Sample records for modelling soil water

  1. Modeling Water Pollution of Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Doležel


    Full Text Available The government of the Czech Republic decided that in the location to the west of Prague, capital city of the Czech Republic, some deep mines should be closed because of their low efficiency of coal mined i.e. small amounts and low quality of the coal extracted in the final stage of mining. The locations near Prague influenced the decision to do maintenance on the abandoned mines, as the thread of soil pollution was unacceptably high in the neighborhood of the capital city. Before the mines were closed it was necessary to separate existed extensive horizontal location of salt water below a clay layer in order not to deteriorate the upper fresh water. The salt water could not be allowed to pollute the upper layer with the fresh water, as many wells in villages in the neighborhood of the former mines would be contaminated. Two horizontal clay layers (an insulator and a semi-insulator separated the two horizons containing salt water and fresh water. Before starting deep mining, vertical shafts had to be constructed with concrete linings to enable the miners to access the depths. The salt water was draining away throughout the existence of the mine. The drainage was designed very carefully to avoid possible infiltration of salt water into the upper horizon. Before the mines were abandoned it was necessary to prevent contact between the two kinds of waters in the shafts. Several options were put forward, the most efficient of which appeared to be one that proposed filling the shafts with spoil soil and creating a joint seal made of disparate material at the interface between the salt water and fresh water to create a reliable stopper. The material for the spoil soil was delivered from deposits located not far from the shafts. This material consisted of a variety of grains of sand, big boulders of slate, slaty clay, sandstone, etc.. Chemical admixtures were considered to improve the flocculation of the filling material. The stopper was positioned at a

  2. Modeling Water Pollution of Soil


    V. Doležel; P. Procházka; V. Křístek


    The government of the Czech Republic decided that in the location to the west of Prague, capital city of the Czech Republic, some deep mines should be closed because of their low efficiency of coal mined i.e. small amounts and low quality of the coal extracted in the final stage of mining. The locations near Prague influenced the decision to do maintenance on the abandoned mines, as the thread of soil pollution was unacceptably high in the neighborhood of the capital city. Before the mines we...

  3. Modelling soil-water dynamics in the rootzone of structured and water-repellent soils (United States)

    Brown, Hamish; Carrick, Sam; Müller, Karin; Thomas, Steve; Sharp, Joanna; Cichota, Rogerio; Holzworth, Dean; Clothier, Brent


    In modelling the hydrology of Earth's critical zone, there are two major challenges. The first is to understand and model the processes of infiltration, runoff, redistribution and root-water uptake in structured soils that exhibit preferential flows through macropore networks. The other challenge is to parametrise and model the impact of ephemeral hydrophobicity of water-repellent soils. Here we have developed a soil-water model, which is based on physical principles, yet possesses simple functionality to enable easier parameterisation, so as to predict soil-water dynamics in structured soils displaying time-varying degrees of hydrophobicity. Our model, WEIRDO (Water Evapotranspiration Infiltration Redistribution Drainage runOff), has been developed in the APSIM Next Generation platform (Agricultural Production Systems sIMulation). The model operates on an hourly time-step. The repository for this open-source code is We have carried out sensitivity tests to show how WEIRDO predicts infiltration, drainage, redistribution, transpiration and soil-water evaporation for three distinctly different soil textures displaying differing hydraulic properties. These three soils were drawn from the UNSODA (Unsaturated SOil hydraulic Database) soils database of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). We show how preferential flow process and hydrophobicity determine the spatio-temporal pattern of soil-water dynamics. Finally, we have validated WEIRDO by comparing its predictions against three years of soil-water content measurements made under an irrigated alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) trial. The results provide validation of the model's ability to simulate soil-water dynamics in structured soils.

  4. Modeling of soil-water-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Tian

    to dynamic ocean waves. The goal of this research project is to develop numerical soil models for computing realistic seabed response in the interacting offshore environment, where ocean waves, seabed and offshore structure highly interact with each other. The seabed soil models developed are based...... as the developed nonlinear soil displacements and stresses under monotonic and cyclic loading. With the FVM nonlinear coupled soil models as a basis, multiphysics modeling of wave-seabed-structure interaction is carried out. The computations are done in an open source code environment, OpenFOAM, where FVM models...... of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and structural mechanics are available. The interaction in the system is modeled in a 1-way manner: First detailed free surface CFD calculations are executed to obtain a realistic wave field around a given structure. Then the dynamic structural response, due to the motions...

  5. Modeling and Prediction of Soil Water Vapor Sorption Isotherms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per


    Soil water vapor sorption isotherms describe the relationship between water activity (aw) and moisture content along adsorption and desorption paths. The isotherms are important for modeling numerous soil processes and are also used to estimate several soil (specific surface area, clay content.......93) for a wide range of soils; and (ii) develop and test regression models for estimating the isotherms from clay content. Preliminary results show reasonable fits of the majority of the investigated empirical and theoretical models to the measured data although some models were not capable to fit both sorption...... directions accurately. Evaluation of the developed prediction equations showed good estimation of the sorption/desorption isotherms for tested soils....

  6. Multifractal Model of Soil Water Erosion (United States)

    Oleshko, Klaudia


    Breaking of solid surface symmetry during the interaction between the rainfall of high erosivity index and internally unstable volcanic soil/vegetation systems, results in roughness increasing as well as fertile horizon loosing. In these areas, the sustainability of management practices depends on the ability to select and implement the precise indicators of soil erodibility and vegetation capacity to protect the system against the extreme damaging precipitation events. Notwithstanding, the complex, non-linear and scaling nature of the phenomena involved in the interaction among the soil, vegetation and precipitation is still not taken into account by the numerous commonly used empirical, mathematical and computer simulation models: for instance, by the universal soil loss equation (USLE). The soil erodibility factor (K-factor) is still measuring by a set of empirical, dimensionless parameters and indexes, without taking into account the scaling (frequently multifractal) origin of a broad range of heterogeneous, anisotropic and dynamical phenomena involved in hydric erosion. Their mapping is not representative of this complex system spatial variability. In our research, we propose to use the toolbox of fractals and multifractals techniques in vista of its ability to measure the scale invariance and type/degree of soil, vegetation and precipitation symmetry breaking. The hydraulic units are chosen as the precise measure of soil/vegetation stability. These units are measured and modeled for soils with contrasting architecture, based on their porosity/permeability (Poroperm) as well as retention capacity relations. The simple Catalog of the most common Poroperm relations is proposed and the main power law relations among the elements of studied system are established and compared for some representative agricultural and natural Biogeosystems of Mexico. All resulted are related with the Mandelbrot' Baby Theorem in order to construct the universal Phase Diagram which

  7. Hydrologic behavior of model slopes with synthetic water repellent soils (United States)

    Zheng, Shuang; Lourenço, Sérgio D. N.; Cleall, Peter J.; Chui, Ting Fong May; Ng, Angel K. Y.; Millis, Stuart W.


    In the natural environment, soil water repellency decreases infiltration, increases runoff, and increases erosion in slopes. In the built environment, soil water repellency offers the opportunity to develop granular materials with controllable wettability for slope stabilization. In this paper, the influence of soil water repellency on the hydrological response of slopes is investigated. Twenty-four flume tests were carried out in model slopes under artificial rainfall; soils with various wettability levels were tested, including wettable (Contact Angle, CA 90°). Various rainfall intensities (30 mm/h and 70 mm/h), slope angles (20° and 40°) and relative compactions (70% and 90%) were applied to model the response of natural and man-made slopes to rainfall. To quantitatively assess the hydrological response, a number of measurements were made: runoff rate, effective rainfall rate, time to ponding, time to steady state, runoff acceleration, total water storage and wetting front rate. Overall, an increase in soil water repellency reduces infiltration and shortens the time for runoff generation, with the effects amplified for high rainfall intensity. Comparatively, the slope angle and relative compaction had only a minor contribution to the slope hydrology. The subcritical water repellent soils sustained infiltration for longer than both the wettable and water repellent soils, which presents an added advantage if they are to be used in the built environment as barriers. This study revealed substantial impacts of man-made or synthetically induced soil water repellency on the hydrological behavior of model slopes in controlled conditions. The results shed light on our understanding of hydrological processes in environments where the occurrence of natural soil water repellency is likely, such as slopes subjected to wildfires and in agricultural and forested slopes.

  8. Validation of a spatial–temporal soil water movement and plant water uptake model

    KAUST Repository



    © 2014, (publisher). All rights reserved. Management and irrigation of plants increasingly relies on accurate mathematical models for the movement of water within unsaturated soils. Current models often use values for water content and soil parameters that are averaged over the soil profile. However, many applications require models to more accurately represent the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum, in particular, water movement and saturation within specific parts of the soil profile. In this paper a mathematical model for water uptake by a plant root system from unsaturated soil is presented. The model provides an estimate of the water content level within the soil at different depths, and the uptake of water by the root system. The model was validated using field data, which include hourly water content values at five different soil depths under a grass/herb cover over 1 year, to obtain a fully calibrated system for plant water uptake with respect to climate conditions. When compared quantitatively to a simple water balance model, the proposed model achieves a better fit to the experimental data due to its ability to vary water content with depth. To accurately model the water content in the soil profile, the soil water retention curve and saturated hydraulic conductivity needed to vary with depth.

  9. Modeling soil water content for vegetation modeling improvement (United States)

    Cianfrani, Carmen; Buri, Aline; Zingg, Barbara; Vittoz, Pascal; Verrecchia, Eric; Guisan, Antoine


    Soil water content (SWC) is known to be important for plants as it affects the physiological processes regulating plant growth. Therefore, SWC controls plant distribution over the Earth surface, ranging from deserts and grassland to rain forests. Unfortunately, only a few data on SWC are available as its measurement is very time consuming and costly and needs specific laboratory tools. The scarcity of SWC measurements in geographic space makes it difficult to model and spatially project SWC over larger areas. In particular, it prevents its inclusion in plant species distribution model (SDMs) as predictor. The aims of this study were, first, to test a new methodology allowing problems of the scarcity of SWC measurements to be overpassed and second, to model and spatially project SWC in order to improve plant SDMs with the inclusion of SWC parameter. The study was developed in four steps. First, SWC was modeled by measuring it at 10 different pressures (expressed in pF and ranging from pF=0 to pF=4.2). The different pF represent different degrees of soil water availability for plants. An ensemble of bivariate models was built to overpass the problem of having only a few SWC measurements (n = 24) but several predictors to include in the model. Soil texture (clay, silt, sand), organic matter (OM), topographic variables (elevation, aspect, convexity), climatic variables (precipitation) and hydrological variables (river distance, NDWI) were used as predictors. Weighted ensemble models were built using only bivariate models with adjusted-R2 > 0.5 for each SWC at different pF. The second step consisted in running plant SDMs including modeled SWC jointly with the conventional topo-climatic variable used for plant SDMs. Third, SDMs were only run using the conventional topo-climatic variables. Finally, comparing the models obtained in the second and third steps allowed assessing the additional predictive power of SWC in plant SDMs. SWC ensemble models remained very good, with

  10. Modeling the soil system: Bridging the gap between pedology and soil-water physics (United States)

    Braudeau, Erik; Mohtar, Rabi H.


    The biological and geochemical processes in soil such as organic matter mineralization, microbiological activity, and plant alimentation can be accurately assessed and modeled only with the knowledge of the thermodynamic status of the soil medium where these processes take place. However, current soil water models do not define and characterize the soil structure or the thermodynamic state of the soil water interacting with this structure. This article presents a new paradigm in characterizing and modeling the organized soil medium and the physical properties resulting from this organization. It describes a framework of the modeling approach as a contribution to the General Systems theory. The basic concept of Representative Elementary Volume (REV) in soil physics and hydrology was transformed into the concept of Structure Representative Volume (SREV) which takes into account the hierarchical organization of the structured soil medium. The pedostructure is defined as the SREV of the soil medium and this concept is at the basis of the new paradigm including variables, equations, parameters, and units in soil physics, in a similar way that the REV is at the basis of the continuous porous media mechanics applied to soils. The paradigm allows for a thermodynamic characterization of the structured soil medium with respect to soil water content then bridging the gap between pedology and soil physics. We show that the two points of view (REV and SREV) are complementary and must be used in the scaling of information. This approach leads to a new dimension in soil-water properties characterization that ensures a physically based modeling of processes in soil and the transfer of information from the physical scale of processes (pedostructure or laboratory measurements scale) to the application scale of the other disciplines (modeling and mapping scale).

  11. The influence of stony soil properties on water dynamics modeled by the HYDRUS model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlaváčiková Hana


    Full Text Available Stony soils are composed of two fractions (rock fragments and fine soil with different hydrophysical characteristics. Although stony soils are abundant in many catchments, their properties are still not well understood. This manuscript presents an application of the simple methodology for deriving water retention properties of stony soils, taking into account a correction for the soil stoniness. Variations in the water retention of the fine soil fraction and its impact on both the soil water storage and the bottom boundary fluxes are studied as well. The deterministic water flow model HYDRUS-1D is used in the study. The results indicate that the presence of rock fragments in a moderate-to-high stony soil can decrease the soil water storage by 23% or more and affect the soil water dynamics. Simulated bottom fluxes increased or decreased faster, and their maxima during the wet period were larger in the stony soil compared to the non-stony one.

  12. Agent-based model of soil water dynamics (United States)

    Mewes, Benjamin; Schumann, Andreas


    In the last decade, agent based modelling became more and more popular in social science, biology and environmental modelling. The concept is designed to simulate systems that are highly dynamic and sensitive to small variations in their composition and their state. As hydrological systems often show dynamic and nonlinear behaviour, agent based modelling can be an adequate way to model aquatic systems. Nevertheless, up to now only a few results on agent based modelling are known in hydrology. Processes like the percolation of water through the soil are highly responsive to the state of the pedological system. To simulate these water fluxes correctly by known approaches like the Green-Ampt model or approximations to the Richards equation, small time steps and a high spatial discretisation are needed. In this study a new approach for modelling water fluxes in a soil column is presented: autonomous water agents that transport water through the soil while interacting with their environment as well as with other agents under physical laws. Setting up an agent-based model requires a predefined rule set for the behaviour of the autonomous agents. Moreover, we present some principle assumptions of the interaction not only between agents, but as well between agents and their environment. Our study shows that agent-based modelling in hydrology leads to very promising results but we also have to face new challenges.

  13. Modelling Soil Water Retention for Weed Seed Germination Sensitivity to Water Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. John Bullied


    Full Text Available Soil water retention is important for the study of water availability to germinating weed seeds. Six soil water retention models (Campbell, Brooks-Corey, four- and five-parameter van Genuchten, Tani, and Russo with residual soil water parameter derivations were evaluated to describe water retention for weed seed germination at minimum threshold soil water potential for three hillslope positions. The Campbell, Brooks-Corey, and four-parameter van Genuchten model with modified or estimated forms of the residual parameter had superior but similar data fit. The Campbell model underestimated water retention at a potential less than −0.5 MPa for the upper hillslope that could result in underestimating seed germination. The Tani and Russo models overestimated water retention at a potential less than −0.1 MPa for all hillslope positions. Model selection and residual parameter specification are important for weed seed germination by representing water retention at the level of minimum threshold water potential for germination. Weed seed germination models driven by the hydrothermal soil environment rely on the best-fitting soil water retention model to produce dynamic predictions of seed germination.

  14. Modelling soil water content variations under drought stress on soil column cropped with winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csorba Szilveszter


    Full Text Available Mathematical models are effective tools for evaluating the impact of predicted climate change on agricultural production, but it is difficult to test their applicability to future weather conditions. We applied the SWAP model to assess its applicability to climate conditions, differing from those, for which the model was developed. We used a database obtained from a winter wheat drought stress experiment. Winter wheat was grown in six soil columns, three having optimal water supply (NS, while three were kept under drought-stressed conditions (S. The SWAP model was successfully calibrated against measured values of potential evapotranspiration (PET, potential evaporation (PE and total amount of water (TSW in the soil columns. The Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (N-S for TWS for the stressed columns was 0.92. For the NS treatment, we applied temporally variable soil hydraulic properties because of soil consolidation caused by regular irrigation. This approach improved the N-S values for the wetting-drying cycle from -1.77 to 0.54. We concluded that the model could be used for assessing the effects of climate change on soil water regime. Our results indicate that soil water balance studies should put more focus on the time variability of structuredependent soil properties.

  15. Estimation of root water uptake parameters by inverse modeling with soil water content data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hupet, F.; Lambot, S.; Feddes, R.A.; Dam, van J.C.; Vanclooster, M.


    In this paper we have tested the feasibility of the inverse modeling approach to derive root water uptake parameters (RWUP) from soil water content data using numerical experiments for three differently textured soils and for an optimal drying period. The RWUP of interest are the rooting depth and

  16. Scenario Analysis of Soil and Water Conservation in Xiejia Watershed Based on Improved CSLE Model (United States)

    Liu, Jieying; Yu, Ming; Wu, Yong; Huang, Yao; Nie, Yawen


    According to the existing research results and related data, use the scenario analysis method, to evaluate the effects of different soil and water conservation measures on soil erosion in a small watershed. Based on the analysis of soil erosion scenarios and model simulation budgets in the study area, it is found that all scenarios simulated soil erosion rates are lower than the present situation of soil erosion in 2013. Soil and water conservation measures are more effective in reducing soil erosion than soil and water conservation biological measures and soil and water conservation tillage measures.

  17. Modeling plant competition for soil water balance in Water-limited Mediterranean Ecosystems (United States)

    Cortis, C.; Montaldo, N.


    In heterogeneous ecosystems, such Mediterranean ecosystems, contrasting plant functional types (PFTs, e.g., grass and woody vegetation) compete for the water use. In these complex ecosystems current modeling approaches need to be improved due to a general lack of knowledge about the relationship between ET and the plant survival strategies for the different PFTs under water stress. Indeed, still unsolved questions are: how the PFTs (in particular the root systems) compete for the water use, the impact of this competition on the water balance terms, and the role of the soil type and soil depth in this competition. For this reasons an elaborated coupled Vegetation dynamic model (VDM) - land surface model (LSM) model able to also predict root distribution of competing plant systems is developed. The transport of vertical water flow in the unsaturated soil is modelled through a Richards’ equation based model. The water extraction (sink) term is considered as the root water uptake. Two VDMs predict vegetation dynamics, including spatial and temporal distribution/evolution of the root systems in the soil of two competing species (grass and woody vegetation). An innovative method for solving the unlinear system of predicting equations is proposed. The coupled model is able to predict soil and root water potential of the two competing plant species. The model is tested for the Orroli case study, situated in the mid-west of Sardinia within the Flumendosa river watershed. The site landscape is a mixture of Mediterranean patchy vegetation types: trees, including wild olives and coark oaks, different shrubs and herbaceous species. In particular two contrasting plant functional types (grass and woody vegetation) have been included. The model well predict the soil moisture and vegetation dynamics for the case study, and significantly different root potentials are predicted for the two PFTs, highlighting the root competition for the water use. The soil depth is low in the case

  18. A one-dimensional model for simulating soil water movement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... regression analysis revealed the relati-onship to be exponential. The values of calculated and measured soil water content and total evapotranspiration decreased with number of days after rain or irrigation. The nodal soil water content also decreased with the soil depth. (Journal of Applied Science and Technology: 2001 ...

  19. Spatial Irrigation Management Using Remote Sensing Water Balance Modeling and Soil Water Content Monitoring (United States)

    Barker, J. Burdette

    Spatially informed irrigation management may improve the optimal use of water resources. Sub-field scale water balance modeling and measurement were studied in the context of irrigation management. A spatial remote-sensing-based evapotranspiration and soil water balance model was modified and validated for use in real-time irrigation management. The modeled ET compared well with eddy covariance data from eastern Nebraska. Placement and quantity of sub-field scale soil water content measurement locations was also studied. Variance reduction factor and temporal stability were used to analyze soil water content data from an eastern Nebraska field. No consistent predictor of soil water temporal stability patterns was identified. At least three monitoring locations were needed per irrigation management zone to adequately quantify the mean soil water content. The remote-sensing-based water balance model was used to manage irrigation in a field experiment. The research included an eastern Nebraska field in 2015 and 2016 and a western Nebraska field in 2016 for a total of 210 plot-years. The response of maize and soybean to irrigation using variations of the model were compared with responses from treatments using soil water content measurement and a rainfed treatment. The remote-sensing-based treatment prescribed more irrigation than the other treatments in all cases. Excessive modeled soil evaporation and insufficient drainage times were suspected causes of the model drift. Modifying evaporation and drainage reduced modeled soil water depletion error. None of the included response variables were significantly different between treatments in western Nebraska. In eastern Nebraska, treatment differences for maize and soybean included evapotranspiration and a combined variable including evapotranspiration and deep percolation. Both variables were greatest for the remote-sensing model when differences were found to be statistically significant. Differences in maize yield in

  20. Modeling Soil Water Retention Curves in the Dry Range Using the Hygroscopic Water Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chong; Hu, Kelin; Arthur, Emmanuel


    Accurate information on the dry end (matric potential less than −1500 kPa) of soil water retention curves (SWRCs) is crucial for studying water vapor transport and evaporation in soils. The objectives of this study were to assess the potential of the Oswin model for describing the water adsorption...... curves of soils and to predict SWRCs at the dry end using the hygroscopic water content at a relative humidity of 50% (θRH50). The Oswin model yielded satisfactory fits to dry-end SWRCs for soils dominated by both 2:1 and 1:1 clay minerals. Compared with the Oswin model, the Campbell and Shiozawa model...... for soils dominated by 2:1 and 1:1 clays, respectively. Comparison of the Oswin model combined with the Kelvin equation, with water potential estimated from θRH50 (Oswin-KRH50), CS model combined with the Arthur equation (CS-A), and CS-K model, with water potential obtained from θRH50 (CS-KRH50) indicated...

  1. A multi-scale "soil water structure" model based on the pedostructure concept


    Braudeau, Erik; Mohtar, R.H.; El Ghezal, Nadim; Crayol, M.; Salahat, M.; Martin, P.


    Current soil water models do not take into account the internal organization of the soil medium and, a fortiori, the physical interaction between the water film surrounding the solid particles of the soil structure, and the surface charges of this structure. In that sense they empirically deal with the physical soil properties that are all generated from this soil water-structure interaction. As a result, the thermodynamic state of the soi...

  2. A pragmatic approach to modelling soil and water conservation measures with a cathment scale erosion model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel, R.; Tenge, A.J.M.


    To reduce soil erosion, soil and water conservation (SWC) methods are often used. However, no method exists to model beforehand how implementing such measures will affect erosion at catchment scale. A method was developed to simulate the effects of SWC measures with catchment scale erosion models.

  3. Horizontal soil water potential heterogeneity: simplifying approaches for crop water dynamics models (United States)

    Couvreur, V.; Vanderborght, J.; Beff, L.; Javaux, M.


    Soil water potential (SWP) is known to affect plant water status, and even though observations demonstrate that SWP distribution around roots may limit plant water availability, its horizontal heterogeneity within the root zone is often neglected in hydrological models. As motive, using a horizontal discretisation significantly larger than one centimetre is often essential for computing time considerations, especially for large-scale hydrodynamics models. In this paper, we simulate soil and root system hydrodynamics at the centimetre scale and evaluate approaches to upscale variables and parameters related to root water uptake (RWU) for two crop systems: a densely seeded crop with an average uniform distribution of roots in the horizontal direction (winter wheat) and a wide-row crop with lateral variations in root density (maize). In a first approach, the upscaled water potential at soil-root interfaces was assumed to equal the bulk SWP of the upscaled soil element. Using this assumption, the 3-D high-resolution model could be accurately upscaled to a 2-D model for maize and a 1-D model for wheat. The accuracy of the upscaled models generally increased with soil hydraulic conductivity, lateral homogeneity of root distribution, and low transpiration rate. The link between horizontal upscaling and an implicit assumption on soil water redistribution was demonstrated in quantitative terms, and explained upscaling accuracy. In a second approach, the soil-root interface water potential was estimated by using a constant rate analytical solution of the axisymmetric soil water flow towards individual roots. In addition to the theoretical model properties, effective properties were tested in order to account for unfulfilled assumptions of the analytical solution: non-uniform lateral root distributions and transient RWU rates. Significant improvements were however only noticed for winter wheat, for which the first approach was already satisfying. This study confirms that the

  4. Evaluation of a simulation model for predicting soil-water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The soils particle size distribution (specifically, percent clay and sand) and organic matter contents were inputted into the model to simulate soil moisture status at ... with observed parameters from laboratory tests using root mean square error (RMSE), coefficient of variation (CV), modeling efficiency (BF) and coefficient of ...

  5. Model development for prediction of soil water dynamics in plant production. (United States)

    Hu, Zhengfeng; Jin, Huixia; Zhang, Kefeng


    Optimizing water use in agriculture and medicinal plants is crucially important worldwide. Soil sensor-controlled irrigation systems are increasingly becoming available. However it is questionable whether irrigation scheduling based on soil measurements in the top soil could make best use of water for deep-rooted crops. In this study a mechanistic model was employed to investigate water extraction by a deep-rooted cabbage crop from the soil profile throughout crop growth. The model accounts all key processes governing water dynamics in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Results show that the subsoil provides a significant proportion of the seasonal transpiration, about a third of water transpired over the whole growing season. This suggests that soil water in the entire root zone should be taken into consideration in irrigation scheduling, and for sensor-controlled irrigation systems sensors in the subsoil are essential for detecting soil water status for deep-rooted crops.

  6. Water retention of repellent and subcritical repellent soils: New insights from model and experimental investigations (United States)

    Czachor, H.; Doerr, S. H.; Lichner, L.


    SummarySoil organic matter can modify the surface properties of the soil mineral phase by changing the surface tension of the mineral surfaces. This modifies the soil's solid-water contact angle, which in turn would be expected to affect its water retention curve (SWRC). Here we model the impact of differences in the soil pore-water contact angle on capillarity in non-cylindrical pores by accounting for their complex pore geometry. Key outcomes from the model include that (i) available methods for measuring the Young's wetting angle on soil samples are insufficient in representing the wetting angle in the soil pore space, (ii) the wetting branch of water retention curves is strongly affected by the soil pore-water contact angle, as manifest in the wetting behavior of water repellent soils, (iii) effects for the drying branch are minimal, indicating that both wettable and water repellent soils should behave similarly, and (vi) water retention is a feature not of only wettable soils, but also soils that are in a water repellent state. These results are tested experimentally by determining drying and wetting branches for (a) 'model soil' (quartz sands with four hydrophobization levels) and (b) five field soil samples with contrasting wettability, which were used with and without the removal of the soil organic matter. The experimental results support the theoretical predictions and indicate that small changes in wetting angle can cause switches between wettable and water repellent soil behavior. This may explain the common observation that relatively small changes in soil water content can cause substantial changes in soil wettability.

  7. An efficient soil water balance model based on hybrid numerical and statistical methods (United States)

    Mao, Wei; Yang, Jinzhong; Zhu, Yan; Ye, Ming; Liu, Zhao; Wu, Jingwei


    Most soil water balance models only consider downward soil water movement driven by gravitational potential, and thus cannot simulate upward soil water movement driven by evapotranspiration especially in agricultural areas. In addition, the models cannot be used for simulating soil water movement in heterogeneous soils, and usually require many empirical parameters. To resolve these problems, this study derives a new one-dimensional water balance model for simulating both downward and upward soil water movement in heterogeneous unsaturated zones. The new model is based on a hybrid of numerical and statistical methods, and only requires four physical parameters. The model uses three governing equations to consider three terms that impact soil water movement, including the advective term driven by gravitational potential, the source/sink term driven by external forces (e.g., evapotranspiration), and the diffusive term driven by matric potential. The three governing equations are solved separately by using the hybrid numerical and statistical methods (e.g., linear regression method) that consider soil heterogeneity. The four soil hydraulic parameters required by the new models are as follows: saturated hydraulic conductivity, saturated water content, field capacity, and residual water content. The strength and weakness of the new model are evaluated by using two published studies, three hypothetical examples and a real-world application. The evaluation is performed by comparing the simulation results of the new model with corresponding results presented in the published studies, obtained using HYDRUS-1D and observation data. The evaluation indicates that the new model is accurate and efficient for simulating upward soil water flow in heterogeneous soils with complex boundary conditions. The new model is used for evaluating different drainage functions, and the square drainage function and the power drainage function are recommended. Computational efficiency of the new

  8. The continuous similarity model of bulk soil-water evaporation (United States)

    Clapp, R. B.


    The continuous similarity model of evaporation is described. In it, evaporation is conceptualized as a two stage process. For an initially moist soil, evaporation is first climate limited, but later it becomes soil limited. During the latter stage, the evaporation rate is termed evaporability, and mathematically it is inversely proportional to the evaporation deficit. A functional approximation of the moisture distribution within the soil column is also included in the model. The model was tested using data from four experiments conducted near Phoenix, Arizona; and there was excellent agreement between the simulated and observed evaporation. The model also predicted the time of transition to the soil limited stage reasonably well. For one of the experiments, a third stage of evaporation, when vapor diffusion predominates, was observed. The occurrence of this stage was related to the decrease in moisture at the surface of the soil. The continuous similarity model does not account for vapor flow. The results show that climate, through the potential evaporation rate, has a strong influence on the time of transition to the soil limited stage. After this transition, however, bulk evaporation is independent of climate until the effects of vapor flow within the soil predominate.

  9. A vegetation-focused soil-plant-atmospheric continuum model to study hydrodynamic soil-plant water relations (United States)

    Deng, Zijuan; Guan, Huade; Hutson, John; Forster, Michael A.; Wang, Yunquan; Simmons, Craig T.


    A novel simple soil-plant-atmospheric continuum model that emphasizes the vegetation's role in controlling water transfer (v-SPAC) has been developed in this study. The v-SPAC model aims to incorporate both plant and soil hydrological measurements into plant water transfer modeling. The model is different from previous SPAC models in which v-SPAC uses (1) a dynamic plant resistance system in the form of a vulnerability curve that can be easily obtained from sap flow and stem xylem water potential time series and (2) a plant capacitance parameter to buffer the effects of transpiration on root water uptake. The unique representation of root resistance and capacitance allows the model to embrace SPAC hydraulic pathway from bulk soil, to soil-root interface, to root xylem, and finally to stem xylem where the xylem water potential is measured. The v-SPAC model was tested on a native tree species in Australia, Eucalyptus crenulata saplings, with controlled drought treatment. To further validate the robustness of the v-SPAC model, it was compared against a soil-focused SPAC model, LEACHM. The v-SPAC model simulation results closely matched the observed sap flow and stem water potential time series, as well as the soil moisture variation of the experiment. The v-SPAC model was found to be more accurate in predicting measured data than the LEACHM model, underscoring the importance of incorporating root resistance into SPAC models and the benefit of integrating plant measurements to constrain SPAC modeling.

  10. The desorptivity model of bulk soil-water evaporation (United States)

    Clapp, R. B.


    Available models of bulk evaporation from a bare-surfaced soil are difficult to apply to field conditions where evaporation is complicated by two main factors: rate-limiting climatic conditions and redistribution of soil moisture following infiltration. Both factors are included in the "desorptivity model', wherein the evaporation rate during the second stage (the soil-limiting stage) of evaporation is related to the desorptivity parameter, A. Analytical approximations for A are presented. The approximations are independent of the surface soil moisture. However, calculations using the approximations indicate that both soil texture and soil moisture content at depth significantly affect A. Because the moisture content at depth decreases in time during redistribution, it follows that the A parameter also changes with time. Consequently, a method to calculate a representative value of A was developed. When applied to field data, the desorptivity model estimated cumulative evaporation well. The model is easy to calculate, but its usefulness is limited because it requires an independent estimate of the time of transition between the first and second stages of evaporation. The model shows that bulk evaporation after the transition to the second stage is largely independent of climatic conditions.

  11. New methods For Modeling Transport Of Water And Solutes In Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Per

    Recent models for water and solute transport in unsaturated soils have been mechanistically based but numerically very involved. This dissertation concerns the development of mechanistically-based but numerically simple models for calculating and analyzing transport of water and solutes in soil s...

  12. Characteristics of soil stability and carbon sequestration under water storage and drainage model (United States)

    Li, J.; Han, J. C.; Chen, C.; Yang, J. J.


    This research was conducted to investigate the influence of saline alkali soil on soil physical properties, stability and organic carbon storage under water storage and drainage, and to provide scientific basis for improving soil quality in Fuping County of Shaanxi Province, China. Saline alkali soil model test was conducted and the process was assessed with two different methods: i) traditional drainage and ecological water storage, measure and analyze 0-30 cm soil bulk density, porosity, field water capacity, mean mass diameter (MWD), geological mean diameter (GMD), stability of water stable aggregate (WASR), aggregate destruction rate (PAD), fractal dimension (D) and; ii) organic carbon storage, comprehensively analyze the relationship between stability index and soil organic carbon. The results show that: (1) compared with traditional drainage treatment, water treatment may effectively reduce the soil bulk density by 1.3%-4.2%, and improve soil porosity and field capacity at the same time; (2) under dry and wet screen treatment, soil stability, the water storing treatment is higher than the drainage treatment. Performance trend of soil MWD and GMD increases with the increase of soil depth. The stability of soil water stable aggregates increased 14.5%-53.4%. The average aggregate destruction rate was 3.2% lower than that of the drainage treatment and the difference is obvious (Pfractal dimension and soil organic carbon storage. The correlation coefficient is, respectively, R2=0.86 and R2=0.94, and the difference is obvious (P<0.05). To sum up, the water storage treatment can effectively improve the soil quality, improve soil stability and soil organic carbon storage, which can be a good control of saline alkali soil.

  13. Ensemble kalman filtering to perform data assimilation with soil water content probes and pedotransfer functions in modeling water flow in variably saturated soils (United States)

    Data from modern soil water contents probes can be used for data assimilation in soil water flow modeling, i.e. continual correction of the flow model performance based on observations. The ensemble Kalman filter appears to be an appropriate method for that. The method requires estimates of the unce...

  14. Validation of water sorption-based clay prediction models for calcareous soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Moosavi, Ali


    . The low organic carbon content of the soils and the low fraction of low-activity clay minerals like kaolinite suggested that the clay content under-predictions were due to large CaCO3 contents. Thus, for such water-sorption based models to work accurately for calcareous soils, a correction factor......Soil particle size distribution (PSD), particularly the active clay fraction, mediates soil engineering, agronomic and environmental functions. The tedious and costly nature of traditional methods of determining PSD prompted the development of water sorption-based models for determining the clay...... fraction. The applicability of such models to semi-arid soils with significant amounts of calcium carbonate and/or gypsum is unknown. The objective of this study was to validate three water sorption-based clay prediction models for 30 calcareous soils from Iran and identify the effect of CaCO3...

  15. Modeling Bacteria-Water Interactions in Soil: EPS Dynamics Under Evaporative Conditions (United States)

    Furrer, J.; Hinestroza, H. F.; Guo, Y. S.; Gage, D. J.; Cho, Y. K.; Shor, L. M.


    The soil habitat represents a major linkage between the water and carbon cycles: the ability of soils to sequester or release carbon is determined primarily by soil moisture. Water retention and distribution in soils controls the abundance and activity of soil microbes. Microbes in turn impact water retention by creating biofilms, composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). We model the effects of bacterial EPS on water retention at the pore scale. We use the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), a well-established fluid dynamics modeling platform, and modify it to include the effects of water uptake and release by the swelling/shrinking EPS phase. The LB model is implemented in 2-D, with a non-ideal gas equation of state that allows condensation and evaporation of fluid in pore spaces. Soil particles are modeled according to experimentally determined particle size distributions and include realistic pore geometries, in contrast to many soil models which use spherical soil particles for simplicity. Model results are compared with evaporation experiments in soil micromodels and other simpler experimental systems, and model parameters are tuned to match experimental results. Drying behavior and solid-gel contact angle of EPS produced by the soil bacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti has been characterized and compared to the behavior of deionized water under the same conditions. The difference in behavior between the fluids is used to parameterize the model. The model shows excellent qualitative agreement for soil micromodels with both aggregated and non-aggregated particle arrangements under no-EPS conditions, and reproduces realistic drying behavior for EPS. This work represents a multi-disciplinary approach to understanding microbe-soil interactions at the pore scale.

  16. Modeling of soil water content and soil temperature at selected U.S. and central European stations using SoilClim model (United States)

    Hlavinka, P.; Trnka, M.; Balek, J.; Zalud, Z.; Hayes, M.; Svoboda, M.; Eitzinger, J.


    Within the presented study the SoilClim model was tested through various climatic and soil conditions. SoilClim model enables to estimate reference and actual evapotranspiration from defined vegetation cover and consequently the soil water content within two defined layers (named as Moisture control section I and II) could be deduced. The soil temperature in 0.5 m depth is also estimated (on the basis of simple empirical model). Mentioned outputs could be additionally used for identification of soil climate regimes (both Hydric and Thermic) within selected location. The SoilClim works in daily step and needs daily maximum and minimum air temperature, global radiation, precipitation, air humidity and wind speed as input. The brief information about soil layers (field capacity, wilting point, depth) and vegetation cover is necessary. The algorithm for reference evapotranspiration is based on Penman-Monteith method. The main aim of the study was to assess accuracy and suitability of the SoilClim for simulation of soil water content in the two defined layers and temperature in 0.50 m depth. For this purpose the seven stations through central U.S. were selected (by twos from Nebraska, Iowa and Kansas and one from South Dakota). Used measurements were observed from 2004 to 2008. The central European region was represented by Austrian Lysimetric station Gross-Enzersdorf. The data within three different soil profiles and for various crop covers (spring barley, winter wheat, maize and potato) from 1999 to 2004 were used. During introduced reserch SoilClim provided reasonable results of soil moisture for both layers against lysimetric measurements. Agreement between measured and estimated water content (30 days averages) could be described by coefficient of determination (R2) which varied from 0.45 to 0.75. The Mean Bias Error (MBE) for values in daily step was from -12.87 % to 20.66 % and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) varied from 14.49 % to 34.76 %. The modeling efficiency

  17. A comparison of simulation models for predicting soil water dynamics in bare and vegetated lysimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, S.O.; Kickert, R.N.; Fayer, M.J.; Gee, G.W.


    This report describes the results of simulation models used to predict soil water storage dynamics at the Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) weighing lysimeters. The objectives of this research is to develop the capability to predict soil water storage dynamics with plants in support of water infiltration control studies for the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program. It is important to gain confidence in one`s ability to simulate soil water dynamics over long time periods to assess the barrier`s ability to prevent drainage. Two models were compared for their ability to simulate soil water storage dynamics with and without plants in weighing lysimeters, the soil water infiltration and movement (SWIM) and the simulation of production and utilization of rangelands (SPUR-91) models. These models adequately simulated soil water storage dynamics for the weighing lysimeters. The range of root mean square error values for the two models was 7.0 to 19.8. This compares well with the range reported by Fayer et al. (1992) for the bare soil data sets of 8.1 to 22.1. Future research will test the predictive capability of these models for longer term lysimeter data sets and for historical data sets collected in various plant community types.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Igbadun


    Full Text Available The ability of the Soil Water Characteribtics-Hydraulic Calculator (SWC-HPC model in predicting soi-water agricultural fields in Zaria, Nigeria, was tested and reprted in this study. The goal was to establish the predictability and reliability of the nodel, and hence, its use in determining water characteristics of soils in the stud/ area. Forty soil samples collected from four irrigation sites were used in the valuation. The soils particle size distribution (specifically, percent clay and sand and organic matter contents were inputted into the model to simulate soil moistur; status at saturation, field capacity and wilting point, soil bulk density and saturated hydraulic conductivity. The model outputs were statistically compared with observed parameters from laboratory tests using root mean square error (RMSE, c< ^efficient of variation (CV, modeling efficiency (EF and coefficient of residual mass (CRM. The model accurately simulated the observed bulk densities of the soil tested, satisfactorily simulated soil moisture content at field capacity, and mot lerately simulated moisture content at saturation and wilting point. The model lowever, poorly simulated saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soils tested. The SWC-HPC may therefore be used only to simulate soil bulk densities and moistui e status at saturation, field capacity and wilting point in the study locations.

