departmental Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Wayne; Jones, Doug; Campbell, Todd

    2014-01-01

    This article considers a secondary science department that has, since 2000, developed distributed leadership as a form of human capacity building. Using a longitudinal ethnographic case study allowed us to consider how distributed leadership can be nurtured and developed in a department. Our analysis centres on two key issues: the nature and…

  6. Optomechatronic prototype based on digital holographic interferometry aimed to the study of biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaráz Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Del Socorro Hernández-Montes, María; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando; Muñoz, Silvino

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents the preliminary stages of the development of a compact optomechatronic prototype for the characterization and study of biological tissues in full field of view. The system is based on the optical non invasive technique known as digital holographic interferometry (DHI), which allows displacement measurements in the micrometer range, a key feature for the study of biological tissues. An ad-hoc optomechanical design contemplates a sturdy system yet compact that renders high quality images able to generate new data about the biological tissues under study. These data contain quantitative and qualitative information of tissue mechanical parameters. The DHI results are presented as fringe phase maps related to tissue surface displacements, showing that the proposed prototype provides non invasive information pertaining to the mechanical characteristics of the tissue which can be used later to diagnose certain tissue pathologies. The use of this prototype in the biomedical area may be thought of as a new and complementary tool for the study and research in full field of view that may even be used in conditions outside the laboratory.

  7. Epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Greece: aims, design and baseline characteristics of the ATTICA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysohoou Christina

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an attempt to evaluate the levels of several cardiovascular risk factors in Greece we conducted a population-based health and nutrition survey, the "ATTICA study". In this work we present the design and the methodology of the study, as well as the status of various baseline characteristics of the participants. Methods From May 2001 to December 2002 we randomly enrolled 1514 adult men and 1528 adult women, stratified by age – gender (census 2000, from the greater area of Athens. More than 300 demographic, lifestyle, behavioral, dietary, clinical and biochemical variables have been recorded. Results Regarding the frequency of the classical cardiovascular risk factors we observed that 51% of men and 39% of women reported smokers (p Conclusions The prevalence of the common cardiovascular risk factors in our population seems high. As a consequence a considerable proportion of Greek adults are at "high-risk" for future cardiovascular events.

  8. A Study of Microalgal Symbiotic Communities with the Aim to Increase Biomass and Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Claus

    Microalgae are nearly everywhere and they are responsible for a large part of the world’s primaryproduction.Their ability to grow fast and toreach high cell densities makes them candidates for use in the production of biofuel. A key feature of many algae is the production of lipids as storage...... molecules. A variety of algae can produce large amounts of lipids and these easily be converted to biodiesel for use as transport fuel. Production of algal based biodiesel is however still limited mainly due production costs. Research is needed in order to lower the price of the final product. In this study...... interactions between algae and bacteria have been investigated. Many previous investigations have revealed that algae when co-cultured with bacteria reach higher cell numbers and exhibit faster growth rates. Part of the study focuses on interactions between the green algae Dunaliella salina and three strains...

  9. X-ray computed tomography and aggregate image system (AIMS for studying hot mix asphalt and aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allex E. Álvarez Lugo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Achieving reliable pavement design, durable roadway structures and effective maintenance and rehabilitation plans requires the suitable characterisation of the materials used in pavement construction. This paper describes two non-destructive techniques based on image acquisition and analysis and their successful application in pavement engi-neering: X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT and aggregate imaging system (AIMS. The former has been used for characterising the internal structure of asphalt mixes to analyse and model their performance; it has been particu-larly used for studying the content, size, distribution and connectivity of air-voids and these variables’ relationship with moisture damage susceptibility, capillarity and permeability within the mixes. AIMS was intended for characterri-sing aggregates’ morphological properties (i.e., form, angularity and texture. This technique provides important ad-vantages regarding the standard methods used for obtaining the same aggregate properties: it is objective, reliable, reproducible and can be carried out quickly. This paper was aimed at describing these two techniques’ theoretical backgrounds, mention some recent applications and provide insight into how existing characterisation of materials used in pavement construction can be improved.

  10. A cohort study of gestational diabetes mellitus and complimentary qualitative research: background, aims and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Vijayam; Balaji, Madhuri S; Datta, Manjula; Rajendran, Rekha; Nielsen, Karoline Kragelund; Radhakrishnan, Rohini; Kapur, Anil; Seshiah, Veerasamy

    2014-11-25

    Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and their offsprings are at increased risk of future type 2 diabetes and metabolic abnormalities. Early diagnosis and proper management of GDM, as well as, postpartum follow-up and preventive care is expected to reduce this risk. However, no large scale prospective studies have been done particularly from the developing world on this aspect. The objective of this study is to identify and follow a cohort of pregnant women with and without GDM and their offspring to identify determinants and risk factors for GDM, for various pregnancy outcomes, as well as, for the development of future diabetes and metabolic abnormalities. This is a prospective cohort study involving pregnant women attending prenatal clinics from urban, semi-urban and rural areas in the greater Chennai region in South India. Around 9850 pregnant women will be screened for GDM. Socio-economic status, demographic data, obstetric history, delivery and birth outcomes, perinatal and postnatal complications, neonatal morbidity, maternal postpartum and offsprings follow-up data will be collected. Those diagnosed with GDM will initially be advised routine care. Those unable to reach glycaemic control with diet alone will be advised to take insulin. Postpartum screening for glucose abnormalities will be performed at months 3 and 6 and then every year for 10 years. The offsprings will be followed up every year for anthropometric measurements and growth velocity, as well as, plasma glucose, insulin and lipid profile. In addition, qualitative research will be carried out to identify barriers and facilitators for early GDM screening, treatment compliance and postpartum follow-up and testing, as well as, for continued adherence to lifestyle modifications. The study will demonstrate whether measures to improve diagnosis and care of GDM mothers followed by preventive postpartum care are possible in the routine care setting. It will also map out the barriers and

  11. Bio-AIMS Collection of Chemoinformatics Web Tools based on Molecular Graph Information and Artificial Intelligence Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, Cristian R; Gonzalez-Diaz, Humberto; Garcia, Rafael; Loza, Mabel; Pazos, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The molecular information encoding into molecular descriptors is the first step into in silico Chemoinformatics methods in Drug Design. The Machine Learning methods are a complex solution to find prediction models for specific biological properties of molecules. These models connect the molecular structure information such as atom connectivity (molecular graphs) or physical-chemical properties of an atom/group of atoms to the molecular activity (Quantitative Structure - Activity Relationship, QSAR). Due to the complexity of the proteins, the prediction of their activity is a complicated task and the interpretation of the models is more difficult. The current review presents a series of 11 prediction models for proteins, implemented as free Web tools on an Artificial Intelligence Model Server in Biosciences, Bio-AIMS (http://bio-aims.udc.es/TargetPred.php). Six tools predict protein activity, two models evaluate drug - protein target interactions and the other three calculate protein - protein interactions. The input information is based on the protein 3D structure for nine models, 1D peptide amino acid sequence for three tools and drug SMILES formulas for two servers. The molecular graph descriptor-based Machine Learning models could be useful tools for in silico screening of new peptides/proteins as future drug targets for specific treatments.

  12. AIM Study on the Reaction of CH2SH Radical with Fluorine Atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-hong Sun; Yan-li Zeng; Ling-peng Meng; Shi-jun Zheng

    2008-01-01

    The reaction of CH2SH radical with fluorine atom was studied at the levels of B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) and MP2(Full)/6-311G(d,p).The computational results show that the reaction has three channels and proceeds by the addition of fluorine atoms on carbon or sulfur sites of CH2SH,forming initial intermediates.The calculated results show that the channel,in which fluorine attaches to the carbon atom to form CH2S and HF,is the most likely reaction pathway.Topological analysis of electron density was carried out for the three channels.The change trends of the chemical bonds on the reaction paths were discussed.The energy transition states and the structure transition regions (states) of the three channels were found.The calculated results show that the structure transition regions axe broad in unobvions exothermic reactions or unobvions endothermic reactions,and are narrow in obvious exothermic reactions or obvious endothermic reactions.

  13. Theoretical studies on 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol derivatives aimed at finding superior propellants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Wang, Lianjun; Wang, Guixiang; Du, Hongchen; Gong, Xuedong

    2012-04-01

    In an attempt to find superior propellants, 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol (DDNP) and its -NO(2), -NH(2), -CN, -NC, -ONO(2), and -NF(2) derivatives were studied at the B3LYP/6-311++G level of density functional theory (DFT). Sensitivity was evaluated using bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) and molecular surface electrostatic potentials. The C-NO(2) bond appears to be the trigger bond during the thermolysis process for these compounds, except for the -ONO(2) and -NF(2) derivatives. Electrostatic potential results show that electron-withdrawing substituents make the charge imbalance more anomalous, which may change the strength of the bond, especially the weakest trigger bond. Most of the DDNP derivatives have the impact sensitivities that are higher than that of DDNP, making them favorable for use as solid propellants in micro-rockets. The theoretical densities (ρ), heats of formation (HOFs), detonation energies (Q), detonation pressures (P), and detonation velocities (D) of the compounds were estimated. The effects of various substituent groups on ρ, HOF, Q, D, and P were investigated. Some derivatives exhibit perfect detonation properties. The calculated relative specific impulses (I (r,sp)) of all compounds except for -NH(2) derivatives were higher than that of DDNP, and also meet the requirements of propellants.

  14. Neural and Hybrid Modeling: An Alternative Route to Efficiently Predict the Behavior of Biotechnological Processes Aimed at Biofuels Obtainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraceno, Alessandra; Calabrò, Vincenza; Iorio, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The present paper was aimed at showing that advanced modeling techniques, based either on artificial neural networks or on hybrid systems, might efficiently predict the behavior of two biotechnological processes designed for the obtainment of second-generation biofuels from waste biomasses. In particular, the enzymatic transesterification of waste-oil glycerides, the key step for the obtainment of biodiesel, and the anaerobic digestion of agroindustry wastes to produce biogas were modeled. It was proved that the proposed modeling approaches provided very accurate predictions of systems behavior. Both neural network and hybrid modeling definitely represented a valid alternative to traditional theoretical models, especially when comprehensive knowledge of the metabolic pathways, of the true kinetic mechanisms, and of the transport phenomena involved in biotechnological processes was difficult to be achieved. PMID:24516363

  15. Neural and hybrid modeling: an alternative route to efficiently predict the behavior of biotechnological processes aimed at biofuels obtainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Stefano; Saraceno, Alessandra; Calabrò, Vincenza; Iorio, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The present paper was aimed at showing that advanced modeling techniques, based either on artificial neural networks or on hybrid systems, might efficiently predict the behavior of two biotechnological processes designed for the obtainment of second-generation biofuels from waste biomasses. In particular, the enzymatic transesterification of waste-oil glycerides, the key step for the obtainment of biodiesel, and the anaerobic digestion of agroindustry wastes to produce biogas were modeled. It was proved that the proposed modeling approaches provided very accurate predictions of systems behavior. Both neural network and hybrid modeling definitely represented a valid alternative to traditional theoretical models, especially when comprehensive knowledge of the metabolic pathways, of the true kinetic mechanisms, and of the transport phenomena involved in biotechnological processes was difficult to be achieved.

  16. The Aerodyne Inverse Modeling System (AIMS): Source estimation applied to the FFT 07 experiment and to simulated mobile sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albo, Simón E.; Oluwole, Oluwayemisi O.; Miake-Lye, Richard C.

    2011-10-01

    The Aerodyne Inverse Modeling System was developed to enable location and characterization of hazardous atmospheric releases from dispersion and meteorological data. It combines an automatically-generated tangent-linear of SCIPUFF with a cost function tailored for practical applications and a minimization algorithm that can search for multiple instantaneous or continuous sources without requiring an initial guess. In this work AIMS was applied to estimate the sources in 84 FFT 07 cases that included instantaneous and continuous releases for up to four source locations. FFT 07 was a controlled short-range (˜500 m) dispersion test using 100 digiPIDs evenly distributed over an area of 0.5 × 0.5 km. AIMS estimated sources were in average within 90-150 m of the real sources, with the distances from estimated to real source ranging from 0 to 510 m. AIMS performed better estimating the location of instantaneous sources than of continuous ones. It also performed better for single-source situations than for multiple source scenarios and when 16 sensors were used instead of 4. In addition to using stationary sensors, AIMS also has the capability of processing data from mobile sensors. This was applied using model-generated data in an example of a release in a setting similar to an industrial facility.

  17. Surgical outcome in patients taking concomitant or recent intake of oral isotretinoin: A multicentric Study-ISO-AIMS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Heggadahalli Mahadevappa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current standard recommendation is to avoid surgical interventions in patients taking oral isotretinoin. However, this recommendation has been questioned in several recent publications. Aim: To document the safety of cosmetic and surgical interventions, among patients receiving or recently received oral isotretinoin. Materials and Methods: Association of Cutaneous Surgeons, India, in May 2012, initiated this study, at 11 centers in different parts of India. The data of 183 cases were collected monthly, from June 2012 to May 2013. Of these 61 patients had stopped oral isotretinoin before surgery and 122 were concomitantly taking oral isotretinoin during the study period. In these 183 patients, a total of 504 interventions were performed. These included[1] 246 sessions of chemical peels such as glycolic acid, salicylic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and combination peels;[2] 158 sessions of lasers such as ablative fractional laser resurfacing with erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet and CO2, conventional full face CO2laser resurfacing, laser-assisted hair reduction with long-pulsed neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet, diode laser, and LASIK surgery;[3] 27 sessions of cold steel surgeries such as microneedling, skin biopsy, subcision, punch elevation of scars, excision of skin lesion, and wisdom tooth extraction;[4] 1 session of electrosurgery. Results: No significant side effects were noted in most patients. 2 cases of keloid were documented which amounted to 0.4% of side effects in 504 interventions, with a significant P value of 0.000. Reversible transient side effects were erythema in 10 interventions and hyperpigmentation in 15. Conclusion: The study showed that performing dermatosurgical and laser procedures in patients receiving or recently received isotretinoin is safe, and the current guidelines of avoiding dermatosurgical and laser interventions in such patients taking isotretinoin need to be revised.

  18. Study Protocol - Accurate assessment of kidney function in Indigenous Australians: aims and methods of the eGFR Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotopoulos Sianna

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an overwhelming burden of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease among Indigenous Australians. In this high risk population, it is vital that we are able to measure accurately kidney function. Glomerular filtration rate is the best overall marker of kidney function. However, differences in body build and body composition between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians suggest that creatinine-based estimates of glomerular filtration rate derived for European populations may not be appropriate for Indigenous Australians. The burden of kidney disease is borne disproportionately by Indigenous Australians in central and northern Australia, and there is significant heterogeneity in body build and composition within and amongst these groups. This heterogeneity might differentially affect the accuracy of estimation of glomerular filtration rate between different Indigenous groups. By assessing kidney function in Indigenous Australians from Northern Queensland, Northern Territory and Western Australia, we aim to determine a validated and practical measure of glomerular filtration rate suitable for use in all Indigenous Australians. Methods/Design A cross-sectional study of Indigenous Australian adults (target n = 600, 50% male across 4 sites: Top End, Northern Territory; Central Australia; Far North Queensland and Western Australia. The reference measure of glomerular filtration rate was the plasma disappearance rate of iohexol over 4 hours. We will compare the accuracy of the following glomerular filtration rate measures with the reference measure: Modification of Diet in Renal Disease 4-variable formula, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation, Cockcroft-Gault formula and cystatin C- derived estimates. Detailed assessment of body build and composition was performed using anthropometric measurements, skinfold thicknesses, bioelectrical impedance and a sub-study used dual

  19. Benchmarking Investments in Advancement: Results of the Inaugural CASE Advancement Investment Metrics Study (AIMS). CASE White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Juidith A.

    2012-01-01

    The inaugural Advancement Investment Metrics Study, or AIMS, benchmarked investments and staffing in each of the advancement disciplines (advancement services, alumni relations, communications and marketing, fundraising and advancement management) as well as the return on the investment in fundraising specifically. This white paper reports on the…

  20. What Are We Aiming For?--A Delphi Study on the Development of Civic Scientific Literacy in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu; Rundgren, Carl-Johan

    2017-01-01

    Based on the EU FP 7 project, PROFILES, this article presents our findings from a three-round Delphi study conducted in Sweden that aimed at establishing a consensus on how science education should be developed for citizens to enhance civic scientific literacy. A total of 100 stakeholders (9th graders, school teachers, scientists, and science…

  1. The Thai Anesthesia Incident Monitoring Study (Thai AIMS) of anesthetic equipment failure/malfunction: an analysis of 1996 incident reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaphanyo, Chaiyapruk; Charuluxananan, Somrat; Sriramatr, Dujduen; Pulnitiporn, Aksorn; Sriraj, Wimonrat

    2009-11-01

    The present study is a part of the multi-centered study of model of anesthesia relating adverse events in Thailand by incident report (The Thai Anesthesia Incident Monitoring Study or Thai AIMS). The objective was to identify the frequency distribution, contributing factors, and factors minimizing incident of equipment failure/malfunction. As a prospective descriptive research design, anesthesia providers reported the data as soon as the incidents of equipment failure/malfunction occurred. Standardized forms of incident report were then mailed to the center at Chulalongkorn University and three anesthesiologists reviewed the data. Ninety-two cases of equipment failure/malfunction were reported from 51 hospitals across Thailand Between January and June 2007, 92 incidents of equipment failure/malfunction were reported out of 1996 anesthesia-related incidents (4.6%). Failed/malfunctioned equipment included anesthetic circuit (17.4%), anesthesia machine (15.2%), capnography (15.2%), laryngoscope (15.2%), ventilator (12%), pulse oximeter (8.7%), vaporizer (4.3%), endotracheal tube (3.3%), sodalime (3.3%), and electrocardiogram (2.2%). All 16 anesthetic circuit incidents (100%) were detected by clinical signs whereas five incidents (31.3%) were detected firstly by monitors. All 14 laryngoscope malfunction (100%) were detected solely by clinical signs. Only one out of eight (12.5%) of pulse oximeter incidents was detected by clinical signs before the pulse oximeter itself. Three out of four (75%) incidents of vaporizer were detected by clinical signs before monitors. The majority of equipment malfunction was considered as related to anesthetic (69.6%) and system factors (69.6%) and 71.7% of incidents were preventable. Seventy-four incidents (80.4%) were caused by human error and, specifically, rule-based error in three fourths. Contributing factors were ineffective equipment, haste, lack of experience, ineffective monitors, and inadequate equipment. Factors minimizing

  2. [Generalized anxiety disorders (GAD)--a neglected illness? Background und aims of the GAD-P study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittchen, H U; Linden, M; Schwarzer, W; Riemann, D; Boerner, R J; Bandelow, B

    2001-01-01

    In the past Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)--previously classified as anxiety neurosis--was regarded as not being a separate diagnostic entity. On the basis of new explicit criteria for GAD in the 90ies, GAD-specific pharmacological (i.e. SNRI) and psychological treatments with improved efficacy have become available. The Generalized Anxiety and Depression in Primary care study (GAD-P) investigates the prevalence of GAD in primary care settings and evaluates the patterns of care provided. Aims, methods and findings of the GAD-P study are described in this supplement.

  3. Polish mother and child cohort study--defining the problem, the aim of the study and methodological assumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Gromadzińska, Jolanta; Ligocka, Danuta; Gulczyńska, Ewa; Sobala, Wojciech; Wásowicz, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    Exposures during prenatal period have implications for pregnancy outcome as well as for children's health, morbidity and mortality. Prospective cohort study design allows for the identification of exposures that may influence pregnancy outcome and children's health, verification of such exposures by biomarker measurements and notification of any changes in exposure level. Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO_PL) is multicenter prospective cohort study conducted in 8 different regions of Poland. The final cohort is intended to comprise 1300 mother-child pairs to be recruited within 4-year period (2007-2011). The recruitment and all scheduled visits are conducted in maternity units or clinics in the districts included in the study. The women are followed-up 3 times in pregnancy (once in each trimester) and after delivery for the notification of pregnancy outcome. During each visit, detailed questionnaire and biological samples are collected including saliva, urine, hair, maternal blood and cord blood. About 6 weeks postpartum, breast milk from part of the women is collected. The study concentrates on the identification and evaluation of the effects of prenatal environmental exposure on pregnancy outcome and children's health. Specific research hypotheses refer to the role of heavy metals, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in the aetiology of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and preterm delivery (PD). The role of oxidative stress putative mechanism and pregnant women nutritional status will be investigated. Based on questionnaire data, the impact of occupational exposures and stressful situations will be evaluated. The results of the study will become available within the next few years and will help to determine levels of child prenatal exposure in several areas of Poland and its impact on course and outcome of pregnancy.

  4. Bacterial dynamics in model cheese systems, aiming at safety and quality of Portuguese-style traditional ewe's cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cláudia I; Graça, João A; Ogando, Natacha S; Gomes, Ana M P; Malcata, F Xavier

    2009-11-01

    An experiment using model ewe's milk cheeses was designed to characterize microbial interactions that arise in actual raw milk cheese environments. These model cheeses were manufactured according to Portuguese artisanal practices, except that the microbial load and biodiversity were fully controlled: single potential pathogens and spoilage bacteria, or a combination thereof, were combined at various initial inoculum levels in sterilized raw ewe's milk with several lactic acid bacteria (LAB) normally found in traditional cheeses. Viable microbial counts were monitored throughout a 60-day ripening period. Two alternative mathematical approaches were used to fit the experimental data generated in terms of population dynamics: percent of inhibition and D-values. These were able to explain the complex competitive interactions between the contaminant microorganisms and the LAB adventitious populations. In general, the tested LAB were less able to inhibit contaminants present in combination and in higher concentrations. Lactococcus lactis, with its strong acidifying potential, was the most effective factor in controlling the unwanted bacterial population, especially single Staphylococcus aureus. The two lactobacilli studied, especially Lactobacillus brevis, were shown to be less effective; Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua were the contaminants least inhibited by the LAB.

  5. Aims of the Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Dornan, P J

    2010-01-01

    There are challenges and opportunities for the European particle physics community to engage with innovative and exciting developments which could lead to precision measurements in the neutrino sector. These have the potential to yield significant advances in the understanding of CP violation, the flavour riddle and theories beyond the Standard Model. This workshop aims to start the process of a dialogue in Europe so that informed decisions on the appropriate directions to pursue can be made in a few years time.

  6. Identifying effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies underpinning preschool- and school-based obesity prevention interventions aimed at 4-6-year-olds: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, C A; Moore, H J; Douthwaite, W; Gibson, E L; Vogele, C; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; Manios, Y; Summerbell, C D

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this comprehensive systematic review was to identify the most effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies, underpinning preschool- and school-based interventions aimed at preventing obesity in 4-6-year-olds. Searching was conducted from April 1995 to April 2010 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and The Cochrane Library. Epidemiological studies relevant to the research question with controlled assignment of participants were included in the review, if they had follow-up periods of 6 months or longer. Outcomes included markers of weight gain; markers of body composition; physical activity behaviour changes and dietary behaviour changes. Twelve studies were included in the review. The most commonly used model was social cognitive theory (SCT)/social learning theory (SLT) either as a single model or in combination with other behavioural models. Studies that used SCT/SLT in the development of the intervention had significant favourable changes in one, or more, outcome measures. In addition, interventions that (i) combined high levels of parental involvement and interactive school-based learning; (ii) targeted physical activity and dietary change; and (iii) included long-term follow-up, appeared most effective. It is suggested that interventions should also be focused on developing children's (and parents') perceived competence at making dietary and physical changes.

  7. Development of a permanent geological environment model of Kazan city aimed to solve various engineering-geological problems (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkova, N.; Latypov, A.; Shevelev, A.; Khuzin, I.

    2016-03-01

    The article discusses the composition, structure and operation principles of a digital geological environment model for the urban area located in the valley of a large lowland river (the Volga). The model is implemented in ESRI (ArcView and ArcGis) and MapInfo software environments. The basis of the model is the data on the composition and physical and mechanical properties of soils, the information about ground waters and industrial loads. The model has been used to conduct zoning of soil conditions, groundwater aggressivity to the materials of underground structures. Also, the areas of existing and possible exogenous geological processes (flooding, karst, suffusion, erosion, landslides) have been identified. According to the model, it is offered to evaluate the stability of geological environment to human impact using typification on the soil conditions based on the pre-zoning of water content and the degree of drainage. A new monitoring system of dangerous exogenous geological processes has been developed, the impact of exogenous processes on the residential buildings has been estimated, and, also, the analysis and evaluation of geological risks have been performed. According to the data on the composition, density and water saturation of soils, the stability of the ground bases to a dynamic impact has been estimated.

  8. Theoretical investigation of hydrogen bonding between water and platinum(II): an atom in molecule (AIM) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Guiqiu; Chen, Dezhan

    2012-02-01

    Recently, Rizzato et al. [Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49, 7440 (2010)] [1] reported a hydrogen-bonding-like interaction between a water molecule and a d8 metal ion (PtII) based on neutron diffraction, and provided the first crystallographic evidence for this interaction. We studied the hydrogen bonding of the O-H ... Pt interaction theoretically using atoms in molecule (AIM) and natural bond orbital analysis (NBO) in the crystallographic geometries. The method used density functional theory (DFT) with the hybrid B3LYP function. For platinum atoms, we used the Los Alamos National Laboratory 2-Double-Zeta (LANL2DZ) basis set, and for the other atoms we used 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. Criteria based on a topological analysis of the electron density were used in order to characterize the nature of interactions in the complexes. The main purpose of the present work is to provide an answer to the following questions: Why can a filled d orbital of square-planar d8 metal ions such as platinum(II) also act as hydrogen-bond acceptors? Can a study based on the electron charge density answer this question? A good correlation between the density at the intermolecular bond critical point and the energy interaction was found. The interaction is mainly closed-shell and there is some charge transfer in this system.

  9. An Evaluation Model for a Multidisciplinary Chronic Pelvic Pain Clinic: Application of the RE-AIM Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Innie; Money, Deborah; Yong, Paul; Williams, Christina; Allaire, Catherine

    2015-09-01

    Objectif : La douleur pelvienne chronique (DPC) est un trouble prévalent, débilitant et coûteux. Bien que des lignes directrices nationales et des données empiriques soutiennent l’utilisation d’un modèle de soins multidisciplinaires pour les patientes qui présentent des DPC, les cliniques canadiennes offrant un tel modèle sont peu nombreuses. Le BC Women’s Centre for Pelvic Pain and Endometriosis a été créé pour répondre à ce besoin et un intérêt a été manifesté à l’endroit des effets de ce modèle de soins sur le fardeau de la maladie en Colombie-Britannique. Nous avons cherché à créer une approche envers son évaluation en utilisant le cadre de référence RE-AIM (Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) pour déterminer les effets de ce modèle de soins et pour orienter le processus décisionnel clinique et la formulation de politiques en la matière. Méthodes : Le cadre d’évaluation RE-AIM a été appliqué pour nous permettre d’envisager les diverses dimensions des effets du BC Centre. Les mesures proposées, les sources de données et les stratégies de gestion des données pour cette approche à méthodes mixtes ont été identifiées. Résultats : Les cinq dimensions des effets ont été prises en considération aux niveaux personnel et organisationnel, et des indicateurs correspondants ont été proposés pour en permettre l’intégration dans l’infrastructure de données existante, en vue de faciliter la collecte des données et l’évaluation précoce du programme. Conclusion : Le cadre RE-AIM peut être appliqué à l’évaluation d’une clinique multidisciplinaire visant la douleur pelvienne chronique. Cela permettra la tenue d’une meilleure évaluation des effets de modèles novateurs de soins chez les femmes qui connaissent des douleurs pelviennes chroniques.

  10. A new web-based modelling tool (Websim-MILQ) aimed at optimisation of thermal treatments in the dairy industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Straatsma, J.; Keijzer, P.M.; Verschueren, M.; Jong, de P.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of a cooperative EU research project (MILQ-QC-TOOL) a web-based modelling tool (Websim-MILQ) was developed for optimisation of thermal treatments in the dairy industry. The web-based tool enables optimisation of thermal treatments with respect to product safety, quality and costs. I

  11. A new web-based modelling tool (Websim-MILQ) aimed at optimisation of thermal treatments in the dairy industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Straatsma, J.; Keijzer, P.M.; Verschueren, M.; Jong, de P.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of a cooperative EU research project (MILQ-QC-TOOL) a web-based modelling tool (Websim-MILQ) was developed for optimisation of thermal treatments in the dairy industry. The web-based tool enables optimisation of thermal treatments with respect to product safety, quality and costs.

  12. A new web-based modelling tool (Websim-MILQ) aimed at optimisation of thermal treatments in the dairy industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Straatsma, J.; Keijzer, P.M.; Verschueren, M.; Jong, de P.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of a cooperative EU research project (MILQ-QC-TOOL) a web-based modelling tool (Websim-MILQ) was developed for optimisation of thermal treatments in the dairy industry. The web-based tool enables optimisation of thermal treatments with respect to product safety, quality and costs. I

  13. The 14 TeV LHC Takes Aim at SUSY: A No-Scale Supergravity Model for LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tianjun; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V; Walker, Joel W

    2015-01-01

    The Supergravity model named No-Scale ${\\cal F}$-$SU(5)$, which is based upon the flipped $SU$(5) Grand Unified Theory (GUT) with additional TeV-scale vector-like flippon multiplets, has been partially probed during the LHC Run 1 at 7-8 TeV, though the majority of its model space remains viable and should be accessible by the 13-14 TeV LHC during Run 2. The model framework possesses the rather unique capacity to provide a light CP-even Higgs boson mass in the favored 124-126 GeV window while simultaneously retaining a testably light supersymmetry (SUSY) spectrum. We summarize the outlook for No-Scale ${\\cal F}$-$SU(5)$ at the 13-14 TeV LHC and review a promising methodology for the discrimination of its long-chain cascade decay signature. We further show that proportional dependence of all model scales upon the unified gaugino mass $M_{1/2}$ minimizes electroweak fine-tuning, allowing the $Z$-boson mass $M_Z$ to be expressed as an explicit function of $M_{1/2}$, $M_Z^2 = M_Z^2 (M_{1/2}^2)$, with implicit depe...

  14. Study of high-definition and stereoscopic head-aimed vision for improved teleoperation of an unmanned ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyczka, Dale R.; Wright, Robert; Janiszewski, Brian; Chatten, Martha Jane; Bowen, Thomas A.; Skibba, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Nearly all explosive ordnance disposal robots in use today employ monoscopic standard-definition video cameras to relay live imagery from the robot to the operator. With this approach, operators must rely on shadows and other monoscopic depth cues in order to judge distances and object depths. Alternatively, they can contact an object with the robot's manipulator to determine its position, but that approach carries with it the risk of detonation from unintentionally disturbing the target or nearby objects. We recently completed a study in which high-definition (HD) and stereoscopic video cameras were used in addition to conventional standard-definition (SD) cameras in order to determine if higher resolutions and/or stereoscopic depth cues improve operators' overall performance of various unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) tasks. We also studied the effect that the different vision modes had on operator comfort. A total of six different head-aimed vision modes were used including normal-separation HD stereo, SD stereo, "micro" (reduced separation) SD stereo, HD mono, and SD mono (two types). In general, the study results support the expectation that higher resolution and stereoscopic vision aid UGV teleoperation, but the degree of improvement was found to depend on the specific task being performed; certain tasks derived notably more benefit from improved depth perception than others. This effort was sponsored by the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise under Robotics Technology Consortium Agreement #69-200902 T01. Technical management was provided by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory's Robotics Research and Development Group at Tyndall AFB, Florida.

  15. A systematic review of studies that aim to determine which outcomes to measure in clinical trials in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Sinha

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In clinical trials the selection of appropriate outcomes is crucial to the assessment of whether one intervention is better than another. Selection of inappropriate outcomes can compromise the utility of a trial. However, the process of selecting the most suitable outcomes to include can be complex. Our aim was to systematically review studies that address the process of selecting outcomes or outcome domains to measure in clinical trials in children.We searched Cochrane databases (no date restrictions in December 2006; and MEDLINE (1950 to 2006, CINAHL (1982 to 2006, and SCOPUS (1966 to 2006 in January 2007 for studies of the selection of outcomes for use in clinical trials in children. We also asked a group of experts in paediatric clinical research to refer us to any other relevant studies. From these articles we extracted data on the clinical condition of interest, description of the method used to select outcomes, the people involved in the selection process, the outcomes selected, and limitations of the method as defined by the authors. The literature search identified 8,889 potentially relevant abstracts. Of these, 70 were retrieved, and 25 were included in the review. These studies described the work of 13 collaborations representing various paediatric specialties including critical care, gastroenterology, haematology, psychiatry, neurology, respiratory paediatrics, rheumatology, neonatal medicine, and dentistry. Two groups utilised the Delphi technique, one used the nominal group technique, and one used both methods to reach a consensus about which outcomes should be measured in clinical trials. Other groups used semistructured discussion, and one group used a questionnaire-based survey. The collaborations involved clinical experts, research experts, and industry representatives. Three groups involved parents of children affected by the particular condition.Very few studies address the appropriate choice of outcomes for clinical research

  16. Laser-based assessment of road aggregate particle shape and texture properties with the aim of deriving comparative models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Breytenbach, IJ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Research was undertaken using an innovative three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning tool to study the shape and texture characteristics of road aggregate particles. Aggregate materials used for road construction, including G1 crushed rocks...

  17. Precision disablement aiming system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monda, Mark J.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Gladwell, Thomas Scott

    2016-02-16

    A disrupter to a target may be precisely aimed by positioning a radiation source to direct radiation towards the target, and a detector is positioned to detect radiation that passes through the target. An aiming device is positioned between the radiation source and the target, wherein a mechanical feature of the aiming device is superimposed on the target in a captured radiographic image. The location of the aiming device in the radiographic image is used to aim a disrupter towards the target.

  18. Flux balance analysis of genome-scale metabolic model of rice (Oryza sativa): Aiming to increase biomass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahul Shaw; Sudip Kundu

    2015-10-01

    Due to socio-economic reasons, it is essential to design efficient stress-tolerant, more nutritious, high yielding rice varieties. A systematic understanding of the rice cellular metabolism is essential for this purpose. Here, we analyse a genome-scale metabolic model of rice leaf using Flux Balance Analysis to investigate whether it has potential metabolic flexibility to increase the biosynthesis of any of the biomass components. We initially simulate the metabolic responses under an objective to maximize the biomass components. Using the estimated maximum value of biomass synthesis as a constraint, we further simulate the metabolic responses optimizing the cellular economy. Depending on the physiological conditions of a cell, the transport capacities of intracellular transporters (ICTs) can vary. To mimic this physiological state, we randomly vary the ICTs’ transport capacities and investigate their effects. The results show that the rice leaf has the potential to increase glycine and starch in a wide range depending on the ICTs’ transport capacities. The predicted biosynthesis pathways vary slightly at the two different optimization conditions. With the constraint of biomass composition, the cell also has the metabolic plasticity to fix a wide range of carbon-nitrogen ratio.

  19. A new web-based modelling tool (Websim-MILQ) aimed at optimisation of thermal treatments in the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutyser, M A I; Straatsma, J; Keijzer, P M; Verschueren, M; De Jong, P

    2008-11-30

    In the framework of a cooperative EU research project (MILQ-QC-TOOL) a web-based modelling tool (Websim-MILQ) was developed for optimisation of thermal treatments in the dairy industry. The web-based tool enables optimisation of thermal treatments with respect to product safety, quality and costs. It can be applied to existing products and processes but also to reduce time to market for new products. Important aspects of the tool are its user-friendliness and its specifications customised to the needs of small dairy companies. To challenge the web-based tool it was applied for optimisation of thermal treatments in 16 dairy companies producing yoghurt, fresh cream, chocolate milk and cheese. Optimisation with WebSim-MILQ resulted in concrete improvements with respect to risk of microbial contamination, cheese yield, fouling and production costs. In this paper we illustrate the use of WebSim-MILQ for optimisation of a cheese milk pasteurisation process where we could increase the cheese yield (1 extra cheese for each 100 produced cheeses from the same amount of milk) and reduced the risk of contamination of pasteurised cheese milk with thermoresistent streptococci from critical to negligible. In another case we demonstrate the advantage for changing from an indirect to a direct heating method for a UHT process resulting in 80% less fouling, while improving product quality and maintaining product safety.

  20. The persuasive aims of Metal Gear Solid: A discourse theoretical approach to the study of argumentation in video games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamenkovic, Dusan; Jacevic, Milan; Wildfeuer, Janina

    2017-01-01

    in a representative video game combine so as to convince the player to act, play, and perhaps think accordingly. The multimodal approach employed in the paper combines the notion of discourse aims and the rhetorical and argumentative structure of Metal Gear Solid (Kojima, 1998), and analyses different narrative...

  1. Effects of a Randomized Reading Intervention Study Aimed at 9-Year-Olds: A 5-Year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Ulrika

    2016-05-01

    The present paper reports on a 5-year follow-up of a randomized reading intervention in grade 3 in Sweden. An intervention group (n = 57) received daily training for 12 weeks in phoneme/grapheme mapping, reading comprehension and reading speed, whereas a control group (n = 55) participated in ordinary classroom activities. The main aim was to investigate if there were remaining effects of the intervention on reading-related skills. Previous analyses showed that the intervention group performed significantly better than the control group on spelling, reading speed, reading comprehension and phoneme awareness at the immediate post-test with sustained effects 1 year later. Results from the 5-year follow-up show that the only significant difference between the intervention (n = 47) and the control group (n = 37) was on word decoding. There was also a significant interaction effect of group assignment and initial word decoding, in the way that the lowest-performing students benefitted the most from the intervention. Another aim was to examine if the children identified in a screening (n = 2212) as poor readers in grade 2 still performed worse than typical readers. The analyses showed that the typically developing students (n = 66) outperformed the students identified as poor readers in grade 2 on working memory, spelling, reading comprehension and word decoding. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Precision laser aiming system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Brandon R.; Todd, Steven N.

    2009-04-28

    A precision laser aiming system comprises a disrupter tool, a reflector, and a laser fixture. The disrupter tool, the reflector and the laser fixture are configurable for iterative alignment and aiming toward an explosive device threat. The invention enables a disrupter to be quickly and accurately set up, aligned, and aimed in order to render safe or to disrupt a target from a standoff position.

  3. Evaluating a Dutch cardiology primary care plus intervention on the Triple Aim outcomes: study design of a practice-based quantitative and qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanjel, Tessa C C; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; Struijs, Jeroen N; Baan, Caroline A; Ruwaard, Dirk

    2017-09-06

    In an attempt to deal with the pressures on the health-care system and to guarantee sustainability, changes are needed. This study focuses on a cardiology primary care plus intervention. Primary care plus (PC+) is a new health-care delivery model focused on substitution of specialist care in the hospital setting with specialist care in the primary care setting. The intervention consists of a cardiology PC+ centre in which cardiologists, supported by other health-care professionals, provide consultations in a primary care setting. The PC+ centre aims to improve the health of the population and quality of care as experienced by patients, and reduce the number of referrals to hospital-based outpatient specialist care in order to reduce health-care costs. These aims reflect the Triple Aim principle. Hence, the objectives of the study are to evaluate the cardiology PC+ centre in terms of the Triple Aim outcomes and to evaluate the process of the introduction of PC+. The study is a practice-based, quantitative study with a longitudinal observational design, and an additional qualitative study to supplement, interpret and improve the quantitative study. The study population of the quantitative part will consist of adult patients (≥18 years) with non-acute and low-complexity cardiology-related health complaints, who will be referred to the cardiology PC+ centre (intervention group) or hospital-based outpatient cardiology care (control group). All eligible patients will be asked to complete questionnaires at three different time points consisting of questions about their demographics, health status and experience of care. Additionally, quantitative data will be collected about health-care utilization and related health-care costs at the PC+ centre and the hospital. The qualitative part, consisting of semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and observations, is designed to evaluate the process as well as to amplify, clarify and explain quantitative results. This study

  4. Plant-based strategies aimed at expressing HIV antigens and neutralizing antibodies at high levels. Nef as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusic, Carla; Vitale, Alessandro; Pedrazzini, Emanuela; Donini, Marcello; Frigerio, Lorenzo; Bock, Ralph; Dix, Philip J; McCabe, Matthew S; Bellucci, Michele; Benvenuto, Eugenio

    2009-08-01

    The first evidence that plants represent a valid, safe and cost-effective alternative to traditional expression systems for large-scale production of antigens and antibodies was described more than 10 years ago. Since then, considerable improvements have been made to increase the yield of plant-produced proteins. These include the use of signal sequences to target proteins to different cellular compartments, plastid transformation to achieve high transgene dosage, codon usage optimization to boost gene expression, and protein fusions to improve recombinant protein stability and accumulation. Thus, several HIV/SIV antigens and neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies have recently been successfully expressed in plants by stable nuclear or plastid transformation, and by transient expression systems based on plant virus vectors or Agrobacterium-mediated infection. The current article gives an overview of plant expressed HIV antigens and antibodies and provides an account of the use of different strategies aimed at increasing the expression of the accessory multifunctional HIV-1 Nef protein in transgenic plants.

  5. Aiming for the Singing Teacher: An Applied Study on Preservice Kindergarten Teachers' Singing Skills Development within a Music Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neokleous, Rania

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a music methods course offered at a Cypriot university on the singing skills of 33 female preservice kindergarten teachers. To systematically measure and analyze student progress, the research design was both experimental and descriptive. As an applied study which was carried out "in situ," the normal…

  6. Assessment of mycotoxin exposure in the Belgian population using biomarkers: aim, design and methods of the BIOMYCO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyndrickx, Ellen; Sioen, Isabelle; Bellemans, Mia; De Maeyer, Mieke; Callebaut, Alfons; De Henauw, Stefaan; De Saeger, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins are harmful food contaminants. Currently, human exposure assessment to these toxins is often based on calculations combining mycotoxin occurrence data in food with population data on food consumption. Because of limitations inherent to that approach, biomarkers have been proposed as a suitable alternative whereby a more accurate assessment of exposure at the individual level can be performed. The BIOMYCO study is designed to assess human mycotoxin exposure using urinary biomarkers of exposure. Over the different seasons of 2013 and 2014, morning urine is gathered in a representative part of the Belgian population according to a designed study protocol, whereby 140 children (3-12 years old) and 278 adults (19-65 years old) are selected based on random cluster sampling stratified for sex, age and geographical areas. Every participant completes a food frequency questionnaire to assess the consumption of relevant foodstuffs (n = 43) of both the day before the urine collection and the previous month. Validated multi-toxin LC-MS/MS methods are used to analyse aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes, zearalenone and their metabolites in morning urine. The study protocol is approved by the ethical committee of the Ghent University Hospital. Within this paper, study design and methods are described. The BIOMYCO study is the first study whereby a multi-toxin approach is applied for mycotoxin exposure assessment in adults and children on a large scale. Moreover, it is the first study that will describe the exposure to an elaborated set of mycotoxins in the Belgian population. In first instance, descriptive analysis will be performed, describing the exposure to mycotoxins for the child and adult group. Exposure of different subgroups will be compared. Furthermore, correlations between the mycotoxin concentrations measured and the food consumption reported will be estimated to explore whether the mycotoxin exposure could be explained by the consumption

  7. Interactive web visualization tools to the results interpretation of a seismic risk study aimed at the emergency levels definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Medina, A.; Gutierrez, V.; Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Benito, B.

    2009-04-01

    Results of a seismic risk assessment study are often applied and interpreted by users unspecialised on the topic or lacking a scientific background. In this context, the availability of tools that help translating essentially scientific contents to broader audiences (such as decision makers or civil defence officials) as well as representing and managing results in a user-friendly fashion, are on indubitable value. On of such tools is the visualization tool VISOR-RISNA, a web tool developed within the RISNA project (financed by the Emergency Agency of Navarre, Spain) for regional seismic risk assessment of Navarre and the subsequent development of emergency plans. The RISNA study included seismic hazard evaluation, geotechnical characterization of soils, incorporation of site effects to expected ground motions, vulnerability distribution assessment and estimation of expected damage distributions for a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. The main goal of RISNA was the identification of higher risk area where focusing detailed, local-scale risk studies in the future and the corresponding urban emergency plans. A geographic information system was used to combine different information layers, generate tables of results and represent maps with partial and final results. The visualization tool VISOR-RISNA is intended to facilitate the interpretation and representation of the collection of results, with the ultimate purpose of defining actuation plans. A number of criteria for defining actuation priorities are proposed in this work. They are based on combinations of risk parameters resulting from the risk study (such as expected ground motion and damage and exposed population), as determined by risk assessment specialists. Although the values that these parameters take are a result of the risk study, their distribution in several classes depends on the intervals defined by decision takers or civil defense officials. These criteria provide a ranking of

  8. A radio-frequency system for in vivo pilot experiments aimed at the studies on biological effects of electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardoino, Lucia; Lopresto, Vanni; Mancini, Sergio; Marino, Carmela; Pinto, Rosanna; Lovisolo, Giorgio A

    2005-08-07

    An exposure system consisting of two long transversal electromagnetic (TEM) cells, operating at a frequency of 900 MHz, is presented and discussed. The set-up allows simultaneous exposure of a significant number of animals (up to 12 mice per cell) in a blind way to a uniform plane wave at a frequency of 900 MHz, for investigating possible biological effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields produced by wireless communication systems. A heating/refrigerating system has also been designed for maintaining comfortable environmental conditions within the TEM cells during experiments. An accurate dosimetric study has been performed both numerically and by means of direct measurements on phantoms and living mice. The results have shown that good homogeneity of exposure and adequate power efficiency, in terms of whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) per 1 W of input power, are achievable for the biological target.

  9. Aims, methods and preliminary findings of the Physical Activity, Nutrition and Allergies in Children Examined in Athens (PANACEA epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadimitriou Anastasios

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the prevalence of asthma symptoms in a sample of Greek children aged 10–12 years, and to evaluate these rates in relation to anthropometric, lifestyle characteristics and dietary habits. Methods During 2006, 700 schoolchildren (323 male and 377 female, aged 10–12 years (4th to 6th school grade, were selected from 18 schools located in the greater Athens area. The schools were randomly selected from a list provided by the regional educational offices. To achieve a representative sample the schools enrolled were selected from various region of the Athens area. For each child a questionnaire was completed that was developed for the purposes of the study to retrieve information on: age, sex, school class, other socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, dietary habits (through a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire and physical activity status; the presence of asthma and allergies was assessed by the standard ISAAC questionnaire. Results The prevalence of wheezing in the past was 25% in boys and 19% in girls, while the prevalence of current wheezing was 9.0% in boys and 5.8% in girls. The prevalence of any asthma symptoms was 27.6% in boys and 20.4% in girls. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that increased body weight and sedentary lifestyle is associated with asthma symptoms only in boys. Conclusion The present cross-sectional study cannot establish causal relationships between asthma and increased body weight of schoolchildren; however, our findings underline the associations between asthma, increased body weight, and physical activity at population level, and urge for actions that should be taken by public health policy makers in order to prevent these conditions among children.

  10. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of acquired blindness in Japan. One reason that it often leads to blindness is that it can continue to worsen even after effective medical reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP), the only evidence-based treatment. The limitations of current treatments make it critical to identify IOP-independent factors that can cause glaucoma and develop new drugs to target these factors. This is a challenging task, as the pathology of glaucoma is thought to be very complex, with different combinations of factors underlying its development and progression in different patients. Additionally, there is a deficiency in methods to efficiently perform clinical evaluations and reliably probe the state of the disease over relatively short periods. In addition, newly developed drugs need to be evaluated with clinical trials, for which human and financial resources are limited, before they can be widely used for treatment. Taking all these issues into consideration, it is evident that there are two urgent issues to consider: the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on its pathology, and the improvement of clinical evaluation methods. In this review, we discuss some of our efforts to develop new neuroprotective agents for glaucoma, with a focus on the following three areas: 1. Clinical research and development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP-independent factors, and the exploration of possibilities for the improvement of clinical evaluation of glaucoma. 2. Pathology-based research and development of new drugs for glaucoma, focusing on comprehensive gene expression analysis and the development of molecule-targeting drugs, using murine optic nerve crush as a disease model. 3. Development of next generation in vivo imaging modalities and the establishment of infrastructure enabling "big-data" analysis. First, we discuss our clinical research and the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP

  11. Mechanistic studies aimed at the development of single site metal alkoxide catalysts for the production of polyoxygenates from renewable resources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, Malcolm H. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The work proposed herein follows on directly from the existing 3 year grant and the request for funding is for 12 months to allow completion of this work and graduation of current students supported by DOE. The three primary projects are as follows. 1.) A comparative study of the reactivity of LMg(OR) (solvent), where L= a β-diiminate or pyrromethene ligand, in the ring-opening of cyclic esters. 2.) The homopolymerization of expoxides, particularly propylene oxide and styrene oxide, and their copolymerizations with carbon dioxide or organic anhydrides to yield polycarbonates or polyesters, respectively. 3.) The development of well-defined bismuth (III) complexes for ring-opening polymerizations that are tolerant of both air and water. In each of these topics special emphasis is placed on developing a detailed mechanistic understanding of the ring-opening event and how this is modified by the employment of specific metal and ligand combinations. This document also provides a report on findings of the past grant period that are not yet in the public domain/published and shows how the proposed work will bring the original project to conclusion.

  12. AIMES Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Daniel S [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA); Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Weissman, Jon [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Turilli, Matteo [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2017-01-31

    This is the final technical report for the AIMES project. Many important advances in science and engineering are due to large-scale distributed computing. Notwithstanding this reliance, we are still learning how to design and deploy large-scale production Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCI). This is evidenced by missing design principles for DCI, and an absence of generally acceptable and usable distributed computing abstractions. The AIMES project was conceived against this backdrop, following on the heels of a comprehensive survey of scientific distributed applications. AIMES laid the foundations to address the tripartite challenge of dynamic resource management, integrating information, and portable and interoperable distributed applications. Four abstractions were defined and implemented: skeleton, resource bundle, pilot, and execution strategy. The four abstractions were implemented into software modules and then aggregated into the AIMES middleware. This middleware successfully integrates information across the application layer (skeletons) and resource layer (Bundles), derives a suitable execution strategy for the given skeleton and enacts its execution by means of pilots on one or more resources, depending on the application requirements, and resource availabilities and capabilities.

  13. Discrimination model applied to urinalysis of patients with diabetes and hypertension aiming at diagnosis of chronic kidney disease by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Vieira, Elzo Everton; Bispo, Jeyse Aliana Martins; Silveira, Landulfo; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha

    2017-07-27

    Higher blood pressure level and poor glycemic control in diabetic patients are considered progression factors that cause faster decline in kidney functions leading to kidney damage. The present study aimed to develop a quantification model of biomarkers creatinine, urea, and glucose by means of selected peaks of these compounds, measured by Raman spectroscopy, and to estimate the concentration of these analytes in the urine of normal subjects (G_N), diabetic patients with hypertension (G_WOL) patients with chronic renal failure doing dialysis (G_D). Raman peak intensities at 680 cm(-1) (creatinine), 1004 cm(-1) (urea), and 1128 cm(-1) (glucose) from normal, diabetic, and hypertensive and doing dialysis patients, obtained with a dispersive 830 nm Raman spectrometer, were estimated through Origin software. Spectra of creatinine, urea, and glucose diluted in water were also obtained, and the same peaks were evaluated. A discrimination model based on Mahalanobis distance was developed. It was possible to determine the concentration of creatinine, urea, and glucose by means of the Raman peaks of the selected biomarkers in the urine of the groups G_N, G_WOL, and G_D (r = 0.9). It was shown that the groups G_WOL and G_D had lower creatinine and urea concentrations than the group G_N (p < 0.05). The classification model based on Mahalanobis distance applied to the concentrations of creatinine, urea, and glucose presented a correct classification of 89% for G_N, 86% for G_WOL, and 79% for G_D. It was possible to obtain quantitative information regarding important biomarkers in urine for the assessment of renal impairment in patients with diabetes and hypertension, and this information can be correlated with clinical criteria for the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease.

  14. New Theories and Practice in Social Studies in Japan: Is Citizenship Education the Aim of Social Studies as a School Subject?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio Ikeno

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce new theories and practice in Social Studies in Japan since the 1990s, to outline some trends and characteristics relating to the question ‘Is Citizenship Education the aim of Social Studies as a school subject?’ and to identify ‘Applied’ and ‘Academic’ Social Studies as two separate categories. The Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science and Technology has long advocated the merits of Applied Social Studies, but recent trends have seen educational researchers and local education administrators actively supporting the reformation and promotion of Social Studies from an ‘applied’ perspective. Going even further, several schools and districts are so in favour of this development that Citizenship Education has been incorporated as a subject or topic into the school curriculum. However, defence of Academic Social Studies is also deeply rooted; its argument being that Social Studies means Social Sciences. According to this view, Geography, History and Civics (comprising politics, economics and sociology are treated as distinct fields of Social Studies.

  15. AIM Data Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Scholz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM Data Services as a virtual facility provides virtual 3D reference tracks for simulation applications in the domain of automotive and railway systems. It offers tools for management and analysis of experiment data and a platform for survey and processing of vehicle data in the public transport domain. Collected spatial data is bundled in a database cluster and published through common web mapping interfaces.

  16. Aims and Scope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Chinese Nursing Research(CNR)is the official peer-reviewed research journal and an international platform of nursing academic exchange.This journal aims to promote excellence in nursing and health care through the dissemination of the latest,evidence-based,peer-reviewed research report,academic papers,review articles and clinical research,to reflect nursing academic trends,scientific research and

  17. Aiming for the ordinary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersen, Sara Marie Hebsgaard

    and articulation of bodily sensations, and how decisions about healthcare seeking are established in this context. This dissertation aims to explore these matters from the perspective of the Danish middle class, mainly focusing on how sensations are ascribed meaning as symptoms and how they are evoked...... months of ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish middle class suburban neighbourhood, using participant observation, semi-structured interviews and health diaries. 18 key informants were followed with regular field visits, interviews and participation in everyday life activities as well as health...

  18. AIMES Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Many important advances in science and engineering are due to large-scale distributed computing. Notwithstanding this reliance, we are still learning how to design and deploy large-scale production Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCI). The AIMES project was conceived against this backdrop, following on the heels of a comprehensive survey of scienti c distributed applications [1]. The survey established, arguably for the rst time, the relationship between infrastructure and scienti c distributed applications. It examined well known contributors to the complexity associated with infrastructure, such as inconsistent internal and external interfaces, and demonstrated the correlation with application brittleness. It discussed how infrastructure complexity reinforces the challenges inherent in developing distributed applications.

  19. Translation and validation study of the Persian version of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2 (AIMS2 in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadian Mohamad

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2 (AIMS2 has not been translated and validated for Persian-speaking patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. This was to provide a validated instrument to measure functional disability and health-related quality of life in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee in Iran. The aim of this study was to culturally adapt and validate the AIMS2 for Persian-speaking patients with osteoarthritis of the knee in Iran. Methods A consecutive sample of patients with knee osteoarthritis were asked to complete the AIMS2, the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 and four visual analog scales for pain, joint stiffness, patient's and physician's global assessment. Internal consistency and convergent validity were applied to examine psychometric properties of the AIMS2. In addition, 30 randomly selected patients were asked to complete the questionnaire two days later for the second time for test-retest reliability. Finally factor structure of the Persian AIMS2 was performed using the principal component factor analysis. Results In all 230 patients were entered into the study. The mean (SD age of the participants was 56.9 (8.7 years and the mean (SD duration of disease was 7.2 (3.5 years. Cronbach's alpha coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC for the Persian AIMS2 scales ranged from 0.74 to 0.92 and 0.85 to 0.96, respectively. The correlation between most of the Persian AIMS2 scales and the physical and mental summary scores of the SF-36 and the visual analogue scales for pain, joint stiffness, patient's and physician's global assessment were statistically significant indicating a good convergent validity (p Conclusion The results showed that the Persian AIMS2 had reasonably good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. It is simple and easy to use and now can be applied in the future studies in Iran. However, its

  20. Overview of the TRO-pico campaign aiming at studying of the impact of convective overshooting on the stratospheric water budget: first highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, Emmanuel; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Amarouche, Nadir; Khaykhin, Sergey; Ghysels, Melanie; Mappe-Fogaing, Irene; Stoeffler, Clara; Toledo-Tarasco, Daniel; Rannou, Pascal; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Wienhold, Franck; Durry, Georges; Held, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    Two processes are competing in the control of water vapor concentration in the tropical stratosphere: i) The so-called cold trap that is the slow ascent of water vapour in the TTL followed by ice crystal freezing and sedimentation leading to the drying of air entering the stratosphere and ii) convective overshooting that injects ice crystals sublimating in the stratosphere, eventually followed by further condensation and sedimentation. In contrast with the large-scale cold trap mechanism, overshooting towers are small size, fast but relatively frequent processes. Even if the first is frequently thought to be the main process controlling the amount of water in the stratosphere, the importance of overshooting, highly dependent on the frequency of the events, is still unknown. The aim of the TRO-pico project, supported by the French ANR, is to characterize the variability and frequency of convective water injections, its contribution at the regional wet season timescale, and to improve the understanding of their role with respect to the cold trap at a wider scale. The project is based on a small balloon campaign that took place in Bauru (22.3°S) in S-E Brazil, in March 2012 and from November 2012 to March 2013 (most of the wet season) with a peak phase in January-February 2013 (during the most active convective season). The campaign involved a series of light weight payloads, including Pico-SDLA laser spectrometers (H2O, CO2 or CH4), a FLASH Lyman alpha hygrometer, a mini-SOAZ spectrometer for O3, NO2, H2O, COBALD and LOAC aerosol instruments, combined with ground based S-Band radar and an optical depth sensor so-called ODS, satellite observations from CALIPSO, MLS, and adequate modelling tools that is of all parameters sensitive to convective intensity. TRO-pico included a two time-scale campaign with a total of 37 balloon flights including 34 flights using H2O sensors in the flight train: i) a Six Month Observation Period (SMOP) covering to the full wet season

  1. A stepped strategy that aims at the nationwide implementation of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery programme in major gynaecological surgery: study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.J.A.M. de; Maessen, J.M.; Slangen, B.F.; Winkens, B.; Dirksen, C.D.; Weijden, T.T. van der

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programmes aim at an early recovery after surgical trauma and consequently at a reduced length of hospitalisation. This paper presents the protocol for a study that focuses on large-scale implementation of the ERAS programme in major gynaecological

  2. An Exploratory Study Investigating the Impact of a University Module That Aims to Challenge Students' Perspectives on Ageing and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alison

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess if a module on an undergraduate degree programme had challenged students' perspectives on ageing and older adults. Courses on gerontology are on the increase within the UK to support increasingly ageing populations, with agendas to promote ethical care and to challenge the incidence of elderly abuse. Research…

  3. DiAlert: a lifestyle education programme aimed at people with a positive family history of type 2 diabetes and overweight, study protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, W.H.; Nierkens, V.; Stronks, K.; Middelkoop, B.J.C.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Verhoeff, A.P.; de Wit, M.; Snoek, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Family history is a known risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and more so in the presence of overweight. This study aims to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a new lifestyle education programme 'DiAlert' targeted at 1st degree relatives of people with T2DM and overweight. In view of the

  4. A stepped strategy that aims at the nationwide implementation of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery programme in major gynaecological surgery: study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.J.A.M. de; Maessen, J.M.; Slangen, B.F.; Winkens, B.; Dirksen, C.D.; Weijden, T.T. van der

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programmes aim at an early recovery after surgical trauma and consequently at a reduced length of hospitalisation. This paper presents the protocol for a study that focuses on large-scale implementation of the ERAS programme in major gynaecological

  5. The diverse aims of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potochnik, Angela

    2015-10-01

    There is increasing attention to the centrality of idealization in science. One common view is that models and other idealized representations are important to science, but that they fall short in one or more ways. On this view, there must be an intermediary step between idealized representation and the traditional aims of science, including truth, explanation, and prediction. Here I develop an alternative interpretation of the relationship between idealized representation and the aims of science. I suggest that continuing, widespread idealization calls into question the idea that science aims for truth. If instead science aims to produce understanding, this would enable idealizations to directly contribute to science's epistemic success. I also use the fact of widespread idealization to motivate the idea that science's wide variety aims, epistemic and non-epistemic, are best served by different kinds of scientific products. Finally, I show how these diverse aims—most rather distant from truth—result in the expanded influence of social values on science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chiang Mai University Health Worker Study aiming toward a better understanding of noncommunicable disease development in Thailand: methods and description of study population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angkurawaranon C

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chaisiri Angkurawaranon,1,2 Anawat Wisetborisut,2 Wichuda Jiraporncharoen,2 Surinporn Likhitsathian,3 Ronnaphob Uaphanthasath,2 Patama Gomutbutra,2 Surin Jiraniramai,2 Chawin Lerssrimonkol,2 Apinun Aramrattanna,2 Pat Doyle,1 Dorothea Nitsch1 1Department of Non-Communicable Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK; 2Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 3Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: Urbanization is considered to be one of the key drivers of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs in Thailand and other developing countries. These influences, in turn, may affect an individual's behavior and risk of developing NCDs. The Chiang Mai University (CMU Health Worker Study aims to provide evidence for a better understanding of the development of NCDs and ultimately to apply the evidence toward better prevention, risk modification, and improvement of clinical care for patients with NCDs and NCD-related conditions. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of health care workers from CMU Hospital was conducted between January 2013 and June 2013. Questionnaires, interviews, and physical and laboratory examinations were used to assess urban exposure, occupational shift work, risk factors for NCDs, self-reported NCDs, and other NCD-related health conditions. Results: From 5,364 eligible workers, 3,204 participated (59.7%. About 11.1% of the participants had high blood pressure (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg and almost 30% were considered to be obese (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. A total of 2.3% had a high fasting blood glucose level (≥126 mg/dL, and the most common abnormal lipid profile was high low-density lipoprotein (≥160 mg/dL, which was found in 19.2% of participants. Discussion: The study of health

  7. Study of air masses trajectories during the TRO-pico campaign aiming at studying of the impact of convective overshooting on the stratospheric water budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mappe, Irene; Riviere, Emmanuel; Khaykin, Sergey; Ghysels, Mélanie; Stoeffler, Clara; Amarouche, Nadir; Durry, Georges; Held, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    Water vapor directly affects the climate as greenhouse gas emissions, but also indirectly by the formation of other essential elements of radiative forcing as aerosols, clouds of ice. In addition, water has a significant role in the chemical composition, the balance of ozone and the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. Transfers of water vapor in the troposphere to the stratosphere are one of the major scientific challenges in modeling the stratosphere and climate. The TRO-pico small balloon campaign took place in Bauru (22.3 ° S) in southern Brazil during two convective seasons. Its main objective was to study the exchange of water vapor between the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, and better understand the role of overshooting convection in the moistening of the lower stratosphere and its variability at the local scale to infer a typical impact at a larger scale. Here we focus on the purely convective seasons of the campaign, with a first period in March 2012 and a second in Jan-Feb 2013, during which, in addition to convective tracers measurements (methane, O3…) H2O was intensively sampled by two different in situ hygrometers : Pico-SDLA H2O and FLASH-B. Here we investigated all the measurements gathered close to deep convective events and analyze them in term of potential signature of overshooting convection in the lower stratosphere, to put to the fore possible impact at the wet season time scale. The approach is the use of a trajectory model (HYsplit) running with the GDAS analyses, the different H2O profile from both instruments, echo top from the Bauru S-Band radar highlighting any potential overshoot occurrence in the vicinity of the balloon flight earlier during the day. For each local maximum of H2O, a back trajectory is computed from the balloon position. It is checked if the back trajectory cross an overshooting cell seen by the Bauru radar, and matches it in time and maximum altitude Here we use a total of 8 vertical profiles of H2O from

  8. The micrometeoric input in the upper atmosphere. A comparison between model predictions and HPLA and meteor radars observations and AIM-CDE dust detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janches, Diego; Sparks, Jonathan; Johnson, Kyle; Poppe, Andrew; James, David; Fentzke, Jonathan; Palo, Scott; Horanyi, Mihaly

    particles are mostly characterized by very high geocentric speeds (˜55 km/sec) since they are in retrograde orbits. The reminding 30 to 40% of meteoroids entering the atmosphere originate mostly from the Helion and Ant-Helion source, as well as the Toroidal sources. We further validate the modeled results using trail observations from a meteor radar operating at the South Pole. The results of the model are in excellent agreement with observed diurnal curves obtained at different seasons and locations using measurements from both types of radars. Based on these results, we calculate the micrometeor global, diurnal and seasonal input in the upper atmosphere. Finally, we attempt to extend our model to interpret preliminary results from measurements using the dust detector (CDE) on board of the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite.

  9. Overview of the TRO-pico campaign aiming at studying of the impact of convective overshooting on the stratospheric water budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, Emmanuel; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Amarouche, Nadir; Ghysels, Mélanie; Stoeffler, Clara; Khaykin, Sergey; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Wienhold, Franck; Cairo, Francesco; Di Donfrancesco, Guido; Held, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    Two processes are competing in the control of water vapor concentration in the tropical stratosphere: i) The so-called cold trap that is the slow ascent of water vapour in the TTL followed by ice crystal freezing and sedimentation leading to the drying of air entering the stratosphere and ii) convective overshooting that injects ice crystals sublimating in the stratosphere, eventually followed by further condensation and sedimentation. In contrast with the large-scale cold trap mechanism, overshooting towers are small-size and fast, but relatively frequent processes. Even if the first is frequently thought to be the main process controlling the amount of water in the stratosphere, the importance of overshooting, highly dependent on the frequency of the events, is still unknown. The aim of the TRO-pico project, supported by the French ANR, is to characterize the variability and frequency of convective water injections, its contribution at the regional wet season timescale, and to improve the understanding of their role with respect to the cold trap at a wider scale. The project is based on a small balloon campaign in Bauru (22.3°S) in S-E Brazil, including different phases during the wet season : March 2012 at the end of the most active convective season, a transition phase in November-December 2012 before the most active season, and January-February 2013, which corresponds to the peak of the convective activity. The campaign involves a series of light-weight payloads, including Pico-SDLA laser (H2O, CO2 or CH4) and FLASH Lyman alpha hygrometers, a mini-SOAZ spectrometer for O3, NO2, H2O and BrO, an AICEP (Electric field and Lightning) sensor, and COBALD, LOAC and micro-lidar aerosol instruments, combined with ground based radar and lidar measurements, satellite observations from CALIPSO, MLS and adequate modeling tools, that is to say all parameters that are sensitive to convective intensity. TRO-pico is a two time-scale campaign: i) a Six Month Observation Period

  10. First results from the TRO-pico campaign aiming at studying the impact of convective overshooting on the stratospheric water budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, E. D.; Pommerau, J.-P.; Held, G.; Amarouche, N.; Ghysels, M.; Khaykin, S.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Renard, J.-B.; Cairo, F.; Durry, G.; Di Donfrancesco, G.

    2012-04-01

    Two processes are competing in the control of water vapor concentration in the tropical stratosphere: i) The so-called cold trap that is the slow ascent of water vapour in the TTL (Tropical Tropopause Layer) followed by ice crystal freezing and sedimentation leading to the drying of air entering the stratosphere and ii) convective overshooting that injects ice crystals sublimating in the stratosphere, eventually followed by further condensation and sedimentation. In contrast with the large-scale cold trap mechanism, overshooting towers are small in size and fast, but relatively frequent processes. Even if the first is frequently thought to be the main process controlling the amount of water in the stratosphere, the importance of overshooting, highly dependent on the frequency of the events, is still unknown. The aim of the TRO-pico project, funded by the French ANR, is to characterize the variability and frequency of convective water injections, its contribution at the regional wet season timescale, and to improve the understanding of their role with respect to the cold trap at a wider scale. The project is based on a small balloon campaign in Bauru (22.3 S) in Southeast Brazil, from the end of January 2012 to December 2012, involving a series of light-weight payloads, including Pico-SDLA laser (H2O or CH4) and FLASH Lyman alpha hygrometers, a mini-SOAZ spectrometer for O3, NO2, H2O, and BrO, an AICEP (Electric field and Lightning) sensor, and COBALD and LOAC aerosol instruments, combined with ground based radar and lidar measurements, satellite observations from CALIPSO, MLS, Megha-Tropiques and adequate modeling, that is, of all parameters sensitive to convective intensity. TRO-pico is a two time-scale campaign: i) a Six Month Observation Period (SMOP) covering a complete wet season during which water vapour profiles will be measured regularly for studying its variability and seasonal change, and ii) an intensive observation period (IOP) during the most

  11. An intervention program with the aim to improve and maintain work productivity for workers with rheumatoid arthritis: design of a randomized controlled trial and cost-effectiveness study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilsteren Myrthe van

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Workers with rheumatoid arthritis (RA often experience restrictions in functioning at work and participation in employment. Strategies to maintain work productivity exist, but these interventions do not involve the actual workplace. Therefore the aim of this study is to investigate the (costeffectiveness of an intervention program at the workplace on work productivity for workers with RA. Methods/design This study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT in specialized rheumatology treatment centers in or near Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Randomisation to either the control or the intervention group is performed at patient level. Both groups will receive care as usual by the rheumatologist, and patients in the intervention group will also take part in the intervention program. The intervention program consists of two components; integrated care, including a participatory workplace intervention. Integrated care involves a clinical occupational physician, who will act as care manager, to coordinate the care. The care manager has an intermediate role between clinical and occupational care. The participatory workplace intervention will be guided by an occupational therapist, and involves problem solving by the patient and the patients’ supervisor. The aim of the workplace intervention is to achieve consensus between patient and supervisor concerning feasible solutions for the obstacles for functioning at work. Data collection will take place at baseline and after 6 and 12 months by means of a questionnaire. The primary outcome measure is work productivity, measured by hours lost from work due to presenteeism. Secondary outcome measures include sick leave, quality of life, pain and fatigue. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention program will be evaluated from the societal perspective. Discussion Usual care of primary and outpatient health services is not aimed at improving work productivity. Therefore it is desirable to develop

  12. An intervention program with the aim to improve and maintain work productivity for workers with rheumatoid arthritis: design of a randomized controlled trial and cost-effectiveness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vilsteren, Myrthe; Boot, Cécile R L; Steenbeek, Romy; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; Anema, Johannes R

    2012-07-02

    Workers with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) often experience restrictions in functioning at work and participation in employment. Strategies to maintain work productivity exist, but these interventions do not involve the actual workplace. Therefore the aim of this study is to investigate the (cost)effectiveness of an intervention program at the workplace on work productivity for workers with RA. This study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in specialized rheumatology treatment centers in or near Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Randomisation to either the control or the intervention group is performed at patient level. Both groups will receive care as usual by the rheumatologist, and patients in the intervention group will also take part in the intervention program. The intervention program consists of two components; integrated care, including a participatory workplace intervention. Integrated care involves a clinical occupational physician, who will act as care manager, to coordinate the care. The care manager has an intermediate role between clinical and occupational care. The participatory workplace intervention will be guided by an occupational therapist, and involves problem solving by the patient and the patients' supervisor. The aim of the workplace intervention is to achieve consensus between patient and supervisor concerning feasible solutions for the obstacles for functioning at work. Data collection will take place at baseline and after 6 and 12 months by means of a questionnaire. The primary outcome measure is work productivity, measured by hours lost from work due to presenteeism. Secondary outcome measures include sick leave, quality of life, pain and fatigue. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention program will be evaluated from the societal perspective. Usual care of primary and outpatient health services is not aimed at improving work productivity. Therefore it is desirable to develop interventions aimed at improving functioning at work. If the

  13. External equivalent type Ward aiming optimization studies in power systems; Equivalentes externos tipo Ward visando estudos de otimizacao em sistemas de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nepomuceno, Leonardo

    1993-07-01

    The execution of functions such as contingency analysis, optimization, reactive dispatch, etc, at the control centers requires appropriate models representing the non-observable parts (external system). The classical external equivalents have been developed considering basically the contingency analysis. This work points out the performance of the Extended Ward Equivalent (W.E.), which currently represents the state of art concerning reduced circuit based models. the work analyzes the W.E. response to changes occurred in optimization studied. Moreover, a new model, named INTERNAL REACTIVE WARD (WRINT), resulting from an adaptation of the W.E. is proposed focusing on the improvement of the equivalent in case of changes occurs in optimization studies. The model's general idea is to reflect the equivalent's capacity of reactive response into the internal system. Comparative computational test results are shown. The details of routines implementation are also pointed out. (author)

  14. Validated physical models and parameters of bulk 3C–SiC aiming for credible technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitopoulos, A.; Lophitis, N.; Gyftakis, K. N.; Perkins, S.; Antoniou, M.

    2017-10-01

    The cubic form of SiC (β- or 3C-) compared to the hexagonal α-SiC polytypes, primarily 4H- and 6H–SiC, has lower growth cost and can be grown heteroepitaxially in large area silicon (Si) wafers which makes it of special interest. This in conjunction with the recently reported growth of improved quality 3C–SiC, make the development of devices an imminent objective. However, the readiness of models that accurately predict the material characteristics, properties and performance is an imperative requirement for attaining the design and optimization of functional devices. The purpose of this study is to provide and validate a comprehensive set of models alongside with their parameters for bulk 3C–SiC. The validation process revealed that the proposed models are in a very good agreement to experimental data and confidence ranges were identified. This is the first piece of work achieving that for 3C–SiC. Considerably, it constitutes the necessary step for finite element method simulations and technology computer aided design.

  15. Development of an advanced eco-hydrologic and biogeochemical coupling model aimed at clarifying the missing role of inland water in the global biogeochemical cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tadanobu

    2017-04-01

    Recent research showed that inland water including rivers, lakes, and groundwater may play some role in carbon cycling, although its contribution has remained uncertain due to limited amount of reliable data available. In this study, the author developed an advanced model coupling eco-hydrology and biogeochemical cycle (National Integrated Catchment-based Eco-hydrology (NICE)-BGC). This new model incorporates complex coupling of hydrologic-carbon cycle in terrestrial-aquatic linkages and interplay between inorganic and organic carbon during the whole process of carbon cycling. The model could simulate both horizontal transports (export from land to inland water 2.01 ± 1.98 Pg C/yr and transported to ocean 1.13 ± 0.50 Pg C/yr) and vertical fluxes (degassing 0.79 ± 0.38 Pg C/yr, and sediment storage 0.20 ± 0.09 Pg C/yr) in major rivers in good agreement with previous researches, which was an improved estimate of carbon flux from previous studies. The model results also showed global net land flux simulated by NICE-BGC (-1.05 ± 0.62 Pg C/yr) decreased carbon sink a little in comparison with revised Lund-Potsdam-Jena Wetland Hydrology and Methane (-1.79 ± 0.64 Pg C/yr) and previous materials (-2.8 to -1.4 Pg C/yr). This is attributable to CO2 evasion and lateral carbon transport explicitly included in the model, and the result suggests that most previous researches have generally overestimated the accumulation of terrestrial carbon and underestimated the potential for lateral transport. The results further implied difference between inverse techniques and budget estimates suggested can be explained to some extent by a net source from inland water. NICE-BGC would play an important role in reevaluation of greenhouse gas budget of the biosphere, quantification of hot spots, and bridging the gap between top-down and bottom-up approaches to global carbon budget.

  16. Rhetoric and Reality in Study Abroad: The Aims of Overseas Study for U.S. Higher Education in the Twentieth Century

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras Jr., Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Political and educational leaders today often praise the benefits of study abroad with lofty rhetoric by arguing that overseas study can provide American undergraduate students with a variety of beneficial outcomes such as personal growth, academic gains, professional skills, greater international awareness and cross-cultural understanding. Despite the rhetoric, a relatively small percentage of students participate in overseas study. In 2014, the Institute of International Education reported ...

  17. The study aims at the structural analysis of Nezami's tale of "the Evil and the Good" in terms of Greimas's structural semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SayydAhmad Parsa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present research focuses on the investigation of Nezami's tale of "the Evil and the Good" in terms of Greimas's structural semantics. The study aims at the structural analysis of the tale above through the identification of binary oppositions, sequences, the contractual, performative, and disjunctive ones and a good grasp of the structure of Haft Peikar to generalize the research findings to other verse narratives in Persian classic literature. The reason for the selection of Nezami lies in his artifice in narrative production, the narrativity of Haft Peikar and the popularity of the tale of "The Evil and the Good". The research method is descriptive-analytic and the findings are analyzed through content analysis along with Gremasian semantic analysis. The findings reveal that hero (subject and goal (object and the central actors in the narrative and the subject (the good as the base part plays an active role in then narrative with respect to the adaptability of Gremasian approach to the "the Evil and the Good" and conducting more researches, one can confide in Greimas's structural analysis of the other verse narratives. Keywords: structuralism Greimasactantial pattern, Haft Peikar, "the Evil and the Good"  Professor of Persian language and literature, kurdistan university * MA. student of Persian language and literature, kurdistan University**   The present research investigates the tale of "Evil and Good" in Nezami's Haft Peikar in terms of Greimasian semantic structuralism and tries through binary oppositions to verify the degree of applicability of Greimas' actantial modelto the Persian versified narratives and generalization of the results to other verse narratives to achieve a better understanding of the structure of these narratives. Greimas was able to drive semantic square from binary oppositions. He discovered, through these oppositions, a new type of dialectic whereby each concepts generates another concept, and

  18. Evaluation of a Mindfulness-Based Mobile App Aimed at Promoting Awareness of Weight-Related Behaviors in Adolescents: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Tami; Hingle, Melanie

    2017-04-26

    Mindfulness-based interventions are reported to be highly acceptable and have positive effects on youth, yet most are clinic- or school-based aimed at emotional regulation or academic performance. To provide flexible program delivery, we developed and tested a standalone mindfulness-based app aimed at improving weight-related behaviors (eg, diet, physical activity, sleep) in adolescents. Our objective was to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and utility of a mindfulness-based mobile app. In a single-arm pilot study, 15 adolescents (14-18 years) were prompted to access the app once a day, every day for 6 weeks. Outcomes were measured by in-app and poststudy surveys, and descriptive statistical analyses were performed. Time within a mindfulness state was self-reported during weekly timed practices. The app was rated highly for content and encouraging the practice of activities to promote mindfulness states. Teens reported increased awareness of eating behaviors and high adherence, particularly during physically active practices. Average self-reported time spent in a mindfulness state increased 2.5 times by week 6 (78 [SD 17] seconds) compared to week 1 (31 [SD 21] seconds). The high acceptability and utility ratings of the app, increases in reported time in mindfulness states, and high frequency of participation, including mindful eating and physical activity, suggest the mindfulness-based mobile app has the potential to improve awareness of weight-related behaviors.

  19. The Assess Efficiency Model for Shrapnel Cluster Ammunition to Fire Gather Aims%多用途子母弹对集群目标毁伤效率评估模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙兆军; 刘富书; 钱林方

    2012-01-01

    多用途子母弹是多功能火炮配备的一种集地面打击和防空袭于一体的新型弹药,为充分发挥该弹药的战技性能,并合理地研究其作战使用.在假定单个目标均匀分布的基础上,运用离散的方法研究并建立了单发多用途子母弹对集群目标射击的效率评定模型,在此基础上又建立了多发多用途子母弹对集群目标射击时的效率评定模型,并运用模型进行了计算分析,计算结果表明该模型计算过程简便、精度高、准确性较好.%The multi-function artillery is one of the most important directions of the artillery. The efficiency assess of the shrapnel cluster ammunition for the multi-function artillery is a important study appearance. In order to exert the tactics capability of the weapon and make use of the weapon logicall,the paper assume the single aim distribute equality and use the discrete method to establish the assess efficiency model for the single shrapnel cluster ammunition of the multi-function artillery to fire gather aims. On the basis of the assess efficiency model for the single shrapnel cluster ammunition of the multifunction artillery to fire gather aims, the paper establish the assess efficiency model for more multifunction artillerys launch the shrapnel cluster ammunition to fire gather aims, and then use the model to count and analyze the examples. The result indicates that the model is simplet and exact.

  20. Formal analysis of the urban 'Dutch model' with aims of re-formulating spatial quality concerns for pedestrian precincts in current New Town developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Toshikazu

    2005-01-01

    In the Japanese post WWII urban planning and design field, concerns for formal features regarding the sequential street-front visual image in new high-density urban spaces have been a rather subordinated subject. Famous New Town schemes such as Tsukuba Science City (1963), or Minato Mirai 21 (1965) for instance, are typical inland and reclaimed land examples that summarize the validity and limitations of functional zoning systems applied to these artificial urban developments for the last half century. In those examples, the interaction between space mobility and land use has not been explored sufficiently in order to create attractive street-front images, yet such interaction is essential to the way the cityscape and its character are perceived by the eye. However, current insight regarding the sustainable New Town paradigm has brought a renewed perspective regarding design policy of the pedestrian precinct. This study investigates the formal features of the sequential street-front image of Dutch late-medieval town examples which could help re-formulate the existing design policies regarding the quality of pedestrian space especially in the artificial reclaimed land design field. The purpose is to find out how the principles of those old high-density artificial environmental design models generate such effective interaction between mobility and land usage, creating an enriched aesthetic visual image of street-front space as a result.

  1. Robust and portable capacity computing method for many finite element analyses of a high-fidelity crustal structure model aimed for coseismic slip estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agata, Ryoichiro; Ichimura, Tsuyoshi; Hirahara, Kazuro; Hyodo, Mamoru; Hori, Takane; Hori, Muneo

    2016-09-01

    Computation of many Green's functions (GFs) in finite element (FE) analyses of crustal deformation is an essential technique in inverse analyses of coseismic slip estimations. In particular, analysis based on a high-resolution FE model (high-fidelity model) is expected to contribute to the construction of a community standard FE model and benchmark solution. Here, we propose a naive but robust and portable capacity computing method to compute many GFs using a high-fidelity model, assuming that various types of PC clusters are used. The method is based on the master-worker model, implemented using the Message Passing Interface (MPI), to perform robust and efficient input/output operations. The method was applied to numerical experiments of coseismic slip estimation in the Tohoku region of Japan; comparison of the estimated results with those generated using lower-fidelity models revealed the benefits of using a high-fidelity FE model in coseismic slip distribution estimation. Additionally, the proposed method computes several hundred GFs more robustly and efficiently than methods without the master-worker model and MPI.

  2. Seeing is believing? A mixed-methods study exploring the quality and perceived trustworthiness of online information about chronic conditions aimed at children and young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Amy C; Gofine, Miriam L; Stinson, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The numbers of children and young people with chronic conditions are increasing. While their information needs may vary, providing health care information can have considerable benefits, including better emotional health, less distress during treatments, and greater satisfaction with medical care. The Internet is increasingly being used to communicate health-related information to children about a range of chronic conditions. However, the quality of such websites is underexplored. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the reliability and quality of online information for children about chronic conditions using a standardized evaluation tool, and to explore children's and young people's perceptions of quality and trustworthiness regarding online health information. The study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1, websites about common pediatric chronic conditions aimed at children and containing treatment or management options were identified and the quality assessment tool DISCERN was completed. Test-retest and interrater reliability were calculated. In Phase 2, two focus groups with laptop computers were conducted with children and young people with a chronic condition to explore their perceptions of trustworthiness of online health information. In Phase 1, 165 websites were identified and 100 met the criteria and were assessed. The mean DISCERN score of all sites was 48.16 out of 75 (SD = 7.97, range 28-71, min 15 to max 75). Quality scores varied widely across the sample. The internal consistency and interrater reliability scores were both lower than previously reported in studies using the DISCERN to assess information for adults. In Phase 2, two focus groups with a total of six participants aged 11-23 years revealed a relative lack of concern about the quality and trustworthiness of online health information. Older participants reported judging the source and authorship of websites, but other participants did not question the source of the

  3. A cluster randomized controlled trial aimed at implementation of local quality improvement collaboratives to improve prescribing and test ordering performance of general practitioners: Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkens Ron

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of guidelines in general practice is not optimal. Although evidence-based methods to improve guideline adherence are available, variation in physician adherence to general practice guidelines remains relatively high. The objective for this study is to transfer a quality improvement strategy based on audit, feedback, educational materials, and peer group discussion moderated by local opinion leaders to the field. The research questions are: is the multifaceted strategy implemented on a large scale as planned?; what is the effect on general practitioners' (GPs test ordering and prescribing behaviour?; and what are the costs of implementing the strategy? Methods In order to evaluate the effects, costs and feasibility of this new strategy we plan a multi-centre cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT with a balanced incomplete block design. Local GP groups in the south of the Netherlands already taking part in pharmacotherapeutic audit meeting groups, will be recruited by regional health officers. Approximately 50 groups of GPs will be randomly allocated to two arms. These GPs will be offered two different balanced sets of clinical topics. Each GP within a group will receive comparative feedback on test ordering and prescribing performance. The feedback will be discussed in the group and working agreements will be created after discussion of the guidelines and barriers to change. The data for the feedback will be collected from existing and newly formed databases, both at baseline and after one year. Discussion We are not aware of published studies on successes and failures of attempts to transfer to the stakeholders in the field a multifaceted strategy aimed at GPs' test ordering and prescribing behaviour. This pragmatic study will focus on compatibility with existing infrastructure, while permitting a certain degree of adaptation to local needs and routines. Trial registration Nederlands Trial Register ISRCTN40008171

  4. A case study evaluation of an intervention aiming to strengthen the midwifery professional role in Morocco: anticipated barriers to reaching outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Malham, Sabina; Hatem, Marie; Leduc, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce the high maternal mortality ratio, Morocco is strongly committed to strengthen its midwifery professional role. This study aimed to identify barriers that could potentially hinder an action plan to strengthen the midwifery professional role from achieving desired outcomes. We used a conceptual framework, which is derived from Hatem-Asmar's (1997) framework on the interaction of educational, professional, and sociocultural systems in which a professional role evolves and from Damschroder et al's (2009) framework for the implementation analysis. This paper builds on a qualitative case study on the factors affecting the action plan's implementation process that also revealed rich data about anticipated barriers to reaching outcomes. Data were collected through training sessions, field observations, documents, focus groups (n=20), and semistructured interviews (n=11) with stakeholders pertaining to the three systems under study. Content analysis was used to identify themes related to barriers. Seven barriers that may compromise the achievement of desired results were found. They relate to the legal framework, social representations, and media support in the sociocultural system and the practice environment, networks and communication mechanisms, and characteristics related to the role and the readiness in the professional system. Disregarding sociocultural and professional system level, barriers may impede efforts to strengthen the midwife's role and to provide qualified midwives who can improve the quality of maternal care. Making changes in the educational system cannot be thought of as an isolated process. Its success is closely tied with multiple contextual factors pertaining to the two other systems. Activities recommended to address these barriers may have great potential to build a competent midwifery workforce that contributes to positive maternal and neonatal health outcomes.

  5. Aiming for excellence - A simulation-based study on adapting and testing an instrument for developing non-technical skills in Norwegian student nurse anaesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Fiona M; Sandaker, Kjersti; Ballangrud, Randi

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing focus on building safety into anaesthesia practice, with excellence in anaesthesia as an aspirational goal. Non-technical skills are an important factor in excellence and improved patient safety, though there have been few systematic attempts at integrating them into anaesthesia nursing education. This study aimed to test the reliability of NANTS-no, a specially adapted behavioural marker system for nurse anaesthetists in Norway, and explore the development of non-technical skills in student nurse anaesthetists. The pre-test post-test design incorporated a 10-week simulation-based programme, where non-technical skills in 14 student nurse anaesthetists were rated on three different occasions during high-fidelity simulation, before and after taking part in a training course. NANTS-no demonstrated high overall inter-rater reliability (ICC = 0.91), high test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.94) and good internal consistency (Cronbach's α of 0.85-0.92). A significant improvement was demonstrated across all categories of non-technical skills, with greatest improvements between the first and third and second and third sessions. There was also a significant improvement in two categories between the first and second sessions. NANTS-no is therefore suitable for assessing non-technical skills during simulation training in anaesthesia nursing education. More research is needed to validate its use in clinical practice.

  6. Association between education about organ transplantation aimed at medical students and the acquisition of the organ donor card. A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiomara Benavides-López

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. The transplantation group of the National University of Colombia considers that education about transplants is important to raise the donation rate in this country. Objective. To find a statistical association between education about transplantation aimed at medical students and the number of students and their families bearing the organ donor card. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional analytical study. Two surveys were designed and sent to two different student populations. The first group had taken the course "Human Organ and Tissue Transplantation", and the second group was composed of students from the fifth semester of medical education. The statistical test used was difference of proportions, sample size of 50 people, statistical power of 80%, difference in proportions 20%, alpha 0.05, p <0.05. Results. The surveys were answered by 29 students from first group and 74 students from second group. First question: "Do you carry the organ donor card?", p-value of 0.03 found. Second question: "Do your family members carry the organ donor card?", p-value of 0.732 found. Affirmative answer to the first question, p=0.10 and answer to second question, p=0.0005. Conclusion. An association was found between education about transplantation focused on medical students and bearing the organ donor card and communicating their wishes to their families. Likewise, an association between education and a positive attitude toward donation was found in the families of students that participated on the course "Human Organ and Tissue Transplantation".

  7. The analytical differential cross section of elastic scattering of atoms aimed to be used in Monte Carlo modeling of propagation of fast particles in matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikin, E. G.

    2017-08-01

    The analytical differential cross section (DCS) of elastic scattering of atoms that reproduces the stopping power and the straggling of energy loss is proposed. Analytical expressions derived from the DCS for diffusion σd and viscosity σv cross sections of elastic collisions of atoms are in good agreement with known cross sections of 38Ar-40Ar and H-Li collisions obtained from quantum mechanical simulations. The Monte Carlo modeling of the transport of sputtered Cu atoms in Ar and implantation of Bi ions in B and C materials made using the proposed DCS demonstrates its accuracy in the modeling of elastic collisions.

  8. A stepped strategy that aims at the nationwide implementation of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery programme in major gynaecological surgery: study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Jeanny Ja; Maessen, José Mc; Slangen, Brigitte Fm; Winkens, Bjorn; Dirksen, Carmen D; van der Weijden, Trudy

    2015-07-30

    Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programmes aim at an early recovery after surgical trauma and consequently at a reduced length of hospitalisation. This paper presents the protocol for a study that focuses on large-scale implementation of the ERAS programme in major gynaecological surgery in the Netherlands. The trial will evaluate effectiveness and costs of a stepped implementation approach that is characterised by tailoring the intensity of implementation activities to the needs of organisations and local barriers for change, in comparison with the generic breakthrough strategy that is usually applied in large-scale improvement projects in the Netherlands. All Dutch hospitals authorised to perform major abdominal surgery in gynaecological oncology patients are eligible for inclusion in this cluster randomised controlled trial. The hospitals that already fully implemented the ERAS programme in their local perioperative management or those who predominantly admit gynaecological surgery patients to an external hospital replacement care facility will be excluded. Cluster randomisation will be applied at the hospital level and will be stratified based on tertiary status. Hospitals will be randomly assigned to the stepped implementation strategy or the breakthrough strategy. The control group will receive the traditional breakthrough strategy with three educational sessions and the use of plan-do-study-act cycles for planning and executing local improvement activities. The intervention group will receive an innovative stepped strategy comprising four levels of intensity of support. Implementation starts with generic low-cost activities and may build up to the highest level of tailored and labour-intensive activities. The decision for a stepwise increase in intensive support will be based on the success of implementation so far. Both implementation strategies will be completed within 1 year and evaluated on effect, process, and cost-effectiveness. The primary

  9. LS3MIP (v1.0) contribution to CMIP6: the Land Surface, Snow and Soil moisture Model Intercomparison Project - aims, setup and expected outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hurk, Bart; Kim, Hyungjun; Krinner, Gerhard; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Derksen, Chris; Oki, Taikan; Douville, Hervé; Colin, Jeanne; Ducharne, Agnès; Cheruy, Frederique; Viovy, Nicholas; Puma, Michael J.; Wada, Yoshihide; Li, Weiping; Jia, Binghao; Alessandri, Andrea; Lawrence, Dave M.; Weedon, Graham P.; Ellis, Richard; Hagemann, Stefan; Mao, Jiafu; Flanner, Mark G.; Zampieri, Matteo; Materia, Stefano; Law, Rachel M.; Sheffield, Justin

    2016-08-01

    The Land Surface, Snow and Soil Moisture Model Intercomparison Project (LS3MIP) is designed to provide a comprehensive assessment of land surface, snow and soil moisture feedbacks on climate variability and climate change, and to diagnose systematic biases in the land modules of current Earth system models (ESMs). The solid and liquid water stored at the land surface has a large influence on the regional climate, its variability and predictability, including effects on the energy, water and carbon cycles. Notably, snow and soil moisture affect surface radiation and flux partitioning properties, moisture storage and land surface memory. They both strongly affect atmospheric conditions, in particular surface air temperature and precipitation, but also large-scale circulation patterns. However, models show divergent responses and representations of these feedbacks as well as systematic biases in the underlying processes. LS3MIP will provide the means to quantify the associated uncertainties and better constrain climate change projections, which is of particular interest for highly vulnerable regions (densely populated areas, agricultural regions, the Arctic, semi-arid and other sensitive terrestrial ecosystems). The experiments are subdivided in two components, the first addressing systematic land biases in offline mode ("LMIP", building upon the 3rd phase of Global Soil Wetness Project; GSWP3) and the second addressing land feedbacks attributed to soil moisture and snow in an integrated framework ("LFMIP", building upon the GLACE-CMIP blueprint).

  10. LS3MIP (v1.0) Contribution to CMIP6: The Land Surface, Snow and Soil Moisture Model Intercomparison Project Aims, Setup and Expected Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Hurk, Bart; Kim, Hyungjun; Krinner, Gerhard; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Derksen, Chris; Oki, Taikan; Douville, Herve; Colin, Jeanne; Ducharne, Agnes; Cheruy, Frederique; Viovy, Nicholas; Puma, Michael J.; Wada, Yoshide; Li, Weiping; Jia, Binghao; Alessandri, Andrea; Lawrence, Dave M.; Weedon, Graham P.; Ellis, Richard; Hagemann, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The Land Surface, Snow and Soil Moisture Model Intercomparison Project (LS3MIP) is designed to provide a comprehensive assessment of land surface, snow, and soil moisture feedbacks on climate variability and climate change, and to diagnose systematic biases in the land modules of current Earth System Models (ESMs). The solid and liquid water stored at the land surface has a large influence on the regional climate, its variability and predictability, including effects on the energy, water and carbon cycles. Notably, snow and soil moisture affect surface radiation and flux partitioning properties, moisture storage and land surface memory. They both strongly affect atmospheric conditions, in particular surface air temperature and precipitation, but also large-scale circulation patterns. However, models show divergent responses and representations of these feedbacks as well as systematic biases in the underlying processes. LS3MIP will provide the means to quantify the associated uncertainties and better constrain climate change projections, which is of particular interest for highly vulnerable regions (densely populated areas, agricultural regions, the Arctic, semi-arid and other sensitive terrestrial ecosystems).The experiments are subdivided in two components, the first addressing systematic land biases in offline mode (LMIP, building upon the 3rd phase of Global Soil Wetness Project; GSWP3) and the second addressing land feedbacks attributed to soil moisture and snow in an integrated framework (LFMIP, building upon the GLACE-CMIP blueprint).

  11. The VicGeneration study - a birth cohort to examine the environmental, behavioural and biological predictors of early childhood caries: background, aims and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Dental caries (decay) during childhood is largely preventable however it remains a significant and costly public health concern, identified as the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Caries in children aged less than five years (early childhood caries) is a rapid and progressive disease that can be painful and debilitating, and significantly increases the likelihood of poor child growth, development and social outcomes. Early childhood caries may also result in a substantial social burden on families and significant costs to the public health system. A disproportionate burden of disease is also experienced by disadvantaged populations. Methods/Design This study involves the establishment of a birth cohort in disadvantaged communities in Victoria, Australia. Children will be followed for at least 18 months and the data gathered will explore longitudinal relationships and generate new evidence on the natural history of early childhood caries, the prevalence of the disease and relative contributions of risk and protective biological, environmental and behavioural factors. Specifically, the study aims to: 1. Describe the natural history of early childhood caries (at ages 1, 6, 12 and 18 months), tracking pathways from early bacterial colonisation, through non-cavitated enamel white spot lesions to cavitated lesions extending into dentine. 2. Enumerate oral bacterial species in the saliva of infants and their primary care giver. 3. Identify the strength of concurrent associations between early childhood caries and putative risk and protective factors, including biological (eg microbiota, saliva), environmental (fluoride exposure) and socio-behavioural factors (proximal factors such as: feeding practices and oral hygiene; and distal factors such as parental health behaviours, physical health, coping and broader socio-economic conditions). 4. Quantify the longitudinal relationships between these factors and the development and progression of early

  12. The VicGeneration study - a birth cohort to examine the environmental, behavioural and biological predictors of early childhood caries: background, aims and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashper Stuart

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries (decay during childhood is largely preventable however it remains a significant and costly public health concern, identified as the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Caries in children aged less than five years (early childhood caries is a rapid and progressive disease that can be painful and debilitating, and significantly increases the likelihood of poor child growth, development and social outcomes. Early childhood caries may also result in a substantial social burden on families and significant costs to the public health system. A disproportionate burden of disease is also experienced by disadvantaged populations. Methods/Design This study involves the establishment of a birth cohort in disadvantaged communities in Victoria, Australia. Children will be followed for at least 18 months and the data gathered will explore longitudinal relationships and generate new evidence on the natural history of early childhood caries, the prevalence of the disease and relative contributions of risk and protective biological, environmental and behavioural factors. Specifically, the study aims to: 1. Describe the natural history of early childhood caries (at ages 1, 6, 12 and 18 months, tracking pathways from early bacterial colonisation, through non-cavitated enamel white spot lesions to cavitated lesions extending into dentine. 2. Enumerate oral bacterial species in the saliva of infants and their primary care giver. 3. Identify the strength of concurrent associations between early childhood caries and putative risk and protective factors, including biological (eg microbiota, saliva, environmental (fluoride exposure and socio-behavioural factors (proximal factors such as: feeding practices and oral hygiene; and distal factors such as parental health behaviours, physical health, coping and broader socio-economic conditions. 4. Quantify the longitudinal relationships between these factors and the development and

  13. An exploration of factors related to dissemination of and exposure to internet-delivered behavior change interventions aimed at adults: a Delphi study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Wendy; Oenema, Anke; Crutzen, Rik; de Nooijer, Jascha; de Vries, Nanne K; Brug, Johannes

    2008-04-16

    The Internet is an attractive medium for delivering individualized, computer-tailored behavior change interventions to large numbers of people. However, the actual numbers of people reached seem to fall behind the high expectations. Insight into factors that determine use of and exposure to these Internet interventions is important to be able to increase the reach and improve exposure. The aim was to identify potentially important factors that determine whether adults visit an Internet-delivered behavior change intervention, extend their visit, and revisit the intervention. A systematic, three-round Delphi study was conducted among national and international experts from Internet intervention research and practice, e-marketing/e-commerce, Web design, and technical website development. In the first round, 30 experts completed a structured, open-ended online questionnaire assessing factors that were, in their opinion, important for a first visit, an extended visit, a revisit and for effective promotion strategies. Based on the responses in this first questionnaire, a closed-ended online questionnaire was developed for use in the second round. A total of 233 experts were invited to complete this questionnaire. Median and interquartile deviation (IQD) scores were computed to calculate agreement and consensus on the importance of the factors. The factors for which no consensus was obtained (IQD > 1) were included in the third-round questionnaire. Factors with a median score of six or higher and with an IQD important. Of the 62 experts invited for the first round, 30 completed the questionnaire (48% response rate); 93/233 experts completed the second-round questionnaire (40% response rate), and 59/88 completed the third round (67% response rate). Being motivated to visit an Internet intervention and perceiving the intervention as personally relevant appeared to be important factors related to a first visit. The provision of tailored feedback, relevant and reliable

  14. China’s Low-Carbon Scenario Analysis of CO2 Mitigation Measures towards 2050 Using a Hybrid AIM/CGE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available China’s emissions continue to rise rapidly in line with its mounting energy consumption, which puts considerable pressure on China to meet its emission reduction commitments. This paper assesses the impacts of CO2 mitigation measures in China during the period from 2010 to 2050 by using a computable general equilibrium method, called AIM/CGE. Results show that renewable energy makes a critical difference in abating emissions during the period from 2010 to 2020. The scenarios with emission trading would drive more emission reductions, whereby the emission-cutting commitment for 2020 would be achieved and emission reductions in 2050 would be more than 57.90%. Meanwhile, the share of non-fossil energy increases significantly and would be more than doubled in 2050 compared with the BAU scenario. A carbon tax would result in a significant decline in emissions in the short term, but would have an adverse effect on economic growth and energy structure improvements. It is also observed that the integrated measures would not only substantially decrease the total emissions, but also improve the energy structure.

  15. Study protocol for a group randomized controlled trial of a classroom-based intervention aimed at preventing early risk factors for drug abuse: integrating effectiveness and implementation research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keegan Natalie

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While a number of preventive interventions delivered within schools have shown both short-term and long-term impact in epidemiologically based randomized field trials, programs are not often sustained with high-quality implementation over time. This study was designed to support two purposes. The first purpose was to test the effectiveness of a universal classroom-based intervention, the Whole Day First Grade Program (WD, aimed at two early antecedents to drug abuse and other problem behaviors, namely, aggressive, disruptive behavior and poor academic achievement. The second purpose--the focus of this paper--was to examine the utility of a multilevel structure to support high levels of implementation during the effectiveness trial, to sustain WD practices across additional years, and to train additional teachers in WD practices. Methods The WD intervention integrated three components, each previously tested separately: classroom behavior management; instruction, specifically reading; and family-classroom partnerships around behavior and learning. Teachers and students in 12 schools were randomly assigned to receive either the WD intervention or the standard first-grade program of the school system (SC. Three consecutive cohorts of first graders were randomized within schools to WD or SC classrooms and followed through the end of third grade to test the effectiveness of the WD intervention. Teacher practices were assessed over three years to examine the utility of the multilevel structure to support sustainability and scaling-up. Discussion The design employed in this trial appears to have considerable utility to provide data on WD effectiveness and to inform the field with regard to structures required to move evidence-based programs into practice. Trial Registration Clinical Trials Registration Number: NCT00257088

  16. Satellite mission Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) partners with formal and informal education programs to study clouds on the edge of space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D. Q.; Maggi, B. H.