  19. Numerical modeling of coupled water flow and heat transport in soil and snow (United States)

    Thijs J. Kelleners; Jeremy Koonce; Rose Shillito; Jelle Dijkema; Markus Berli; Michael H. Young; John M. Frank; William Massman


    A one-dimensional vertical numerical model for coupled water flow and heat transport in soil and snow was modified to include all three phases of water: vapor, liquid, and ice. The top boundary condition in the model is driven by incoming precipitation and the surface energy balance. The model was applied to three different terrestrial systems: A warm desert bare...

  20. [Simulation of effects of soil properties and plants on soil water-salt movement with reclaimed water irrigation by ENVIRO-GRO model]. (United States)

    Lü, Si-Dan; Chen, Wei-Ping; Wang, Mei-E


    In order to promote safe irrigation with reclaimed water and prevent soil salinisation, the dynamic transport of salts in urban soils of Beijing under irrigation of reclaimed water was simulated by ENVIRO-GRO model in this study. The accumulation trends and profile distribution of soil salinity were predicted. Simultaneously, the effects of different soil properties and plants on soil water-salt movement and salt accumulation were investigated. Results indicated that soil salinity in the profiles reached uniform equilibrium conditions by repeated simulation, with different initial soil salinity. Under the conditions of loam and clay loam soil, salinity in the profiles increased over time until reaching equilibrium conditions, while under the condition of sandy loam soil, salinity in the profiles decreased over time until reaching equilibrium conditions. The saturated soil salinity (EC(e)) under equilibrium conditions followed an order of sandy loam soil salinity were also different in these three types of plants. In addition, the growth of the plants was not influenced by soil salinity (except clay loam), but mild soil salinization occurred under all conditions (except sandy loam).

  1. LBA-ECO LC-14 Modeled Soil and Plant Water Balance, Amazon Basin, 1995-2001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: A simple GIS soil-water balance model for the Amazon Basin, called RisQue (Risco de Queimadasa -- Fire Risk), was used to conduct an analysis of spatial...

  2. LBA-ECO LC-14 Modeled Soil and Plant Water Balance, Amazon Basin, 1995-2001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A simple GIS soil-water balance model for the Amazon Basin, called RisQue (Risco de Queimadasa -- Fire Risk), was used to conduct an analysis of spatial and temporal...

  3. Implementing a physical soil water flow model with minimal soil characteristics and added value offered by surface soil moisture measurements assimilation. (United States)

    Chanzy, André


    Soil moisture is a key variable for many soil physical and biogeochemical processes. Its dynamic results from water fluxes in soil and at its boundaries, as well as soil water storage properties. If the water flows are dominated by diffusive processes, modelling approaches based on the Richard's equation or the Philip and de Vries coupled heat and water flow equations lead to a satisfactory representation of the soil moisture dynamic. However, It requires the characterization of soil hydraulic functions, the initialisation and the boundary conditions, which are expensive to obtain. The major problem to assess soil moisture for decision making or for representing its spatiotemporal evolution over complex landscape is therefore the lack of information to run the models. The aim of the presentation is to analyse how a soil moisture model can be implemented when only climatic data and basic soil information are available (soil texture, organic matter) and what would be the added of making a few soil moisture measurements. We considered the field scale, which is the key scale for decision making application (the field being the management unit for farming system) and landscape modelling (field size being comparable to the computation unit of distributed hydrological models). The presentation is limited to the bare soil case in order to limit the complexity of the system and the TEC model based on Philip and De Vries equations is used in this study. The following points are addressed: o the within field spatial variability. This spatial variability can be induced by the soil hydraulic properties and/or by the amount of infiltrated water induced by water rooting towards infiltration areas. We analyse how an effective parameterization of soil properties and boundary conditions can be used to simulate the field average moisture. o The model implementation with limited information. We propose strategies that can be implemented when information are limited to soil texture and

  4. A Simple Beta-Function Model for Soil-Water Repellency as a Function of Water and Organic Carbon Contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunarathna, Anurudda Kumara; Kawamoto, Ken; Møldrup, Per


    WR(θ) models is still lacking. In this study, a simple empirical beta function was suggested to describe the effect of changing soil-water content on the change of WR given as apparent contact angle (α) measured by the molarity of ethanol droplet (MED) method. The beta function for predicting α......Soil-water content (θ) and soil organic carbon (SOC) are key factors controlling the occurrence and magnitude of soil-water repellency (WR). Although expressions have recently been proposed to describe the nonlinear variation of WR with θ, the inclusion of easily measurable parameters in predictive......(θ) is based on measurement of WR on air-dry soil and three additional model parameters: the water contents at which the maximum WR (highest α) occurs and where WR ceases (α = 90 degrees), and the maximum α value. The MED data for three data sets from literature comprising WR measurements across moisture...

  5. Experimental support and estimate of the accuracy of the water flow model in structured soils (United States)

    Nikulina, M.


    The set of models of water flow and solute transport was developed. It takes into account spatial and time variability of soil properties and a complex structure of a soil pore space. However, its limited by physically justified methods of experimental definition of parameters. The important stage of the work with the models is checking their adequacy to described processes. It is possible only at a presence of the qualitative experi-mental data received under conditions, reproduced by model. According to this, the aim of the work is the support of methods of experimental maintenance of water flow models with taking into account of structure of soil porosity and evaluation of conditions of application of mathematical models of a dif-ferent level. The field experiments were conducted in Suzdal (Russia, Vladimirskaja oblast), in June and July 1997. The soil cover of this region has high complexity, in which grey forest soils are dominant. Genetic horizons of the grey forest soils are well structured, this causes the presence in soil profile the macropores. The field investigation consisted of three big parts: (1) the morphological research of the genetic horizons of the grey forest soil; (2) investigation of the soil filtration properties by the tube with a constant head and vacuum-infiltrometer methods; (3) study of water movement at different intensity of the irrigation. Experiments were conducted on three sets called , and . The plots had 1m x 1m a size and were equipped with the hole for measurement of soil water content by the neutron hygrometer and by the tensiometers. In labo-ratory conditions the following properties of soil were determined: density of soil, texture, porosity of the aggregates, shrinkage characteristics of soil fraction in diameter of 3-5 mm. For the simulation the model "MACRO" (Jarvis et al, 1991) was used in the work. Adequacy of the model descriptions of the field data were estimated by visual comparison of measured and calculated data

  6. Heat and Water Transport in Soils and Across the Soil-Atmosphere Interface: Comparison of Model Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderborght, Jan; Smits, Kathleen; Mosthaf, Klaus

    models were found. The effect of vapor flow in the porous medium on cumulative evaporation could be evaluated using the desorptivity, Sevap, which represents a weighted average of liquid and vapor diffusivity over the range of soil water contents between the soil surface water content and the initial......Evaporation from the soil surface represents a water flow and transport process in a porous medium that is coupled with free air flow and with heat fluxes in the system. We give an overview of different model concepts that are used to describe this process. These range from non-isothermal two......-phase flow two-component transport in the porous medium that is coupled with one-phase flow two-component transport in the free air to isothermal water flow in the porous with upper boundary conditions defined by a potential evaporation flux when available energy and transfer to the free air flow...

  7. Comparison of CERES, WOFOST and SWAP models in simulating soil water content during growing season under different soil conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eitzinger, J.; Trnka, M.; Hosch, J.; Žalud, Z.; Dubrovský, Martin


    Roč. 171, č. 3 (2004), s. 223-246 ISSN 0304-3800 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/02/0827 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : Winter wheat * Spring barley * Soil water balance * Model evaluation * Ecological modeling Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.652, year: 2004

  8. Estimation of water saturated permeability of soils, using 3D soil tomographic images and pore-level transport phenomena modelling (United States)

    Lamorski, Krzysztof; Sławiński, Cezary; Barna, Gyöngyi


    There are some important macroscopic properties of the soil porous media such as: saturated permeability and water retention characteristics. These soil characteristics are very important as they determine soil transport processes and are commonly used as a parameters of general models of soil transport processes used extensively for scientific developments and engineering practise. These characteristics are usually measured or estimated using some statistical or phenomenological modelling, i.e. pedotransfer functions. On the physical basis, saturated soil permeability arises from physical transport processes occurring at the pore level. Current progress in modelling techniques, computational methods and X-ray micro-tomographic technology gives opportunity to use direct methods of physical modelling for pore level transport processes. Physically valid description of transport processes at micro-scale based on Navier-Stokes type modelling approach gives chance to recover macroscopic porous medium characteristics from micro-flow modelling. Water microflow transport processes occurring at the pore level are dependent on the microstructure of porous body and interactions between the fluid and the medium. In case of soils, i.e. the medium there exist relatively big pores in which water can move easily but also finer pores are present in which water transport processes are dominated by strong interactions between the medium and the fluid - full physical description of these phenomena is a challenge. Ten samples of different soils were scanned using X-ray computational microtomograph. The diameter of samples was 5 mm. The voxel resolution of CT scan was 2.5 µm. Resulting 3D soil samples images were used for reconstruction of the pore space for further modelling. 3D image threshholding was made to determine the soil grain surface. This surface was triangulated and used for computational mesh construction for the pore space. Numerical modelling of water flow through the

  9. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Advanced Seismic Soil Structure Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolisetti, Chandrakanth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Coleman, Justin Leigh [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    of interest. The specific nonlinear soil behavior included in the NLSSI calculation presented in this report is gapping and sliding. Other NLSSI effects are not included in the calculation. The results presented in this report document initial model runs in the linear and nonlinear analysis process. Final comparisons between traditional and advanced SPRA will be presented in the September 30th deliverable.

  10. The impact of the soil surface properties in water erosion seen through LandSoil model sensitivity analysis (United States)

    Ciampalini, Rossano; Follain, Stéphane; Cheviron, Bruno; Le Bissonnais, Yves; Couturier, Alain; Walter, Christian


    Quantitative models of soil redistribution at the landscape scale are the current tools for understanding space-time processes in soil and landscape evolution. But models use larger and larger numbers of variables and sometimes it becomes difficult to understand their relative importance and model behaviours in critical conditions. Sensitivity analysis (SA) is widely used to clarify models behaviours, their structure giving fundamental information to ameliorate models their selves. We tested the LandSoil model (LANDscape design for SOIL conservation under soil use and climate change) a model designed for the analysis of agricultural landscape evolution at a fine spatial resolution scale [1-10 meters] and a mid-term temporal scale [10-100 years]. LandSoil is suitable for simulations from parcel to catchment scale. It is spatially distributed, event-based, and considers water and tillage erosion processes that use a dynamic representation of the agricultural landscape through parameters such as a monthly representation of soil surface properties. Our aim was to identify most significant parameters driving the model and to highlight potential particular/singular behaviours of parameter combinations and relationships. The approach was to use local sensitivity analysis, also termed 'one-factor-at-time' (OAT) which consists of a deterministic, derivative method, inquiring the local response O to a particular input factor Pi at a specified point P0 within the full input parameter space of the model expressed as: δO/δP = (O2-O1) / (P2-P1) The local sensitivity represents the partial derivatives of O with respect to Pi at the point P0. In the SA procedure the topographical entity is represented by a virtual hillslope on which soil loss and sensitivity are calculated. Virtual hillslope is inspired from the virtual catchment framework proposed by Cheviron at al. (2011): a fixed topology consisting of a 3X3 square pixel structure having 150 m length allowing to test

  11. Assessing HYDRUS-2D model to estimate soil water contents and olive tree transpiration fluxes under different water distribution systems (United States)

    Autovino, Dario; Negm, Amro; Rallo, Giovanni; Provenzano, Giuseppe


    In Mediterranean countries characterized by limited water resources for agricultural and societal sectors, irrigation management plays a major role to improve water use efficiency at farm scale, mainly where irrigation systems are correctly designed to guarantee a suitable application efficiency and the uniform water distribution throughout the field. In the last two decades, physically-based agro-hydrological models have been developed to simulate mass and energy exchange processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere (SPA) system. Mechanistic models like HYDRUS 2D/3D (Šimunek et al., 2011) have been proposed to simulate all the components of water balance, including actual crop transpiration fluxes estimated according to a soil potential-dependent sink term. Even though the suitability of these models to simulate the temporal dynamics of soil and crop water status has been reported in the literature for different horticultural crops, a few researches have been considering arboreal crops where the higher gradients of root water uptake are the combination between the localized irrigation supply and the three dimensional root system distribution. The main objective of the paper was to assess the performance of HYDRUS-2D model to evaluate soil water contents and transpiration fluxes of an olive orchard irrigated with two different water distribution systems. Experiments were carried out in Castelvetrano (Sicily) during irrigation seasons 2011 and 2012, in a commercial farm specialized in the production of table olives (Olea europaea L., var. Nocellara del Belice), representing the typical variety of the surrounding area. During the first season, irrigation water was provided by a single lateral placed along the plant row with four emitters per plant (ordinary irrigation), whereas during the second season a grid of emitters laid on the soil was installed in order to irrigate the whole soil surface around the selected trees. The model performance was assessed based on the

  12. Soil water regime in head water regions - observation, assessment and modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Miroslav; Šír, Miloslav; Syrovátka, Oldřich; Pražák, Josef; Lichner, Ľ.; Kubík, F.


    Roč. 49, č. 6 (2001), s. 355-375 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK3046108 Keywords : soil water regime * rainfall- runoff relationship * evapotranspiration Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  13. Modeling of Soil Water and Salt Dynamics and Its Effects on Root Water Uptake in Heihe Arid Wetland, Gansu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijie Li


    Full Text Available In the Heihe River basin, China, increased salinity and water shortages present serious threats to the sustainability of arid wetlands. It is critical to understand the interactions between soil water and salts (from saline shallow groundwater and the river and their effects on plant growth under the influence of shallow groundwater and irrigation. In this study, the Hydrus-1D model was used in an arid wetland of the Middle Heihe River to investigate the effects of the dynamics of soil water, soil salinization, and depth to water table (DWT as well as groundwater salinity on Chinese tamarisk root water uptake. The modeled soil water and electrical conductivity of soil solution (ECsw are in good agreement with the observations, as indicated by RMSE values (0.031 and 0.046 cm3·cm−3 for soil water content, 0.037 and 0.035 dS·m−1 for ECsw, during the model calibration and validation periods, respectively. The calibrated model was used in scenario analyses considering different DWTs, salinity levels and the introduction of preseason irrigation. The results showed that (I Chinese tamarisk root distribution was greatly affected by soil water and salt distribution in the soil profile, with about 73.8% of the roots being distributed in the 20–60 cm layer; (II root water uptake accounted for 91.0% of the potential maximal value when water stress was considered, and for 41.6% when both water and salt stress were considered; (III root water uptake was very sensitive to fluctuations of the water table, and was greatly reduced when the DWT was either dropped or raised 60% of the 2012 reference depth; (IV arid wetland vegetation exhibited a high level of groundwater dependence even though shallow groundwater resulted in increased soil salinization and (V preseason irrigation could effectively increase root water uptake by leaching salts from the root zone. We concluded that a suitable water table and groundwater salinity coupled with proper irrigation

  14. Evaluation of theoretical and empirical water vapor sorption isotherm models for soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Møldrup, Per


    sorption isotherms of building materials, food, and other industrial products, knowledge about the 24 applicability of these functions for soils is noticeably lacking. We present validation of nine models for characterizing adsorption/desorption isotherms for a water activity range from 0.03 to 0.......93 for 207 soils, widely varying in texture and organic carbon content. In addition the potential applicability of the models for prediction of sorption isotherms from known clay content was investigated. While in general all investigated models described measured adsorption and desorption isotherms......The mathematical characterization of water vapor sorption isotherms of soils is crucial for modeling processes such as volatilization of pesticides and diffusive and convective water vapor transport. Although numerous physically-based and empirical models were previously proposed to describe...

  15. A mathematical model for the transfer of soil solutes to runoff under water scouring. (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Wang, Quanjiu; Wu, Laosheng; Zhang, Pengyu; Zhao, Guangxu; Liu, Yanli


    The transfer of nutrients from soil to runoff often causes unexpected pollution in water bodies. In this study, a mathematical model that relates to the detachment of soil particles by water flow and the degree of mixing between overland flow and soil nutrients was proposed. The model assumes that the mixing depth is an integral of average water flow depth, and it was evaluated by experiments with three water inflow rates to bare soil surfaces and to surfaces with eight treatments of different stone coverages. The model predicted outflow rates were compared with the experimentally observed data to test the accuracy of the infiltration parameters obtained by curve fitting the models to the data. Further analysis showed that the comprehensive mixing coefficient (ke) was linearly correlated with Reynolds' number Re (R(2)>0.9), and this relationship was verified by comparing the simulated potassium concentration and cumulative mass with observed data, respectively. The best performance with the bias error analysis (Nash Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (NS), relative error (RE) and the coefficient of determination (R(2))) showed that the predicted data by the proposed model was in good agreement with the measured data. Thus the model can be used to guide soil-water and fertilization management to minimize nutrient runoff from cropland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimating water and nitrate leaching in tree crops using inverse modelled plant and soil hydraulic properties (United States)

    Couvreur, Valentin; Kandelous, Maziar; Mairesse, Harmony; Baram, Shahar; Moradi, Ahmad; Pope, Katrin; Hopmans, Jan


    Groundwater quality is specifically vulnerable in irrigated agricultural lands in California and many other (semi-)arid regions of the world. The routine application of nitrogen fertilizers with irrigation water in California is likely responsible for the high nitrate concentrations in groundwater, underlying much of its main agricultural areas. To optimize irrigation/fertigation practices, it is essential that irrigation and fertilizers are applied at the optimal concentration, place, and time to ensure maximum root uptake and minimize leaching losses to the groundwater. The applied irrigation water and dissolved fertilizer, root nitrate and water uptake interact with soil and root properties in a complex manner that cannot easily be resolved. It is therefore that coupled experimental-modelling studies are required to allow for unravelling of the relevant complexities that result from typical variations of crop properties, soil texture and layering across farmer-managed fields. A combined field monitoring and modelling approach was developed to quantify from simple measurements the leaching of water and nitrate below the root zone. The monitored state variables are soil water content within the root zone, soil matric potential below the root zone, and nitrate concentration in the soil solution. Plant and soil properties of incremented complexity are optimized with the software HYDRUS in an inverse modelling scheme, which allows estimating leaching under constraint of hydraulic principles. Questions of optimal irrigation and fertilization timing can then be addressed using predictive results and global optimization algorithms.

  17. Extension of the Hapke bidirectional reflectance model to retrieve soil water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.-J. Yang


    Full Text Available Soil moisture links the hydrologic cycle and the energy budget of land surfaces by regulating latent heat fluxes. An accurate assessment of the spatial and temporal variation of soil moisture is important to the study of surface biogeophysical processes. Although remote sensing has proven to be one of the most powerful tools for obtaining land surface parameters, no effective methodology yet exists for in situ soil moisture measurement based on a Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF model, such as the Hapke model. To retrieve and analyze soil moisture, this study applied the soil water parametric (SWAP-Hapke model, which introduced the equivalent water thickness of soil, to ground multi-angular and hyperspectral observations coupled with, Powell-Ant Colony Algorithm methods. The inverted soil moisture data resulting from our method coincided with in situ measurements (R2 = 0.867, RMSE = 0.813 based on three selected bands (672 nm, 866 nm, 2209 nm. It proved that the extended Hapke model can be used to estimate soil moisture with high accuracy based on the field multi-angle and multispectral remote sensing data.

  18. Modelling water fluxes in a pine wood soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. Comparison of a water budget and water flow model using different parameter data sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, S.; Jacques, D.; Mallants, D.


    For modelling complex hydrological problems, realistic models and accurate hydraulic properties are needed. A mechanistic model (HYDRUS-1D) and a compartment model are evaluated for simulating the water balance in a soil-vegetation-atmosphere system using time series of measured water content at several depths in two lysimeters in a podzol soil with Scots Pine vegetation. 10 calibration scenarios are used to investigate the impact of the model type and the number of horizons in the profile on the calibration accuracy. Main results are: (i) with a large number of soil layers, both models describe accurately the water contents at all depths, (II) the number of soil layers is the major factor that controls the quality of the calibration. The compartment model is as an abstracted model and the mechanistic model is our reference model. Drainage values are the considered output. Drainage values simulated by the abstracted model were close to those of the reference model when averaged over a sufficiently long period (about 9 months). This result suggests that drainage values obtained with an abstracted model are reliably when averaged over sufficiently long periods; the abstracted model needs less computational time without an important loss of accuracy.

  19. Extraction of soil water by plants: development and validation of a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. de Jong van Lier


    Full Text Available A quantitative model of water movement within the immediate vicinity of an individual root is developed and results of an experiment to validate the model are presented. The model is based on the assumption that the amount of water transpired by a plant in a certain period is replaced by an equal volume entering its root system during the same time. The model is based on the Darcy-Buckingham equation to calculate the soil water matric potential at any distance from a plant root as a function of parameters related to crop, soil and atmospheric conditions. The model output is compared against measurements of soil water depletion by rice roots monitored using γ-beam attenuation in a greenhouse of the Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"/Universidade de São Paulo(ESALQ/USP in Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in 1993. The experimental results are in agreement with the output from the model. Model simulations show that a single plant root is able to withdraw water from more than 0.1 m away within a few days. We therefore can assume that root distribution is a less important factor for soil water extraction efficiency.

  20. Modelling the effects of soil water potential on growth and quality of cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, L.; Li, W.; Shao, J.; Luo, W.; Dai, J.; Yin, X.; Zhou, Y.; Zhao, C.


    A complete dynamic model was developed to describe the effects of soil water potential (WP) on the growth and external quality of standard cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) in order to optimise water management of greenhouse crops. Experiments using chrysanthemum cv. ‘Jinba’ with

  1. Heat and water transport in soils and across the soil-atmosphere interface: 1. Theory and different model concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderborght, Jan; Fetzer, Thomas; Mosthaf, Klaus


    Evaporation is an important component of the soil water balance. It is composed of water flow and transport processes in a porous medium that are coupled with heat fluxes and free air flow. This work provides a comprehensive review of model concepts used in different research fields to describe...... evaporation. Concepts range from nonisothermal two-phase flow, two-component transport in the porous medium that is coupled with one-phase flow, two-component transport in the free air flow to isothermal liquid water flow in the porous medium with upper boundary conditions defined by a potential evaporation...... flux when available energy and transfer to the free airflow are limiting or by a critical threshold water pressure when soil water availability is limiting. The latter approach corresponds with the classical Richards equation with mixed boundary conditions. We compare the different approaches...

  2. Selection of a suitable model for the prediction of soil water content in north of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Esmaeelnejad


    Full Text Available Multiple Linear Regression (MLR, Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Rosetta model were employed to develop pedotransfers functions (PTFs for soil moisture prediction using available soil properties for northern soils of Iran. The Rosetta model is based on ANN works in a hierarchical approach to predict water retention curves. For this purpose, 240 soil samples were selected from the south of Guilan province, Gilevan region, northern Iran. The data set was divided into two subsets for calibration and testing of the models. The general performance of PTFs was evaluated using coefficient of determination (R2, root mean square error (RMSE and mean biased error between the observed and predicted values. Results showed that ANN with two hidden layers, Tan-sigmoid and linear functions for hidden and output layers respectively, performed better than the others in predicting soil moisture. In the other hand, ANN can model non-linear functions and showed to perform better than MLR. After ANN, MLR had better accuracy than Rosetta. The developed PTFs resulted in more accurate estimation at matric potentials of 100, 300, 500, 1000, 1500 kPa. Whereas, Rosetta model resulted in slightly better estimation than derived PTFs at matric potentials of 33 kPa. This research can provide the scientific basis for the study of soil hydraulic properties and be helpful for the estimation of soil water retention in other places with similar conditions, too.

  3. Structure-Dependent Water-Induced Linear Reduction Model for Predicting Gas Diffusivity and Tortuosity in Repacked and Intact Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Per; Chamindu, Deepagoda; Hamamoto, Shoichiro


    but also on the local-scale variability of these. Different predictive models have been developed to estimate Dp in intact and repacked soil, but clear guidelines for model choice at a given soil state are lacking. In this study, the water-induced linear reduction (WLR) model for repacked soil is made...

  4. Modeling Soil Water in the Caatinga Tropical Dry Forest of Northeastern Brazil (United States)

    Wright, C.; Wilcox, B.; Souza, E.; Lima, J. R. D. S.; West, J. B.


    The Caatinga is a tropical dry forest unique to northeastern Brazil. It has a relatively high degree of endism and supports a population of about 20 million subsistence farmers. However, it is poorly understood, under-researched and often over-looked in regards to other Brazilian ecosystems. It is a highly perturbed system that suffers from deforestation, land use change, and may be threatened by climate change. How these perturbations affect hydrology is unknown, but may have implications for biodiversity and ecosystem services and resiliency. Therefore, understanding key hydrological processes is critical, particularly as related to deforestation. In this study, Hydrus 1D, which is based on van Genuchten parameters to describe the soil water curve and Richard's Equation to describe flow in the vadose zone, was used to model soil moisture in the Caatinga ecosystem. The aim was 1) to compare hydraulic characterization between a forested Caatinga site and a deforested pasture site, 2) to analyze inter-annual variability, and 3) to compare with observed soil moisture data. Hydraulic characterization included hydraulic conductivity, infiltration, water content and pressure head trends. Van Genuchten parameters were derived using the Beerkan method, which is based on soil texture, particle distribution, as well as in-situ small-scale infiltration experiments. Observational data included soil moisture and precipitation logged every half-hour from September 2013 to April 2014 to include the dry season and rainy season. It is expected that the forested Caatinga site will have a higher hydraulic conductivity as well as retain higher soil moisture values. These differences may be amplified during the dry season, as water resources become scarce. Deviations between modeled data and observed data will allow for further hypothesis to be proposed, especially those related to soil water repellency. Hence, these results may indicate difference in soil water dynamics between a

  5. Crop growth and two dimensional modeling of soil water transport in drip irrigated potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Mollerup, Mikkel


    Drip irrigation can be an effective way to improve water and nitrogen use efficiency in soil and hence to reduce the environmental pollution. In the EU project SAFIR ( ) a potato experiment was carried out in lysimeters on three different soil types: coarse sand, loamy sand...... and sandy loam. An automatic roof was used to exclude the lysimeters from natural precipitation. The potatoes were drip irrigated following different strategies: Fully irrigated (FI), deficit irrigation (65% FI), and partial root zone drying (PRD). Gas exchange measurements were carried as well as sampling...... of abscisic acid (ABA). Model outputs from the mechanistic simulation model Daisy, in SAFIR developed to include 2D soil processes and gas exchange processes based on Ball et al. and Farquhar were compared with measured crop dynamics, final DM yield and volumetric water content in the soil measured by TDR...

  6. Two-Region Model for Soil Water Repellency as a Function of Matric Potential and Water Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunarathna, A. K.; Møldrup, Per; Kawamoto, K.


    Soil water repellency (WR) occurs worldwide and affects hydrologic processes such as infiltration, preferential flow, and surface erosion. The degree of WR varies with soil organic C (SOC) and water contents. In this study, we measured WR (by ethanol molarity) as a function of moisture conditions......[-ψ], where ψ is the soil water matric potential in centimeters of H2O) plot, with linear increase in WR from the moisture content where WR first occurs during drying to the maximum WR at pFWR-max, and a linear decrease from pFWR-max until ambient air-dried conditions. The van Genuchten soil water retention...... model was used to convert WR-θ (where θ is the volumetric water content) to WR-pF. The TRWR model fitting parameters, slopes, and intercepts, were all highly correlated with SOC (R2 > 0.8). The TRWR model was tested against an independent data set for five soils with 2 to 12% SOC and predicted well...

  7. Dual-permeability model for water flow and solute transport in shrinking soils (United States)

    Coppola, Antonio; Gerke, Horst; Comegna, Alessandro; Basile, Angelo


    A dual-permeability approach was extended to describe preferential water flow and solute transport in shrinking soils. In the approach, the soil is treated as a dual-permeability bulk porous medium consisting of dynamic interacting matrix and fractures pore domains. Water flow and solute transport in both the domains are described by the Richards' equation and advection-dispersion equation, respectively. In the model the contributions of the two regions to water flow and solute transport is changed dynamically according to the shrinkage characteristic exhibited under soil drying. Aggregate deformation during wetting/drying cycles is assumed to change only the relative proportions of voids in the fractures and in the aggregates, while the total volume of pores (and thus the layer thickness) remains unchanged. Thus, the partial contributions of the fracture and aggregate domains, are now a function of the water content (or the pressure head h), while their sum, the bulk porosity, is assumed to be constant. Any change in the aggregate contribution to total porosity is directly converted into a proportional change in the fracture porosity. This means that bulk volume change during shrinkage is mainly determined by change in crack volume rather than by change in layer thickness. This simplified approach allows dealing with an expansive soil as with a macroscopically rigid soil. The model was already tested by investigating whether and how well hydraulic characteristics obtained under the assumption of "dynamic" dual-permeability hydraulic parameterizations, or, alternatively, assuming the rigidity of the porous medium, reproduced measured soil water contents in a shrinking soil. Here we will discuss theoretical implications of the model in terms of relative importance of the parameters involved. The relative importance will be evaluated for different flow and transport processes and for different initial and top boundary conditions. Key words: Preferential flow and

  8. Inferring Soil Moisture Memory from Streamflow Observations Using a Simple Water Balance Model (United States)

    Orth, Rene; Koster, Randal Dean; Seneviratne, Sonia I.


    Soil moisture is known for its integrative behavior and resulting memory characteristics. Soil moisture anomalies can persist for weeks or even months into the future, making initial soil moisture a potentially important contributor to skill in weather forecasting. A major difficulty when investigating soil moisture and its memory using observations is the sparse availability of long-term measurements and their limited spatial representativeness. In contrast, there is an abundance of long-term streamflow measurements for catchments of various sizes across the world. We investigate in this study whether such streamflow measurements can be used to infer and characterize soil moisture memory in respective catchments. Our approach uses a simple water balance model in which evapotranspiration and runoff ratios are expressed as simple functions of soil moisture; optimized functions for the model are determined using streamflow observations, and the optimized model in turn provides information on soil moisture memory on the catchment scale. The validity of the approach is demonstrated with data from three heavily monitored catchments. The approach is then applied to streamflow data in several small catchments across Switzerland to obtain a spatially distributed description of soil moisture memory and to show how memory varies, for example, with altitude and topography.

  9. Soil Water Retention Curve (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.; Kim, J.; Cifelli, R.; Chandra, C. V.


    Potential water retention, S, is one of parameters commonly used in hydrologic modeling for soil moisture accounting. Physically, S indicates total amount of water which can be stored in soil and is expressed in units of depth. S can be represented as a change of soil moisture content and in this context is commonly used to estimate direct runoff, especially in the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number (CN) method. Generally, the lumped and the distributed hydrologic models can easily use the SCS-CN method to estimate direct runoff. Changes in potential water retention have been used in previous SCS-CN studies; however, these studies have focused on long-term hydrologic simulations where S is allowed to vary at the daily time scale. While useful for hydrologic events that span multiple days, the resolution is too coarse for short-term applications such as flash flood events where S may not recover its full potential. In this study, a new method for estimating a time-variable potential water retention at hourly time-scales is presented. The methodology is applied for the Napa River basin, California. The streamflow gage at St Helena, located in the upper reaches of the basin, is used as the control gage site to evaluate the model performance as it is has minimal influences by reservoirs and diversions. Rainfall events from 2011 to 2012 are used for estimating the event-based SCS CN to transfer to S. As a result, we have derived the potential water retention curve and it is classified into three sections depending on the relative change in S. The first is a negative slope section arising from the difference in the rate of moving water through the soil column, the second is a zero change section representing the initial recovery the potential water retention, and the third is a positive change section representing the full recovery of the potential water retention. Also, we found that the soil water moving has traffic jam within 24 hours after finished first

  10. Comparing the Goodness of Different Statistical Criteria for Evaluating the Soil Water Infiltration Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mirzaee


    Full Text Available Introduction: The infiltration process is one of the most important components of the hydrologic cycle. Quantifying the infiltration water into soil is of great importance in watershed management. Prediction of flooding, erosion and pollutant transport all depends on the rate of runoff which is directly affected by the rate of infiltration. Quantification of infiltration water into soil is also necessary to determine the availability of water for crop growth and to estimate the amount of additional water needed for irrigation. Thus, an accurate model is required to estimate infiltration of water into soil. The ability of physical and empirical models in simulation of soil processes is commonly measured through comparisons of simulated and observed values. For these reasons, a large variety of indices have been proposed and used over the years in comparison of infiltration water into soil models. Among the proposed indices, some are absolute criteria such as the widely used root mean square error (RMSE, while others are relative criteria (i.e. normalized such as the Nash and Sutcliffe (1970 efficiency criterion (NSE. Selecting and using appropriate statistical criteria to evaluate and interpretation of the results for infiltration water into soil models is essential because each of the used criteria focus on specific types of errors. Also, descriptions of various goodness of fit indices or indicators including their advantages and shortcomings, and rigorous discussions on the suitability of each index are very important. The objective of this study is to compare the goodness of different statistical criteria to evaluate infiltration of water into soil models. Comparison techniques were considered to define the best models: coefficient of determination (R2, root mean square error (RMSE, efficiency criteria (NSEI and modified forms (such as NSEjI, NSESQRTI, NSElnI and NSEiI. Comparatively little work has been carried out on the meaning and

  11. Assessing the Performance of Thermal Inertia and Hydrus Models to Estimate Surface Soil Water Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro Negm


    Full Text Available The knowledge of soil water content (SWC dynamics in the upper soil layer is important for several hydrological processes. Due to the difficulty of assessing the spatial and temporal SWC dynamics in the field, some model-based approaches have been proposed during the last decade. The main objective of this work was to assess the performance of two approaches to estimate SWC in the upper soil layer under field conditions: the physically-based thermal inertia and the Hydrus model. Their validity was firstly assessed under controlled laboratory conditions. Thermal inertia was firstly validated in laboratory conditions using the transient line heat source (TLHS method. Then, it was applied in situ to analyze the dynamics of soil thermal properties under two extreme conditions of soil-water status (well-watered and air-dry, using proximity remote-sensed data. The model performance was assessed using sensor-based measurements of soil water content acquired through frequency (FDR and time domain reflectometry (TDR. During the laboratory experiment, the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE was 0.02 m3 m−3 for the Hydrus model and 0.05 m3 m−3 for the TLHS model approach. On the other hand, during the in situ experiment, the temporal variability of SWCs simulated by the Hydrus model and the corresponding values measured by the TDR method evidenced good agreement (RMSE ranging between 0.01 and 0.005 m3 m−3. Similarly, the average of the SWCs derived from the thermal diffusion model was fairly close to those estimated by Hydrus (spatially averaged RMSE ranging between 0.03 and 0.02 m3 m−3.

  12. Water balance at an arid site: a model validation study of bare soil evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T.L.; Campbell, G.S.; Gee, G.W.


    This report contains results of model validation studies conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Low Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP). The model validation tests consisted of using unsaturated water flow models to simulate water balance experiments conducted at the Buried Waste Test Facility (BWTF) located at the Department of Energy's Hanford site, near Richland, Washington. The BWTF is a lysimeter facility designed to collect field data on long-term water balance and radionuclide tracer movement. It has been operated by PNL for the NLLWMP since 1978. An experimental test case, developed from data collected at the BWTF, was used to evaluate predictions from different water flow models. The major focus of the validation study was to evaluate how the use of different evaporation models affected the accuracy of predictions of evaporation, storage, and drainage made by the whole model. Four evaporation models were tested including two empirical models and two mechanistic models. The empirical models estimate actual evaporation from potential evaporation; the mechanistic models describe water vapor diffusion within the soil profile and between the soil and the atmosphere in terms of fundamental soil properties, and transport processes. The water flow models that included the diffusion-type evaporation submodels performed best overall. The empirical models performed poorly in their description of evaporation and profile water storage during summer months. The predictions of drainage were supported quite well by the experimental data. This indicates that the method used to estimate hydraulic conductivity needed for the Darcian submodel was adequate. This important result supports recommendations for these procedures that were made previously based on laboratory results.

  13. Assessment of structural model and parameter uncertainty with a multi-model system for soil water balance models (United States)

    Michalik, Thomas; Multsch, Sebastian; Frede, Hans-Georg; Breuer, Lutz


    Water for agriculture is strongly limited in arid and semi-arid regions and often of low quality in terms of salinity. The application of saline waters for irrigation increases the salt load in the rooting zone and has to be managed by leaching to maintain a healthy soil, i.e. to wash out salts by additional irrigation. Dynamic simulation models are helpful tools to calculate the root zone water fluxes and soil salinity content in order to investigate best management practices. However, there is little information on structural and parameter uncertainty for simulations regarding the water and salt balance of saline irrigation. Hence, we established a multi-model system with four different models (AquaCrop, RZWQM, SWAP, Hydrus1D/UNSATCHEM) to analyze the structural and parameter uncertainty by using the Global Likelihood and Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) method. Hydrus1D/UNSATCHEM and SWAP were set up with multiple sets of different implemented functions (e.g. matric and osmotic stress for root water uptake) which results in a broad range of different model structures. The simulations were evaluated against soil water and salinity content observations. The posterior distribution of the GLUE analysis gives behavioral parameters sets and reveals uncertainty intervals for parameter uncertainty. Throughout all of the model sets, most parameters accounting for the soil water balance show a low uncertainty, only one or two out of five to six parameters in each model set displays a high uncertainty (e.g. pore-size distribution index in SWAP and Hydrus1D/UNSATCHEM). The differences between the models and model setups reveal the structural uncertainty. The highest structural uncertainty is observed for deep percolation fluxes between the model sets of Hydrus1D/UNSATCHEM (~200 mm) and RZWQM (~500 mm) that are more than twice as high for the latter. The model sets show a high variation in uncertainty intervals for deep percolation as well, with an interquartile range (IQR) of

  14. Modelling the water balance of irrigated fields in tropical floodplain soils using Hydrus-1D (United States)

    Beyene, Abebech; Frankl, Amaury; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; Tilahun, Seifu; Alamirew, Tena; Adgo, Enyew; Nyssen, Jan


    Accurate estimation of evaporation, transpiration and deep percolation is crucial in irrigated agriculture and the sustainable management of water resources. Here, the Hydrus-1D process-based numerical model was used to estimate the actual transpiration, soil evaporation and deep percolation from irrigated fields of floodplain soils. Field experiments were conducted from Dec 2015 to May 2016 in a small irrigation scheme (50 ha) called 'Shina' located in the Lake Tana floodplains of Ethiopia. Six experimental plots (three for onion and three for maize) were selected along a topographic transect to account for soil and groundwater variability. Irrigation amount (400 to 550 mm during the growing period) was measured using V-notches installed at each plot boundary and daily groundwater levels were measured manually from piezometers. There was no surface runoff observed in the growing period and rainfall was measured using a manual rain gauge. All daily weather data required for the evapotranspiration calculation using Pen Man Monteith equation were collected from a nearby metrological station. The soil profiles were described for each field to include the vertical soil heterogeneity in the soil water balance simulations. The soil texture, organic matter, bulk density, field capacity, wilting point and saturated moisture content were measured for all the soil horizons. Soil moisture monitoring at 30 and 60 cm depths was performed. The soil hydraulic parameters for each horizon was estimated using KNN pedotransfer functions for tropical soils and were effectively fitted using the RETC program (R2= 0.98±0.011) for initial prediction. A local sensitivity analysis was performed to select and optimize the most important hydraulic parameters for soil water flow in the unsaturated zone. The most sensitive parameters were saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), saturated moisture content (θs) and pore size distribution (n). Inverse modelling using Hydrus-1D further optimized

  15. Applicability of five models to simulate water infiltration into soil with added biochar (United States)

    As a soil amendment, biochar can reduce soil bulk density, increase soil porosity, and alter soil aggregates and thus affect the infiltration. Researchers have proposed and revised several theoretical models to describe the process of soil infiltration. Although these models have been successfully u...