    2004-12-01

    The satellite-based research mission "Aeronomy of Ice In the Mesosphere" (AIM), has developed an exciting partnership of formal and informal education programs that will connect students and the public to the unique scientific aspects of the mission. The AIM satellite mission is dedicated to providing a scientific basis for understanding why Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) form and vary. PMCs are sometimes known as Noctilucent Clouds (NLCs) or "night shinning" clouds because of their visibility at dawn and dusk. The visible manifestation of PMCs provides a unique opportunity for Education and Public Outreach. The AIM outreach programs will utilize the beautiful images of "clouds on the edge of space" as a tool to motivate students and the public to increase their knowledge and understanding about issues surrounding changes in our atmosphere. In an effort to provide formal and informal outreach opportunities worldwide, AIM has developed a partnership with the GLOBE program. GLOBE is a network of schools, science centers, and clubs from over 105 countries where participants collect scientific data according to precise protocols and enter the data into a central database allowing both scientists and students to utilize the data. The collaboration between AIM and GLOBE will involve participants in collecting and utilizing NLC data worldwide. This partnership will provide a mechanism for sustaining AIM education opportunities for both formal and informal education venues in the future. Included in the formal education component of AIM outreach is the implementation of two educator workshops that will establish partnerships between the mission and classrooms nationwide. The educator workshops will be held in Alaska due to the optimal location for viewing NLCs. Participants attending the workshops will be chosen from a national pool allowing teachers working with students in southern latitudes an opportunity to experience the excitement of working with data that can only

  17. Routine versus aggressive upstream rhythm control for prevention of early atrial fibrillation in heart failure : background, aims and design of the RACE 3 study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alings, M.; Smit, M. D.; Moes, M. L.; Crijns, H. J. G. M.; Tijssen, J. G. P.; Brugemann, J.; Hillege, H. L.; Lane, D. A.; Lip, G. Y. H.; Smeets, J. R. L. M.; Tieleman, R. G.; Tukkie, R.; Willems, F. F.; Vermond, R. A.; Van Veldhuisen, D. J.; Van Gelder, I. C.

    2013-01-01

    Rhythm control for atrial fibrillation (AF) is cumbersome because of its progressive nature caused by structural remodelling. Upstream therapy refers to therapeutic interventions aiming to modify the atrial substrate, leading to prevention of AF. The Routine versus Aggressive upstream rhythm Control

  18. Using International Study Series and Meta-Analytic Research Syntheses to Scope Pedagogical Development Aimed at Improving Student Attitude and Achievement in School Mathematics and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthven, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Taking lower-secondary schooling within the English educational system as an example, this paper illustrates the contribution of two bodies of international scholarship to the scoping of research-based pedagogical development aimed at improving student attitude and achievement in science and mathematics. After sketching the English context of…

  19. Competitive service centers location in the cities with aim to reduce traffic (Case study: Health centers location in the city if Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Moradi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   Distribution of goods and services in cities is of utmost importance. Selecting appropriate venues for different service centers in a city not only enables the citizens to access these services much more easily, but also reduces the traffic load caused by trips made to reach them. Unfortunately, the lack of a correct urban planning has led to inappropriate formation of many cities around the world in terms of the locations assumed for different service centers. Since the private sector has been given the responsibility to construct most of these centers, changing their current locations may be restricted due to legal obligations. Therefore, it seems necessary for the government to construct new service centers with high competitive facilities to attract customers and to compete with those built by the private sector. In this paper, the selection of appropriate locations to construct new service centers has been studied. Such locations have been selected in a way to fulfill goals such as rapid and easy accessibility for the customers and reduction of traffic drawbacks caused by the related trips. In this regard, a model for service centers with restricted capacity has been designed and a parallel simulated annealing algorithm has been proposed to solve it. Finally, the proposed algorithm has been utilized to locate the health centers around the city of Isfahan and its efficiency has been investigated. The findings highlight the accuracy and speed of the proposed algorithm in location of the health centers of Isfahan.

  20. AIM: Attracting Women into Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Icial S.

    1995-01-01

    Addresses how to attract more college women into the sciences. Attracting Women into Sciences (AIM) is a comprehensive approach that begins with advising, advertising, and ambiguity. The advising process includes dispelling stereotypes and reviewing the options open to a female basic science major. Interaction, involvement and instruction, finding…

  1. Can a Box of Mailed Materials Achieve the Triple Aims of Health Care? The Mailed Chronic Disease Self-Management Tool Kit Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorig, Kate; Ritter, Philip L; Moreland, Courtney; Laurent, Diana D

    2015-09-01

    Not all patients with chronic conditions are able or willing to participate in small-group or Internet self-management programs. Based on the Arthritis Mailed Took Kit Program and the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program, a mailed Chronic Disease Self-Management Tool Kit, delivered in a onetime mailing, was developed as an alternative mode of delivery. Kits were mailed to a national sample of 255 participants with varying chronic conditions and evaluated in a longitudinal (6-month) trial. Outcomes reflected the triple aims of health care. At 6 months, participants demonstrated better health care indicators, better health indicators, and less health care utilization. There were significant improvements in two health care indicators and six health indicators and reductions in physician visits. Follow-up response rate was high (85%). There were no significant baseline differences between responders and nonresponders. Subgroup analyses were performed for a number of subgroups, including those with arthritis (58%) and/or depression (43%), and for African Americans (14%). Subgroups demonstrated improvements equal to or better than the overall group. The Mailed Chronic Disease Self-Management Tool Kit represents a third mode, along with small groups and Internet, of delivering self-management patient education, and appears to contribute to meeting the triple aims of health care for those who actively chose this mode of delivery. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  2. Neurofeedback training aimed to improve focused attention and alertness in children with ADHD: a study of relative power of EEG rhythms using custom-made software application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillard, Brent; El-Baz, Ayman S; Sears, Lonnie; Tasman, Allan; Sokhadze, Estate M

    2013-07-01

    Neurofeedback is a nonpharmacological treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We propose that operant conditioning of electroencephalogram (EEG) in neurofeedback training aimed to mitigate inattention and low arousal in ADHD, will be accompanied by changes in EEG bands' relative power. Patients were 18 children diagnosed with ADHD. The neurofeedback protocol ("Focus/Alertness" by Peak Achievement Trainer) has a focused attention and alertness training mode. The neurofeedback protocol provides one for Focus and one for Alertness. This does not allow for collecting information regarding changes in specific EEG bands (delta, theta, alpha, low and high beta, and gamma) power within the 2 to 45 Hz range. Quantitative EEG analysis was completed on each of twelve 25-minute-long sessions using a custom-made MatLab application to determine the relative power of each of the aforementioned EEG bands throughout each session, and from the first session to the last session. Additional statistical analysis determined significant changes in relative power within sessions (from minute 1 to minute 25) and between sessions (from session 1 to session 12). Analysis was of relative power of theta, alpha, low and high beta, theta/alpha, theta/beta, and theta/low beta and theta/high beta ratios. Additional secondary measures of patients' post-neurofeedback outcomes were assessed, using an audiovisual selective attention test (IVA + Plus) and behavioral evaluation scores from the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. Analysis of data computed in the MatLab application, determined that theta/low beta and theta/alpha ratios decreased significantly from session 1 to session 12, and from minute 1 to minute 25 within sessions. The findings regarding EEG changes resulting from brain wave self-regulation training, along with behavioral evaluations, will help elucidate neural mechanisms of neurofeedback aimed to improve focused attention and alertness in ADHD.

  3. Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The overall goal of the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) experiment is to resolve why Polar Mesospheric Clouds form and why they vary. By measuring PMCs and the thermal, chemical and dynamical environment in which they form, we will quanti@ the connection between these clouds and the meteorology of the polar mesosphere. In the end, this will provide the basis for study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global change. The results of AIM will be a rigorous validation of predictive models that can reliably use past PMC changes and present trends as indicators of global change. The AIM goal will be achieved by measuring PMC extinction, brightness, spatial distribution, particle size distributions, gravity wave activity, dust influx to the atmosphere and precise, vertical profile measurements of temperature, H20, C&, 0 3 , C02, NO. and aerosols. These data can only be obtained by a complement of instruments on an orbiting spacecraft (S/C).

  4. China Aims to Promote Import

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ With the theme of"An Opening Market and Global Trade",aim at promoting communications and exchanges among governments,industries and business to achieve mutual benefit and a win-win situation,nearly 300 representatives from the relevant departments of the Chinese government,foreign embassies in China,industrial associations and major enterprises,as well as well-known Chinese and foreign experts and scholars were invited to take part in the forum and share their iews on Chinese market and foreign trade policies.

  5. Heart failure in community-dwelling older persons: aims, design and adherence rate of the ICARe Dicomano project: an epidemiologic study. Insufficienza Cardiaca negli Anziani Residenti a Dicomano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bari, M; Marchionni, N; Ferrucci, L; Pini, R; Antonini, E; Chiarlone, M; Marsilii, A; De Alfieri, W; Fumagalli, S; Masotti, G

    1999-06-01

    The prevalence of heart failure (HF) increases with age, and HF is a major cause of disability and mortality in older persons. Detection of HF in epidemiological studies has relied on criteria validated only in young and middle-age adults, and, therefore, may prove inadequate in older subjects, because they do not take into account the pathophysiologic and clinical peculiarities of HF in old age. Thus, the true prevalence of HF in the older general population remains uncertain and has probably been underestimated in previous studies. Moreover, the mechanism and the extent by which HF hinders physical functioning in older people has not been fully elucidated. This paper describes the design of the ICARe study, carried out in an older home-dwelling population to collect data about: (1) the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic criteria used previously in epidemiological studies of HF; (2) the prevalence of the different pathophysiologic forms of HF; and (3) the impact of HF on overall health status, and on physical functioning, in the absence or presence of chronic comorbidity. This was a cross-sectional survey. Eligible were all community-dwelling persons aged 65 years or older recorded in the Registry Office of Dicomano, a small town nearby Florence (Italy). All the domains of multidimensional geriatric assessment were explored through different phases of the study (home interview, laboratory testing, geriatric visit) that comprised an extensive cardiopulmonary instrumental assessment including: color Doppler echocardiography, echotomography of the carotid arteries used in an original method to determine arterial compliance, and bell spirometry. Presence of major chronic conditions was ascertained by predefined, standard algorithms that were based largely on clinical examination. There were 864 older persons eligible for the ICARe study. Even with a substantial decline from home interview (91.2%) to the cardiopulmonary study (71.1%), the adherence rate remained

  6. MonitorNet: the Italian multi-centre observational study aimed at estimating the risk/benefit profile of biologic agents in real-world rheumatology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfriso, P; Salaffi, F; Montecucco, C M; Bombardieri, S; Todesco, S

    2009-01-01

    MonitorNet is a database established by the Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR) in January 2007 and funded by the Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA), for the active long-term follow-up of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis treated with biologic agents. All hospital Rheumatology Units in Italy were invited to participate in a non-interventional, observational, epidemiological study. The study is conducted in a routine clinical setting (real-world practice) where biologics are prescribed on the basis of current recommendations. In this report we describe the design, methodology, and present preliminary data of the study. At the time of the analysis (April 2009) the database included 3510 patients: 2469 (70.3%) with established RA, 675 (19.2%) with PsA and 366 (10.4%) with AS. The cumulative follow up period was 8,787 patient-years (RA: 8,388, PsA: 157; AS: 242). There were 1,538 adverse events in 938 (26.7%) patients. Infections were recorded in 630 patients, skin-related adverse events in 142 and post-infusion reactions in 90. A total of 30 malignancies were reported. An interim analysis of efficacy was conducted on 2,148 RA patients. Seven hundred and thirty-one patients (35.8%) achieved EULAR remission (defined as DAS28<2.4). When assessed with the more restrictive CDAI and SDAI criteria, the frequency of remission was lower (17.9% and 14.7% respectively). Availability of funding for this study provided an opportunity to organize a collaborative national network of rheumatology clinics to develop a large multicentre observational study.

  7. Rolipram versus imipramine in inpatients with major, "minor" or atypical depressive disorder: a double-blind double-dummy study aimed at testing a novel therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, A; Crippa, D; di Dio, S; Fichte, K; Musmeci, G; Porro, V; Rapisarda, V; Sastre-y-Hernández, M; Schratzer, M

    1988-07-01

    Unlike conventional antidepressants, rolipram stimulates both the presynaptic as well as the postsynaptic component of monoaminergic transmission. Several double-blind comparative trials are on the way to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of this novel compound. The present study was a randomized double-blind double-dummy comparison with imipramine in inpatients with major, "minor" and atypical depressions (DSM III). Results show no relevant differences between rolipram and imipramine regarding efficacy and safety.

  8. Towards a List of Heuristics to Evaluate Smartphone Apps Targeted at Older Adults: A Study with Apps that Aim at Promoting Health and Well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Paula Alexandra; Holden, Kelly; Jordan, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a list of heuristics to evaluate smartphone apps for older adults. It further verifies the usefulness of the proposed list through a study performed with two groups of five expert evaluators, who inspected two popular health and fitness smartphone apps – Nike+ and Runkeeper –through heuristic evaluation. Additionally, the evaluators completed a post-evaluation survey to provide feedback to the researchers about the usefulness, strengths and gaps ...

  9. A study aimed at characterizing the interfacial structure in a tin–silver solder on nickel-coated copper plate during aging

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D C Lin; R Kovacevic; T S Srivatsan; G X Wang

    2008-06-01

    This paper highlights the interfacial structure of tin-silver (Sn-3·5Ag) solder on nickel-coated copper pads during aging performance studies at a temperature of 150°C for up to 96 h. Experimental results revealed the as-solidified solder bump made from using the lead-free solder (Sn-3·5Ag) exhibited or showed a thin layer of the tin–nickel–copper intermetallic compound (IMC) at the solder/substrate interface. This includes a sub-layer having a planar structure immediately adjacent to the Ni-coating and a blocky structure on the inside of the solder. Aging performance studies revealed the thickness of both the IMC layer and the sub-layer, having a planar structure, to increase with an increase in aging time. The observed increase was essentially non-linear. Fine microscopic cracks were observed to occur at the interfaces of the planar sub-layer and the block sub-layer.

  10. Ternary phase diagram of ketamine ((R,S-2-(2-chlorophenyl-2methylaminocyclohexanone in ethanol and preliminary studies aiming at Enantioselective Crystallization of S-ketamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. F. Barros

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Crystallization is an important industrial-scale process for the purification of enantiomers that depends on a phase diagram. In this work, the ternary phase diagram of R- and S-ketamine in ethanol was determined. The eutectic point indicated that crystallization of pure enantiomers from solutions containing more than 75% of the desired enantiomer is feasible. Solubility studies showed the feasibility of using temperature control to conduct the process. Batch crystallization of ketamine (S/R:80/20 solutions at 25ºC provided the isolation of S-ketamine (purity of 100% with a yield from 65 to 70% and a productivity of 6.5 g/(lh.

  11. A multi-centre randomised controlled trial of rehabilitation aimed at improving outdoor mobility for people after stroke: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan Pip A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to 42% of all stroke patients do not get out of the house as much as they would like. This can impede a person’s quality of life. This study is testing the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a new outdoor mobility rehabilitation intervention by comparing it to usual care. Methods/design This is a multi-centre parallel group individually randomised, controlled trial. At least 506 participants will be recruited through 15 primary and secondary care settings and will be eligible if they are over 18 years of age, have had a stroke and wish to get out of the house more often. Participants are being randomly allocated to either the intervention group or the control group. Intervention group participants receive up to 12 rehabilitation outdoor mobility sessions over up to four months. The main component of the intervention is repeated practice of outdoor mobility with a therapist. Control group participants are receiving the usual intervention for outdoor mobility limitations: verbal advice and provision of leaflets provided over one session. Outcome measures are being collected using postal questionnaires, travel calendars and by independent assessors. The primary outcome measure is the Social Function domain of the SF36v2 quality of life assessment six months after recruitment. The secondary outcome measures include: functional ability, mobility, the number of journeys (monthly travel diaries, satisfaction with outdoor mobility, mood, health-related quality of life, resource use of health and social care. Carer mood information is also being collected. The mean Social Function score of the SF-36v2 will be compared between treatment arms using a multiple membership form of mixed effects multiple regression analysis adjusting for centre (as a fixed effect, age and baseline Social Function score as covariates and therapist as a multiple membership random effect. Regression coefficients and 95% confidence

  12. Hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: retrospective study of 149 treatments in curative aimed; Carcinome epidermoide de l'hypopharynx: etude retrospective de 149 traitements a visee curative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oueslati, Z.; Zeglaoui, I.; Touati, S.; Gritli, S.; Ladgham, A. [Institut Salah-Azaiz, Service de Chirurgie Carcinologique et ORL, Tunis (Tunisia); Nasr, C.; Benna, F. [Institut Salah-Azaiz, Service de Radiotherapie, Tunis (Tunisia); Boussen, H. [Institut Salah-Azaiz, Service de Chimiotherapie, Tunis (Tunisia); Mokni, N.; Gamoudi, A.; El-May, A. [Institut Salah-Azaiz, Service de d' Immunohistochimie, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2004-12-01

    Purpose. - Hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is associated to one of the most unfavorable prognosis among the cancers of the head and neck. The purpose of this study is to analyze its therapeutic modalities in the Salah-Azaiz Institute (Tunis) and to compare their results. Patients and method. - This retrospective study concerns 271 hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas, compiled in the Carcinologic Surgery Department of Head and Neck of the Salah-Azaiz Institute over a period of 25 years (from 1977 to 2002). The average age of the patients was of 56 years; sex-ratio was on average of 1.2 (man/woman). The indication of a curative treatment was initially retained for 149 (55%) patients, who were the only ones retained for the analysis of results. Results. - We retained the indication of a protocol including surgery and post-operating radiotherapy for 26.2% of the patients. Post-operation mortality rate was 5.1%; the operating rate of morbidity was 46.2%. For 13.5% of the patients, post-operating radiotherapy was permanently interrupted because of a gradual deterioration of the patients' health in the course of treatment. We retained the indication of exclusive radiotherapy for 59.7% of the patients. The average age was of 56 years and the sex-ratio of 1.2. The external radiotherapy was conventional. Radiotherapy had to be permanently interrupted in progress in 32.6% of cases on account of an deterioration of the patients' health; the rate of morbidity of the radiotherapy was 33.3%. We indicated a protocol of conservation of organ with induction chemotherapy for 21 patients (14.1%). The average age was of 53 years (28-65 years) and sex-ratio (man/woman) of 0.5. The global survival was 25.5% at one year, 18.1% at two years, 11.4% at three years and 7.4% at five years. All the patients selected for chemotherapy died in the course of treatment. The rates of survival in two and five years according to protocols surgery-radiotherapy and exclusive

  13. Aims of education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Walter Eugene

    1990-06-01

    The first part of this paper gives a historical account of the aims of education under Apartheid, and discusses the ideological success of Apartheid education. The second part argues that a significant discussion — that is one which could have some purchase on schooling policy and educational practice — of aims of education in South Africa is not possible at present because the historical preconditions for such a discussion are not satisfied. It is argued that Apartheid has generated a political perspective which is unsympathetic to a discussion of aims of education; that the dominance of a social engineering model of schooling distorts a discussion of aims of education; and that a shared moral discourse, which is a necessary condition for a significant discussion of aims of education, does not yet exist in South Africa.

  14. Aim For a Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Practice Guidelines Resources Continuing Education Funding Training & Career Development Division of Intramural Research Research Resources Scientific Reports Technology Transfer What are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI Trials Clinical Trial Websites Press ...

  15. AIMS simulation study of ultrafast electronically nonadiabatic chemistry of methyl azide and UV-VIS spectroscopic study of azido-based energetic plasticizer bis(1,3-diazido prop-2-yl)malonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Jayanta; Banerjee, Shaibal; Bhattacharya, Atanu

    2017-09-01

    To gain insight into the ultrafast electronically nonadiabatic chemistry of azido-based energetic plasticizer, we have explored the nonadiabatic chemical dynamics of an azido-based model analog molecule, methyl azide (MAz), using ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) simulation and electronic structure theory calculations. Molecular nitrogen (N2) is predicted to be the initial product of MAz following its electronic excitation to the S1 electronically excited state. AIMS-based simulation reveals that electronically excited azido-based molecules undergo extremely fast (approximately in 40 femtoseconds) relaxation to the ground state via the (S1/S0)CI conical intersection. Furthermore, this relaxation process involves the Nsbnd N bond elongation along with the bending of N3 moiety. This is the first report on the electronically non-adiabatic chemical dynamics (in ultrafast time domain) of methyl azide. Finally, using ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy, we comment on the electronically nonadiabatic chemistry of azido-based energetic plasticizer, bis(1,3-diazido prop-2-yl)malonate.

  16. GROUT HOPPER MODELING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    2011-08-30

    The Saltstone facility has a grout hopper tank to provide agitator stirring of the Saltstone feed materials. The tank has about 300 gallon capacity to provide a larger working volume for the grout slurry to be held in case of a process upset, and it is equipped with a mechanical agitator, which is intended to keep the grout in motion and agitated so that it won't start to set up. The dry feeds and the salt solution are already mixed in the mixer prior to being transferred to the hopper tank. The hopper modeling study through this work will focus on fluid stirring and agitation, instead of traditional mixing in the literature, in order to keep the tank contents in motion during their residence time so that they will not be upset or solidified prior to transferring the grout to the Saltstone disposal facility. The primary objective of the work is to evaluate the flow performance for mechanical agitators to prevent vortex pull-through for an adequate stirring of the feed materials and to estimate an agitator speed which provides acceptable flow performance with a 45{sup o} pitched four-blade agitator. In addition, the power consumption required for the agitator operation was estimated. The modeling calculations were performed by taking two steps of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling approach. As a first step, a simple single-stage agitator model with 45{sup o} pitched propeller blades was developed for the initial scoping analysis of the flow pattern behaviors for a range of different operating conditions. Based on the initial phase-1 results, the phase-2 model with a two-stage agitator was developed for the final performance evaluations. A series of sensitivity calculations for different designs of agitators and operating conditions have been performed to investigate the impact of key parameters on the grout hydraulic performance in a 300-gallon hopper tank. For the analysis, viscous shear was modeled by using the Bingham plastic approximation

  17. GROUT HOPPER MODELING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    2011-08-30

    The Saltstone facility has a grout hopper tank to provide agitator stirring of the Saltstone feed materials. The tank has about 300 gallon capacity to provide a larger working volume for the grout slurry to be held in case of a process upset, and it is equipped with a mechanical agitator, which is intended to keep the grout in motion and agitated so that it won't start to set up. The dry feeds and the salt solution are already mixed in the mixer prior to being transferred to the hopper tank. The hopper modeling study through this work will focus on fluid stirring and agitation, instead of traditional mixing in the literature, in order to keep the tank contents in motion during their residence time so that they will not be upset or solidified prior to transferring the grout to the Saltstone disposal facility. The primary objective of the work is to evaluate the flow performance for mechanical agitators to prevent vortex pull-through for an adequate stirring of the feed materials and to estimate an agitator speed which provides acceptable flow performance with a 45{sup o} pitched four-blade agitator. In addition, the power consumption required for the agitator operation was estimated. The modeling calculations were performed by taking two steps of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling approach. As a first step, a simple single-stage agitator model with 45{sup o} pitched propeller blades was developed for the initial scoping analysis of the flow pattern behaviors for a range of different operating conditions. Based on the initial phase-1 results, the phase-2 model with a two-stage agitator was developed for the final performance evaluations. A series of sensitivity calculations for different designs of agitators and operating conditions have been performed to investigate the impact of key parameters on the grout hydraulic performance in a 300-gallon hopper tank. For the analysis, viscous shear was modeled by using the Bingham plastic approximation

  18. Is Fitts' law continuous in discrete aiming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Sleimen-Malkoun

    Full Text Available The lawful continuous linear relation between movement time and task difficulty (i.e., index of difficulty; ID in a goal-directed rapid aiming task (Fitts' law has been recently challenged in reciprocal performance. Specifically, a discontinuity was observed at critical ID and was attributed to a transition between two distinct dynamic regimes that occurs with increasing difficulty. In the present paper, we show that such a discontinuity is also present in discrete aiming when ID is manipulated via target width (experiment 1 but not via target distance (experiment 2. Fitts' law's discontinuity appears, therefore, to be a suitable indicator of the underlying functional adaptations of the neuro-muscular-skeletal system to task properties/requirements, independently of reciprocal or discrete nature of the task. These findings open new perspectives to the study of dynamic regimes involved in discrete aiming and sensori-motor mechanisms underlying the speed-accuracy trade-off.

  19. The Many Organisational Factors Relevant to Planning Change in Emergency Care Departments: A Qualitative Study to Inform a Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial Aiming to Improve the Management of Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Marije; Tavender, Emma J.; Brennan, Sue E.; Knott, Jonathan; Gruen, Russell L.; Green, Sally E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) Trial aims to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a targeted theory-and evidence-informed intervention to increase the uptake of evidence-based recommended practices for the management of patients who present to an emergency department (ED) with mild head injuries. When designing interventions to bring about change in organisational settings such as the ED, it is important to understand the impact of the context to ensure successful implementation of practice change. Few studies explicitly use organisational theory to study which factors are likely to be most important to address when planning change processes in the ED. Yet, this setting may have a unique set of organisational pressures that need to be taken into account when implementing new clinical practices. This paper aims to provide an in depth analysis of the organisational context in which ED management of mild head injuries and implementation of new practices occurs, drawing upon organisational level theory. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ED staff in Australia. The interviews explored the organisational context in relation to change and organisational factors influencing the management of patients presenting with mild head injuries. Two researchers coded the interview transcripts using thematic content analysis. The “model of diffusion in service organisations” was used to guide analyses and organisation of the results. Results Nine directors, 20 doctors and 13 nurses of 13 hospitals were interviewed. With regard to characteristics of the innovation (i.e. the recommended practices) the most important factor was whether they were perceived as being in line with values and needs. Tension for change (the degree to which stakeholders perceive the current situation as intolerable or needing change) was relatively low for managing acute mild head injury symptoms, and mixed for managing longer-term symptoms (higher change

  20. The Many Organisational Factors Relevant to Planning Change in Emergency Care Departments: A Qualitative Study to Inform a Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial Aiming to Improve the Management of Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Marije; Tavender, Emma J; Brennan, Sue E; Knott, Jonathan; Gruen, Russell L; Green, Sally E

    2016-01-01

    The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) Trial aims to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a targeted theory-and evidence-informed intervention to increase the uptake of evidence-based recommended practices for the management of patients who present to an emergency department (ED) with mild head injuries. When designing interventions to bring about change in organisational settings such as the ED, it is important to understand the impact of the context to ensure successful implementation of practice change. Few studies explicitly use organisational theory to study which factors are likely to be most important to address when planning change processes in the ED. Yet, this setting may have a unique set of organisational pressures that need to be taken into account when implementing new clinical practices. This paper aims to provide an in depth analysis of the organisational context in which ED management of mild head injuries and implementation of new practices occurs, drawing upon organisational level theory. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ED staff in Australia. The interviews explored the organisational context in relation to change and organisational factors influencing the management of patients presenting with mild head injuries. Two researchers coded the interview transcripts using thematic content analysis. The "model of diffusion in service organisations" was used to guide analyses and organisation of the results. Nine directors, 20 doctors and 13 nurses of 13 hospitals were interviewed. With regard to characteristics of the innovation (i.e. the recommended practices) the most important factor was whether they were perceived as being in line with values and needs. Tension for change (the degree to which stakeholders perceive the current situation as intolerable or needing change) was relatively low for managing acute mild head injury symptoms, and mixed for managing longer-term symptoms (higher change commitment, but relatively low

  1. The Many Organisational Factors Relevant to Planning Change in Emergency Care Departments: A Qualitative Study to Inform a Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial Aiming to Improve the Management of Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije Bosch

    Full Text Available The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET Trial aims to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a targeted theory-and evidence-informed intervention to increase the uptake of evidence-based recommended practices for the management of patients who present to an emergency department (ED with mild head injuries. When designing interventions to bring about change in organisational settings such as the ED, it is important to understand the impact of the context to ensure successful implementation of practice change. Few studies explicitly use organisational theory to study which factors are likely to be most important to address when planning change processes in the ED. Yet, this setting may have a unique set of organisational pressures that need to be taken into account when implementing new clinical practices. This paper aims to provide an in depth analysis of the organisational context in which ED management of mild head injuries and implementation of new practices occurs, drawing upon organisational level theory.Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ED staff in Australia. The interviews explored the organisational context in relation to change and organisational factors influencing the management of patients presenting with mild head injuries. Two researchers coded the interview transcripts using thematic content analysis. The "model of diffusion in service organisations" was used to guide analyses and organisation of the results.Nine directors, 20 doctors and 13 nurses of 13 hospitals were interviewed. With regard to characteristics of the innovation (i.e. the recommended practices the most important factor was whether they were perceived as being in line with values and needs. Tension for change (the degree to which stakeholders perceive the current situation as intolerable or needing change was relatively low for managing acute mild head injury symptoms, and mixed for managing longer-term symptoms (higher change commitment, but

  2. The human milk study, HUMIS. Presentation of a birth cohort study which aims to collect milk samples from 6000 mothers, for the assessment of persistent organic pollutants (POPS), relating it to exposure factors and health outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggesboe, M.; Stigum, H.; Becher, G.; Magnus, P. [Norwegian Inst. of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Polder, A.; Skaare, J.U. [The Norwegian School of Veterinay Science, Oslo (Norway); Lindstroem, G. [Orebro Univ., Orebro (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Although PCB has been forbidden for more than 20 years now, and its levels in human milk is declining, it remains among the chemicals in human milk causing most concern with regard to its possible detrimental effects on the fetus and the breastfed child. Due to our industry, amongst others, the Norwegian population has been rather heavily exposed to PCB. Furthermore, new environmental toxicants are steadily entering the scene, such as the Brominated flame retardants. The level of Brominated flame retardants in human milk has shown an exponential increase during the last ten years, and this group of chemicals, are causing increasingly more concern. Studies from Sweden has shown that the levels differ greatly between individuals, however, for reasons yet unknown. In Norway, the highest levels of Brominated flame retardants ever measured in the world was reported from fish in Mjoesa. Surprisingly few attempts has been made to identify dietary habits or other life style factors that are associated with the levels of these toxicants in human milk. Such knowledge is needed in order for accurate prophylactic measures to be taken by the population and of special importance to women before and during child bearing age, in order to keep the levels in human milk as low as possible. Furthermore, there is great need for more knowledge of the effects of these toxicants on child health. The need for more research in this field, especially the need for prospective exposure data and the need for interdisciplinary approaches has been specifically targeted. Therefore a research initiative was taken in Norway to establish a prospective birth cohort which aims to recruit 6000 mother/child pairs, in whom human milk samples are collected in infancy and information on health outcomes are collected throughout the child's first seven years of life. The aim of this presentation is to describe this project in more detail and to give some preliminary results.

  3. 对稳定浓度目标下温室气体排放路径的探讨%Study on the Greenhouse Gas Emission Pathways Aiming at the Stable Concentration Targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘嘉; 陈文颖; 刘德顺

    2011-01-01

    The MACICC model ( model for the assessment of greenhouse gas induced climate change) and WRE ( Wigley, Richels and Edmonds) emission scenario are used to study the uncertainty of the greenhouse gas(GHG) emission pathways aiming at the stable concentration targets, based on the research of the emission pathways aiming at the 450 and 550 ppmvC02e concentration targets of 2100 and the changes of the CHG concentration. The model showed that the concentration target depended on the cumulative emission from starting year to target year and the emissions pathways. If the peak years of the emission pathways are adjusted to delay gradually in order to ensure the certain cumulative emissions, the new emission pathways need greater efforts in emission reduction after reaching the peak. GHG concentrations will increase gradually during the forecast period, but the changes in the target year are relative low, about one third of the maximal concentration changes. When the peak years of WRE350 and WRE450 emission pathways are adjusted to 2020 and 2035 respectively, the maximal concentration changes will be 6.4 ppmv and 22.8 ppmv, while the concentration changes in 2100 will be 1.9 ppmv and 7.5 ppmv respectively, compared to the original emission pathways.%为研究稳定浓度目标下温室气体排放路径的不确定性问题,应用温室气体导致气候变化评估模型( MAGICC模型)和WRE排放情景的数据对2100年温室气体浓度控制在450和550 ppmvCO2当量目标下的排放路径及浓度变化情况进行了研究.结果显示,目标年浓度的变化取决于起始年至目标年的累计排放量和摊放路径.将排放路径峰值逐渐调整滞后时,为保证累计排放量不变,需在到达峰值后比原排放路径进行更大力度的减排.温室气体浓度在预测期内将逐渐增加,但目标年的结果变化较小,约为浓度变化最大值的1/3左右.将WRE350和WRE450排放路径的峰值分别调整至2020年和2035年时,与原排

  4. Tapping, grasping and aiming in ideomotor apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ietswaart, Magdalena; Carey, David P; Della Sala, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    Very few studies have investigated sensorimotor control in apraxia using tasks that differ in movement complexity. Nevertheless, there is some evidence to suggest that spontaneous behaviour, although relatively preserved, can be rather clumsy or awkward, and that patients with ideomotor apraxia may have subtle kinematic abnormalities in movements made in the laboratory. It remains unclear whether patients with ideomotor apraxia perform normally on movements such as visually guided aiming, that may not depend on higher-order, more cognitive, processes and that are relatively unguided by overlearned contexts. In this study, three different sensorimotor tasks were given to the same sample of patients with quantified apraxic disturbance. Finger tapping, goal-directed grasping and aiming with and without visual feedback were examined in these patients. A clear dissociation was found between grossly impaired gesture imitation and intact motor programming of goal-directed movements with visual feedback. Apraxic patients were, however, impaired on aiming movements without visual feedback, suggesting that apraxia is associated with an increased reliance on integration of online visual information with feedforward/feedback somatosensory and motor signals. Furthermore, patients were impaired on single finger tapping which was a surprisingly good predictor of apraxia severity.

  5. The aims and accomplishments of comparative psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickliter, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Greenberg, Partridge, Weiss, and Pisula propose a new perspective of comparative psychology, based in large part on an anagenetic and dynamic systems approach to the development and evolution of behavior. Their view appreciates the probabilistic nature of behavioral development and promotes the value of an integrative levels concept for generating testable hypothesis regarding the complex relationship between biology, context, and developmental history underlying behavioral and psychological functioning. However, the authors fail to represent the full scope of contemporary comparative psychology by overlooking several core aims of the field, including (a) the use of animal models to shed light on human behavior and development and (b) understanding the role of behavior as a leading edge in the evolutionary process.

  6. A warehouse design decision model: case study

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldes, Carla A. S. (Ed.); Carvalho, Maria do Sameiro; Pereira, Guilherme

    2008-01-01

    Today’s competitive and volatile market requires flexibility, quality and efficiency from the logistics operations. In this context, warehouses are an important link of the logistic chain and warehouse management plays an important role over customer's service. Throughout this work we analyze a mathematical model aiming to support warehouse management decisions. A case study is used for that purpose and the model jointly identifies product allocation to the functional areas in the warehouse, ...

  7. Modeling for dynamic contact angle of ball screw mechanism aimed to structural parameters%面向结构参数的滚珠丝杠副动态接触角建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦奇; 庾辉; 李冬英; 王斌; 张根保

    2016-01-01

    Ball screw mechanism is one of the key parts in mechanical and electronic products especially in precision machineries due to its high transmission efficiency, long service life and high precision, high carrying capacity and positioning accuracy,which is determined by the contact angle formed between nut and screw. Aimed at the current problems in universal and limited application, which resulted from the specific structure parameters, this paper establishes the relationship between contact angle and ball screw’s structure parameters, as well as the model of the dynamic contact angle of ball screw mechanism combined with the geometric parameters of the ball and the raceway between nut and screw.The relationship between force and deformation in ball and raceway is got by using the Hertz contact theory, which is used to solve the stiffness in contact area between screw and nut. The relationship between ball’s rotation and revolution speed and screw’s rotation speed is got by using the raceway control theory, which is used to solve the centrifugal force and gyroscopic moment formed under working conditions. The structural model of the nonlinear equations of contact angle is got, in which the variable includes clearance, nominal diameter, ball diameter, helix angle and ball number. The solving procedure of dynamic contact angle is given based on the Newton-Raphson method. The influence of structure parameters on contact angle of ball screw mechanism under different working conditions is studied through the example analysis, and verified by contrasting the influence of ball screw’s rotational speed on contact angles with a specific structure. The results show that the inner contact angles in screw raceway are always greater than the external angles in nut raceway under working conditions. The inner contact angles increase with the increasing of screw’s rotational speed, and in contrast, the external contact angles decrease. Both the values of inner contact

  8. Ground-penetrating radar studies in Svalbard aimed to the calculation of the ice volume of its glaciers:Estudios de georradar en Svalbard orientados al cálculo del volumen de hielo de sus glaciares

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Francisco; Lapazaran, Javier; Martin Espanol, Alba; Otero, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    During the period 1999-2014, the Group of Numerical Simulation in Sciences and Engineering of Universidad Politécnica de Madrid carried out many ground-penetrating radar campaigns in Svalbard, aimed to the study of glacier ice-thickness and the physical properties of glacier ice. The regions covered were Nordenskiöld Land, Wedel Jarlsberg Land, Sabine Land and Nordaustlandet. We here present a review of these works, focused on the aspects related to the estimate of the volume of individual gl...

  9. Modeling and simulation of energy consumption inside greenhouses aiming at energy saving in Spain and Brazil; Modelado y simulacion del consumo de energia invernaderos: aplicacion para el ahorro de energia en Espana y Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso Eduardo Lins de; Rabi, Jose Antonio [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Zootecnia e Eng. de Alimentos. Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos], E-mail: celsooli@usp.br; Navas Gravia, Luis Manoel [Universidad de Valladolid (UVa) (Spain). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola e Florestal

    2009-07-01

    The study was accomplished taking into account the model framework development by authors in order to simulate acclimatized greenhouses for 10 cities in Brazil and Spain. Results showed that the use of a versatile energy source (such as electricity) has a higher cost in both countries. Particularly in Brazil, the use of heating systems to prevent losses in protected crops is only feasible for high-added value crops while in Spain heating systems are mandatory so as to make several crops possible during no-harvest periods. (author)

  10. Insect food aiming at Mars emigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nagasaka, Sanako; Kuwayama, Akemi; Sofue, Megumi

    2012-07-01

    We study insect food aiming at Mars emigration.In space agriculture, insect is the important creature which we cannot miss.It is necessary for the pollination of the plant, and it is rich to protein and lipid as food.I reported that silkworm is an insect necessary for astroponics in particular last time.We make clothes using silk thread, and the pupa becomes the food.In addition, the clothes can make food as protein when we need not to use it. The bee is a very important insect in the space agriculture,too.We examined nutrition of silkworm, bee, grasshopper, snail and the white ant which are necessary for Mars emigration.We will introduce of good balance space foods.We will report many meal menu for Mars emigration.

  11. Reporting guidelines for modelling studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Carol

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modelling studies are used widely to help inform decisions about health care and policy and their use is increasing. However, in order for modelling to gain strength as a tool for health policy, it is critical that key model factors are transparent so that users of models can have a clear understanding of the model and its limitations.Reporting guidelines are evidence-based tools that specify minimum criteria for authors to report their research such that readers can both critically appraise and interpret study findings. This study was conducted to determine whether there is an unmet need for population modelling reporting guidelines. Methods We conducted a review of the literature to identify: 1 guidance for reporting population modelling studies; and, 2 evidence on the quality of reporting of population modelling studies. Guidance for reporting was analysed using a thematic approach and the data was summarised as frequencies. Evidence on the quality of reporting was reviewed and summarized descriptively. Results There were no guidelines that specifically addressed the reporting of population modelling studies. We identified a number of reporting guidelines for economic evaluation studies, some of which had sections that were relevant population modelling studies. Amongst seven relevant records, we identified 69 quality criteria that have distinct reporting characteristics. We identified two papers that addressed reporting practices of modelling studies. Overall, with the exception of describing the data used for calibration, there was little consistency in reporting. Conclusions While numerous guidelines exist for developing and evaluating health technology assessment and economic evaluation models, which by extension could be applicable to population modelling studies, there is variation in their comprehensiveness and in the consistency of reporting these methods. Population modelling studies may be an area which would

  12. Aims or purposes of school mediation in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Isabel Viana-Orta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediation continues to expand, both geographically and in terms of scope. Depending on its purpose, there are three main consolidated mediation models or schools worldwide: the Traditional-Linear Harvard model, which seeks to find an agreement between the parties; the Circular-Narrative model, which apart from the agreement also emphasizes communicational aspects; and the Transformational model, more focused on relational aspects between the parties than in the adoption of agreements. The aim of this study is to determine which is the goal or purpose of mediation, confining it to the school environment and to the Spanish context. A brief comparative study is presented to this end, in which the comparative units are all the Comunidades Autónomas [Autonomous Regions] that make up the Spanish territory (n = 17 and the variable compared is the aim or purpose of mediation in schools as established by all the regional rules on school life (n = 17 with the force of a decree.

  13. Take AIM and Keep Your Students Engaged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the benefits to distance education teachers of formatting a weekly online newsletter in accordance with motivational learning theory. It reflects on the delivery of weekly AIM newsletters to undergraduate economics students at the Open Polytechnic of New Zealand via Moodle. The acronym, AIM, stands for Academic content,…

  14. Is "Freedom" an Aim of Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abinum, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that "freedom" properly understood cannot be an aim or an ideal of education, and that when educators talk of "freedom" as an aim or ideal of education, they usually have in mind the development of autonomy. (Author)

  15. A prospective population-based study, aiming to support decision-making in a follow-up programme for patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma, based on patterns of recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroti, Marianne; Ulff, Eva; Lyth, Johan;

    2016-01-01

    to characteristics of the primary tumour. Metastases developed in 421 of the 2,910 patients with primary cutaneous MM in Stage I and II of the disease. Thirty-five percent of all recurrences were detected during the first year. Time to first metastasis to the skin and lymph nodes was almost identical. The vast...... majority of the recurrences were diagnosed at sites that were easily recognised by the patient and relatives; self-examination may therefore be a worthwhile approach. Our findings further indicate that the follow-up programme should focus on the first three years after diagnosis....... to administer successful treatment for early disseminated disease, it may be of interest to engage MM patients and/or relatives in self-control. The aim of the present study was to analyse both the time to, and the location of, the first metastatic lesion in order to provide help for the patient, relatives...

  16. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Thermal Decomposition and Sensitivity Properties of (AIM)(HTNR) and (AIM)(PA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zhan; YANG Li; QIAO Xiao-jing; WU Bi-dong; ZHANG Tong-lai; ZHOU Zun-ning; YU Kai-bei

    2012-01-01

    Two new energetic compounds (AIM)(HTNR) and (AIM)(PA)(AIM=2-azidoimidazole,TNR=2,4,6-trinitroresorcinol,PA=picric acid) have been prepared by AIM(2-azidoimidazolium) and TNR(2,4,6-trinitroresorcinol) or PA(picric acid) and characterized by elemental analysis and FTIR spectrum.Their crystal structures were determined by X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis.The obtained results show that (AIM)(HTNR) crystal belongs to monoclinic,P2(1)/c space group,a=1.1306(2) nm,b=0.70305(14) nm,c=1.7398(4) nm,β=106.91°,V=1.3231(5) nm3,Dc=1.778 g/cm3,Z=4,R1=0.0524,wR2[I>2σ(I)]=0.1067 and S=1.092 and (AIM)(PA) crystal belongs to monoclinic P21/c space group,a=0.80303(16) nm,b=0.81395(16) nm,c=2.0471(4) nm,β=93.93(3)°,V=1.3349(5) nm3,Dc=1.683g/cm3,Z=4,R1=0.0784,wR2[I>2σ(I)]=0.1814 and S=1.098.Both the compounds have electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bonds,which contribute to making the constructions more stable.The decomposition of the two compounds was studied via differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) and thermogravimetry-derivative thermogravimetry(TG-DTG)techniques at a heating rate of 10 ℃/min,and the results show that both the compounds underwent one intensive exothermic decomposition stage.Sensitivity tests reveal that the title compounds were insensitive to friction and impact and sensitive to flame and could be applied in potential pyrotechnics.

  17. The Cosmic Dust Experiment of AIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, A.; James, D.; Horanyi, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Cosmic Dust Experiment (CDE) onboard the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) mission is a dust impact experiment designed to monitor the variability of the cosmic dust in ux. The instrument consists of fourteen permanently polarized thin plastic film sensors that generate an electrical signal when an impacting dust particle penetrates them. The total surface area is about 0.1 square meters and the detection threshold is about a micron in particle radius. The variability of these small grains is assumed to follow the variability of the dominant 100 micron radius particles, hence the measured flux can be used in correlation studies with various Noctilucent Cloud (NLC) activity indexes. CDE has been observing the cosmic dust influx since June 2007. In this talk, we present the first nine months of reduced data, focusing on the observed temporal and spatial variability of the dust influx. Data collected after February 2008 show increased levels of background noise and preliminary work on reducing this data will also be presented.

  18. Estudios de intervención dirigidos a disminuir el riesgo de padecer diabetes mellitus tipo 2 Intervention studies aimed at lowering the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Valenciaga Rodríguez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios de intervención en población de riesgo, dirigidos a disminuir la frecuencia de la aparición de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM 2, son considerados orientadores para el enfoque del trabajo con esos pacientes. El objetivo del presente estudio es revisar los resultados de investigaciones dirigidas a disminuir el riesgo de padecer DM 2. Los sujetos estudiados presentaban alguna de las siguientes condiciones: glucosa alterada en ayunas (GAA o tolerancia a la glucosa alterada (TGA, antecedente personal de diabetes gestacional y síndrome metabólico. Se citan, entre otros, DPP (diabetes prevention program, DPS (diabetes prevention study, STOP-NIDDM (study to prevent non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Hiperglucemia en ayunas, DAISI (dutch acarbose intervention trial, Da Quing (estudio chino, TRIPOD (troglitazone In the prevention of diabetes, intervención, XENDOS (xenical in the prevention of diabetes in obese subjects, WOSCOPS (west of scotland coronary prevention study, EDIT (early diabetes intervención trial, NAVIGATOR (nateglinide and valsartan in impaired glucose tolerance outcomes research, DREAM (diabetes reduction assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone medication. Estos consistían en cambios de estilo de vida (fundamentalmente ejercicios físicos sistemáticos y orientaciones nutricionales y/o intervenciones terapéuticas. Se concluye que en personas con 25 o más años de edad de ambos sexos, con riesgo de padecer DM 2, la adopción de un estilo de vida saludable logra disminuir el riesgo de padecer el síndrome diabético. En sujetos con alto riesgo de DM 2, los fármacos que reportan mejores y más consistentes resultados son el metformin y la acarbosa. Otros como la nateglidina, rosiglitazona, ramipril y valsartan, se están investigando actualmente.Intervention studies on population at risk aimed at lowering the frequency of occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus(DM2 are considered as guiding lines for the work

  19. Discrimination and the aim of proportional representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Many organizations, companies, and so on are committed to certain representational aims as regards the composition of their workforce. One motivation for such aims is the assumption that numerical underrepresentation of groups manifests discrimination against them. In this article, I articulate...... representational aims in a way that best captures this rationale. My main claim is that the achievement of such representational aims is reducible to the elimination of the effects of wrongful discrimination on individuals and that this very important concern is, in principle, compatible with the representation...... of discrimination against numerically overrepresented groups, or overlook the innocently different ambitions of some numerically underrepresented groups. In relation to the latter point, I appeal to the fact that many luck egalitarians think justice should be ambition sensitive (but endowment insensitive). Also...

  20. On the Aims and Responsibilities of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Lacey

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available I offer a view of the aims and responsibilities of science, and use it to analyze critically van Fraassen’s view that ‘objectifying inquiry’ is fundamental to the nature of science.

  1. Discrimination and the aim of proportional representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Many organizations, companies, and so on are committed to certain representational aims as regards the composition of their workforce. One motivation for such aims is the assumption that numerical underrepresentation of groups manifests discrimination against them. In this article, I articulate...... representational aims in a way that best captures this rationale. My main claim is that the achievement of such representational aims is reducible to the elimination of the effects of wrongful discrimination on individuals and that this very important concern is, in principle, compatible with the representation...... of discrimination against numerically overrepresented groups, or overlook the innocently different ambitions of some numerically underrepresented groups. In relation to the latter point, I appeal to the fact that many luck egalitarians think justice should be ambition sensitive (but endowment insensitive). Also...

  2. Presentation of Database on Aims and Visions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    This presentation presents a database on aims and visions regarding regional development and transport and infrastructure in the corridor from Oslo-Göteborg-Copenhagen-Berlin. The process, the developed methodology as well as the result of the database is presented.......This presentation presents a database on aims and visions regarding regional development and transport and infrastructure in the corridor from Oslo-Göteborg-Copenhagen-Berlin. The process, the developed methodology as well as the result of the database is presented....

  3. 龙榆生创办《词学季刊》的宗旨与举措%The Aims and Means of Long Yusheng to Start Quarterly of Ci Poem Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢春红

    2011-01-01

    The modern master of the study of ci poems,Long Yusheng,launched Quarterly of Ci Poem Studies,and decided that it was a journal of ci poem studies.After deciding on the authors and the way to communicate with the readers,he published the first issue,realizing his aim;then,he made an efforts to improve the communication between editors and authors so that the journal would continue its existence;he also tried to enable the readers to take part in the editing of the journal.The publication of Quarterly of Ci Poem Studies left a glorious page in the history of editing journals of ci poem studies.%现代词学家龙榆生创办《词学季刊》,将其定位成以词学研究为主的专业性期刊,在确定作者人选范围、确立与读者取得沟通方式的编辑思想主导下,推出"创刊号",实现他的编辑意旨;而后着力搞好编辑与作者间的协作,以利于期刊的持续发展;为读者着想,争取读者参与到期刊编辑工作中来。《词学季刊》的出版,为词学研究期刊编辑史上留下了风采的一笔。

  4. A Simulation Study on the Shift Schedule of Electric Vehicle Aiming at Fuel Economy%纯电动汽车经济性换挡规律仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江昊; 赵韩; 黄康; 刘拂晓

    2015-01-01

    In order to extend the driving mileage and reduce the energy consumption of electric vehicle, its shift schedule is simulated aiming at fuel economy in this paper. Firstly, a static economical shift schedule with two-parameter control is worked out. Then by using dynamic programming algorithm, the optimal gear under ECE driv-ing cycles is found, and based on which the static economical shift schedule is revised with the final economical shift schedule curve obtained. Finally an electricity consumption model for electric vehicle is set up, and a simulation on the shift schedule before and after revision is conducted with UDDC driving cycles. The results show that the revised shift schedule can effectively reduce the energy consumption of electric vehicle.%为提高纯电动汽车的续驶里程,降低能量消耗率,本文中针对其燃油经济性进行了换挡规律的仿真。首先制定出两参数静态经济性换挡规律;然后利用动态规划算法找出在ECE循环工况下的最优挡位,并据此对所制定的静态经济性换挡规律进行修正,得到最终经济性换挡规律曲线;最后,在UDDS行驶工况下,建立了纯电动汽车耗电量模型,对修正前后的换挡规律进行仿真。结果表明,修正后的换挡规律能有效地降低纯电动汽车的能量消耗率。

  5. Thermohydraulic study of a MTR fuel element aimed at the construction of an irradiation facility; Estudo termohidraulico de um elemento combustivel tipo MTR visando a construcao de um dispositivo de irradiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coragem, Helio Boemer de Oliveira

    1980-07-01

    A thermohydraulic study of MTR fuel element is presented as a basic requirement for the development of an irradiation facility for testing fuel elements. A computer code named 'Thermo' has been developed for this purpose, which can stimulate different working conditions, such as, cooling, power elements and neutron flux, performing all pertinent thermohydraulic calculations. Thermocouples were used to measure the temperature gradients of the cooling fluid throughout the IEAR-1 reactor core. All experimental data are in good agreement with the theoretical model applied in this work. Finally, a draft of the proposed facility and its safety system is presented. (author)

  6. Studies of Catalytic Model Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holse, Christian

    The overall topic of this thesis is within the field of catalysis, were model systems of different complexity have been studied utilizing a multipurpose Ultra High Vacuum chamber (UHV). The thesis falls in two different parts. First a simple model system in the form of a ruthenium single crystal...... is investigated. Second the development of a complex Cu/ZnO nanoparticle model system is described and gas-induced dynamical changes in the model system is investigated. The ruthenium crystal serves as an extremely simple model for studying CO dissociation which is the rate limiting step of the methanation...... process. The Ru(0 1 54) surface is studied by means of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM), Temperature Programmed Desoprtion (TPD), and Oxygen Titration (OT) experiments. Real space evidence of periodic features on every second monatomic step is observed via STM when the a clean ruthenium surface...

  7. Herc SAR Task 106: AIMS Feature Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    prédécesseurs grâce à l’intégration de quatre capteurs dans un seul cardan. Pour offrir un rendement optimal, le système AIMS exige une interface et...qui simule l’utilisation et la commande de l’interface de capteur aéroporté a été élaborée par Recherche et Développement pour la défense Canada...système AIMS et de systèmes d’imagerie électro- optique semblables. Résulats Plusieurs importantes caractéristiques du système de simulation AIMS

  8. Czochralski crystal growth: Modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudukovic, M. P.; Ramachandran, P. A.; Srivastava, R. K.; Dorsey, D.

    1986-01-01

    The modeling study of Czochralski (Cz) crystal growth is reported. The approach was to relate in a quantitative manner, using models based on first priniciples, crystal quality to operating conditions and geometric variables. The finite element method is used for all calculations.

  9. Basic study of groundwater recharge which aim at preservation of water resources. Study of bio-filter; Suishitsugen no hozen wo mezashita chikasui jinko kan'yo no kiso kenkyu. Bio filter ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemiya, H. [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Suzuki, A. [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan)

    1999-04-25

    An experimental study has been made on the effect of bio-filter in a packed bed. By using a packed bed of glass beads in stead of aquifer, groundwater recharge was reappeared. Measurements were made on microorganism number density, COD, turbidity, iron concentration, and pH. Emphasis was placed on the removal effect of COD. The conclusions were as follows. 1) Bio-filter is formed at the upstream end of the packed bed. It is composed of general microorganism and iron bacteria. The number densities of microorganism and iron bacteria are increased with the passage of time and bio-filter is thickly formed. 2) Bio-filter is very useful to COD removal, because organism is consumed by oxidation with iron bacteria and iron, 3) Iron is removed by the physical filter effect of bio-filter and oxidation with iron bacteria. 4) Turbidity is removed by the physical filter effect of bin-filter. 5) Light is an effective system for COD removal. 6) Environmental temperature is usefulness to bio-filter formation and water purification. (author)

  10. An internal pilot study for a randomized trial aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of iron interventions in children with non-anemic iron deficiency: the OptEC trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Kawsari; Thorpe, Kevin E; Mamak, Eva; Maguire, Jonathon L; Birken, Catherine S; Fehlings, Darcy; Hanley, Anthony J; Macarthur, Colin; Zlotkin, Stanley H; Parkin, Patricia C

    2015-07-14

    The OptEC trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of oral iron in young children with non-anemic iron deficiency (NAID). The initial sample size calculated for the OptEC trial ranged from 112-198 subjects. Given the uncertainty regarding the parameters used to calculate the sample, an internal pilot study was conducted. The objectives of this internal pilot study were to obtain reliable estimate of parameters (standard deviation and design factor) to recalculate the sample size and to assess the adherence rate and reasons for non-adherence in children enrolled in the pilot study. The first 30 subjects enrolled into the OptEC trial constituted the internal pilot study. The primary outcome of the OptEC trial is the Early Learning Composite (ELC). For estimation of the SD of the ELC, descriptive statistics of the 4 month follow-up ELC scores were assessed within each intervention group. The observed SD within each group was then pooled to obtain an estimated SD (S2) of the ELC. Correlation (ρ) between the ELC measured at baseline and follow-up was assessed. Recalculation of the sample size was performed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) method which uses the design factor (1- ρ(2)). Adherence rate was calculated using a parent reported rate of missed doses of the study intervention. The new estimate of the SD of the ELC was found to be 17.40 (S2). The design factor was (1- ρ2) = 0.21. Using a significance level of 5%, power of 80%, S2 = 17.40 and effect estimate (Δ) ranging from 6-8 points, the new sample size based on ANCOVA method ranged from 32-56 subjects (16-28 per group). Adherence ranged between 14% and 100% with 44% of the children having an adherence rate ≥ 86%. Information generated from our internal pilot study was used to update the design of the full and definitive trial, including recalculation of sample size, determination of the adequacy of adherence, and application of strategies to improve adherence. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT

  11. Aims and harvest of moral case deliberation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidema, Froukje C; Molewijk, Bert A C; Kamsteeg, Frans; Widdershoven, Guy A M

    2013-09-01

    Deliberative ways of dealing with ethical issues in health care are expanding. Moral case deliberation is an example, providing group-wise, structured reflection on dilemmas from practice. Although moral case deliberation is well described in literature, aims and results of moral case deliberation sessions are unknown. This research shows (a) why managers introduce moral case deliberation and (b) what moral case deliberation participants experience as moral case deliberation results. A responsive evaluation was conducted, explicating moral case deliberation experiences by analysing aims (N = 78) and harvest (N = 255). A naturalistic data collection included interviews with managers and evaluation questionnaires of moral case deliberation participants (nurses). From the analysis, moral case deliberation appeals for cooperation, team bonding, critical attitude towards routines and nurses' empowerment. Differences are that managers aim to foster identity of the nursing profession, whereas nurses emphasize learning processes and understanding perspectives. We conclude that moral case deliberation influences team cooperation that cannot be controlled with traditional management tools, but requires time and dialogue. Exchanging aims and harvest between manager and team could result in co-creating (moral) practice in which improvements for daily cooperation result from bringing together perspectives of managers and team members.

  12. PRAGUE SEMINAR ON LANGUAGE TEACHING AIMS, 1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FRIED, VILEM

    AN INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR, WHOSE PURPOSE IT WAS TO DISCUSS THE STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCES IN LANGUAGE TEACHING AIMS, IS REPORTED ON IN THIS ARTICLE. THE THREE PAPERS PRESENTED BY IVAN POLDAUF, VALENTINA ZETLINA, AND JOHN B. CARROLL ARE REVIEWED FOR THEIR DISCUSSIONS ON LINGUISTICS, DIDACTICS, AND PSYCHOLOGY. THE DISCUSSION FOLLOWING THE PRESENTATION OF…

  13. Character as the Aim of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David Light

    2011-01-01

    The aim of education should be developing intellectual character, moral character, civic character, and performance character. That does not mean that schools should ignore teaching content, but that the dispositions and habits of mind that come from developing these four forms of character will remain with students throughout their lives.…

  14. Teacher Research and the Aims of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Yvonne; Wardekker, Willem

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development of a course for experienced teachers in the Netherlands, intended to enhance their professionalism by engaging them in doing research based on reflection on the aims of their educational efforts. The course was accompanied by design-based research. The research question was whether and how the course stimulated…

  15. AIM: Ames Imaging Module Spacecraft Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The AIM camera is a small, lightweight, low power, low cost imaging system developed at NASA Ames. Though it has imaging capabilities similar to those of $1M plus spacecraft cameras, it does so on a fraction of the mass, power and cost budget.

  16. Statistical models for stability studies

    OpenAIRE

    Uwimpuhwe, Germaine

    2015-01-01

    Stability studies are conducted at all phases of the drug development cycle, with the main objective of having a stable product on market. In this project we aimed at evaluating if the shelf life could be extended from 24 (current shelf life) to 36 months, quantifying pharmaceutical stability such as shelf life, release limit, degradation rate ( annually and at the end of both shelf lives) and consumer/producer risk. The assay data are longitudinal from 50 different batches, whi...

  17. THE CARTOGRAPHY IN STUDIES OF ENVIRONMENT: BILINGUAL PRACTICE AIMING INCLUSION OF DEAF STUDENTS A CARTOGRAFIA NOS ESTUDOS DO MEIO AMBIENTE: POR UMA PRÁTICA BILINGUE VISANDO A INCLUSÃO DOS ALUNOS SURDOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Salge Araújo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding that teaching Geography to Deaf students through to the field visual-spatial and off course, the appreciation of their mother language, the Brazilian Sing Language, that study aiming to discuss and develop activities of Geography focusing on the characteristics of that language. Therefore, starting from the Cartography and all diverse applicability, this study sought to sharpen the student’s perception about the lived space. The conditions of urban neighborhood linked to the importance of space and interpret the various events that surround us. Finally, using games, images and fields works with a group of Deaf students, we compose a sequence teaching that we call: The Urban Environmental Problems: From the world to my school.Por entender que o ensino ao aluno Surdo perpassa pelo campo viso-gestual e, especialmente, pela valorização da sua língua materna, a Língua Brasileira de Sinais, é que este trabalho objetivou a discussão e elaboração de atividades de Geografia centradas nas características lingüísticas e didáticas destes alunos. Portanto, partindo-se da Cartografia e de suas diversas aplicabilidades, este trabalho procurou aguçar a percepção dos alunos acerca do espaço vivido. Considerando a área em que se localiza a escola, elegemos os problemas ambientais urbanos como eixo temático. Sendo assim, através de atividades, jogos, imagens e trabalho de campo com uma turma de alunos Surdos, arquitetaram-se as seqüências didáticas que chamamos de Os Problemas Ambientais Urbanos: Do mundo à minha escola.

  18. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of posterior-only vertebral column resection (PVCR) for the treatment of angular and isolated congenital kyphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengru; Aikenmu, Kahaer; Zhang, Jianguo; Qiu, Guixing; Guo, Jianwei; Zhang, Yanbin; Weng, Xisheng

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of posterior-only vertebral column resection (PVCR) for the treatment of angular and isolated congenital kyphosis. 24 patients with isolated angular congenital kyphosis treated by PVCR in our hospital were retrospectively studied. The patients' radiographs and hospital records were reviewed. Deformity in sagittal planes and global sagittal alignment were analyzed for correction and maintenance of the correction in preoperative, postoperative, and follow-up radiographs. The complications and related risk factors were analyzed. The average age was 13.9 (4-40) years. Three of them were revision surgeries. Two patients have intraspinal anomalies. The mean follow-up is 56.9 (26-129) months. The mean operation time was 293.1 (170-480) min. The averaged blood loss was 993.8 (250-3000) ml. The segmental kyphosis was 87.3° before surgery, 17.6° post surgery and 20.4° at the latest the follow-up. And the sagittal vertical axis was improved from 43.1 mm to 9.2 mm. Mean total score of SRS-22 was 89.3. Complications occurred in 4 patients, including 1 screw pullout due to pseudarthrosis, 1 proximal junctional kyphosis, 1 incomplete spinal cord injury and 1 root injuries. Posterior-only vertebral column resection is an ideal procedure for severe rigid congenital kyphosis. However, it is still a highly technical demanding procedure. Neurological compromises still remain the biggest challenges. Sufficient height of anterior reconstruction, avoidance sacrifice of bilateral roots in the same level in the thoracic spine, avoidance of the sagittal translation of the upper and lower vertebras, intra-operative neuromonitoring, and preoperative surgical release of diastematomyelia and tethered cord may help to improve the safety.

  19. Goal-Directed Aiming: Two Components but Multiple Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Digby; Hansen, Steve; Grierson, Lawrence E. M.; Lyons, James; Bennett, Simon J.; Hayes, Spencer J.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the behavioral literature on the control of goal-directed aiming and presents a multiple-process model of limb control. The model builds on recent variants of Woodworth's (1899) two-component model of speed-accuracy relations in voluntary movement and incorporates ideas about dynamic online limb control based on prior…

  20. Model quality and safety studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the EC initiative on model quality assessment and emphasizes some of the problems encountered in the selection of data from field tests used in the evaluation process. Further, it discusses the impact of model uncertainties in safety studies of industrial plants. The model...... that most of these have never been through a procedure of evaluation, but nonetheless are used to assist in making decisions that may directly affect the safety of the public and the environment. As a major funder of European research on major industrial hazards, DGXII is conscious of the importance......-tain model is appropriate for use in solving a given problem. Further, the findings from the REDIPHEM project related to dense gas dispersion will be highlighted. Finally, the paper will discuss the need for model quality assessment in safety studies....

  1. A study of mental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tarciso Borges

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of mental models is being used in several areas of knowledge in order to study the representations users have about physical systems and events, as well as the content of such representations. However, it cannot be considered a unitary concept. This paper discusses the assumptions envolved in different areas of knowledge and describes a study of the mental model of magnetism held by students and professionals such as electricians physics teachers, and engineers. The identified model stress two aspects: what is the origin of permanent magnets and what is the mechanism of the magnetic interaction.

  2. Mathematical Modelling Research in Turkey: A Content Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, H. Coskun

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the mathematical modelling studies done between 2004 and 2015 in Turkey and to reveal their tendencies. Forty-nine studies were selected using purposeful sampling based on the term, "mathematical modelling" with Higher Education Academic Search Engine. They were analyzed with content analysis.…

  3. Induction of immunological tolerance in the pig-to-baboon xenotransplantation model : studies aimed at achieving mixed hematopoietic chimerism and preventing associated thrombotic complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P.J. Alwayn (Ian)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe outcome of clinical organ transplantation has dramatically improved since the introduction of cyclosporine (CyA) in 1979 and of other, more recently introduced, immunosuppressive agents such as azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus and sirolimus. Furthermore, due to more re

  4. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) fellowship program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCleary, D.D. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program administers a Graduate Fellowship Program focused toward helping students who are currently under represented in the nation`s pool of scientists and engineers, enter and complete advanced degree programs. The objectives of the program are to: (1) establish and maintain cooperative linkages between DOE and professors at universities with graduate programs leading toward degrees or with degree options in Materials Science, Materials Engineering, Metallurgical Engineering, and Ceramic Engineering, the disciplines most closely related to the AIM Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); (2) strengthen the capabilities and increase the level of participation of currently under represented groups in master`s degree programs, and (3) offer graduate students an opportunity for practical research experience related to their thesis topic through the three-month research assignment or practicum at ORNL. The program is administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE).

  5. Experimental and Modelling Studies of Biomass Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ka Leung Lam; Adetoyese Olajire Oyedu~; Chi Wai Hui

    2012-01-01

    The analysis on the feedstock pyrolysis characteristic and the impacts of process parameters on pyrolysis outcomes can assist in the designing, operating and optimizing pyrolysis processes. This work aims to utilize both experimental and modelling approaches to perform the analysis on three biomass feedstocks--wood sawdust, bamboo shred and Jatropha Curcas seed cake residue, and to provide insights for the design_and operation of pyro-lysis processes. For the experimental part, the study investigated the effect of heating rate, final pyrolysis tempera- ture and sample size on pyrolysis using common thermal analysis techniques. For the modelling part, a transient mathematical model that integrates the feedstock characteristic from the experimental study was used to simulate the pyrolysis progress of selected biomass feedstock particles for reactor scenarios. The model composes of several sub-models that describe pyrolysis kinetic and heat flow, particle heat transfer, particle shrinking and reactor opera-tion. With better understanding of the effects of process conditions and feedstock characteristics on pyrolysis through both experimental and modelling studies, this work discusses on the considerations of and interrelation between feedstock size, pyrolysis energy usage, processing time and product quality for the design and operation of pyrolysis processes.

  6. Study design in causal models

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The causal assumptions, the study design and the data are the elements required for scientific inference in empirical research. The research is adequately communicated only if all of these elements and their relations are described precisely. Causal models with design describe the study design and the missing data mechanism together with the causal structure and allow the direct application of causal calculus in the estimation of the causal effects. The flow of the study is visualized by orde...

  7. AIM cryocooler developments for HOT detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühlich, I.; Mai, M.; Withopf, A.; Rosenhagen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Significantly increased FPA temperatures for both Mid Wave and Long Wave IR detectors, i.e. HOT detectors, which have been developed in recent years are now leaving the development phase and are entering real application. HOT detectors allowing to push size weight and power (SWaP) of Integrated Detectors Cooler Assemblies (IDCA's) to a new level. Key component mainly driving achievable weight, volume and power consumption is the cryocooler. AIM cryocooler developments are focused on compact, lightweight linear cryocoolers driven by compact and high efficient digital cooler drive electronics (DCE) to also achieve highest MTTF targets. This technology is using moving magnet driving mechanisms and dual or single piston compressors. Whereas SX030 which was presented at SPIE in 2012 consuming less 3 WDC to operate a typical IDCA at 140K, next smaller cooler SX020 is designed to provide sufficient cooling power at detector temperature above 160K. The cooler weight of less than 200g and a total compressor length of 60mm makes it an ideal solution for all applications with limited weight and power budget, like in handheld applications. For operating a typical 640x512, 15μm MW IR detector the power consumption will be less than 1.5WDC. MTTF for the cooler will be in excess of 30,000h and thus achieving low maintenance cost also in 24/7 applications. The SX020 compressor is based on a single piston design with integrated passive balancer in a new design achieves very low exported vibration in the order of 100mN in the compressor axis. AIM is using a modular approach, allowing the chose between 5 different compressor types for one common Stirling expander. The 6mm expander with a total length of 74mm is now available in a new design that fits into standard dewar bores originally designed for rotary coolers. Also available is a 9mm coldfinger in both versions. In development is an ultra-short expander with around 35mm total length to achieve highest compactness. Technical

  8. Student Models of Learning and Their Impact on Study Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferla, Johan; Valcke, Martin; Schuyten, Gilberte

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to identify student models of learning (sets of "intra-student" cognitions about learning) and to investigate their effect on study strategies. A two-step cluster analysis identified four student models of learning, representing students' self-efficacy beliefs, learning conceptions, attributions for academic performance…

  9. Why the Aims of Education Cannot Be Settled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardarson, Atli

    2012-01-01

    The dominant model of curriculum design in the last century assumed that school education could be organized around aims, defined primarily in terms of students' behaviour. The credentials of this model were questioned by, among others, Lawrence Stenhouse, who pointed out that education serves purposes that cannot be stated in terms of behavioural…

  10. Campus network security model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-ku; Song, Li-ren

    2011-12-01

    Campus network security is growing importance, Design a very effective defense hacker attacks, viruses, data theft, and internal defense system, is the focus of the study in this paper. This paper compared the firewall; IDS based on the integrated, then design of a campus network security model, and detail the specific implementation principle.

  11. 空调冷水二次泵压差模型不确定性的MFAC控制%Using MFAC to Control the Pressure Difference of Secondary Pump Aiming at Its Model Uncertainty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯增喜; 任庆昌

    2014-01-01

    中央空调冷水系统管路特性变化、设备老化等因素导致中央空调冷水系统二次泵压差模型具有不确定性,以致常规PID算法的调节性能变差,甚至在空调系统运行一段时间后出现不可控的现象;而无模型自适应控制(Model Free Adaptive Control,MFAC)是一种采用不依赖被控对象的具体数学模型的“泛模型”和一些“控制功能”的某种组合相结合的、具有参数自适应和结构自适应的控制方法;引入了无模型自适应控制算法,来改善中央空调冷水系统二次泵压差控制效果,确保系统的调节时间和超调量保持不变;仿真和实验结果表明:相对于PID控制,MFAC具有很强的鲁棒性和抗干扰能力及自适应能力,调节性能稳定,可以克服由于系统管路特性变化、设备老化等因素导致的中央空调冷水系统二次泵压差模型不确定性的情况,控制效果良好.

  12. Taking aim at novel vaccines market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Sita

    2009-10-01

    The World Vaccine Congress Washington 2009 was held in Chantilly, VA USA April 2O -23rd. The Vaccine congress attracted over 400 participants from across the world, including leading vaccine manufacturers, biotechs, governmental agencies, NGOs, research and academic institutes, venture capital and legal firms, contract service and equipment manufacturers. The speakers covered a wide range of topics, including the role of government and regulatory agencies, funding availability, research and development, manufacturing, packaging and post vaccine evaluations. Past vaccine development efforts have historically focused on infectious diseases. With advancements in the field of immunology, molecular biology and vaccinology, the vaccine field has begun moving in new directions. "Taking aim at novel vaccines market" session chaired by Dr. Una Ryan, Chief Executive Officer of Waltham Technologies, was focused on traditional approaches to novel targets (nosocomial infections), novel approaches to traditional targets (flu and rabies), novel approaches to novel targets (Type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis and smoking) and vaccines for developing markets (TB, malaria, rabies). The importance of collaborations among academic institutions, industries, and philanthropic foundations for developing markets was also emphasized.

  13. Combined experimental and theoretical studies on the molecular structures, spectroscopy, and inhibitor activity of 3-(2-thienyl)acrylic acid through AIM, NBO,FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV and HOMO-LUMO analyses, and molecular docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaoui, N.; Ghalla, H.; Bardak, F.; Karabacak, M.; Aouled Dlala, N.; Flakus, H. T.; Oujia, B.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, the molecular structures and vibrational spectral analyses of 3-(2-Theinyl)acrylic acid (3-2TAA) monomer and dimer structures have been reported by using density functional theory calculations at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. The complete assignments of the fundamental vibrational modes were obtained using potential energy distribution. Intermolecular interactions were analyzed by orbital NBO and topological AIM approaches. The electronic properties have been carried out using TD-DFT approach. Great agreements between experimental and theoretical values were achieved throughout the analysis of structural parameters and spectroscopic features. Inhibitor characteristics on human monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) enzyme of two determined stable conformers of 3-2TAA (β and γ) along with four selective inhibitors, namely safinamide, a coumarin analogue, farnesol, and phenyethylhydrazine were investigated via molecular docking. Moreover, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and temperature dependency of thermodynamic functions have been reported.

  14. AIM-9X Block II Sidewinder (AIM-9X Blk II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Executive Summary The AIM-9X Block II missile completed Initial Operational Test and Evaluation ( IOT &E) in March 2015 and was found to be...carried. The AIM -9X Block II missile shall be compatible with representative threshold hose aircraft weapon and sensor load-outs with regard to

  15. TRIM11 Suppresses AIM2 Inflammasome by Degrading AIM2 via p62-Dependent Selective Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The AIM2 inflammasome is a key cytosolic signaling complex that is activated by double-stranded DNA, leading to the maturation of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β and IL-18. Dysregulated AIM2 inflammasome activity is associated with human inflammatory diseases and cancers, suggesting that its activity must be tightly regulated. However, the precise molecular mechanisms that control AIM2 levels and activity are still poorly understood. Here, we report tripartite motif 11 (TRIM11 as a key negative regulator of the AIM2 inflammasome. Upon DNA virus infection, TRIM11 binds to AIM2 via its PS domain and undergoes auto-polyubiquitination at K458 to promote an association between TRIM11 and the autophagic cargo receptor p62 to mediate AIM2 degradation via selective autophagy. These findings identify a role for TRIMs in AIM2 inflammasome activation where TRIM11 acts as a secondary receptor to deliver AIM2 to the autophagosomes for degradation in a p62-dependent manner.

  16. Multilevel interventions aimed at adult obesity prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benwell, Ann Fenger

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of literature emphasizes the importance of using both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the wide range of aspects which hinder or promote the success of health interventions. The pilot phase of this study highlights how mixed-method approaches can be strengthened ...... to investigate factors associated with multi-level obesity prevention....

  17. TALEN gene editing takes aim on HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Ronald; Berges, Bradford K; Solis-Leal, Antonio; Igbinedion, Omoyemwen; Strong, Christy L; Schiller, Martin R

    2016-09-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are one of several types of programmable, engineered nucleases that bind and cleave specific DNA sequences. Cellular machinery repairs the cleaved DNA by introducing indels. In this review, we emphasize the potential, explore progress, and identify challenges in using TALENs as a therapeutic tool to treat HIV infection. TALENs have less off-target editing and can be more effective at tolerating HIV escape mutations than CRISPR/Cas-9. Scientists have explored TALEN-mediated editing of host genes such as viral entry receptors (CCR5 and CXCR4) and a protein involved in proviral integration (LEDGF/p75). Viral targets include the proviral DNA, particularly focused on the long terminal repeats. Major challenges with translating gene therapy from bench to bedside are improving cleavage efficiency and delivery, while minimizing off-target editing, cytotoxicity, and immunogenicity. However, rapid improvements in TALEN technology are enhancing cleavage efficiency and specificity. Therapeutic testing in animal models of HIV infection will help determine whether TALENs are a viable HIV treatment therapy. TALENs or other engineered nucleases could shift the therapeutic paradigm from life-long antiretroviral therapy toward eradication of HIV infection.

  18. Study on Alzheimer's disease model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that the main brain lesion in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain is neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and senile plaques (SP). The amount of NFT is positively correlated with clinical degree of dementia in AD. It is also well studied that the major component of NFT is abnormally hyperphosphorylated microtubule associated protein tau that is caused by an imbalance of protein kinase and protein phosphatase (PP). To reconstitute a specific AD model based on the above hypothesis, we have injected separately calcium calmodulin dependent protein kinase (CaMKKII) activator, bradykinin and PP-2B inhibitor, cyclosporin A into rat hippocampus in the present study. The results showed that the injection of bradykinin caused learning and memory deficient in rats as well as Alzheimer-like tau phosphorylation, including Ser-262/356, Thr-231/235 and Ser-396/404. On the other hand, the injection of cyclosporin A induced the same phosphorylation sites as above except Ser-262/356, however, it did not mimic rat behavior abnormality as bradykinin injection did. The data suggested that activating of CaMKII and the phosphorylation of Ser-262/356 at tau might responsible for the lesion of learning and memory in our model rats. We also incubated PP-2A and PP-1 inhibitor, okadaic acid with human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y), and found that (1) inhibition of above PPs induced Alzheimer-like phosphorylation and accumulation of neurofilaments, and Alzheimer-like microtubule disruption, (2) melatonin showed certain protection of the cell from okadaic acid toxicity. The data obtained from this study is significant in AD specific model study.

  19. Evaluation and cultural adaptation of a German version of the AIMS2-SF questionnaire (German AIMS2-SF).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosemann, T.J.; Korner, T.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Schneider, A.; Szecsenyi, J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the validity of a translated and culturally adapted version of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2, Short Form (AIMS2-SF) in patients suffering from osteoarthritis (OA) in primary care. METHODS: A structured procedure was used for the translation

  20. Evaluation and cultural adaptation of a German version of the AIMS2-SF questionnaire (German AIMS2-SF).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosemann, T.J.; Korner, T.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Schneider, A.; Szecsenyi, J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the validity of a translated and culturally adapted version of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2, Short Form (AIMS2-SF) in patients suffering from osteoarthritis (OA) in primary care. METHODS: A structured procedure was used for the translation

  1. Comparative Study of Various SDLC Models on Different Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Sharma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The success of a software development project greatly depends upon which process model is used. This paper emphasizes on the need of using appropriate model as per the application to be developed. In this paper we have done the comparative study of the following software models namely Waterfall, Prototype, RAD (Rapid Application Development Incremental, Spiral, Build and Fix and V-shaped. Our aim is to create reliable and cost effective software and these models provide us a way to develop them. The main objective of this research is to represent different models of software development and make a comparison between them to show the features of each model.

  2. Movement planning of video and of manual aiming movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, Patrick; Proteau, Luc

    2005-01-01

    We studied aiming performance of adults for video- and manual aiming tasks when they had visual information about the location of the starting base or when they had not. In video-aiming, foveating the starting base and then the target prior to movement initiation (Foveation) resulted in less aiming bias and variability than when the starting base was not visible (PNV), or visible without the participants foveating it prior to movement initiation (PSV). In manual aiming, Foveation and PSV procedures resulted in identical results but reduced aiming bias and variability in comparison to the PNV procedures. The results indicate that participants had difficulty in transforming the locations of the starting base and of the target when seen on a vertical screen into an appropriate movement trajectory. Successive foveation of the starting base and of the target facilitated this transformation, resulting in direction variability being reduced by more than half in comparison to the PNV and PSV conditions. This suggests that in video-aiming the efference copy of the saccade can be used by the CNS to approximate the hand trajectory in the workspace and/or in joint coordinates (Jouffrais and Boussaoud, 1999). Hand trajectory could be readily available in manual aiming if the target location can be recoded directly in hand-coordinates as recently suggested by Buneo et al. (2002).

  3. Study of controlled leaching process of steel slag in Soxhlet extractor aiming employment in pavements; Estudo do processo de lixiviacao controlada da escoria de aciaria em extrator Soxhlet visando emprego em pavimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Kissyla Avila; Guimaraes, Antonio Carlos Rodrigues; Reis, Marcelo de Miranda; Santana, Claudeny Simone Alves, E-mail: kissyla.avila@gmail.com.br, E-mail: cap-guimaraes@hotmail.com, E-mail: marceloreis@ime.eb.br, E-mail: cl_deny@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    This work addresses the characterization of physical, chemical and mechanical properties of steel slag as an alternative aggregation before and after leaching testing controlled Soxhlet extractor. The material it was characterized before going through the natural leaching process and after controlled leaching in different periods of 24, 56, 96, 120 hours. The steel slag was subjected in the laboratory to simulate the precipitation in Soxhlet equipment to evaluate its physical, chemical and mechanical properties after each period described. The study of the process of leaching in steel slag searched to understand the influence of the washing process in a slag behavior in such a process. The physical characterization occurred through traditional testing of coarse aggregates, the chemical characterization through the testing of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) completed by Dispersive Spectroscopy Energy (DSE) and X- ray diffraction and the mechanical characterization through testing of standardized expansion and adapted. The sample virgin, without receiving process of stabilization by controlled leaching, showed satisfactory results in the physics characterization when compared to conventional aggregates, the chemical characterization proved to be a steel slag with high contents of CaO, MgO and FeO, the mechanical characterization demonstrated that, although the degree of expansibility of the slag is low demonstrated that this should not be disregarded in the paving work. After controlled leaching the steel slag showed no significant loss of its physical properties. As the mechanical testing of expansion had decreased the potential of expansibility after leaching periods. It is concluded that the leaching process in a Soxhlet extractor is of importance in the study the properties of steel slag, once covering several days of leaching was reduced potential for expansion, limiting feature in the use of steel slag for paving. (author)

  4. Study on the Distribution of Disease-Resistant Shrimp Identified by DNA Markers in Respect to WSSV Infection in Different Seasons Along the Entire East Coast of India Aiming to Prevent White Spot Disease in Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, A; Chakrabarty, U; Dutta, S; Mondal, D; Mandal, N

    2016-02-01

    White spot disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is responsible for harming shrimp aquaculture industry and results in a pandemic throughout the world. Undeniably, the knowledge on geographic distribution, transmission, virulence, and seasonal prevalence of this disease alongside information on the distribution of disease-resistant shrimps may be helpful to understand important aspects of disease biology. This study was intended to estimate WSSV prevalence by qualitative and quantitative PCR method among the Penaeus monodon samples collected from four different places namely Digha, West Bengal; Chilika, Orissa; Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh; and Chennai, Tamil Nadu at three different seasons in the period of 2011-2013 from east coast of India. Along with this, the disease-resistant prevalence was also investigated using earlier developed 71 bp microsatellite and 457 bp RAPD-SCAR DNA marker among the collected shrimps. Qualitative PCR depicted that the cumulative WSSV prevalence at four places was the lowest (0%) at pre-monsoon, whereas, it was the highest (21.2%) during post-monsoon season. Quantitative real-time PCR showed the average copy number of WSSV to be the highest (~10(3) copy μg(-1) shrimp genomic DNA) at post-monsoon season. Additionally, estimated disease-resistant prevalence was the highest in Visakhapatnam (79%) and lowest in Digha (21%). It is well known to all that a trait cannot be identified using a single genetic pattern. This study will significantly contribute insight to develop specific pathogen-resistant (SPR) seeds of P. monodon simultaneously using two DNA markers that would be a cost-effective and safer approach towards disease prevention instead of conventional trends of seed generation from unselected wild broodstock.

  5. Preliminary study of the Gravimetric Local Geoid Model in Jordan: case study (GeoJordan Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al-Zoubi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been an increased interest in studying and defining the Local and Regional Geoid Model worldwide, due to its importance in geodetic and geophysics applications.The use of the Global Positioning System (GPS is internationally growing, yet the lack of a Geoid Model for Jordan has limited the use of GPS for the geodetic applications in the country. This work aims to present the preliminary results that we propose for «The Gravimetric Jordanian Geoid Model (GeoJordan». The model is created using gravimetric data and the GRAVSOFT program. The model is validated using GPS and precise level measurements in the Amman area. Moreover, we present a comparison using the Global Geopotential Model OSU91A and the EGM96 Model and the results showed great discrepancies. We also present the approach used to obtain the orthometric height from GPS ellipsoidal height measurements. We found that the error margin obtained in this work of the GeoJordan after fitting the data with GPS/leveling measurements is about (10 cm in the tested area whereas the standard error of the created model is about (40 cm.

  6. Study of the acceleration of ammonia generation process from poultry residues aiming at hydrogen production; Estudo do processo para a aceleracao da geracao de amonia a partir de residuos avicolas visando a producao de hidrogenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egute, Nayara dos Santos

    2010-07-01

    The hydrogen, utilized in fuel cells, can be produced from a variety of intermediate chemicals, between them, the ammonia. The ammonia gas as a raw material for the hydrogen production has been used due to its high energetic content, facility of decomposition, high availability, low prices, low storage pressure and its by-products are environmentally correct. One of the sources of ammonia is poultry and egg production systems. In these systems the ammonia is produced from the decomposition of uric acid present in the excreta of birds. The residue from the poultry-rearing farms is the broiler litter and from the egg production system is the excreta without any substrate. The characterization of these residues was performed using the Wavelength-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF), Elementary Analysis (CHN), Thermogravimetry and GC/MS - Gas chromatography/ Mass spectrometry. The studied factors which influence the ammonia volatilization were: nitrogen content, raising period, urease enzyme, temperature, pH and moisture content. The experiment results with poultry litter and excreta allow to conclude that the manipulation of the following parameters increased the ammonia emission: pH, nitrogen content, raising period, age of birds and excreta accumulation, urease enzyme and the temperature. The addition of different amounts of sand in the excreta and different volumes of water in the poultry litter inhibited the emission of ammonia. The variation of the quantity of material (broiler litter or excreta) and the volume of the flask used as incubator chamber showed no significant alterations to be chosen as a variable. The excreta was considered more appropriate than poultry litter for the objectives of this work due to the higher ammonia concentrations determined in this material. Due to the large amount of poultry litter and excreta from the production processes, the reuse of poultry residues to obtain ammonia is necessary to improve the quality of the local

  7. A matched pair cluster randomized implementation trail to measure the effectiveness of an intervention package aiming to decrease perinatal mortality and increase institution-based obstetric care among indigenous women in Guatemala: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestler, Edgar; Walker, Dilys; Bonvecchio, Anabelle; de Tejada, Sandra Sáenz; Donner, Allan

    2013-03-21

    Maternal and perinatal mortality continue to be a high priority problem on the health agendas of less developed countries. Despite the progress made in the last decade to quantify the magnitude of maternal mortality, few interventions have been implemented with the intent to measure impact directly on maternal or perinatal deaths. The success of interventions implemented in less developed countries to reduce mortality has been questioned, in terms of the tendency to maintain a clinical perspective with a focus on purely medical care separate from community-based approaches that take cultural and social aspects of maternal and perinatal deaths into account. Our innovative approach utilizes both the clinical and community perspectives; moreover, our study will report the weight that each of these components may have had on reducing perinatal mortality and increasing institution-based deliveries. A matched pair cluster-randomized trial will be conducted in clinics in four rural indigenous districts with the highest maternal mortality ratios in Guatemala. The individual clinic will serve as the unit of randomization, with 15 matched pairs of control and intervention clinics composing the final sample. Three interventions will be implemented in indigenous, rural and poor populations: a simulation training program for emergency obstetric and perinatal care, increased participation of the professional midwife in strengthening the link between traditional birth attendants (TBA) and the formal health care system, and a social marketing campaign to promote institution-based deliveries. No external intervention is planned for control clinics, although enhanced monitoring, surveillance and data collection will occur throughout the study in all clinics throughout the four districts. All obstetric events occurring in any of the participating health facilities and districts during the 18 months implementation period will be included in the analysis, controlling for the cluster

  8. Study of the process for accelerating ammonia generation from poultry residues aiming its hydrogen production; Estudo do processo para a aceleracao da geracao de amonia a partir de residuos avicolas visando a producao de hidrogenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egute, Nayara dos Santos

    2010-07-01

    The hydrogen, utilized in fuel cells, can be produced from a variety of intermediate chemicals, between them, the ammonia. The ammonia gas as a raw material for the hydrogen production has been used due to its high energetic content, facility of decomposition, high availability, low prices, low storage pressure and its by-products are environmentally correct. One of the sources of ammonia is poultry and egg production systems. In these systems the ammonia is produced from the decomposition of uric acid present in the excreta of birds. The residue from the poultry-rearing farms is the broiler litter and from the egg production system is the excreta without any substrate. The characterization of these residues was performed using the wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF), elementary analysis (CHN), thermogravimetry and GC/MS - gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. The studied factors which influence the ammonia volatilization were: nitrogen content, raising period, urease enzyme, temperature, pH and moisture content. The experiment results with poultry litter and excreta allow to conclude that the manipulation of the following parameters increased the ammonia emission: pH, nitrogen content, raising period, age of birds and excreta accumulation, urease enzyme and the temperature. The addition of different amounts of sand in the excreta and different volumes of water in the poultry litter inhibited the emission of ammonia. The variation of the quantity of material (broiler litter or excreta) and the volume of the flask used as incubator chamber showed no significant alterations to be chosen as a variable. The excreta was considered more appropriate than poultry litter for the objectives of this work due to the higher ammonia concentrations determined in this material. Due to the large amount of poultry litter and excreta from the production processes, the reuse of poultry residues to obtain ammonia is necessary to improve the quality of the local

  9. Comparative study of hydro soluble polymers solutions and surfactants aiming the polymer-rock interactions in consolidated sandstone; Estudo comparativo de solucoes de polimeros hidrossoluveis e tensoativos visando as interacoes polimero-rocha em arenito consolidado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentim, Adriano Cesar M.; Marcelino, Cleuton Pereira; Medeiros, Ana Catarina R.; Garcia, Rosangela Balaban [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Lab. de Pesquisa em Petroleo (LAPET)

    2004-07-01

    The polyacrylamide is one of the main polymers used in the petroleum industry. Among its properties, stands out the capacity to alter the permeability of the rock to water. However, the polyacrylamide presents some limitations, such as low tolerance to the presence of salts, what can promote its precipitation resulting in low oil recovery efficiency. The application of the polymer in emulsion can promote a larger stability, due to the presence of a surfactant, which has the capacity to modify the interfacial tension and to form a film between the phases of the emulsion. Thereby, the injection of a polymer emulsion can promote an increase of oil recovery. In this work, a preliminary study of the effect of a anionic surfactant (SDS) and polyacrylamides (anionic and neutral) on the surface tension and rheology is presented in aqueous solutions contend salt (NaCl). The results showed surface tension of the mixtures had been remained constant and low (around 32 mN/m), independent of the polymer concentration. A viscosity reduction was observed at polymeric solutions as much in presence of salt, as in presence of the surfactant. Both the samples showed a pseudo plastic behavior. (author)

  10. The Social Relations Model in Family Studies: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelsheim, Veroni I.; Dekovic, Maja; Buist, Kirsten L.; Cook, William L.

    2009-01-01

    The Social Relations Model (SRM) allows for examination of family relations on three different levels: the individual level (actor and partner effects), the dyadic level (relationship effects), and the family level (family effect). The aim of this study was to present a systematic review of SRM family studies and identify general patterns in the…

  11. Saltstone SDU6 Modeling Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Si Y. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Hyun, Sinjae [Mercer University, Macon, GA (United States)

    2013-01-10

    A new disposal unit, designated as Saltstone Disposal Unit 6 (SDU6), is being designed for support of site accelerated closure goals and salt waste projections identified in the new Liquid Waste System Plan. The unit is a cylindrical disposal cell of 375 ft in diameter and 43 ft in height, and it has a minimum 30 million gallons of capacity. SRNL was requested to evaluate the impact of an increased grout placement height on the flow patterns radially spread on the floor and to determine whether grout quality is impacted by the height. The primary goals of the work are to develop the baseline Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model and to perform the evaluations for the flow patterns of grout material in SDU6 as a function of elevation of grout discharge port and grout rheology. Two transient grout models have been developed by taking a three-dimensional multiphase CFD approach to estimate the domain size of the grout materials radially spread on the facility floor and to perform the sensitivity analysis with respect to the baseline design and operating conditions such as elevation height of the discharge port and fresh grout properties. For the CFD modeling calculations, air-grout Volume of Fluid (VOF) method combined with Bingham plastic and time-dependent grout models were used for examining the impact of fluid spread performance for the initial baseline configurations and to evaluate the impact of grout pouring height on grout quality. The grout quality was estimated in terms of the air volume fraction for the grout layer formed on the SDU6 floor, resulting in the change of grout density. The study results should be considered as preliminary scoping analyses since benchmarking analysis is not included in this task scope. Transient analyses with the Bingham plastic model were performed with the FLUENTTM code on the high performance parallel computing platform in SRNL. The analysis coupled with a transient grout aging model was performed by using ANSYS-CFX code

  12. Saltstone SDU6 Modeling Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Si Y. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Hyun, Sinjae [Mercer University, Macon, GA (United States)

    2013-01-10

    A new disposal unit, designated as Saltstone Disposal Unit 6 (SDU6), is being designed for support of site accelerated closure goals and salt waste projections identified in the new Liquid Waste System Plan. The unit is a cylindrical disposal cell of 375 ft in diameter and 43 ft in height, and it has a minimum 30 million gallons of capacity. SRNL was requested to evaluate the impact of an increased grout placement height on the flow patterns radially spread on the floor and to determine whether grout quality is impacted by the height. The primary goals of the work are to develop the baseline Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model and to perform the evaluations for the flow patterns of grout material in SDU6 as a function of elevation of grout discharge port and grout rheology. Two transient grout models have been developed by taking a three-dimensional multiphase CFD approach to estimate the domain size of the grout materials radially spread on the facility floor and to perform the sensitivity analysis with respect to the baseline design and operating conditions such as elevation height of the discharge port and fresh grout properties. For the CFD modeling calculations, air-grout Volume of Fluid (VOF) method combined with Bingham plastic and time-dependent grout models were used for examining the impact of fluid spread performance for the initial baseline configurations and to evaluate the impact of grout pouring height on grout quality. The grout quality was estimated in terms of the air volume fraction for the grout layer formed on the SDU6 floor, resulting in the change of grout density. The study results should be considered as preliminary scoping analyses since benchmarking analysis is not included in this task scope. Transient analyses with the Bingham plastic model were performed with the FLUENTTM code on the high performance parallel computing platform in SRNL. The analysis coupled with a transient grout aging model was performed by using ANSYS-CFX code

  13. Mitochondrial ROS potentiates indirect activation of the AIM2 inflammasome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah D Crane

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the inflammasome is important for the detection and clearance of cytosolic pathogens. In contrast to avirulent F. novicida (Fn, infection with virulent F. tularensis ssp tularensis does not trigger activation of the host AIM2 inflammasome. Here we show that differential activation of AIM2 following Francisella infection is due to sensitivity of each isolate to reactive oxygen species (ROS. ROS present at the outset of Fn infection contributes to activation of the AIM2 inflammasome, independent of NLRP3 and NADPH oxidase. Rather, mitochondrial ROS (mROS is critical for Fn stimulation of the inflammasome. This study represents the first demonstration of the importance of mROS in the activation of the AIM2 inflammasome by bacteria. Our results also demonstrate that bacterial resistance to mROS is a mechanism of virulence for early evasion of detection by the host.

  14. Crystal study and econometric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    An econometric model was developed that can be used to predict demand and supply figures for crystals over a time horizon roughly concurrent with that of NASA's Space Shuttle Program - that is, 1975 through 1990. The model includes an equation to predict the impact on investment in the crystal-growing industry. Actually, two models are presented. The first is a theoretical model which follows rather strictly the standard theoretical economic concepts involved in supply and demand analysis, and a modified version of the model was developed which, though not quite as theoretically sound, was testable utilizing existing data sources.

  15. Comparison of conventional study model measurements and 3D digital study model measurements from laser scanned dental impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugrahani, F.; Jazaldi, F.; Noerhadi, N. A. I.

    2017-08-01

    The field of orthodontics is always evolving,and this includes the use of innovative technology. One type of orthodontic technology is the development of three-dimensional (3D) digital study models that replace conventional study models made by stone. This study aims to compare the mesio-distal teeth width, intercanine width, and intermolar width measurements between a 3D digital study model and a conventional study model. Twelve sets of upper arch dental impressions were taken from subjects with non-crowding teeth. The impressions were taken twice, once with alginate and once with polivinylsiloxane. The alginate impressions used in the conventional study model and the polivinylsiloxane impressions were scanned to obtain the 3D digital study model. Scanning was performed using a laser triangulation scanner device assembled by the School of Electrical Engineering and Informatics at the Institut Teknologi Bandung and David Laser Scan software. For the conventional model, themesio-distal width, intercanine width, and intermolar width were measured using digital calipers; in the 3D digital study model they were measured using software. There were no significant differences between the mesio-distal width, intercanine width, and intermolar width measurments between the conventional and 3D digital study models (p>0.05). Thus, measurements using 3D digital study models are as accurate as those obtained from conventional study models

  16. [Content analysis of food adverts aimed at children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Blandón, José Antonio; Pabón-Carrasco, Manuel; Lomas-Campos, María de Las Mercedes

    To determine the contents and persuasive techniques used in processed food adverts aimed at children in Andalusia, comparing them with those aimed at adults. Study based on advert content analysis with two phases: a descriptive design phase and an analytical observational design phase. A sample of adverts from 60hours of broadcasting from the two most watched television channels in Andalusia. A total of 416 food and non-alcoholic beverage adverts were obtained, for 91 different products. Approximately 42.9% (n=39) was aimed at children and 53.8% (n=49) were products classified as "unhealthy". Unhealthy foods were more common in adverts for children (p <0.001). Significant differences were found between the ads aimed at adults and those aimed at children. Emotional and irrational persuasive resources such as fantasy (p <0.001), cartoons (p <0.001) or offering gifts with the purchase of the product (p=0.003) were observed more frequently in adverts for children. Food advertising aimed at children in Andalusia is mainly based on offering products with a low nutritional value and using persuasive resources based on fantasy or gifts. The message is focused on the incentive and not the food. More effective measures than the current self-regulatory systems must be put in place to counter these distorted adverts. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Study and Research Courses as an Epistemological Model for Didactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Carl; Matheron, Yves; Mercier, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is explain how the notion of "study and research course", a recent construct in the anthropological theory of didactics, provides a general tool to model mathematical knowledge from a didactical perspective. We do this from two points of view. First, the notion itself arose as a tool for didactic design, particularly in…

  18. A Study of the Key Elements in the Jerome Model, the Horace Model and the Schleiermacher Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    都潇潇

    2016-01-01

    There are Two very popular and important translation models, namely the Jerome Model, the Horace Model , which can be thought to be the forerunner of the translation theory nowadays. They share one common concept—faithfulness. the Two models are discussed one by one to aim at pointing out the main differences and similarities, from which we can learn more and do better translation in our studies and works. Finally, the paper draws a conclusion that no single translation model is really better than another because the criteria of translation are dynamic rather than static.

  19. Uncertainty in aiming movements and its association to hand function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Priscila de Paiva Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of the uncertainty of target location on the planning and execution of aiming movements performed towards the ipsilateral and contralateral directions by the right and left upper limbs. In addition, the association between the performance of aiming movements and the performance of functional manual tasks was investigated. Two tasks were proposed: with prior knowledge of the movement direction (simple reaction time or not (choice reaction time. The grip strength and manual dexterity were measured. The choice option in response (i.e. uncertainty influenced planning of the aiming movements, but not its execution, while movements performed towards the contralateral direction were worse in execution as compared to the ipsilateral direction. Manual dexterity was significantly correlated with reaction times, while the performance during movement execution was significantly correlated with handgrip/pinch strength.

  20. Construction of a narrative network aimed at implementing inclusive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Salis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of inclusion in its complex aspects aimed at overcoming barriers to learning and involvement has led this research in university, in the light of special pedagogy and didactics, on the basis of inclusion index parameters, detecting the levels of integrated planning with the territory. The purpose of this study is not limited to disability and to special education needs but goes further than that encompassing isolation and/or exclusions. As far as the university system is concerned, it becomes significant to enquire about the inclusion process, in this case by means of a narrative approach, bearing in mind that organizational and learning models, together with access modes may give rise to social exclusion.Università e territorio: costruzione di una rete narrativa per l’implementazione dei processi inclusiviIl costrutto di inclusione nelle sue complesse sfaccettature mirate al superamento delle barriere all’apprendimento e alla partecipazione, ha guidato il presente lavoro di ricerca in ambito universitario alla luce della pedagogia e didattica speciale, sulla base dei parametri dell’Index for Inclusion, rilevando i livelli di progettazione integrata con il territorio. Il suo raggio di azione non si limita alla disabilità ma abbraccia tutti i bisogni educativi speciali, e l’isolamento, la marginalizzazione e/o le esclusioni che ne derivano. Rispetto al sistema universitario è rilevante interrogarsi sul processo di inclusione, in questo caso sulla base dell’approccio narrativo, preso atto che il modello organizzativo e le modalità di accesso e formative possono essere causa di esclusione formativa e sociale.