  16. Effects of soil data resolution on SWAT model stream flow and water quality predictions. (United States)

    Geza, Mengistu; McCray, John E


    The prediction accuracy of agricultural nonpoint source pollution models such as Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) depends on how well model input spatial parameters describe the characteristics of the watershed. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of different soil data resolutions on stream flow, sediment and nutrient predictions when used as input for SWAT. SWAT model predictions were compared for the two US Department of Agriculture soil databases with different resolution, namely the State Soil Geographic database (STATSGO) and the Soil Survey Geographic database (SSURGO). Same number of sub-basins was used in the watershed delineation. However, the number of HRUs generated when STATSGO and SSURGO soil data were used is 261 and 1301, respectively. SSURGO, with the highest spatial resolution, has 51 unique soil types in the watershed distributed in 1301 HRUs, while STATSGO has only three distributed in 261 HRUS. As a result of low resolution STATSGO assigns a single classification to areas that may have different soil types if SSURGO were used. SSURGO included Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs) with soil types that were generalized to one soil group in STATSGO. The difference in the number and size of HRUs also has an effect on sediment yield parameters (slope and slope length). Thus, as a result of the discrepancies in soil type and size of HRUs stream flow predicted was higher when SSURGO was used compared to STATSGO. SSURGO predicted less stream loading than STATSGO in terms of sediment and sediment-attached nutrients components, and vice versa for dissolved nutrients. When compared to mean daily measured flow, STATSGO performed better relative to SSURGO before calibration. SSURGO provided better results after calibration as evaluated by R(2) value (0.74 compared to 0.61 for STATSGO) and the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of Efficiency (NSE) values (0.70 and 0.61 for SSURGO and STATSGO, respectively) although both are in the same satisfactory

  17. 21st century hydrological modeling for optimizing traditional soil and water conservation practices (United States)

    Wildemeersch, Jasmien; Garba, Maman; Sabiou, Mahaman; Al-Barri, Bashar; Cornelis, Wim


    In order to increase dryland productivity, soil and water conservation practices have received renewed attention, leading to their massive implementation in marginal drylands. However, versatile tools to evaluate their efficiency under a wide range of conditions are often lacking. This study focuses on semi-arid Niger, where as a result of growing population pressure and severe soil erosion, farmers increasingly rely on degraded lands for millet production. The adverse rainfall distribution and imbalanced rainfall partitioning over the rootzone of these degraded lands calls for sustainable land management strategies that are water resource efficient. We therefore evaluated the soil-water balance of promising Nigerien Water and Soil Conservation (WSC) techniques (i.e., zaï pits, demi-lune microcatchments and scarification with standing crop residue) and their impact on millet yield by means of an in-situ field experiment on degraded laterite soil classified as Plinthosol with a 1% slope. We also applied a fully coupled 3D surface-subsurface hydrological model based on the Richards' and the Saint Venant equations to further improve promising WSC techniques. All WSC practices received the same amount of fertilizer and were compared to two control practices, one with and one without fertilizer. Soil-water content was recorded with a neutron probe till 105 cm depth and runoff by means of a cemented gutter directing runoff water with a multi-pipe divisor into a collector drum. WSC techniques proved to significantly reduce runoff with overall runoff coefficients being reduced from 25% (control practice) to 5-10%. Consequently, significantly more water was stored inside the catchments of the zaï pits and demi-lunes. With the scarification treatment, no considerable differences in soil-water storage were found with the control. On the other hand, WSC practices had little impact on soil evaporation, which was only 12% of rainfall by the self-mulching soil. Crop

  18. Aggregating available soil water holding capacity data for crop yield models (United States)

    Seubert, C. E.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Holt, D. A.; Baumgardner, M. F.


    The total amount of water available to plants that is held against gravity in a soil is usually estimated as the amount present at -0.03 MPa average water potential minus the amount present at -1.5 MPa water potential. This value, designated available water-holding capacity (AWHC), is a very important soil characteristic that is strongly and positively correlated to the inherent productivity of soils. In various applications, including assessing soil moisture status over large areas, it is necessary to group soil types or series as to their productivity. Current methods to classify AWHC of soils consider only total capacity of soil profiles and thus may group together soils which differ greatly in AWHC as a function of depth in the profile. A general approach for evaluating quantitatively the multidimensional nature of AWHC in soils is described. Data for 902 soil profiles, representing 184 soil series, in Indiana were obtained from the Soil Characterization Laboratory at Purdue University. The AWHC for each of ten 150-mm layers in each soil was established, based on soil texture and parent material. A multivariate clustering procedure was used to classify each soil profile into one of 4, 8, or 12 classes based upon ten-dimensional AWHC values. The optimum number of classes depends on the range of AWHC in the population of oil profiles analyzed and on the sensitivity of a crop to differences in distribution of water within the soil profile.

  19. A complete soil hydraulic model accounting for capillary and adsorptive water retention, capillary and film conductivity, and hysteresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakai, Masaru; Van Genuchten, Martinus Th|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31481518X; Alazba, A. A.; Setiawan, Budi Indra; Minasny, Budiman


    A soil hydraulic model that considers capillary hysteretic and adsorptive water retention as well as capillary and film conductivity covering the complete soil moisture range is presented. The model was obtained by incorporating the capillary hysteresis model of Parker and Lenhard into the hydraulic

  20. UNSAT-H Version 2. 0: Unsaturated soil water and heat flow model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, M.J.; Jones, T.L.


    This report documents UNSAT-H Version 2.0, a model for calculating water and heat flow in unsaturated media. The documentation includes the bases for the conceptual model and its numerical implementation, benchmark test cases, example simulations involving layered soils and plant transpiration, and the code listing. Waste management practices at the Hanford Site have included disposal of low-level wastes by near-surface burial. Predicting the future long-term performance of any such burial site in terms of migration of contaminants requires a model capable of simulating water flow in the unsaturated soils above the buried waste. The model currently used to meet this need is UNSAT-H. This model was developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to assess water dynamics of near-surface, waste-disposal sites at the Hanford Site. The code is primarily used to predict deep drainage as a function of such environmental conditions as climate, soil type, and vegetation. UNSAT-H is also used to simulate the effects of various practices to enhance isolation of wastes. 66 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. A combined monitoring and modeling approach to quantify water and nitrate leaching using effective soil column hydraulic properties (United States)

    Couvreur, V.; Kandelous, M. M.; Moradi, A. B.; Baram, S.; Mairesse, H.; Hopmans, J. W.


    There is a worldwide growing concern for agricultural lands input to groundwater pollution. Nitrate contamination of groundwater across the Central Valley of California has been related to its diverse and intensive agricultural practices. However, there has been no study comparing leaching of nitrate in each individual agricultural land within the complex and diversely managed studied area. A combined field monitoring and modeling approach was developed to quantify from simple measurements the leaching of water and nitrate below the root zone. The monitored state variables are soil water content at several depths within the root zone, soil matric potential at two depths below the root zone, and nitrate concentration in the soil solution. In the modeling part, unsaturated water flow and solute transport are simulated with the software HYDRUS in a soil profile fragmented in up to two soil hydraulic types, whose effective hydraulic properties are optimized with an inverse modeling method. The applicability of the method will first be demonstrated "in-silico", with synthetic soil water dynamics data generated with HYDRUS, and considering the soil column as the layering of several soil types characterized in-situ. The method will then be applied to actual soil water status data from various crops in California including tomato, citrus, almond, pistachio, and walnut. Eventually, improvements of irrigation and fertilization management practices (i.e. mainly questions of quantity and frequency of application minimizing leaching under constraint of water and nutrient availability) will be investigated using coupled modeling and optimization tools.

  2. Using Water and Agrochemicals in the Soil, Crop and Vadose Environment (WAVE Model to Interpret Nitrogen Balance and Soil Water Reserve Under Different Tillage Managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zare Narjes


    Full Text Available Applying models to interpret soil, water and plant relationships under different conditions enable us to study different management scenarios and then to determine the optimum option. The aim of this study was using Water and Agrochemicals in the soil, crop and Vadose Environment (WAVE model to predict water content, nitrogen balance and its components over a corn crop season under both conventional tillage (CT and direct seeding into mulch (DSM. In this study a corn crop was cultivated at the Irstea experimental station in Montpellier, France under both CT and DSM. Model input data were weather data, nitrogen content in both the soil and mulch at the beginning of the season, the amounts and the dates of irrigation and nitrogen application. The results show an appropriate agreement between measured and model simulations (nRMSE < 10%. Using model outputs, nitrogen balance and its components were compared with measured data in both systems. The amount of N leaching in validation period were 10 and 8 kgha–1 in CT and DSM plots, respectively; therefore, these results showed better performance of DSM in comparison with CT. Simulated nitrogen leaching from CT and DSM can help us to assess groundwater pollution risk caused by these two systems.

  3. Simulation of water movement and isoproturon behaviour in a heavy clay soil using the MACRO model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Besien


    Full Text Available In this paper, the dual-porosity MACRO model has been used to investigate methods of reducing leaching of isoproturon from a structured heavy clay soil. The MACRO model was applied to a pesticide leaching data-set generated from a plot scale experiment on a heavy clay soil at the Oxford University Farm, Wytham, England. The field drain was found to be the most important outflow from the plot in terms of pesticide removal. Therefore, this modelling exercise concentrated on simulating field drain flow. With calibration of field-saturated and micropore saturated hydraulic conductivity, the drain flow hydrographs were simulated during extended periods of above average rainfall, with both the hydrograph shape and peak flows agreeing well. Over the whole field season, the observed drain flow water budget was well simulated. However, the first and second drain flow events after pesticide application were not simulated satisfactorily. This is believed to be due to a poor simulation of evapotranspiration during a period of low rainfall around the pesticide application day. Apart from an initial rapid drop in the observed isoproturon soil residue, the model simulated isoproturon residues during the 100 days after pesticide application reasonably well. Finally, the calibrated model was used to show that changes in agricultural practice (deep ploughing, creating fine consolidated seed beds and organic matter applications could potentially reduce pesticide leaching to surface waters by up to 60%.

  4. Assessing the Water-Resources Potential of Istanbul by Using a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT Hydrological Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Cuceloglu


    Full Text Available Uncertainties due to climate change and population growth have created a critical situation for many megacities. Investigating spatio-temporal variability of water resources is, therefore, a critical initial step for water-resource management. This paper is a first study on the evaluation of water-budget components of water resources in Istanbul using a high-resolution hydrological model. In this work, the water resources of Istanbul and surrounding watersheds were modeled using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT, which is a continuous-time, semi-distributed, process-based model. The SWAT-CUP program was used for calibration/validation of the model with uncertainty analysis using the SUFI-2 algorithm over the period 1977–2013 at 25 gauge stations. The results reveal that the annual blue-water potential of Istanbul is 3.5 billion m3, whereas the green-water flow and storage are 2.9 billion m3 and 0.7 billion m3, respectively. Watersheds located on the Asian side of the Istanbul megacity yield more blue-water resources compared to the European side, and constitute 75% of the total potential water resources. The model highlights the water potential of the city under current circumstances and gives an insight into its spatial distribution over the region. This study provides a strong basis for forthcoming studies concerning better water-resources management practices, climate change and water-quality studies, as well as other socio-economic scenario analyses in the region.

  5. Molecular modelling studies of clay-exopolysaccharide complexes: Soil aggregation and water retention phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henao, Lina J. [Centre de Recherches sur les Macromolecules Vegetales (CERMAV-CNRS), BP53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Mazeau, Karim, E-mail: [Centre de Recherches sur les Macromolecules Vegetales (CERMAV-CNRS), BP53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)


    In soils, the bacterial exopolysaccharides (EPS) aggregate mineral particles, enhancing their cohesion and their ability to retain water. These phenomena have been studied at the atomic scale by molecular modelling; we have considered seven rhizospheric polysaccharides interacting with the basal surfaces of montmorillonite. Models accounted for the aggregation phenomena induced by EPS: some segments of the polysaccharide were adsorbed on the mineral surfaces while others formed loops and bridges linking two surfaces. Adsorption energies were favourable and depended mostly on the interacting area. Cohesion of aggregates was estimated by the adhesion work, predicted values differed from one EPS to the other, suggesting that the chemical structure influences interaction strength with the mineral surface. Mechanisms of water uptake and release have also been investigated: hydration energies revealed that EPS strongly retain water at low water concentrations.

  6. Development of Model for the Prediction of Ions Concentration in Soil Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper proposes a mathematical model for the prediction of different ion concentration in soil water used for irrigational purposes in Niger State of Nigeria. The various ions considered are sodium (Na+, potassium (K+, calcium (Ca2+, nitrogen in form of nitrate (NO3-, and phosphorus in form of phosphate (PO43-. The model was simulated for different concentration readings using different adsorption fractions. The results obtained compared favourably with that of the experimental, though with slight variations which were attributed to some of the basic assumptions used during the process of model development.

  7. A method for upscaling soil parameters for use in a dynamic modelling assessment of water quality in the Pyrenees. (United States)

    Camarero, Lluís; Garcia-Pausas, Jordi; Huguet, Carme


    Dynamic modelling of hydrochemistry is a valuable tool to study and predict the recovery of surface waters from acidification, and to assess the effects of confounding factors (such as delayed soil response and changing climate) that cause hysteresis during reversal from acidification. The availability of soil data is often a limitation for the regional application of dynamic models. Here we present a method to upscale site-specific soil properties to a regional scale in order to circumvent that problem. The method proposed for upscaling relied on multiple regression models between soil properties and a suite of environmental variables used as predictors. Soil measurements were made during a field survey in 13 catchments in the Pyrenees (NW Spain). The environmental variables were derived from mapped or remotely sensed topographic, lithological, land-cover, and climatic information. Regression models were then used to model soil parameters, which were supplied as input for the biogeochemical model MAGIC (Model for Acidification of Groundwater In Catchments) in order to reconstruct the history of acidification in Pyrenean lakes and forecast the recovery under a scenario of reduced acid deposition. The resulting simulations were then compared with model runs using field measurements as input parameters. These comparisons showed that regional averages for the key water and soil chemistry variables were suitably reproduced when using the modelled parameters. Simulations of water chemistry at the catchment scale also showed good results, whereas simulated soil parameters reflected uncertainty in the initial modelled estimates.

  8. Development and evaluation of the SoilClim model for water balance and soil climate estimates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlavinka, Petr; Trnka, Miroslav; Balek, J.; Semerádová, Daniela; Hayes, M.; Svoboda, M.; Eitzinger, J.; Možný, M.; Fischer, Milan; Hunter, E.; Žalud, Zdeněk


    Roč. 98, č. 8 (2011), s. 1249-1261 ISSN 0378-3774 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Evapotranspiration * Soil moisture * Eddy-covariance * Bowen ratio * Lysimeter * TDR * Atmometer Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.998, year: 2011

  9. Modeling reactive transport of reclaimed water through large soil columns with different low-permeability layers (United States)

    Hu, Haizhu; Mao, Xiaomin; Barry, D. A.; Liu, Chengcheng; Li, Pengxiang


    The efficacy of different proportions of silt-loam/bentonite mixtures overlying a vadose zone in controlling solute leaching to groundwater was quantified. Laboratory experiments were carried out using three large soil columns, each packed with 200-cm-thick riverbed soil covered by a 2-cm-thick bentonite/silt-loam mixture as the low-permeability layer (with bentonite mass accounting for 12, 16 and 19 % of the total mass of the mixture). Reclaimed water containing ammonium (NH4 +), nitrate (NO3 -), organic matter (OM), various types of phosphorus and other inorganic salts was applied as inflow. A one-dimensional mobile-immobile multi-species reactive transport model was used to predict the preferential flow and transport of typical pollutants through the soil columns. The simulated results show that the model is able to predict the solute transport in such conditions. Increasing the amount of bentonite in the low-permeability layer improves the removal of NH4 + and total phosphorous (TP) because of the longer contact time and increased adsorption capacity. The removal of NH4 + and OM is mainly attributed to adsorption and biodegradation. The increase of TP and NO3 - concentration mainly results from discharge and nitrification in riverbed soils, respectively. This study underscores the role of low-permeability layers as barriers in groundwater protection. Neglect of fingers or preferential flow may cause underestimation of pollution risk.

  10. Using grain-size characteristics to model soil water content: Application to dose-rate calculation for luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Michelle S.; Rittenour, Tammy M.


    Soil moisture is an important factor for dose-rate determination in luminescence and other dating methods as soil water content impacts sediment bulk density, alters rates of chemical reactions and attenuates effective exposure to nuclear radiation from the surrounding sediments and incoming cosmic rays. Given its importance in dose-rate calculation, methods for measuring and modeling soil water content are discussed, with special focus on semi-arid environments and other situations where modern in situ values are unlikely to be representative of mean soil moisture conditions. We present an alternative method for calculating sediment water content based on grain-size characteristics using the freely available Rosetta Lite v.1.1 software. Modeled outputs include saturation, residual and other water retention curve (WRC) parameters. WRCs were generated from model outputs using the van Genuchten (1980) equation, and mean annual water state was determined using soil moisture regime maps and classifications. Dose-rate values using modeled outputs and laboratory-measured in situ and saturation water content are compared in a test case using Holocene alluvial sediments from Kanab Creek in southern Utah, USA. Best practices for how to estimate mean annual water state for different soil moisture regimes and past soil moisture content in situations where in situ values are not representative of the burial history are discussed. - Highlights: • Using grain size characteristics to generate water retention curves. • Saturation water content was estimated using laboratory and computer modeling. • In situ water content is compared with the model outputs. • Dose-rate variability with new water content estimates is evaluated.

  11. The Role of Different Plant Soil-Water Feedbacks in Models of Dryland Vegetation Patterns (United States)

    Silber, M.; Bonetti, S.; Gandhi, P.; Gowda, K.; Iams, S.; Porporato, A. M.


    Understanding the processes underlying the formation of regular vegetation patterns in arid and semi-arid regions is important to assessing desertification risk under increasing anthropogenic pressure. Various modeling frameworks have been proposed, which are all capable of generating similar patterns through self-organizing mechanisms that stem from assumptions about plant feedbacks on surface/subsurface water transport. We critically discuss a hierarchy of hydrology-vegetation models for the coupled dynamics of surface water, soil moisture, and vegetation biomass on a hillslope. We identify distinguishing features and trends for the periodic traveling wave solutions when there is an imposed idealized topography and make some comparisons to satellite images of large-scale banded vegetation patterns in drylands of Africa, Australia and North America. This work highlights the potential for constraining models by considerations of where the patterns may lie on a landscape, such as whether on a ridge or in a valley.

  12. Identification of potential soil water retention using hydric numerical model at arid regions by land-use changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abu-hashim


    Full Text Available Assessment of soil water retention in arid region is an input required parameter in precision water management at large scale. Investigations were carried out in Tanta catchment in the middle Nile Delta, Egypt (30° 45 N, 30° 55 E, where collecting soil samples covered different hydrological soil groups and land-uses. Based on the natural resource conservation service curve number model (NRCS-CN, CN approach was used to investigate the effect of spatio-temporal variations of different land-uses on soil water retention. Potential soil water retention from 1990 to 2015 was reduced by 118.1 m3 per hectare with decreasing cropland area. Urbanization encroachment from 1990 to 2015 was increased by 2.13% by decreasing cropland with 15.3% (5300 ha in 2015. This resulted in losing the potential soil water retention by 625,968.42 m3 water for the whole catchment area. Impact of land degradation was pronounced, where 2.65%, 29.35%, and 1.11% of the initial crop land-use in 1990 were converted to bare soil, fallow, and urban area, respectively in 2015. Implementation of (S value of the NRCS-CN model with GIS technique provides useful measure to identify land-use changes of potential water storage capacity at catchment scale.

  13. Soil tension mediates isotope fractionation during soil water evaporation (United States)

    Gaj, Marcel; McDonnell, Jeffrey


    Isotope tracing of the water cycle is increasing in its use and usefulness. Many new studies are extracting soil waters and relating these to streamflow, groundwater recharge and plant transpiration. Nevertheless, unlike isotope fractionation factors from open water bodies, soil water fractionation factors are poorly understood and until now, only empirically derived. In contrast to open water evaporation where temperature, humidity and vapor pressure gradient define fractionation (as codified in the well-known Craig and Gordon model), soil water evaporation includes additionally, fractionation by matrix effects. There is yet no physical explanation of kinetic and equilibrium fraction from soil water within the soil profile. Here we present a simple laboratory experiment with four admixtures of soil grain size (from sand to silt to clay). Oven-dried samples were spiked with water of known isotopic composition at different soil water contents. Soils were then stored in sealed bags and the headspace filled with dry air and allowed to equilibrate for 24hours. Isotopic analysis of the headspace vapor was done with a Los Gatos Inc. water vapor isotope analyzer. Soil water potential of subsamples were measured with a water potential meter. We show for the first time that soil tension controls isotope fractionation in the resident soil water. Below a Pf 3.5 the δ-values of 18O and 2H of the headspace vapor is more positive and increases with increasing soil water potential. Surprisingly, we find that the relationship between soil tension and equilibrium fractionation is independent of soil type. However, δ-values of each soil type plot along a distinct evaporation line. These results indicate that equilibrium fractionation is affected by soil tension in addition to temperature. Therefore, at high soil water tension (under dry conditions) equilibrium fractionation is not consistent with current empirical formulations that ignore these effects. These findings may have

  14. Remotely monitoring evaporation rate and soil water status using thermal imaging and "three-temperatures model (3T Model)" under field-scale conditions. (United States)

    Qiu, Guo Yu; Zhao, Ming


    Remote monitoring of soil evaporation and soil water status is necessary for water resource and environment management. Ground based remote sensing can be the bridge between satellite remote sensing and ground-based point measurement. The primary object of this study is to provide an algorithm to estimate evaporation and soil water status by remote sensing and to verify its accuracy. Observations were carried out in a flat field with varied soil water content. High-resolution thermal images were taken with a thermal camera; soil evaporation was measured with a weighing lysimeter; weather data were recorded at a nearby meteorological station. Based on the thermal imaging and the three-temperatures model (3T model), we developed an algorithm to estimate soil evaporation and soil water status. The required parameters of the proposed method were soil surface temperature, air temperature, and solar radiation. By using the proposed method, daily variation in soil evaporation was estimated. Meanwhile, soil water status was remotely monitored by using the soil evaporation transfer coefficient. Results showed that the daily variation trends of measured and estimated evaporation agreed with each other, with a regression line of y = 0.92x and coefficient of determination R(2) = 0.69. The simplicity of the proposed method makes the 3T model a potentially valuable tool for remote sensing.

  15. Quantitative imaging of water transport in soil and roots using neutron radiography, D2O and a new numerical model (United States)

    Zarebanadkouki, M.; Kroener, E.; Ahmed, M. A.; Carminati, A.


    Our understanding of soil and plant water relations is currently limited by the lack of experimental methods to measure the water fluxes in soil and plants. Our study aimed to develop a new non-destructive method to measure the local fluxes of water into roots of plants growing in soils. We injected deuterated water (D2O) near the roots of lupines growing in sandy soils, and we used neutron radiography to image the transport of D2O through the root system. The experiments were performed during day, when plants were transpiring, and at night, when transpiration was reduced. The radiographs showed that: 1) the radial transport of D2O from soil and roots depended similarly to diffusion and convection; and 2) the axial transport of D2O along the root xylem was largely dominated by convection. To determine the convective fluxes from the radiographs, we simulated the D2O transport in soils and roots. A dual porosity model was used to describe the apoplastic and symplastic pathways of water across the root tissue. Other features such as the endodermis and the xylem were also included in the model. The D2O transport was modelled solving a convection-diffusion numerical model in soil and plants. The diffusion coefficients of the root tissues were inversely estimated by simulating the experiments at night under the assumption that at night the convective fluxes were negligible. Inverse modelling of the experiment at day gave the profile of water fluxes into the roots. For 24 day-old lupine grown in a sandy soil with uniform water content, our modelling results showed that root water uptake was higher at the proximal parts of the roots near soil surface and it decreased toward the distal parts. The method allows the quantification of the root properties and the regions of root water uptake along root systems growing in soils. Future applications of this method include the characterization of varying root systems, the radial and axial hydraulic conductivity of different root

  16. Predicting large wildfires across western North America by modeling seasonal variation in soil water balance. (United States)

    Waring, Richard H; Coops, Nicholas C

    A lengthening of the fire season, coupled with higher temperatures, increases the probability of fires throughout much of western North America. Although regional variation in the frequency of fires is well established, attempts to predict the occurrence of fire at a spatial resolution soil water reserves were coupled more directly to maximum leaf area index (LAI max ) and stomatal behavior. In an earlier publication, we used LAI max and a process-based forest growth model to derive and map the maximum available soil water storage capacity (ASW max ) of forested lands in western North America at l km resolution. To map large fires, we used data products acquired from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS) over the period 2000-2009. To establish general relationships that incorporate the major biophysical processes that control evaporation and transpiration as well as the flammability of live and dead trees, we constructed a decision tree model (DT). We analyzed seasonal variation in the relative availability of soil water ( fASW ) for the years 2001, 2004, and 2007, representing respectively, low, moderate, and high rankings of areas burned. For these selected years, the DT predicted where forest fires >1 km occurred and did not occur at ~100,000 randomly located pixels with an average accuracy of 69 %. Extended over the decade, the area predicted burnt varied by as much as 50 %. The DT identified four seasonal combinations, most of which included exhaustion of ASW during the summer as critical; two combinations involving antecedent conditions the previous spring or fall accounted for 86 % of the predicted fires. The approach introduced in this paper can help identify forested areas where management efforts to reduce fire hazards might prove most beneficial.

  17. A new modelling approach for compacted clayey soils using specific water volume as a state variable


    Abeyrathne, Wedumpuli Koralalage Arunodi Prabashini


    One of the key challenges of the present geotechnical engineering community is the accurate definition of unsaturated soil behaviour in routine engineering practice. This is because despite the remarkable progression of unsaturated soil mechanics as a branch of geotechnical engineering over the last few decades, the gap between unsaturated soils research and practice has widened significantly as the models to predict the soil behaviour have become more and more complex. Ther...

  18. Analysis of soil and vegetation patterns in semi-arid Mediterranean landscapes by way of a conceptual water balance model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Portoghese


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of various vegetation types on water balance variability in semi-arid Mediterranean landscapes, and the different strategies they may have developed to succeed in such water-limited environments. The existence of preferential associations between soil water holding capacity and vegetation species is assessed through an extensive soil geo-database focused on a study region in Southern Italy. Water balance constraints that dominate the organization of landscapes are investigated by a conceptual bucket approach. The temporal water balance dynamics are modelled, with vegetation water use efficiency being parameterized through the use of empirically obtained crop coefficients as surrogates of vegetation behavior in various developmental stages. Sensitivity analyses with respect to the root zone depth and soil water holding capacity are carried out with the aim of explaining the existence of preferential soil-vegetation associations and, hence, the spatial distribution of vegetation types within the study region. Based on these sensitivity analyses the degrees of suitability and adaptability of each vegetation type to parts of the study region are explored with respect of the soil water holding capacity, and the model results were found consistent with the observed affinity patterns.

  19. Simulation models: a current indispensable tool in studies of the continuous water-soil-plant - atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Seijas, Teresa; Gonzalez, Felicita; Cid, G.; Osorio, Maria de los A.; Ruiz, Maria Elena


    Full text: This work assesses the current use of simulation models as a tool useful and indispensable for the advancement in the research and study of the processes related to the continuous water-soil - plant-atmosphere. In recent years they have reported in the literature many jobs where these modeling tools are used as a support to the decision-making process of companies or organizations in the agricultural sphere and in Special for the design of optimal management of irrigation and fertilization strategies of the crops. Summarizes some of the latest applications reported with respect to the use of water transfers and solutes, such simulation models mainly to nitrate leaching and groundwater contamination problems. On the other hand also summarizes important applications of simulation models of growth of cultivation for the prediction of effects on the performance of different conditions of water stress, and finally some other applications on the management of the different irrigation technologies as kingpins, superfiail irrigation and drip irrigation. Refer also the main work carried out in Cuba. (author)

  20. Applicability of the Guggenheim–Anderson–Boer water vapour sorption model for estimation of soil specific surface area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Møldrup, Per


    Soil specific surface area (SA) controls fundamental soil processes such as retention of water, ion exchange, and adsorption and release of plant nutrients and contaminants. Conventional methods for determining SA include adsorption of polar or non‐polar fluid molecules with associated advantages...... parameters varied depending on the water activity or relative humidity range of measured data (0.03–0.93 compared with 0.10–0.80), whereas the variation for desorption was minimal. For desorption isotherms, the average water activity value at which the GAB monolayer parameter was obtained was 0......‐based modelling approaches to determine SA. Measured water vapour adsorption and desorption isotherms for 321 soil samples were used to parameterize the GAB model, the Brunauer–Emmet–Teller (BET) equation and a film adsorption Tuller–Or (TO) model to estimate SA. For adsorption isotherms, the values of the GAB...

  1. Has the plant genetic variability any role in models of water transfer in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum ? (United States)

    Tardieu, F.


    Water transfer in the SPAC is essentially linked to environmental conditions such as evaporative demand or soil water potential, and physical parameters such as soil hydraulic capacity or hydraulic conductivity. Models used in soil science most often represent the plant via a small number of variables such as the water flux that crosses the base of the stem or the root length (or area) in each soil layer. Because there is an increasing demand for computer simulations of plants that would perform better under water deficit, models of SPA water transfer are needed that could better take into account the genetic variability of traits involved in plant hydraulics. (i) The water flux through the plant is essentially limited by stomata, which present a much higher resistance to water flow than those in the soil - root continuum. This can lead to unexpected relations between flux, leaf water potential and root hydraulic conductance. (ii) A large genetic variability exists within and between species for stomatal control, with important consequences for the minimum soil water potential that is accessible to the plant. In particular, isohydric plants that maintain leaf water potential in a narrow range via stomatal control have a higher (nearer to 0) 'wilting point' than anisohydric plants that allow leaf water potential to reach very low values. (iii) The conductivity for water transfer in roots and shoots is controlled by plants via aquaporins. It largely varies with time of the day, water and nutrient status, in particular via plant hormones and circadian rhythms. Models of SPA water transfer with a time definition of minutes to hour should probably not ignore this, while those with longer time steps are probably less sensitive to changes in plant hydraulic conductivity. (iv) The "dogma" that dense root systems provide tolerance to water deficit is profoundly affected when the balance "H2O gain vs C investment" is taken into account. At least three programmes of recurrent

  2. Simulation of Salinity Distribution in Soil Under Drip Irrigation Tape with Saline Water Using SWAP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tabei


    Full Text Available Introduction: The to be limited available water amount from one side and to be increased needs of world population from the other side have caused increase of cultivation for products. For this reason, employing new irrigation ways and using new water resources like using the uncommon water (salty water, water drainage are two main strategies for regulating water shortage conditions. On the other side, accumulation of salts on the soil surface in dry regions having low rainfall and much evaporation, i.e. an avoidable case. As doing experiment for determining moisture distribution form demands needs a lot of time and conducting desert experiments are costly, stimulator models are suitable alternatives in answering the problem concerning moving and saltiness distribution. Materials and Methods: In this research, simulation of soil saltiness under drip irrigation was done by the SWAP model and potency of the above model was done in comparison with evaluated relevant results. SWAP model was performed based on measured data in a corn field equipped with drip irrigation system in the farming year 1391-92 in the number one research field in the engineering faculty of water science, ShahidChamran university of Ahvaz and hydraulic parameters of soil obtained from RETC . Statistical model in the form of a random full base plan with four attendants for irrigating water saltiness including salinity S1 (Karoon River water with salinity 3 ds/m as a control treatment, S2 (S1 +0/5, S3 (S1 +1 and S4 (S1 +1/5 dS/m, in 3 repetition and in 3 intervals of 10 cm emitter, 20 cm emitters on the stack, at a depth of 0-90 cm (instead of each 30 cm from soil surface and intervals of 30, 60 and 90 days after modeling cultiviation was done. The cultivation way was done handheld in plots including four rows of 3 m in distance of 75 cm rows and with denseness of 80 bushes in a hectar. Drip irrigation system was of type strip with space of 20 cm pores. Results and Discussion

  3. Modeling the monthly mean soil-water balance with a statistical-dynamical ecohydrology model as coupled to a two-component canopy model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Kochendorfer


    Full Text Available The statistical-dynamical annual water balance model of Eagleson (1978 is a pioneering work in the analysis of climate, soil and vegetation interactions. This paper describes several enhancements and modifications to the model that improve its physical realism at the expense of its mathematical elegance and analytical tractability. In particular, the analytical solutions for the root zone fluxes are re-derived using separate potential rates of transpiration and bare-soil evaporation. Those potential rates, along with the rate of evaporation from canopy interception, are calculated using the two-component Shuttleworth-Wallace (1985 canopy model. In addition, the soil column is divided into two layers, with the upper layer representing the dynamic root zone. The resulting ability to account for changes in root-zone water storage allows for implementation at the monthly timescale. This new version of the Eagleson model is coined the Statistical-Dynamical Ecohydrology Model (SDEM. The ability of the SDEM to capture the seasonal dynamics of the local-scale soil-water balance is demonstrated for two grassland sites in the US Great Plains. Sensitivity of the results to variations in peak green leaf area index (LAI suggests that the mean peak green LAI is determined by some minimum in root zone soil moisture during the growing season. That minimum appears to be close to the soil matric potential at which the dominant grass species begins to experience water stress and well above the wilting point, thereby suggesting an ecological optimality hypothesis in which the need to avoid water-stress-induced leaf abscission is balanced by the maximization of carbon assimilation (and associated transpiration. Finally, analysis of the sensitivity of model-determined peak green LAI to soil texture shows that the coupled model is able to reproduce the so-called "inverse texture effect", which consists of the observation that natural vegetation in dry climates tends

  4. Model validation studies of water flow and radionuclide transport in vegetated soils using lysimeter data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, A.; Jining Chen [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)] [and others


    Model Uncertainty and Validation was one of the four themes of BIOMOVS II which had been identified by the programme's steering committee. It arose out of a concern that biosphere assessment models are generally simplified representations of highly complex environmental systems which, therefore, include a degree of uncertainty in their outputs. This uncertainty may be due to inadequate representations of the physical, chemical and biological processes; issues associated with scaling up highly non-linear systems; problems of model identification, in particular user interpretation. Therefore, during the course of the 5 year (1991-1996) BIOMOVS II programme a number of working sub-groups reestablished to address these issues. This document is the final report of the Prediction of Upward Migration of Radionuclides in Lysimeters sub-group which was established towards the end of the programme, late in 1994. It describes the 'blind' application of various hydrological and radiochemical transport models to experiment data derived from vegetated lysimeters. In order to investigate soil-to-plant transfer processes affecting the radionuclide migration from contaminated near surface water tables into arable crops, a lysimeter experiment has been undertaken at Imperial College, funded by UK Nirex Ltd. Detailed observations of climate, soil hydrology, plant growth and radiochemical migration were collected on the uptake of various radionuclides by a winter wheat crop. A selected set of data was made available to members of BIOMOVS II in order to allow them to test relevant components of current versions of assessment code. This was a challenging task owing to the rather unusual experimental design, in particular, the introduction of radionuclides at the base of the lysimeter, 5 cm below a fixed water table, and their subsequent upward migration through the soil. The comprehensive hydrological data set available provided various modelers, particularly those

  5. Model validation studies of water flow and radionuclide transport in vegetated soils using lysimeter data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, A.; Jining Chen


    Model Uncertainty and Validation was one of the four themes of BIOMOVS II which had been identified by the programme's steering committee. It arose out of a concern that biosphere assessment models are generally simplified representations of highly complex environmental systems which, therefore, include a degree of uncertainty in their outputs. This uncertainty may be due to inadequate representations of the physical, chemical and biological processes; issues associated with scaling up highly non-linear systems; problems of model identification, in particular user interpretation. Therefore, during the course of the 5 year (1991-1996) BIOMOVS II programme a number of working sub-groups reestablished to address these issues. This document is the final report of the Prediction of Upward Migration of Radionuclides in Lysimeters sub-group which was established towards the end of the programme, late in 1994. It describes the 'blind' application of various hydrological and radiochemical transport models to experiment data derived from vegetated lysimeters. In order to investigate soil-to-plant transfer processes affecting the radionuclide migration from contaminated near surface water tables into arable crops, a lysimeter experiment has been undertaken at Imperial College, funded by UK Nirex Ltd. Detailed observations of climate, soil hydrology, plant growth and radiochemical migration were collected on the uptake of various radionuclides by a winter wheat crop. A selected set of data was made available to members of BIOMOVS II in order to allow them to test relevant components of current versions of assessment code. This was a challenging task owing to the rather unusual experimental design, in particular, the introduction of radionuclides at the base of the lysimeter, 5 cm below a fixed water table, and their subsequent upward migration through the soil. The comprehensive hydrological data set available provided various modelers, particularly those involved in tritium

  6. Evaluating water erosion prediction project model using Cesium-137-derived spatial soil redistribution data (United States)

    The lack of spatial soil erosion data has been a major constraint on the refinement and application of physically based erosion models. Spatially distributed models can only be thoroughly validated with distributed erosion data. The fallout cesium-137 has been widely used to generate spatial soil re...

  7. Numerical Modeling of Water Flow and Salt Transport in Bare Saline Soil Subjected to Transient Evaporation (United States)

    Geng, X.; Boufadel, M.; Saleh, F. S.


    It has been found that evaporation over bare soil plays an important role in subsurface solute transport processes. A numerical study, based on a density-dependent variably saturated groundwater flow model MARUN, was conducted to investigate subsurface flow and salt transport in bare saline aquifers subjected to transient evaporation. The bulk aerodynamic formulation was adopted to simulate transient evaporation rate at ground surface. Subsurface flow pattern, moisture distribution, and salt migration were quantified. Key factors likely affecting this process, including saturated hydraulic conductivity, capillary drive, air humidity, and surrounding water supply, were examined. The results showed that evaporation induced an upward flow pattern, which led to a high saline plume formed beneath the evaporation zone. In absence of surrounding water supply, as the humidity between the ground surface and air tended to equilibrium, evaporation-induced density gradient generated pore water circulations around the plume edge and caused the salt to migrate downwards with "finger" shapes. It was found that capillary properties and atmospheric condition had significant impacts on subsurface moisture distribution and salt migration in response to the evaporation. Larger capillary fringe and/or lower air humidity would allow evaporation to extract more water from the ground. It would induce a larger and denser saline plume formed beneath the evaporation zone. The results also suggested that the presence of the surrounding water supply (represented as a constant water table herein) could provide a steady evaporation rate at the ground surface; meanwhile, in response to the evaporation, a hydraulic gradient was formed from the water supply boundary, which induced an inclined upper saline plume with greater density far from the supply boundary.

  8. Formulation of root water uptake in a multi-layer soil-plant model: does van den Honert's equation hold?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Lhomme


    Full Text Available The withdrawal of water from soil by vegetation, which in steady state conditions is equivalent to the transpiration rate, can be written in terms of water potential in the form of an Ohm's law analogy, known as van den Honert's equation: The difference between an effective soil water potential and the bulk canopy water potential is divided by an effective soil-plant resistance. This equation is commonly used, but little is known about the precise definition of its parameters. The issue of this paper is to bridge the gap between the bulk approach and a multi-layer description of soil-plant water transfer by interpreting the bulk parameters in terms of the characteristics of the multi-layer approach. Water flow through an elementary path within the soil or the root is assumed to follow an Ohm's law analogy, and the soil and root characterisics are allowed to vary with depth. Starting from the basic equations of the multi-layer approach, it is proved that the total rate of transpiration can also be expressed in the form of an Ohm's law analogy. This means that van den Honert's equation holds at canopy scale, insofar as the assumptions made on the physics of root water uptake hold. In the bulk formulation derived, the effective soil-plant resistance appears as a combination of the elementary resistances making up the multi-layer model; and the effective soil water potential is a weighted mean of the water potentials in each soil layer, the weighting system involving the complete set of elementary resistances. Simpler representations of soil-plant interaction leading to Ohm's law type formulations are also examined: a simplified multi-layer model, in which xylem (root axial resistance is neglected, and a bulk approach, in which soil-root interaction is represented by only one layer. Numerical simulations performed in different standard conditions show that these simpler representations do not provide accurate estimates of the transpiration rate

  9. How to put plant root uptake into a soil water flow model: A documentation with complete computer code. (United States)

    Dong, Xuejun


    The need for improved crop water use efficiency calls for flexible modeling platforms to implement new ideas in plant root uptake and its regulation mechanisms. This paper documents the details of modifying a soil infiltration and redistribution model to include (a) dynamic root growth, (b) non-uniform root distribution and water uptake, (c) the effect of water stress on plant water uptake, and (d) soil evaporation. The paper also demonstrates strategies of using the modified model to simulate soil water dynamics and plant transpiration considering different sensitivity of plants to soil dryness and different mechanisms of root water uptake. In particular, the flexibility of simulating various degrees of compensated uptake (whereby plants tend to maintain potential transpiration under mild water stress) is emphasized. The paper also describes how to estimate unknown root distribution and rooting depth parameters by the use of a simulation-based searching method. The full documentation of the computer code will allow further applications and new development.

  10. Modeling daily gas exchange of a Douglas-fir forest : comparison of three stomatal conductance models with and without a soil water stress function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van M.T.; Dekker, S.C.; Bouten, W.; Bosveld, F.C.; Kohsiek, W.; Kramer, K.; Mohren, G.M.J.


    Modeling stomatal conductance is a key element in predicting tree growth and water use at the stand scale. We compared three commonly used models of stomatal conductance, the Jarvis-Loustau, Ball-Berry and Leuning models, for their suitability for incorporating soil water stress into their

  11. Parametric soil water retention models: a critical evaluation of expressions for the full moisture range (United States)

    Madi, Raneem; Huibert de Rooij, Gerrit; Mielenz, Henrike; Mai, Juliane


    Few parametric expressions for the soil water retention curve are suitable for dry conditions. Furthermore, expressions for the soil hydraulic conductivity curves associated with parametric retention functions can behave unrealistically near saturation. We developed a general criterion for water retention parameterizations that ensures physically plausible conductivity curves. Only 3 of the 18 tested parameterizations met this criterion without restrictions on the parameters of a popular conductivity curve parameterization. A fourth required one parameter to be fixed. We estimated parameters by shuffled complex evolution (SCE) with the objective function tailored to various observation methods used to obtain retention curve data. We fitted the four parameterizations with physically plausible conductivities as well as the most widely used parameterization. The performance of the resulting 12 combinations of retention and conductivity curves was assessed in a numerical study with 751 days of semiarid atmospheric forcing applied to unvegetated, uniform, 1 m freely draining columns for four textures. Choosing different parameterizations had a minor effect on evaporation, but cumulative bottom fluxes varied by up to an order of magnitude between them. This highlights the need for a careful selection of the soil hydraulic parameterization that ideally does not only rely on goodness of fit to static soil water retention data but also on hydraulic conductivity measurements. Parameter fits for 21 soils showed that extrapolations into the dry range of the retention curve often became physically more realistic when the parameterization had a logarithmic dry branch, particularly in fine-textured soils where high residual water contents would otherwise be fitted.

  12. Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, D


    The soil water and temperature system (SWATS) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil-water potential, and soil moisture as a function of depth below the ground surface at hourly intervals. The temperature profiles are measured directly by in situ sensors at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the SGP climate research site. The soil-water potential and soil moisture profiles are derived from measurements of soil temperature rise in response to small inputs of heat. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil.

  13. Comparison of invasive and non-invasive electromagnetic methods in soil water content estimation of a dike model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preko, Kwasi; Scheuermann, Alexander; Wilhelm, Helmut


    Water infiltration through a dike model under controlled flooding and drainage conditions was investigated using the gravimetric soil water sampling technique and electromagnetic techniques, in particular ground penetrating radar (GPR) applied in different forms, time domain reflectometry with intelligent microelements (TRIME-TDR) and spatial-time domain reflectometry (S-TDR). The experiments were conducted on the model in two phases. In the first phase, the model was flooded with varying water levels between 0 and 1.25 m above the waterproof base of the model. In the second phase, the characteristics of the temporal water content changes were investigated over a period of 65 days as the flood water drained off from the 1.25 m level. The dike model was constructed with soil of the texture class loamy sand. The aim of the experiment was to investigate whether GPR-based invasive and non-invasive methods were able to quantitatively observe and correctly monitor temporal changes in the volumetric water content (VWC) within embankment dams. The VWC values from the various techniques corresponded very well, especially with low VWC values. A comparison with the VWC of gravimetric soil water sampling showed a satisfactory reproducibility. Characteristic discrepancies were recorded with higher values of the VWC. Under saturated conditions only the invasive methods were able to produce reasonable values of the VWC. After the release of the highest flood level, the drainage phase could be characterized by two invasive methods based on the TDR and GPR techniques

  14. Modeling stomatal conductance in the earth system: linking leaf water-use efficiency and water transport along the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (United States)

    Bonan, G. B.; Williams, M.; Fisher, R. A.; Oleson, K. W.


    The Ball-Berry stomatal conductance model is commonly used in earth system models to simulate biotic regulation of evapotranspiration. However, the dependence of stomatal conductance (gs) on vapor pressure deficit (Ds) and soil moisture must be empirically parameterized. We evaluated the Ball-Berry model used in the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) and an alternative stomatal conductance model that links leaf gas exchange, plant hydraulic constraints, and the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPA). The SPA model simulates stomatal conductance numerically by (1) optimizing photosynthetic carbon gain per unit water loss while (2) constraining stomatal opening to prevent leaf water potential from dropping below a critical minimum. We evaluated two optimization algorithms: intrinsic water-use efficiency (ΔAn /Δgs, the marginal carbon gain of stomatal opening) and water-use efficiency (ΔAn /ΔEl, the marginal carbon gain of transpiration water loss). We implemented the stomatal models in a multi-layer plant canopy model to resolve profiles of gas exchange, leaf water potential, and plant hydraulics within the canopy, and evaluated the simulations using leaf analyses, eddy covariance fluxes at six forest sites, and parameter sensitivity analyses. The primary differences among stomatal models relate to soil moisture stress and vapor pressure deficit responses. Without soil moisture stress, the performance of the SPA stomatal model was comparable to or slightly better than the CLM Ball-Berry model in flux tower simulations, but was significantly better than the CLM Ball-Berry model when there was soil moisture stress. Functional dependence of gs on soil moisture emerged from water flow along the soil-to-leaf pathway rather than being imposed a priori, as in the CLM Ball-Berry model. Similar functional dependence of gs on Ds emerged from the ΔAn/ΔEl optimization, but not the ΔAn /gs optimization. Two parameters (stomatal efficiency and root hydraulic

  15. Predicting Soil Infiltration and Horizon Thickness for a Large-Scale Water Balance Model in an Arid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadaomi Saito


    Full Text Available Prediction of soil characteristics over large areas is desirable for environmental modeling. In arid environments, soil characteristics often show strong ecological connectivity with natural vegetation, specifically biomass and/or canopy cover, suggesting that the soil characteristics may be predicted from vegetation data. The objective of this study was to predict soil infiltration characteristics and horizon (soil layer thickness using vegetation data for a large-scale water balance model in an arid region. Double-ring infiltrometer tests (at 23 sites, horizon thickness measurements (58 sites and vegetation surveys (35 sites were conducted in a 30 km × 50 km area in Western Australia during 1999 to 2003. The relationships between soil parameters and vegetation data were evaluated quantitatively by simple linear regression. The parameters for initial-term infiltration had strong and positive correlations with biomass and canopy coverage (R2 = 0.64 − 0.81. The horizon thickness also had strong positive correlations with vegetation properties (R2 = 0.53 − 0.67. These results suggest that the soil infiltration parameters and horizon thickness can be spatially predicted by properties of vegetation using their linear regression based equations and vegetation maps. The background and reasons of the strong ecological connectivity between soil and vegetation in this region were also considered.

  16. Response of the East Asian climate system to water and heat changes of global frozen soil using NCAR CAM model (United States)

    Xin, Y.


    Under the condition of land-atmosphere heat and water conservation, a set of sensitive numerical experiments are set up to investigate the response of the East Asian climate system to global frozen soil change. This is done by introducing the supercooled soil water process into the Community Land Model (CLM3.0), which has been coupled to the National Center of Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3.1). Results show that: 1) The ratio between soil ice and soil water in CLM3.0 is clearly changed by the supercooled soil water process. Ground surface temperature and soil temperature are also affected. 2) The Eurasian (including East Asian) climate system is sensitive to changes of heat and water in frozen soil regions. In January, the Aleutian low sea level pressure circulation is strengthened, Ural blocking high at 500 hPa weakened, and East Asian trough weakened. In July, sea level pressure over the Aleutian Islands region is significantly reduced; there are negative anomalies of 500 hPa geopotential height over the East Asian mainland, and positive anomalies over the East Asian ocean. 3) In January, the southerly component of the 850 hPa wind field over East Asia increases, indicating a weakened winter monsoon. In July, cyclonic anomalies appear on the East Asian mainland while there are anticyclonic anomalies over the ocean, reflective of a strengthened east coast summer monsoon. 4) Summer rainfall in East Asia changed significantly, including substantial precipitation increase on the southern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, central Yangtze River Basin, and northeast China. Summer rainfall significantly decreased in south China and Hainan Island, but slightly decreased in central and north China. Further analysis showed considerable upper air motion along 30°N latitude, with substantial descent of air at its north and south sides. Warm and humid air from the Northeast Pacific converged with cold air from northern land areas, representing the main cause of

  17. Measured and simulated soil water evaporation from four Great Plains soils (United States)

    The amount of soil water lost during stage one and stage two soil water evaporation is of interest to crop water use modelers. The ratio of measured soil surface temperature (Ts) to air temperature (Ta) was tested as a signal for the transition in soil water evaporation from stage one to stage two d...

  18. Soil and Water Assessment Tool model predictions of annual maximum pesticide concentrations in high vulnerability watersheds. (United States)

    Winchell, Michael F; Peranginangin, Natalia; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Chen, Wenlin


    Recent national regulatory assessments of potential pesticide exposure of threatened and endangered species in aquatic habitats have led to increased need for watershed-scale predictions of pesticide concentrations in flowing water bodies. This study was conducted to assess the ability of the uncalibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to predict annual maximum pesticide concentrations in the flowing water bodies of highly vulnerable small- to medium-sized watersheds. The SWAT was applied to 27 watersheds, largely within the midwest corn belt of the United States, ranging from 20 to 386 km 2 , and evaluated using consistent input data sets and an uncalibrated parameterization approach. The watersheds were selected from the Atrazine Ecological Exposure Monitoring Program and the Heidelberg Tributary Loading Program, both of which contain high temporal resolution atrazine sampling data from watersheds with exceptionally high vulnerability to atrazine exposure. The model performance was assessed based upon predictions of annual maximum atrazine concentrations in 1-d and 60-d durations, predictions critical in pesticide-threatened and endangered species risk assessments when evaluating potential acute and chronic exposure to aquatic organisms. The simulation results showed that for nearly half of the watersheds simulated, the uncalibrated SWAT model was able to predict annual maximum pesticide concentrations within a narrow range of uncertainty resulting from atrazine application timing patterns. An uncalibrated model's predictive performance is essential for the assessment of pesticide exposure in flowing water bodies, the majority of which have insufficient monitoring data for direct calibration, even in data-rich countries. In situations in which SWAT over- or underpredicted the annual maximum concentrations, the magnitude of the over- or underprediction was commonly less than a factor of 2, indicating that the model and uncalibrated parameterization

  19. Comparative analysis of the actual evapotranspiration of Flemish forest and cropland, using the soil water balance model WAVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. W. Verstraeten


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the quantification of the green – vegetation related – water flux of forest stands in the temperate lowland of Flanders. The underlying reason of the research was to develop a methodology for assessing the impact of forests on the hydrologic cycle in comparison to agriculture. The tested approach for calculating the water use by forests was based on the application of the soil water balance model WAVE. The study involved the collection of data from 14 forest stands, the calibration and validation of the WAVE model, and the comparison of the water use (WU components – transpiration, soil and interception evaporation – between forest and cropland. For model calibration purposes simulated and measured time series of soil water content at different soil depths, period March 2000–August 2001, were compared. A multiple-site validation was conducted as well. Actual tree transpiration calculated with sap flow measurements in three forest stands gave similar results for two of the three stands of pine (Pinus sylvestris L., but WAVE overestimated the actual measured transpiration for a stand of poplar (Populus sp.. A useful approach to compare the WU components of forest versus cropland is scenario analysis based on the validated WAVE model. The statistical Profile Analysis method was implemented to explore and analyse the simulated WU time series. With an average annual rainfall of 819 mm, the results reveal that forests in Flanders consume more water than agricultural crops. A 30 years average of 491 mm for 10 forests stands versus 398 mm for 10 cropped agricultural fields was derived. The WU components, on yearly basis, also differ between the two land use types (transpiration: 315 mm for forest and 261 mm for agricultural land use; soil evaporation: 47 mm and 131 mm, for forest and cropland, respectively. Forest canopy interception evaporation was estimated at 126 mm, while it was negligible for cropland.

  20. Modeling the effect of three soil and water conservation practices in Tigray, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Meijerink, G.W.; Mosugu, M.E.


    Severe land degradation affects the livelihood of many farmers in the highlands of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Various soil and water conservation practices have been proposed to reduce land degradation and to improve the quality of the natural resource base but quantitative information on their

  1. Parametric soil water retention models: a critical evaluation of expressions for the full moisture range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Madi


    Full Text Available Few parametric expressions for the soil water retention curve are suitable for dry conditions. Furthermore, expressions for the soil hydraulic conductivity curves associated with parametric retention functions can behave unrealistically near saturation. We developed a general criterion for water retention parameterizations that ensures physically plausible conductivity curves. Only 3 of the 18 tested parameterizations met this criterion without restrictions on the parameters of a popular conductivity curve parameterization. A fourth required one parameter to be fixed. We estimated parameters by shuffled complex evolution (SCE with the objective function tailored to various observation methods used to obtain retention curve data. We fitted the four parameterizations with physically plausible conductivities as well as the most widely used parameterization. The performance of the resulting 12 combinations of retention and conductivity curves was assessed in a numerical study with 751 days of semiarid atmospheric forcing applied to unvegetated, uniform, 1 m freely draining columns for four textures. Choosing different parameterizations had a minor effect on evaporation, but cumulative bottom fluxes varied by up to an order of magnitude between them. This highlights the need for a careful selection of the soil hydraulic parameterization that ideally does not only rely on goodness of fit to static soil water retention data but also on hydraulic conductivity measurements. Parameter fits for 21 soils showed that extrapolations into the dry range of the retention curve often became physically more realistic when the parameterization had a logarithmic dry branch, particularly in fine-textured soils where high residual water contents would otherwise be fitted.

  2. Metribuzin transport in undisturbed soil cores under controlled water potential conditions: experiments and modelling to evaluate the risk of leaching in a sandy loam soil profile. (United States)

    Pot, Valérie; Benoit, Pierre; Le Menn, Mona; Eklo, Ole-Martin; Sveistrup, Tore; Kvaerner, Jens


    Mobility of pesticides in soils is often evaluated and characterised in the surface soil layers rather than at different depths where soil characteristics such as soil organic matter, microbial biomass or clay contents can strongly change pesticide behaviour. The objective of this work was to characterise the reactivity of the herbicide metribuzin in three main soil horizons found in the 0-80 cm profile of an alluvial soil of southern Norway under dynamic transport conditions. A laboratory infiltrometer was used to perform percolation experiments in soil cores sampled in the three horizons Ap, Bw and Bw/C, at a fixed matric potential of -10 cm, thus preventing pores of equivalent radii higher than 0.015 cm from contributing to water flow. The physical equilibrium transport model correctly described the transport of water tracer (bromide). The distribution coefficient K(d) values were estimated to be 0.29, 0.17 ± 0.02 and 0.15 ± 0.00 L kg(-1) for horizons Ap, Bw and Bw/C respectively, in close agreement with batch sorption data. Degradation was found only for the surface horizon with a short half-life of about 5 days, in disagreement with longer half-lives found in batch and field degradation data. For all horizons, a kinetic sorption model was needed for better description of metribuzin leaching. Chemical non-equilibrium was greatest in the Bw horizon and lowest in the Bw/C horizon. Overall, metribuzin exhibited a greater mobility in the deeper horizons. The risk of metribuzin transfer to groundwater in such alluvial soils should therefore be considered. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. An analytical solution for the estimation of the critical available soil water fraction for a single layer water balance model under growing crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Brisson


    Full Text Available In the framework of simplified water balance models devoted to irrigation scheduling or crop modelling, the relative transpiration rate (the ratio of actual to maximal transpiration is assumed to decrease linearly when the soil dries out below a critical available water value. This value is usually expressed as a fraction, F, of the maximal available soil water content. The present work aims to use the basic laws governing water transfer through the plants at a daily time step to compute F dynamically as the crop grows. It can be regarded as an expansion of Slabbers' (1980 approach to crop growing conditions. Starting from the mathematical representation given by single-root models (Gardner, 1960, an analytical expression for F is derived, using simplified hypotheses. This expression accounts for plant attributes such as the mean root radius, the critical leaf water potential for stomatal closure and the root length density profile growing with the crop. Environmental factors such as soil type and atmospheric demand also influence F. The structural influence of soil comes from the required introduction of the bulk soil hydraulic conductivity in the single-root model. The shape of the root length density profile is assumed to be sigmoidal and a new profile is calculated at each value of the rooting depth. A sensitivity analysis of F to all those factors is presented. The first general result is that F decreases as the root system grows in depth. Differences in the shape of the root profile can be responsible for differential water stress sensitivity in the early stages of growth. Yet, low critical leaf water potential can compensate partially for a poor root profile. Conversely, F is relatively insensitive to the average root radius. F sensitivity to soil type seems somewhat artificial: given the bulk soil hydraulic conductivity formula, the soil sensitivity results from F being expressed as a fraction of the maximal available soil water content

  4. Potential groundwater recharge for the State of Minnesota using the Soil-Water-Balance model, 1996-2010 (United States)

    Smith, Erik A.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.


    Groundwater recharge is one of the most difficult components of a water budget to ascertain, yet is an important boundary condition necessary for the quantification of water resources. In Minnesota, improved estimates of recharge are necessary because approximately 75 percent of drinking water and 90 percent of agricultural irrigation water in Minnesota are supplied from groundwater. The water that is withdrawn must be supplied by some combination of (1) increased recharge, (2) decreased discharge to streams, lakes, and other surface-water bodies, and (3) removal of water that was stored in the system. Recent pressure on groundwater resources has highlighted the need to provide more accurate recharge estimates for various tools that can assess the sustainability of long-term water use. As part of this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, used the Soil-Water-Balance model to calculate gridded estimates of potential groundwater recharge across Minnesota for 1996‒2010 at a 1-kilometer (0.621-mile) resolution. The potential groundwater recharge estimates calculated for Minnesota from the Soil-Water Balance model included gridded values (1-kilometer resolution) of annual mean estimates (that is, the means for individual years from 1996 through 2010) and mean annual estimates (that is, the mean for the 15-year period 1996−2010).

  5. On parameterization of heat conduction in coupled soil water and heat flow modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votrubová, J.; Dohnal, M.; Vogel, T.; Tesař, Miroslav


    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2012), s. 125-137 ISSN 1801-5395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1174 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : advective heat flux * dual-permeability model * soil heat transport * soil thermal conductivity * surface energy balance Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2012

  6. Simulating the carbon, water, energy budgets and greenhouse gas emissions of arctic soils with the ISBA land surface model (United States)

    Morel, Xavier; Decharme, Bertrand; Delire, Christine


    Permafrost soils and boreal wetlands represent an important challenge for future climate simulations. Our aim is to be able to correctly represent the most important thermal, hydrologic and carbon cycle related processes in boreal areas with our land surface model ISBA (Masson et al, 2013). This is particularly important since ISBA is part of the CNRM-CM Climate Model (Voldoire et al, 2012), that is used for projections of future climate changes. To achieve this goal, we replaced the one layer original soil carbon module based on the CENTURY model (Parton et al, 1987) by a multi-layer soil carbon module that represents C pools and fluxes (CO2 and CH4), organic matter decomposition, gas diffusion (Khvorostyanov et al., 2008), CH4 ebullition and plant-mediated transport, and cryoturbation (Koven et al., 2009). The carbon budget of the new model is closed. The soil carbon module is tightly coupled to the ISBA energy and water budget module that solves the one-dimensional Fourier law and the mixed-form of the Richards equation explicitly to calculate the time evolution of the soil energy and water budgets (Boone et al., 2000; Decharme et al. 2011). The carbon, energy and water modules are solved using the same vertical discretization. Snowpack processes are represented by a multi-layer snow model (Decharme et al, 2016). We test this new model on a pair of monitoring sites in Greenland, one in a permafrost area (Zackenberg Ecological Research Operations, Jensen et al, 2014) and the other in a region without permafrost (Nuuk Ecological Research Operations, Jensen et al, 2013); both sites are established within the GeoBasis part of the Greenland Ecosystem Monitoring (GEM) program. The site of Chokurdakh, in a permafrost area of Siberia is is our third studied site. We test the model's ability to represent the physical variables (soil temperature and water profiles, snow height), the energy and water fluxes as well as the carbon dioxyde and methane fluxes. We also test the

  7. Estimation of available water capacity components of two-layered soils using crop model inversion: Effect of crop type and water regime (United States)

    Sreelash, K.; Buis, Samuel; Sekhar, M.; Ruiz, Laurent; Kumar Tomer, Sat; Guérif, Martine


    Characterization of the soil water reservoir is critical for understanding the interactions between crops and their environment and the impacts of land use and environmental changes on the hydrology of agricultural catchments especially in tropical context. Recent studies have shown that inversion of crop models is a powerful tool for retrieving information on root zone properties. Increasing availability of remotely sensed soil and vegetation observations makes it well suited for large scale applications. The potential of this methodology has however never been properly evaluated on extensive experimental datasets and previous studies suggested that the quality of estimation of soil hydraulic properties may vary depending on agro-environmental situations. The objective of this study was to evaluate this approach on an extensive field experiment. The dataset covered four crops (sunflower, sorghum, turmeric, maize) grown on different soils and several years in South India. The components of AWC (available water capacity) namely soil water content at field capacity and wilting point, and soil depth of two-layered soils were estimated by inversion of the crop model STICS with the GLUE (generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation) approach using observations of surface soil moisture (SSM; typically from 0 to 10 cm deep) and leaf area index (LAI), which are attainable from radar remote sensing in tropical regions with frequent cloudy conditions. The results showed that the quality of parameter estimation largely depends on the hydric regime and its interaction with crop type. A mean relative absolute error of 5% for field capacity of surface layer, 10% for field capacity of root zone, 15% for wilting point of surface layer and root zone, and 20% for soil depth can be obtained in favorable conditions. A few observations of SSM (during wet and dry soil moisture periods) and LAI (within water stress periods) were sufficient to significantly improve the estimation of AWC

  8. Exploring C-water-temperature interactions and non-linearities in soils through developments in process-based models (United States)

    Esteban Moyano, Fernando; Vasilyeva, Nadezda; Menichetti, Lorenzo


    Soil carbon models developed over the last couple of decades are limited in their capacity to accurately predict the magnitudes and temporal variations in observed carbon fluxes and stocks. New process-based models are now emerging that attempt to address the shortcomings of their more simple, empirical counterparts. While a spectrum of ideas and hypothetical mechanisms are finding their way into new models, the addition of only a few processes known to significantly affect soil carbon (e.g. enzymatic decomposition, adsorption, Michaelis-Menten kinetics) has shown the potential to resolve a number of previous model-data discrepancies (e.g. priming, Birch effects). Through model-data validation, such models are a means of testing hypothetical mechanisms. In addition, they can lead to new insights into what soil carbon pools are and how they respond to external drivers. In this study we develop a model of soil carbon dynamics based on enzymatic decomposition and other key features of process based models, i.e. simulation of carbon in particulate, soluble and adsorbed states, as well as enzyme and microbial components. Here we focus on understanding how moisture affects C decomposition at different levels, both directly (e.g. by limiting diffusion) or through interactions with other components. As the medium where most reactions and transport take place, water is central en every aspect of soil C dynamics. We compare results from a number of alternative models with experimental data in order to test different processes and parameterizations. Among other observations, we try to understand: 1. typical moisture response curves and associated temporal changes, 2. moisture-temperature interactions, and 3. diffusion effects under changing C concentrations. While the model aims at being a process based approach and at simulating fluxes at short time scales, it remains a simplified representation using the same inputs as classical soil C models, and is thus potentially

  9. Modeling of Soil Water Availability for Agricultural Planning at Pelaga Village, Badung Regency, Bali, Indonesia (United States)

    Suyarto, R.; Sunarta, I. N.; Wiyanti; Padmayani, N. K. H.


    Pelaga Village is located in Badung regency which has the advantage in agriculture with the cultivation of coffee plants, oranges, carrots, cabbage, and chili. The physical condition of Pelaga Village which has high rainfall, bumpy areas, and sandy-sandy ground texture causes air to air to be available for plants. Based on these questions then conducted a study to determine the comparison between the available water and water requirement for agriculture. Available water was difference field capacity and permanent wilting point method and crop water requirement was using Blaney-Criddle method. The results from this research was deficit between available air and crop water requirements. Available water was 12,12% and crop water requirement in initial stage, dev. Stage, mid-season stage, and late season stage respectively, coffee 11.28%, 24.19%, 35.49%, 29.04%; cabbage 19.58%, 19.58%, 33.10%, 27.74%: carrot 14.82%, 28.61%, 28.61%, 27.95%: Orange 14.82%, 28.61%, 28.61%, 27.23%; chili, 17.37%,17.37%, 34.80%, 30.46%. Soil management that must be done is by short-term land management by sprinkling long-term soil management by means of organic material valuation, irrigation making, and terracing making.

  10. Assessment of evapotranspiration and soil water content in the Kysuca River basin (Slovakia) using a rainfall-runoff model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košková, Romana; Němečková, Soňa; Sitková, Z.


    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2008), s. 012002 ISSN 1755-1315. [Conference of the Danubian Countries /24./. Bled, 02.06.2008-04.06.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB300600602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : hydrological modelling * soil water content * evapotranspiration * SWIM model Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  11. Using FAO-56 model to estimate soil and crop water status: Application to a citrus orchard under regulated deficit irrigation (United States)

    Provenzano, Giuseppe; Gonzàles-Altozano, Pablo; Manzano-Juàrez, Juan; Rallo, Giovanni


    Agro-hydrological models allow schematizing exchange processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPAC) on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Each section of the SPAC system is characterized by complex behaviours arising, for instance, the adaptive plant strategies in response to soil water deficit conditions. Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) has been considered as one of the potential strategies for sustainable crop production in regions characterized by water scarcity. Moreover, reducing water supply at certain growth stages can improve water use efficiency (WUE) and quality of productions, without affecting significantly crop yield. Environmental policy requires to improve WUE in crops with high water requirements, so that it is necessary to identify easy-to-use tools aimed at irrigation water saving strategies, without the need of tedious and time consuming experiments. Accurate evaluation of crop water status and actual transpiration plays a key role in irrigation scheduling under RDI, in order to avoid that water stress becomes too severe and detrimental to yield and fruit quality. Objective of the research was to assess the suitability of FAO56 agro-hydrological model (Allen et al., 1998) on citrus orchards under different water deficit conditions, to estimate soil and crop water status. The ability of the model to predict actual crop water stress was evaluated based on the temporal dynamic of simulated relative transpirations and on the similarities with the corresponding dynamic of measured midday stem water potentials, MSWP. During dry periods, simulated relative crop transpiration was correlated to MSWP with the aim to assess the model ability to predict crop water stress and to identify "plant-based" irrigation scheduling parameters. Experiments were carried out during three years from 2009 and 2011 in Senyera (39° 3' 35.4" N, 0° 30' 28.2" W), Spain, in a commercial orchard planted with Navelina/Cleopatra citrus trees. Three RDI

  12. Saturated hydraulic conductivity model computed from bimodal water retention curves for a range of New Zealand soils (United States)

    Pollacco, Joseph Alexander Paul; Webb, Trevor; McNeill, Stephen; Hu, Wei; Carrick, Sam; Hewitt, Allan; Lilburne, Linda


    Descriptions of soil hydraulic properties, such as the soil moisture retention curve, θ(h), and saturated hydraulic conductivities, Ks, are a prerequisite for hydrological models. Since the measurement of Ks is expensive, it is frequently derived from statistical pedotransfer functions (PTFs). Because it is usually more difficult to describe Ks than θ(h) from pedotransfer functions, Pollacco et al. (2013) developed a physical unimodal model to compute Ks solely from hydraulic parameters derived from the Kosugi θ(h). This unimodal Ks model, which is based on a unimodal Kosugi soil pore-size distribution, was developed by combining the approach of Hagen-Poiseuille with Darcy's law and by introducing three tortuosity parameters. We report here on (1) the suitability of the Pollacco unimodal Ks model to predict Ks for a range of New Zealand soils from the New Zealand soil database (S-map) and (2) further adaptations to this model to adapt it to dual-porosity structured soils by computing the soil water flux through a continuous function of an improved bimodal pore-size distribution. The improved bimodal Ks model was tested with a New Zealand data set derived from historical measurements of Ks and θ(h) for a range of soils derived from sandstone and siltstone. The Ks data were collected using a small core size of 10 cm diameter, causing large uncertainty in replicate measurements. Predictions of Ks were further improved by distinguishing topsoils from subsoil. Nevertheless, as expected, stratifying the data with soil texture only slightly improved the predictions of the physical Ks models because the Ks model is based on pore-size distribution and the calibrated parameters were obtained within the physically feasible range. The improvements made to the unimodal Ks model by using the new bimodal Ks model are modest when compared to the unimodal model, which is explained by the poor accuracy of measured total porosity. Nevertheless, the new bimodal model provides an

  13. Saturated hydraulic conductivity model computed from bimodal water retention curves for a range of New Zealand soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. P. Pollacco


    Full Text Available Descriptions of soil hydraulic properties, such as the soil moisture retention curve, θ(h, and saturated hydraulic conductivities, Ks, are a prerequisite for hydrological models. Since the measurement of Ks is expensive, it is frequently derived from statistical pedotransfer functions (PTFs. Because it is usually more difficult to describe Ks than θ(h from pedotransfer functions, Pollacco et al. (2013 developed a physical unimodal model to compute Ks solely from hydraulic parameters derived from the Kosugi θ(h. This unimodal Ks model, which is based on a unimodal Kosugi soil pore-size distribution, was developed by combining the approach of Hagen–Poiseuille with Darcy's law and by introducing three tortuosity parameters. We report here on (1 the suitability of the Pollacco unimodal Ks model to predict Ks for a range of New Zealand soils from the New Zealand soil database (S-map and (2 further adaptations to this model to adapt it to dual-porosity structured soils by computing the soil water flux through a continuous function of an improved bimodal pore-size distribution. The improved bimodal Ks model was tested with a New Zealand data set derived from historical measurements of Ks and θ(h for a range of soils derived from sandstone and siltstone. The Ks data were collected using a small core size of 10 cm diameter, causing large uncertainty in replicate measurements. Predictions of Ks were further improved by distinguishing topsoils from subsoil. Nevertheless, as expected, stratifying the data with soil texture only slightly improved the predictions of the physical Ks models because the Ks model is based on pore-size distribution and the calibrated parameters were obtained within the physically feasible range. The improvements made to the unimodal Ks model by using the new bimodal Ks model are modest when compared to the unimodal model, which is explained by the poor accuracy of measured total porosity. Nevertheless, the new bimodal

  14. Predicting the scanning branches of hysteretic soil water-retention capacity with use of the method of mathematical modeling (United States)

    Terleev, V.; Ginevsky, R.; Lazarev, V.; Nikonorov, A.; Togo, I.; Topaj, A.; Moiseev, K.; Abakumov, E.; Melnichuk, A.; Dunaieva, I.


    A mathematical model of the hysteresis of the water-retention capacity of the soil is proposed. The parameters of the model are interpreted within the framework of physical concepts of the structure and capillary properties of soil pores. On the basis of the model, a computer program with an interface that allows for dialogue with the user is developed. The program has some of options: visualization of experimental data; identification of the model parameters with use of measured data by means of an optimizing algorithm; graphical presentation of the hysteresis loop with application of the assigned parameters. Using the program, computational experiments were carried out, which consisted in verifying the identifiability of the model parameters from data on the main branches, and also in testing the ability to predict the scanning branches of the hysteresis loop. For the experiments, literature data on two sandy soils were used. The absence of an “artificial pump effect” is proved. A sufficiently high accuracy of the prediction of the scanning branches of the hysteresis loop has been achieved in comparison with the three models of the precursors. The practical importance of the proposed model and computer program, which is developed on its basis, is to ensure the calculation of precision irrigation rates. The application of such rates in irrigation farming will help to prevent excess moisture from flowing beyond the root layer of the soil and, thus, minimize the unproductive loss of irrigation water and agrochemicals, as well as reduce the risk of groundwater contamination and natural water eutrophication.

  15. Modeling Miscanthus in the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) to simulate its water quality effects as a bioenergy crop. (United States)

    Ng, Tze Ling; Eheart, J Wayland; Cai, Ximing; Miguez, Fernando


    There is increasing interest in perennial grasses as a renewable source of bioenergy and feedstock for second-generation cellulosic biofuels. The primary objective of this study is to estimate the potential effects on riverine nitrate load of cultivating Miscanthus x giganteus in place of conventional crops. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used to model miscanthus growth and streamwater quality in the Salt Creek watershed in Illinois. SWAT has a built-in crop growth component, but, as miscanthus is relatively new as a potentially commercial crop, data on the SWAT crop growth parameters for the crop are lacking. This leads to the second objective of this study, which is to estimate those parameters to facilitate the modeling of miscanthus in SWAT. Results show a decrease in nitrate load that depends on the percent land use change to miscanthus and the amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied to the miscanthus. Specifically, assuming a nitrogen fertilization rate for miscanthus of 90 kg-N/ha, a 10%, 25%, and 50% land use change to miscanthus will lead to decreases in nitrate load of about 6.4%, 16.5%, and 29.6% at the watershed outlet, respectively. Likewise, nitrate load may be reduced by lowering the fertilizer application rate, but not proportionately. When fertilization drops from 90 to 30 kg-N/ha the difference in nitrate load decrease is less than 1% when 10% of the watershed is miscanthus and less than 6% when 50% of the watershed is miscanthus. It is also found that the nitrate load decrease from converting less than half the watershed to miscanthus from corn and soybean in 1:1 rotation surpasses that from converting the whole watershed to just soybean.

  16. Modifying the Soil and Water Assessment Tool to Simulate Cropland Carbon Flux: Model Development and Initial Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Arnold, Jeffrey; Williams, Jimmy R.; Srinivasan, Raghavan


    Climate change is one of the most compelling modern issues and has important implications for almost every aspect of natural and human systems. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model has been applied worldwide to support sustainable land and water management in a changing climate. However, the inadequacies of the existing carbon algorithm in SWAT limit its application in assessing impacts of human activities on CO2 emission, one important source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that traps heat in the earth system and results in global warming. In this research, we incorporate a revised version of the CENTURY carbon model into SWAT to describe dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM)- residue and simulate land-atmosphere carbon exchange.

  17. Modelling the effects of land cover and climate change on soil water partitioning in a boreal headwater catchment (United States)

    Wang, Hailong; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Soulsby, Chris


    Climate and land cover are two major factors affecting the water fluxes and balance across spatiotemporal scales. These two factors and their impacts on hydrology are often interlinked. The quantification and differentiation of such impacts is important for developing sustainable land and water management strategies. Here, we calibrated the well-known Hydrus-1D model in a data-rich boreal headwater catchment in Scotland to assess the role of two dominant vegetation types (shrubs vs. trees) in regulating the soil water partitioning and balance. We also applied previously established climate projections for the area and replaced shrubs with trees to imitate current land use change proposals in the region, so as to quantify the potential impacts of climate and land cover changes on soil hydrology. Under tree cover, evapotranspiration and deep percolation to recharge groundwater was about 44% and 57% of annual precipitation, whilst they were about 10% lower and 9% higher respectively under shrub cover in this humid, low energy environment. Meanwhile, tree canopies intercepted 39% of annual precipitation in comparison to 23% by shrubs. Soils with shrub cover stored more water than tree cover. Land cover change was shown to have stronger impacts than projected climate change. With a complete replacement of shrubs with trees under future climate projections at this site, evapotranspiration is expected to increase by ∼39% while percolation to decrease by 21% relative to the current level, more pronounced than the modest changes in the two components (climate change only. The impacts would be particularly marked in warm seasons, which may result in water stress experienced by the vegetation. The findings provide an important evidence base for adaptive management strategies of future changes in low-energy humid environments, where vegetation growth is usually restricted by radiative energy and not water availability while few studies that quantify soil water partitioning

  18. Evaluation of a model framework to estimate soil and soil organic carbon redistribution by water and tillage using 137Cs in two U.S. Midwest agricultural fields (United States)

    Young, Claudia J.; Liu, Shuguang; Schumacher, Joseph A.; Schumacher, Thomas E.; Kaspar, Thomas C.; McCarty, Gregory W.; Napton, Darrell; Jaynes, Dan B.


    Cultivated lands in the U.S. Midwest have been affected by soil erosion, causing soil organic carbon (SOC) redistribution in the landscape and other environmental and agricultural problems. The importance of SOC redistribution on soil productivity and crop yield, however, is still uncertain. In this study, we used a model framework, which includes the Unit Stream Power-based Erosion Deposition (USPED) and the Tillage Erosion Prediction (TEP) models, to understand the soil and SOC redistribution caused by water and tillage erosion in two agricultural fields in the U.S. Midwest. This model framework was evaluated for different digital elevation model (DEM) spatial resolutions (10-m, 24-m, 30-m, and 56-m) and topographic exponents (m = 1.0–1.6 and n = 1.0–1.3) using soil redistribution rates from 137Cs measurements. The results showed that the aggregated 24-m DEM, m = 1.4 and n = 1.0 for rill erosion, and m = 1.0 and n = 1.0 for sheet erosion, provided the best fit with the observation data at both sites. Moreover, estimated average SOC redistributions were 1.3 ± 9.8 g C m− 2 yr− 1 in field site 1 and 3.6 ± 14.3 g C m− 2 yr− 1 in field site 2. Spatial distribution patterns showed SOC loss (negative values) in the eroded areas and SOC gain (positive value) in the deposition areas. This study demonstrated the importance of the spatial resolution and the topographic exponents to estimate and map soil redistribution and the SOC dynamics throughout the landscape, helping to identify places where erosion and deposition from water and tillage are occurring at high rates. Additional research is needed to improve the application of the model framework for use in local and regional studies where rainfall erosivity and cover management factors vary. Therefore, using this model framework can help to improve the information about the spatial distribution of soil erosion across agricultural landscapes and to gain a better understanding of SOC

  19. UNSAT-H Version 3.0: Unsaturated Soil Water and Heat Flow Model Theory, User Manual, and Examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayer, M.J.