  1. Radionuclides in fruit systems: Model-model intercomparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkov, I. [Cambridge Environmental, 58 Charles Street, Cambridge, MA 02141 (United States)]. E-mail: linkov@cambridgeenvironmental.com; Carini, F. [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Via Emilia Parmense, 84, I-29100 Piacenza (Italy); Collins, C. [T.H. Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering (United Kingdom); Eged, K. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Veszprem, P.O. Box 158 H-8201, H-8200 Veszprem (Hungary); Mitchell, N.G. [Mouchel Consulting Ltd., West Hall, Parvis Road, West Byfleet, Surrey, KT14 6EZ (United Kingdom); Mourlon, C. [Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN)/Division of Environmental Protection (DPRE), Laboratory of Environmental Modelling - LMODE, CE/Cadarache, 13 108 St Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Ould-Dada, Z. [Food Standards Agency, Radiological Protection and Research Management Division, Aviation House, 125 Kingsway, Room 715B, London WC2B 6NH (United Kingdom); Robles, B. [CIEMAT, Dept. de Impacto Ambiental (DIAE), Edif. 3A, Avenida Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Sweeck, L. [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Venter, A. [Enviros Consulting Ltd., Telegraphic House, Waterfront Quay, Salford Quays, Greater Manchester, M50 3XW (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Modeling is widely used to predict radionuclide distribution following accidental radionuclide releases. Modeling is crucial in emergency response planning and risk communication, and understanding model uncertainty is important not only in conducting analysis consistent with current regulatory guidance, but also in gaining stakeholder and decision-maker trust in the process and confidence in the results. However, while methods for dealing with parameter uncertainty are fairly well developed, an adequate representation of uncertainties associated with models remains rare. This paper addresses uncertainty about a model's structure (i.e., the relevance of simplifying assumptions and mathematical equations) that is seldom addressed in practical applications of environmental modeling. The use of several alternative models to derive a range of model outputs or risks is probably the only available technique to assess consistency in model prediction. Since each independent model requires significant resources for development and calibration, multiple models are not generally applied to the same problem. This study uses results from one such model intercomparison conducted by the Fruits Working Group, which was created under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) Program. Model-model intercomparisons presented in this study were conducted by the working group for two different scenarios (acute or continuous deposition), one radionuclide ({sup 137}Cs), and three fruit-bearing crops (strawberries, apples, and blackcurrants). The differences between models were as great as five orders of magnitude for short-term predictions following acute radionuclide deposition. For long-term predictions and for the continuous deposition scenario, the differences between models were about two orders of magnitude. The difference between strawberry, apple, and blackcurrant contamination predicted by one model is far less than the

  2. Radionuclides in fruit systems. Model-model intercomparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkov, I. [Cambridge Environmental, 58 Charles Street, Cambridge, MA 02141 (United States); Carini, F. [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Via Emilia Parmense, 84, I-29100 Piacenza (Italy); Collins, C. [T.H. Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering (United Kingdom); Eged, K. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Veszprem, P.O. Box 158 H-8201, H-8200 Veszprem (Hungary); Mitchell, N.G. [Mouchel Consulting Ltd., West Hall, Parvis Road, West Byfleet, Surrey, KT14 6EZ (United Kingdom); Mourlon, C. [Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety IPSN, Division of Environmental Protection (DPRE), Laboratory of Environmental Modelling LMODE, CE/Cadarache, 13 108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ould-Dada, Z. [Food Standards Agency, Radiological Protection and Research Management Division, Aviation House, 125 Kingsway, Room 715B, London WC2B 6NH (United Kingdom); Robles, B. [CIEMAT, Dept. de Impacto Ambiental (DIAE), Edif. 3A, Avenida Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Sweeck, L. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Venter, A. [Enviros Consulting Ltd., Telegraphic House, Waterfront Quay, Salford Quays, Greater Manchester, M50 3XW (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Modeling is widely used to predict radionuclide distribution following accidental radionuclide releases. Modeling is crucial in emergency response planning and risk communication, and understanding model uncertainty is important not only in conducting analysis consistent with current regulatory guidance, but also in gaining stakeholder and decision-maker trust in the process and confidence in the results. However, while methods for dealing with parameter uncertainty are fairly well developed, an adequate representation of uncertainties associated with models remains rare. This paper addresses uncertainty about a model's structure (i.e., the relevance of simplifying assumptions and mathematical equations) that is seldom addressed in practical applications of environmental modeling. The use of several alternative models to derive a range of model outputs or risks is probably the only available technique to assess consistency in model prediction. Since each independent model requires significant resources for development and calibration, multiple models are not generally applied to the same problem. This study uses results from one such model intercomparison conducted by the Fruits Working Group, which was created under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) Program. Model-model intercomparisons presented in this study were conducted by the working group for two different scenarios (acute or continuous deposition), one radionuclide ({sup 137}Cs), and three fruit-bearing crops (strawberries, apples, and blackcurrants). The differences between models were as great as five orders of magnitude for short-term predictions following acute radionuclide deposition. For long-term predictions and for the continuous deposition scenario, the differences between models were about two orders of magnitude. The difference between strawberry, apple, and blackcurrant contamination predicted by one model is far less than the

  3. [Patient's aggression aimed at physicians. Legal interpretation of defense possibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patryn, Rafał

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the following study is to acquaint medical practitioners with legal possibilities of defense against patients'aggression. The occurrence of the described and discussed issue, namely the appearance of different forms of aggression aimed at physicians and other medical staff is a more and more frequently appearing phenomenon, which is very problematic, and difficult to interpret. The scope of the analysis has been limited to aggression of patients towards physicians only, as they are most often the aim of this aggression, and what should be emphasized, they lack practical and universal solutions and frequently also necessary knowledge to protect themselves against it. The idea behind this study is to present a rational solution to the afore mentioned situation, within legal limits. First, an outline of a conflict situation with a short specification of sources of aggression will be presented, than an appropriate legal taxonomy (including civil and criminal law) allowing for aid in such a situation will be offered and discussed.The authors will also present practical and legally permissible solutions aiming at defense, abandonment, and not allowing for the appearance of this reprehensible phenomenon.

  4. Study on Macro-traffic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FangGe; GuowuZhang; BaojunYuan; KepingLi

    2004-01-01

    Macro-traffic model is an effective tool for supporting traffic programmer to This article is based on the software products VISEM (demand model) and VISUM (supply model) from PTV Company of Germany, and studies macro-traffic model on the basis of considering that traffic system is an interactive system of between a supply system and a demand system.

  5. Initiation Style Optimization of Aimed Warhead by Numerical Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ji-feng; LI Na; WEN Yu-quan; WANG Wen-jie

    2008-01-01

    The kill characteristics of aimed warhead were studied.Emphasis on the improvement of initiation system,experiments and three dimensional numerical investigations were carried out.Simulation results of side three initiation points fit experiments well.Optimal initiation style is obtained through further simulation.It shows that the effective fragments and the effective kill energy of the optimal scheme increase 12.8%and 10.1%respectively.

  6. Orthodontic measurements on digital study models compared with plaster models: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, P S; Marinho, V; Johal, A

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the validity of the use of digital models to assess tooth size, arch length, irregularity index, arch width and crowding versus measurements generated on hand-held plaster models with digital callipers in patients with and without malocclusion. Studies comparing linear and angular measurements obtained on digital and standard plaster models were identified by searching multiple databases including MEDLINE, LILACS, BBO, ClinicalTrials.gov, the National Research Register and Pro-Quest Dissertation Abstracts and Thesis database, without restrictions relating to publication status or language of publication. Two authors were involved in study selection, quality assessment and the extraction of data. Items from the Quality Assessment of Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy included in Systematic Reviews checklist were used to assess the methodological quality of included studies. No meta-analysis was conducted. Comparisons between measurements of digital and plaster models made directly within studies were reported, and the difference between the (repeated) measurement means for digital and plaster models were considered as estimates. Seventeen relevant studies were included. Where reported, overall, the absolute mean differences between direct and indirect measurements on plaster and digital models were minor and clinically insignificant. Orthodontic measurements with digital models were comparable to those derived from plaster models. The use of digital models as an alternative to conventional measurement on plaster models may be recommended, although the evidence identified in this review is of variable quality. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Electric arc furnace models for flicker study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina González Castaño

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this paper is to evaluate voltage fluctuations or flicker of two electric arc furnace models through comparison with real data.Method: The first proposed model is founded on the energy conservation principle, which generates a non-linear differential equation modelling the electric arc voltage – current characteristics. Voltage fluctuations are generated using a chaotic circuit that modulates the amplitude of arc voltage. The second model is based on the empirical relationship between the arc diameter or length as well as voltage and electrical current on the arc. Voltage fluctuations are considered adding a random signal in the arc length. Both models are implemented in PSCADTM.Results: The results of both models are compared with real data taken at the most critical stage of the operation of the furnace, and they show that the model based on energy conservation has a lower average mean square error in the voltages and currents 5.6 V and 1.7 kA against 27,2 V y 3.38 kA obtained with the second model.Conclusions: Both models consider the nonlinearity and random behavior present in this type of load, validating their inclusion in computer models of electric power systems.

  8. Modelling isolated deep convection: A case study from COPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph R. Burton

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the important physical processes which need to be well represented in a model simulation of the deep convective cloud which occurred on the 15th July 2007 during the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS. During the afternoon of 15th July 2007, an isolated, deep convective cloud developed, reaching heights of 12 km above ground level. Previous studies have shown that numerical weather prediction models struggle to simulate realistically this particular cloud. In the present study, it is found that a reservoir of moist air developed, providing necessary energy ready to be released via a suitable trigger (the arrival of a convergence line. A series of tests of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model is employed to find the modelled sensitivities to boundary-layer and land-surface specification, and the combinations of these necessary to provide the reservoir of moist air.

  9. [Aiming at the chest, but hitting the back].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Axmann, Stefan; Siegenthaler, Lea; Kneubühl, Beat; Thali, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Gunshot injuries in the back may suggest the unjustified use of firearms. A wound in the back inflicted by a firearm should not automatically imply that the shooter aimed at the back. A previous study demonstrated that it is possible for men to turn their trunk faster than it takes for a shooter to fire or throw a hand-operated weapon. With a high speed motion camera the authors were able to demonstrate that it is also possible for women to turn their trunk fast enough, so that a shot in the back could have been aimed at the front of the body. This conclusion is also likely to apply to hand-operated or thrown weapons, since the velocity of their projectiles is considerably lower than that of firearms.

  10. Rumor Propagation Model: An Equilibrium Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto C. Piqueira

    2010-01-01

    information is analogous phenomena. Here, in an analogy with the SIR (Susceptible-Infected-Removed epidemiological model, the ISS (Ignorant-Spreader-Stifler rumor spreading model is studied. By using concepts from the Dynamical Systems Theory, stability of equilibrium points is established, according to propagation parameters and initial conditions. Some numerical experiments are conducted in order to validate the model.

  11. Electrostatic steering and beamlet aiming in large neutral beam injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, P.; Cavenago, M.; Chitarin, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.

    2015-04-01

    Neutral beam injection is the main method for plasma heating in magnetic confinement fusion devices. In high energy injector (E>100 keV/amu), neutrals are obtained with reasonable efficiency by conversion of negative ions (H- or D-) via electron detachment reactions. In the case of ITER injectors, which shall operate at 1 MeV, a total ion current of ˜ 40 A is required to satisfy the heating power demand. Gridded electrodes are therefore used in the accelerator, so that 1280 negative ion beamlets are accelerated together. A carefully designed aiming system is required to control the beamlet trajectories, and to deliver their power on a focal point located several meters away from the beam source. In nowadays injectors, the aiming is typically obtained by aperture offset technique or by grid shaping. This paper discuss an alternative concept of beamlets aiming, based on an electrostatic "steerer" to be placed at the end of the accelerator. A feasibility study of this component is also presented, and its main advantages and drawbacks with respect to other methods are discussed.

  12. Electrostatic steering and beamlet aiming in large neutral beam injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltri, P., E-mail: pierluigi.veltri@igi.cnr.it; Chitarin, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4 - 35127 Padova (Italy); Cavenago, M. [INFN-LNL, viale dell' Università n. 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy)

    2015-04-08

    Neutral beam injection is the main method for plasma heating in magnetic confinement fusion devices. In high energy injector (E>100 keV/amu), neutrals are obtained with reasonable efficiency by conversion of negative ions (H- or D-) via electron detachment reactions. In the case of ITER injectors, which shall operate at 1 MeV, a total ion current of ∼ 40 A is required to satisfy the heating power demand. Gridded electrodes are therefore used in the accelerator, so that 1280 negative ion beamlets are accelerated together. A carefully designed aiming system is required to control the beamlet trajectories, and to deliver their power on a focal point located several meters away from the beam source. In nowadays injectors, the aiming is typically obtained by aperture offset technique or by grid shaping. This paper discuss an alternative concept of beamlets aiming, based on an electrostatic ”steerer” to be placed at the end of the accelerator. A feasibility study of this component is also presented, and its main advantages and drawbacks with respect to other methods are discussed.

  13. Study of LPG Release & Dispersion Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Shanjun; Peng Xiangwei

    2003-01-01

    The current applicable release & dispersion models are reviewed. A typical model is developed on the basis of LPG storage conditions in China and the authors' research. The study is focused on the relationship between LPG composition and release rate, and on the influence of buildings or structures located in the surrounding area on the dispersion of gas plume. The established model is compared with existing models by the use of published field test data.

  14. QCD and Standard Model Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, Carl A [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Our group has focused on using jets in STAR to investigate the longitudinal and transverse spin structure of the proton. We performed measurements of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry for inclusive jet production that provide the strongest evidence to date that the gluons in the proton with x>0.05 are polarized. We also made the first observation of the Collins effect in pp collisions, thereby providing an important test of the universality of the Collins fragmentation function and opening a new tool to probe quark transversity in the proton. Our studies of forward rapidity electromagnetic jet-like events raise serious question whether the large transverse spin asymmetries that have been seen for forward inclusive hadron production arise from conventional 2 → 2 parton scattering. This is the final technical report for DOE Grant DE-FG02-93ER40765. It covers activities during the period January 1, 2015 through November 30, 2016.

  15. Computer models to study uterine activation at labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, G C; Saunders, P T K; Norman, J E

    2013-11-01

    Improving our understanding of the initiation of labour is a major aim of modern obstetric research, in order to better diagnose and treat pregnant women in which the process occurs abnormally. In particular, increased knowledge will help us identify the mechanisms responsible for preterm labour, the single biggest cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Attempts to improve our understanding of the initiation of labour have been restricted by the inaccessibility of gestational tissues to study during pregnancy and at labour, and by the lack of fully informative animal models. However, computer modelling provides an exciting new approach to overcome these restrictions and offers new insights into uterine activation during term and preterm labour. Such models could be used to test hypotheses about drugs to treat or prevent preterm labour. With further development, an effective computer model could be used by healthcare practitioners to develop personalized medicine for patients on a pregnancy-by-pregnancy basis. Very promising work is already underway to build computer models of the physiology of uterine activation and contraction. These models aim to predict changes and patterns in uterine electrical excitation during term labour. There have been far fewer attempts to build computer models of the molecular pathways driving uterine activation and there is certainly scope for further work in this area. The integration of computer models of the physiological and molecular mechanisms that initiate labour will be particularly useful.

  16. Ultimate Educational Aims, Overridingness, and Personal Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Ishtiyaque; Cuypers, Stefaan E.

    2011-01-01

    Discussion regarding education's aims, especially its ultimate aims, is a key topic in the philosophy of education. These aims or values play a pivotal role in regulating and structuring moral and other types of normative education. We outline two plausible strategies to identify and justify education's ultimate aims. The first associates these…

  17. The effects of heart rate and aiming time on performance in Turkish National Archery Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İpek Eroğlu Kolayiş

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of aiming time and heart rate on the performance. Three elite female national subject was used in this study. The shooting performance was observed only in 70 m. To evaluate heart rate, Delta Plus CP/I portable, interpreting model ECG, to determine  the releasing time double channel ME 3000 micro-processor, Muscle Tester were used. The results of the study; the shooting heart rate is116,2±7,16 bpm., aiming time is 3,56±0,59 s. And the heart rate of the time between two shooting  is 113,13±9,54 bpm. According to statistical analysis, a significant difference between shooting HR and aiming time of arrows which hit the different point on the target has been observed (p<0,05.The relationships between shooting HR-performance and shooting HR-Aiming time have been observed.While shootings come close to the center of the target (through the 10 point the shooting heart rate and aiming time has decreased and there is no change in the value of the heart rate of the time between two shooting.

  18. The effects of heart rate and aiming time on performance in Turkish National Archery Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İpek Eroğlu Kolayiş

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of aiming time and heart rate on the performance. Three elite female national subject was used in this study. The shooting performance was observed only in 70 m. To evaluate heart rate, Delta Plus CP/I portable, interpreting model ECG, to determine the releasing time double channel ME 3000 micro-processor, Muscle Tester were used. The results of the study; the shooting heart rate is116,2±7,16 bpm., aiming time is 3,56±0,59 s. And the heart rate of the time between two shooting is 113,13±9,54 bpm. According to statistical analysis, a significant difference between shooting HR and aiming time of arrows which hit the different point on the target has been observed (p<0,05.The relationships between shooting HR-performance and shooting HR-Aiming time have been observed.While shootings come close to the center of the target (through the 10 point the shooting heart rate and aiming time has decreased and there is no change in the value of the heart rate of the time between two shooting.

  19. Mouse Models for Studying Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Bryna S M; Allen, Terri J

    2015-06-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a term used to describe kidney damage cause by diabetes. With DN as one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease worldwide, there is a strong need for appropriate animal models to study DN pathogenesis and develop therapeutic strategies. To date, most experiments are carried out in mouse models as opposed to other species for several reasons including lower cost, ease of handling, and easy manipulation of the mouse genome to generate transgenic and knockout animals. This unit provides detailed insights and technical knowledge in setting up one of the most widely used models of DN, the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced model. This model has been extensively exploited to study the mechanism of diabetic renal injury. The advantages and limitations of the STZ model and the availability of other genetic models of DN are also discussed.

  20. Linking aims, paradigm and method in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Catherine; Hunter, Andrew; Meskell, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    To explore the use of paradigms as ontological and philosophical guides for conducting PhD research. A paradigm can help to bridge the aims of a study and the methods to achieve them. However, choosing a paradigm can be challenging for doctoral researchers: there can be ambiguity about which paradigm is suitable for a particular research question and there is a lack of guidance on how to shape the research process for a chosen paradigm. The authors discuss three paradigms used in PhD nursing research: post-positivism, interpretivism and pragmatism. They compare each paradigm in relation to its ontology, epistemology and methodology, and present three examples of PhD nursing research studies to illustrate how research can be conducted using these paradigms in the context of the research aims and methods. The commonalities and differences between the paradigms and their uses are highlighted. Creativity and flexibility are important when deciding on a paradigm. However, consistency and transparency are also needed to ensure the quality and rigour necessary for conducting nursing research. When choosing a suitable paradigm, the researcher should ensure that the ontology, epistemology and methodology of the paradigm are manifest in the methods and research strategies employed.

  1. Community-wide model validation studies for systematic assessment of ionosphere-thermosphere models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Ja Soon; Kuznetsova, Maria; Rastätter, Lutz

    2016-07-01

    As an unbiased agent, the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) has been leading community-wide model validation efforts; GEM, CEDAR and GEM-CEDAR Modeling Challenges since 2009. The CEDAR ETI (Electrodynamics Thermosphere Ionosphere) Challenge focused on the ability of ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) models to reproduce basic IT system parameters, such as electron and neutral densities, NmF2, hmF2, and Total Electron Content (TEC). Model-data time series comparisons were performed for a set of selected events with different levels of geomagnetic activity (quiet, moderate, storms). The follow-on CEDAR-GEM Challenge aims to quantify geomagnetic storm impacts on the IT system. On-going studies include quantifying the storm energy input, such as increase in auroral precipitation and Joule heating, and quantifying the storm-time variations of neutral density and TEC. In this paper, we will present lessons learned from the Modeling Challenges led by the CCMC.

  2. Matching Investigation between Instrument Precision and Aiming Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In the course of using precise visual instrument, aiming precision is an important parameter to analyze the measurement error. Usually, instrument calibrated error is set down as measurement error. In the paper, the precision theory of TC2003 theodolite is analyzed and some aiming experiments is done for different width line. Then, the relations between the width of line and aiming precision are shown by different aiming methods of two superposition solid lines and one line clipped by double lines. Finally, an effective method to improve aiming precision is proposed which adopts the aiming method of one line clipped by double lines.

  3. Reactive puff model SCICHEM: Model enhancements and performance studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, B.; Karamchandani, P. K.; Sykes, R. I.; Henn, D. S.; Knipping, E.

    2015-09-01

    The SCICHEM model incorporates complete gas phase, aqueous and aerosol phase chemistry within a state-of-the-science Gaussian puff model SCIPUFF (Second-order Closure Integrated Puff). The model is a valuable tool that can be used to calculate the impacts of a single source or a small number of sources on downwind ozone and PM2.5. The model has flexible data requirements: it can be run with routine surface and upper air observations or with prognostic meteorological model outputs and source emissions are specified in a simple text format. This paper describes significant advances to the dispersion and chemistry components of the model in the latest release, SCICHEM 3.0. Some of the major advancements include modeling of skewed turbulence for convective boundary layer and updated chemistry schemes (CB05 gas phase chemical mechanism; AERO5 aerosol and aqueous modules). The results from SCICHEM 3.0 are compared with observations from a tracer study as well as aircraft measurements of reactive species in power plant plumes from two field studies. The results with the tracer experiment (Copenhagen study) show that the incorporation of skewed turbulence improves the calculation of tracer dispersion and transport. The comparisons with the Cumberland and Dolet Hills power plume measurements show good correlation between the observed and predicted concentrations of reactive gaseous species at most downwind distances from the source.

  4. An intervention aimed at reducing plagiarism in undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, Alison; Crawford, Tonia; Cloete, Linda

    2015-05-01

    Plagiarism is a current and developing problem in the tertiary education sector where students access information and reproduce it as their own. It is identified as occurring in many tertiary level degrees including nursing and allied health profession degrees. Nursing specifically, is a profession where standards and ethics are required and honesty is paramount. The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in nursing student's knowledge and understanding of plagiarism before and after an educational intervention in their first semester of the Bachelor of nursing degree at a private college of higher education in Sydney, Australia. This study concluded that an educational intervention can increase knowledge and awareness of plagiarism among nursing students.

  5. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid: A Stochastic Model Checking Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Yüksel, Ender; Nielson, Flemming; Zhu, Huibiao; Huang, Heqing

    2012-01-01

    Cyber-physical systems integrate information and communication technology functions to the physical elements of a system for monitoring and controlling purposes. The conversion of traditional power grid into a smart grid, a fundamental example of a cyber-physical system, raises a number of issues that require novel methods and applications. In this context, an important issue is the verification of certain quantitative properties of the system. In this technical report, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using PRISM model checker.

  6. A Study of Simple Diffraction Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn

    In this paper two simple methods for cabinet edge diffraction are examined. Calculations with both models are compared with more sophisticated theoretical models and with measured data. The parameters involved are studied and their importance for normal loudspeaker box designs is examined....

  7. Bioresorbable polymer coated drug eluting stent: a model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Filippo; Casalini, Tommaso; Raffa, Edoardo; Masi, Maurizio; Perale, Giuseppe

    2012-07-01

    In drug eluting stent technologies, an increased demand for better control, higher reliability, and enhanced performances of drug delivery systems emerged in the last years and thus offered the opportunity to introduce model-based approaches aimed to overcome the remarkable limits of trial-and-error methods. In this context a mathematical model was studied, based on detailed conservation equations and taking into account the main physical-chemical mechanisms involved in polymeric coating degradation, drug release, and restenosis inhibition. It allowed highlighting the interdependence between factors affecting each of these phenomena and, in particular, the influence of stent design parameters on drug antirestenotic efficacy. Therefore, the here-proposed model is aimed to simulate the diffusional release, for both in vitro and the in vivo conditions: results were verified against various literature data, confirming the reliability of the parameter estimation procedure. The hierarchical structure of this model also allows easily modifying the set of equations describing restenosis evolution to enhance model reliability and taking advantage of the deep understanding of physiological mechanisms governing the different stages of smooth muscle cell growth and proliferation. In addition, thanks to its simplicity and to the very low system requirements and central processing unit (CPU) time, our model allows obtaining immediate views of system behavior.

  8. Study of indoor radon distribution using measurements and CFD modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Neetika; Chauhan, R P; Joshi, M; Agarwal, T K; Aggarwal, Praveen; Sahoo, B K

    2014-10-01

    Measurement and/or prediction of indoor radon ((222)Rn) concentration are important due to the impact of radon on indoor air quality and consequent inhalation hazard. In recent times, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based modeling has become the cost effective replacement of experimental methods for the prediction and visualization of indoor pollutant distribution. The aim of this study is to implement CFD based modeling for studying indoor radon gas distribution. This study focuses on comparison of experimentally measured and CFD modeling predicted spatial distribution of radon concentration for a model test room. The key inputs for simulation viz. radon exhalation rate and ventilation rate were measured as a part of this study. Validation experiments were performed by measuring radon concentration at different locations of test room using active (continuous radon monitor) and passive (pin-hole dosimeters) techniques. Modeling predictions have been found to be reasonably matching with the measurement results. The validated model can be used to understand and study factors affecting indoor radon distribution for more realistic indoor environment.

  9. Space Insect-Food Aiming at Mars Emigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Takase, Yoshimi; Kawai, Mika; Space Agriculture Task Force

    We study space insect-food during 10 years. We are aiming at Mars emigration. In space agriculture, insect is the important creature which we cannot miss. It is necessary for the pollination of the plant, and it is rich to protein and lipid as food. We reported that silkworm, bee, grasshopper, snail, fly and termite (white ant) are insects necessary for astroponics in particular last time. We make clothes using silk thread, and the pupa becomes the food. In addition, the clothes can make food as protein when we need not to use it. The bee is a very important insect in the space agriculture, too. We calculated the nourishment ingredient of those insects and thought about ideal space foods which ara necessary for Mars emigration. We will introduce good balance space foods.

  10. A proper methodology aimed at surface wave tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Badal

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available When applying a methodology for obtaining the 3D shear-wave velocity structure of a medium from surface wave dispersion data, the problem must be considered with caution since one inverts path-averaged velocities and the use of any inversion method entails some drawbacks such as lack of uniqueness, unwarranted stability and constraints affecting the data. In order to avoid the application of consecutive inversions and to overcome these drawbacks, we propose alternative mapping methods, for example spatial prediction methods, or else the use of an algorithm that, from a mathematical viewpoint, can be understood through the application of the orthogonal projection theorem onto convex sets (POCS. Among the first ones, we try inverse weighted distance interpolation. The POCS algorithm we have used discretises a second order differential equation for the velocity field with boundary conditions. All these imaging techniques aimed at volumetric modelling and the visualisation of data are discussed, and finally we show some results based on ray path velocities obtained previously by inversion of phase and group velocities of Rayleigh waves propagating across the Iberian peninsula.

  11. Manual aiming in healthy aging: does proprioceptive acuity make the difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsen, Werner F; Van Halewyck, Florian; Levin, Oron; Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Lavrysen, Ann; Elliott, Digby

    2016-04-01

    The present study examines whether non-active older adults are more dependent on visual information when executing aiming movements and whether age-related declines in proprioception play a mediating role herein. Young (N = 40) and older adults (N = 38) were divided into physically active and non-active subgroups based on self-reported sports participation levels. In experiment 1, participants executed wrist-aiming movements with and without visual feedback. In experiment 2, passive proprioceptive acuity was assessed using wrist motion detection and position matching tests. Results showed similar aiming accuracy across age groups both with and without visual feedback, but older adults exhibited longer movement times, prolonged homing-in phase, and made more corrective submovements. Passive proprioceptive acuity was significantly affected by physical activity level and age, with participants in the active group scoring better than their non-active peers. However, these declines did not predict performance changes on the aiming task. Taken together, our observations suggest that decline in proprioceptive acuity did not predict performance changes on the aiming task and older adults were able to compensate for their decreased motion and position sense when allowed sufficient time. In line with these observations, we proposed that older adults are able to compensate for their decline in proprioception by increasing their reliance on predictive models.

  12. Study on Modeling Technology in Digital Reactor System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓平; 罗月童; 童莉莉

    2004-01-01

    Modeling is the kernel part of a digital reactor system. As an extensible platform for reactor conceptual design, it is very important to study modeling technology and develop some kind of tools to speed up preparation of all classical computing models. This paper introduces the background of the project and basic conception of digital reactor. MCAM is taken as an example for modeling and its related technologies used are given. It is an interface program for MCNP geometry model developed by FDS team (ASIPP & HUT), and designed to run on windows system. MCAM aims at utilizing CAD technology to facilitate creation of MCNP geometry model. There have been two ways for MCAM to utilize CAD technology:(1) Making use of user interface technology in aid of generation of MCNP geometry model;(2) Making use of existing 3D CAD model to accelerate creation of MCNP geometry model. This paper gives an overview of MCAM's major function. At last, several examples are given to demonstrate MCAM's various capabilities.

  13. Hydraulic fracture model comparison study: Complete results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warpinski, N.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abou-Sayed, I.S. [Mobil Exploration and Production Services (United States); Moschovidis, Z. [Amoco Production Co. (US); Parker, C. [CONOCO (US)

    1993-02-01

    Large quantities of natural gas exist in low permeability reservoirs throughout the US. Characteristics of these reservoirs, however, make production difficult and often economic and stimulation is required. Because of the diversity of application, hydraulic fracture design models must be able to account for widely varying rock properties, reservoir properties, in situ stresses, fracturing fluids, and proppant loads. As a result, fracture simulation has emerged as a highly complex endeavor that must be able to describe many different physical processes. The objective of this study was to develop a comparative study of hydraulic-fracture simulators in order to provide stimulation engineers with the necessary information to make rational decisions on the type of models most suited for their needs. This report compares the fracture modeling results of twelve different simulators, some of them run in different modes for eight separate design cases. Comparisons of length, width, height, net pressure, maximum width at the wellbore, average width at the wellbore, and average width in the fracture have been made, both for the final geometry and as a function of time. For the models in this study, differences in fracture length, height and width are often greater than a factor of two. In addition, several comparisons of the same model with different options show a large variability in model output depending upon the options chosen. Two comparisons were made of the same model run by different companies; in both cases the agreement was good. 41 refs., 54 figs., 83 tabs.

  14. Taking Aim at Moving Targets in Computational Cell Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuzzo, Paola; Van Troys, Marleen; Ampe, Christophe; Martens, Lennart

    2016-02-01

    Cell migration is central to the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Fundamental understanding of cell migration can, for example, direct novel therapeutic strategies to control invasive tumor cells. However, the study of cell migration yields an overabundance of experimental data that require demanding processing and analysis for results extraction. Computational methods and tools have therefore become essential in the quantification and modeling of cell migration data. We review computational approaches for the key tasks in the quantification of in vitro cell migration: image pre-processing, motion estimation and feature extraction. Moreover, we summarize the current state-of-the-art for in silico modeling of cell migration. Finally, we provide a list of available software tools for cell migration to assist researchers in choosing the most appropriate solution for their needs.

  15. Categorization of Digital Games in English Language Learning Studies: Introducing the SSI Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Pia

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of the present paper is to introduce a model for digital game categorization suitable for use in English language learning studies: the Scale of Social Interaction (SSI) Model (original idea published as Sundqvist, 2013). The SSI Model proposes a classification of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) digital games into three categories:…

  16. Simple model to study heterogeneous electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Junior, Edison; Lopes, Ana Carolina G.; Suffredini, Hugo B.; Homem-de-Mello, Paula

    2015-01-01

    New electrocatalyst materials have been proposed to increase the performance of fuel cells. Experimental studies show that Pt and Pb metallic and oxide materials are quite efficient in the oxidation of alcohols and small organic molecules such as formic acid in advanced fuel cells. This work proposes a model for studying morphologically heterogeneous catalysts through quantum chemistry methods such as density functional calculations. For testing the model, we have experimentally studied the adsorption of small organic molecules, namely formic acid and methanol, on Pt and Pb electrodes. All methodologies we have tested can be employed for this kind of study, but M06 functional results correlate best with previous simulations of homogeneous catalysts and with experimental data obtained for homogeneous and heterogeneous electrodes. Our model indicates that the presence of a Pt-Pb interface is responsible for higher adsorption energies of these molecules, most likely due to the orientation of the organic molecules that should facilitate the oxidation process.

  17. Preliminary Study of the Gravimetric Local Geoid Model in Jordan:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al-Zoubi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there is an increased interest in studying and defining the Local and Regional Geoid Model worldwide, due to its importance in geodetic and geophysics applications. The use of the Global Positioning System (GPS is internationally growing, yet the lack of any Geoid Model for Jordan has limited the use of GPS for geodetic applications. Therefore, this work aims to present the preliminary results that we propose for The Gravimetric Jordanian Geoid Model (GeoJordan. The model is created using gravimetric data and the GravSoft program. The validation of this model is done by using GPS measurements and precise leveling at Amman area. However, a comparison between the Global Geopotential Models OSU91A and EGM96 showed great discrepancies through the presented results. Also, presenting the approach used to obtain the orthometric height from GPS ellipsoidal height measurements. Nevertheless, the error margin; obtained in this initial study of the GeoJordan after fitting the data with GPS/leveling measurement; is about (10cm, in tested area whereas the standard error of the created model is about (40cm.

  18. Ready! Aim! Fire! targeting the right medical science journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Timothy C; Serginson, James M

    2017-09-01

    Inadvertently submitting a paper to a journal that is unlikely to publish it is a waste of resources and ultimately delays dissemination of one's research. A high proportion of manuscripts are rejected by their author's first-choice journal. The aim of the present work was to review guidance provided within the literature for journal selection that might minimize the chance of manuscript rejection. We also consider papers that encompass more than one main medical science and describe the selection process that we used with a paper that was published in Cardiovascular Endocrinology. A database search (Embase, PubMed and Medworm) was performed for all articles published in the scientific literature providing guidance on journal selection. Articles were identified that either had journal selection as their principal topic or included journal selection as part of a broader discussion of publishing. The relative performance of four free-to-use, web-based applications that claim to provide guidance on journal selection was compared. The searches identified 286 hits, of which 249 were in English. Of these papers, 16 discussed journal selection and a further 10 articles were identified from citations within the original 16 articles. Only one article described a comprehensive model for submission decision-making. Identification of appropriate candidate journals by various web-based applications was erratic, with the Jane database providing the most robust suggestions. Our work suggests that little attention has been focused in the scientific literature on the mechanisms that authors use to select a journal for their work. Nevertheless, scientists for the most part seem to have a good sense of where their papers are most likely to be accepted. Beyond ensuring that a manuscript fulfils all the target journal's requirements, the literature suggests that it is important to have an objective view of the scientific contribution or 'value' of your work.

  19. Dynamic inventory models: an illustrative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adendorff, Kris

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study revisits the subject matter of inventory control, a continual part of the activities of wide-ranging organisations internationally. The mathematical model is presented of a particular situation that deals with the regular acquisition of a material required for a production process in a volatile environment of varying demand and fluctuating price. The usual process dynamics are demonstrated against a background of diverse choices of probability density function. The model makes use of Normal and Weibull distributions.

  20. Selection patterns, gender and friendship aim in classroom networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baerveldt, Chris; Van de Bunt, Gerhard G.; Vermande, Marjolijn M.

    2014-01-01

    The social networks of students, and the underlying processes of selection, can have strong effects on their psychological and academic adjustment. The effects of gender, friendship aim (intimacy or social activities) and the combination of gender and friendship aim on selection patterns (student’s

  1. Patriotism, history and the legitimate aims of American education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that while an attachment to one's country is both natural and even partially justifiable, cultivating loyal patriotism in schools is untenable insofar as it conflicts with the legitimate aims of education. These aims include the epistemological competence necessary for ascertaini

  2. Patriotism, History and the Legitimate Aims of American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that while an attachment to one's country is both natural and even partially justifiable, cultivating loyal patriotism in schools is untenable insofar as it conflicts with the legitimate aims of education. These aims include the epistemological competence necessary for ascertaining important truths germane to the various…

  3. The Aims of Education and the Leap of Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, SunInn

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the place of freedom in discussions of the aims of education. Bearing in mind remarks of R.S. Peters to the affect that the singling out of aims can "fall into the hands of rationalistically minded curriculum planners", it begins by considering the views of Roland Reichenbach regarding Bildung and his account of this…

  4. Selection patterns, gender and friendship aim in classroom networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baerveldt, Chris; Van de Bunt, Gerhard G.; Vermande, Marjolijn M.

    2014-01-01

    The social networks of students, and the underlying processes of selection, can have strong effects on their psychological and academic adjustment. The effects of gender, friendship aim (intimacy or social activities) and the combination of gender and friendship aim on selection patterns (student’s

  5. Patriotism, history and the legitimate aims of American education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that while an attachment to one's country is both natural and even partially justifiable, cultivating loyal patriotism in schools is untenable insofar as it conflicts with the legitimate aims of education. These aims include the epistemological competence necessary for

  6. The Aims of Education and the Leap of Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, SunInn

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the place of freedom in discussions of the aims of education. Bearing in mind remarks of R.S. Peters to the affect that the singling out of aims can "fall into the hands of rationalistically minded curriculum planners", it begins by considering the views of Roland Reichenbach regarding Bildung and his account of this…

  7. An Analysis of Aims and the Educational "Event"

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Heyer, Kent

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author explores key distinctions relevant to aims talk in education. He argues that present formulations of aims fail to adequately capture or speak to several overlapping domains involved in schooling: qualification, socialization, and the educational in the form of subjectification (Biesta, 2010). Drawing off Egan and Biesta…

  8. Studying a Chaotic Spiking Neural Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alhawarat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of a chaotic spiking neuron model are being studied mathematically and experimentally. The Nonlinear Dynamic State neuron (NDS is analysed to further understand the model and improve it.Chaos has many interesting properties such as sensitivity to initial conditions, space filling, control and synchronization. As suggested by biologists, these properties may be exploited and play vital role in carrying out computational tasks in human brain. The NDS model has some limitations; in thus paper the model is investigated to overcomesome of these limitations in order to enhance the model. Therefore,the model’s parameters are tuned and the resulted dynamics are studied. Also, the discretization method of the model is considered. Moreover, a mathematical analysis is carried out to reveal the underlying dynamics of the model after tuning of its parameters. The results of the aforementioned methods revealedsome facts regarding the NDS attractor and suggest the stabilization of a large number of unstable periodic orbits (UPOs which might correspond to memories in phase space

  9. STUDYING A CHAOTIC SPIKING NEURAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alhawarat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of a chaotic spiking neuron model are being studied mathematically and experimentally. The Nonlinear Dynamic State neuron (NDS is analysed to further understand the model and improve it. Chaos has many interesting properties such as sensitivity to initial conditions, space filling, control and synchronization. As suggested by biologists, these properties may be exploited and play vital role in carrying out computational tasks in human brain. The NDS model has some limitations; in thus paper the model is investigated to overcome some of these limitations in order to enhance the model. Therefore, the model’s parameters are tuned and the resulted dynamics are studied. Also, the discretization method of the model is considered. Moreover, a mathematical analysis is carried out to reveal the underlying dynamics of the model after tuning of its parameters. The results of the aforementioned methods revealed some facts regarding the NDS attractor and suggest the stabilization of a large number of unstable periodic orbits (UPOs which might correspond to memories in phase space.

  10. Computational Study of a Primitive Life Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrecut, Mircea

    We present a computational study of a primitive life model. The calculation involves a discrete treatment of a partial differential equation and some details of that problems are explained. We show that the investigated model is equivalent to a diffusively coupled logistic lattice. The bifurcation diagrams were calculated for different values of the control parameters. The obtained diagrams have shown that the time dependence of the population of the investigated model exhibits transitions between ordered and chaotic behavior. We have investigated also the patterns formation in this system.

  11. Amphibians as models for studying environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, William A

    2007-01-01

    The use of amphibians as models in ecological research has a rich history. From an early foundation in studies of amphibian natural history sprang generations of scientists who used amphibians as models to address fundamental questions in population and community ecology. More recently, in the wake of an environment that human disturbances rapidly altered, ecologists have adopted amphibians as models for studying applied ecological issues such as habitat loss, pollution, disease, and global climate change. Some of the characteristics of amphibians that make them useful models for studying these environmental problems are highlighted, including their trophic importance, environmental sensitivity, research tractability, and impending extinction. The article provides specific examples from the recent literature to illustrate how studies on amphibians have been instrumental in guiding scientific thought on a broad scale. Included are examples of how amphibian research has transformed scientific disciplines, generated new theories about global health, called into question widely accepted scientific paradigms, and raised awareness in the general public that our daily actions may have widespread repercussions. In addition, studies on amphibian declines have provided insight into the complexity in which multiple independent factors may interact with one another to produce catastrophic and sometimes unpredictable effects. Because of the complexity of these problems, amphibian ecologists have been among the strongest advocates for interdisciplinary research. Future studies of amphibians will be important not only for their conservation but also for the conservation of other species, critical habitats, and entire ecosystems.

  12. Bayesian hierarchical models combining different study types and adjusting for covariate imbalances: a simulation study to assess model performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Elizabeth McCarron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bayesian hierarchical models have been proposed to combine evidence from different types of study designs. However, when combining evidence from randomised and non-randomised controlled studies, imbalances in patient characteristics between study arms may bias the results. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of a proposed Bayesian approach to adjust for imbalances in patient level covariates when combining evidence from both types of study designs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Simulation techniques, in which the truth is known, were used to generate sets of data for randomised and non-randomised studies. Covariate imbalances between study arms were introduced in the non-randomised studies. The performance of the Bayesian hierarchical model adjusted for imbalances was assessed in terms of bias. The data were also modelled using three other Bayesian approaches for synthesising evidence from randomised and non-randomised studies. The simulations considered six scenarios aimed at assessing the sensitivity of the results to changes in the impact of the imbalances and the relative number and size of studies of each type. For all six scenarios considered, the Bayesian hierarchical model adjusted for differences within studies gave results that were unbiased and closest to the true value compared to the other models. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Where informed health care decision making requires the synthesis of evidence from randomised and non-randomised study designs, the proposed hierarchical Bayesian method adjusted for differences in patient characteristics between study arms may facilitate the optimal use of all available evidence leading to unbiased results compared to unadjusted analyses.

  13. Implementation of an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, James R.; Ritter, Melody J.

    2011-01-01

    During the administration of anesthesia, the anesthesia provider has historically created a paper record, charted manually, that included extensive patient care–related data (vital signs, other parameters, etc) and commentaries. DocuSys, a proprietary anesthesia information management system (AIMS), creates an electronic version of the anesthesia record and provides additional information. It electronically captures data from clinical monitors and other sources, including scheduling applications and laboratory computers. The AIMS facilitates chart entries such as drug doses and case narratives. Benefits of an AIMS include improved legibility of the anesthesia record and greater efficiency in documentation efforts. Use of the AIMS assists the practitioner with decision support logic, such as the timing of antibiotic administration and the inclusion of legally required documentation. Upon case completion, the AIMS data are immediately available to other information systems, such as billing and medical records. Data can be made available from a single case or, more important, from thousands of cases to analyze variables such as efficiency of services, adherence to best practices, patient outcomes, and clinical research. The AIMS was deployed at the main campus of the Ochsner Health System on March 26, 2009. In this article, we discuss the issues involved in the AIMS implementation process: the successes, surprises, and continued challenges. PMID:21734847

  14. Circulating AIM Prevents Hepatocellular Carcinoma through Complement Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsumi Maehara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a widespread fatal disease and the third most common cause of cancer deaths. Here, we show the potent anti-HCC effect of the circulating protein AIM. As in adipocytes, AIM is incorporated into normal hepatocytes, where it interferes with lipid storage. In contrast, AIM accumulates on the HCC cell surface and activates the complement cascade via inactivating multiple regulators of complement activation. This response provokes necrotic cell death specifically in AIM-bound HCC cells. Accordingly, AIM−/− mice were highly susceptible to steatosis-associated HCC development, whereas no AIM+/+ mouse developed the disease despite comparable liver inflammation and fibrosis in response to a long-term high-fat diet. Administration of AIM prevented tumor development in AIM−/− mice, and HCC induction by diethylnitrosamine was more prominent in AIM−/− than wild-type mice. These findings could be the basis for novel AIM-based therapeutic strategies for HCC.

  15. Implementation of an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, James R; Ritter, Melody J

    2011-01-01

    During the administration of anesthesia, the anesthesia provider has historically created a paper record, charted manually, that included extensive patient care-related data (vital signs, other parameters, etc) and commentaries. DocuSys, a proprietary anesthesia information management system (AIMS), creates an electronic version of the anesthesia record and provides additional information. It electronically captures data from clinical monitors and other sources, including scheduling applications and laboratory computers. The AIMS facilitates chart entries such as drug doses and case narratives. Benefits of an AIMS include improved legibility of the anesthesia record and greater efficiency in documentation efforts. Use of the AIMS assists the practitioner with decision support logic, such as the timing of antibiotic administration and the inclusion of legally required documentation. Upon case completion, the AIMS data are immediately available to other information systems, such as billing and medical records. Data can be made available from a single case or, more important, from thousands of cases to analyze variables such as efficiency of services, adherence to best practices, patient outcomes, and clinical research. The AIMS was deployed at the main campus of the Ochsner Health System on March 26, 2009. In this article, we discuss the issues involved in the AIMS implementation process: the successes, surprises, and continued challenges.

  16. In Vivo Models to Study Chemokine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, F A; Boff, D; Teixeira, M M

    2016-01-01

    Chemokines are essential mediators of leukocyte movement in vivo. In vitro assays of leukocyte migration cannot mimic the complex interactions with other cell types and matrix needed for cells to extravasate and migrate into tissues. Therefore, in vivo strategies to study the effects and potential relevance of chemokines for the migration of particular leukocyte subsets are necessary. Here, we describe methods to study the effects and endogenous role of chemokine in mice. Advantages and pitfalls of particular models are discussed and we focus on description in model's joint and pleural cavity inflammation and the effects and relevance of CXCR2 and CCR2 ligands on cell migration.

  17. What’s Wrong with Aim-Oriented Empiricism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Maxwell

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For four decades it has been argued that we need to adopt a new conception of science called aim-oriented empiricism. This has far-reaching implications and repercussions for science, the philosophy of science, academic inquiry in general, the conception of rationality, and how we go about attempting to make progress towards as good a world as possible. Despite these far-reaching repercussions, aim-oriented empiricism has so far received scant attention from philosophers of science. Here, sixteen objections to the validity of the argument for aim-oriented empiricism are subjected to critical scrutiny.

  18. What is Wrong With Aim-Oriented Empiricism?

    CERN Document Server

    Maxwell, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    For four decades it has been argued that we need to adopt a new conception of science called aim-oriented empiricism. This has far-reaching implications and repercussions for science, the philosophy of science, academic inquiry in general, the conception of rationality, and how we go about attempting to make progress towards as good a world as possible. Despite these far-reaching repercussions, aim-oriented empiricism has so far received scant attention from philosophers of science. Here, sixteen objections to the validity of the argument for aim-oriented empiricism are subjected to critical scrutiny.

  19. Nonlinear dynamic modeling of multicomponent batch distillation: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to compare several of the commercial dynamic models for batch distillation available worldwide. In this context, BATCHFRAC(TM, CHEMCAD(TM BATCH, and HYSYS.Plant® software performances are compared to experimental data. The software can be used as soft sensors, playing the roll of ad-hoc observers or estimators for control objectives. Rigorous models were used as an alternative to predict the concentration profile and to specify the optimal switching time from products to slop cuts. The performance of a nonlinear model obtained using a novel identification algorithm was also studied. In addition, the strategy for continuous separation was revised with residue curve map analysis using Aspen SPLIT(TM.

  20. Mixed models in cerebral ischemia study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Henrique Dal Molin Ribeiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data modeling from longitudinal studies stands out in the current scientific scenario, especially in the areas of health and biological sciences, which induces a correlation between measurements for the same observed unit. Thus, the modeling of the intra-individual dependency is required through the choice of a covariance structure that is able to receive and accommodate the sample variability. However, the lack of methodology for correlated data analysis may result in an increased occurrence of type I or type II errors and underestimate/overestimate the standard errors of the model estimates. In the present study, a Gaussian mixed model was adopted for the variable response latency of an experiment investigating the memory deficits in animals subjected to cerebral ischemia when treated with fish oil (FO. The model parameters estimation was based on maximum likelihood methods. Based on the restricted likelihood ratio test and information criteria, the autoregressive covariance matrix was adopted for errors. The diagnostic analyses for the model were satisfactory, since basic assumptions and results obtained corroborate with biological evidence; that is, the effectiveness of the FO treatment to alleviate the cognitive effects caused by cerebral ischemia was found.

  1. Geological evolution of the North Sea: Cross-border basin modeling study on the schillground high

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heim, S.; Lutz, R.; Nelskamp, S.; Verweij, J.M.; Kaufmann, D.; Reinhardt, L.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the results of a basin modeling study covering the cross-border area of the southern Schillground High in the Dutch-German offshore area. A high resolution petroleum system model has been constructed with the aim to evaluate the hydrocarbon generation potential of Carboniferous s

  2. Animal models for the study of tendinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, S J

    2007-01-01

    Tendinopathy is a common and significant clinical problem characterised by activity‐related pain, focal tendon tenderness and intratendinous imaging changes. Recent histopathological studies have indicated the underlying pathology to be one of tendinosis (degeneration) as opposed to tendinitis (inflammation). Relatively little is known about tendinosis and its pathogenesis. Contributing to this is an absence of validated animal models of the pathology. Animal models of tendinosis represent potential efficient and effective means of furthering our understanding of human tendinopathy and its underlying pathology. By selecting an appropriate species and introducing known risk factors for tendinopathy in humans, it is possible to develop tendon changes in animal models that are consistent with the human condition. This paper overviews the role of animal models in tendinopathy research by discussing the benefits and development of animal models of tendinosis, highlighting potential outcome measures that may be used in animal tendon research, and reviewing current animal models of tendinosis. It is hoped that with further development of animal models of tendinosis, new strategies for the prevention and treatment of tendinopathy in humans will be generated. PMID:17127722

  3. Animal models for the study of tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, S J

    2007-04-01

    Tendinopathy is a common and significant clinical problem characterised by activity-related pain, focal tendon tenderness and intratendinous imaging changes. Recent histopathological studies have indicated the underlying pathology to be one of tendinosis (degeneration) as opposed to tendinitis (inflammation). Relatively little is known about tendinosis and its pathogenesis. Contributing to this is an absence of validated animal models of the pathology. Animal models of tendinosis represent potential efficient and effective means of furthering our understanding of human tendinopathy and its underlying pathology. By selecting an appropriate species and introducing known risk factors for tendinopathy in humans, it is possible to develop tendon changes in animal models that are consistent with the human condition. This paper overviews the role of animal models in tendinopathy research by discussing the benefits and development of animal models of tendinosis, highlighting potential outcome measures that may be used in animal tendon research, and reviewing current animal models of tendinosis. It is hoped that with further development of animal models of tendinosis, new strategies for the prevention and treatment of tendinopathy in humans will be generated.

  4. A test of the vulnerability model : Temperament and temperament change as predictors of future mental disorders - The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laceulle, Odilia M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/364227885; Ormel, Johan; Vollebergh, Wilma A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090632893; Van Aken, Marcel A G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/081831218; Nederhof, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to test the vulnerability model of the relationship between temperament and mental disorders using a large sample of adolescents from the TRacking Adolescents Individual Lives' Survey (TRAILS). The vulnerability model argues that particular temperaments can place

  5. Gender Advertisements in Magazines Aimed at African Americans: A Comparison to Their Occurrence in Magazines Aimed at Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Tara L.; Goulet, Nicole

    1999-01-01

    Analyzed more than 200 magazines to compare advertisements in magazines aimed at African Americans with advertisements in magazines aimed at Caucasians. Discusses results in terms of the demand characteristics implicit in gender advertisements and in terms of cultural differences in gender role expectations. (Author/SLD)

  6. Americans aim to overhaul science teaching by 2061

    CERN Multimedia

    1990-01-01

    Project 2061 is a long-term initiative by the AAAS to reform classroom science. Deputy director Walter Gillespie claims that the aim is for schools to teach less content but teach it better (1/2 page).

  7. Refractive aim and visual outcome after phacoemulsification: A 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-24

    Mar 24, 2016 ... Aim: To review the short‑term visual outcome of phacoemulsification in adults with uncomplicated ... social consequences.[2] In a ... visual impairment, respectively. ... skills and experience, who form the group practice, did the.

  8. Psychoneuroendocrine interventions aimed at attenuating immunosenescence: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, M.E.; Muller, G.C.; Correa, B.L.; Vianna, P.; Turner, J.E.; Bosch, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence suggesting that immunosenescence can be accelerated by external factors such as chronic stress. Here we review potential psychoneuroendocrine determinants of premature aging of the immune system and discuss available interventions aimed at attenuating immunosenescence. Chronic

  9. Psychoneuroendocrine interventions aimed at attenuating immunosenescence: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, M.E.; Muller, G.C.; Correa, B.L.; Vianna, P.; Turner, J.E.; Bosch, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence suggesting that immunosenescence can be accelerated by external factors such as chronic stress. Here we review potential psychoneuroendocrine determinants of premature aging of the immune system and discuss available interventions aimed at attenuating immunosenescence. Chronic stre

  10. Toolkit for local decision makers aims to strengthen environmental sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Murambadoro, M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Members of the South African Risk and Vulnerability Atlas were involved in a meeting aimed at the development of a toolkit towards improved integration of climate change into local government's integrated development planning (IDP) process....

  11. Ethics and aims in psychotherapy: a contribution from Kant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, J S

    1998-08-01

    Psychotherapy is an activity which takes many forms and which has many aims. The present paper argues that it can be viewed as a form of moral suasion. Kant's concepts of free will and ethics are described and these are then applied to the processes and outcome of psychotherapy. It is argued that his ideas, by linking rationality, free will and ethics into a single philosophical system, offer a valuable theoretical framework for thinking about aims and ethical issues in psychotherapy.

  12. Morphogenesis of Vertisols:A Model Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIURONG-LIANG; HUANGRUI-CAI; 等

    1994-01-01

    Studies on Vertisols of Southwes China show that the distribution of organic matter,mechanical compositon,carbonates and spore-pollen in their profiles exhibits a definite differentiation and the radiocarbon age has a functional variation with soil depth,which sugests that pedoturbation model is a kind of incomplete model for genetic study and that the distubance and inversion of solums of Vertisol are not as rapid and absolute as expected.In further consideration of the characters of swelling pressure and shear strength of Vertisol,vertic soil and other zonal soils.it is speculated that soil mechanics model is more adaptable for interpreting the morphogenesis of vertisols without any contradiction with soil properties.

  13. Parametric study for horizontal steam generator modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovtcharova, I. [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-31

    In the presentation some of the calculated results of horizontal steam generator PGV - 440 modelling with RELAP5/Mod3 are described. Two nodalization schemes have been used with different components in the steam dome. A study of parameters variation on the steam generator work and calculated results is made in cases with separator and branch.

  14. AIMS D2DB simulation for DUV and EUV mask inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Danping; Li, Ying; Satake, Masaki; Hu, Peter; Chen, Jerry; Hsu, S. C.; Lai, Rick; Lin, C. S.; Tuo, Laurent C. C.

    2012-02-01

    AIMS™ Die-to-Die (D2D) is widely used in checking the wafer printability of mask defects for DUV lithography. Two AIMS images, a reference and a defect image, are captured and compared with differences larger than certain tolerances identified as real defects. Since two AIMS images are needed, and since AIMS system time is precious, it is desirable to save image search and capture time by simulating reference images from the OPC mask pattern and AIMS optics. This approach is called Die-to-Database (D2DB). Another reason that D2DB is desirable is in single die mask, where the reference image from another die does not exist. This paper presents our approach to simulate AIMS optics and mask 3D effects. Unlike OPC model, whose major concern is predicting printed CD, AIMS D2DB model must produce simulated images that match measured images across the image field. This requires a careful modeling of all effects that impact the final image quality. We present a vector-diffraction theory that is based on solid theoretical foundations and a general formulation of mask model that are applicable to both rigorous Maxwell solver and empirical model that can capture the mask 3D-effects. We demonstrated the validity of our approach by comparing our simulated image with AIMS machine measured images. We also briefly discuss the necessary changes needed to model EUV optics. Simulation is particularly useful while the industry waits for an actinic EUV-AIMS tool.

  15. SaudiVeg ecoinformatics: Aims, current status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Sheikh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade many electronic databases of vegetation plots were established in many countries around the world. These databases contain valuable phytosociological information assisting both governmental and NGO (Non-governmental organizations agencies to formulate strategies and on-ground plans to manage and protect nature resources. This paper provides an account on aims, current status and perspectives of building of a vegetation database for the Central Region (Najd of Saudi Arabia – the founding element of the Saudi Vegetation Database (SVD. The data stored by the database are sample plots (vegetation relevés collected according to the field techniques of the Braun-Blanquet approach (lists of taxa accompanied by semi-quantitative cover assessment, and are accompanied by general vegetation characteristics such as vegetation layering and cover, information on life-form of the recorded species, geographical coordinates, altitude, soil typology, topography and many more. More than 2900 vegetation-plot records (relevés have so far been collected in the Najd region; of these more than 2000 have already been stored using the Turboveg database platform. These field records cover many habitats such as depressions, wadis (dry river beds, agricultural lands, sand dunes, sabkhas, and ruderal habitats. The ecological information collected in the database is currently the largest set of vegetation data collated into a database in the Middle East. These data are of great importance for biodiversity studies in Saudi Arabia, since the region is recording a loss of biodiversity at a fast rate due to environmental problems such as global warming and land-use changes. We envisage that this database would catalyze further data collection on vegetation of the entire Arabian Peninsula, and shall serve as one of the most important datasets for classification and mapping of the vegetation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  16. [Strategies aiming to control hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña Torres, Pablo Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease is known to be associated with phosphate retention. The mechanisms are complex and the early increase in serum phosphate levels in chronic kidney disease is not strictly related to the dietary phosphate load or to the degree of phosphate retention. It also implicates the activity of intestinal sodium-phosphate cotransporters, the degree of bone turnover and the retention and/or phosphate release from the skeleton, and the feedback mechanisms regulating the phosphaturia. Indeed, the increase in serum phosphate levels is only a reflection of underlying complex mechanisms, and many important factors play a role including parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), and others. Hyperphosphatemia increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease as well as in subjects with normal renal function. Oral phosphate binders are prescribed in patients with chronic kidney disease and in those treated by dialysis, to prevent intestinal absorption of dietary phosphate and reduce serum phosphate. In prospective observational studies, they have been shown to decrease all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk. However, different problems have been associated with currently available phosphate binders including the induction of a positive calcium balance and impaired outcomes with calcium-based phosphate binders or increased costs with non-calcium-based phosphate binders. Iron-based phosphate binders represent a new class of phosphate binders. The aim of this article is to provide an update review of the pathophysiological mechanisms leading and maintaining elevated serum phosphate levels in patients with chronic kidney disease and patients in dialysis, and the educational, nutritional, and therapeutic strategies that can be undertaken to control the hyperphosphatemia. Copyright © 2017 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Studying and Modeling Vibration Transducers and Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Ágoston

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents types and operating mode of vibration sensors. Piezoelectric sensing elements are often used in accelerometers. It will be investigate the structure and transfer function of the seismic mass type sensing element. The article presents how the piezoelectric sensing element works and how can be modeled with an electronic circuit. The transfer functions of the electronic circuit models are studied in Matlab and the results are presented. It will be presented the influence of the seismic mass on the accelerometer’s working frequency domain.

  18. Animal models for studying penile hemodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HiroyaMizusawa; OsamuIshizuka

    2002-01-01

    Animal models for the study of erectile function monitoring the changes in intracavernous pressure(ICP)during penile erection was reviewed.The development of new modwls using small commercially-available experimen-tal animals,rats and mice,in the last edcade facilitated in vivo investigation of erectile physiology.The technique enabled to evaluate even subtle erectile responses by analyzing ICPand systemic blood pressure,Moreover,the method has been well improved and studies using conscious animal models without the influence of any drug or anesthesia are more appropriate in exploring the precise physiological and pharmacological mechanisms in erection.Also,more natural and physiological sexual arousal instead of electrical or pharmacological stimulation is desirable in most of the studies.This article reviewed the development of ICPstudies in rats and mice.

  19. Nisin Production Utilizing Skimmed Milk Aiming to Reduce Process Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; de Andrade, Maura Sayuri; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Pessoa, Adalberto; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    Nisin is a natural additive for conservation of food, pharmaceutical, and dental products and can be used as a therapeutic agent. Nisin inhibits the outgrowth of spores, the growth of a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study was performed to optimize large-scale nisin production in skimmed milk and subproducts aiming at low-costs process and stimulating its utilization. Lactococcus lactis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 11454 was developed in a rotary shaker (30°C/36 h/100 rpm) in diluted skimmed milk and nisin activity, growth parameters, and media components were also studied. Nisin activity in growth media was expressed in arbitrary units (AU/mL) and converted to standard nisin concentration (Nisaplin®, 25 mg of pure nisin is 1.0×106 AU/mL). Nisin activity in skimmed milk 2.27 gtotal solids was up to threefold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 4.54 gtotal solids and was up to 85-fold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 1.14 gtotal solids. L. lactis was assayed in a New Brunswick fermentor with 1.5 L of diluted skimmed milk (2.27 gtotal solids) and airflow of 1.5 mL/min (30°C/36/200 rpm), without pH control. In this condition nisin activity was observed after 4 h (45.07 AU/mL) and in the end of 36 h process (3312.07 AU/mL). This work shows the utilization of a low-cost growth medium (diluted skimmed milk) to nisin production with wide applications. Furthermore, milk subproducts (milk whey) can be exploited in nisin production, because in Brazil 50% of milk whey is disposed with no treatment in rivers and because of high organic matter concentrations it is considered an important pollutant. In this particular case an optimized production of an antimicrobial would be lined up with industrial disposal recycling.

  20. Experimental Study of Aerosol Deposition in a Realistic Lung Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František LÍZAL

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The inhalation route for administration of medicaments is becoming more and more popular in recent years. The reason is non-invasiveness of the method and instantaneous absorption of drugs to the blood circulation. It is necessary to deliver exact amount of drug to the specific segment because of occurrence of diverse diseases in different segments of lungs. The aim of our work is to contribute to better understanding of transport and deposition of aerosolized drugs in lungs and hence to more effective treatment of respiratory diseases due to the targeted drug delivery. We provided measurements of aerosol deposition in segmented realistic model of lungs without a mouth cavity. Monodisperse particles marked with fluorescein were supplied to the model. The model was then disassembled to segments and each segment was rinsed with isopropanol, whereby fluorescent samples were created. Each sample was analysed by fluorometer and an amount of aerosol deposited in the segment was calculated. Experiences obtained by this study were used for creation of a new model with the mouth cavity. This model will be used for future studies with porous and fiber aerosols.

  1. Geology - Background complementary studies. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Skagius, Kristina [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)] (eds.)

    2007-09-15

    During Forsmark model stage 2.2, seven complementary geophysical and geological studies were initiated by the geological modelling team, in direct connection with and as a background support to the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. One of these studies involved a field control on the character of two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trends inside the target volume. The interpretation of these lineaments formed one of the late deliveries to SKB that took place after the data freeze for model stage 2.2 and during the initial stage of the modelling work. Six studies involved a revised processing and analysis of reflection seismic, refraction seismic and selected oriented borehole radar data, all of which had been presented earlier in connection with the site investigation programme. A prime aim of all these studies was to provide a better understanding of the geological significance of indirect geophysical data to the geological modelling team. Such essential interpretative work was lacking in the material acquired in connection with the site investigation programme. The results of these background complementary studies are published together in this report. The titles and authors of the seven background complementary studies are presented below. Summaries of the results of each study, with a focus on the implications for the geological modelling of deformation zones, are presented in the master geological report, SKB-R--07-45. The sections in the master report, where reference is made to each background complementary study and where the summaries are placed, are also provided. The individual reports are listed in the order that they are referred to in the master geological report and as they appear in this report. 1. Scan line fracture mapping and magnetic susceptibility measurements across two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trend, Forsmark. Jesper Petersson, Ulf B. Andersson and Johan Berglund. 2. Integrated interpretation of surface and

  2. Aiming for a College Education: A Strategy for Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Andrew; And Others

    The report reviews British Petroleum's "Aiming for College Education" program in Scotland, a 5-year program to raise the aspirations of young people for post-compulsory education and for higher education in particular. The program invites local higher education institutions to consider initiatives in four areas (promotion and marketing,…

  3. Aims and Formats of performance measurement at Danish Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffnsøe-Møller, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This article traces the aims and formats of performance measurement of Danish Universities as they originate from the Ministry of Finance’s plan for governance of the public sector. The article further show that the fierce conflicts between central administration and the universities over...

  4. Philosophical Analysis, Research on Teaching, and Aim-Oriented Empiricism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Jerome A.

    1980-01-01

    An attempt is made at providing cohesion and structure for a range of disparate activities and examining their interrelationships. Among concepts considered are: (1) the relationship of philosophic analysis in education; (2) the nature of pedagogical research; (3) the process-product paradigm; (4) aim-oriented empiricism; (5) the reduction thesis;…

  5. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Annual progress report FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This Annual Report for FY 1995 contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Areas covered here are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  6. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program annual progress report, FY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is a part of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of AIM is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. OIT has embarked on a fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrating on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans, some of which have been completed. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support.

  7. Anxiety and ironic effects in aiming at a far target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, F.C.; Binsch, O.

    2011-01-01

    In far aiming the negative intention not to miss may ironically increase the tendency to do precisely that. Although cognitive constraints enhance the occurrence of ironic effects in the perceptual-motor domain the role of anxiety in inducing such effects has rarely been investigated while anxiety i

  8. Autonomy as the Guiding Aim of Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelderen, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper has three purposes: first, to present a vision of entrepreneurship education that has the student's capacity for autonomous action as its ultimate aim; second, to convince the reader of the timeliness and relevance of such an approach; third, to outline how this can be implemented. Design/methodology/approach: The paper…

  9. MayDay Colloquium 24: The Aims of Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David J.

    2013-01-01

    On June 20, 2012, Professor John Kratus welcomed the MayDay Group to Michigan State University for "Colloquium 24: The Aims of Music Education". On behalf of all members of the Mayday Group, the author wishes to extend his deepest gratitude to Professor Kratus and his colleagues at Michigan State for their extremely gracious and…

  10. Do Normative Judgements Aim to Represent the World?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streumer, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Many philosophers think that normative judgements do not aim to represent the world. In this paper, I argue that this view is incompatible with the thought that when two people make conflicting normative judgements, at most one of these judgements is correct. I argue that this shows that normative j

  11. The Aims of Sex Education: Demoting Autonomy and Promoting Mutuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Paula

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, Paula McAvoy critiques a commonly held view that teaching young people to be good choice makers should be a central aim of sex education. Specifically, she argues against David Archard's recommendation that sex educators ought to focus on the development of autonomy and teaching young people that "choice should be accorded…

  12. Do Normative Judgements Aim to Represent the World?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streumer, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Many philosophers think that normative judgements do not aim to represent the world. In this paper, I argue that this view is incompatible with the thought that when two people make conflicting normative judgements, at most one of these judgements is correct. I argue that this shows that normative j

  13. The role of niacin in raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to reduce cardiovascular events in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and optimally treated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: baseline characteristics of study participants. The Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic syndrome with low HDL/high triglycerides: impact on Global Health outcomes (AIM-HIGH) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The study aims to report the baseline characteristics of the fully randomized AIM-HIGH study population. Residual risk persists despite aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) disease, many of whom have atherogenic dyslipidemia (low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), elevated triglycerides, and small dense LDL particles). All study participants had established CV disease and atherogenic dyslipidemia. Participants received simvastatin (or simvastatin plus ezetimibe) at a dose sufficient to maintain LDL-C at 40 - 80 mg/dL (1.03-2.07 mmol/L) and were randomized to receive extended-release niacin or matching placebo. The primary end point is time to the first occurrence of coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome or symptom-driven coronary or cerebral revascularization with average follow-up of 4.1 years. Between 2006 and 2010, 8,162 individuals signed consent to be screened, 4,275 began study drug run-in, and 3,414 were randomized to treatment. Mean age at entry was 64 ± 9 years, 85% were men, and 92% were white. As expected, risk factors were prevalent with 34% having diabetes; 71%, hypertension; and 81%, metabolic syndrome. Most participants had coronary artery disease (92%), whereas 11% had peripheral arterial disease; and 12%, cerebrovascular disease. Previous coronary revascularization occurred in 82%, and 54% reported a prior myocardial infarction. Among participants on a statin at entry (94%), mean baseline LDL-C was 71 mg/dL (1.84 mmol/L); mean HDL-C, 34.9 mg/dL (0.90 mmol/L); and median triglycerides, 161 mg/dL (1.82 mmol/L). AIM-HIGH enrolled a high-risk group of patients with established atherosclerotic CV disease and atherogenic dyslipidemia. This study should determine whether there is incremental clinical benefit of niacin in reducing cardiovascular events in patients who

  14. Laser surface processing and model studies

    CERN Document Server

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces model studies associated with laser surface processing such as conduction limited heating, surface re-melting, Marangoni flow and its effects on the temperature field, re-melting of multi-layered surfaces, laser shock processing, and practical applications. The book provides insight into the physical processes involved with laser surface heating and phase change in laser irradiated region. It is written for engineers and researchers working on laser surface engineering.

  15. A Study of Oil Viscosity Mental Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaiti; Liliasari; Sumarna, Omay; Abdulkadir Martoprawiro, Muhamad

    2017-02-01

    There is no study regarding on how to learn viscosity of the liquid (e.g. oil) by interconnecting macroscopic, sub-microscopic and symbolic levels. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to study the mental model of the oil viscosity. Intermolecular attractive force of oil constituent on the sub-microscopic level is depicted in the form of mental models. In this research, the viscosity data for some types of oil was measured by using Hoppler method. Viscosity of mineral oil SAE 20W-50, mineral oil SAE 15W-40 and synthetic oil SAE 10W-40 were 1.75, 1.31, and 1.03 Pa s, and the densities of these oils were 908.64, 885.04, and 877.02 kg/m3, respectively. The results showed that the greater density of the mineral oil that is assumed to be composed of linear chains of hydrocarbons, the longer the chain of hydrocarbon linear. Consequently, there are stronger the London force and greater the oil viscosity. The density and viscosity of synthetic oil are lower than that of both mineral oils. Synthetic oil structurally forms polymers with large branching. This structure affects a lower synthetic oil viscosity. This study contributes to construct a mental model of pre-service chemistry teachers.

  16. ASPECT spectral imaging satellite proposal to AIDA/AIM CubeSat payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohout, Tomas; Näsilä, Antti; Tikka, Tuomas; Penttilä, Antti; Muinonen, Karri; Kestilä, Antti; Granvik, Mikael; Kallio, Esa

    2016-04-01

    ASPECT (Asteroid Spectral Imaging Mission) is a part of AIDA/AIM project and aims to study the composition of the Didymos binary asteroid and the effects of space weathering and shock metamorphism in order to gain understanding of the formation and evolution of the Solar System. The joint ESA/NASA AIDA (Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment) mission to binary asteroid Didymos consists of AIM (Asteroid Impact Mission, ESA) and DART (Double Asteroid Redirection Test, NASA). DART is targeted to impact Didymos secondary component (Didymoon) and serve as a kinetic impactor to demonstrate deflection of potentially hazardous asteroids. AIM will serve as an observational spacecraft to evaluate the effects of the impact and resulting changes in the Didymos dynamic parameters. The AIM mission will also carry two CubeSat miniaturized satellites, released in Didymoon proximity. This arrangement opens up a possibility for secondary scientific experiments. ASPECT is one of the proposed CubeSat payloads. Whereas Didymos is a space-weathered binary asteroid, the DART impactor is expected to produce a crater and excavate fresh material from the secondary component (Didymoon). Spectral comparison of the mature surface to the freshly exposed material will allow to directly deter-mine space weathering effects. It will be also possible to study spectral shock effects within the impact crater. ASPECT will also demonstrate for the first time the joint spacecraft - CubeSat operations in asteroid proximity and miniature spectral imager operation in deep-space environment. Science objectives: 1. Study of the surface composition of the Didymos system. 2. Photometric observations (and modeling) under varying phase angle and distance. 3. Study of space weathering effects on asteroids (comparison of mature / freshly exposed material). 4. Study of shock effects (spectral properties of crater interior). 5. Observations during the DART impact. Engineering objectives: 1. Demonstration of Cube

  17. Expert Systems Aimed at General Design of Projectiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Zhi-hua; HOU Ni-na; HU Yu-hui

    2007-01-01

    Expert systems aimed at the general design of projectiles can implement a series of intelligent designs, such as the design of HE shell, the scheme expounded and proved, the emulation analysis and calculation, etc. Aiming at the product design feature, the expert system adopts the object-oriented knowledge representation and all kinds of inference control engines to describe and reason the relevant knowledge regarding the product through the microcomputer. It embodies the foundation of emulation analysis and simulated manufacturing of the shell. It makes use of the method that knowledge expression is combined with condition of inference to carry out the overall design and emulation and reference.The paper gives the ways through which the functions can be achieved, gives the modularization of reference and the design methods of systematization, puts forward the method of knowledge expression and working interface, and supplies a platform for similar products of the shell category that can be quickly designed.

  18. Determination of aims military-technical policy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Salnikova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the aims of military-technical policy are considered. Determination of aims (tasks of military-technical policy, its maintenance, requirements to it and directions of its further development it must come true by the analysis of different factors of external and internal environment. Among such factors: geopolitical and military-political position of Ukraine and its military doctrine; realized and operating programs of development (reformation of the soldiery forming and them technical rigging; terms of future military operations and progress of their maintenance, forms, methods and characteristic signs of battle actions trend; substantive provisions of art of war; conceptions, theories and doctrines of battle application of the soldiery forming of the different states; resources dedicated by the state on development of military-technical sphere and others like that. The fundamental chart of sequence of forming of public military-technical policy is presented in the article.

  19. Use of Probiotic Microorganisms for Bio-Protective Aims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz YANGILAR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It was known that some diseases can be treated as the result of the use of antibiotics in certain periods and at certain dosages while inactivating and deteriorating normal microorganisms performing useful activities in human metabolism (in especially intestinal flora. It was occured that after the use of antibiotics, some defects can be seen resulting from antibiotics (such as allergy, diarrhea, gas formation etc. With this aim, nutraceutics and functional food have gained importance over the last years and consumers began to be interested in probiotics, natural antioxidants, dietary fibres, products with low calorie and cholesterol contents, especially the products containing probioticbacteria. Bacteriocins produced by probiotic bacteria can play important roles as food protective and safeguarding since they can compete with unwanted or pathogen microorganisms survive in the media and colonize in intestines. In this review, is aimed to emphasis bioprotective compounds, advantages and disadvantages of biopreservation method and the importance of the mechanisms of probiotic microorganisms.

  20. Research methodology the aims, practices and ethics of science

    CERN Document Server

    Pruzan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This book is an in-depth guide to effective scientific research. Ranging from the philosophical to the practical, it explains at the outset what science can – and can’t – achieve, and discusses its relationship to mathematics and laws. The author then pays extensive attention to the scientific method, including experimental design, verification, uncertainty and statistics. A major aim of the book is to help young scientists reflect upon the deeper aims of their work and make the best use of their talents in contributing to progress. To this end, it also includes sections on planning research, on presenting one’s findings in writing, as well as on ethics and the responsibilities of scientists. .

  1. Learning object for teacher training aimed to develop communication skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Esmeralda RODRÍGUEZ RAMÍREZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results and reflections obtained across a research aimed to analyze the quality criteria of an opened learning object oriented to develop communication skills in order to be able to report and validate it according to its content, pedagogic structure, technological structure, graphical and textual language and usability to teacher training, in order to base it theoretically, pedagogically and technologically. The research question was: Which are the quality criteria that a learning object aimed to develop communication skills must cover? Under a quantitative approach, there were electronic questionnaires applied to: 34 Technological University teachers, eight experts about of communicative competence, teaching, technology and graphic design. The results indicated that some of the quality criteria of learning object are: the effective managing of the learning content, the balanced composition of his pedagogic structure, the technological structure efficiency and the proper managing of graphical and textual language.

  2. Incorporating Level-2 PSA Feature of CONPAS into AIMS-PSA Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Hoon; Lim, Hogon; Ahn, Kwang Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    CONPAS (CONtainment Performance Analysis System) utilizes a methodology to treat containment phenomena in detail like APET but in simple way. In mid 2000's, KAERI has developed very fast cut set generator FTREX and PC's OS (Operating system) has changed into Windows 95. Thus, KAERI has developed new Level-1 PSA software, called AIMS-PSA (Advanced Information Management System for PSA) to replace KIRAP. Recently, KAERI has been developing an integrated PSA platform, called OCEANS (On-line Consolidator and Evaluator of All mode risk for Nuclear System), for the risk assessment of all power modes and all hazards. CONPAS for Level-2 PSA was developed in 1990's using the Visual Basic 6.0 compiler which is not supported any more. It needs to be updated for the integrated PSA software framework. This paper describes a study to incorporate the features of CONPAS into AIMS-PSA. The basic idea is to follow the approach of CONPAS, but in the integrated way. Various approaches for Level-2 PSA have been used since WASH-1400. APET approach of NUREG-1150 study would be most comprehensive and complex methodology for containment event tree analysis. CONPAS is the Level-2 PSA software to utilize an approach to treat containment phenomena in detail like APET but in simple way. But, new Level-2 PSA software is required to develop more integrated PSA framework. A modified approach of CONPAS is developed and incorporated in AIMS-PSA software that can handle Level-1 and Level-2 PSA in the integrated way (from the viewpoint of event tree and fault tree). AIMS-PSA combines whole Level-2 PSA model to produce a One Top fault tree and to generate cut sets in the same way as Level-1 PSA. Quantification results of Level-2 PSA such as frequency for each STC can be calculated from the minimal cut sets.

  3. Financial Stress, Shaming Experiences and Psychosocial Ill-Health: Studies into the Finances-Shame Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrin, Bengt; Aslund, Cecilia; Nilsson, Kent W.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the Finances-Shame model and its explanatory power regarding the prevalence of psychosocial ill-health. The Finances-Shame model postulates that (i) the greater the financial stress and the more experiences of having been shamed, the greater the risk for psychosocial ill-health, (ii) the lesser the financial stress…

  4. Action Information Management System (AIMS): a User's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskerchen, M.

    1984-01-01

    The initial approach used in establishing a user-defined information system to fulfill the needs of users at NASA Headquarters was unsuccessful in bringing this pilot endeaveor to full project status. The persistence of several users and the full involvement of the Ames Research Center were the ingredients needed to make the AIMS project a success. The lesson learned from this effort is that NASA should always work from its organizational strengths as a Headquarters-Center partnership.

  5. Implementation of an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, James R.; Ritter, Melody J.

    2011-01-01

    During the administration of anesthesia, the anesthesia provider has historically created a paper record, charted manually, that included extensive patient care–related data (vital signs, other parameters, etc) and commentaries. DocuSys, a proprietary anesthesia information management system (AIMS), creates an electronic version of the anesthesia record and provides additional information. It electronically captures data from clinical monitors and other sources, including scheduling applicati...

  6. Triple AIM evaluation and application in advanced node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gary C.; Lio, En Chuan; Hung, Yuting; Chen, Charlie; Wang, Sybil; Weng, Tang Chun; Lin, Bill; Yu, Chun Chi

    2016-03-01

    A novel method on advanced node for IBO (Image Based Overlay) data extraction accuracy is demonstrated in this work, and here some special design in triple-AIM (Advanced Imaging Metrology) is able to realize the approach. Since triple AIM design has 3 locations left for patterning layers insertion, a new design with 2 layers locations, location-A (inner) and location-B (middle), are generated by 1st pattering, i.e. once lithography exposure, and the 2 marks grouping are formed on dielectric through lithography and etching process with a predetermined overlay "zero offset" through original mask layout design, as illustrated in Fig. (1). And then, as following top photo resist layer, assumed location-C (outer), lithography patterning process, PR coating, exposure and development complete, full triple-AIM patterns is generated, and 3 sets of overlay data could be obtained, A to B, C to B, C to A. Through re-calculating the overlay raw data of current (2nd patterning layer) to previous (1st patterning layer) layer by averaging [C to B] and [C to A], then theoretically the data extraction of sites would be more accuracy, since the variation of local marks signal, induced by inline process instability, could be minimized through the raw data averaging procedure. Moreover, from raw data [A to B], an extra monitor function for detections of the inline process variation, marks selection and recipe setting optimization could be obtained, since marks in [A] and [BB] locations are both generated in 1st patterning, and with the target "zero". So if the raw data [A to BB] is bigger or smaller than "zero" in some degree, there should be some process issue or marks condition setting error in triple-AIM design.

  7. Implementation of an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, James R.; Ritter, Melody J.

    2011-01-01

    During the administration of anesthesia, the anesthesia provider has historically created a paper record, charted manually, that included extensive patient care–related data (vital signs, other parameters, etc) and commentaries. DocuSys, a proprietary anesthesia information management system (AIMS), creates an electronic version of the anesthesia record and provides additional information. It electronically captures data from clinical monitors and other sources, including scheduling applicati...

  8. Business Management Coaching: Focusing on Entrepreneur's Current Position and Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Kheng T.

    2012-01-01

    One-to-one business coaching over 6 months was provided to nine clients in Hawaii to help them acquire business transition skills. The STARS model was used to determine the individual business situation and to explore suitable leadership strategies to move forward. Systematically, each client developed a business model, business strategies, a…

  9. Business Management Coaching: Focusing on Entrepreneur's Current Position and Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Kheng T.

    2012-01-01

    One-to-one business coaching over 6 months was provided to nine clients in Hawaii to help them acquire business transition skills. The STARS model was used to determine the individual business situation and to explore suitable leadership strategies to move forward. Systematically, each client developed a business model, business strategies, a…

  10. Changing Our Aim: Infiltrating Faculty with Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Sandra; Eva, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Librarians are stretched thin these days--budget cuts and decreasing numbers are forcing us to look at new ways of doing things. While the embedded information literacy model has gained popularity in the past number of years, it may be time for a new model of information literacy. We must arm teaching faculty with the tools they need to teach…

  11. Preliminary Study of Jerome Model and Horace Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周静; 蒋秀丽

    2013-01-01

    Translation always plays the crucial role in the cross-culture communication and the development of human being’s history of civilization. The author of this papertries to make an analysis and contrast of the two translation models: the Jerome model and the Horace model, pointing out that it is because of different circumstances that different translation models are used in the translation.

  12. Refractive aiming corrections for satellite observation of stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittitoe, C.N.; Schmidt, R.L.

    1997-03-01

    Standard references describe how apparent zenith angles differ from true zenith angles for observers on the Earth. In fact, correction formulae are available for aiming Earth-based sensors at stars; some corrections give variations as a function of observer altitude. Such corrections have not been available for observers in space. This report develops formulae appropriate for proper aiming from space-based sensors toward the relatively few stars that are near the Earth`s limb at any given time. These formulae correct for refractive effects and may be critical for steerable space-borne sensors with fields of view less than one degree, tasked to observe starlight passing near the Earth`s surface. Ray tracing in the U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 1976 including H{sub 2}O effects, is used to determine relations between the refracted tangent height, the apparent tangent height resulting from observation at the sensor, and the angle through which the detected rays have deviated. Analytic fits of the ray deviation as a function of apparent tangent height allows quick determination of corrections needed for a space-borne sensor. Using those results that apply in the plane of incidence and using the necessary coordinate rotations, alterations in the star`s apparent right ascension and declination are evaluated to improve the aim. Examples illustrate that alterations can be larger than one degree, with effects lasting up to a few minutes.

  13. Multiple comparisons in genetic association studies: a hierarchical modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Nengjun; Xu, Shizhong; Lou, Xiang-Yang; Mallick, Himel

    2014-02-01

    Multiple comparisons or multiple testing has been viewed as a thorny issue in genetic association studies aiming to detect disease-associated genetic variants from a large number of genotyped variants. We alleviate the problem of multiple comparisons by proposing a hierarchical modeling approach that is fundamentally different from the existing methods. The proposed hierarchical models simultaneously fit as many variables as possible and shrink unimportant effects towards zero. Thus, the hierarchical models yield more efficient estimates of parameters than the traditional methods that analyze genetic variants separately, and also coherently address the multiple comparisons problem due to largely reducing the effective number of genetic effects and the number of statistically "significant" effects. We develop a method for computing the effective number of genetic effects in hierarchical generalized linear models, and propose a new adjustment for multiple comparisons, the hierarchical Bonferroni correction, based on the effective number of genetic effects. Our approach not only increases the power to detect disease-associated variants but also controls the Type I error. We illustrate and evaluate our method with real and simulated data sets from genetic association studies. The method has been implemented in our freely available R package BhGLM (http://www.ssg.uab.edu/bhglm/).

  14. Spiritual Leadership and Organizational Culture: A Study of Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Engin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the spiritual leadership behaviors of school principles in a structural equation model. The study is designed to test causality with the assumption that causality exists between the two variables. In this study, spiritual leadership behavior of managers is treated as the independent variable whereas the…

  15. Modelling Study of Interstellar Ethanimine Isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Donghui; Herbst, Eric; Corby, Joanna F.; Durr, Allison; Hassel, George

    2016-06-01

    Ethanimine (CH3CHNH) , including both the E- and Z- isomers, were detected towards the star-forming region Sgr B2(N) using the GBT PRIMOS data (Loomis et al 2013), and were recently imaged by the ACTA (Corby et al. 2015). These aldimines can serve as precursors of biological molecules such as amino acids thus are considered prebiotic molecules in interstellar medium. In this study, we present chemical simulations of ethanimine with various physical conditions. From models for Sgr B2(N) and environs, calculated ethanimine abundances show reasonable agreement with observed values, while the translucent cloud models yield much lower abundances. These results agree with locations suggested by observations that ethanimine isomers were detected in the foreground of the shells of the hot core.

  16. Resource Tracking Model Updates and Trade Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Joe; Stambaugh, Imelda; Moore, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Resource Tracking Model has been updated to capture system manager and project manager inputs. Both the Trick/General Use Nodal Network Solver Resource Tracking Model (RTM) simulator and the RTM mass balance spreadsheet have been revised to address inputs from system managers and to refine the way mass balance is illustrated. The revisions to the RTM included the addition of a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) to recover hydrogen from Sabatier Reactor methane, which was vented in the prior version of the RTM. The effect of the PPA on the overall balance of resources in an exploration vehicle is illustrated in the increased recycle of vehicle oxygen. Case studies have been run to show the relative effect of performance changes on vehicle resources.

  17. Internet Use with Learning Aim: Views of German Language Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Mukadder Seyhan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to indicate the views of teacher candidates of German Language Department at Education Faculty, Trakya University about the use of internet with the aim of learning. This study was designed as phenomenology which is one of the qualitative research methods. The study data were obtained via semi-constructed interview…

  18. 提升学习者思辨能力的综合英语课程教学设计--一种“四层学习身份模型”的视角%The Comprehensive English Instructional Design Aimed at Improving the Critical Thinking of English Majors---A Perspective of the Four-Role Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兵飞

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive English , as one of the main courses in the primary stage for English majors , is to be the initial channel to improving the major students ’ critical thinking.The four roles model is beneficial in satisfying the students ’ urgent need for this aspect.The essay attempts to improve the Comprehensive English instruction with a new design , in which the four roles of readers are consciously adapted to achieving the aim of improving the students ’ critical thinking , and the text-user and analyzer of the students are fully emphasized.This instructional design follows the principles of respecting the student status and developing their autonomy , running through the thread of subject contents and promoting both the language skills and the critical skills , and emphasizing the induc-tion and enlightenment in teaching and focusing on the students ’ use of critical language.%综合英语课程是英语专业基础阶段的主干课程,理应成为学习者提升思辨能力的主要渠道。学习者的“四层学习身份模型”较好地契合了思辨能力的层级结构特征,能有效促进学习者思辨能力的发展。运用该模型改革和设计英语专业综合英语课程教学,有机调整学习者四层学习身份能力训练,突出学习者文本使用者和文本分析者身份,有意识有目的地提升学生分析、推理和评价为核心的思辨能力。这种教学应尊重学生主体地位,发展学习者自主学习能力;贯穿学科内容主线,促进语言技能与思辨能力共同提高;在教学中注重启发诱导,突出学习者的批判性语言能力的运用。

  19. Model Organisms Fact Sheet: Using Model Organisms to Study Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Model Organisms to Study Health and Disease Using Model Organisms to Study Health and Disease Tagline (Optional) ... and treating disease in humans. What is a model? The word model has many meanings, but in ...

  20. 3-D Rat Brain Phantom for High-Resolution Molecular Imaging: Experimental studies aimed at advancing understanding of human brain disease and malfunction, and of behavior problems, may be aided by computer models of small laboratory animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, F.J.; Vastenhouw, B.; Van der Wilt, G.; Vervloet, M.; Visscher, R.; Booij, J.; Gerrits, M.; Ji, C.; Ramakers, R.; Van der Have, F.

    2009-01-01

    With the steadily improving resolution of novel small-animal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography devices, highly detailed phantoms are required for testing and optimizing these systems. We present a three-dimensional (3-D) digital and physical phantom

  1. Quantifying creatinine and urea in human urine through Raman spectroscopy aiming at diagnosis of kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatkamp, Cassiano Junior; de Almeida, Maurício Liberal; Bispo, Jeyse Aliana Martins; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Silveira, Landulfo

    2016-03-01

    Due to their importance in the regulation of metabolites, the kidneys need continuous monitoring to check for correct functioning, mainly by urea and creatinine urinalysis. This study aimed to develop a model to estimate the concentrations of urea and creatinine in urine by means of Raman spectroscopy (RS) that could be used to diagnose kidney disease. Midstream urine samples were obtained from 54 volunteers with no kidney complaints. Samples were subjected to a standard colorimetric assay of urea and creatinine and submitted to spectroscopic analysis by means of a dispersive Raman spectrometer (830 nm, 350 mW, 30 s). The Raman spectra of urine showed peaks related mainly to urea and creatinine. Partial least squares models were developed using selected Raman bands related to urea and creatinine and the biochemical concentrations in urine measured by the colorimetric method, resulting in r = 0.90 and 0.91 for urea and creatinine, respectively, with root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSEcv) of 312 and 25.2 mg/dL, respectively. RS may become a technique for rapid urinalysis, with concentration errors suitable for population screening aimed at the prevention of renal diseases.

  2. Quantifying creatinine and urea in human urine through Raman spectroscopy aiming at diagnosis of kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatkamp, Cassiano Junior; de Almeida, Maurício Liberal; Bispo, Jeyse Aliana Martins; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.

    2016-03-01

    Due to their importance in the regulation of metabolites, the kidneys need continuous monitoring to check for correct functioning, mainly by urea and creatinine urinalysis. This study aimed to develop a model to estimate the concentrations of urea and creatinine in urine by means of Raman spectroscopy (RS) that could be used to diagnose kidney disease. Midstream urine samples were obtained from 54 volunteers with no kidney complaints. Samples were subjected to a standard colorimetric assay of urea and creatinine and submitted to spectroscopic analysis by means of a dispersive Raman spectrometer (830 nm, 350 mW, 30 s). The Raman spectra of urine showed peaks related mainly to urea and creatinine. Partial least squares models were developed using selected Raman bands related to urea and creatinine and the biochemical concentrations in urine measured by the colorimetric method, resulting in r=0.90 and 0.91 for urea and creatinine, respectively, with root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSEcv) of 312 and 25.2 mg/dL, respectively. RS may become a technique for rapid urinalysis, with concentration errors suitable for population screening aimed at the prevention of renal diseases.

  3. Balloon-Borne System Would Aim Instrument Toward Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polites, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed system including digital control computer, control sensors, and control actuators aims telescope or other balloon-borne instrument toward Sun. Pointing system and instrument flown on gondola, suspended from balloon. System includes reaction wheel, which applies azimuthal control torques to gondola, and torque motor to apply low-frequency azimuthal torques between gondola and cable. Three single-axis rate gyroscopes measure yaw, pitch, and roll. Inclinometer measures roll angle. Two-axis Sun sensor measures deviation, in yaw and pitch, of attitude of instrument from line to apparent center of Sun. System provides initial coarse pointing, then maintains fine pointing.

  4. NASA tells physicists to aim for the stars

    CERN Multimedia

    MacIlwain, C

    1999-01-01

    Dan Goldin, administrator at NASA, suggested that the next generation of instruments for high-energy physics research should be built in space. This did not go down well at Fermilab where a case is being made for a new ground-based accelerator. Goldin's aim though was simply to tell the scientific community that NASA is prepared to spend big money on physics in space. NASA also wants to work more closely with the DOE and the NSF to support space-based experiments (1 page).

  5. Aims and methods of IRD expert group reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Beauvais, Marie-Laure

    2013-01-01

    This work, the seventh published in the IRD’s “Expert Group Review“ series, has the same general aims as the earlier ones and has been conducted by the same method, briefly summarized below. The IRD (Institut de recherche pour le développement, a State-funded research agency) conducts expert group reviews “to order“, to inform policy decisions and public debate on issues of importance to society. Putting its scientists’ research and knowledge at the disposal of the community is one of the IRD...

  6. Aims and methods of IRD expert group reviews in general

    OpenAIRE

    Beauvais, Marie-Laure

    2013-01-01

    This work, the sixth to be published in the IRD’s “Expert Group Review” series, has the same general aims as the earlier ones and has been conducted by the same method, briefly summarised below. The IRD (Institut de recherche pour le développement, a State-funded research agency) conducts expert group reviews “to order”, to inform policy decisions and public debate on issues of importance to society. Putting its scientists’ research and knowledge at the disposal of the community is one of the...

  7. Models for the study of whole systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Iris R; Koithan, Mary

    2006-12-01

    This article summarizes a network and complex systems science model for research on whole systems of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) such as homeopathy and traditional Chinese medicine. The holistic concepts of networks and nonlinear dynamical complex systems are well matched to the global and interactive perspectives of whole systems of CAM, whereas the reductionistic science model is well matched to the isolated local organ, cell, and molecular mechanistic perspectives of pharmaceutically based biomedicine. Whole systems of CAM are not drugs with specific actions. The diagnostic and therapeutic approaches of whole systems of CAM produce effects that involve global and patterned shifts across multiple subsystems of the person as a whole. For homeopathy, several characteristics of complex systems, including the probabilistic nature of attractor patterns, variable sensitivity of complex systems to initial conditions, and emergent behaviors in the evolution of a system in its full environmental context over time, could help account for the mixed basic science and controlled clinical trial research findings, in contrast with the consistently positive outcomes of observational studies in the literature. Application of theories and methods from complex systems and network science can open a new era of advances in understanding factors that lead to good versus poor individual global outcome patterns and to rational triage of patients to one type of care over another. The growing reliance on complex systems thinking and systems biology for cancer research affords a unique opportunity to bridge between the CAM and conventional medical worlds with some common language and conceptual models.

  8. IR technology for enhanced force protection by AIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiter, R.; Ihle, T.; Rode, W.; Wendler, J.; Rühlich, I.; Haiml, M.; Ziegler, J.

    2008-04-01

    In all recent missions our forces are faced with various types of asymmetric threads like snipers, IEDs, RPGs or MANPADS. 2 nd and 3 rd Gen IR technology is a backbone of modern force protection by providing situational awareness and accurate target engagement at day/night. 3 rd Gen sensors are developed for thread warning capabilities by use of spectral or spatial information. The progress on a dual-color IR module is discussed in a separate paper [1]. A 1024x256 SWIR array with flexure bearing compressor and pulse tube cold finger provides > 50,000h lifetime for space or airborne hyperspectral imaging in pushbroom geometry with 256 spectral channels for improved change detection and remote sensing of IEDs or chemical agents. Similar concepts are pursued in the LWIR with either spectroscopic imaging or a system of LWIR FPA combined with a cooled tunable Laser to do spectroscopy with stimulated absorption of specific wavelengths. AIM introduced the RangIR sight to match the requirements of sniper teams, AGLs and weapon stations, extending the outstanding optronic performance of the fielded HuntIR with position data of a target by a laser range finder (LRF), a 3 axis digital magnetic compass (DMC) and a ballistic computer for accurate engagement of remote targets. A version with flexure bearing cooler with >30,000h life time is being developed for continuous operation in e.g. gunfire detection systems. This paper gives an overview of AIM's technologies for enhanced force protection.

  9. The AI&M procedure for learning from incomplete data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We investigate methods for parameter learning from incomplete data that is not missing at random. Likelihood-based methods then require the optimization of a profile likelihood that takes all possible missingness mechanisms into account. Optimizing this profile likelihood poses two main difficult......We investigate methods for parameter learning from incomplete data that is not missing at random. Likelihood-based methods then require the optimization of a profile likelihood that takes all possible missingness mechanisms into account. Optimizing this profile likelihood poses two main...... difficulties: multiple (local) maxima, and its very high-dimensional parameter space. In this paper a new method is presented for optimizing the profile likelihood that addresses the second difficulty: in the proposed AI\\&M (adjusting imputation and maximization) procedure the optimization is performed...... by operations in the space of data completions, rather than directly in the parameter space of the profile likelihood. We apply the AI\\&M method to learning parameters for Bayesian networks. The method is compared against conservative inference, which takes into account each possible data completion...

  10. Halogen Bonding: An AIM Analysis of the Weak Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU, Jian-Wei; LU, Yun-Xiang; YU, Qing-Sen; ZHANG, Hua-Xin; JIANG, Yong-Jun

    2006-01-01

    A series of complexes formed between halogen-containing molecules and ammonia have been investigated by means of the atoms in molecules (AIM) approach to gain a deeper insight into halogen bonding. The existence of the halogen bond critical points (XBCP) and the values of the electron density (ρb) and Laplacian of electron density (▽2pb) at the XBCP reveal the closed-shell interactions in these complexes. Integrated atomic properties such as charge, energy, polarization moment, volume of the halogen bond donor atoms, and the corresponding changes (△) upon complexation have been calculated. The present calculations have demonstrated that the halogen bond represents different AIM properties as compared to the well-documented hydrogen bond. Both the electron density and the Laplacian of electron density at the XBCP have been shown to correlate well with the interaction energy, which indicates that the topological parameters at the XBCP can be treated as a good measure of the halogen bond strength.In addition, an excellent linear relationship between the interatomic distance d(X…N) and the logarithm of ρb has been established.

  11. Student Teachers’ Attitude towards Twitter for Educational Aims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria I. Marín

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an educational experience with 100 student teachers from different courses of the University of the Balearic Islands (Spain in which Twitter is used for various different activities. The aim of this experiment was to explore student teachers’ perceptions in order to value their attitude towards Twitter for educational aims. Afterwards, students were asked to write down their reflections on an eportfolio. Data was collected from their eportfolio evidence, which was analysed to review their attitude towards the use of Twitter for educational purposes and for their future teaching and professional development. The conclusions indicate the need to conduct different educational activities in which Twitter is used in various ways. In addition, conclusions reflect on the real impact of Twitter on students’ learning enhancement, in order to improve student teachers’ attitudes towards social media in education. Therefore, this article contributes to the body of existing research on the use of technology in education, specifically to the possibilities of the use of social media and microblogging in Teacher Education.

  12. Comparison of Three Modelling Approaches to Simulate Regional Crop Yield: A Case Study of Winter Wheat Yield in Western Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soltani Largani, Afsaneh; Bakker, M.M.; Veldkamp, A.; Stoorvogel, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    The need for more comparisons among models is widely recognized. This study aimed to compare three different modelling approaches for their capability to simulate and predict trends and patterns of winter wheat yield in Western Germany. The three modelling approaches included an empirical model, a p

  13. A Study on Jerome Translation Model and Horace Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨坚; 石美

    2013-01-01

    The two translation models, namely the Jerome and Horace can be thought to be the forerunner of the translation theory nowadays. They share one common concept, 0faithfulness. But the Jerome and Horace model hold different views to faithfulness. In Jerome model, the translator is faithful to a text, but in the Horace model he should be faithful to his customers. Besides, the faithfulness, equivalence, domesticating and foreignizing principles in the two translation models are all related to the three factors, the author, the text and the reader which are necessary in translation.

  14. A study of model bivalve siphonal currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monismith, Stephen G.; Koseff, Jeffrey R.; Thompson, Janet K.; O'Riordan, Catherine A.; Nepf, Heidi M.

    1990-01-01

    We carried out experiments studying the hydrodynamics of bivalve siphonal currents in a laboratory flume. Rather than use living animals, we devised a simple, model siphon pair connected to a pump. Fluorescence-based flow visualization was used to characterize siphon-jet flows for several geometric configurations and flow speeds. These measurements show that the boundary-layer velocity profile, siphon height, siphon pair orientation, and size of siphon structure all affect the vertical distribution of the excurrent flow downstream of the siphon pair and the fraction of excurrent that is refiltered. The observed flows may effect both the clearance rate of an entire population of siphonate bivalves as well as the efficiency of feeding of any individual. Our results imply that field conditions are properly represented in laboratory flume studies of phytoplankton biomass losses to benthic bivalves when the shear velocity and bottom roughness are matched to values found in the field. Numerical models of feeding by a bivalve population should include an effective sink distribution which is created by the combined incurrent-excurrent flow field. Near-bed flows need to be accounted for to properly represent these benthic-pelagic exchanges. We also present velocity measurements made with a laser-Doppler anemometer (LDA) for a single configuration (siphons flush with bed, inlet downstream) that show that the siphonal currents have a significant local effect on the properties of a turbulent boundary layer.

  15. MODEL OPTIMASI LOKASI POS PEMADAM KEBAKARAN (Studi Kasus: Kota Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Bagir

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fire is one of the hazards that often occur in urban areas. Many Indonesian cities usually lack of adequatepublic facilities and infrastructures, including facilities of fire hazard. It is important to reduce the risk of firehazard by optimizing the location of fire stations as facility of emergency around the city, so that the impact oflosses can be reduced. For this, defining the location and distribution of fire station should be well considered.This paper aims to discuss the development of an optimization model for fire stations’ location, developed basedon the actual quantity of flammable material, building density, accessibility and the road classes, as a networkanalysis model of Geographic Information System (GIS. In order to observe whether the developed model canwork well, Semarang City is selected as the case study.The application shows that the developed model is satisfy and is able to represent 77.29% of the real conditionof the road network. It is also revealed that the fire stations of Semarang City just presently cover 34.32% of itsarea. Therefore, it is suggested to add six new fire stations, located in Kecamatan Ngadirejo, Tlogo Mulyo,Sambiroto, Pudak Payung, Jatingaleh, and Gunungpati.

  16. Tourist animation aimed at developing rural tourism in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Saša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a tourist destination, Serbia has some real opportunities to put priority on the rural tourism in relation to other forms of tourism. Subsequently, there is a need to make the rural tourism offer more attractive to tourists. Among other things, that offer includes a tourist animation, which is currently gaining in significance, emerging directly in and aimed at tourism development of rural areas. Therefore this paper deals first with the role and importance of tourism related knowledge about developing rural areas, and particularly the knowledge on animation; then follows the tourist animation as an attractive quality of rural areas' tourist offer; as well as the importance and the role of the government and tourist animation in the development of rural tourism, with particular emphasis on the necessity to educate and train tourist animators, as experts and professionals at the academic level.

  17. Microwave dielectric absorption spectroscopy aiming at novel dosimetry using DNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumi, Yoshinobu; Hirayama, Makoto; Matuo, Youichirou [Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Sunagawa, Takeyoshi [Fukui University of Technology, Fukui (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    We are developing L-band and S-band microwave dielectric absorption systems aiming novel dosimetry using DNAs, such as plasmid DNA and genomic DNA, and microwave technology. Each system is composed of a cavity resonator, analog signal generator, circulator, power meter, and oscilloscope. Since the cavity resonator is sensitive to temperature change, we have made great efforts to prevent the fluctuation of temperature. We have developed software for controlling and measurement. By using this system, we can measure the resonance frequency, f, and ΔQ (Q is a dimensionless parameter that describes how under-damped an oscillator or resonator is, and characterizes a resonator’s bandwidth relative to its center frequency) within about 3 minutes with high accuracy. This system will be expected to be applicable to DNAs evaluations and to novel dosimetric system.