    The UNSAT-H model was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assess the water dynamics of arid sites and, in particular, estimate recharge fluxes for scenarios pertinent to waste disposal facilities. During the last 4 years, the UNSAT-H model received support from the Immobilized Waste Program (IWP) of the Hanford Site's River Protection Project. This program is designing and assessing the performance of on-site disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are currently stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site (LMHC 1999). The IWP is interested in estimates of recharge rates for current conditions and long-term scenarios involving the vadose zone disposal of tank wastes. Simulation modeling with UNSAT-H is one of the methods being used to provide those estimates (e.g., Rockhold et al. 1995; Fayer et al. 1999). To achieve the above goals for assessing water dynamics and estimating recharge rates, the UNSAT-H model addresses soil water infiltration, redistribution, evaporation, plant transpiration, deep drainage, and soil heat flow as one-dimensional processes. The UNSAT-H model simulates liquid water flow using Richards' equation (Richards 1931), water vapor diffusion using Fick's law, and sensible heat flow using the Fourier equation. This report documents UNSAT-H .Version 3.0. The report includes the bases for the conceptual model and its numerical implementation, benchmark test cases, example simulations involving layered soils and plants, and the code manual. Version 3.0 is an, enhanced-capability update of UNSAT-H Version 2.0 (Fayer and Jones 1990). New features include hysteresis, an iterative solution of head and temperature, an energy balance check, the modified Picard solution technique, additional hydraulic functions, multiple-year simulation capability, and general enhancements

  20. Water movement in stony soils: The influence of stoniness on soil water content profiles (United States)

    Novak, Viliam; Knava, Karol


    WATER MOVEMENT IN STONY SOILS: THE INFLUENCE OF STONINESS ON SOIL WATER CONTENT PROFILES Viliam Novák, Karol Kňava Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Racianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava 3, Slovakia, e-mail: Soils containing rock fragments are widespread over the world, on Europe such soil account for 30%, 60% in Mediterranean region. In comparison to fine earth soils (soil particles are less then 2 mm) stony soils contain rock fragments characterized by the low retention capacity and hydraulic conductivity. So, for stony soils -in comparison to the fine-earth soils - is typical lower hydraulic conductivity and retention capacity, which lead to the decrease decrease of infiltration rate and low water retention. So, water movement and its modeling in stony soil would differ from fine earth (usually agricultural) soil. The aim of this contribution is to demonstrate the differences in water movement in homogeneous soil (fine earth) and stony soil. The influence of different stoniness on soil water content and soil water dynamics was studied too. Windthrow at High Tatra mountains in Slovakia (November 2004) cleared nearly 12 000 ha of 80 year conifers and this event initiated complex research of windthrow impact on the ecosystem. The important part of this study was water movement in impacted area. Specific feature of the soil in this area was moraine soil consisting of fine earth, characterized as silty sand, with the relative stone content up to 0.49, increasing with depth. Associated phenomenon to the forest clearing is the decrease of rain interception and higher undercanopy precipitation. Conifers interception capacity can be three times higher than low canopy interception, and can reach up to 40% of annual precipitation in Central Europe. Stones in the soil are decreasing infiltration rate, but paradoxically increased understorey precipitation and followingly the increased cumulative infiltration led to the increase of the soil

  1. Soil Heat and Water (SHAW) Model Validation During Snowmelt in a Forested and Regenerating Clearcut on a Colorado Subalpine Hillslope (United States)

    Goodbody, A.; Elder, K.; Davis, R. E.


    Perturbations to Central Rocky Mountain subalpine forests can significantly impact hydrological processes. Understanding interactions between subalpine forest and surface/subsurface hydrology at the process level is essential for the development and validation of hydrologic models. Measurements from two subalpine hillslopes are used to validate the Soil Heat and Water (SHAW) model. One hillslope is a naturally regenerating clearcut that was harvested in December 1984. Adjacently lies a second hillslope, which serves as the control and is forested with trees exceeding 80 years in age. Both plots are populated with lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), subalpine fir (Abies lariocarpa) and Englemann spruce (Picea englemannii). Identical meteorological and hydrological measurements were made on both plots from January through June 2001. Meteorologic measurements include air temperature, relative humidity, incoming solar radiation, net radiation, wind speed and direction, soil temperature, and snow depth. Hydrologic measurements include snow water equivalent, soil moisture, snowmelt discharge at the base of the snowpack, and subsurface plot discharge. Precipitation was measured offsite in a nearby forest clearing. In addition to parameterizing the model, these measurements serve as critical validation points for model output. The model produced adequate results in both forest conditions.

  2. Application of a coupled microwave, energy and water transfer model to relate passive microwave emission from bare soils to near-surface water content and evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Simmonds


    Full Text Available The paper examines the stability of the relation between microwave emission from the soil and the average near-surface water content in the case of relatively smooth, bare soils, and then considers the extent to which microwave radiometry can be used to estimate the effective surface resistance to vapour transfer, which is also related to the near-surface water status. The analysis is based on the use of a model (MICRO-SWEAT which couples a microwave radiative transfer model with a SVAT scheme that describes the exchanges of water vapour, energy and sensible heat at the land surface. Verification of MICRO-SWEAT showed good agreement (about 3K RMSE between predicted L band (1.4 GHz brightness temperature over soils with contrasting texture during a multi-day drydown, and those measured using a truck-mounted radiometer. There was good agreement between the measured and predicted relations between the average water content of the upper 2 cm of the soil profile and the brightness temperature normalised with respect to the radiometric surface temperature. Some of the scatter in this relationship was attributable to diurnal variation in the magnitude of near-surface gradients in temperature and water content, and could be accounted for by using the physically-based simulation model. The influence of soil texture on this relationship was well-simulated using MICRO-SWEAT. The paper concludes by demonstrating how MICRO-SWEAT can be used to establish a relationship between the normalised brightness temperature and the surface resistance for use in the prediction of evaporation using the Penman-Montheith equation.

  3. Soils and water [Chapter 18 (United States)

    Goran Berndes; Heather Youngs; Maria Victoria Ramos Ballester; Heitor Cantarella; Annette L. Cowie; Graham Jewitt; Luiz Antonio Martinelli; Dan Neary


    Bioenergy production can have positive or negative impacts on soil and water. To best understand these impacts, the effects of bioenergy systems on water and soil resources should be assessed as part of an integrated analysis considering environmental, social and economic dimensions. Bioenergy production systems that are strategically integrated in the landscape to...

  4. Modeling soil conservation, water conservation and their tradeoffs: a case study in Beijing. (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Zheng, Hua; Li, Xiaoma; Zhuang, Changwei; Jiang, Bo


    Natural ecosystems provide society with important goods and services. With the rapid increase in human populations and excessive utilization of natural resources, humans frequently enhance the production of some services at the expense of the others. Although the need for tradeoffs between conservation and development is urgent, the lack of efficient methods to assess such tradeoffs has impeded progress. Three land use strategy scenarios (development scenario, plan trend scenario and conservation scenario) were created to forecast potential changes in ecosystem services from 2007 to 2050 in Beijing, China. GIS-based techniques were used to map spatial and temporal distribution and changes in ecosystem services for each scenario. The provision of ecosystem services differed spatially, with significant changes being associated with different scenarios. Scenario analysis of water yield (as average annual yield) and soil retention (as retention rate per unit area) for the period 2007 to 2050 indicated that the highest values for these parameters were predicted for the forest habitat under all three scenarios. Annual yield/retention of forest, shrub, and grassland ranked the highest in the conservation scenario. Total water yield and soil retention increased in the conservation scenario and declined dramatically in the other two scenarios, especially the development scenario. The conservation scenario was the optimal land use strategy, resulting in the highest soil retention and water yield. Our study suggests that the evaluation and visualization of ecosystem services can effectively assist in understanding the tradeoffs between conservation and development. Results of this study have implications for planning and monitoring future management of natural capital and ecosystem services, which can be integrated into land use decision-making.

  5. Predicting soil, water and air concentrations of environmental contaminants locally and regionally; multimedia transport and transformation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I.


    Environmental scientists recognize that the environment functions as a complex, interconnected system. A realistic risk-management strategy for many contaminants requires a comprehensive and integrated assessment of local and regional transport and transformation processes. In response to this need, we have developed multimedia models that simulate the movement and transformation of chemicals as they spread through air, water, biota, soils, sediments, surface water and ground water. Each component of the environment is treated as a homogeneous subsystem that can exchange water, nutrients, and chemical contaminants with other adjacent compartments. In this paper, we illustrate the use of multimedia models and measurements as tools for screening the potential risks of contaminants released to air and deposited onto soil and plants. The contaminant list includes the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), the semi-volatile organic compound benzo(a)pyrene, and the radionuclides tritium and uranium-238. We examine how chemical properties effect both the ultimate route and quantity of human and ecosystem contact and identify sensitivities and uncertainties in the model results. We consider the advantages of multimedia models relative to environmental monitoring data. (au)

  6. Soil-water content characterisation in a modified Jarvis-Stewart model: A case study of a conifer forest on a shallow unconfined aquifer (United States)

    Guyot, Adrien; Fan, Junliang; Oestergaard, Kasper T.; Whitley, Rhys; Gibbes, Badin; Arsac, Margaux; Lockington, David A.


    Groundwater-vegetation-atmosphere fluxes were monitored for a subtropical coastal conifer forest in South-East Queensland, Australia. Observations were used to quantify seasonal changes in transpiration rates with respect to temporal fluctuations of the local water table depth. The applicability of a Modified Jarvis-Stewart transpiration model (MJS), which requires soil-water content data, was assessed for this system. The influence of single depth values compared to use of vertically averaged soil-water content data on MJS-modelled transpiration was assessed over both a wet and a dry season, where the water table depth varied from the surface to a depth of 1.4 m below the surface. Data for tree transpiration rates relative to water table depth showed that trees transpire when the water table was above a threshold depth of 0.8 m below the ground surface (water availability is non-limiting). When the water table reached the ground surface (i.e., surface flooding) transpiration was found to be limited. When the water table is below this threshold depth, a linear relationship between water table depth and the transpiration rate was observed. MJS modelling results show that the influence of different choices for soil-water content on transpiration predictions was insignificant in the wet season. However, during the dry season, inclusion of deeper soil-water content data improved the model performance (except for days after isolated rainfall events, here a shallower soil-water representation was better). This study demonstrated that, to improve MJS simulation results, appropriate selection of soil water measurement depths based on the dynamic behaviour of soil water profiles through the root zone was required in a shallow unconfined aquifer system.

  7. Soil - the critical switch of water pathways (United States)

    Vogel, Hans-Joerg; Weller, Ulrich; Wollschläger, Ute


    Generally, the port of entry for water into terrestrial systems is the soil surface. The subsequent flow path of any water molecule towards productive transpiration, nonproductive evaporation, seepage to groundwater or surface runoff is decided within the upper decimeters of soil. Moreover, a substantial fraction of 70% of the Earth's freshwater resources is used by agriculture. Thus, let's say soil is relevant. The dynamics of water within the unsaturated soil is mostly vertical, since the gradients in the gravitational field of the Earth are typically pointing either upwards or downwards. Thus a relevant scale for modeling soil water dynamics is the vertical profile across different soil layers having different hydraulic properties. Based on these considerations and having in mind the management of water resources some crucial questions pop up: i) To what detail do we need to know the basic soil hydraulic properties (i.e. water retention characteristic and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function)? ii) How useful are sophisticated lab measurement to predict what is happening in the field? How to handle the highly non-linear change in flow paths as a function of the hydraulic state and its history? These questions are addressed based on the evidence of field measurements. Then, another crucial question is how to connect soil hydrology to the larger scales which, depending on the context, might be relevant as well.

  8. The "GEOMODEL" at Kiel University: A Hydrogeophysical full scale model to study pore water, contamination and structure of vadose soils (United States)

    Hagrey, S. A.; Rabbel, W.; Working Group Of Wateruse


    Erecting new improved GeoModel at Kiel University is based on our experiences with the pilot model for studying preferential flow processes and takes into account objectives of the EU - project "wateruse" for developing new high resolving techniques for hydro- and bio-geophysical studies. The GeoModel consists of a soil model (3x5x2m), computer room and monitoring chamber. A special irrigation device is installed above the model to simulate irrigations of different rates, intensities and contaminations (tracers). At the base a filter pebble layer divided into different segments for monitoring lateral distribution of discharge indicating for flowpaths and processes. A self developed vacuum aperture is installed to overcome effects of the hydraulic capillary barrier which is related to the abrupt jump in grain size at the soil sand-filter pebble interface. The concept of the GeoModel is to carry out controlled experiment with predefined boundary conditions (as in laboratory) on a full scale soil model (as in the field, i.e., no scale problems). The GeoModel, currently filled with silty sand is equipped with diverse fine electrode grids, radar hardware, TDR-, Tensiometer probes for measuring electrical resistivity, electromagnetic wave velocity and amplitude, water content and potential, respectively. The (infiltration) experiments aim at developing high resolution integrative spatiotemporal 3D techniques for monitoring flow processes of fluids and contaminants, mapping fine structure as preferential flow paths, root networks and trunk rings (which opens new applications in biogeophysics and geobiology), quantification of soil water content. The GeoModel serve for calibration of new instruments and techniques and is applied for special geotechnical and environmental experiments (e.g. anti-person mines, tracer experiments) as well as for technical courses for specialists. Also laboratory study of petrophysical parameters of soil material is carried out to establish

  9. Three Principles of Water Flow in Soils (United States)

    Guo, L.; Lin, H.


    Knowledge of water flow in soils is crucial to understanding terrestrial hydrological cycle, surface energy balance, biogeochemical dynamics, ecosystem services, contaminant transport, and many other Critical Zone processes. However, due to the complex and dynamic nature of non-uniform flow, reconstruction and prediction of water flow in natural soils remain challenging. This study synthesizes three principles of water flow in soils that can improve modeling water flow in soils of various complexity. The first principle, known as the Darcy's law, came to light in the 19th century and suggested a linear relationship between water flux density and hydraulic gradient, which was modified by Buckingham for unsaturated soils. Combining mass balance and the Buckingham-Darcy's law, L.A. Richards quantitatively described soil water change with space and time, i.e., Richards equation. The second principle was proposed by L.A. Richards in the 20th century, which described the minimum pressure potential needed to overcome surface tension of fluid and initiate water flow through soil-air interface. This study extends this principle to encompass soil hydrologic phenomena related to varied interfaces and microscopic features and provides a more cohesive explanation of hysteresis, hydrophobicity, and threshold behavior when water moves through layered soils. The third principle is emerging in the 21st century, which highlights the complex and evolving flow networks embedded in heterogeneous soils. This principle is summarized as: Water moves non-uniformly in natural soils with a dual-flow regime, i.e., it follows the least-resistant or preferred paths when "pushed" (e.g., by storms) or "attracted" (e.g., by plants) or "restricted" (e.g., by bedrock), but moves diffusively into the matrix when "relaxed" (e.g., at rest) or "touched" (e.g., adsorption). The first principle is a macroscopic view of steady-state water flow, the second principle is a microscopic view of interface

  10. Predicting soil, water, and air concentrations of environmental contaminants locally and regionally: Multimedia transport and transformation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I.


    Environmental scientists recognize that the environment functions as a complex, interconnected system. A realistic risk-management strategy for many contaminants requires a comprehensive and integrated assessment of local and regional transport and transformation processes. In response to this need, we have developed multimedia models that simulate the movement and transformation of chemicals as they spread through air, water, biota, soils, sediments, surface water, and ground water. Each component of the environment is treated as a homogeneous subsystem that can exchange water, nutrients, and chemical contaminants with other adjacent compartments. In this paper, we illustrate the use of multimedia models and measurements as tools for screening the potential risks of contaminants released to air and deposited onto soil and plants. The contaminant list includes the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), the semi-volatile organic compound benzo(a)pyrene, and the radionuclides tritium and uranium-238. We examine how chemical properties effect both the ultimate route and quantity of human and ecosystem contact and identify sensitivities and uncertainties in the model results

  11. Parameterizing the soil - water - plant root system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feddes, R.A.; Raats, P.A.C.


    Root water uptake is described from the local scale, to the field scale and to the regional and global scales. The local macroscopic model can be incorporated in Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum (SPAC) numerical models, like the SWAP, HYSWASOR, HYDRUS, ENVIRO-GRO and FUSSIM models. These SPAC models

  12. Modeling thermal dynamics of active layer soils and near-surface permafrost using a fully coupled water and heat transport model (United States)

    Jiang, Yueyang; Zhuang, Qianlai; O'Donnell, Jonathan A.


    Thawing and freezing processes are key components in permafrost dynamics, and these processes play an important role in regulating the hydrological and carbon cycles in the northern high latitudes. In the present study, we apply a well-developed soil thermal model that fully couples heat and water transport, to simulate the thawing and freezing processes at daily time steps across multiple sites that vary with vegetation cover, disturbance history, and climate. The model performance was evaluated by comparing modeled and measured soil temperatures at different depths. We use the model to explore the influence of climate, fire disturbance, and topography (north- and south-facing slopes) on soil thermal dynamics. Modeled soil temperatures agree well with measured values for both boreal forest and tundra ecosystems at the site level. Combustion of organic-soil horizons during wildfire alters the surface energy balance and increases the downward heat flux through the soil profile, resulting in the warming and thawing of near-surface permafrost. A projection of 21st century permafrost dynamics indicates that as the climate warms, active layer thickness will likely increase to more than 3 meters in the boreal forest site and deeper than one meter in the tundra site. Results from this coupled heat-water modeling approach represent faster thaw rates than previously simulated in other studies. We conclude that the discussed soil thermal model is able to well simulate the permafrost dynamics and could be used as a tool to analyze the influence of climate change and wildfire disturbance on permafrost thawing.

  13. The hydrology of water repellent soils (United States)

    Shillito, R.; Berli, M.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; Moore, H. K.


    The occurrence of wildfire throughout the western U.S. is expected to increase. So, too, will flooding and erosion associated with the aftereffects of the fires. Soil water repellency (hydrophobicity) has frequently been observed after fires and is believed to increase the post-fire runoff potential, although current runoff models cannot directly account for this effect. Many physically-based runoff models incorporate an infiltration reduction factor or manipulate the soil hydraulic conductivity parameter to account for water-repellent soils in runoff generation. Beginning with fundamental principles, we developed a methodology to physically account for soil water repellency and directly account for it in the Kineros2 runoff and erosion model.

  14. Development and testing of an in-stream phosphorus cycling model for the soil and water assessment tool. (United States)

    White, Michael J; Storm, Daniel E; Mittelstet, Aaron; Busteed, Philip R; Haggard, Brian E; Rossi, Colleen


    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool is widely used to predict the fate and transport of phosphorus (P) from the landscape through streams and rivers. The current in-stream P submodel may not be suitable for many stream systems, particularly those dominated by attached algae and those affected by point sources. In this research, we developed an alternative submodel based on the equilibrium P concentration concept coupled with a particulate scour and deposition model. This submodel was integrated with the SWAT model and applied to the Illinois River Watershed in Oklahoma, a basin influenced by waste water treatment plant discharges and extensive poultry litter application. The model was calibrated and validated using measured data. Highly variable in-stream P concentrations and equilibrium P concentration values were predicted spatially and temporally. The model also predicted the gradual storage of P in streambed sediments and the resuspension of this P during periodic high-flow flushing events. Waste water treatment plants were predicted to have a profound effect on P dynamics in the Illinois River due to their constant discharge even under base flow conditions. A better understanding of P dynamics in stream systems using the revised submodel may lead to the development of more effective mitigation strategies to control the impact of P from point and nonpoint sources. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. An Overview of GIS-Based Modeling and Assessment of Mining-Induced Hazards: Soil, Water, and Forest. (United States)

    Suh, Jangwon; Kim, Sung-Min; Yi, Huiuk; Choi, Yosoon


    In this study, current geographic information system (GIS)-based methods and their application for the modeling and assessment of mining-induced hazards were reviewed. Various types of mining-induced hazard, including soil contamination, soil erosion, water pollution, and deforestation were considered in the discussion of the strength and role of GIS as a viable problem-solving tool in relation to mining-induced hazards. The various types of mining-induced hazard were classified into two or three subtopics according to the steps involved in the reclamation procedure, or elements of the hazard of interest. Because GIS is appropriated for the handling of geospatial data in relation to mining-induced hazards, the application and feasibility of exploiting GIS-based modeling and assessment of mining-induced hazards within the mining industry could be expanded further.

  16. Liquid Water and Vapor Flow in Arid Soil: Comparison of Weighing Lysimeter Data with Simulations from a Process-Based Model (United States)

    Berli, M.; Dijkema, J.; Koonce, J.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; van der Ploeg, M. J.; Van Genuchten, M.


    Desert soils account for about a third of the Earth's land surface and are believed to be important players in terrestrial energy balance. However, the mechanisms that govern energy and mass fluxes across the land-atmosphere interface of hot deserts remain poorly understood. This knowledge gap also spills over to our insufficient understanding of the ecology and hydrology of deserts. A recently constructed weighing lysimeter (3 m deep and 2.26 m in diameter) located in Boulder City, NV, provides data of water and energy fluxes across the soil-atmosphere boundary of the Mojave Desert. The lysimeter has been filled with homogenized desert soil from nearby Eldorado Valley, instrumented with a suite of more than 150 sensors at multiple depth between 2.5 and 250 cm and under continuous operation since July 2008. In this study, we report on water content, water potential, and temperature data from one hydrologic year at high spatial and temporal resolutions. The data was used to develop, calibrate and validate a coupled, process-based water flow and storage model using Hydrus-1D. The model simulates liquid water flow, heat flow, and non-isothermal vapor flow along the soil profile. Detailed soil bulk density and porosity profiles are known based on soil mass and volume determined during lysimeter soil installation. Water retention property was determined from concurrent volumetric water content and matric potential measurements. A density-dependent scaling relation was developed to adjust water retention properties to the different soil bulk densities in the profile. The water flux across the soil-atmosphere boundary was determined from high-resolution lysimeter scale data. The saturated hydraulic conductivity was estimated via inverse modeling, using a subset of the soil moisture data. The calibrated model was validated using the remainder of the data set. The model accurately captures the soil temperature dynamics through the year and across the profile. The water

  17. Assessing the Importance of Incorporating Spatial and Temporal Variability of Soil and Plant Parameters into Local Water Balance Models for Precision Agriculture: Investigations within a California Vineyard (United States)

    Hubbard, S.; Pierce, L.; Grote, K.; Rubin, Y.


    Due Due to the high cash crop nature of premium winegrapes, recent research has focused on developing a better understanding of the factors that influence winegrape spatial and temporal variability. Precision grapevine irrigation schemes require consideration of the factors that regulate vineyard water use such as (1) plant parameters, (2) climatic conditions, and (3) water availability in the soil as a function of soil texture. The inability to sample soil and plant parameters accurately, at a dense enough resolution, and over large enough areas has limited previous investigations focused on understanding the influences of soil water and vegetation on water balance at the local field scale. We have acquired several novel field data sets to describe the small scale (decimeters to a hundred meters) spatial variability of soil and plant parameters within a 4 acre field study site at the Robert Mondavi Winery in Napa County, California. At this site, we investigated the potential of ground penetrating radar data (GPR) for providing estimates of near surface water content. Calibration of grids of 900 MHz GPR groundwave data with conventional soil moisture measurements revealed that the GPR volumetric water content estimation approach was valid to within 1 percent accuracy, and that the data grids provided unparalleled density of soil water content over the field site as a function of season. High-resolution airborne multispectral remote sensing data was also collected at the study site, which was converted to normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and correlated to leaf area index (LAI) using plant-based measurements within a parallel study. Meteorological information was available from a weather station of the California Irrigation management Information System, located less than a mile from our study area. The measurements were used within a 2-D Vineyard Soil Irrigation Model (VSIM), which can incorporate the spatially variable, high-resolution soil and plant

  18. Sensitivity analysis of a deterministic water temperature model to forest canopy and soil temperature in Catamaran Brook (New Brunswick, Canada) (United States)

    St-Hilaire, André; El-Jabi, Nassir; Caissie, Daniel; Morin, Guy


    A coupled deterministic hydrological and water temperature model, CEQUEAU, was modified to include soil temperature and crown closure in its calculation of local advective terms in the heat budget. The modified model was than tested to verify its sensitivity to these modifications. An analysis of the heat budget of a small forested catchment in eastern Canada revealed that the advective term related to interflow plays a significant role in the daily water heat budget, providing on average 28% of the local advective budget (which also includes advective heat terms from surface runoff and groundwater) and nearly 14% of the total heat budget (which includes all radiative terms at the water surface, convection and evaporation, as well as the local advective terms).Relative sensitivity indices (RSIs) were used to verify the impact of the newly introduced parameters and variables. Among them, parameters related to the forest cover (crown closure and leaf area index) have a maximum RSI of -0·6; i.e. a 100% increase in value produces a 60% decrease in the local advective term. Parameters with the greatest influence are the volume of water contributing to interflow and the amplitude of the net radiative flux at the soil surface, which, if doubled, would double the contribution of the local interflow advective term to the heat budget.

  19. Modeling Water Flux at the Base of the Rooting Zone for Soils with Varying Glacial Parent Materials (United States)

    Naylor, S.; Ellett, K. M.; Ficklin, D. L.; Olyphant, G. A.


    Soils of varying glacial parent materials in the Great Lakes Region (USA) are characterized by thin unsaturated zones and widespread use of agricultural pesticides and nutrients that affect shallow groundwater. To better our understanding of the fate and transport of contaminants, improved models of water fluxes through the vadose zones of various hydrogeologic settings are warranted. Furthermore, calibrated unsaturated zone models can be coupled with watershed models, providing a means for predicting the impact of varying climate scenarios on agriculture in the region. To address these issues, a network of monitoring sites was developed in Indiana that provides continuous measurements of precipitation, potential evapotranspiration (PET), soil volumetric water content (VWC), and soil matric potential to parameterize and calibrate models. Flux at the base of the root zone is simulated using two models of varying complexity: 1) the HYDRUS model, which numerically solves the Richards equation, and 2) the soil-water-balance (SWB) model, which assumes vertical flow under a unit gradient with infiltration and evapotranspiration treated as separate, sequential processes. Soil hydraulic parameters are determined based on laboratory data, a pedo-transfer function (ROSETTA), field measurements (Guelph permeameter), and parameter optimization. Groundwater elevation data are available at three of six sites to establish the base of the unsaturated zone model domain. Initial modeling focused on the groundwater recharge season (Nov-Feb) when PET is limited and much of the annual vertical flux occurs. HYDRUS results indicate that base of root zone fluxes at a site underlain by glacial ice-contact parent materials are 48% of recharge season precipitation (VWC RMSE=8.2%), while SWB results indicate that fluxes are 43% (VWC RMSE=3.7%). Due in part to variations in surface boundary conditions, more variable fluxes were obtained for a site underlain by alluvium with the SWB model (68

  20. Effectiveness of submerged drains in reducing subsidence of peat soils in agricultural use, and their effects on water management and nutrient loading of surface water: modelling of a case study in the western peat soil area of The Netherlands (United States)

    Hendriks, Rob F. A.; van den Akker, Jan J. A.


    Effectiveness of submerged drains in reducing subsidence of peat soils in agricultural use, and their effects on water management and nutrient loading of surface water: modelling of a case study in the western peat soil area of The Netherlands In the Netherlands, about 8% of the area is covered by peat soils. Most of these soils are in use for dairy farming and, consequently, are drained. Drainage causes decomposition of peat by oxidation and accordingly leads to surface subsidence and greenhouse gas emission. Submerged drains that enhance submerged infiltration of water from ditches during the dry and warm summer half year were, and are still, studied in The Netherlands as a promising tool for reducing peat decomposition by raising groundwater levels. For this purpose, several pilot field studies in the Western part of the Dutch peat area were conducted. Besides the effectiveness of submerged drains in reducing peat decomposition and subsidence by raising groundwater tables, some other relevant or expected effects of these drains were studied. Most important of these are water management and loading of surface water with nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphate. Because most of these parameters are not easy to assess and all of them are strongly depending on the meteorological conditions during the field studies some of these studies were modelled. The SWAP model was used for evaluating the hydrological results on groundwater table and water discharge and recharge. Effects of submerged drains were assessed by comparing the results of fields with and without drains. An empirical relation between deepest groundwater table and subsidence was used to convert effects on groundwater table to effects on subsidence. With the SWAP-ANIMO model nutrient loading of surface water was modelled on the basis of field results on nutrient concentrations . Calibrated models were used to assess effects in the present situation, as thirty-year averages, under extreme weather

  1. Calibration and Uncertainty Analysis of Water and Solute Transport Models Within Vegetated Soils Using a Detailed Dataset (United States)

    Jackson, B.; Wheater, H.; Butler, A.


    Appropriate models predicting the fate and transport of water and dissolved chemicals in vegetated soils are required for a wide range of applications. Substantial uncertainty is present due to measurement errors, parametric uncertainty, and structural issues related to model conceptualisation. Due to the costs and intrusiveness of subsurface measurements there are limited datasets available to interrogate models against. Furthermore, the models are typically computationally intensive, making it difficult to fully explore parametric and other uncertainty spaces. Hence there are two pressing needs which must be met to improve the utility of models: more data and constraints are needed to quantify the interactions between different uncertainties and their overall impact on the reliability and robustness of model outputs, and efficient methodologies to explore sensitivities and uncertainties are also called for. This paper presents a combined analysis of a particularly detailed dataset and models of water and solute movement, using both simple random search and Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Data was collected from an outdoor vegetated lysimeter facility over a duration of close to a year, with soil matric potential, moisture content and temperature at 10 cm depth intervals, along with rainfall and other meteorological variables, logged in four instrumented lysimeters at a time interval of 0.01 days. Three radionuclides (Na-22, Cl-36 and Cs-137) were supplied through the base of the lysimeters using an automated water table control system. Periodic soil cores and plant cuttings provided information on their migration and uptake. The integrity of the experimental data is examined, with uncertainty associated with outputs discussed and quantified. To interpret the data, a Richards' equation model coupled to a dynamic plant water model is linked to an advection-dispersion model with additional process representations of sorption, radioactive decay and root uptake

  2. Water Repellent Soils: The use of electrical resistivity tomography in a small scale catchment model to evaluate the effectiveness of surfactants. (United States)

    Lowe, Mary-Anne; Mathes, Falko; McGrath, Gavan; Leopold, Matthias


    Soil water repellence effects large areas of land in Western Australia causing large forfeits in agricultural profit. Surfactants are a potential management tool, however, in field trials they have had varied success and their impact on water movement is poorly understood. This study employs a novel approach to determine the effectiveness of surfactants at modifying infiltration into water repellent soils. Using a physical catchment model (0.6 m × 0.6 m) with soils arranged in a ridge and furrow topography, irrigation and runoff were quantified. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was used to measure changes in soil moisture patterns in two dimensions. Two sandy soils with contrasting severity of water repellence, as measured by the Molarity of Ethanol Droplet (MED) test, were assessed. The impact of two surfactants, at an equivalent rate of 1 L ha-1, and an untreated control were monitored over 5 wetting events. With surfactant application the very severely water repellent soil (MED 4.2 M) showed an increase in infiltration of up to 31%, which was concentrated under the area of surfactant application in the furrow. Volumetric water contents beneath the furrow increased up to 40% below 20 mm depth. Water infiltration into the untreated soil with low water repellence (MED 1.0 M) was 98%, and this did not significantly change with surfactant application. This physical catchment model, combined with hydrological and geophysical monitoring provides a useful tool to assess the effectiveness of surfactants in increasing water infiltration and subsurface soil moisture in water repellent soils. The work is part of the Australian CRC for Polymer project.

  3. Stochastic soil water balance under seasonal climates. (United States)

    Feng, Xue; Porporato, Amilcare; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio


    The analysis of soil water partitioning in seasonally dry climates necessarily requires careful consideration of the periodic climatic forcing at the intra-annual timescale in addition to daily scale variabilities. Here, we introduce three new extensions to a stochastic soil moisture model which yields seasonal evolution of soil moisture and relevant hydrological fluxes. These approximations allow seasonal climatic forcings (e.g. rainfall and potential evapotranspiration) to be fully resolved, extending the analysis of soil water partitioning to account explicitly for the seasonal amplitude and the phase difference between the climatic forcings. The results provide accurate descriptions of probabilistic soil moisture dynamics under seasonal climates without requiring extensive numerical simulations. We also find that the transfer of soil moisture between the wet to the dry season is responsible for hysteresis in the hydrological response, showing asymmetrical trajectories in the mean soil moisture and in the transient Budyko's curves during the 'dry-down' versus the 'rewetting' phases of the year. Furthermore, in some dry climates where rainfall and potential evapotranspiration are in-phase, annual evapotranspiration can be shown to increase because of inter-seasonal soil moisture transfer, highlighting the importance of soil water storage in the seasonal context.

  4. Measurement and modeling of energetic-material mass transfer to soil-pore water - Project CP-1227 final technical report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Sallaberry, Cedric M.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Phelan, James M.; Hadgu, Teklu


    Military test and training ranges operate with live-fire engagements to provide realism important to the maintenance of key tactical skills. Ordnance detonations during these operations typically produce minute residues of parent explosive chemical compounds. Occasional low-order detonations also disperse solid-phase energetic material onto the surface soil. These detonation remnants are implicated in chemical contamination impacts to groundwater on a limited set of ranges where environmental characterization projects have occurred. Key questions arise regarding how these residues and the environmental conditions (e.g., weather and geostratigraphy) contribute to groundwater pollution. This final report documents the results of experimental and simulation model development for evaluating mass transfer processes from solid-phase energetics to soil-pore water.

  5. Incorporation of the equilibrium temperature approach in a Soil and Water Assessment Tool hydroclimatological stream temperature model (United States)

    Du, Xinzhong; Shrestha, Narayan Kumar; Ficklin, Darren L.; Wang, Junye


    Stream temperature is an important indicator for biodiversity and sustainability in aquatic ecosystems. The stream temperature model currently in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) only considers the impact of air temperature on stream temperature, while the hydroclimatological stream temperature model developed within the SWAT model considers hydrology and the impact of air temperature in simulating the water-air heat transfer process. In this study, we modified the hydroclimatological model by including the equilibrium temperature approach to model heat transfer processes at the water-air interface, which reflects the influences of air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and streamflow conditions on the heat transfer process. The thermal capacity of the streamflow is modeled by the variation of the stream water depth. An advantage of this equilibrium temperature model is the simple parameterization, with only two parameters added to model the heat transfer processes. The equilibrium temperature model proposed in this study is applied and tested in the Athabasca River basin (ARB) in Alberta, Canada. The model is calibrated and validated at five stations throughout different parts of the ARB, where close to monthly samplings of stream temperatures are available. The results indicate that the equilibrium temperature model proposed in this study provided better and more consistent performances for the different regions of the ARB with the values of the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency coefficient (NSE) greater than those of the original SWAT model and the hydroclimatological model. To test the model performance for different hydrological and environmental conditions, the equilibrium temperature model was also applied to the North Fork Tolt River Watershed in Washington, United States. The results indicate a reasonable simulation of stream temperature using the model proposed in this study, with minimum relative error values compared to the other two models


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Febrianti


    Full Text Available Erosion is a natural process that occurs naturally causing sedimentation in a stream. The transported sediment material can reduce channel capacity and increase the risk of flooding, as happened in the Big River Fishing Area, Karang Intan Subdistrict, Banjar District. Therefore it is necessary to determine the value of erosion and the latest sediment in order to be the basis of consideration of management actions. Watershed management analysis using hydrological model. Soil And Water Assessment Tool (SWAT is one of the hydrological models that can be used to analyze erosion and sedimentation with parameters such as rainfall data, temperature, land cover, soil and slope. SWAT model simulation using land use data, soil, rainfall and climate data of 2016, the amount of sedimentation and erosion in Catchment Area of large river is 58,48 ton/ha/year and 4,82 ton/ha/year. The level of sedimency in the Catchment Area of the Great River which belongs to very low class is 1635,38 ha, low grade 57,31 ha, middle class 385,21 ha and very high class that is 3.221,48 ha. While the level of erosion that includes very light class of 2334,24 ha, lightweight 2.692.31 ha and middle class area of 272.83 ha.

  7. Wildfires effects on soils: water repellency, NIR models and post-fire treatments. My personal view (SSS Division Outstanding ECS Award Lecture) (United States)

    Arcenegui, Victoria


    I first was intrigued by fire, because all summers we had some of them in our location, and then I was involve in fire effects on soils. We had, and also have, a lot of question to answer. I am absolutely sure that soil science was my best choice. Soils are amazing, a lot of things are happening in soils. Soils and fire, are my main research topics. I studied the immediately effect of fire on soils, focus on the effect of fire in soil water repellency and aggregate stability. Two physical properties that are crucial to post-fire soil response. I also construct NIR models to know the maximum temperature reached in soils. It is well known that temperature is a key factor affecting soils properties. Then, it is a really important tool to predict the temperature reached in a soil after a wildfire. Currently, I am involve in a project to investigate what are the best post-fire treatments in our soils and how this treatments affects soil properties.

  8. Generic reactive transport codes as flexible tools to integrate soil organic matter degradation models with water, transport and geochemistry in soils (United States)

    Simunek, J.; Jacques, D.; Mayer, K. U.; Gerard, F.


    A large number of organic matter degradation, CO2 transport and dissolved organic matter models have been developed during the last decades. However, organic matter degradation models are in many cases hard-coded in terms of pools, kinetics and dependency on environmental variables. The input of the model user is typically limited to the adjustment of input parameters. In addition, the coupling with geochemical soil processes including aqueous speciation, sorption and colloid-facilitated transport are not incorporated in many of these models. Furthermore, these models are combined with simplified representations of flow and transport processes. We illustrate the capability of generic reactive transport codes to overcome these shortcomings. The formulations of reactive transport codes include a physics-based continuum representation of flow and transport processes, while biogeochemical reactions can be described as equilibrium processes and/or kinetic reaction networks. The flexibility of these type of codes allows for straightforward extension of reaction networks with new model components and in such a way facilitates an application-tailored implementation of organic matter degradation models and related processes. A numerical benchmark involving two reactive transport codes (HPx and MIN3P) demonstrates how the process-based simulation of transient variably saturated water flow, solute transport, heat transfer and diffusion in the gas phase can be combined with a flexible implementation of a soil organic matter degradation model. The benchmark includes the production of leachable organic matter and inorganic carbon in the aqueous and gaseous phases, as well as different decomposition functions with first-order, linear dependence or nonlinear dependence on a biomass pool. In addition, we show how processes such as local bioturbation (biodiffusion) can be included implicitly through a Fickian formulation of transport of soil organic matter. Coupling soil organic

  9. Modifying the Soil and Water Assessment Tool to simulate cropland carbon flux: model development and initial evaluation. (United States)

    Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, R César; Arnold, Jeffrey G; Williams, Jimmy R; Srinivasan, Raghavan


    Climate change is one of the most compelling modern issues and has important implications for almost every aspect of natural and human systems. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model has been applied worldwide to support sustainable land and water management in a changing climate. However, the inadequacies of the existing carbon algorithm in SWAT limit its application in assessing impacts of human activities on CO2 emission, one important source of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) that traps heat in the earth system and results in global warming. In this research, we incorporate a revised version of the CENTURY carbon model into SWAT to describe dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM)-residue and simulate land-atmosphere carbon exchange. We test this new SWAT-C model with daily eddy covariance (EC) observations of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and evapotranspiration (ET) and annual crop yield at six sites across the U.S. Midwest. Results show that SWAT-C simulates well multi-year average NEE and ET across the spatially distributed sites and capture the majority of temporal variation of these two variables at a daily time scale at each site. Our analyses also reveal that performance of SWAT-C is influenced by multiple factors, such as crop management practices (irrigated vs. rainfed), completeness and accuracy of input data, crop species, and initialization of state variables. Overall, the new SWAT-C demonstrates favorable performance for simulating land-atmosphere carbon exchange across agricultural sites with different soils, climate, and management practices. SWAT-C is expected to serve as a useful tool for including carbon flux into consideration in sustainable watershed management under a changing climate. We also note that extensive assessment of SWAT-C with field observations is required for further improving the model and understanding potential uncertainties of applying it across large regions with complex landscapes. © 2013.