  18. Visual Distraction: An Altered Aiming Spatial Response in Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E. Galletta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Healthy individuals demonstrate leftward bias on visuospatial tasks such as line bisection, which has been attributed to right brain dominance. We investigated whether this asymmetry occurred in patients with probable dementia of the Alzheimer type (pAD which is associated with neurodegenerative changes affecting temporoparietal regions. Methods: Subjects with pAD and matched controls performed a line bisection task in near and far space under conditions of no distraction, left-sided visual distraction and right-sided visual distraction. Results: Participants with pAD manifested different motor-preparatory ‘aiming’ spatial bias than matched controls. There were significantly greater rightward ‘aiming’ motor-intentional errors both without distraction and with right-sided distraction. Conclusion: ‘Aiming’ motor-preparatory brain activity may be induced by distraction in pAD subjects as compared to typical visual-motor function in controls.

  19. Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos and Aim-Oriented Empiricism

    CERN Document Server

    Maxwell, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I argue that aim-oriented empiricism (AOE), a conception of natural science that I have defended at some length elsewhere, is a kind of synthesis of the views of Popper, Kuhn and Lakatos, but is also an improvement over the views of all three. Whereas Popper's falsificationism protects metaphysical assumptions implicitly made by science from criticism, AOE exposes all such assumptions to sustained criticism, and furthermore focuses criticism on those assumptions most likely to need revision if science is to make progress. Even though AOE is, in this way, more Popperian than Popper, it is also, in some respects, more like the views of Kuhn and Lakatos than falsificationism is. AOE is able, however, to solve problems which Kuhn's and Lakatos's views cannot solve.

  20. Ports: Definition and study of types, sizes and business models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Roa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the world today there are thousands of port facilities of different types and sizes, competing to capture some market share of freight by sea, mainly. This article aims to determine the type of port and the most common size, in order to find out which business model is applied in that segment and what is the legal status of the companies of such infrastructure.Design/methodology/approach: To achieve this goal, we develop a research on a representative sample of 800 ports worldwide, which manage 90% of the containerized port loading. Then you can find out the legal status of the companies that manage them.Findings: The results indicate a port type and a dominant size, which are mostly managed by companies subject to a concession model.Research limitations/implications: In this research, we study only those ports that handle freight (basically containerized, ignoring other activities such as fishing, military, tourism or recreational.Originality/value: This is an investigation to show that the vast majority of the studied segment port facilities are governed by a similar corporate model and subject to pressure from the markets, which increasingly demand efficiency and service. Consequently, we tend to concession terminals to private operators in a process that might be called privatization, but in the strictest sense of the term, is not entirely realistic because the ownership of the land never ceases to be public

  1. Animal models for HCV and HBV studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Chemin

    2007-02-01

    develop fulminant hepatitis, acute hepatitis, or chronic liver disease after adoptive transfer, and others spontaneously develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Among HCV transgenic mice, most develop no disease, but acute hepatitis has been observed in one model, and HCC in another. Although mice are not susceptible to HBV and HCV, their ability to replicate these viruses and to develop liver diseases characteristic of human infections provides opportunities to study pathogenesis and develop novel therapeutics In the search for the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis in hepatitis viral infection, two viral proteins, the core protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV and the HBx protein of hepatitis B virus (HBV, have been shown to possess oncogenic potential through transgenic mouse studies, indicating the direct involvement of the hepatitis viruses in hepatocarcinogenesis.

    This may explain the very high frequency of HCC in patients with HCV or HBV infection.

    Chimpanzees remain the only recognized animal model for the study of hepatitis C virus (HCV. Studies performed in chimpanzees played a critical role in the discovery of HCV and are continuing to play an essential role in defining the natural history of this important human pathogen. In the absence of a reproducible cell culture system, the infectivity titer of HCV challenge pools can be determined only in chimpanzees.

    Recent studies in chimpanzees have provided new insight into the nature of host immune responses-particularly the intrahepatic responses-following primary and secondary experimental HCV infections. The immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccine candidates against HCV can be tested only in chimpanzees. Finally, it would not have been possible to demonstrate

  2. Model Checking Software Systems: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-10

    gained. We suggest a radically different tack: model checking. The two formal objects compared are a finite state machine model of the software...simply terminates. 3.1.1. State Machine Model Let’s consider a simplified model with just one client, one server, and one file. The top graph

  3. Model refinement for offshore platforms: Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Zongli; Wu, Yanjian

    2017-08-01

    Offshore jacket platforms are widely used in offshore oil and gas exploitation. Finite element models of such structures need to have many degrees of freedom (DOFs) to represent the geometrical detail of complex structures, thereby leading to incompatibility in the number of DOFs of experimental models. To bring them both to the same order while ensuring that the essential eigen- properties of the refined model match those of experimental models, an extended model refinement procedure is presented in this paper. Vibration testing of an offshore jacket platform model is performed to validate the applicability of the proposed approach. A full-order finite element model of the platform is established and then tuned to meet the measured modal properties identified from the acceleration signals. Both model reduction and modal expansion methods are investigated, as well as various scenarios of sensor arrangements. Upon completion of the refinement, the updated jacket platform model matches the natural frequencies of the measured model well.

  4. [Social marketing--seduction with the aim of healthy behavior?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, J; Nagel, E

    2010-01-01

    SOCIAL MARKETING - SEDUCTION WITH THE AIM OF HEALTHY BEHAVIOR? Social marketing is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programs that promote socially beneficial behaviour change. Contrary to the marketing of consumption goods, social marketing does not deal with material products, but with behaviour, e. g. not smoking. This 'product' has a basic benefit (i. e. reduction of health risks in the long run), which is, however, difficult to convey. Therefore, the intended change in behaviour has to be related to a further reward which consists of symbolic goods, e. g. social appreciation or a better body feeling. The communication policy is essential for information on and motivation for the preventive issue. Social marketing campaigns whose development and management follow the principles of classical marketing can render preventive efforts more effective. In addition, social marketing can lead to a better quality management as compared to conventional preventive activities. These advantages can be explained by a) tailoring the campaign more specifically to the target group's needs and motives, b) presenting health risks more convincingly, and c) continuously analysing and evaluating the campaign and its effects. On the other hand, the marketing of preventive aims through mass media can bear several risks, as exemplified by different national and international public health campaigns. The necessity to communicate briefly and succinctly can lead to misleading simplifications and, in case of cancer screening, to the trivialization of a behaviour's consequences and adverse effects. Also, many campaigns do not intend to educate and inform, but try to persuade target persons of a certain behaviour, using emotions such as fear. This has led to social marketing being criticized as manipulation. Sometimes, social marketing campaigns cause stigma and discrimination of certain population subgroups, e. g. obese or HIV-positive people. Health promoters who plan

  5. An animal model to study regenerative endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabinejad, Mahmoud; Corr, Robert; Buhrley, Matthew; Wright, Kenneth; Shabahang, Shahrokh

    2011-02-01

    A growing body of evidence is demonstrating the possibility for regeneration of tissues within the pulp space and continued root development in teeth with necrotic pulps and open apices. There are areas of research related to regenerative endodontics that need to be investigated in an animal model. The purpose of this study was to investigate ferret cuspid teeth as a model to investigate factors involved in regenerative endodontics. Six young male ferrets between the ages of 36-133 days were used in this investigation. Each animal was anesthetized and perfused with 10% buffered formalin. Block sections including the mandibular and maxillary cuspid teeth and their surrounding periapical tissues were obtained, radiographed, decalcified, sectioned, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin to determine various stages of apical closure in these teeth. The permanent mandibular and maxillary cuspid teeth with open apices erupted approximately 50 days after birth. Initial signs of closure of the apical foramen in these teeth were observed between 90-110 days. Complete apical closure was observed in the cuspid teeth when the animals were 133 days old. Based on the experiment, ferret cuspid teeth can be used to investigate various factors involved in regenerative endodontics that cannot be tested in human subjects. The most appropriate time to conduct the experiments would be when the ferrets are between the ages of 50 and 90 days. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Fluency: an aim in teaching and a criterion in assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aud Marit Simensen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the concept ‘fluency’ from different perspectives. When fluency is an aim in teaching, a thorough comprehension of the concept among teachers is a prerequisite for appropriate planning of instruction, including the choice of appropriate classroom activities. When fluency is an assessment criterion, it is even more important that examiners have a shared perception of the concept. The present article starts by presenting common perceptions of the concept and goes on to explore some of the current research. Next, it provides a historical overview of the place of fluency in teaching theory and explains some of the preconditions for the inclusion of this concept among teaching objectives and assessment criteria. It will also, as an illustration, give an outline of the position of the concept over time in the Norwegian school system on the basis of an analysis of the relevant syllabuses. Finally, the article explicates the notion of language use as a complex cognitive skill and explores current method¬ological ideas about teaching towards fluency.

  7. Alginate Immobilization of Metabolic Enzymes (AIME) for High ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alginate Immobilization of Metabolic Enzymes (AIME) for High-Throughput Screening Assays DE DeGroot, RS Thomas, and SO SimmonsNational Center for Computational Toxicology, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC USAThe EPA’s ToxCast program utilizes a wide variety of high-throughput screening (HTS) assays to assess chemical perturbations of molecular and cellular endpoints. A key criticism of using HTS assays for toxicity assessment is the lack of xenobiotic metabolism (XM) which precludes both metabolic detoxification as well as bioactivation of chemicals tested in vitro thereby mischaracterizing the potential risk posed by these chemicals. To address this deficiency, we have developed an extracellular platform to retrofit existing HTS assays with XM activity. This platform utilizes the S9 fraction of liver homogenate encapsulated in an alginate gel network which reduces the cytotoxicity caused by direct addition of S9 to cells in culture. Alginate microspheres containing encapsulated human liver S9 were cross-linked to solid supports extending from a 96-well plate lid and were assayed using a pro-luciferin substrate specific for CYP3A4 (IPA). We demonstrate that S9 was successfully encapsulated and remained enzymatically active post-encapsulation with 5-10X the CYP3A4 activity as compared to 1 µg solubilized human liver S9. Ketoconazole, a known inhibitor of human CYP3A4, inhibited CYP3A4 activity in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50: 0.27 µM) and inhibiti

  8. Ovine model for studying pulmonary immune responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel, D.D.; Chanana, A.D.

    1984-11-25

    Anatomical features of the sheep lung make it an excellent model for studying pulmonary immunity. Four specific lung segments were identified which drain exclusively to three separate lymph nodes. One of these segments, the dorsal basal segment of the right lung, is drained by the caudal mediastinal lymph node (CMLN). Cannulation of the efferent lymph duct of the CMLN along with highly localized intrabronchial instillation of antigen provides a functional unit with which to study factors involved in development of pulmonary immune responses. Following intrabronchial immunization there was an increased output of lymphoblasts and specific antibody-forming cells in efferent CMLN lymph. Continuous divergence of efferent lymph eliminated the serum antibody response but did not totally eliminate the appearance of specific antibody in fluid obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. In these studies localized immunization of the right cranial lobe served as a control. Efferent lymphoblasts produced in response to intrabronchial antigen were labeled with /sup 125/I-iododeoxyuridine and their migrational patterns and tissue distribution compared to lymphoblasts obtained from the thoracic duct. The results indicated that pulmonary immunoblasts tend to relocate in lung tissue and reappear with a higher specific activity in pulmonary lymph than in thoracic duct lymph. The reverse was observed with labeled intestinal lymphoblasts. 35 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Autoradiographic studies in a rabbit osteoarthrosis model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fengler, H.; Franz, R. (Medizinische Akademie, Dresden (German Democratic Republic))

    1982-02-01

    To study the onset of the osteoarthrotic process, an osteoarthrosis model was used on the knee joint in adult rabbits by a valgus deformity of the proximal tibia of 30/sup 0/ in conformity with Reimann 1973. The synthesis capacity of the chondrocytes was investigated by using /sup 35/S-sulfate autoradiographies. Already prior to the affection of the superficial integrity of the cartilage it was possible to observe an enhanced glycosaminoglycan synthesis, but with progressing fibrillation the sulfate incorporation was found to be diminished. Thanks to autoradiography with /sup 3/H-thymidine the replication of the chondrocytes was already found at very early stages of osteoarthrosis that is likely to occur mitotically. The osteotomy itself induces mitoses and an enhanced glycosaminoglycan synthesis.

  10. Pituitary gland in Bipolar Disorder and Major Depression: Evidence from structural MRI studies: Special Section on "Translational and Neuroscience Studies in Affective Disorders". Section Editor, Maria Nobile MD, PhD. This Section of JAD focuses on the relevance of translational and neuroscience studies in providing a better understanding of the neural basis of affective disorders. The main aim is to briefly summarise relevant research findings in clinical neuroscience with particular regards to specific innovative topics in mood and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvecchio, G; Altamura, A C; Soares, J C; Brambilla, P

    2017-08-15

    The function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) has been widely investigated in mood disorders based on its role in regulating stress response. Particularly, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) reports have explored pituitary gland (PG) in both bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). In this context, the present review summarizes the results from MRI studies with the final aim of commenting on the presence of common or distinct PG structural alterations between these two disabling illnesses. A bibliographic search on PUBMED of all MRI studies exploring PG volumes in BD and MDD as well as first-degree relatives (RELs) from 2000 up to October 2016 was performed. Following the screening process of the available literature it can be said that a) PG enlargement has been found in both BD and MDD, therefore potentially representing a common neurobiological marker characterizing mood disorders, and b) PG volumes are moderated by age and sex in both illnesses, although the direction and the extent of this moderation are still not fully clear. Few MRI studies with heterogeneous results. These hypotheses must be taken with caution especially because the heterogeneity of the results of the studies reviewed does not allow for a definite answer about the role of PG in affective disorders. Therefore, larger longitudinal studies investigating PG volumes in BD and MDD patients at the early phases of the illness, by considering females and males separately, are needed to further corroborate these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy for Treating Achalasia in an Animal Model: A Feasibility Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Byoung Wook; Choi, Young Chul; Kim, Hyung Gil; Kwon, Kye Sook; Shin, Yong Woon; Lee, Don Haeng; Kim, Joon Mee

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Laparoscopic Heller myotomy with antireflux procedure is considered to be a standard treatment for achalasia. Recently, peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) was developed and performed on patients with achalasia. However, there is no report on POEM use in South Korea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of POEM in a porcine model. Methods POEM was performed on two mini pigs. We performed upper endoscopy under general anesthesia. A submucosal tunnel was...

  12. Structural Equality Model Study for Credit Card Attitude Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray GİRGİNER

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to search for the validity and reliability of the Credit Card Attitude Scale developed by Girginer and her team (2008 grounding on the scale which had been formed by Hayhoe and his team (1999 with the help of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA. The scale in question had been modified for the high education students living in Turkey. Data of the survey made in 2008 was used in this study, too. Findings of the study exhibited that validity degree of the scale with four dimensions formed by CFA was higher than the validity degree of the scale with five dimensions formed by Explanatory Factor Analysis. Goodness of fit indicators calculated for the structural model took place in the goodness of fit limits. The Structural Equation Model (SEM established with the idea that the attitudes towards credit card usage in anxiety, cognitive and affective dimensions affected credit card usage behaviours, was found to be significant statistically. According to the results of the SEM, anxiety attitudes have the greatest positive effect (0.53 on the behaviours. Also it was found that students have tendency to use more credit cards of different kinds for decreasing their financial risks when their anxieties related with credit card usage get more and more.

  13. Estudo da biologia floral e mecanismos reprodutivos do alfavacão (Ocimum officinalis L. visando o melhoramento - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1598 Study of the floral biology and reproductive mechanisms of Alfavacão (Ocimum officinalis L. aiming at genetic improvement - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1598

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Lúcio Fernandes Amaral

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O Gênero Ocimum, da Família Lamiaceae, compreende plantas ricas em óleos essenciais destinados às industrias para produção de fármacos, perfumes e cosméticos. O conhecimento do sistema reprodutivo é extremamente relevante, pois permite definir estratégias de seleção com base em cruzamentos intra e interpopulacionais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a biologia floral e os mecanismos reprodutivos do alfavacão com vistas ao melhoramento genético. A atividade floral compreendeu três estádios florais: primeiro, pré-antese, quando ocorreu a polinização; segundo, antese, quando aconteceu a abertura assincrônica de estames e, terceiro, pós-antese, quando houve a fecundação dos óvulos. O processo de antese está intimamente relacionado com as condições climáticas. Os acessos de O. officinalis do Banco de Germoplasma de Plantas Medicinais da UESB, apesar de se reproduzirem, predominantemente, por autofecundação, podem apresentar fecundação cruzada, o que evidencia a ampla versatilidade reprodutiva dessa espécie, acentuando a variabilidade genética, a qual é essencial para sua evoluçãoSome of the plants from Ocimum genus in Lamiaceae family are source of essential oils used in pharmacy, perfume and cosmetics industry. The knowledge of mate systems is extremely important because it allows to define selection strategies based on intra and interpopulation crossbreeding. The aim of this work was to study floral biology and reproductive mechanisms of alfavacão aiming at genetic improvement. The floral activity included three floral stages: first, pre-anthesis, when the pollination happened; second, anthesis, when the asynchronous opening of stamens happened; and third, pos-anthesis, when there was the fecundation of the ova. The anthesis process is intimately related to climatic conditions. The accesses of O. officinalis from Banco de Germoplasma de Plantas Medicinais da UESB (Medicinal Plants Germplasm Bank from UESB

  14. Testicular Damage following Testicular Sperm Retrieval: A Ram Model Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Fedder

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible development of histological abnormalities such as fibrosis and microcalcifications after sperm retrieval in a ram model. Fourteen testicles in nine rams were exposed to open biopsy, multiple TESAs, or TESE, and the remaining four testicles were left unoperated on as controls. Three months after sperm retrieval, the testicles were removed, fixed, and cut into 1/2 cm thick slices and systematically put onto a glass plate exposing macroscopic abnormalities. Tissue from abnormal areas was cut into 3 μm sections and stained for histological evaluation. Pathological abnormalities were observed in testicles exposed to sperm retrieval (≥11 of 14 compared to 0 of 4 control testicles. Testicular damage was found independently of the kind of intervention used. Therefore, cryopreservation of excess sperm should be considered while retrieving sperm.

  15. The scavenger protein apoptosis inhibitor of macrophages (AIM potentiates the antimicrobial response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by enhancing autophagy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Sanjurjo

    Full Text Available Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophages (AIM, a scavenger protein secreted by tissue macrophages, is transcriptionally regulated by the nuclear receptor Liver X Receptor (LXR and Retinoid X Receptor (RXR heterodimer. Given that LXR exerts a protective immune response against M. tuberculosis, here we analyzed whether AIM is involved in this response. In an experimental murine model of tuberculosis, AIM serum levels peaked dramatically early after infection with M. tuberculosis, providing an in vivo biological link to the disease. We therefore studied the participation of AIM in macrophage response to M. tuberculosis in vitro. For this purpose, we used the H37Rv strain to infect THP-1 macrophages transfected to stably express AIM, thereby increasing infected macrophage survival. Furthermore, the expression of this protein enlarged foam cell formation by enhancing intracellular lipid content. Phagocytosis assays with FITC-labeled M. tuberculosis bacilli indicated that this protein was not involved in bacterial uptake; however, AIM expression decreased the number of intracellular cfus by up to 70% in bacterial killing assays, suggesting that AIM enhances macrophage mycobactericidal activity. Accordingly, M. tuberculosis-infected AIM-expressing cells upregulated the production of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, real-time PCR analysis showed increased mRNA levels of the antimicrobial peptides cathelicidin and defensin 4B. These increases were concomitant with greater cellular concentrations of the autophagy-related molecules Beclin 1 and LC3II, as well as enhanced acidification of mycobacterial phagosomes and LC3 co-localization. In summary, our data support the notion that AIM contributes to key macrophage responses to M. tuberculosis.

  16. [Peptide synthesis aiming at elucidation and creation of protein functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futaki, S

    1998-11-01

    The recent development of molecular biology has been elucidating outlines of the cross-talk of biomolecules. The understanding of the function of these biomolecules from the viewpoint of chemistry is now demanded not only for the understanding of biological systems but also for the creation of novel functional molecules. Here two topics are described about peptide synthesis aiming at the elucidation and the creation of protein functions. The first topic is the development of approaches for the synthesis of Tyr (SO3H)-containing peptides. Tyrosine sulfation is one of the most popular protein post-translational modifications. Synthetic peptides are of great help for the elucidation of the biological significance of tyrosine sulfation. We have developed two approaches for the efficient synthesis of tyrosine sulfate [Tyr (SO3H)]-containing peptides. The first approach employs a dimethylformamide-sulfur trioxide (DMF-SO3) complex as a sulfating agent and safety-catch protecting groups for the selective sulfation of tyrosine in the presence of serine. The second approach employs the direct introduction of Tyr(SO3H) into the peptide chain in the form of Fmoc-Tyr(SO3Na) followed by deprotection at 4 degrees C in trifluoroacetic acid. These approaches were successfully applied for the synthesis of cholecystokinin (CCK)-related peptides. The second topic deals with new approaches for the creation of artificial proteins through assembling alpha-helical peptides via selective disulfide or thioether formation. Approaches to assemble individual peptide segments on a peptide template were also developed. Four peptides corresponding to the transmembrane segments of the sodium channel (S4 in repeat I-IV) were assembled on a peptide template to give a protein having ion channel activity with rectification.

  17. Prognostic Value of AIMS65 Score in Cirrhotic Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya Gaduputi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Unlike Rockall scoring system, AIMS65 is based only on clinical and laboratory features. In this study we investigated the correlation between the AIMS65 score and Endoscopic Rockall score, in cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients. Methods. This is a retrospective study of patients admitted with overt UGIB and undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD. AIMS65 and Rockall scores were calculated at the time of admission. We investigated the correlation between both scores along with stigmata of bleed seen on endoscopy. Results. A total of 1255 patients were studied. 152 patients were cirrhotic while 1103 patients were noncirrhotic. There was significant correlation between AIMS65 and Total Rockall scores in patients of both groups. There was significant correlation between AIMS65 score and Endoscopic Rockall score in noncirrhotics but not cirrhotics. AIMS65 scores in both cirrhotic and noncirrhotic groups were significantly higher in patients who died from UGIB than in patients who did not. Conclusion. We observed statistically significant correlation between AIMS65 score and length of hospitalization and mortality in noncirrhotic patients. We found that AIMS65 score paralleled the endoscopic grading of lesion causing UGIB in noncirrhotics. AIMS65 score correlated only with mortality but not the length of hospitalization or endoscopic stigmata of bleed in cirrhotics.

  18. Middle Atlantic Bight Marine Ecosystem: A Regional Forecast Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Coles, V. J.; Garraffo, Z. D.

    2011-12-01

    Changes in basin scale climate patterns can drive changes in mesoscale physical oceanographic processes and subsequent alterations of ecosystem states. Climatic variability can be induced in the northeastern shelfbreak large marine ecosystem by climate oscillations, such as North Atlantic Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation; and long-term trends, such as a warming pattern. Short term variability can be induced by changes in the water masses in the northern and southern boundaries, by Gulf Stream path and transport variations, and by local mesoscale and submesoscale features. A coupled bio-physical model (HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model) is being used to forecast the evolution of the frontal and current systems of the shelf and Gulf Stream, and subsequent changes in thermal conditions and ecosystem structure over the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB). This study aims to forecast the ocean state and nutrients in the MAB, and to investigate how cross-shelf exchanges of different water masses could affect nutrient budgets, primary and secondary production, and fish populations in coastal and shelf marine ecosystems. Preliminary results are shown for a regional MAB model nested to the global 1/12o HYCOM run at NOAA/NCEP/EMC using Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVO) daily initialization. Elements of this simulation are nutrient influx condition at the northern and southern boundaries through regression to ocean thermodynamic variables, and nutrient input at the river mouths.

  19. A modeling study of saltwater intrusion in the Andarax delta area using multiple data sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsson, Arni Valur; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard; Jorreto, Sara;

    In groundwater model development, construction of the conceptual model is one of the (initial and) critical aspects that determines the model reliability and applicability in terms of e.g. system (hydrogeological) understanding, groundwater quality predictions, and general use in water resources...... the understanding of the investigated system. A density dependent saltwater intrusion model has been established for the coastal zone of the Andarax aquifer, SE Spain, with the aim of obtaining a coherent (conceptual) understanding of the area. Recently drilled deep boreholes in  the Andarax delta revealed a far...... reaching saltwater intrusion in the area. Furthermore, the geological information obtained from these boreholes laid a foundation for a new hydrogeological conceptual model of the area, which we aim to assess in this simulation study.Appraisal of the conceptual model of the Andarax delta area is conducted...

  20. Aiming at Targets: The Autobiography of Robert C. Seamans, Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamans, Robert C., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Bob Seamans originally was inspired to write this book for his family and friends. That is a large audience. By his own count his immediate family numbers twenty-four, not counting brothers and cousins and their families. His friends are uncounted but surely run to hundreds. As one of them and as a colleague at NASA, I am pleased and honored that he asked me to write this foreword. While written in Bob's unique and informal style, this autobiography has significance for many readers beyond his large circles of family and friends. Leaders and students of large, complex technological endeavors should be able to learn much from reading how Bob faced the daunting technical and management challenges in his career. As the title of this book implies, Bob has always set high goals for himself and then kept his eyes focused on both the necessary details and the broader picture. His ability to shift smoothly among jobs that required seemingly disparate abilities and skills speaks volumes about his insight, dedication, and enthusiasm for achievement. The book spans a truly remarkable life story. Bob first takes us through his growing up, education, and early professional and family life. Next he focuses on the crucial years when he was the general manager of NASA. Then he moves on to his career in the top jobs at the Air Force, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Energy Research and Development Administration. Finally, he touches on his later leadership activities in the academic and business worlds. Aiming at Targets is a series of fascinating topical vignettes covering his professional life. Taken together, like broad brushstrokes in an impressionist painting, they give a better picture of Bob Seamans and his work than a detailed recitation of facts and dates could hope to do. This is a cheerful account of an interesting and successful career. The book is full of good stories, with many memorable characters. Like the proverbial sundial, it counts the sunny hours

  1. Study on Modelling Standardization of Double-fed Wind Turbine and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the standardized modelling of the International Modelling Team, study on double-fed induction generator (DFIG wind turbine is processed in this paper, aiming at capability of universally and reasonably reflecting key performance related to large scale system analysis. The standardized model proposed is of high degree of structural modularity, easy functional extension and universalization of control strategy and signal. Moreover, it is applicable for wind turbines produced by different manufacturers through model parameter adjustment. The complexity of the model can meet both needs of grid-connected characteristic simulation of wind turbine and large scale power system simulation.

  2. Mathematical modelling with case studies using Maple and Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, B

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Mathematical ModelingMathematical models An overview of the book Some modeling approaches Modeling for decision makingCompartmental Models Introduction Exponential decay and radioactivity Case study: detecting art forgeries Case study: Pacific rats colonize New Zealand Lake pollution models Case study: Lake Burley Griffin Drug assimilation into the blood Case study: dull, dizzy, or dead? Cascades of compartments First-order linear DEs Equilibrium points and stability Case study: money, money, money makes the world go aroundModels of Single PopulationsExponential growth Density-

  3. Genetic network models: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Someren, Eugene P.; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.; Reinders, Marcel J. T.

    2001-06-01

    Currently, the need arises for tools capable of unraveling the functionality of genes based on the analysis of microarray measurements. Modeling genetic interactions by means of genetic network models provides a methodology to infer functional relationships between genes. Although a wide variety of different models have been introduced so far, it remains, in general, unclear what the strengths and weaknesses of each of these approaches are and where these models overlap and differ. This paper compares different genetic modeling approaches that attempt to extract the gene regulation matrix from expression data. A taxonomy of continuous genetic network models is proposed and the following important characteristics are suggested and employed to compare the models: inferential power; predictive power; robustness; consistency; stability and computational cost. Where possible, synthetic time series data are employed to investigate some of these properties. The comparison shows that although genetic network modeling might provide valuable information regarding genetic interactions, current models show disappointing results on simple artificial problems. For now, the simplest models are favored because they generalize better, but more complex models will probably prevail once their bias is more thoroughly understood and their variance is better controlled.

  4. Models for the study of tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, R C; Warden, S J

    2011-06-01

    Tendinopathy refers to the clinical presentation of activity-related pain, focal tendon tenderness, and intratendinous imaging changes. The underlying pathology was once thought to be due to inflammation ('tendinitis'), but is now considered to predominantly result from degeneration ('tendinosis'). While some progress has been made in understanding tendinosis, the condition remains poorly understood and a need exists for suitable exploratory preclinical models. It is unlikely that one suitable model exists because of the complexity of the underlying pathology and myriad of possible causes. This paper provides an overview of current models utilized in tendinopathy research. It progresses hierarchically from in vitro and ex vivo models to in vivo models. For each model, rationale for use, pertinent findings, and advantages and disadvantages are discussed. By improving on these models, new methods for the prevention and treatment of tendinopathy may be explored with the ultimate outcome being a reduction in the occurrence and effects of the condition in humans.

  5. Aim for the Inner Life: Teaching Early Teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regelski, Thomas A.

    1979-01-01

    Music study should be construed primarily as an experience of its feeling content. Taught so, it can reach for the inner core of the early adolescent, to pierce that sometimes hard outer surface that protects the vulnerable inner life. Attempts to intellectualize music with young teens are doomed. (Author/SJL)

  6. Parametric Design Strategy Aiming at Environmentally Sustainable Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Tine Ring; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary conclusions from a PhD study about methodical approaches to environmentally sustainable architecture. The presented results are from a local sensitivity analysis focused on the energy consumption of a typical residential reference building, when it is subjected...

  7. Effects of anxiety on running with and without an aiming task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibbeling, N.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Gerritsma, R.M.; Hofland, R.M.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2012-01-01

    State anxiety is known to affect far aiming tasks, but less is known about the effects of state anxiety on running and aiming while running. Therefore, in the current study participants ran on a treadmill at their preferred speed in a low- and highanxiety condition. In both conditions, running was c

  8. Biomass thermochemical gasification: Experimental studies and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay

    The overall goals of this research were to study the biomass thermochemical gasification using experimental and modeling techniques, and to evaluate the cost of industrial gas production and combined heat and power generation. This dissertation includes an extensive review of progresses in biomass thermochemical gasification. Product gases from biomass gasification can be converted to biopower, biofuels and chemicals. However, for its viable commercial applications, the study summarizes the technical challenges in the gasification and downstream processing of product gas. Corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a non-fermentable byproduct of ethanol production, were used as the biomass feedstocks. One of the objectives was to determine selected physical and chemical properties of corn stover related to thermochemical conversion. The parameters of the reaction kinetics for weight loss were obtained. The next objective was to investigate the effects of temperature, steam to biomass ratio and equivalence ratio on gas composition and efficiencies. DDGS gasification was performed on a lab-scale fluidized-bed gasifier with steam and air as fluidizing and oxidizing agents. Increasing the temperature resulted in increases in hydrogen and methane contents and efficiencies. A model was developed to simulate the performance of a lab-scale gasifier using Aspen Plus(TM) software. Mass balance, energy balance and minimization of Gibbs free energy were applied for the gasification to determine the product gas composition. The final objective was to optimize the process by maximizing the net energy efficiency, and to estimate the cost of industrial gas, and combined heat and power (CHP) at a biomass feedrate of 2000 kg/h. The selling price of gas was estimated to be 11.49/GJ for corn stover, and 13.08/GJ for DDGS. For CHP generation, the electrical and net efficiencies were 37 and 86%, respectively for corn stover, and 34 and 78%, respectively for DDGS. For

  9. Internet Use with Learning Aim: Views of German Language Pre-Service Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Mukadder Seyhan Yücel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to indicate the views of teacher candidates of German Language Department at Education Faculty, Trakya University about the use of internet with the aim of learning. This study has designed as phenomenology which is one of the qualitative research methods. The study data were obtained via semi-constructed interview technique and the content analysis technique was used in the data analysis. In the research, the findings gathered from the interviews with the teacher can...

  10. Interpersonal social responsibility model of service learning: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Orit; Daniely, Noa; Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira

    2017-06-02

    Service-learning (SL) is commonly used in Occupational Therapy (OT) programs worldwide as a community placement educational strategy. However, most SL models are not clearly defined in terms of both methodology and learning outcomes. This longitudinal study explores a structured model of Service-Learning (Interpersonal Social Responsibility-Service Learning: ISR-SL) aimed towards the development of professional identity among OT students. Based on OT students experiences from the end of the course through later stages as mature students and professionals. A qualitative research design was used to explore the perceptions and experiences of 150 first, second, and third-year OT students and graduates who have participated in ISR-SL during their first academic year. Our findings suggest that the structured, long-term relationship with a person with a disability in the natural environment, which is the core of the ISR-SL, allowed students to develop a professional identity based on seeing the person as a whole and recognizing his/her centrality in the therapeutic relationship. This study suggests ISR-SL as future direction or next step for implementing SL in OT and other healthcare disciplines programs.

  11. Numerical study of an error model for a strap-down INS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorie, T. L.; Sandu, D. G.; Corcau, C. L.

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents a numerical study related to a mathematical error model developed for a strap-down inertial navigation system. The study aims to validate the error model by using some Matlab/Simulink software models implementing the inertial navigator and the error model mathematics. To generate the inputs in the evaluation Matlab/Simulink software some inertial sensors software models are used. The sensors models were developed based on the IEEE equivalent models for the inertial sensorsand on the analysis of the data sheets related to real inertial sensors. In the paper are successively exposed the inertial navigation equations (attitude, position and speed), the mathematics of the inertial navigator error model, the software implementations and the numerical evaluation results.

  12. Status of research aimed at predicting structural integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, W.G. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Considerable research has been performed throughout the world on measuring the fracture toughness of metals. The existing capability fills the need encountered when selecting materials, thermal-mechanical treatments, welding procedures, etc., but cannot predict the fracture process of structural components containing cracks. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have been collaborating for a number of years on developing capabilities for using fracture toughness results to predict structural integrity. Because of the high cost of fabricating and testing structural components, these studies have been limited to predicting the fracture process in specimens containing surface cracks. This paper summarizes the present status of the experimental studies of using fracture toughness data to predict crack growth initiation in specimens (structural components) containing surface cracks. These results are limited to homogeneous base materials.

  13. Monte Carlo studies of model Langmuir monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opps, S B; Yang, B; Gray, C G; Sullivan, D E

    2001-04-01

    This paper examines some of the basic properties of a model Langmuir monolayer, consisting of surfactant molecules deposited onto a water subphase. The surfactants are modeled as rigid rods composed of a head and tail segment of diameters sigma(hh) and sigma(tt), respectively. The tails consist of n(t) approximately 4-7 effective monomers representing methylene groups. These rigid rods interact via site-site Lennard-Jones potentials with different interaction parameters for the tail-tail, head-tail, and head-head interactions. In a previous paper, we studied the ground-state properties of this system using a Landau approach. In the present paper, Monte Carlo simulations were performed in the canonical ensemble to elucidate the finite-temperature behavior of this system. Simulation techniques, incorporating a system of dynamic filters, allow us to decrease CPU time with negligible statistical error. This paper focuses on several of the key parameters, such as density, head-tail diameter mismatch, and chain length, responsible for driving transitions from uniformly tilted to untilted phases and between different tilt-ordered phases. Upon varying the density of the system, with sigma(hh)=sigma(tt), we observe a transition from a tilted (NNN)-condensed phase to an untilted-liquid phase and, upon comparison with recent experiments with fatty acid-alcohol and fatty acid-ester mixtures [M. C. Shih, M. K. Durbin, A. Malik, P. Zschack, and P. Dutta, J. Chem. Phys. 101, 9132 (1994); E. Teer, C. M. Knobler, C. Lautz, S. Wurlitzer, J. Kildae, and T. M. Fischer, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 1913 (1997)], we identify this as the L'(2)/Ov-L1 phase boundary. By varying the head-tail diameter ratio, we observe a decrease in T(c) with increasing mismatch. However, as the chain length was increased we observed that the transition temperatures increased and differences in T(c) due to head-tail diameter mismatch were diminished. In most of the present research, the water was treated as a hard

  14. Viticulture microzoning: a functional approach aiming to grape and wine qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, A.; Agrillo, A.; Albrizio, R.; Basile, A.; Buonomo, R.; De Mascellis, R.; Gambuti, A.; Giorio, P.; Guida, G.; Langella, G.; Manna, P.; Minieri, L.; Moio, L.; Siani, T.; Terribile, F.

    2014-12-01

    This paper aims to test a new physically oriented approach to viticulture zoning at the farm scale, strongly rooted on hydropedology and aiming to achieve a better use of environmental features with respect to plant requirement and wine production. The physics of our approach is defined by the use of soil-plant-atmosphere simulation models which applies physically-based equations to describe the soil hydrological processes and solves soil-plant water status. This study (ZOVISA project) was conducted in a farm devoted to high quality wines production (Aglianico DOC), located in South Italy (Campania region, Mirabella Eclano-AV). The soil spatial distribution was obtained after standard soil survey informed by geophysical survey. Two Homogenous Zones (HZs) were identified; in each one of those a physically based model was applied to solve the soil water balance and estimate the soil functional behaviour (crop water stress index, CWSI) defining the functional Homogeneous Zones (fHzs). In these last, experimental plots were established and monitored for investigating soil-plant water status, crop development (biometric and physiological parameters) and daily climate variables (temperature, solar radiation, rainfall, wind). The effects of crop water status on crop response over must and wine quality were then evaluated in the fHZs. This was performed by comparing crop water stress with (i) crop physiological measurement (leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, LAI measurement), (ii) grape bunches measurements (berry weight, sugar content, titratable acidity, etc.) and (iii) wine quality (aromatic response). Eventually this experiment has proved the usefulness of the physical based approach also in the case of mapping viticulture microzoning.

  15. [Aims and core contents of basic and post basic courses of nursing management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiani, Luisa; Brugnolli, Anna

    2006-01-01

    The second part of the issue, dedicated to the nursing management offers a discussion on some of the relevant areas of debate for the organization of nursing care. A reflection on the core contents and main aims of basic and post basic (master, advanced level, specialistic degree) nursing courses is proposed in the first contribution. Then a selection of topics is presented, focusing on the main research contributions available in the literature and on the ongoing debate for the following areas: the role of communication at the inter-shift handover and the new model of bedside reporting; the problems and challenges of doctors nurses collaboration in the health care team; the problems and expectations of new nurses joining the health care team and the process of development of practical skills; the hot debate on nursing roles and level of practice and the difficulties in differentiating between elementary, specialist and advanced nursing practice; the new emerging roles: the characteristics and achievements of Nurse Consultant; the new challenges of coordinators of the health care teams with the management of the multigenerational nursing team. For each topic a definition of the problem is presented, an example of relevant study, a critical debate and suggestions for further studies and areas of research. A list of the main journals that deal with nursing management is proposed with comments on the main characteristics of each journal. A study protocol that aims at describing the outcomes of the different styles and models of organization of medical wards on patients and nurses is presented as an example of organizative research; an experience of, and a model for, participation of the nurses to health policy planning is proposed. Nurses were, asked to identify health care problems encountered in their daily practice, their causes and propose solutions at basic and policy level. The session of International Observatory explores the main problems and difficulties of

  16. Sensitivity analysis of heliostat aiming strategies and receiver size on annual thermal production of a molten salt external receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servert, Jorge; González, Ana; Gil, Javier; López, Diego; Funes, Jose Felix; Jurado, Alfonso

    2017-06-01

    Even though receiver size and aiming strategy are to be jointly analyzed to optimize the thermal energy that can be extracted from a solar tower receiver, customarily, they have been studied as separated problems. The main reason is the high-level of detail required to define aiming strategies, which are often simplified in annual simulation models. Aiming strategies are usually focused on obtaining a homogeneous heat flux on the central receiver, with the goal to minimize the maximum heat flux value that may lead to damaging it. Some recent studies have addressed the effect of different aiming strategies on different receiver types, but they have only focused on the optical efficiency. The receiver size is also an additional parameter that has to be considered: larger receiver sizes provide a larger aiming surface and a reduction on spillage losses, but require higher investment while penalizing the thermal performance of the receiver due to the greater external convection losses. The present paper presents a sensitivity analysis of both factors for a predefined solar field at a fixed location, using a central receiver and molten salts as HTF. The analysis includes the design point values and annual energy outputs comparing the effect on the optical performance (measured using a spillage factor) and thermal energy production.

  17. Forecasting changes in amphibian biodiversity: aiming at a moving target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James P; Halliday, Tim

    2005-02-28

    Amphibian population declines and sudden species' extinctions began to be noted at the beginning of the 1980s. Understanding the causes of the losses is hampered by our poor knowledge of the amphibian fauna in many parts of the world. Amphibian taxa are still being described at a high rate, especially in the tropics, which means that even quantifying species lost as a percentage of the current fauna can be a misleading statistic in some parts of the globe. The number of species that have gone missing is only one measure of the loss of biodiversity. Long-term studies of single-species populations are needed, but this approach has its limits. Amphibian populations often show great annual variation in population size making it difficult, if not impossible, to use short-term studies as a basis for deciding if a population is increasing or decreasing in the long term. Aggregating single studies into databases and searching for patterns of variation is a way of overcoming this limitation. Several databases on species and population time series are available or in development. These records show that declines are continuing worldwide with some species and populations, especially in the tropics and at higher elevations, at greater risk of extinction than others. Unfortunately, amphibian databases with population time series have much less information for the tropics compared to the temperate zone, and less for Africa and Asia compared with Europe and North America. Focusing limited resources using comprehensive statistical designs is a way to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of monitoring efforts. It is clear that, in the first decades of the twenty-first century, the regions of the globe with the highest diversity of amphibian species will experience the greatest rates of decrease of forests and increase in human population size, fertilizer use, agricultural production, creation of new croplands and irrigation. Many of these changes are likely negatively to

  18. Study on Dielectric Function Models for Surface Plasmon Resonance Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Jahanshahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common permittivity function models are compared and identifying the best model for further studies is desired. For this study, simulations using several different models and an analytical analysis on a practical surface Plasmon structure were done with an accuracy of ∼94.4% with respect to experimental data. Finite element method, combined with dielectric properties extracted from the Brendel-Bormann function model, was utilized, the latter being chosen from a comparative study on four available models.

  19. Statistical learning analysis in neuroscience: aiming for transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hanke

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Encouraged by a rise of reciprocal interest between the machine learning and neuroscience communities, several recent studies have demonstrated the explanatory power of statistical learning techniques for the analysis of neural data. In order to facilitate a wider adoption of these methods neuroscientific research needs to ensure a maximum of transparency to allow for comprehensive evaluation of the employed procedures. We argue that such transparency requires ``neuroscience-aware'' technology for the performance of multivariate pattern analyses of neural data that can be documented in a comprehensive, yet comprehensible way. Recently, we introduced PyMVPA, a specialized Python framework for machine learning based data analysis that addresses this demand. Here we review its features and applicability to various neural data modalities.

  20. Statistical learning analysis in neuroscience: aiming for transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Michael; Halchenko, Yaroslav O; Haxby, James V; Pollmann, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Encouraged by a rise of reciprocal interest between the machine learning and neuroscience communities, several recent studies have demonstrated the explanatory power of statistical learning techniques for the analysis of neural data. In order to facilitate a wider adoption of these methods, neuroscientific research needs to ensure a maximum of transparency to allow for comprehensive evaluation of the employed procedures. We argue that such transparency requires "neuroscience-aware" technology for the performance of multivariate pattern analyses of neural data that can be documented in a comprehensive, yet comprehensible way. Recently, we introduced PyMVPA, a specialized Python framework for machine learning based data analysis that addresses this demand. Here, we review its features and applicability to various neural data modalities.

  1. Urbanization effects on the microclimate of Manaus: A modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Diego Oliveira de; Alvalá, Regina Célia dos Santos; Nascimento, Marília Guedes do

    2016-01-01

    Activities associated with land use and land cover changes and urbanization induce local impacts, such as changes in atmospheric composition in water and energy balances and changes in the ecosystem. Therefore, more studies are needed to evaluate the possible relationship between urban growth and local and regional changes. In the last 30 years, the population of Manaus grew by over 500%, with approximately 1.9 million inhabitants in 2010. Trying to understand the effects of the urban growth of the city of Manaus on its microclimate and atmospheric processes, the present study aims to evaluate the possible physical mechanisms related to the urbanization process observed through a study of atmospheric modeling. The results allowed to assess that the presence of the urban area significantly modifies the surface energy balance (SEB), generating a thermal gradient between the city and the surrounding regions, favoring the formation and intensification of local atmospheric circulations. The results indicated that with urban growth there is an increase in temperature, decrease in the atmospheric water content and significant changes in the flow at low levels, mainly in the breeze circulations, with significant changes observed in the structure and characteristic of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over the study area. A positive correlation between the increase of the urban area and increased rainfall was also observed. From the results, it was possible to observe that there is a direct relationship between urban growth and changes in the local microclimate in Manaus.

  2. Cost Models: A Study in Persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauley, Franz E.

    1975-01-01

    The article defines the major elements (fundamental questions, basic assumptions, anticipated costs, projected savings, and return on investment) of a cost model, discusses the function and importance of each of these elements, and illustrates the development and construction of a cost model through an analysis of a hypothetical speed reading…

  3. Case studies in archaeological predictive modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Jacobus Wilhelmus Hermanus Philippus

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, a collection of papers is put together dealing with various quantitative aspects of predictive modelling and archaeological prospection. Among the issues covered are the effects of survey bias on the archaeological data used for predictive modelling, and the complexities of testing p

  4. Amorphous track models: a numerical comparison study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greilich, Steffen; Grzanka, Leszek; Hahn, Ute;

    Amorphous track models such as Katz' Ion-Gamma-Kill (IGK) approach [1, 2] or the Local Effect Model (LEM) [3, 4] had reasonable success in predicting the response of solid state dosimeters and radiobiological systems. LEM is currently applied in radiotherapy for biological dose optimization in ca...

  5. Amorphous track models: A numerical comparison study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greilich, Steffen; Grzanka, L.; Bassler, N.;

    2010-01-01

    We present an open-source code library for amorphous track modelling which is suppose to faciliate the application and numerical comparability as well as serve as a frame-work for the implementation of new models. We show an example of using the library indicating the choice of submodels has a si...

  6. Physical Model Study: Rill Erosion Morphology and Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmeier, S.; Klik, A.; Nouwakpo, S. K.

    2012-04-01

    Using common catchment size erosion model software either lack of knowledge or lack in process ability of watershed characteristics leads to increasing simplifications in model assumptions. Referring to open channel hydraulics, erosion model equations are prevalently based on stepwise uniform flow condition requirements. Approaching balance of gravitational and frictional resistance forces, channel roughness is fundamental model input. The fusion of simplified model assumptions and the use of lumped roughness determination cause ambivalence in model calibration. By means of a physical model experiment at the National Soil Erosion Laboratory (NSERL), West Lafayette, USA, channel roughness was itemized into skin friction and channel shape friction due to rill morphology. Particularly the Manning-Strickler equation was analyzed concerning the applicability of constant and holistic factors describing boundary friction impacts. The insufficiency in using the Manning-Strickler equation for non-uniform flow conditions is widely advised, whereas lack in predictability in rill erosion development inhibits proper model adoptions. The aim of the present study is to determine the impact of channel morphology on roughness assessment in rill erosion scale. Therefore a 1.9 meter long, 0.6 meter wide and 0.3 meter deep flume with an inclination of 10 % was filled with a loamy soil representing a section of a hill slope. The soil was prepared and saturated by simulated rainfall before each model run. A single erosion channel was enforced to develop by means of steady state runoff. Two different erosion channel types were initiated and observed: I.) a Straight Constrained Rill (SCR) shape by concentration of the runoff into a prepared straight initial rill and II.) a Free Developing Rill (FDR) by back-cut erosion through the plain soil body. Discharge of the outflow was measured in 5 minute interval and outflow sediment concentration was measured every minute. A top view stereo

  7. Planning of excavation of seams characterized by complicated structure with the aim of coal mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyakov, Yu.I.; Pushkin, S.P. (Kievskii Inzhenerno-Stroitel' nyi Institut (USSR))

    1990-07-01

    Discusses use of mathematical modeling for optimization of surface mining in mines with a complicated coal deposit structure and changing coal quality. The modeling is aimed at stabilizing coal quality, especially ash content. Surface mines with bucket wheel excavators for overburden removal and mining and locomotives and railroad cars for mine haulage are modeled. The mines supply 2 classes of coal: with 47% ash and with 55%. The modeling is aimed at determining optimum advance rates of the bucket wheel excavators. Effects of mine haulage system, coal yard capacity, coal seam structure, fluctuations of coal quality in a coal deposit, requirements for optimum geometry of the working faces, benches and other elements that influence slope stability are considered. 2 refs.

  8. A Detailed Modeling Study of Propane Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, C K; Jayaweera, T M; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J

    2004-03-19

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been used to simulate ignition delay times recorded by a number of experimental shock tube studies over the temperature range 900 {le} T {le} 1800 K, in the pressure range 0.75-40 atm and in the equivalence ratio range 0.5 {le} {phi} {le} 2.0. Flame speed measurements at 1 atm in the equivalence ratio range 0.4 {le} {phi} {le} 1.8 have also been simulated. Both of these data sets, particularly those recorded at high pressure, are of particular importance in validating a kinetic mechanism, as internal combustion engines operate at elevated pressures and temperatures and rates of fuel oxidation are critical to efficient system operation. Experiments in which reactant, intermediate and product species were quantitatively recorded, versus temperature in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) and versus time in a flow reactor are also simulated. This data provide a stringent test of the kinetic mechanism as it must reproduce accurate quantitative profiles for all reactant, intermediate and product species. The JSR experiments were performed in the temperature range 1000-1110 K, in the equivalence ratio range 0.5 {le} {phi} {le} 4.0, at a pressure of 5 atm. These experiments are complemented by those carried out in a flow reactor in the temperature range 660-820 K, at 10 atm and at an equivalence ratio of 0.4. In addition, burner stabilized flames were simulated, where chemical species profiles were measured at atmospheric pressure for two propane-air flat flames. Overall, reasonably good agreement is observed between the model simulations and the experimental results.

  9. Competing for space in an already crowded market: a mixed methods study of why an online community of practice (CoP) for alcohol harm reduction failed to generate interest amongst the group of public health professionals at which it was aimed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Ruth; Ford, Jennifer; Korjonen, Helena; Hughes, Emma; Keswani, Asha; Pliakas, Triantafyllos; Egan, Matt

    2017-07-21

    Improving mechanisms for knowledge translation (KT) and connecting decision-makers to each other and the information and evidence they consider relevant to their work remains a priority for public health. Virtual communities of practices (CoPs) potentially offer an affordable and flexible means of encouraging connection and sharing of evidence, information and learning among the public health community in ways that transgress traditional geographical, professional, institutional and time boundaries. The suitability of online CoPs in public health, however, has rarely been tested. This paper explores the reasons why particular online CoP for alcohol harm reduction hosted by the UK Health Forum failed to generate sufficient interest from the group of public health professionals at which it was aimed. The study utilises online web-metrics demonstrating a lack of online activity on the CoP. One hundred and twenty seven responses to an online questionnaire were used to explore whether the lack of activity could be explained by the target audience's existing information and evidence practices and needs. Qualitative interviews with 10 members describe in more detail the factors that shape and inhibit use of the virtual CoP by those at which it was targeted. Quantitative and qualitative data confirm that the target audience had an interest in the kind of information and evidence the CoP was set up to share and generate discussion about, but also that participants considered themselves to already have relatively good access to the information and evidence they needed to inform their work. Qualitative data revealed that the main barriers to using the CoP were a proliferation of information sources meaning that participants preferred to utilise trusted sources that were already established within their daily routines and a lack of time to engage with new online tools that required any significant commitment. Specialist online CoPs are competing for space in an already crowded

  10. Study of Photovoltaic Cells Engineering Mathematical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Yu, Zhengping; Lu, Zhengyi; Li, Chenhui; Zhang, Ruilan

    2016-11-01

    The characteristic curve of photovoltaic cells is the theoretical basis of PV Power, which simplifies the existing mathematical model, eventually, obtains a mathematical model used in engineering. The characteristic curve of photovoltaic cells contains both exponential and logarithmic calculation. The exponential and logarithmic spread out through Taylor series, which includes only four arithmetic and use single chip microcontroller as the control center. The result shows that: the use of single chip microcontroller for calculating exponential and logarithmic functions, simplifies mathematical model of PV curve, also can meet the specific conditions’ requirement for engineering applications.