  10. Effects of soil hydraulic properties on the spatial variability of soil water content: Evidence from sensor network data and inverse modeling (United States)

    Improved understanding of the temporal variability and stability of soil water content (SWC) and its relation to local and nonlocal controls is a major challenge in modern hydrology. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of soil hydraulic parameters on temporal stability of SWC with...

  11. A comparison of numerical and machine-learning modeling of soil water content with limited input data (United States)

    Karandish, Fatemeh; Šimůnek, Jiří


    Soil water content (SWC) is a key factor in optimizing the usage of water resources in agriculture since it provides information to make an accurate estimation of crop water demand. Methods for predicting SWC that have simple data requirements are needed to achieve an optimal irrigation schedule, especially for various water-saving irrigation strategies that are required to resolve both food and water security issues under conditions of water shortages. Thus, a two-year field investigation was carried out to provide a dataset to compare the effectiveness of HYDRUS-2D, a physically-based numerical model, with various machine-learning models, including Multiple Linear Regressions (MLR), Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS), and Support Vector Machines (SVM), for simulating time series of SWC data under water stress conditions. SWC was monitored using TDRs during the maize growing seasons of 2010 and 2011. Eight combinations of six, simple, independent parameters, including pan evaporation and average air temperature as atmospheric parameters, cumulative growth degree days (cGDD) and crop coefficient (Kc) as crop factors, and water deficit (WD) and irrigation depth (In) as crop stress factors, were adopted for the estimation of SWCs in the machine-learning models. Having Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) in the range of 0.54-2.07 mm, HYDRUS-2D ranked first for the SWC estimation, while the ANFIS and SVM models with input datasets of cGDD, Kc, WD and In ranked next with RMSEs ranging from 1.27 to 1.9 mm and mean bias errors of -0.07 to 0.27 mm, respectively. However, the MLR models did not perform well for SWC forecasting, mainly due to non-linear changes of SWCs under the irrigation process. The results demonstrated that despite requiring only simple input data, the ANFIS and SVM models could be favorably used for SWC predictions under water stress conditions, especially when there is a lack of data. However, process-based numerical models are undoubtedly a

  12. Complex linkage between soil, soil water, atmosphere and Eucalyptus Plantations (United States)

    Shukla, C.; Tiwari, K. N.


    Eucalyptus is most widely planted genus grown in waste land of eastern region of India to meet the pulp industry requirements. Sustainability of these plantations is of concern because in spite of higher demand water and nutrients of plantations, they are mostly planted on low-fertility soils. This study has been conducted to quantify effect of 25 years old, a fully established eucalyptus plantations on i.) Alteration in physico-chemical and hydrological properties of soil of eucalyptus plantation in comparison to soil of natural grassland and ii.) Spatio-temporal variation in soil moisture under eucalyptus plantations. Soil physico-chemical properties of two adjacent plots covered with eucatuptus and natural grasses were analyzed for three consecutive depths (i.e. 0-30 cm, 30-60 cm and 60-90 cm) with five replications in each plot. Soil infiltration rate and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) were measured in-situ to incorporate the influence of macro porosity caused due to roots of plantations. Daily soil moisture at an interval of 10 cm upto 160 cm depth with 3 replications and Leaf Area Index (LAI) at an interval of 15 days with 5 replications were recorded over the year. Significant variations found at level of 0.05 between soil properties of eucalyptus and natural grass land confirm the effect of plantations on soil properties. Comparative results of soil properties show significant alteration in soil texture such as percent of sand, organic matter and Ks found more by 20%, 9% and 22% respectively in eucalyptus plot as compare to natural grass land. Available soil moisture (ASM) was found constantly minimum in top soil excluding rainy season indicate upward movement of water and nutrients during dry season. Seasonal variation in temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and leaf area index (LAI) influenced the soil moisture extraction phenomenon. This study clearly stated the impact of long term establishment of eucalyptus plantations make considerable

  13. Modelling the Impact of Soil Management on Soil Functions (United States)

    Vogel, H. J.; Weller, U.; Rabot, E.; Stößel, B.; Lang, B.; Wiesmeier, M.; Urbanski, L.; Wollschläger, U.


    Due to an increasing soil loss and an increasing demand for food and energy there is an enormous pressure on soils as the central resource for agricultural production. Besides the importance of soils for biomass production there are other essential soil functions, i.e. filter and buffer for water, carbon sequestration, provision and recycling of nutrients, and habitat for biological activity. All these functions have a direct feed back to biogeochemical cycles and climate. To render agricultural production efficient and sustainable we need to develop model tools that are capable to predict quantitatively the impact of a multitude of management measures on these soil functions. These functions are considered as emergent properties produced by soils as complex systems. The major challenge is to handle the multitude of physical, chemical and biological processes interacting in a non-linear manner. A large number of validated models for specific soil processes are available. However, it is not possible to simulate soil functions by coupling all the relevant processes at the detailed (i.e. molecular) level where they are well understood. A new systems perspective is required to evaluate the ensemble of soil functions and their sensitivity to external forcing. Another challenge is that soils are spatially heterogeneous systems by nature. Soil processes are highly dependent on the local soil properties and, hence, any model to predict soil functions needs to account for the site-specific conditions. For upscaling towards regional scales the spatial distribution of functional soil types need to be taken into account. We propose a new systemic model approach based on a thorough analysis of the interactions between physical, chemical and biological processes considering their site-specific characteristics. It is demonstrated for the example of soil compaction and the recovery of soil structure, water capacity and carbon stocks as a result of plant growth and biological

  14. The GEOtop model as a tool to describe the strongly coupled energy and water balance in permafrost or seasonally-frozen soils (United States)

    Endrizzi, S.


    GEOtop is a small scale grid-based model that couples the soil heat and water budgets, represents the energy exchange with the atmosphere considering the radiative and turbulent fluxes, and describes the subsurface water flow in its fully three-dimensional nature. In particular, the model reproduces the strong coupling between water and energy balance during soil freezing and thawing processes, considering the highly non-linear heat capacity effect resulting from phase change. In addition, it describes the water and energy budgets in the snow cover, represents blowing snow, and models the temporal evolution of the snow depth and, therefore, its effect on soil temperature. Infiltration in frozen soil and runoff are also represented. Vegetation effects are considered, in particular as regards snow interception, trapping, and the interactions with turbulent and radiative heat exchange. GEOtop is therefore a very useful tool in several applications that involve permafrost and seasonally-frozen soils, both in high altitude and latitude regions. In particular, GEOtop allows evaluating the effects of water lateral transport in the freezing/thawing process, effects that are often neglected, but may be significant. Applications are shown for i) a typical peat-covered arctic environment, where the position of the frost table controls the runoff production rate, due to the strong decrease of the soil hydraulic conductivity with depth; and ii) an alpine site, where borehole data are used to test the model and the effect of the upslope drainage distance is studied.

  15. Water balance in afforestation chronosequences of common oak and Norway spruce on former arable soils in Denmark as evaluated using the DAISY model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salazar, O.; Hansen, S.; Abrahamsen, Per


    afforestation is likely to occur on abandoned cropland, and evaluation of the future impacts of this land use change will require projections with models that include combined cropland-forest modules. This study used the agro-based DAISY model (Version 4.93 to investigate changes in the soil water balance over...... four decades following afforestation of a homogeneous area of former arable land on a sandy loam in Denmark. Hydrological data collected during nine hydrological years (April 2001-March 2010) were used to test the DAISY model. Monthly data on soil water content at 0-90 cm used for calibration were......%) agreed satisfactorily with measured monthly soil water content during the calibration period (April 2001- December 2002). Similarly, in the oldest oak stand, long- term monitoring observations and predictions of monthly water content were in satisfactory agreement during the period January 2003-March...

  16. Precision agriculture and soil and water management in cranberry production (United States)

    Recent research on soil and water management of cranberry farms is presented in a special issue in Canadian Journal of Soil Science. The special issue (“Precision Agriculture and Soil Water Management in Cranberry Production”) consists of ten articles that include field, laboratory, and modeling stu...

  17. On the application of models for simulating soil water dynamics and plant growth. Einsatz von Wasserhaushalts- und Photosynthesemodellen in der Oekosystemanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessolek, G.


    Firstly, theoretical considerations of two simplified water models and two crop yield models are presented. The respecting models are used to calculate the actual evapotranspiration, groundwater recharge, capillary rise and plant growth (gross, potential and actual biomass - production). By comparing calculated model results with field data, it is shown that for a satisfying simulation the models have to be calibrated carefully. A sensitivity analysis of the model input parameters shows the accuracy with which field measurements have to be carried out. Secondly, the application of the models for a number of ecological case studies has been demonstrated. Questions concerning the dependence of soil physical properties, climatical conditions, vegetation and groundwater depth on soil water dynamics and plant growth have been discussed. Furthermore, attention has been given to the consequences of human activity (irrigation, fertilisation, groundwater lowering and sealing up) on the atmosphere - soil - plant - system. (orig./RB).

  18. Development of a predictive model for lead, cadmium and fluorine soil-water partition coefficients using sparse multiple linear regression analysis. (United States)

    Nakamura, Kengo; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Kuwatani, Tatsu; Komai, Takeshi


    In this study, we applied sparse multiple linear regression (SMLR) analysis to clarify the relationships between soil properties and adsorption characteristics for a range of soils across Japan and identify easily-obtained physical and chemical soil properties that could be used to predict K and n values of cadmium, lead and fluorine. A model was first constructed that can easily predict the K and n values from nine soil parameters (pH, cation exchange capacity, specific surface area, total carbon, soil organic matter from loss on ignition and water holding capacity, the ratio of sand, silt and clay). The K and n values of cadmium, lead and fluorine of 17 soil samples were used to verify the SMLR models by the root mean square error values obtained from 512 combinations of soil parameters. The SMLR analysis indicated that fluorine adsorption to soil may be associated with organic matter, whereas cadmium or lead adsorption to soil is more likely to be influenced by soil pH, IL. We found that an accurate K value can be predicted from more than three soil parameters for most soils. Approximately 65% of the predicted values were between 33 and 300% of their measured values for the K value; 76% of the predicted values were within ±30% of their measured values for the n value. Our findings suggest that adsorption properties of lead, cadmium and fluorine to soil can be predicted from the soil physical and chemical properties using the presented models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modelling field scale spatial variation in water run-off, soil moisture, N2O emissions and herbage biomass of a grazed pasture using the SPACSYS model. (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Li, Yuefen; Harris, Paul; Cardenas, Laura M; Dunn, Robert M; Sint, Hadewij; Murray, Phil J; Lee, Michael R F; Wu, Lianhai


    In this study, we evaluated the ability of the SPACSYS model to simulate water run-off, soil moisture, N 2 O fluxes and grass growth using data generated from a field of the North Wyke Farm Platform. The field-scale model is adapted via a linked and grid-based approach (grid-to-grid) to account for not only temporal dynamics but also the within-field spatial variation in these key ecosystem indicators. Spatial variability in nutrient and water presence at the field-scale is a key source of uncertainty when quantifying nutrient cycling and water movement in an agricultural system. Results demonstrated that the new spatially distributed version of SPACSYS provided a worthy improvement in accuracy over the standard (single-point) version for biomass productivity. No difference in model prediction performance was observed for water run-off, reflecting the closed-system nature of this variable. Similarly, no difference in model prediction performance was found for N 2 O fluxes, but here the N 2 O predictions were noticeably poor in both cases. Further developmental work, informed by this study's findings, is proposed to improve model predictions for N 2 O. Soil moisture results with the spatially distributed version appeared promising but this promise could not be objectively verified.

  20. Soil physics and the water management of spatially variable soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngs, E.G.


    The physics of macroscopic soil-water behaviour in inert porous materials has been developed by considering water flow to take place in a continuum. This requires the flow region to consist of an assembly of representative elementary volumes, repeated throughout space and small compared with the scale of observations. Soil-water behaviour in swelling soils may also be considered as a continuum phenomenon so long as the soil is saturated and swells and shrinks in the normal range. Macroscale heterogeneity superimposed on the inherent microscale heterogeneity can take many forms and may pose difficulties in the definition and measurement of soil physical properties and also in the development and use of predictive theories of soil-water behaviour. Thus, measurement techniques appropriate for uniform soils are often inappropriate, and criteria for soil-water management, obtained from theoretical considerations of behaviour in equivalent uniform soils, are not applicable without modification when there is soil heterogeneity. The spatial variability of soil-water properties is shown in results from field experiments concerned with water flow measurements; these illustrate both stochastic and deterministic heterogeneity in soil-water properties. Problems of water management of spatially variable soils when there is stochastic heterogeneity appear to present an insuperable problem in the application of theory. However, for soils showing deterministic heterogeneity, soil-water theory has been used in the solution of soil-water management problems. Thus, scaling using similar media theory has been applied to the infiltration of water into soils that vary over a catchment area. Also, the drain spacing to control the water-table height in soils in which the hydraulic conductivity varies with depth has been calculated using groundwater seepage theory. (author)

  1. Modifying the Soil and Water Assessment Tool to simulate cropland carbon flux: Model development and initial evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, R. César; Arnold, Jeffrey G.; Williams, Jimmy R.; Srinivasan, Raghavan


    Climate change is one of the most compelling modern issues and has important implications for almost every aspect of natural and human systems. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model has been applied worldwide to support sustainable land and water management in a changing climate. However, the inadequacies of the existing carbon algorithm in SWAT limit its application in assessing impacts of human activities on CO 2 emission, one important source of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) that traps heat in the earth system and results in global warming. In this research, we incorporate a revised version of the CENTURY carbon model into SWAT to describe dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM)-residue and simulate land–atmosphere carbon exchange. We test this new SWAT-C model with daily eddy covariance (EC) observations of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and evapotranspiration (ET) and annual crop yield at six sites across the U.S. Midwest. Results show that SWAT-C simulates well multi-year average NEE and ET across the spatially distributed sites and capture the majority of temporal variation of these two variables at a daily time scale at each site. Our analyses also reveal that performance of SWAT-C is influenced by multiple factors, such as crop management practices (irrigated vs. rainfed), completeness and accuracy of input data, crop species, and initialization of state variables. Overall, the new SWAT-C demonstrates favorable performance for simulating land–atmosphere carbon exchange across agricultural sites with different soils, climate, and management practices. SWAT-C is expected to serve as a useful tool for including carbon flux into consideration in sustainable watershed management under a changing climate. We also note that extensive assessment of SWAT-C with field observations is required for further improving the model and understanding potential uncertainties of applying it across large regions with complex landscapes. - Highlights: • Expanding the SWAT

  2. Modifying the Soil and Water Assessment Tool to simulate cropland carbon flux: Model development and initial evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, R. César [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20740 (United States); Arnold, Jeffrey G. [Grassland, Soil and Water Research Laboratory USDA-ARS, Temple, TX 76502 (United States); Williams, Jimmy R. [Blackland Research and Extension Center, AgriLIFE Research, 720 E. Blackland Road, Temple, TX 76502 (United States); Srinivasan, Raghavan [Spatial Sciences Laboratory in the Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Texas A and M University, College Stations, TX 77845 (United States)


    Climate change is one of the most compelling modern issues and has important implications for almost every aspect of natural and human systems. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model has been applied worldwide to support sustainable land and water management in a changing climate. However, the inadequacies of the existing carbon algorithm in SWAT limit its application in assessing impacts of human activities on CO{sub 2} emission, one important source of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) that traps heat in the earth system and results in global warming. In this research, we incorporate a revised version of the CENTURY carbon model into SWAT to describe dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM)-residue and simulate land–atmosphere carbon exchange. We test this new SWAT-C model with daily eddy covariance (EC) observations of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and evapotranspiration (ET) and annual crop yield at six sites across the U.S. Midwest. Results show that SWAT-C simulates well multi-year average NEE and ET across the spatially distributed sites and capture the majority of temporal variation of these two variables at a daily time scale at each site. Our analyses also reveal that performance of SWAT-C is influenced by multiple factors, such as crop management practices (irrigated vs. rainfed), completeness and accuracy of input data, crop species, and initialization of state variables. Overall, the new SWAT-C demonstrates favorable performance for simulating land–atmosphere carbon exchange across agricultural sites with different soils, climate, and management practices. SWAT-C is expected to serve as a useful tool for including carbon flux into consideration in sustainable watershed management under a changing climate. We also note that extensive assessment of SWAT-C with field observations is required for further improving the model and understanding potential uncertainties of applying it across large regions with complex landscapes. - Highlights: • Expanding the

  3. Water repellent soils: the case for unsaturated soil mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckett Christopher


    Full Text Available Water repellent (or “hydrophobic” or “non-wetting” soils have been studied by soil scientists for well over a century. These soils are typified by poor water infiltration, which leads to increased soil erosion and poor crop growth. However, the importance of water repellence on determining soil properties is now becoming recognised by geotechnical engineers. Water repellent soils may, for example, offer novel solutions for the design of cover systems overlying municipal or mine waste storage facilities. However, investigations into factors affecting their mechanical properties have only recently been initiated. This purpose of this paper is to introduce geotechnical engineers to the concept of water repellent soils and to discuss how their properties can be evaluated under an unsaturated soils framework. Scenarios in which water repellent properties might be relevant in geotechnical applications are presented and methods to quantify these properties in the laboratory and in the field examined.

  4. How to put plant root uptake into a soil water flow model [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun Dong


    Full Text Available The need for improved crop water use efficiency calls for flexible modeling platforms to implement new ideas in plant root uptake and its regulation mechanisms. This paper documents the details of modifying a soil infiltration and redistribution model to include (a dynamic root growth, (b non-uniform root distribution and water uptake, (c the effect of water stress on plant water uptake, and (d soil evaporation. The paper also demonstrates strategies of using the modified model to simulate soil water dynamics and plant transpiration considering different sensitivity of plants to soil dryness and different mechanisms of root water uptake. In particular, the flexibility of simulating various degrees of compensated uptake (whereby plants tend to maintain potential transpiration under mild water stress is emphasized. The paper also describes how to estimate unknown root distribution and rooting depth parameters by the use of a simulation-based searching method. The full documentation of the computer code will allow further applications and new development.

  5. Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, David R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    The soil water and temperature system (SWATS) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil-water potential, and soil moisture as a function of depth below the ground surface at hourly intervals. The temperature profiles are measured directly by in situ sensors at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The soil-water potential and soil moisture profiles are derived from measurements of soil temperature rise in response to small inputs of heat. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil.

  6. Estimation of soil water retention curve using fractal dimension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The soil water retention curve (SWRC) is a fundamental hydraulic property majorly used to study flow transport in soils and calculate plant-available water. Since, direct measurement of SWRC is time-consuming and expensive, different models have been developed to estimate SWRC. In this study, a fractal-based model ...

  7. Tightly bound soil water introduces isotopic memory effects on mobile and extractable soil water pools. (United States)

    Newberry, Sarah L; Prechsl, Ulrich E; Pace, Matthew; Kahmen, Ansgar


    Cryogenic vacuum extraction is the well-established method of extracting water from soil for isotopic analyses of waters moving through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. We investigate if soils can alter the isotopic composition of water through isotope memory effects, and determined which mechanisms are responsible for it. Soils with differing physicochemical properties were re-wetted with reference water and subsequently extracted by cryogenic water distillation. Results suggest some reference waters bind tightly to the soil and not all of this tightly bound water is removed during cryogenic vacuum extraction. Kinetic isotopic fractionation occurring when reference water binds to the soil is likely responsible for the 18 O-depletion of re-extracted reference water, suggesting an enrichment of the tightly bound soil water pool. Further re-wetting of cryogenically extracted soils indicates an isotopic memory effect of tightly bound soil water on water added to the soil. The data suggest tightly bound soil water can influence the isotopic composition of mobile soil water. Findings show that soils influence the isotope composition of soil water by (i) kinetic fractionation when water is bound to the soil and (ii) equilibrium fractionation between different soil water pools. These findings could be relevant for plant water uptake investigations and complicate ecohydrological and paleohydrological studies.

  8. A New European Slope Length and Steepness Factor (LS-Factor for Modeling Soil Erosion by Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos Panagos


    Full Text Available The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE model is the most frequently used model for soil erosion risk estimation. Among the six input layers, the combined slope length and slope angle (LS-factor has the greatest influence on soil loss at the European scale. The S-factor measures the effect of slope steepness, and the L-factor defines the impact of slope length. The combined LS-factor describes the effect of topography on soil erosion. The European Soil Data Centre (ESDAC developed a new pan-European high-resolution soil erosion assessment to achieve a better understanding of the spatial and temporal patterns of soil erosion in Europe. The LS-calculation was performed using the original equation proposed by Desmet and Govers (1996 and implemented using the System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA, which incorporates a multiple flow algorithm and contributes to a precise estimation of flow accumulation. The LS-factor dataset was calculated using a high-resolution (25 m Digital Elevation Model (DEM for the whole European Union, resulting in an improved delineation of areas at risk of soil erosion as compared to lower-resolution datasets. This combined approach of using GIS software tools with high-resolution DEMs has been successfully applied in regional assessments in the past, and is now being applied for first time at the European scale.

  9. A Field-Scale Sensor Network Data Set for Monitoring and Modeling the Spatial and Temporal Variation of Soil Water Content in a Dryland Agricultural Field (United States)

    Gasch, C. K.; Brown, D. J.; Campbell, C. S.; Cobos, D. R.; Brooks, E. S.; Chahal, M.; Poggio, M.


    We describe a soil water content monitoring data set and auxiliary data collected at a 37 ha experimental no-till farm in the Northwestern United States. Water content measurements have been compiled hourly since 2007 by ECH2O-TE and 5TE sensors installed at 42 locations and five depths (0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 m, 210 sensors total) across the R.J. Cook Agronomy Farm, a Long-Term Agro-Ecosystem Research Site stationed on complex terrain in a Mediterranean climate. In addition to soil water content readings, the data set includes hourly and daily soil temperature readings, annual crop histories, a digital elevation model, Bt horizon maps, seasonal apparent electrical conductivity, soil texture, and soil bulk density. Meteorological records are also available for this location. We discuss the unique challenges of maintaining the network on an operating farm and demonstrate the nature and complexity of the soil water content data. This data set is accessible online through the National Agriculture Library, has been assigned a DOI, and will be maintained for the long term.

  10. Performance Evaluation of FAO Model for Prediction of Yield Production, Soil Water and Solute Balance under Environmental Stresses (Case Study Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rezaverdinejad


    Full Text Available In this study, the FAO agro-hydrological model was investigated and evaluated to predict of yield production, soil water and solute balance by winter wheat field data under water and salt stresses. For this purpose, a field experimental was conducted with three salinity levels of irrigation water include: S1, S2 and S3 corresponding to 1.4, 4.5 and 9.6 dS/m, respectively, and four irrigation depth levels include: I1, I2, I3 and I4 corresponding to 50, 75, 100 and 125% of crop water requirement, respectively, for two varieties of winter wheat: Roshan and Ghods, with three replications in an experimental farm of Birjand University for 1384-85 period. Based on results, the mean relative error of the model in yield prediction for Roshan and Ghods were obtained 9.2 and 26.1%, respectively. The maximum error of yield prediction in both of the Roshan and Ghods varieties, were obtained for S1I1, S2I1 and S3I1 treatments. The relative error of Roshan yield prediction for S1I1, S2I1 and S3I1 were calculated 20.0, 28.1 and 26.6%, respectively and for Ghods variety were calculated 61, 94.5 and 99.9%, respectively, that indicated a significant over estimate error under higher water stress. The mean relative error of model for all treatments, in prediction of soil water depletion and electrical conductivity of soil saturation extract, were calculated 7.1 and 5.8%, respectively, that indicated proper accuracy of model in prediction of soil water content and soil salinity.

  11. Analytical solution for soil water redistribution during evaporation process. (United States)

    Teng, Jidong; Yasufuku, Noriyuki; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Shiyu


    Simulating the dynamics of soil water content and modeling soil water evaporation are critical for many environmental and agricultural strategies. The present study aims to develop an analytical solution to simulate soil water redistribution during the evaporation process. This analytical solution was derived utilizing an exponential function to describe the relation of hydraulic conductivity and water content on pressure head. The solution was obtained based on the initial condition of saturation and an exponential function to model the change of surface water content. Also, the evaporation experiments were conducted under a climate control apparatus to validate the theoretical development. Comparisons between the proposed analytical solution and experimental result are presented from the aspects of soil water redistribution, evaporative rate and cumulative evaporation. Their good agreement indicates that this analytical solution provides a reliable way to investigate the interaction of evaporation and soil water profile.

  12. Applications of wireless sensor networks, soil water balance modeling, and satellite data for crop evapotranspiration monitoring and irrigation management support (United States)

    Purdy, A. J.; Lund, C.; Pierce, L.; Melton, F. S.; Guzman, A.; Harlen, I.; Holloway, R.; Johnson, L.; Lee, C.; Nemani, R. R.; Rosevelt, C.; Fletcher, N.


    Irrigation scheduling systems can potentially be improved through the combined use of satellite driven estimates of crop evapotranspiration and real-time soil moisture data from wireless sensor networks. In order to analyze spatial and temporal patterns in soil moisture and evapotranspiration, we used wireless sensor networks deployed in operational agricultural fields across California to track evapotranspiration and soil moisture, and compute daily water budgets for multiple crops at the field scale. We present findings on efficacy and feasibility of using wireless sensor networks in an operational agricultural setting to monitor soil moisture and calculate a soil water balance. We compare estimated evapotranspiration rates from the wireless sensor networks against estimates from surface renewal instrumentation and satellite-derived estimates from the NASA Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System. Information from this research can lead to a better understanding of how to effectively monitor soil moisture levels at the field scale, and how to integrate satellite and sensor network data to support agricultural producers in optimizing irrigation scheduling.

  13. A GIS model-based screening of potential contamination of soil and water by pyrethroids in Europe. (United States)

    Pistocchi, A; Vizcaino, P; Hauck, M


    The paper presents a geographic information system (GIS) model-based approach for analysis of potential contamination of soil and water by pyrethroids for the European continent. Pyrethroids are widely used pesticides and their chemical and toxicological characteristics suggest there may be concerns about human health and ecosystems, although so far there is no strong evidence indicating actual risk. However, little monitoring has been conducted and limited experimental information is available. We perform an assessment exercise that demonstrates how accessible information and GIS-based modeling allow to estimate the spatial distribution of chemical concentrations and fluxes at a screening level. The assessment highlights potential hot spots and the main environmental transport pathways, in a quick and simple way. By combining information on pesticide use, crop distribution and landscape and climate parameters we identify potential problem areas to help focusing monitoring campaigns. The approach presented here is simple and fast, and can be applied to virtually all pesticide classes used over a large domain, and is therefore suitable for the screening of large quantities of chemicals, of which the majority has not undergone any systematic environmental monitoring program. The method has been tested through benchmarking with other well-established models. However, further research is needed to evaluate it against experimental observations.

  14. Integrating Measurements and Models of Water Limitation on Soil and Ecosystem Respiration in Two New England Forests from Hourly to Decadal Timescales. (United States)

    Sihi, D.; Chen, M.; Davidson, E. A.; Savage, K. E.; Richardson, A. D.; Keenan, T. F.; Hollinger, D. Y.


    Soil respiration (SR), the sum of autotrophic (root, Ra) and heterotrophic (microbial, Rh) respiration, is an important component of the global carbon (C) budget and climate change feedbacks from terrestrial ecosystems. Interannual variation of precipitation (and soil moisture) mostly accounts for interannual anomalies in SR. Microbial water stress and limitation of substrate diffusion in dry soil and release from those limitations after a wet-up event also affect SR on short timescales. Variation of precipitation also drives seasonal and interannual patterns of net ecosystem exchange, belowground C allocation, and Ra. Therefore, integration of belowground and aboveground processes is imperative for better understanding of the biosphere-atmosphere C exchange. To that end, we have merged two relatively parsimonious models, a soil enzymatic kinetics model, DAMM (Dual Arrhenius and Michaelis-Menten) and an ecosystem flux model, FöBAAR (Forest Biomass, Assimilation, Allocation and Respiration). We used high-frequency, long-term soil flux data from automated soil chambers and landscape-scale fluxes from eddy covariance towers from the Harvard forest, MA and the Howland forest, ME to develop and validate the merged model and to quantify the uncertainties in a multiple constraints approach. Measurements from trenched and untrenched plots partitioned CO2 flux into Ra and Rh. Preliminary simulations indicated that performance of coupled DAMM- FöBAAR model was improved than FöBAAR-only, as indicated by lower cost functions (model-data mismatch) at the Harvard forest, but not in boreal transition Howland forest, where frequency of droughts is lower due to a shallower water table. Water limitation occurred at Howland, but only briefly and not in most years. Thus, greater confidence in model prediction resulting from inclusion of moisture limitation on substrate availability, an emergent property of DAMM, depends on site conditions, climate, and the temporal scale of

  15. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Ecohydrological Model Circa 2015: Global Application Trends, Insights and Issues (United States)

    Gassman, P. W.; Arnold, J. G.; Srinivasan, R.


    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is one of the most widely used watershed-scale water quality models in the world. Over 2,000 peer-reviewed SWAT-related journal articles have been published and hundreds of other studies have been published in conference proceedings and other formats. The use of SWAT was initially concentrated in North America and Europe but has also expanded dramatically in other countries and regions during the past decade including Brazil, China, India, Iran, South Korea, Southeast Asia and eastern Africa. The SWAT model has proven to be a very flexible tool for investigating a broad range of hydrologic and water quality problems at different watershed scales and environmental conditions, and has proven very adaptable for applications requiring improved hydrologic and other enhanced simulation needs. We investigate here the various technological, networking, and other factors that have supported the expanded use of SWAT, and also highlight current worldwide simulation trends and possible impediments to future increased usage of the model. Examples of technological advances include easy access to web-based documentation, user-support groups, and SWAT literature, a variety of Geographic Information System (GIS) interface tools, pre- and post-processing calibration software and other software, and an open source code which has served as a model development catalyst for multiple user groups. Extensive networking regarding the use of SWAT has further occurred via internet-based user support groups, model training workshops, regional working groups, regional and international conferences, and targeted development workshops. We further highlight several important model development trends that have emerged during the past decade including improved hydrologic, cropping system, best management practice (BMP) and pollutant transport simulation methods. In addition, several current SWAT weaknesses will be addressed and key development needs will be

  16. Prediction of the Soil Water Characteristic from Soil Particle Volume Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Møldrup, Per; Tuller, Markus


    (w)-model) for the SWC, derived from readily available soil properties such as texture and bulk density. A total of 46 undisturbed soils from different horizons at 15 locations across Denmark were used for model evaluation. The F-w-model predicts the volumetric water content as a function of volumetric fines content......Modeling water distribution and flow in partially saturated soils requires knowledge of the soil water characteristic (SWC). However, measurement of the SWC is challenging and time-consuming and, in some cases, not feasible. This study introduces two predictive models (F-w-model and A...... as a function of volumetric content of different particle size fractions (organic matter, clay, silt, and fine and coarse sands). The volumetric content of a particular soil particle size fraction was considered if it contributed to the pore size fraction still occupied with water at the given pF value. Hereby...

  17. A systemic approach for modeling soil functions (United States)

    Vogel, Hans-Jörg; Bartke, Stephan; Daedlow, Katrin; Helming, Katharina; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Lang, Birgit; Rabot, Eva; Russell, David; Stößel, Bastian; Weller, Ulrich; Wiesmeier, Martin; Wollschläger, Ute


    The central importance of soil for the functioning of terrestrial systems is increasingly recognized. Critically relevant for water quality, climate control, nutrient cycling and biodiversity, soil provides more functions than just the basis for agricultural production. Nowadays, soil is increasingly under pressure as a limited resource for the production of food, energy and raw materials. This has led to an increasing demand for concepts assessing soil functions so that they can be adequately considered in decision-making aimed at sustainable soil management. The various soil science disciplines have progressively developed highly sophisticated methods to explore the multitude of physical, chemical and biological processes in soil. It is not obvious, however, how the steadily improving insight into soil processes may contribute to the evaluation of soil functions. Here, we present to a new systemic modeling framework that allows for a consistent coupling between reductionist yet observable indicators for soil functions with detailed process understanding. It is based on the mechanistic relationships between soil functional attributes, each explained by a network of interacting processes as derived from scientific evidence. The non-linear character of these interactions produces stability and resilience of soil with respect to functional characteristics. We anticipate that this new conceptional framework will integrate the various soil science disciplines and help identify important future research questions at the interface between disciplines. It allows the overwhelming complexity of soil systems to be adequately coped with and paves the way for steadily improving our capability to assess soil functions based on scientific understanding.

  18. Linkage of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool and the Texas Water Availability Model to simulate the effects of brush management on monthly storage of Canyon Lake, south-central Texas, 1995-2010 (United States)

    Asquith, William H.; Bumgarner, Johnathan R.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, developed and applied an approach to create a linkage between the published upper Guadalupe River Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) brush-management (ashe juniper [Juniperus ashei]) model and the full authorization version Guadalupe River Water Availability Model (WAM). The SWAT model was published by the USGS, and the Guadalupe River WAM is available from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. The upper Guadalupe River watershed is a substantial component of the Guadalupe River WAM. This report serves in part as documentation of a proof of concept on the feasibility of linking these two water-resources planning models for the purpose of simulating possible increases in water storage in Canyon Lake as a result of different brush-management scenarios.

  19. Estimation of Soil Water Retention Curve Using Fractal Dimension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 1, 2017 ... approaches to model transient water and solute transport in the vadose zone are based on the. Richards equation. To solve this equation, the knowledge of the soil hydraulic properties, namely, the soil water retention curve (SWRC) and the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is required and on the other ...

  20. Water erosion and soil water infiltration in different stages of corn development and tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. de Carvalho


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study evaluated soil and water losses, soil water infiltration and infiltration rate models in soil tillage systems and corn (Zea mays, L. development stages under simulated rainfall. The treatments were: cultivation along contour lines, cultivation down the slope and exposed soil. Soil losses and infiltration in each treatment were quantified for rains applied using a portable simulator, at 0, 30, 60 and 75 days after planting. Infiltration rates were estimated using the models of Kostiakov-Lewis, Horton and Philip. Based on the obtained results, the combination of effects between soil tillage system and corn development stages reduces soil and water losses. The contour tillage system promoted improvements in soil physical properties, favoring the reduction of erosion in 59.7% (water loss and 86.6% (soil loss at 75 days after planting, and the increase in the stable infiltration rate in 223.3%, compared with the exposed soil. Associated to soil cover, contour cultivation reduces soil and water losses, and the former is more influenced by management. Horton model is the most adequate to represent soil water infiltration rate under the evaluated conditions.

  1. Isotopic fractionation of soil water during evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopoldo, P.R.; Salati, E.; Matsui, E.


    The study of the variation of D/H relation in soil water during evaporation is studied. The isotopic fractionation of soil water has been observed in two soils of light and heavy texture. Soil columns were utilized. Soil water has been extracted in a system operated under low pressure and the gaseous hydrogen was obtained by the decomposition of water through the use of metalic uranium and was analysed in a GD-150 mass spectrometer for its deuterium content. The variation of the delta sub(eta) 0 / 00 value during the evaporation showed that for water held at potentials below 15 atm, the deuterium content of soil water stays practically constant. For water held at potentials higher than 15 atm, corresponding to the third stage of evaporation, there is a strong tendency of a constant increase of delta sub(eta) 0 / 00 of the remaining water [pt

  2. Digital soil mapping of available water capacity for metropolitan France


    Roman Dobarco, Mercedes; Martin, Manuel; Saby, Nicolas; Bourennane, Hocine; Arrouays, Dominique; Cousin, Isabelle; Le Bas, Christine


    Soil hydraulic characteristics are often required for modeling hydrological processes, crop pro- ductivity, biogeochemical cycles, and movement of pollutants. The objective of this study was producing a digital soil map of available water capacity (AWC) for metropolitan France following GlobalSoilMap (GSM) specifications. The digital soil mapping approach consisted in predicting sand and clay for the six GSM depth intervals and then applying pedotransfer functions (PTF) for es...

  3. Establishing an International Soil Modelling Consortium (United States)

    Vereecken, Harry; Schnepf, Andrea; Vanderborght, Jan


    Soil is one of the most critical life-supporting compartments of the Biosphere. Soil provides numerous ecosystem services such as a habitat for biodiversity, water and nutrients, as well as producing food, feed, fiber and energy. To feed the rapidly growing world population in 2050, agricultural food production must be doubled using the same land resources footprint. At the same time, soil resources are threatened due to improper management and climate change. Soil is not only essential for establishing a sustainable bio-economy, but also plays a key role also in a broad range of societal challenges including 1) climate change mitigation and adaptation, 2) land use change 3) water resource protection, 4) biotechnology for human health, 5) biodiversity and ecological sustainability, and 6) combating desertification. Soils regulate and support water, mass and energy fluxes between the land surface, the vegetation, the atmosphere and the deep subsurface and control storage and release of organic matter affecting climate regulation and biogeochemical cycles. Despite the many important functions of soil, many fundamental knowledge gaps remain, regarding the role of soil biota and biodiversity on ecosystem services, the structure and dynamics of soil communities, the interplay between hydrologic and biotic processes, the quantification of soil biogeochemical processes and soil structural processes, the resilience and recovery of soils from stress, as well as the prediction of soil development and the evolution of soils in the landscape, to name a few. Soil models have long played an important role in quantifying and predicting soil processes and related ecosystem services. However, a new generation of soil models based on a whole systems approach comprising all physical, mechanical, chemical and biological processes is now required to address these critical knowledge gaps and thus contribute to the preservation of ecosystem services, improve our understanding of climate

  4. Modelling runoff and soil water content with the DR2-2013© SAGA v1.1 model at catchment scale under Mediterranean conditions (NE Spain) (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel, , Dr.; Palazón, M. Sc. Leticia; Quijano, M. Sc. Laura; Gaspar, Leticia, , Dr.; Navas, Ana, , Dr.