  11. Flight testing of the AIM/RIM-7M missile, preflight analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, W.; Greenberg, E.

    1981-11-01

    The AIM/RIM-7M missile is the most recent version of the AIM-7 missile series. It is in the preproduction phase and has completed most of the preproduction flight test evaluation. A description is presented of the preflight simulation techniques used, taking into account the value of the techniques in predicting the results of actual flights. The AIM/RIM-7M is a semiactive, radar-guided homing missile with sophisticated onboard digital processing. It may be launched from either an aircraft or a surface system. To a large degree, the AIM/RIM-7M represents problems typical of all guided missiles. The described techniques are directly applicable to radar-guided missiles and generically to all types of guided missiles. Attention is given to simulation bay activities, the anechoic chamber, aspects of RF control, the target array, computer models, aspects of preflight simulations, and the test setup.

  12. Preceptors' conceptions of a peer learning model: A phenomenographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Frida; Carlson, Elisabeth

    2017-02-01

    During the past few years nurses precepting undergraduate nursing students have been put under greater pressure because of increased number of students admitted to the universities combined with a shortage of clinical placements. One solution is the preceptor model peer learning where two students are tutored by the same preceptor simultaneously. The aim of this study was to describe the variation of registered nurses' conceptions of preceptorship in a peer learning model for undergraduate nursing students. The study used a qualitative descriptive design and a phenomenographic approach. The interviews took place at somatic and psychiatric units at two different hospitals in southern Sweden. Twelve informants participated who had worked as registered nurses between 1-17years and acted as peer learning preceptors between 2month and 6years. Each nurse was interviewed individually using a semi structured interview guide. Follow up questions were used to make the informants develop and deepen their answers. Four different descriptive categories emerged in the study: 1) Preceptorship in peer learning generates development and new perspectives 2) Preceptorship in peer learning enables student reflection and independence 3) Preceptorship in peer learning engenders insufficiency and stress 4) Preceptorship in peer learning requires education and support. The result of this study showed that preceptors conceived that peer learning enabled them to take a step back which gave them a new role and perspectives. The consequence was that the students could be more independent which saved time for some of the preceptors. However, some preceptors perceived insufficiency and stress while working with two students. It is also important to educate both students and preceptors to optimise the use of peer learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance-Based Service Quality Model: An Empirical Study on Japanese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to develop and empirically test the performance-based higher education service quality model. Design/methodology/approach: The study develops 67-item instrument for measuring performance-based service quality with a particular focus on the higher education sector. Scale reliability is confirmed using the Cronbach's alpha.…

  14. Construct DTPB Model by Using DEMATEL: A Study of a University Library Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Cheng; Hsieh, Yi-Fang; Guo, Yau-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Traditional studies on a decomposed theory of planned behavior (DTPB) analyze the relationship of variables through a structural equation model. If certain variables do not fully comply with the independent hypothesis, it is not possible to conduct proper analysis, which leads to false conclusions. To solve these problems, the aim of this…

  15. Development of luciferase tagged brain tumour models in mice for chemotherapy intervention studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, E.M.; Leenders, W.P.J.; Kusters, B.; Lyons, S.; Buckle, T.; Heerschap, A.; Boogerd, W.; Beijnen, J.H.; Tellingen, O.

    2006-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is considered one of the major causes for the low efficacy of cytotoxic compounds against primary brain tumours. The aim of this study was to develop intracranial tumour models in mice featuring intact or locally disrupted BBB properties, which can be used in testing ch

  16. Studying Differential Item Functioning via Latent Variable Modeling: A Note on a Multiple-Testing Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Lee, Chun-Lung; Chang, Chi

    2013-01-01

    This note is concerned with a latent variable modeling approach for the study of differential item functioning in a multigroup setting. A multiple-testing procedure that can be used to evaluate group differences in response probabilities on individual items is discussed. The method is readily employed when the aim is also to locate possible…

  17. Model of Values-Based Management Process in Schools: A Mixed Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Soner

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the school administrators' values-based management behaviours according to the teachers' perceptions and opinions and, accordingly, to build a model of values-based management process in schools. The study was conducted using explanatory design which is inclusive of both quantitative and qualitative methods.…

  18. Performance-Based Service Quality Model: An Empirical Study on Japanese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to develop and empirically test the performance-based higher education service quality model. Design/methodology/approach: The study develops 67-item instrument for measuring performance-based service quality with a particular focus on the higher education sector. Scale reliability is confirmed using the Cronbach's alpha.…

  19. Study of hierarchical federation architecture using multi-resolution modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Yan-ling; SHEN Dong-hui; QIAN Hua-ming; DENG Ming-hui

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims at finding a solution to the problem aroused in complex system simulation, where a specific functional federation is coupled with other simulation systems. In other words, the communication information within the system may be received by other federates that participated in this united simulation. For the purpose of ensuring simulation system unitary character, a hierarchical federation architecture (HFA) is taken. Also considering the real situation, where federates in a complicated simulation system can be made simpler to an extent, a multi-resolution modeling (MRM) method is imported to implement the design of hierarchical federation. By utilizing the multiple resolution entity (MRE) modeling approach, MRE for federates are designed out. When different level training simulation is required, the appropriate MRE at corresponding layers can be called. The design method realizes the reuse feature of the simulation system and reduces simulation complexity and improves the validity of system Simulation Cost (SC). Taking submarine voyage training simulator (SVTS) for instance, a HFA for submarine is constructed inthis paper, which approves the feasibility of studied approach.

  20. Assessing agreement in measurements of orthodontic study models: Digital caliper on plaster models vs 3-dimensional software on models scanned by structured-light scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Hassan, Wan Nurazreena; Othman, Siti Adibah; Chan, Chee Seng; Ahmad, Roshahida; Ali, Siti Nor'Ain; Abd Rohim, Anis

    2016-11-01

    In this study we aimed to compare measurements on plaster models using a digital caliper, and on 3-dimensional (3D) digital models, produced using a structured-light scanner, using 3D software. Fifty digital models were scanned from the same plaster models. Arch and tooth size measurements were made by 2 operators, twice. Calibration was done on 10 sets of models and checked using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Data were analyzed by error variances, repeatability coefficient, repeated-measures analysis of variance, and Bland-Altman plots. Error variances ranged between 0.001 and 0.044 mm for the digital caliper method, and between 0.002 and 0.054 mm for the 3D software method. Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed small but statistically significant differences (P plaster models and were, therefore, clinically acceptable. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. STRESS RESPONSE STUDIES USING ANIMAL MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will provide the evidence that ozone exposure in animal models induce neuroendocrine stress response and this stress response modulates lung injury and inflammation through adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptors.

  2. STUDY OF NEUROSES: III AN EMPIRICAL MODEL*

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatti, Ranbir S.; Channabasavanna, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    SUMMARY The empirical model presented in this paper is based on observations made on 60 neurotics and 60 normals matched at the individual level. Efforts are made to use the systems approach to present this paradigm synthesising both individual and environmental resources. We are of the opinion that this model is not only useful in understanding the genesis of neuroses rather has utility at the intervention level as well.

  3. Quality Management in Hospital Departments : Empirical Studies of Organisational Models

    OpenAIRE

    Kunkel, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to empirically explore the organisational characteristics of quality systems of hospital departments, to develop and empirically test models for the organisation and implementation of quality systems, and to discuss the clinical implications of the findings. Data were collected from hospital departments through interviews (n=19) and a nation-wide survey (n=386). The interviews were analysed thematically and organisational models were developed. Relationships...

  4. Study of Network Traffic Analysis Model Based on Time Granularity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan,Xi-aoling; Xu,Yong; Mei,Chenggang; Liu,Lan

    2005-01-01

    An analytic research on establishing different traffic models on the traffic nature of different time granularity can provide necessary academic foundation for network design and simulation as well as ensuring the quality of service and network management. This paper aims to make simulant predication by means of corresponding math tools on the modeling of real traftic of the different time granularity. The experimental results indicate that the predicated traffic is close to the real traffic distribution.

  5. Study of chaos based on a hierarchical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Sanae-I. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    2001-12-01

    Study of chaos based on a hierarchical model is briefly reviewed. Here we categorize hierarchical model equations, i.e., (1) a model with a few degrees of freedom, e.g., the Lorenz model, (2) a model with intermediate degrees of freedom like a shell model, and (3) a model with many degrees of freedom such as a Navier-Stokes equation. We discuss the nature of chaos and turbulence described by these models via Lyapunov exponents. The interpretation of results observed in fundamental plasma experiments is also shown based on a shell model. (author)

  6. A business model improvement proposal for Finnish enterprises doing business in China : case study: Hankintatukku Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Mengzhen

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to propose a more adaptable business model for Finnish Hankintatukku Oy to help it be more successful in China. To achieve the objective, inductive research approach with qualitative and quantitative research methods are used in this thesis. With inductive research approach, data is collected to analyze the main elements inside a business model and marketing development trend in China. As a result, the final proposal comes out based on the marketing development trend in China ...

  7. E-Procurement Policy Model: Case Study of Health Agency North Sumatra Province, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Trimurni, Februati; Siahaan, Asima Yanty S.; Dayana

    2016-01-01

    E-procurement policy is one form of reformation in procurement in Indonesia which aims at enhancing transparency in public procurement. E-procurement can be implemented through e-tendering and e-purchasing methods by utilizing e-catalogue. Policy implementation model was used to assist the realization of the goal of eprocurement policy. This study found three significant factors of e-procurement policy implementation model , namely legal foundation, infrastructure and human resour...

  8. Between Silence and Salience. A Multimethod Model to Study Frame Building from a Journalistic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Boesman, J.L.J.; Van Gorp, B.; Haenens, d', L.

    2016-01-01

    Research into frame building, which aims to investigate the development of news framing in the journalistic realm, is on the rise. While most frame-building studies focus on the relative contribution of journalists or sources to news frames, this article presents and evaluates an integrated methodological model. The model is based on constructionist premises with the purpose of examining how frames are created as part of the interaction among reporters, editors, and sources. Based on a review...

  9. Basis study on the model of hepatitis B-Vitro cell culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-mingHUANG; Xin-boYANG; Wen-binCAO; Hong-yanCHEN; He-zhiLIU; ZhuangLI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore and set up many kinds of experimental model of hepatitis B in order to provide varies methods for application study on drugs to prevent and to cure hepatitis B. METHODS: According to the disorder and characters of hepatitis B, we used the models of duck primary hepatocytes which were infected duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), the human hepatocellular carcinoma (cell 2215, Hep G2) which was transferred with hepatitis Bvirus and rats primary hepatocytes cultured with CCl4 in vitro

  10. Comparison of five bacteriophages as models for viral aerosol studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeon, Nathalie; Toulouse, Marie-Josée; Martel, Bruno; Moineau, Sylvain; Duchaine, Caroline

    2014-07-01

    Bacteriophages are perceived to be good models for the study of airborne viruses because they are safe to use, some of them display structural features similar to those of human and animal viruses, and they are relatively easy to produce in large quantities. Yet, only a few studies have investigated them as models. It has previously been demonstrated that aerosolization, environmental conditions, and sampling conditions affect viral infectivity, but viral infectivity is virus dependent. Thus, several virus models are likely needed to study their general behavior in aerosols. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of aerosolization and sampling on the infectivity of five tail-less bacteriophages and two pathogenic viruses: MS2 (a single-stranded RNA [ssRNA] phage of the Leviviridae family), Φ6 (a segmented double-stranded RNA [dsRNA] phage of the Cystoviridae family), ΦX174 (a single-stranded DNA [ssDNA] phage of the Microviridae family), PM2 (a double-stranded DNA [dsDNA] phage of the Corticoviridae family), PR772 (a dsDNA phage of the Tectiviridae family), human influenza A virus H1N1 (an ssRNA virus of the Orthomyxoviridae family), and the poultry virus Newcastle disease virus (NDV; an ssRNA virus of the Paramyxoviridae family). Three nebulizers and two nebulization salt buffers (with or without organic fluid) were tested, as were two aerosol sampling devices, a liquid cyclone (SKC BioSampler) and a dry cyclone (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health two-stage cyclone bioaerosol sampler). The presence of viruses in collected air samples was detected by culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Our results showed that these selected five phages behave differently when aerosolized and sampled. RNA phage MS2 and ssDNA phage ΦX174 were the most resistant to aerosolization and sampling. The presence of organic fluid in the nebulization buffer protected phages PR772 and Φ6 throughout the aerosolization and sampling with dry cyclones. In this

  11. A Comparative Study of the Jerome Model and the Horace Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李子英

    2014-01-01

    For many years, the two important translation styles, the Jerome model and the Horace model, are widely studied. Consisting of four parts, this paper will focus on making a comparison between the two translation models.

  12. Multidimensional Big Spatial Data Modeling Through A Case Study: Lte Rf Subsystem Power Consumption Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antón Castro, Francesc/François; Musiige, Deogratius; Mioc, Darka

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a case study for comparing different multidimensional mathematical modeling methodologies used in multidimensional spatial big data modeling and proposing a new technique. An analysis of multidimensional modeling approaches (neural networks, polynomial interpolation and homotopy...

  13. Aiming Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    positive definite solution of A1Qy+QyAo+I--QyBBTQY=O (5.2) The logarithmic residence time of system (3.1) with the stabilizing control (5.1) in a I...a bounded is E bou,,,,dby, ii I)-2=(6 2 This completes the prooof the necesity. Suffidency: The proof is by conatnction. Select a stabilizing control u...a - . Q.LD. Proof of Theorem 3.3: It follows from the results of [151, [21] that for each y > 0, K? defined by (3.4) is a stabilizing control and

  14. Application of Time Study Model in Rice Milling Firm: A Case Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of Time Study Model in Rice Milling Firm: A Case Study. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... paper presents a case study in the development and application of a time study model in a rice milling firm.

  15. Web Resources for Model Organism Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bixia Tang; Yanqing Wang; Junwei Zhu; Wenming Zhao

    2015-01-01

    An ever-growing number of resources on model organisms have emerged with the continued development of sequencing technologies. In this paper, we review 13 databases of model organisms, most of which are reported by the National Institutes of Health of the United States (NIH; http://www.nih.gov/science/models/). We provide a brief description for each database, as well as detail its data source and types, functions, tools, and availability of access. In addition, we also provide a quality assessment about these databases. Significantly, the organism databases instituted in the early 1990s––such as the Mouse Genome Database (MGD), Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD), and FlyBase––have developed into what are now comprehensive, core authority resources. Furthermore, all of the databases mentioned here update continually according to user feedback and with advancing technologies.

  16. Study on Lumped Kinetic Model for FDFCC II. Validation and Prediction of Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Feiyue; Weng Huixin; Luo Shixian

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of formulating the 9-lump kinetic model for gasoline catalytic upgrading and the 12-lump kinetic model for heavy oil FCC, this paper is aimed at development of a combined kinetic model for a typical FDFCC process after analyzing the coupled relationship and combination of these two models. The model is also verified by using commercial data, the results of which showed that the model can better predict the product yields and their quality, with the relative errors between the main products of the unit and commercial data being less than five percent. Furthermore, the combined model is used to predict and optimize the operating conditions for gasoline riser and heavy oil riser in FDFCC. So this paper can offer some guidance for the processing of FDFCC and is instructive to model research and development of such multi-reactor process and combined process.

  17. Integrating technology readiness into the expectation-confirmation model: an empirical study of mobile services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Chih; Liu, Ming-Ling; Lin, Chieh-Peng

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to integrate technology readiness into the expectation-confirmation model (ECM) for explaining individuals' continuance of mobile data service usage. After reviewing the ECM and technology readiness, an integrated model was demonstrated via empirical data. Compared with the original ECM, the findings of this study show that the integrated model may offer an ameliorated way to clarify what factors and how they influence the continuous intention toward mobile services. Finally, the major findings are summarized, and future research directions are suggested.

  18. Hemispherical sky simulator for daylighting model studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkowitz, S.

    1981-07-01

    The design of a 24-foot-diameter hemispherical sky simulator recently completed at LBL is described. The goal was to produce a facility in which large models could be tested; which was suitable for research, teaching, and design; which could provide a uniform sky, an overcast sky, and several clear-sky luminance distributions, as well as accommodating an artificial sun. Initial operating experience with the facility is described, the sky simulator capabilities are reviewed, and its strengths and weaknesses relative to outdoor modeling tests are discussed.

  19. BIOMASS REBURNING - MODELING/ENGINEERING STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir Zamansky; Chris Lindsey; Vitali Lissianski

    2000-01-28

    This project is designed to develop engineering and modeling tools for a family of NO{sub x} control technologies utilizing biomass as a reburning fuel. During the ninth reporting period (September 27--December 31, 1999), EER prepared a paper Kinetic Model of Biomass Reburning and submitted it for publication and presentation at the 28th Symposium (International) on Combustion, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, July 30--August 4, 2000. Antares Group Inc, under contract to Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, evaluated the economic feasibility of biomass reburning options for Dunkirk Station. A preliminary report is included in this quarterly report.

  20. Amphibians as model to study endocrine disrupters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloas, Werner; Lutz, Ilka

    2006-10-13

    Environmental compounds can interfere with endocrine systems of wildlife and humans. These so-called endocrine disrupters (ED) are known to affect reproductive biology and thyroid system. The classical model species for these endocrine systems are amphibians and therefore they can serve as sentinels for detection of the modes of action (MOAs) of ED. Recently, amphibians are being reviewed as suitable models to assess (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic MOAs influencing reproductive biology as well as (anti)thyroidal MOAs interfering with the thyroid system. The development of targeted bioassays in combination with adequate chemical analyses is the prerequisite for a concise risk assessment of ED.

  1. Impact of school-based health promotion interventions aimed at different behavioral domains: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Serrano, Marta; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín S

    2014-01-01

    Given that lifestyleshave similar determinants and that school-based interventions are usually targeted at all the risks that affect adolescents, the objective of this systematic review was to summarize the characteristics and effects of school-based interventions acting on different behavioral domains of adolescent health promotion. The review process was conducted by two independent reviewers who searched PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases for experimental or observational studies with at least two measures of results published from 2007 to 2011, given that the research information available doubles every 5 years. Methodological quality was assessed with a standardized tool. Information was extracted from 35 studies aiming to prevent risk behaviors and promote healthy nutrition, physical activity, and mental and holistic health. Activities were based on theoretical models and were classified into interactive lessons, peer mediation, environmental changes, parents' and community activities, and tailored messages by computer-assisted training or other resources, usually including multiple components. In some cases, we identified some moderate to large, short- and long-term effects on behavioral and intermediate variable. This exhaustive review found that well-implemented interventions can promote adolescent health. These findings are consistent with recent reviews. Implications for practice, public health, and research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Finite element modelling of the tricuspid valve: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanella, Marco; Votta, Emiliano; Lemma, Massimo; Antona, Carlo; Redaelli, Alberto

    2010-12-01

    The incomplete efficacy of current surgical repair procedures of the tricuspid valve (TV) demands a deeper comprehension of the physiological TV biomechanics. To this purpose, computational models can provide quantitative insight into TV biomechanical response and allow analysing the role of each TV substructure. We present here a three-dimensional finite element model of the tricuspid valve that takes into account most of its peculiar features. Experimental measurements were performed on human and porcine valves to obtain a more detailed TV anatomical framework. To overcome the complete lack of information on leaflets mechanical properties, we performed a sensitivity analysis on the parameters of the adopted non-linear hyperelastic constitutive model, hypothesizing three different parameter sets for three significant collagen fibre distributions. Results showed that leaflets' motion and maximum principal stress distribution were almost insensitive to the different material parameters considered. Highest stresses (about 100kPa) were located near the annulus of the anterior and septal leaflets, while the posterior leaflet experienced lower stresses (about 55kPa); stresses at the commissures were nearly zero. Conversely, changes in constitutive parameters deeply affected leaflets' strains magnitude, but not their overall pattern. Strains computed assuming that TV leaflets tissue are reinforced by a sparse and loosely arranged network of collagen fibres fitted best experimental data, thus suggesting that this may be the actual microstructure of TV leaflets. In a long-term perspective, this preliminary study aims at providing a starting point for the development of a predictive tool to quantitatively evaluate TV diseases and surgical repair procedures.

  3. Performance Estimation of Networked Business Models: Case Study on a Finnish eHealth Service Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marikka Heikkilä

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this paper is to propose and demonstrate a framework for estimating performance in a networked business model. Design/methodology/approach: Our approach is design science, utilising action research in studying a case of four independent firms in Health & Wellbeing sector aiming to jointly provide a new service for business and private customers. The duration of the research study is 3 years. Findings: We propose that a balanced set of performance indicators can be defined by paying attention to all main components of the business model, enriched with of network collaboration. The results highlight the importance of measuring all main components of the business model and also the business network partners’ view on trust, contracts and fairness. Research implications: This article contributes to the business model literature by combining business modelling with performance evaluation. The article points out that it is essential to create metrics that can be applied to evaluate and improve the business model blueprints, but it is also important to measure business collaboration aspects. Practical implications: Companies have already adopted Business model canvas or similar business model tools to innovate new business models. We suggest that companies continue their business model innovation work by agreeing on a set of performance metrics, building on the business model components model enriched with measures of network collaboration. Originality/value: This article contributes to the business model literature and praxis by combining business modelling with performance evaluation.

  4. An experimental study of human birth models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumer, Alexa; Gossmann, Roseanna; Fauci, Lisa J.; Leftwich, Megan C.

    2016-11-01

    The laboring uterus is a complex and dynamic fluid system. Relatively little is known about the fluid properties in this system. However, the two primary fluids of interest, amniotic fluid and vernix caseosa, likely play integral roles in the force transferred to the fetus during the final stages of parturition. This investigation probes the role of fluid in the force transfer during delivery by considering physical models that determine the role of various components of the full system. The first experimental model represents the fetus passing through the birth canal as concentric cylinders with a fluid filled gap. The rigid, inner cylinder moves through the highly flexible outer cylinder at a prescribed velocity. The geometry of the inner cylinder is varied by aspect ratio and length. A total of five different inner geometries are used to fully investigate the parameter space. As the inner cylinder moves through the outer cylinder, strain measurements are taken. These measurements are converted to force measurements as a function of time and position in the outer cylinder. The results of these experiments are compared with numerical results to form a more complete picture of force transfer. This model can be used as the foundation for predicting the force needed to deliver a fetus in the final stages of parturition. Additionally, more complex models, that incorporate uterine contraction forces, are being developed.

  5. A Study of Simple Diffraction Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn

    1997-01-01

    Three different models for calculating edge diffraction are examined. The methods of Vanderkooy, Terai and Biot & Tolstoy are compared with measurements. Although a good agreement is obtained, the measurements also show that none of the methods work completely satisfactorily. The desired properties...

  6. Study on Strand Space Model Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI QingGuang(季庆光); QING SiHan(卿斯汉); ZHOU YongBin(周永彬); FENG DengGuo(冯登国)

    2003-01-01

    The growing interest in the application of formal methods of cryptographic pro-tocol analysis has led to the development of a number of different ways for analyzing protocol. Inthis paper, it is strictly proved that if for any strand, there exists at least one bundle containingit, then an entity authentication protocol is secure in strand space model (SSM) with some smallextensions. Unfortunately, the results of attack scenario demonstrate that this protocol and the Yahalom protocol and its modification are de facto insecure. By analyzing the reasons of failure offormal inference in strand space model, some deficiencies in original SSM are pointed out. In orderto break through these limitations of analytic capability of SSM, the generalized strand space model(GSSM) induced by some protocol is proposed. In this model, some new classes of strands, oraclestrands, high order oracle strands etc., are developed, and some notions are formalized strictly in GSSM, such as protocol attacks, valid protocol run and successful protocol run. GSSM can thenbe used to further analyze the entity authentication protocol. This analysis sheds light on why thisprotocol would be vulnerable while it illustrates that GSSM not only can prove security protocolcorrect, but also can be efficiently used to construct protocol attacks. It is also pointed out thatusing other protocol to attack some given protocol is essentially the same as the case of using themost of protocol itself.

  7. Advanced language modeling approaches, case study: Expert search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2008-01-01

    This tutorial gives a clear and detailed overview of advanced language modeling approaches and tools, including the use of document priors, translation models, relevance models, parsimonious models and expectation maximization training. Expert search will be used as a case study to explain the

  8. Beam dynamics studies to develop LHC luminosity model

    CERN Document Server

    Campogiani, Giovanna; Papaphilippou, Ioannis

    The thesis project aims at studying the different physical processes that are impacting luminosity, one of the key figures of merit of a collider operation. In particular the project focuses on extracting the most relevant parameters for the high-energy part of the model, which is mostly dominated by the beam-beam effect. LHC luminosity is degraded by parasitic collisions that reduce the beam lifetime and the particles stability in the collider. This instability is due to the non-linear effects of one beam electromagnetic field on another in the interaction region. Such parasitic encounters can be as many as 16 per interaction region, piling up to around 180 000 per second. Our goal is to study the evolution of charge density distribution in the beam, by tracking particles through a symplectic integrator that includes the beam-beam effect. In particular we want to obtain data on the halo particles, which are more sensible to instability, to better characterise the beam lifetime and monitor the luminosity evol...

  9. An analytical study of various telecomminication networks using markov models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, M.; Jayamani, E.; Ezhumalai, P.

    2015-04-01

    The main aim of this paper is to examine issues relating to the performance of various Telecommunication networks, and applied queuing theory for better design and improved efficiency. Firstly, giving an analytical study of queues deals with quantifying the phenomenon of waiting lines using representative measures of performances, such as average queue length (on average number of customers in the queue), average waiting time in queue (on average time to wait) and average facility utilization (proportion of time the service facility is in use). In the second, using Matlab simulator, summarizes the finding of the investigations, from which and where we obtain results and describing methodology for a) compare the waiting time and average number of messages in the queue in M/M/1 and M/M/2 queues b) Compare the performance of M/M/1 and M/D/1 queues and study the effect of increasing the number of servers on the blocking probability M/M/k/k queue model.

  10. NEEDS ANALYSIS MODEL STUDENT LEARNING TO SPEAK FOR EDUCATION STUDY LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus DARMUKI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is the initial part of a doctoral dissertation research conducted with the aim at designing a learning model in teaching speaking according to the needs of faculty and students. The learning model is designed based on curriculum of Indonesian Language Education and Literature study program, IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro, UnirowTuban, and UnisdaLamongan, East Java, Indonesia. The development of this model is done to improve the students speaking skills. Research and development are the steps consist of a needs analysis, document analysis, design models, development models and experimental models. Needs analysis was conducted by researchers to the students of the first semester and three teachers’ and the head of study program of IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro, UnirowTuban and Unisdalamongan to get information related to the needs of students and faculty to model of learning speaking. Needs analysis and documents analysis were collected through questionnaires, interviews, and discussions with students and academics. Document and needs analysis in this study a syllabus, lesson plan (RPP and the model used for this study. This research was carried out by following the nature of the procedures of research and development covering the steps of (1 an exploratory study, (2 the stage of development, (3 the testing phase models, (4 dissemination (Borg and Gall (1983 and Sukmadinata (2008. The results of the analysis of questionnaires, and interviews revealed that lecturers need guidelines for the implementation of learning speaking. Learning model strategies wite that foster self-confidence in speaking is needed by students’.

  11. Sensitivity Study of Stochastic Walking Load Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Frier, Christian

    2010-01-01

    On flexible structures such as footbridges and long-span floors, walking loads may generate excessive structural vibrations and serviceability problems. The problem is increasing because of the growing tendency to employ long spans in structural design. In many design codes, the vibration...... serviceability limit state is assessed using a walking load model in which the walking parameters are modelled deterministically. However, the walking parameters are stochastic (for instance the weight of the pedestrian is not likely to be the same for every footbridge crossing), and a natural way forward...... investigates whether statistical distributions of bridge response are sensitive to some of the decisions made by the engineer doing the analyses. For the paper a selected part of potential influences are examined and footbridge responses are extracted using Monte-Carlo simulations and focus is on estimating...

  12. The WAMME regional model intercomparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew [Columbia University and NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies, CCSR, New York (United States); Feng, Jinming [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); University of California at Los Angeles, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Cook, Kerry H. [The University of Texas at Austin, Jackson School of Geosciences, Austin, TX (United States); Xue, Yongkang [University of California at Los Angeles, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hagos, Samson M. [University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Miami, FL (United States); Konare, Abdourahamane [University of Cocody, Laboratoire de Physique Atmospherique, Abidjan (Ivory Coast); Moufouma-Okia, Wilfran; Rowell, David P. [Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter (United Kingdom); Vizy, Edward K. [The University of Texas at Austin, Institute for Geophysics, Austin, TX (United States); Ibrah, Seidou Sanda [Universite Abdou Moumouni, Department of Physics, Niamey (Niger)

    2010-07-15

    Results from five regional climate models (RCMs) participating in the West African Monsoon Modeling and Evaluation (WAMME) initiative are analyzed. The RCMs were driven by boundary conditions from National Center for Environmental Prediction reanalysis II data sets and observed sea-surface temperatures (SST) over four May-October seasons, (2000 and 2003-2005). In addition, the simulations were repeated with two of the RCMs, except that lateral boundary conditions were derived from a continuous global climate model (GCM) simulation forced with observed SST data. RCM and GCM simulations of precipitation, surface air temperature and circulation are compared to each other and to observational evidence. Results demonstrate a range of RCM skill in representing the mean summer climate and the timing of monsoon onset. Four of the five models generate positive precipitation biases and all simulate negative surface air temperature biases over broad areas. RCM spatial patterns of June-September mean precipitation over the Sahel achieve spatial correlations with observational analyses of about 0.90, but within two areas south of 10 N the correlations average only about 0.44. The mean spatial correlation coefficient between RCM and observed surface air temperature over West Africa is 0.88. RCMs show a range of skill in simulating seasonal mean zonal wind and meridional moisture advection and two RCMs overestimate moisture convergence over West Africa. The 0.5 computing grid enables three RCMs to detect local minima related to high topography in seasonal mean meridional moisture advection. Sensitivity to lateral boundary conditions differs between the two RCMs for which this was assessed. The benefits of dynamic downscaling the GCM seasonal climate prediction are analyzed and discussed. (orig.)

  13. Structural equation modeling for observational studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) represents a framework for developing and evaluating complex hypotheses about systems. This method of data analysis differs from conventional univariate and multivariate approaches familiar to most biologists in several ways. First, SEMs are multiequational and capable of representing a wide array of complex hypotheses about how system components interrelate. Second, models are typically developed based on theoretical knowledge and designed to represent competing hypotheses about the processes responsible for data structure. Third, SEM is conceptually based on the analysis of covariance relations. Most commonly, solutions are obtained using maximum-likelihood solution procedures, although a variety of solution procedures are used, including Bayesian estimation. Numerous extensions give SEM a very high degree of flexibility in dealing with nonnormal data, categorical responses, latent variables, hierarchical structure, multigroup comparisons, nonlinearities, and other complicating factors. Structural equation modeling allows researchers to address a variety of questions about systems, such as how different processes work in concert, how the influences of perturbations cascade through systems, and about the relative importance of different influences. I present 2 example applications of SEM, one involving interactions among lynx (Lynx pardinus), mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and the second involving anuran species richness. Many wildlife ecologists may find SEM useful for understanding how populations function within their environments. Along with the capability of the methodology comes a need for care in the proper application of SEM.

  14. Optimization of SAGD process with proxy models: case study of a 3-well-pair model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedutenko, Eugene; Yang, Chaodong; Card, Colin; Nghiem, Long [Computer Modeling Group Ltd. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a thermal recovery method used to enhance oil recovery. In order to improve the economics of SAGD operations, optimization of both SAGD operating conditions and well placements is necessary. Unfortunately this requires a large number of simulations which have a high computational cost. The aim of this paper is present a new workflow for improving the economics of SAGD with fewer simulations. A synthetic 3 well pair SAGD model was developed and simulations were conducted with a base case scenario and polynomial and Kriging proxy interpolation models. Results showed that both optimizations improved the NPV, SOR and RF of the model. In addition it was found that the polynomial model is faster than the Kriging model and that the Kriging model requires fewer iterations to obtain the optimal solution. This paper demonstrated that the use of polynomial or Kriging models helps improve the economics of SAGD operations.

  15. A proposed study on the transplacental transport of parabens in the human placental perfusion model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Line; Zuri, Giuseppina; Andersen, Maria H

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to parabens as a preservative used in personal care products is of increasing concern, as there is evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies of hormone disruption in association with exposure to parabens. Transport across the placenta could be critical for risk assessment......, but the available data are sparse. The aim is to develop a method for estimating fetal exposure, via the placenta, to the most commonly-used parabens, by using a human placental perfusion model. The use of human tissue is vital for determining human fetal exposure, because animal studies are of little relevance......, since the placenta exhibits significant interspecies variation. An HPLC model is currently being established to simultaneously quantify four different parabens, namely, methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben and butylparaben, and their main metabolite, p-hydroxybenzoic acid. With this model, we aim...

  16. LEXICAL APPROACH IN TEACHING TURKISH: A COLLOCATIONAL STUDY MODEL

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eser ÖRDEM

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study intends to propose Lexical Approach (Lewis, 1998, 2002; Harwood, 2002) and a model for teaching Turkish as a foreign language so that this model can be used in classroom settings...

  17. Grid Modeling for the SunShot Vision Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Ela, E.; Mai, T.; Margolis, R.; Mowers, M.

    2012-02-01

    This document describes the use of production cost modeling in the SunShot Vision study, including methods used to create the SunShot Vision scenarios, their implementation in the Gridview model, and assumptions regarding transmission system and operation of each generator type. It also describes challenges and limitations of modeling solar generation technologies in production cost models, and suggests methods for improving their representation in current models.

  18. A Study On Distributed Model Predictive Consensus

    CERN Document Server

    Keviczky, Tamas

    2008-01-01

    We investigate convergence properties of a proposed distributed model predictive control (DMPC) scheme, where agents negotiate to compute an optimal consensus point using an incremental subgradient method based on primal decomposition as described in Johansson et al. [2006, 2007]. The objective of the distributed control strategy is to agree upon and achieve an optimal common output value for a group of agents in the presence of constraints on the agent dynamics using local predictive controllers. Stability analysis using a receding horizon implementation of the distributed optimal consensus scheme is performed. Conditions are given under which convergence can be obtained even if the negotiations do not reach full consensus.

  19. Bariatric Outcomes and Obesity Modeling: Study Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    from Picot et al ( HTA , 2009) BMI LOSS IS NON-LINEAR Source: Picot et al ( HTA , 2009) NATURAL HISTORY MODEL OVERVIEW Source: BOOM Research ANNUAL ESTIMATES...those above 30 BMI Source: BOOM Research ONE-WAY SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS Variables Reference values Minimum Maximum Early Mortality rate (%) 0.23 0 0.5... Early complication rate (%) 2.5 0 5 Sex F M F Age 45 18 70 BMI change at 5 years (%) 20% AGB or 30% GB -10% +10% Discount rate (%) 3 0 5 BMI at

  20. A Space Radiation Test Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-17

    approxiniationis fi iso - the course of the ssork. tit, other criterion was applied to the latirig the dominant contributions to the right-hand side of...these Iso end gics (t 17, ; .i rli rlc population ire assUrnd sufficietitv issues, at discussion oif eachi is necessary at the outset high rhir i7...Lopez, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 13485 , 1987. B-16 GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 14, NO. 11, PACES 1166-1169, NDVEM13ER 1981 A NONLINEAR MODEL OF WAVE

  1. The alcohol industry's way to discipline pleasure. Prevention campaigns aimed at Danish youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Houborg, Esben

    2011-01-01

    ) to analyze drug prevention campaigns in Sweden. After this a more detailed analysis of how the two campaigns articulate pleasure is done. Results – Both campaigns recognize recreational motives for consuming alcohol. In both campaigns pleasure is central to the regulation of alcohol consumption among young...... people. Both campaigns aim to associate alcohol consumption with a disciplined pleasure that does not involve intoxication. In this way alcohol policy becomes a politics of pleasure. Conclusion – Alcohol prevention that aims to moderate alcohol consumption among young people by associating alcohol......Aims – To analyze how two youth alcohol prevention campaigns funded by the Danish alcohol industry articulate the relationship between alcohol, intoxication and pleasure. Design – The two campaigns are first analyzed by applying an analytical model developed by Karlsson and Bergmark (2009...

  2. Students' Performance in Investigative Activity and Their Understanding of Activity Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Alessandro Damasio Trani; Borges, A. Tarciso; Justi, Rosaria

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the students' understanding of the aims of an investigative activity and their performance when conducting it. One hundred and eighty-one year nine students from a public middle school in Brazil took part in the study. Students working in pairs were asked to investigate two problems using a…

  3. Evaluation of methods aimed at complete removal of template from molecularly imprinted polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellwanger, A; Berggren, C; Bayoudh, S; Crecenzi, C; Karlsson, L; Owens, PK; Ensing, K; Cormack, P; Sherrington, D; Sellergren, B

    2001-01-01

    Polymers imprinted with clenbuterol were used to study the influence of various post-polymerization treatments [e.g., thermal annealing, microwave assisted extraction (MAE), Soxhlet extraction and supercritical fluid template desorption] on the bleeding of residual template. The aim of the study was

  4. A description of bicycle and moped rider accidents aimed to indicate priorities for injury prevention research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbers, J.J.W.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the study is to indicate priorities in the field of bicycle and moped injury prevention research, based on criteria given. The study is a part of a preparation for a SWOV accident investigation project that has to identify and to gratify factors influencing injuries of pedestrians, cyclis

  5. Evaluation of methods aimed at complete removal of template from molecularly imprinted polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellwanger, A; Berggren, C; Bayoudh, S; Crecenzi, C; Karlsson, L; Owens, PK; Ensing, K; Cormack, P; Sherrington, D; Sellergren, B

    2001-01-01

    Polymers imprinted with clenbuterol were used to study the influence of various post-polymerization treatments [e.g., thermal annealing, microwave assisted extraction (MAE), Soxhlet extraction and supercritical fluid template desorption] on the bleeding of residual template. The aim of the study was

  6. Early Parenting Intervention Aimed at Maternal Sensitivity and Discipline: A Process Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Mirjam N.; Mesman, Judi; van Zeijl, Jantien; Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Juffer, Femmie; Koot, Hans M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of the intervention process on the effectiveness of a program aimed at promoting positive parenting. The study involved a homogeneous intervention sample (N = 120) of mothers and their 1-, 2-, or 3-year-old children screened for high levels of externalizing problems. The alliance between mother and intervener,…

  7. What Aims, what Motives? Determining Research Priorities in the International Indian Ocean Expedition, 1960-1965

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doel, R.

    2016-12-01

    Fundamental tensions affected planning for United States involvement in the International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE). At the highest levels of the US state, science advisors and State Department officials praised the proposed Indian Ocean research plan—loosely modeled on the recently completed International Geophysical Year of 1957-58—as a way of promoting scientific internationalism, seeing this undertaking as a way to help bring India more firmly within the Western sphere amid Cold War East-West conflicts. Dwight D. Eisenhower's presidential science advisor, George Kistiakowsky, had the IIOE in mind when he advised the National Security Council that a key role science could play in American foreign relations lay "in relation with the neutral and less-developed countries." At the same time, American scientists invited to take part in the Indian Ocean Expedition—while generally sympathetic with U.S. foreign policy aims—prioritized research programs in the physical branches of the environmental sciences. While policy-makers hoped to encourage biological research, with the aim of encouraging fisheries and protein production to aid Indian citizens, earth scientists—better-funded, better-organized, supported by military agencies because their studies were crucial to national security—came to dominate the IIOE. While the IIOE was later judged a success, for it extended long-running research programs in physical and chemical oceanography into a less-explored ocean, hopes to advance biological programs on an equal footing proved premature.

  8. A simple model for studying interacting networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjia; Jolad, Shivakumar; Schmittmann, Beate; Zia, R. K. P.

    2011-03-01

    Many specific physical networks (e.g., internet, power grid, interstates), have been characterized in considerable detail, but in isolation from each other. Yet, each of these networks supports the functions of the others, and so far, little is known about how their interactions affect their structure and functionality. To address this issue, we consider two coupled model networks. Each network is relatively simple, with a fixed set of nodes, but dynamically generated set of links which has a preferred degree, κ . In the stationary state, the degree distribution has exponential tails (far from κ), an attribute which we can explain. Next, we consider two such networks with different κ 's, reminiscent of two social groups, e.g., extroverts and introverts. Finally, we let these networks interact by establishing a controllable fraction of cross links. The resulting distribution of links, both within and across the two model networks, is investigated and discussed, along with some potential consequences for real networks. Supported in part by NSF-DMR-0705152 and 1005417.

  9. Modelling study of dimerization in mammalian defensins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Chandra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Defensins are antimicrobial peptides of innate immunity functioning by non-specific binding to anionic phospholipids in bacterial membranes. Their cationicity, amphipathicity and ability to oligomerize are considered key factors for their action. Based on structural information on human β-defensin 2, we examine homologous defensins from various mammalian species for conserved functional physico-chemical characteristics. Results Based on homology greater than 40%, structural models of 8 homologs of HBD-2 were constructed. A conserved pattern of electrostatics and dynamics was observed across 6 of the examined defensins; models backed by energetics suggest that the defensins in these 6 organisms are characterized by dimerization-linked enhanced functional potentials. In contrast, dimerization is not energetically favoured in the sheep, goat and mouse defensins, suggesting that they function efficiently as monomers. Conclusion β-defensin 2 from some mammals may work as monomers while those in others, including humans, work as oligomers. This could potentially be used to design human defensins that may be effective at lower concentrations and hence have therapeutic benefits.

  10. A Study of the Simulation Model in WCDMA Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ In this dissertation, we establish an end-to-end simulation model for the performance evaluation of WCDMA/ATM-based third-generation cellular systems where we take into account the quality of services in the integrated voice-data environment. This dissertation aims to provide a framework for performance analysis and evaluation of algorithms in mobile networks. In order to model such a complicated system, three challenges face us: modeling the wireless channel, modeling the traffic sources and modeling the broadband access network. In Chapter 1, the architecture of this system simulation model is concisely described. The author's contribution is to propose an abstract model of the air interface that has the same abstraction level as the broadband access network, which makes the integration of radio links and transport infrastructure feasible. The most important parts of this dissertation are in-depth researches on the three critical problems we mentioned above. Foreach topic, we derive an analytical model and implement it using Block Oriented Network Simulator (BONeS) of Cadence Corporation, USA.In Chapter 2, a digital channel model is established based on the simulation testbed which has developed successfully in the wireless communication laboratory in BUPT. This channel model is a key block in the abstract air-interface simulation module. The author's contributions are:

  11. An Empirical Study on the Determinants of Anxiety in Gift-Giving Behavior: An Expansion of Wooten's Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Han; Takahiro Chiba; Shingoh Iketani; Akinori ONO

    2008-01-01

    Why so many givers become anxious in gift giving? Wooten (2000) provided an answer to the question by proposing a model of gifting anxiety. However, his model is lack of quantitative analysis to support its empirical adequacy. This study aims to expand Wooten's model with additional nine determinants of gifting anxiety and verify the expanded model by conducting quantitative analysis based on consumer surveys. The results show that givers' gifting anxiety arises when highly motivated to impre...

  12. Performance Estimation of Networked Business Models: Case Study on a Finnish eHealth Service Project

    OpenAIRE

    Marikka Heikkilä; Sam Solaimani; Aki Soudunsaari; Mila Hakanen; Leni Kuivaniemi; Mari Suoranta

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to propose and demonstrate a framework for estimating performance in a networked business model. Design/methodology/approach: Our approach is design science, utilising action research in studying a case of four independent firms in Health & Wellbeing sector aiming to jointly provide a new service for business and private customers. The duration of the research study is 3 years. Findings: We propose that a balanced set of performance indicators...

  13. Persistent longitudinal variations in 8 years of CIPS/AIM polar mesospheric clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Yue, Jia; Xu, Jiyao; Yuan, Wei; Russell, James M.; Hervig, M. E.; Nakamura, Takuji

    2016-07-01

    The Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument on the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite provides an opportunity to study the longitudinal variation in polar mesospheric cloud (PMC). We examined the longitudinal variation in PMC albedo using 8 years (2007-2014) of observations from the CIPS instrument. The results show that the PMC albedo in the Southern Hemisphere (SH), especially in the latitude band of 80°S-85°S, is persistently low ( 65% relative to the rest of the hemisphere) within 60°W to 150°W longitude. In the Northern Hemisphere (NH), however, PMC albedo is found to be relatively zonally asymmetry. Harmonic analyses show that the persistent longitudinal variation in the SH PMC albedo is due to zonal wave numbers 1 through 4 (WN1-WN4) processes with minima in the longitude range of 60°W-150°W. The influence of temperature and H2O on the longitudinal variation of the PMC albedo is discussed based on results obtained using a simple 0-D PMC model and temperature from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Sounding of the Atmosphere with Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) and H2O from MLS. The modeled region of low ice mass in the SH is generally consistent with that of low PMC albedo seen in CIPS. Tidal analyses using the SABER temperatures indicate that the nonmigrating semidiurnal tides with modes of S0, W1, and E1 might be the main drivers of the persistent longitudinal variations of PMC albedo in the SH. Nonmigrating tides are much weaker in the NH and consistent with the observed lack of longitudinal variability in PMC albedo.

  14. Modeling and simulation of queuing system for customer service improvement: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Tan Chai; Hong, Chai Weng; Hawari, Nurul Nazihah

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to develop a queuing model at UniMall by using discrete event simulation approach in analyzing the service performance that affects customer satisfaction. The performance measures that considered in this model are such as the average time in system, the total number of student served, the number of student in waiting queue, the waiting time in queue as well as the maximum length of buffer. ARENA simulation software is used to develop a simulation model and the output is analyzed. Based on the analysis of output, it is recommended that management of UniMall consider introducing shifts and adding another payment counter in the morning.

  15. Study on Modeling and Control Strategy for Electric Drive Motor of Tracked Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖自力; 黄苏融; 马晓军; 庞宾宾

    2012-01-01

    Aimed at the requirements for electric transmission system of a military tracked vehicle, the motor' s design indexes were analysed and calculated. A model based on saturate inductance parameter of interior permanent magnet (IPM) synchronous motor was brought forward by using finite element analysis. And its control strategy based on the largest running capability was studied also. The experiment resuhs for a scale model show that the modelling method improves the model' s accuracy, and the motor' s control strategy is effective.

  16. Psychological well-being, personality traits, and aims of life in university students

    OpenAIRE

    Páramo, Maria de los Angeles; Facultad de Psicologia. Universidad del Aconcagua. Mendoza. Argentina.; Straniero, Cristina Mariana; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad del Aconcagua, Mendoza, Argentina. Instituto de Investigaciones Psicológicas, Universidad del Aconcagua, Mendoza, Argentina.; García, Claudia Silvina; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad del Aconcagua, Mendoza, Argentina. Instituto de Investigaciones Psicológicas, Universidad del Aconcagua, Mendoza, Argentina.; Torrecilla, Norma Mariana; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad del Aconcagua, Mendoza, Argentina. Instituto de Investigaciones Psicológicas, Universidad del Aconcagua, Mendoza, Argentina.; Escalante Gómez, Eduardo; Instituto de Investigaciones Psicológicas, Universidad del Aconcagua, Mendoza, Argentina.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study measures the degree of psychological well-being (PW), its relation with personality traits and the aims of life (AL) of Psychology students. One of the main factors that contributes to the PW is personality. Investigations show that people’s AL are closely connected with the self perception of the PW. This study will be approached from T. Millon’s theory and its general aim is to establish the existing relation between subjective well-being and personality styles in univ...

  17. Comparative study on mode split discrete choice models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianlong Chen; Xiaoqian Liu; Fazhi Li

    2013-01-01

    Discrete choice model acts as one of the most important tools for studies involving mode split in the context of transport demand forecast. As different types of discrete choice models display their merits and restrictions diversely, how to properly select the specific type among discrete choice models for realistic application still remains to be a tough problem. In this article, five typical discrete choice models for transport mode split are, respectively, discussed, which includes multinomial logit model, nested logit model (NL), heteroscedastic extreme value model, multinominal probit model and mixed multinomial logit model (MMNL). The theoretical basis and application attributes of these five models are especially analysed with great attention, and they are also applied to a realistic intercity case of mode split forecast, which results indi-cating that NL model does well in accommodating simi-larity and heterogeneity across alternatives, while MMNL model serves as the most effective method for mode choice prediction since it shows the highest reliability with the least significant prediction errors and even outperforms the other four models in solving the heterogeneity and similarity problems. This study indicates that conclusions derived from a single discrete choice model are not reli-able, and it is better to choose the proper model based on its characteristics.

  18. What is interaction science? Revisiting the aims and scope of JoIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Susanne Bahr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interaction Science has undergone rapid development since JoIS’ (the Journal of Interaction Science founding in 2013. The advent of novel techniques and tools required reviewing the understanding of Interaction Science and the scope and aims of JoIS. More particularly, the set of methods and frameworks needed to be revisited and checked against the characteristics of today’s ecological system and the resulting requirements for developing socio-technical systems. In this editorial, we tackle the interdisciplinary nature of Human-Computer-Interaction, the different thematic areas in Interaction Science, and diverse scientific research methods (and methodologies. We also examine the JoIS articles published so far, in order to provide a sound baseline for re-defining Interaction Science and update the mission of JoIS accordingly. The newly proposed definition of Interaction Science explicitly takes into account diversity and transdisciplinarity of interactional phenomena. We recognize the action space of Interaction Science being complex and ever-changing, and thus opt for wide generalization. Such way, the interaction is considered as the exchange of material or immaterial goods between acting parties (biological or technical entities embodied in a certain context. Regarding scientific methodology, one of the important proposals relevant to JoIS is to relax emphasize on the use of empirical investigation based on traditional laboratory experiment. Traditional laboratory empiricism (usually empowered by statistics and hypothesis testing is too restrictive to exclusively represent JoIS’ aims and scope, so we make way to complementary methods such as modeling, simulation, case studies, and design as science. By acknowledging studies of new methodologies, metrics and measurements, as well as work grounded in theories and applications, we ask for future contributors to stay committed to the TEAM (Theory advancement, Empirical advancement

  19. Laboratory and Modeling Studies of Insect Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-10

    control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. Yale University Office of Sponsored Projects 25 Science Park - 3rd Floor New Haven...Center for the Study of Ecological Perception and Action, Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut (October, 2014) (invited seminar

  20. Improving the analysis of designed studies by combining statistical modelling with study design information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thissen, U.; Wopereis, S.; van Berg, S.A.A.; Bobeldijk, I.; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.; van Dijk, K.W.; van Ommen, B.; Smilde, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In the fields of life sciences, so-called designed studies are used for studying complex biological systems. The data derived from these studies comply with a study design aimed at generating relevant information while diminishing unwanted variation (noise). Knowledge about the study