    Hydrological and soil erosion models allow mapping and quantifying spatially distributed rates of runoff depth and soil redistribution for different land uses, management and tillage practices and climatic scenarios. The different temporal and spatial [very small (1000 km2)] scales of numerical simulations make model selection specific to each range of scales. Additionally, the spatial resolution of the inputs is in agreement with the size of the study area. In this study, we run the GIS-based water balance DR2-2013© SAGA v1.1 model (freely downloaded as executable file at, in the Vandunchil stream catchment (23 km2; Ebro river basin, NE Spain). All input maps are generated at 5 x 5 m of cell size (924,573 pixels per map) allowing sound parameterization. Simulation is run at monthly scale with average climatic values. This catchment is an open hydrological system and it has a long history of human occupation, agricultural practices and water management. Numerous manmade infrastructures or landscape linear elements (LLEs: paved and unpaved trails, rock mounds in non-cultivated areas, disperse and small settlements, shallow and long drainage ditches, stone walls, small rock dams, fences and vegetation strips) appear throughout the hillslopes and streams and modify the natural runoff pathways and thus the hydrological and sediment connectivity. Rain-fed cereal fields occupy one third of the catchment area, 1% corresponds to sealed soils, and the remaining area is covered with Mediterranean forest, scrubland, pine afforestation and meadow. The parent material corresponds to Miocene sandstones and lutites and Holocene colluvial and alluvial deposits. The climate is continental Mediterranean with two humid periods, one in spring and a second in autumn that summarizes 63% of the total annual precipitation. We created a synthetic weather station (WS) from the Caseda and Uncastillo WS. The effective rainfall that reaches the soils

  5. The Changing Model of Soil (United States)

    Richter, D. D.; Yaalon, D.


    The contemporary genetic model of soil is changing rapidly in response to advances in soil science and to human and environmental forcings in the 21st century (Richter and Yaalon, 2012). Three ongoing changes in the model of soil include that: (1) lower soil boundaries are much deeper than the solum, historically the O to B horizons, (2) most soils are polygenetic paleosols, products of soil-forming processes that have ranged widely over soils' lifetimes, and (3) soils are globally human-natural bodies, no longer natural bodies. Together, these changes in the model of soil mean that human forcings are a global wave of soil polygenesis altering fluxes of matter and energy and transforming soil thermodynamics as potentially very deep systems. Because soils are non-linear systems resulting from high-order interactions of physics, chemistry, and biology, trajectories of how human forcings alter soils over decades are not readily predictable and require long-term soil observations. There is much to learn about how soils are changing internally as central components of management systems and externally in relation to wider environments. To be critical, research has been remarkably superficial in studies of soil, reductionist in approach, and lacking in time-series observations of responses to soil management. While this criticism may sound negative, it creates significant opportunities for contemporary soil scientists.

  6. Ecohydrology of dry regions: storage versus pulse soil water dynamics (United States)

    Lauenroth, William K.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Bradford, John B.


    Although arid and semiarid regions are defined by low precipitation, the seasonal timing of temperature and precipitation can influence net primary production and plant functional type composition. The importance of precipitation seasonality is evident in semiarid areas of the western U.S., which comprise the Intermountain (IM) zone, a region that receives important winter precipitation and is dominated by woody plants and the Great Plains (GP), a region that receives primarily summer precipitation and is dominated by perennial grasses. Although these general relationships are well recognized, specific differences in water cycling between these regions have not been well characterized. We used a daily time step soil water simulation model and twenty sites from each region to analyze differences in soil water dynamics and ecosystem water balance. IM soil water patterns are characterized by storage of water during fall, winter, and spring resulting in relatively reliable available water during spring and early summer, particularly in deep soil layers. By contrast, GP soil water patterns are driven by pulse precipitation events during the warm season, resulting in fluctuating water availability in all soil layers. These contrasting patterns of soil water—storage versus pulse dynamics—explain important differences between the two regions. Notably, the storage dynamics of the IN sites increases water availability in deep soil layers, favoring the deeper rooted woody plants in that region, whereas the pulse dynamics of the Great Plains sites provide water primarily in surface layers, favoring the shallow-rooted grasses in that region. In addition, because water received when plants are either not active or only partially so is more vulnerable to evaporation and sublimation than water delivered during the growing season, IM ecosystems use a smaller fraction of precipitation for transpiration (47%) than GP ecosystems (49%). Recognizing the pulse-storage dichotomy in

  7. Modelling the impact of mulching the soil with plant remains on water regime formation, crop yield and energy costs in agricultural ecosystems (United States)

    Gusev, Yeugeniy M.; Dzhogan, Larisa Y.; Nasonova, Olga N.


    The model MULCH, developed by authors previously for simulating the formation of water regime in an agricultural field covered by straw mulch layer, has been used for the comparative evaluation of the efficiency of four agricultural cultivation technologies, which are usually used for wheat production in different regions of Russia and Ukraine. It simulates the dynamics of water budget components in a soil rooting zone at daily time step from the beginning of spring snowmelt to the beginning of the period with stable negative air temperatures. The model was designed for estimation of mulching efficiency in terms of increase in plant water supply and crop yield under climatic and soil conditions of the steppe and forest-steppe zones. It is used for studying the mulching effect on some characteristics of water regime and yield of winter wheat growing at specific sites located in semi-arid and arid regions of the steppe and forest-steppe zones of the eastern and southern parts of the East-European (Russian) plain. In addition, a previously developed technique for estimating the energetic efficiency of various agricultural technologies with accounting for their impact on changes in soil energy is applied for the comparative evaluation of the efficiency of four agricultural cultivation technologies, which are usually used for wheat production in different regions of the steppe and forest-steppe zones of the European Russia: (1) moldboard tillage of soil without irrigation, (2) moldboard tillage of soil with irrigation, (3) subsurface cultivation, and (4) subsurface cultivation with mulching the soil with plant remains.

  8. A new framework for modeling decentralized low impact developments using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (United States)

    Assessing the performance of Low Impact Development (LID) practices at a catchment scale is important in managing urban watersheds. Few modeling tools exist that are capable of explicitly representing the hydrological mechanisms of LIDs while considering the diverse land uses of urban watersheds. ...

  9. Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model ecosystem services: A systematic review (United States)

    Francesconi, Wendy; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Pérez-Miñana, Elena; Willcock, Simon P.; Quintero, Marcela


    SWAT, a watershed modeling tool has been proposed to help quantify ecosystem services. The concept of ecosystem services incorporates the collective benefits natural systems provide primarily to human beings. It is becoming increasingly important to track the impact that human activities have on the environment in order to determine its resilience and sustainability. The objectives of this paper are to provide an overview of efforts using SWAT to quantify ecosystem services, to determine the model's capability examining various types of services, and to describe the approach used by various researchers. A literature review was conducted to identify studies in which SWAT was explicitly used for quantifying ecosystem services in terms of provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural aspects. A total of 44 peer reviewed publications were identified. Most of these used SWAT to quantify provisioning services (34%), regulating services (27%), or a combination of both (25%). While studies using SWAT for evaluating ecosystem services are limited (approximately 1% of SWAT's peered review publications), and usage (vs. potential) of services by beneficiaries is a current model limitation, the available literature sets the stage for the continuous development and potential of SWAT as a methodological framework for quantifying ecosystem services to assist in decision-making.

  10. Modeling Water and Nutrient Transport through the Soil-Root-Canopy Continuum: Explicitly Linking the Below- and Above-Ground Processes (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Quijano, J. C.; Drewry, D.


    Vegetation roots provide a fundamental link between the below ground water and nutrient dynamics and above ground canopy processes such as photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and energy balance. The “hydraulic architecture” of roots, consisting of the structural organization of the root system and the flow properties of the conduits (xylem) as well as interfaces with the soil and the above ground canopy, affect stomatal conductance thereby directly linking them to the transpiration. Roots serve as preferential pathways for the movement of moisture from wet to dry soil layers during the night, both from upper soil layer to deeper layers during the wet season (‘hydraulic descent’) and vice-versa (‘hydraulic lift’) as determined by the moisture gradients. The conductivities of transport through the root system are significantly, often orders of magnitude, larger than that of the surrounding soil resulting in movement of soil-moisture at rates that are substantially larger than that through the soil. This phenomenon is called hydraulic redistribution (HR). The ability of the deep-rooted vegetation to “bank” the water through hydraulic descent during wet periods for utilization during dry periods provides them with a competitive advantage. However, during periods of hydraulic lift these deep-rooted trees may facilitate the growth of understory vegetation where the understory scavenges the hydraulically lifted soil water. In other words, understory vegetation with relatively shallow root systems have access to the banked deep-water reservoir. These inter-dependent root systems have a significant influence on water cycle and ecosystem productivity. HR induced available moisture may support rhizosphere microbial and mycorrhizal fungi activities and enable utilization of heterogeneously distributed water and nutrient resources To capture this complex inter-dependent nutrient and water transport through the soil-root-canopy continuum we present modeling

  11. Sediment transport in forested head water catchments - Calibration and validation of a soil erosion and landscape evolution model (United States)

    Hancock, G. R.; Webb, A. A.; Turner, L.


    Sediment transport and soil erosion can be determined by a variety of field and modelling approaches. Computer based soil erosion and landscape evolution models (LEMs) offer the potential to be reliable assessment and prediction tools. An advantage of such models is that they provide both erosion and deposition patterns as well as total catchment sediment output. However, before use, like all models they require calibration and validation. In recent years LEMs have been used for a variety of both natural and disturbed landscape assessment. However, these models have not been evaluated for their reliability in steep forested catchments. Here, the SIBERIA LEM is calibrated and evaluated for its reliability for two steep forested catchments in south-eastern Australia. The model is independently calibrated using two methods. Firstly, hydrology and sediment transport parameters are inferred from catchment geomorphology and soil properties and secondly from catchment sediment transport and discharge data. The results demonstrate that both calibration methods provide similar parameters and reliable modelled sediment transport output. A sensitivity study of the input parameters demonstrates the model's sensitivity to correct parameterisation and also how the model could be used to assess potential timber harvesting as well as the removal of vegetation by fire.

  12. Effects of soil water availability on water fluxes in winter wheat (United States)

    Cai, G.; Vanderborght, J.; Langensiepen, M.; Vereecken, H.


    Quantifying soil water availability in water-limited ecosystems on plant water use continues to be a practical problem in agronomy. Transpiration which represents plant water demand is closely in relation to root water uptake in the root zone and sap flow in plant stems. However, few studies have been concentrated on influences of soil moisture on root water uptake and sap flow in crops. This study was undertaken to investigate (i) whether root water uptake and sap flow correlate with the transpiration estimated by the Penman-Monteith model for winter wheat(Triticum aestivum), and (ii) for which soil water potentials in the root zone, the root water uptake and sap flow rates in crop stems would be reduced. Therefore, we measured sap flow velocities by an improved heat-balance approach (Langensiepen et al., 2014), calculated crop transpiration by Penman-Monteith model, and simulated root water uptake by HYDRUS-1D on an hourly scale for different soil water status in winter wheat. In order to assess the effects of soil water potential on root water uptake and sap flow, an average soil water potential was calculated by weighting the soil water potential at a certain depth with the root length density. The temporal evolution of root length density was measured using horizontal rhizotubes that were installed at different depths.The results showed that root water uptake and sap flow matched well with the computed transpiration by Penman-Monteith model in winter wheat when the soil water potential was not limiting root water uptake. However, low soil water content restrained root water uptake, especially when soil water potential was lower than -90 kPa in the top soil. Sap flow in wheat was not affected by the observed soil water conditions, suggesting that stomatal conductance was not sensitive to soil water potentials. The effect of drought stress on root water uptake and sap flow in winter wheat was only investigated in a short time (after anthesis). Further research

  13. Influence of forest roads standards and networks on water yield as predicted by the distributed hydrology-soil-vegetation model (United States)

    Salli F. Dymond; W. Michael Aust; Steven P. Prisley; Mark H. Eisenbies; James M. Vose


    Throughout the country, foresters are continually looking at the effects of logging and forest roads on stream discharge and overall stream health. In the Pacific Northwest, a distributed hydrology-soil-vegetation model (DHSVM) has been used to predict the effects of logging on peak discharge in mountainous regions. DHSVM uses elevation, meteorological, vegetation, and...

  14. Evaluation of the 'Fertigation Model', a decision support system for water and nutrient supply for soil grown greenhouse crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Winkel, van A.; Steinbuch, F.


    Soil grown greenhouse crops require high fertilisation rates. Combined with the common practice of over-irrigation, leaching of nutrients is a serious problem. In order to reduce the environmental impact, a `fertigation¿ model was developed as a decision support system for irrigation and fertiliser

  15. Modeling soil moisture-reflectance


    Muller, Etienne; Decamps, Henri


    International audience; Spectral information on soil is not easily available as vegetation and farm works prevent direct observation of soil responses. However, there is an increasing need to include soil reflectance values in spectral unmixing algorithms or in classification approaches. In most cases, the impact of soil moisture on the reflectance is unknown and therefore ignored. The objective of this study was to model reflectance changes due to soil moisture in a real field situation usin...

  16. Transformation between Phreatic Water and Soil Water during Freeze–Thaw Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Chen


    Full Text Available During freeze–thaw periods, the exchange between shallow groundwater and soil water is unusually strong and bidirectional, which causes soil salinization and affects the accuracy of water resources assessment. The objectives of this study were to explore the laws of transformation between phreatic water and soil water through nine different groundwater table depths (GTDs and three kinds of lithologies during three successive freeze–thaw periods using field lysimeters. The results showed that phreatic evaporation increased with smaller average soil particle sizes. The differences between phreatic evaporation and recharge to groundwater (DPR and GTDs were well fitted by the semi-logarithmic model, and the regression coefficients A and B of the model were well fitted by the linear relationship with the average soil particle size. With the increase of soil particle size, the change of DPR decreased with the change rate of soil particle size. The extent of transformation between phreatic water and soil water decreased with the increase of soil particle size. During the whole freeze–thaw period, the negative value of DPR increased with an decrease in GTD. The groundwater depths of zero DPR (D-zero of sandy loam, fine sand and sandy soil during the freeze–thaw periods were 2.79 m, 2.21 m and 2.12 m, respectively. This research is significant for the prevention of soil salinization disasters and the accurate assessment of water resources.

  17. Use of distributed water level and soil moisture data in the evaluation of the PUMMA periurban distributed hydrological model: application to the Mercier catchment, France (United States)

    Braud, Isabelle; Fuamba, Musandji; Branger, Flora; Batchabani, Essoyéké; Sanzana, Pedro; Sarrazin, Benoit; Jankowfsky, Sonja


    Distributed hydrological models are used at best when their outputs are compared not only to the outlet discharge, but also to internal observed variables, so that they can be used as powerful hypothesis-testing tools. In this paper, the interest of distributed networks of sensors for evaluating a distributed model and the underlying functioning hypotheses is explored. Two types of data are used: surface soil moisture and water level in streams. The model used in the study is the periurban PUMMA (Peri-Urban Model for landscape Management, Jankowfsky et al., 2014), that is applied to the Mercier catchment (6.7 km2) a semi-rural catchment with 14% imperviousness, located close to Lyon, France where distributed water level (13 locations) and surface soil moisture data (9 locations) are available. Model parameters are specified using in situ information or the results of previous studies, without any calibration and the model is run for four years from January 1st 2007 to December 31st 2010 with a variable time step for rainfall and an hourly time step for reference evapotranspiration. The model evaluation protocol was guided by the available data and how they can be interpreted in terms of hydrological processes and constraints for the model components and parameters. We followed a stepwise approach. The first step was a simple model water balance assessment, without comparison to observed data. It can be interpreted as a basic quality check for the model, ensuring that it conserves mass, makes the difference between dry and wet years, and reacts to rainfall events. The second step was an evaluation against observed discharge data at the outlet, using classical performance criteria. It gives a general picture of the model performance and allows to comparing it to other studies found in the literature. In the next steps (steps 3 to 6), focus was made on more specific hydrological processes. In step 3, distributed surface soil moisture data was used to assess the

  18. Modelling Thermal Diffusivity of Differently Textured Soils (United States)

    Lukiashchenko, K. I.; Arkhangelskaya, T. A.


    A series of models has been proposed for estimating thermal diffusivity of soils at different water contents. Models have been trained on 49 soil samples with the texture range from sands to silty clays. The bulk density of the studied soils varied from 0.86 to 1.82 g/cm3; the organic carbon was between 0.05 and 6.49%; the physical clay ranged from 1 to 76%. The thermal diffusivity of undisturbed soil cores measured by the unsteady-state method varied from 0.78×10-7 m2/s for silty clay at the water content of 0.142 cm3/cm3 to 10.09 × 10-7 m2/s for sand at the water content of 0.138 cm3/cm3. Each experimental curve was described by the four-parameter function proposed earlier. Pedotransfer functions were then developed to estimate the parameters of the thermal diffusivity vs. water content function from data on soil texture, bulk density, and organic carbon. Models were tested on 32 samples not included in the training set. The root mean square errors of the best-performing models were 17-38%. The models using texture data performed better than the model using only data on soil bulk density and organic carbon.

  19. Simulation of Soil Water content and Nitrate under Different Fertigation Strategies for Sweet Pepper in Isfahan by EU-ROTATE-N Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    forough fazel


    Full Text Available Introduction: World's population growth and limited water resources and needing to more food production led to interest farmers to use nitrogen fertilizer more than soil requires and subsequently Nitrate leaching causes groundwater and environmental pollution. Therefore, researches has concentrated on improvement of nitrogen use efficiency, which numerical simulation is the effective solutions to optimize the management of water and fertilizer in the field in order to achieve the maximal yield and minimal nitrate pollution of soil, groundwater and drainage in water deficiency crisis condition. For this reason, the evaluation of new user friendly models in correct estimation of soil moisture and nitrogen content distribution and recognition of water and solutes movement in the soil and choosing the best management option for increasing productivity and economic performance and also reduction of nitrate pollution of soil and ground water source with the least limitations and high accuracy is necessary. The Eu-Rotate-N model has been developed for simulation of nitrogen use and specifically for optimization of nitrogen use in variation of vegetables in a wide range of conditions, which without the need to calibration has presented satisfactory results in many areas. So this study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of Eu-Rate-N model in assessment of moisture and nitrogen distribution and yield under different nitrogen fertigation management for pepper plant. Materials and Methods: Sweet pepper was planted at density of 8.33plant per m2 in a row planting method. 150kg per hectare per year of fertilizer was used during the season. Crop yield, soil water and nitrogen content were measured on a regular basis. The treatments consisted of three fertilizer level: zero (N0, the ratio of ammonium to nitrate 20:80 (N1 and 40:60 (N2, which was conducted in a completely randomized block with three replications in Isfahan. Irrigation based on daily

  20. Three-dimensional modelling of soil-plant interactions : consistent coupling of soil and plant root systems


    Schröder, Tom


    To understand how the uptake of water by roots locally affects and is affected by the soil water distribution, 3D soil-root water transfer models are needed. Nowadays, fully coupled 3D models at the plant scale, that simulate water flow along water potential gradients in the soil-root continuum, are available. However, the coupling of the soil and root system is not investigated thoroughly. In the available models the soil water potential gradient below the soil spatial discretization is negl...

  1. Soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonen, J.P.; Sucksdorff, Y. [Finnish Environment Agency, Helsinki (Finland)


    In this study the soil/vegetation/atmosphere-model based on the formulation of Deardorff was refined to hour basis and applied to a field in Vihti. The effect of model parameters on model results (energy fluxes, temperatures) was also studied as well as the effect of atmospheric conditions. The estimation of atmospheric conditions on the soil-vegetation system as well as an estimation of the effect of vegetation parameters on the atmospheric climate was estimated. Areal surface fluxes, temperatures and moistures were also modelled for some river basins in southern Finland. Land-use and soil parameterisation was developed to include properties and yearly variation of all vegetation and soil types. One classification was selected to describe the hydrothermal properties of the soils. Evapotranspiration was verified against the water balance method

  2. Statistical Modelling of the Soil Dielectric Constant (United States)

    Usowicz, Boguslaw; Marczewski, Wojciech; Bogdan Usowicz, Jerzy; Lipiec, Jerzy


    The dielectric constant of soil is the physical property being very sensitive on water content. It funds several electrical measurement techniques for determining the water content by means of direct (TDR, FDR, and others related to effects of electrical conductance and/or capacitance) and indirect RS (Remote Sensing) methods. The work is devoted to a particular statistical manner of modelling the dielectric constant as the property accounting a wide range of specific soil composition, porosity, and mass density, within the unsaturated water content. Usually, similar models are determined for few particular soil types, and changing the soil type one needs switching the model on another type or to adjust it by parametrization of soil compounds. Therefore, it is difficult comparing and referring results between models. The presented model was developed for a generic representation of soil being a hypothetical mixture of spheres, each representing a soil fraction, in its proper phase state. The model generates a serial-parallel mesh of conductive and capacitive paths, which is analysed for a total conductive or capacitive property. The model was firstly developed to determine the thermal conductivity property, and now it is extended on the dielectric constant by analysing the capacitive mesh. The analysis is provided by statistical means obeying physical laws related to the serial-parallel branching of the representative electrical mesh. Physical relevance of the analysis is established electrically, but the definition of the electrical mesh is controlled statistically by parametrization of compound fractions, by determining the number of representative spheres per unitary volume per fraction, and by determining the number of fractions. That way the model is capable covering properties of nearly all possible soil types, all phase states within recognition of the Lorenz and Knudsen conditions. In effect the model allows on generating a hypothetical representative of

  3. Water as a Reagent for Soil Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaweera, Indira S.; Marti-Perez, Montserrat; Diaz-Ferrero, Jordi; Sanjurjo, Angel


    SRI International conducted experiments in a two-year, two-phase process to develop and evaluate hydrothermal extraction technology, also known as hot water extraction (HWE) technology, for remediating petroleum-contaminated soils. The bench-scale demonstration of the process has shown great promise, and the implementation of this technology will revolutionize the conventional use of water in soil remediation technologies and provide a standalone technology for removal of both volatile and heavy components from contaminated soil.

  4. Modeling the effect of soil structure on water flow and isoproturon dynamics in an agricultural field receiving repeated urban waste compost application. (United States)

    Filipović, Vilim; Coquet, Yves; Pot, Valérie; Houot, Sabine; Benoit, Pierre


    Transport processes in soils are strongly affected by heterogeneity of soil hydraulic properties. Tillage practices and compost amendments can modify soil structure and create heterogeneity at the local scale within agricultural fields. The long-term field experiment QualiAgro (INRA-Veolia partnership 1998-2013) explores the impact of heterogeneity in soil structure created by tillage practices and compost application on transport processes. A modeling study was performed to evaluate how the presence of heterogeneity due to soil tillage and compost application affects water flow and pesticide dynamics in soil during a long-term period. The study was done on a plot receiving a co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge (SGW) applied once every 2 years since 1998. The plot was cultivated with a biannual rotation of winter wheat-maize (except 1 year of barley) and a four-furrow moldboard plow was used for tillage. In each plot, wick lysimeter outflow and TDR probe data were collected at different depths from 2004, while tensiometer measurements were also conducted during 2007/2008. Isoproturon concentration was measured in lysimeter outflow since 2004. Detailed profile description was used to locate different soil structures in the profile, which was then implemented in the HYDRUS-2D model. Four zones were identified in the plowed layer: compacted clods with no visible macropores (Δ), non-compacted soil with visible macroporosity (Γ), interfurrows created by moldboard plowing containing crop residues and applied compost (IF), and the plow pan (PP) created by plowing repeatedly to the same depth. Isoproturon retention and degradation parameters were estimated from laboratory batch sorption and incubation experiments, respectively, for each structure independently. Water retention parameters were estimated from pressure plate laboratory measurements and hydraulic conductivity parameters were obtained from field tension infiltrometer experiments. Soil hydraulic

  5. Towards general models of the three-dimensional occurrence of soil water-repellency, its hydrological significance, temporal dynamics and response to climatic change (United States)

    Walsh, Rory; Urbanek, Emilia; Ferreira, Carla; Ferreira, Antonio; Shakesby, Rick


    Although it is well-established that soil water-repellency exists - at least transiently - in some vegetation/land-use types within a wide range of climatic zones, it varies greatly both in its four-dimensional character and the nature and significance of its hydrological effects. Thus within landscapes, soil water-repellency varies not only in severity, but also in percentage cover, spatial pattern and connectivity; in vertical position and vertical extent; in its temporal regime; and in the presence/absence and frequency of bypass routes through any hydrophobic layer. The nature and degree of significance of any hydrological impacts of hydrophobicity are very dependent on these variations. Assessments of the likely impacts of current and future climatic change on hydrophobic (or potentially hydrophobic) environments need to take these variations in the four-dimensional nature of hydrophobicity and their controlling factors and mechanisms into account. This poster paper presents and discusses a series of conceptual models that together attempt to understand the factors and mechanisms controlling soil water-repellency and its hydrological consequences. The paper draws on a combination of: (1) results of field measurements and experiments in burned and unburned scrub, pine and eucalyptus terrain in central Portugal; (2) laboratory experiments of the influence of the presence/absence of basal impedance and cracks, root-holes and stones on the temporal dynamics of three-dimensional patterns of repellency in wetting and drying cycles; and (3) findings from a wider range of environments and locations from the published literature. Three conceptual models are considered. The first addresses the environmental factors that control and influence the occurrence and three-dimensional structure of soil water-repellency within landscapes. Within this model, the emphasis is placed on vegetation, land-use and land management (including their influence - together with climate - on

  6. Effects of soil and water conservation practices on selected soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although different types of soil and water conservation practices (SWCPs) were introduced, the sustainable use of these practices is far below expectations, and soil erosion continues to be a severe problem in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was conducted at Debre Yakobe Micro-Watershed (DYMW), Northwest Ethiopia ...

  7. Estimation of Soil Water Retention Curve Using Fractal Dimension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 10, 2018 ... particle size distribution has fractal properties. Hence, fractal model can be used to estimate the soil water retention curve. Thus determining the DSWRC from SWRC experimental data, establishing a relationship among DSWRC and soil readily available characteristics (i.e. clay, silt and sand contents and.

  8. Prediction of the soil water retention curve for structured soil from saturation to oven-dryness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup, Dan; Møldrup, Per; Tuller, Markus


    . In this research we evaluated a new two-stage approach developed recently to predict the SWRC based onmeasurements for disturbed repacked soil samples. Our study involved undisturbed structured soil and took into account the effects of bulk density, organic matter content and particle-size distribution......The soil water retention curve (SWRC) is the most fundamental soil hydraulic function required for modelling soil–plant–atmospheric water flow and transport processes. The SWRC is intimately linked to the distribution of the size of pores, the composition of the solid phase and the soil specific...... surface area. Detailed measurement of the SWRC is impractical in many cases because of the excessively long equilibration times inherent to most standard methods, especially for fine textured soil. Consequently, it is more efficient to predict the SWRCbased on easy-to-measure basic soil properties...

  9. Soil water availability as controlling factor for actual evapotranspiration in urban soil-vegetation-systems (United States)

    Thomsen, Simon; Reisdorff, Christoph; Gröngröft, Alexander; Jensen, Kai; Eschenbach, Annette


    . Automated weather stations for the continuous measurement of all relevant climatic factors were established at all grass-dominated sites. Based on the field data, soil water balances were simulated for all sites with the HYDRUS model. Potential ET for the grass-dominated sites was calculated using the Penman-Monteith equation. Results regarding the spatio-temporal variability of available soil water of the study sites will be shown and discussed in this contribution. Moreover, correlations between soil water availability and ETa will be presented.

  10. A simple daily soil-water balance model for estimating the spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater recharge in temperate humid areas (United States)

    Dripps, W.R.; Bradbury, K.R.


    Quantifying the spatial and temporal distribution of natural groundwater recharge is usually a prerequisite for effective groundwater modeling and management. As flow models become increasingly utilized for management decisions, there is an increased need for simple, practical methods to delineate recharge zones and quantify recharge rates. Existing models for estimating recharge distributions are data intensive, require extensive parameterization, and take a significant investment of time in order to establish. The Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey (WGNHS) has developed a simple daily soil-water balance (SWB) model that uses readily available soil, land cover, topographic, and climatic data in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) to estimate the temporal and spatial distribution of groundwater recharge at the watershed scale for temperate humid areas. To demonstrate the methodology and the applicability and performance of the model, two case studies are presented: one for the forested Trout Lake watershed of north central Wisconsin, USA and the other for the urban-agricultural Pheasant Branch Creek watershed of south central Wisconsin, USA. Overall, the SWB model performs well and presents modelers and planners with a practical tool for providing recharge estimates for modeling and water resource planning purposes in humid areas. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  11. The impact of water vapor diodes on soil water redistribution (United States)

    Wang, Zhuangji; Ankeny, Mark; Horton, Robert


    Diurnal soil temperature fluctuations are the prime cause for subsurface water vapor fluxes. In arid and semi-arid areas, water vapor flux is the dominant means of soil water redistribution. The directions of water vapor flux shift from upward to downward diurnally following the variations of the soil thermal gradient. A water vapor diode (WVD), acting as a check valve, allows water vapor flux in one direction but heat flux in both directions. By installing a subsurface WVD, it is possible to impose direction-controlled vapor fluxes, and WVDs can be used to accumulate or remove water in particular soil layers. The egg carton shape, with pores situated at selected peaks and valleys, is a possible design for WVDs. In this study, we provide the concept and the properties of the ideal WVDs, and we discuss four WVD configurations to control soil water redistribution. Numerical simulation is used to evaluate the impacts of the ideal WVDs. The results indicate that WVDs can increase local water contents by at least 0.1 m3m-3 in a silt loam. For a fixed initial water and thermal condition, the effect of WVDs is related to the deployment depth and distance between two consecutive WVDs. WVDs can be used to manipulate soil water redistribution and accumulate water at specific depths to support plant growth. The numerical simulation results indicate the potential effectiveness of the ideal WVDs, and field tests should be performed to determine their function under specific soil conditions.

  12. Effect of hydrogel particle additives on water-accessible pore structure of sandy soils: a custom pressure plate apparatus and capillary bundle model. (United States)

    Wei, Y; Durian, D J


    To probe the effects of hydrogel particle additives on the water-accessible pore structure of sandy soils, we introduce a custom pressure plate method in which the volume of water expelled from a wet granular packing is measured as a function of applied pressure. Using a capillary bundle model, we show that the differential change in retained water per pressure increment is directly related to the cumulative cross-sectional area distribution f(r) of the water-accessible pores with radii less than r. This is validated by measurements of water expelled from a model sandy soil composed of 2-mm-diameter glass beads. In particular, it is found that the expelled water is dramatically dependent on sample height and that analysis using the capillary bundle model gives the same pore size distribution for all samples. The distribution is found to be approximately log normal, and the total cross-sectional area fraction of the accessible pore space is found to be f(0)=0.34. We then report on how the pore distribution and total water-accessible area fraction are affected by superabsorbent hydrogel particle additives, uniformly mixed into a fixed-height sample at varying concentrations. Under both fixed volume and free swelling conditions, the total area fraction of water-accessible pore space in a packing decreases exponentially as the gel concentration increases. The size distribution of the pores is significantly modified by the swollen hydrogel particles, such that large pores are clogged while small pores are formed.

  13. Measuring and understanding soil water repellency through novel interdisciplinary approaches (United States)

    Balshaw, Helen; Douglas, Peter; Doerr, Stefan; Davies, Matthew


    Food security and production is one of the key global issues faced by society. It has become evermore essential to work the land efficiently, through better soil management and agronomy whilst protecting the environment from air and water pollution. The failure of soil to absorb water - soil water repellency - can lead to major environmental problems such as increased overland flow and soil erosion, poor uptake of agricultural chemicals and increased risk of groundwater pollution due to the rapid transfer of contaminants and nutrient leaching through uneven wetting and preferential flow pathways. Understanding the causes of soil hydrophobicity is essential for the development of effective methods for its amelioration, supporting environmental stability and food security. Organic compounds deposited on soil mineral or aggregate surfaces have long been recognised as a major factor in causing soil water repellency. It is widely accepted that the main groups of compounds responsible are long-chain acids, alkanes and other organic compounds with hydrophobic properties. However, when reapplied to sands and soils, the degree of water repellency induced by these compounds and mixtures varied widely with compound type, amount and mixture, in a seemingly unpredictable way. Our research to date involves two new approaches for studying soil wetting. 1) We challenge the theoretical basis of current ideas on the measured water/soil contact angle measurements. Much past and current discussion involves Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter models to explain anomalously high contact angles for organics on soils, however here we propose that these anomalously high measured contact angles are a consequence of the measurement of a water drop on an irregular non-planar surface rather than the thermodynamic factors of the Cassie-Baxter and Wenzel models. In our analysis we have successfully used a much simpler geometric approach for non-flat surfaces such as soil. 2) Fluorescent and phosphorescent

  14. Predicting Soil-Air and Soil-Water Transport Properties During Soil Vapor Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tjalfe

    designing and operating remediation systems. Simple and accurate models for estimating soil properties from soil parameters that are easy to measure are useful in connection with preliminary remedial investigations and evaluation of remedial technologies. In this work simple models for predicting transport...... properties of undisturbed soil from more easily measurable soil properties are developed. The importance of soil properties with respect to contaminant migration during remediation by soil vapor extraction (SVE) in the unsaturated zone was investigated using numerical simulations....

  15. Modelo para estimativa da infiltração de água e perfil de umidade do solo Model to predict water infiltration and soil moisture profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Avelino Cecílio


    Full Text Available A adequada modelagem da infiltração de água no solo é fundamental para estimação do movimento de água, erosão hídrica, recarga e contaminação de aquíferos. Este trabalho apresenta um modelo para estimativa da infiltração de água no solo (GAML-c, com base no modelo de Green-Ampt-Mein-Larson, que provê descrição da geometria e do deslocamento da frente de umedecimento no solo. Testes experimentais foram conduzidos em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo para avaliar o GAML-c, usando-se quatro diferentes cenários: considerando a condutividade hidráulica do solo igual à taxa de infiltração estável (Tie e a umidade máxima do solo igual ao teor de água na zona de transmissão (θw (TW; condutividade hidráulica do solo igual à do solo saturado (K0 e a umidade máxima do solo igual θw (KW; condutividade hidráulica do solo igual à Tie e a umidade máxima do solo igual ao teor de água na saturação (θs (TS; e condutividade hidráulica do solo igual a K0 e a umidade máxima do solo igual θs (KS. Verificou-se que o GAML-c no cenário TW foi o melhor estimador do perfil de umidade do solo, resultando em aceitáveis estimativas da infiltração de água.Soil water infiltration modeling is an important tool to predict soil water redistribution, soil erosion, aquifer recharge and aquifer contamination. This paper presents a model to simulate soil water infiltration (GAML-c, based on the Green-Ampt-Mein-Larson (GAML model that provides a description of the geometry and advance of the wetting front in the soil. Experimental infiltration tests were performed in Red-Yellow Oxisol (LVA. GAML-c was evaluated in four scenarios: considering hydraulic conductivity (K0 equal to the stable infiltration rate (Tie and the maximum soil moisture equal to θw (TW; considering the K0 value determined by constant-head permeameter method and the maximum soil moisture equal to θw (KW; considering K0 equal to Tie and the maximum soil moisture equal to

  16. The Campbell Soil-Water Retention Function: Predictions Using Visible Near-Infrared Spectroscopy or Soil Fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysodonta, Zampela Pittaki; Møldrup, Per; Hermansen, Cecilie

    to assess the soil unsaturated hydraulic conductivity when water retention data are available. However, measuring water retention is time consuming. A method to accurately predict the Campbell relation from either textural parameters such as clay and organic matter (soil fines) or from rapid, visible near......The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is one of the most uncertain soil properties while, at the same time, it is essential for modelling water and solute movement in the vadose zone. The Campbell soil-water retention function and its b parameter (pore-size distribution index) is a simple method......-infrared spectroscopy (vis-NIR) measurements will be highly useful. To enable this, we suggest to anchor the Campbell retention model not at water saturation but rather with a reference point at the volumetric water content at -1000 cm H2O of soil-water matric potential (pF 3). The soil-water content at the reference...

  17. The Soil Characteristic Curve at Low Water Contents: Relations to Specific Surface Area and Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resurreccion, Augustus; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    Accurate description of the soil-water retention curve (SWRC) at low water contents is important for simulating water dynamics, plant-water relations, and microbial processes in surface soil. Soil-water retention at soil-water matric potential of less than -10 MPa, where adsorptive forces dominate...... that measurements by traditional pressure plate apparatus generally overestimated water contents at -1.5 MPa (plant wilting point). The 41 soils were classified into four textural classes based on the so-called Dexter index n (= CL/OC), and the Tuller-Or (TO) general scaling model describing the water film...... thickness at a given soil-water matric potential (low organic soils with n > 10, the estimated SA from the dry soil-water retention was in good agreement with the SA measured using ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (SA_EGME). A strong relationship between the ratio...

  18. Performance evaluation of TDT soil water content and watermark soil water potential sensors (United States)

    This study evaluated the performance of digitized Time Domain Transmissometry (TDT) soil water content sensors (Acclima, Inc., Meridian, ID) and resistance-based soil water potential sensors (Watermark 200, Irrometer Company, Inc., Riverside, CA) in two soils. The evaluation was performed by compar...

  19. Tritium in the food chain. Intercomparison of model predictions of contamination in soil, crops, milk and beef after a short exposure to tritiated water vapour in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, P. [PJS Barry (Canada)] [and others


    Future fusion reactors using tritium as fuel will contain large inventories of the gas. The possibility that a significant fraction of an inventory may accidentally escape into the atmosphere from this and other potential sources such as tritium handling facilities and some fission reactors e g, PWRs has to be recognized and its potential impact on local human populations and biota assessed. Tritium gas is relatively inert chemically and of low radiotoxicity but it is readily oxidized by soil organisms to the mixed oxide, HTO or tritiated water. In this form it is highly mobile, strongly reactive biologically and much more toxic. Models of how tritiated water vapour is transported through the biosphere to foodstuffs important to man are essential components of such an assessment and it is important to test the models for their suitability when used for this purpose. To evaluate such models, access to experimental measurements made after actual releases are needed. There have however, been very few accidental releases of tritiated water to the atmosphere and the experimental findings of those that have occurred have been used to develop the models under test. Models must nevertheless be evaluated before their predictions can be used to decide the acceptability or otherwise of designing and operating major nuclear facilities. To fulfil this need a model intercomparison study was carried out for a hypothetical release scenario. The study described in this report is a contribution to the development of model evaluation procedures in general as well as a description of the results of applying these procedures to the particular case of models of HTO transport in the biosphere which are currently in use or being developed. The study involved eight modelers using seven models in as many countries. In the scenario farmland was exposed to 1E10 Bq d/m{sup 3} of HTO in air during 1 hour starting at midnight in one case and at 10.00 a.m. in the other, 30 days before harvest of

  20. Tritium in the food chain. Intercomparison of model predictions of contamination in soil, crops, milk and beef after a short exposure to tritiated water vapour in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, P.


    Future fusion reactors using tritium as fuel will contain large inventories of the gas. The possibility that a significant fraction of an inventory may accidentally escape into the atmosphere from this and other potential sources such as tritium handling facilities and some fission reactors e g, PWRs has to be recognized and its potential impact on local human populations and biota assessed. Tritium gas is relatively inert chemically and of low radiotoxicity but it is readily oxidized by soil organisms to the mixed oxide, HTO or tritiated water. In this form it is highly mobile, strongly reactive biologically and much more toxic. Models of how tritiated water vapour is transported through the biosphere to foodstuffs important to man are essential components of such an assessment and it is important to test the models for their suitability when used for this purpose. To evaluate such models, access to experimental measurements made after actual releases are needed. There have however, been very few accidental releases of tritiated water to the atmosphere and the experimental findings of those that have occurred have been used to develop the models under test. Models must nevertheless be evaluated before their predictions can be used to decide the acceptability or otherwise of designing and operating major nuclear facilities. To fulfil this need a model intercomparison study was carried out for a hypothetical release scenario. The study described in this report is a contribution to the development of model evaluation procedures in general as well as a description of the results of applying these procedures to the particular case of models of HTO transport in the biosphere which are currently in use or being developed. The study involved eight modelers using seven models in as many countries. In the scenario farmland was exposed to 1E10 Bq d/m 3 of HTO in air during 1 hour starting at midnight in one case and at 10.00 a.m. in the other, 30 days before harvest of crops

  1. Monitoring and predicting the soil water content in the deeper soil profile of Loess Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijuan Wang


    Full Text Available Estimation of soil water content (SWC in deep soil profiles is of crucial importance for strategic management of water resource for sustainable land use in arid and semi-arid zones, as well as for soil and water conservation. Soil properties have a very important effect on SWC. This study aimed to analyze the influence of soil particle size on SWC, for the first time using soil particle size to estimate SWC in deep soil profiles. SWC was measured mainly in farmland, natural grasslands and plantations of Caragana from the surface to more than 20 m depth. The same soil samples were also tested for particle size. The results show that the soil desiccation is formed in the caragana forest in 3–18 m soil layers, but almost no formation in 18–24 m layers; water content of farmland and grassland is different in all soil profiles although they are both shallow rooted plants. Correlation analysis indicated that SWC could be well predicted by clay content and the close correlation between SWC and clay content yielded a coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.82 and 0.72, respectively, for farmland and grassland. After multiple regression analysis, a regression model was built using SWC, clay content and sand content data, giving R2=0.66. The model provided reliable estimates of SWC profile based on textural class. This can assist in estimating water depletion by vegetation, by comparing moisture of farmland and grassland soils with that of plantation forests, and in selecting sustainable land use of arid land.

  2. Modeling of radon transport in unsaturated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.; Thomas, D.M.; Green, R.


    This study applies a recently developed model, LEACHV, to simulate transport of radon through unsaturated soil and compares calculated soil radon activities against field-measured values. For volatile and gas phase transport, LEACHV is modified from LEACHP, a pesticide version of LEACHM, as well-documented one-dimensional model for water and chemical movement through unsaturated soil. LEACHV adds consideration of air temperature changes and air flow driven by barometric pressure change to the other soil variables currently used in LEACHP. It applies diurnal barometric pressure and air temperature changes to reflect more accurately the typical field conditions, Sensitivity analysis and simulated results have clearly demonstrated the relative importance of barometric pressure change, rainfall events, changes in water content, gas advection, and radon source term in radon transport process. Comparisons among simulated results illustrated that the importance of barometric pressure change and its pumping phenomenon produces both fluctuation in soil gas radon activities and an elevation of the long-term average radon activity in shallow soils of an equal magnitude to the disturbed source parameter. Comparisons between measured and simulated soil radon activities showed that LEACHV can provide realistic estimates of radon activity concentration in the soil profile. 41 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Assimilation of remote sensing data into a process-based ecosystem model for monitoring changes of soil water content in croplands (United States)

    Ju, Weimin; Gao, Ping; Wang, Jun; Li, Xianfeng; Chen, Shu


    Soil water content (SWC) is an important factor affecting photosynthesis, growth, and final yields of crops. The information on SWC is of importance for mitigating the reduction of crop yields caused by drought through proper agricultural water management. A variety of methodologies have been developed to estimate SWC at local and regional scales, including field sampling, remote sensing monitoring and model simulations. The reliability of regional SWC simulation depends largely on the accuracy of spatial input datasets, including vegetation parameters, soil and meteorological data. Remote sensing has been proved to be an effective technique for controlling uncertainties in vegetation parameters. In this study, the vegetation parameters (leaf area index and land cover type) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) were assimilated into a process-based ecosystem model BEPS for simulating the variations of SWC in croplands of Jiangsu province, China. Validation shows that the BEPS model is able to capture 81% and 83% of across-site variations of SWC at 10 and 20 cm depths during the period from September to December, 2006 when a serous autumn drought occurred. The simulated SWC responded the events of rainfall well at regional scale, demonstrating the usefulness of our methodology for SWC and practical agricultural water management at large scales.

  4. AMSR-E/Aqua root zone soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km descending and 2-Layer Palmer Water Balance Model V001 (LPRM_AMSRE_D_RZSM3) at GES DISC (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AMSR-E/Aqua root zone soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km descending and 2-Layer Palmer Water Balance Model V001 is a Level 3 (gridded) root zone soil...

  5. Modeling Agricultural Watersheds with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT): Calibration and Validation with a Novel Procedure for Spatially Explicit HRUs. (United States)

    Teshager, Awoke Dagnew; Gassman, Philip W; Secchi, Silvia; Schoof, Justin T; Misgna, Girmaye


    Applications of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model typically involve delineation of a watershed into subwatersheds/subbasins that are then further subdivided into hydrologic response units (HRUs) which are homogeneous areas of aggregated soil, landuse, and slope and are the smallest modeling units used within the model. In a given standard SWAT application, multiple potential HRUs (farm fields) in a subbasin are usually aggregated into a single HRU feature. In other words, the standard version of the model combines multiple potential HRUs (farm fields) with the same landuse/landcover, soil, and slope, but located at different places of a subbasin (spatially non-unique), and considers them as one HRU. In this study, ArcGIS pre-processing procedures were developed to spatially define a one-to-one match between farm fields and HRUs (spatially unique HRUs) within a subbasin prior to SWAT simulations to facilitate input processing, input/output mapping, and further analysis at the individual farm field level. Model input data such as landuse/landcover (LULC), soil, crop rotation, and other management data were processed through these HRUs. The SWAT model was then calibrated/validated for Raccoon River watershed in Iowa for 2002-2010 and Big Creek River watershed in Illinois for 2000-2003. SWAT was able to replicate annual, monthly, and daily streamflow, as well as sediment, nitrate and mineral phosphorous within recommended accuracy in most cases. The one-to-one match between farm fields and HRUs created and used in this study is a first step in performing LULC change, climate change impact, and other analyses in a more spatially explicit manner.

  6. Evaluation of Modeling Schemes to Estimate Evapotranspiration and Root Zone Soil Water Content over Vineyard using a Scintillometer and Remotely Sensed Surface Energy Balance (United States)

    Geli, H. M. E.; Gonzalez-Piqueras, J.; Isidro, C., Sr.


    Actual crop evapotranspiration (ETa) and root zone soil water content (SMC) are key operational variable to monitor water consumption and water stress condition for improve vineyard grapes productivity and quality. This analysis, evaluates the estimation of ETa and SMC based on two modeling approaches. The first approach is a hybrid model that couples a thermal-based two source energy balance (TSEB) model (Norman et al. 1995) and water balance model to estimate the two variable (Geli 2012). The second approach is based on Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS)-based estimates of sensible heat flux. The LAS-based estimates of sensible heat fluxes were used to calculate latent heat flux as the residual of surface energy balance equation on hourly basis which was converted to daily ETa. The calculated ETa from the scintillometer was then couple with the water balance approach to provide updated ETa_LAS and SMC_LAS. Both estimates of ETa and SMC based on LAS (i.e. ETa_LAS and SMC_LAS) and TSEB (ETa_TSEB and SMC_TSEB) were compared with ground-based observation from eddy covariance and soil water content measurements at multiple depths. The study site is an irrigated vineyard located in Central Spain Primary with heterogeneous surface conditions in term of irrigation practices and the ground based observation over the vineyard were collected during the summer of 2007. Preliminary results of the inter-comparison of the two approaches suggests relatively good between both modeling approaches and ground-based observations with RMSE lower than 1.2 mm/day for ETa and lower than 20% for SMC. References Norman, J. M., Kustas, W. P., & Humes, K. S. (1995). A two-source approach for estimating soil and vegetation energy fluxes in observations of directional radiometric surface temperature. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 77, 263293. Geli, Hatim M. E. (2012). Modeling spatial surface energy fluxes of agricultural and riparian vegetation using remote sensing, Ph. D. dissertation

  7. Dynamics of Soil Water Evaporation during Soil Drying: Laboratory Experiment and Numerical Analysis


    Jiangbo Han; Zhifang Zhou


    Laboratory and numerical experiments were conducted to investigate the evolution of soil water evaporation during a continuous drying event. Simulated soil water contents and temperatures by the calibrated model well reproduced measured values at different depths. Results show that the evaporative drying process could be divided into three stages, beginning with a relatively high evaporation rate during stage 1, followed by a lower rate during transient stage and stage 2, and finally maintain...

  8. Integrating water by plant roots over spatially distributed soil salinity (United States)

    Homaee, Mehdi; Schmidhalter, Urs


    In numerical simulation models dealing with water movement and solute transport in vadose zone, the water budget largely depends on uptake patterns by plant roots. In real field conditions, the uptake pattern largely changes in time and space. When dealing with soil and water salinity, most saline soils demonstrate spatially distributed osmotic head over the root zone. In order to quantify such processes, the major difficulty stems from lacking a sink term function that adequately accounts for the extraction term especially under variable soil water osmotic heads. The question of how plants integrate such space variable over its rooting depth remains as interesting issue for investigators. To move one step forward towards countering this concern, a well equipped experiment was conducted under heterogeneously distributed salinity over the root zone with alfalfa. The extraction rates of soil increments were calculated with the one dimensional form of Richards equation. The results indicated that the plant uptake rate under different mean soil salinities preliminary reacts to soil salinity, whereas at given water content and salinity the "evaporative demand" and "root activity" become more important to control the uptake patterns. Further analysis revealed that root activity is inconstant when imposed to variable soil salinity. It can be concluded that under heterogeneously distributed salinity, most water is taken from the less saline increment while the extraction from other root zone increments with higher salinities never stops.

  9. Soil water retention and structure stability as affected by water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrakh I. Mamedov


    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid zones with a short water resources studying the effects of water quality on soil water retention and structure is important for the development of effective soil and water conservation and management practices. Three water qualities (electrical conductivity, EC ~ 2, 100 and 500 μS cm-1 with a low SAR representing rain, canal-runoff and irrigation water respectively and semi-arid loam and clay soils were tested to evaluate an effect of soil texture and water quality on water retention, and aggregate and structure stability using the high energy moisture characteristic (HEMC method. The water retention curves obtained by the HEMC method were characterized by the modified van Genuchten (1980 model that provides (i model parameters α and n, which represent the location (of the inflection point and the steepness of the S-shaped water retention curve respectively, and (ii a volume of drainable pores (VDP, which is an indicator for the quantity of water released by the tested sample over the range of suction studied, and modal suction (MS, which corresponds to the most frequent pore sizes, and soil structure index, SI =VDP/MS. Generally (i treatments significantly affected the shape of the water retention curves (α and n and (ii contribution of soil type, water EC, and wetting rate and their interaction had considerable effect on the stability induces and model parameters. Most of changes due to the water quality and wetting condition were in the range of matric potential (ψ, 1.2-2.4; and 2.4-5.0 J kg-1 (pore size 125-250 μm and 60-125 μm. The VDP, SI and α increased, and MS and n decreased with the increase in clay content, water EC and the decrease in rate of aggregate wetting. The SI increased exponentially with the increase in VDP, and with the decrease in MS. Contribution of water EC on stability indices and model parameters was not linear and was soil dependent, and could be more valuable at medium water EC. Effect of

  10. Soil water evaporation and crop residues (United States)

    Crop residues have value when left in the field and also when removed from the field and sold as a commodity. Reducing soil water evaporation (E) is one of the benefits of leaving crop residues in place. E was measured beneath a corn canopy at the soil suface with nearly full coverage by corn stover...

  11. Compost improves urban soil and water quality (United States)

    Construction in urban zones compacts the soil, which hinders root growth and infiltration and may increase erosion, which may degrade water quality. The purpose of our study was to determine the whether planting prairie grasses and adding compost to urban soils can mitigate these concerns. We simula...

  12. Analytical reliability analysis of soil-water characteristic curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johari A.


    Full Text Available The Soil Water Characteristic Curve (SWCC, also known as the soil water-retention curve, is an important part of any constitutive relationship for unsaturated soils. Deterministic assessment of SWCC has received considerable attention in the past few years. However the uncertainties of the parameters which affect SWCC dictate that the problem is of a probabilistic nature rather than being deterministic. In this research, a Gene Expression Programming (GEP-based SWCC model is employed to assess the reliability of SWCC. For this purpose, the Jointly Distributed Random Variables (JDRV method is used as an analytical method for reliability analysis. All input parameters of the model which are initial void ratio, initial water content, silt and clay contents are set to be stochastic and modelled using truncated normal probability density functions. The results are compared with those of the Monte Carlo (MC simulation. It is shown that the initial water content is the most effective parameter in SWCC.

  13. Augmentations to the Noah model physics for application to the Yellow River source area. Part I: Soil water flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Donghai; van der Velde, R.; Su, Zhongbo; Wang, X.; Wen, J.; Booij, Martijn J.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Chen, Y.


    This is the first part of a study focusing on evaluating the performance of the Noah land surface model (LSM) in simulating surface water and energy budgets for the high-elevation source region of the Yellow River (SRYR). A comprehensive dataset is utilized that includes in situ micrometeorological

  14. Water management in sandy soil using neutron scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, K.M.


    This study was carried out during 2008/2009 at the Experimental Field of Soil and Water Research Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas in a newly reclaimed sandy soil. The aims of this work are,- determine soil moisture tension within the active root zone and - detecting the behavior of soil moisture within the active root zoon by defines the total hydraulic potential within the soil profile to predict both of actual evapotranspiration and rate of moisture depletion This work also is aimed to study soil water distribution under drip irrigation system.- reducing water deep percolation under the active root depth.This study included two factors, the first one is the irrigation intervals, and the second one is the application rate of organic manure. Irrigation intervals were 5, 10 and 15 days, besides three application rates of organic manure (0 m 3 /fed, 20 m 3 /fed. and 30 m 3 /fed.) in -three replicates under drip irrigation system, Onion was used as an indicator plant. Obtained data show, generally, that neutron scattering technique and soil moisture retention curve model helps more to study the water behavior in the soil profile.Application of organic manure and irrigation to field capacity is a good way to minimize evapotranspiration and deep percolation, which was zero mm/day in the treated treatments.The best irrigation interval for onion plant, in the studied soil, was 5 days with 30m 3 /fad. an application rate of organic manure.Parameter α of van Genuchent's 1980 model was affected by the additions of organic manure, which was decreased by addition of organic manure decreased it. Data also showed that n parameter was decreased by addition of organic manure Using surfer program is a good tool to describe the water distribution in two directions (vertical and horizontal) through soil profile.

  15. Difficulties in the evaluation and measuring of soil water infiltration (United States)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso


    Soil water infiltration is the most important hydrological parameter for the evaluation and diagnosis of the soil water balance and soil moisture regime. Those balances and regimes are the main regulating factors of the on site water supply to plants and other soil organisms and of other important processes like runoff, surface and mass erosion, drainage, etc, affecting sedimentation, flooding, soil and water pollution, water supply for different purposes (population, agriculture, industries, hydroelectricity), etc. Therefore the evaluation and measurement of water infiltration rates has become indispensable for the evaluation and modeling of the previously mentioned processes. Infiltration is one of the most difficult hydrological parameters to evaluate or measure accurately. Although the theoretical aspects of the process of soil water infiltration are well known since the middle of the past century, when several methods and models were already proposed for the evaluation of infiltration, still nowadays such evaluation is not frequently enough accurate for the purposes being used. This is partially due to deficiencies in the methodology being used for measuring infiltration, including some newly proposed methods and equipments, and in the use of non appropriate empirical models and approaches. In this contribution we present an analysis and discussion about the main difficulties found in the evaluation and measurement of soil water infiltration rates, and the more commonly committed errors, based on the past experiences of the author in the evaluation of soil water infiltration in many different soils and land conditions, and in their use for deducing soil water balances under variable and changing climates. It is concluded that there are not models or methods universally applicable to any soil and land condition, and that in many cases the results are significantly influenced by the way we use a particular method or instrument, and by the alterations in the soil

  16. Non-destructive estimates of soil carbonic anhydrase activity and associated soil water oxygen isotope composition (United States)

    Jones, Sam P.; Ogée, Jérôme; Sauze, Joana; Wohl, Steven; Saavedra, Noelia; Fernández-Prado, Noelia; Maire, Juliette; Launois, Thomas; Bosc, Alexandre; Wingate, Lisa


    The contribution of photosynthesis and soil respiration to net land-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange can be estimated based on the differential influence of leaves and soils on budgets of the oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of atmospheric CO2. To do so, the activity of carbonic anhydrases (CAs), a group of enzymes that catalyse the hydration of CO2 in soils and plants, needs to be understood. Measurements of soil CA activity typically involve the inversion of models describing the δ18O of CO2 fluxes to solve for the apparent, potentially catalysed, rate of CO2 hydration. This requires information about the δ18O of CO2 in isotopic equilibrium with soil water, typically obtained from destructive, depth-resolved sampling and extraction of soil water. In doing so, an assumption is made about the soil water pool that CO2 interacts with, which may bias estimates of CA activity if incorrect. Furthermore, this can represent a significant challenge in data collection given the potential for spatial and temporal variability in the δ18O of soil water and limited a priori information with respect to the appropriate sampling resolution and depth. We investigated whether we could circumvent this requirement by inferring the rate of CO2 hydration and the δ18O of soil water from the relationship between the δ18O of CO2 fluxes and the δ18O of CO2 at the soil surface measured at different ambient CO2 conditions. This approach was tested through laboratory incubations of air-dried soils that were re-wetted with three waters of different δ18O. Gas exchange measurements were made on these soils to estimate the rate of hydration and the δ18O of soil water, followed by soil water extraction to allow for comparison. Estimated rates of CO2 hydration were 6.8-14.6 times greater than the theoretical uncatalysed rate of hydration, indicating that CA were active in these soils. Importantly, these estimates were not significantly different among water treatments, suggesting

  17. SALTMED model as an integrated management tool for water, crop, soil and N-fertilizer water management strategies and productivity: field and simulation study


    Ragab, R.; Battilani, A.; Matovic, G.; Stikic, R.; Psarras, G.; Chartzoulakis, K.


    This paper is a follow-up from a paper which described the SALTMED model. In this paper the focus is on the model application,using data of tomato and potato from field experiments in Italy, Greece (Crete) and Serbia. Drip full irrigation, drip deficit irrigation, drip as partial root drying (PRD), sprinkler and furrow irrigation were used in the 3-yr experiment between 2006 and 2008. In drip-irrigated experiments, the drip line was 10–12 cm below the surface. Dry matter, final yield, soil mo...

  18. Wildfire impacts on soil-water retention in the Colorado Front Range, United States (United States)

    Ebel, Brian A.


    This work examined the plot-scale differences in soil-water retention caused by wildfire in the area of the 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire in the Colorado Front Range, United States. We measured soil-water retention curves on intact cores and repacked samples, soil particle-size distributions, and organic matter content. Estimates were also made of plant-available water based on the soil-water retention curves. Parameters for use in soil-hydraulic property models were estimated; these parameters can be used in unsaturated flow modeling for comparing burned and unburned watersheds. The primary driver for measured differences in soil-water retention in burned and unburned soils was organic matter content and not soil-particle size distribution. The tendency for unburned south-facing soils to have greater organic matter content than unburned north-facing soils in this field area may explain why unburned south-facing soils had greater soil-water retention than unburned north-facing soils. Our results suggest that high-severity wildfire can “homogenize” soil-water retention across the landscape by erasing soil-water retention differences resulting from organic matter content, which for this site may be affected by slope aspect. This homogenization could have important implications for ecohydrology and plant succession/recovery in burned areas, which could be a factor in dictating the window of vulnerability of the landscape to flash floods and erosion that are a common consequence of wildfire.

  19. Linking carbon-water- and nitrogen fluxes at forest ecosystems throughout Europe with a coupled soil-vegetation process model "LandscapeDNDC" (United States)

    Molina Herrera, Saul; Grote, Rüdiger; Haas, Edwin; Kiese, Ralf; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus


    Forest ecosystems in Europe play a key role in the emission reduction commitment agreed in the Kyoto Protocol for mitigating climatic change. Forest ecological functioning and potential services (such as carbon sequestration) are a matter of debate for policy decision makers resulting from the need of identifying affordable strategies for forest management and exploitation against climate change. Forest ecosystem functioning and the linkages governing carbon-, water- and nitrogen fluxes at site scale was evaluated for three dominant tree species (Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica) grown on 10 different sites across Europe. We did answer in particular the following questions: a) is LandscapeDNDC able to represent NEE, GPP, TER and ET fluxes for dominant forest types in Europe at different sites with only a species specific parameterization? b) What is the relation between carbon input into the ecosystem and on the emission of carbon and nitrogen from the forest soil? Furthermore we analyzed the interaction between carbon-, nitrogen-, and water cycle, in particular the dependence of gaseous fluxes on water and litter availability. LandscapeDNDC is a process based model that integrates modules for carbon, nitrogen and water cycling within terrestrial ecosystems (i.e. forest) on the site and regional scale. Biosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere processes in forest ecosystems are linked by daily time step integration of the microclimate, water cycle, soil biogeochemistry and tree physiology and dimensional growth modules which balances all three aforementioned cycles. All processes and state variables are considered in a vertically structured one dimensional vertical column that reaches from rooting depth (more than 1 m depth) to the uppermost canopy layer. LandscapeDNDC was tested against long term (about 10 years) field data. The capability of the applied model for reproducing daily derived GPP and TER was accompanied by a high statistical precision (r

  20. Advancing representation of hydrologic processes in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) through integration of the TOPographic MODEL (TOPMODEL) features (United States)

    Chen, J.; Wu, Y.


    This paper presents a study of the integration of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model and the TOPographic MODEL (TOPMODEL) features for enhancing the physical representation of hydrologic processes. In SWAT, four hydrologic processes, which are surface runoff, baseflow, groundwater re-evaporation and deep aquifer percolation, are modeled by using a group of empirical equations. The empirical equations usually constrain the simulation capability of relevant processes. To replace these equations and to model the influences of topography and water table variation on streamflow generation, the TOPMODEL features are integrated into SWAT, and a new model, the so-called SWAT-TOP, is developed. In the new model, the process of deep aquifer percolation is removed, the concept of groundwater re-evaporation is refined, and the processes of surface runoff and baseflow are remodeled. Consequently, three parameters in SWAT are discarded, and two new parameters to reflect the TOPMODEL features are introduced. SWAT-TOP and SWAT are applied to the East River basin in South China, and the results reveal that, compared with SWAT, the new model can provide a more reasonable simulation of the hydrologic processes of surface runoff, groundwater re-evaporation, and baseflow. This study evidences that an established hydrologic model can be further improved by integrating the features of another model, which is a possible way to enhance our understanding of the workings of catchments.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indira S. Jayaweera; Montserrat Marti-Perez; Jordi Diaz-Ferrero; Angel Sanjurjo


    SRI International conducted experiments in a two-year, two-phase process to develop and evaluate hydrothermal extraction technology, also known as hot water extraction (HWE) technology, to separate petroleum-related contaminants and other hazardous pollutants from soil and sediments. In this process, water with added electrolytes (inexpensive and environmentally friendly) is used as the extracting solvent under subcritical conditions (150-300 C). The use of electrolytes allows us to operate reactors under mild conditions and to obtain high separation efficiencies that were hitherto impossible. Unlike common organic solvents, water under subcritical conditions dissolves both organics and inorganics, thus allowing opportunities for separation of both organic and inorganic material from soil. In developing this technology, our systematic approach was to (1) establish fundamental solubility data, (2) conduct treatability studies with industrial soils, and (3) perform a bench-scale demonstration using a highly contaminated soil. The bench-scale demonstration of the process has shown great promise. The next step of the development process is the successful pilot demonstration of this technology. Once pilot tested, this technology can be implemented quite easily, since most of the basic components are readily available from mature technologies (e.g., steam stripping, soil washing, thermal desorption). The implementation of this technology will revolutionize the conventional use of water in soil remediation technologies and will provide a stand-alone technology for removal of both volatile and heavy components from contaminated soil.

  2. Soil remediation time to achieve clean-up goals I: Influence of soil water content. (United States)

    Alvim-Ferraz, Maria da Conceição M; Albergaria, José Tomás; Delerue-Matos, Cristina


    The current models are not simple enough to allow a quick estimation of the remediation time. This work reports the development of an easy and relatively rapid procedure for the forecasting of the remediation time using vapour extraction. Sandy soils contaminated with cyclohexane and prepared with different water contents were studied. The remediation times estimated through the mathematical fitting of experimental results were compared with those of real soils. The main objectives were: (i) to predict, through a simple mathematical fitting, the remediation time of soils with water contents different from those used in the experiments; (ii) to analyse the influence of soil water content on the: (ii(1)) remediation time; (ii(2)) remediation efficiency; and (ii(3)) distribution of contaminants in the different phases present into the soil matrix after the remediation process. For sandy soils with negligible contents of clay and natural organic matter, artificially contaminated with cyclohexane before vapour extraction, it was concluded that (i) if the soil water content belonged to the range considered in the experiments with the prepared soils, then the remediation time of real soils of similar characteristics could be successfully predicted, with relative differences not higher than 10%, through a simple mathematical fitting of experimental results; (ii) increasing soil water content from 0% to 6% had the following consequences: (ii(1)) increased remediation time (1.8-4.9h, respectively); (ii(2)) decreased remediation efficiency (99-97%, respectively); and (ii(3)) decreased the amount of contaminant adsorbed onto the soil and in the non-aqueous liquid phase, thus increasing the amount of contaminant in the aqueous and gaseous phases.

  3. Water Repellency, Infiltration and Water Retention Properties of Forest Soils Under Different Management Practices (United States)

    Wahl, N. A.; Bens, O.; Schäfer, B.; Hüttl, R. F.

    significant proportion of severely and extremely hydrophobic samples in the upper 10 cm of the soil profile was revealed, whereas the persistence of repellency decreases with increasing soil depth. The EP exhibit for all plots a shallower depth distribution than the WDPT. During forest transformation, both humus type as well as humus distribution in the soil and the litter layers are altered. These changes influence above 1 all the water storage capacity of the soil which declines considerably during the first stage of forest transformation. The obtained results will be incorporated in a hydrologic catchment model in order to evaluate the possible impact on the runoff characteristics. Simulated runoff data for selected mesoscale catchments (e.g. of the Rhine area) will serve to evaluate different soil management practices in terms of minimizing surface runoff and preventing flood events. 2

  4. The soil water balance in a mosaic of clumped vegetation (United States)

    Pizzolla, Teresa; Manfreda, Salvatore; Caylor, Kelly; Gioia, Andrea; Iacobellis, Vito


    The spatio-temporal distribution of soil moisture influences the plant growth and the distribution of terrestrial vegetation. This effect is more evident in arid and semiarid ecosystems where the interaction between individuals and the water limited conditions play a fundamental role, providing environmental conditions which drive a variety of non-linear ecohydrological response functions (such as transpiration, photosynthesis, leakage). In this context, modeling vegetation patterns at multiple spatial aggregation scales is important to understand how different vegetation structures can modify the soil water distribution and the exchanged fluxes between soil and atmosphere. In the present paper, the effect of different spatial vegetation patterns, under different climatic scenarios, is investigated in a patchy vegetation mosaic generated by a random process of individual tree canopies and their accompanying root system. Vegetation pattern are generated using the mathematical framework proposed by Caylor et al. (2006) characterized by a three dimensional stochastic vegetation structure, based on the density, dispersion, size distribution, and allometry of individuals within a landscape. A Poisson distribution is applied to generate different distribution of individuals paying particular attention on the role of clumping on water distribution dynamics. The soil water balance is evaluated using the analytical expression proposed by Laio et al. (2001) to explore the influence of climate and vegetation patterns on soil water balance steady-state components (such as the average rates of evaporation, the root water uptake and leakage) and on the stress-weighted plant water uptake. Results of numerical simulations show that clumping may be beneficial for water use efficiency at the landscape scale. References Caylor, Kelly K., P. D'Odorico and I. Rodriguez Iturbe: On the ecohydrology of structurally heterogeneous semiarid landscape. Water Resour. Res., 28, W07424, 2006

  5. Stochastic modeling of soil salinity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suweis, S.; Rinaldo, A.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Daly, E.; Maritan, A.


    A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The long term probability density functions of salt mass and

  6. Soil water repellency in long term drought and warming experiments (United States)

    Urbanek, Emilia; Emmett, Bridget; Tietema, Albert; Robinson, David


    Increased global temperatures, altered rainfall patterns and frequently occurring extreme climatic events are already observed globally as a result of the climatic changes and further increases are predicted by the climatic models. Extreme weather events such as prolonged dry spells and heat waves can significantly affect soil ecosystem functions mainly due to decrease in soil moisture. Several studies suggested an increase in soil water repellency severity and spread as a consequence of the warming and drought, however, such understanding is based on the laboratory experimentations with soil treated as a 'black box'. In this study we tested the hypothesis of increased severity of soil water repellency subjected to drought and warming under field conditions. Occurrence and severity of soil water repellency was tested in soils subjected to a long-term (10 years) climatic simulation at two upland heathland sites in Oldebroek (Netherlands) and in Clocaenog (UK)[1]. Soil plots with similar vegetation were subjected to repeated drought and warming, compared with the control plots. Drought effect was created by a rainfall exclusion using an automatic self-retracting waterproof curtains while the warming effect was made by using a self-retracting curtains reflecting infrared radiation overnight. The results available to date provide a strong indication that climatic conditions do affect the development of SWR.

  7. Use of a watershed model to characterize the fate and transport of fluometuron, a soil-applied cotton herbicide, in surface water (United States)

    Coupe, R.H.


    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to characterize the fate and transport of fluometuron (a herbicide used on cotton) in the Bogue Phalia Basin in northwestern Mississippi, USA. SWAT is a basin-scale watershed model, able to simulate hydrological, chemical, and sediment transport processes. After adjustments to a few parameters (specifically the SURLAG variable, the runoff curve number, Manning's N for overland flow, soil available water capacity, and the base-flow alpha factor) the SWAT model fit the observed streamflow well (the Coefficient of Efficiency and R2 were greater than 60). The results from comparing observed fluometuron concentrations with simulated concentrations were reasonable. The simulated concentrations (which were daily averages) followed the pattern of observed concentrations (instantaneous values) closely, but could be off in magnitude at times. Further calibration might have improved the fit, but given the uncertainties in the input data, it was not clear that any improvement would be due to a better understanding of the input variables. ?? 2007 Taylor & Francis.

  8. Development of one-dimensional atmosphere-bare soil model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazawa, Hiromi; Nagai, Haruyasu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    As the first step of modeling of dynamical behaviors of air and water as media of radionuclide migration in the atmosphere-vegetation-soil system, a one-dimensional numerical model of atmosphere-bare soil system was developed. The atmospheric part, which is based on the existing one-dimensional meteorological model PHYD1V3, consists of prognostic equations for horizontal wind components, potential temperature, specific humidity, fog water, turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence length scale. This part also consists of a second-order turbulence closure model and solar-atmospheric radiation model. The soil part consists of prognostic equations for soil temperature, volumetric water content and specific humidity in soil air. Both parts are interfaced to each other with the ground surface water and heat budget equations. This model employs a finite difference scheme with multi-layer description for the both part. (author)

  9. The Campbell Soil-Water Retention Function: Predictions Using Visible Near-Infrared Spectroscopy or Soil Fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysodonta, Zampela Pittaki; Møldrup, Per; Hermansen, Cecilie

    The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is one of the most uncertain soil properties while, at the same time, it is essential for modelling water and solute movement in the vadose zone. The Campbell soil-water retention function and its b parameter (pore-size distribution index) is a simple method...... to assess the soil unsaturated hydraulic conductivity when water retention data are available. However, measuring water retention is time consuming. A method to accurately predict the Campbell relation from either textural parameters such as clay and organic matter (soil fines) or from rapid, visible near......-point and the Campbell b was predicted using either vis-NIR (with spectral range from 400-2500 nm) or the soil fines content. Water retention, texture, and vis-NIR measurements for more than 200 soils were used for the model development. Vis-NIR measurements were used in order to correlate absorptions in specific...

  10. Water distribution at the root-soil interface: is there more water next to roots? (United States)

    Carminati, A.; Moradi, A.; Oswald, S.; Vetterlein, D.; Weller, U.; Vogel, H.-J.


    Plants are big water movers and have a significant impact on soil water dynamics as well as on the global water cycle. Despite the relevance of root water uptake in terrestrial ecology, the movement of water from soil to roots still presents important open questions, e.g the following two. Which are the properties of the soil near the roots? And what effect do these properties have on soil plant water relations? Most models are based on brute-force spatial averaging of soil properties and assume that the bulk soil has the same properties as the rhizosphere. However, there is evidence in the literature that the rhizosphere has specific properties that may affect water and nutrient uptake (Young 1995, Gregory 2007). In order to investigate the rhizosphere hydraulic properties and their effect on soil plant water relations, we used neutron radiography and neutron tomography to image the water content distribution in soils during plant transpiration. Rectangular (quasi-2D) and cylindrical containers were filled with sandy soil and planted with lupins (Lupinus albus). Three weeks after planting, the samples were equilibrated at water potentials of -10 and 30 hPa and have been imaged for 5 days at intervals of 6 hours. At day 5 the samples were irrigated again via capillary rise and the water distribution was monitored for 4 more days. During the first day of the drying period, regions of water depletion formed around the central part of the tap root where first order laterals were present. As the soil dried up, the picture changed: instead of less water around the roots, as commonly supposed by models, we observed that more water was present around the lateral roots. Interestingly, these regions during drying were retaining high water content, but after irrigation remained markedly drier than the bulk soil. Our hypothesis is that high water content near roots during drying and lower water content during rewetting are explained by the presence of bio-polymers exuded by

  11. Accounting for sub-resolution pores in models of water and solute transport in soils based on computed tomography images: Are we there yet? (United States)

    Baveye, Philippe C.; Pot, Valérie; Garnier, Patricia


    In the last decade, X-ray computed tomography (CT) has become widely used to characterize the geometry and topology of the pore space of soils and natural porous media. Regardless of the resolution of CT images, a fundamental problem associated with their use, for example as a starting point in simulation efforts, is that sub-resolution pores are not detected. Over the last few years, a particular type of modeling method, known as ;Grey; or ;Partial Bounce Back; Lattice-Boltzmann (LB), has been adopted by increasing numbers of researchers to try to account for sub-resolution pores in the modeling of water and solute transport in natural porous media. In this short paper, we assess the extent to which Grey LB methods indeed offer a workable solution to the problem at hand. We conclude that, in spite of significant computational advances, a major experimental hurdle related to the evaluation of the penetrability of sub-resolution pores, is blocking the way ahead. This hurdle will need to be cleared before Grey LB can become a credible option in the microscale modeling of soils and sediments. A necessarily interdisciplinary effort, involving both modelers and experimentalists, is needed to clear the path forward.

  12. Soil water status under perennial and annual pastures on an acid duplex soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heng, L.K.; White, R.E.; Chen, D.


    A comprehensive field study of soil water balance, nitrogen (N) cycling, pasture management and animal production was carried out on an acid duplex soil at Book Book near Wagga Wagga in southern New South Wales. The experiment, carried out over a 3-year period, tested the hypothesis that sown perennial grass pastures improve the sustainability of a grazing system through better use of water and N. The treatments were: annual pastures without lime (AP-), annual pastures with lime (AP+), perennial pastures without lime (PP-) and perennial pastures with lime (PP+). Soil water measurement was made using a neutron probe on one set of the treatments comprising four adjacent paddocks. Over three winter and spring periods, the results showed that perennial grass pastures, especially PP+, consistently extracted about 40 mm more soil water each year than did the annual grass pastures. As a result, surface runoff, sub-surface flow and deep drainage (percolation below 180 cm depth) were about 40 mm less from the perennial pastures. The soil water status of the four pasture treatments was simulated reasonably well using a simple soil water model. Together with the long-term simulation of deep drainage, using past meteorological records, it is shown that proper management of perennial pastures can reduce recharge to groundwater and make pastoral systems more sustainable in the high rainfall zone. However, to completely reduce recharge, more-deeply rooted plants or trees are needed. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol


    Full Text Available Infiltration is the passage of water through the soil surface, influenced by the soil type and cultivation and by the soil roughness, surface cover and water content. Infiltration absorbs most of the rainwater and is therefore crucial for planning mechanical conservation practices to manage runoff. This study determined water infiltration in two soil types under different types of management and cultivation, with simulated rainfall of varying intensity and duration applied at different times, and to adjust the empirical model of Horton to the infiltration data. The study was conducted in southern Brazil, on Dystric Nitisol (Nitossolo Bruno aluminoférrico húmico and Humic Cambisol (Cambissolo Húmico alumínico léptico soils to assess the following situations: simulated rains on the Nitisol from 2001 to 2012 in 31 treatments, differing in crop type, sowing direction, type of soil opener on the seeder, amount and type of crop residue and amount of liquid swine manure applied; on the Cambisol, rains were simlated from 2006 to 2012 and 18 treatments were evaluated, differing in crop, seeding direction and crop residue type. The constant of the water infiltration rate into the soil varies significantly with the soil type (30.2 mm h-1 in the Nitisol and 6.6 mm h-1 in the Cambisol, regardless of the management system, application time and rain intensity and duration. At the end of rainfalls, soil-water infiltration varies significantly with the management system, with the timing of application and rain intensity and duration, with values ranging from 13 to 59 mm h-1, in the two studied soils. The characteristics of the sowing operation in terms of relief, crop type and amount and type of crop residue influenced soil water infiltration: in the Nitisol, the values of contour and downhill seeding vary between 27 and 43 mm h-1, respectively, with crop residues of corn, wheat and soybean while in the Cambisol, the variation is between 2 and 36 mm h-1

  14. Diurnal hysteresis between soil CO2 and soil temperature is controlled by soil water content (United States)

    Diego A. Riveros-Iregui; Ryan E. Emanuel; Daniel J. Muth; L. McGlynn Brian; Howard E. Epstein; Daniel L. Welsch; Vincent J. Pacific; Jon M. Wraith


    Recent years have seen a growing interest in measuring and modeling soil CO2 efflux, as this flux represents a large component of ecosystem respiration and is a key determinant of ecosystem carbon balance. Process-based models of soil CO2 production and efflux, commonly based on soil temperature, are limited by nonlinearities such as the observed diurnal hysteresis...

  15. Salinity controls on plant transpiration and soil water balance (United States)

    Perri, S.; Molini, A.; Suweis, S. S.; Viola, F.; Entekhabi, D.


    Soil salinization and aridification represent a major threat for the food security and sustainable development of drylands. The two problems are deeply connected, and their interplay is expected to be further enhanced by climate change and projected population growth. Salt-affected land is currently estimated to cover around 1.1 Gha, and is particularly widespread in semi-arid to hyper-arid climates. Over 900 Mha of these saline/sodic soils are potentially available for crop or biomass production. Salt-tolerant plants have been recently proposed as valid solution to exploit or even remediate salinized soils. However the effects of salinity on evapotranspiration, soil water balance and the long-term salt mass balance in the soil, are still largely unexplored. In this contribution we analyze the feedback of evapotranspiration on soil salinization, with particular emphasis on the role of vegetation and plant salt-tolerance. The goal is to introduce a simple modeling framework able to shed some light on how (a) soil salinity controls plant transpiration, and (b) salinization itself is favored/impeded by different vegetation feedback. We introduce at this goal a spatially lumped stochastic model of soil moisture and salt mass dynamics averaged over the active soil depth, and accounting for the effect of salinity on evapotranspiration. Here, the limiting effect of salinity on ET is modeled through a simple plant response function depending on both salt concentration in the soil and plant salt-tolerance. The coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance is hence used to obtain the conditional steady-state probability density function (pdf) of soil moisture for given salt tolerance and salinization level, Our results show that salinity imposes a limit in the soil water balance and this limit depends on plant salt-tolerance mainly through the control of the leaching occurrence (tolerant plants exploit water more efficiently than the sensitive ones). We also analyzed the

  16. Heavy water tracing of soil-water transfers under irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutonnet, P.; Couchat, P.


    In soil columns, a horizon was labeled with heavy (deuterated) water (D 2 O), and the evolution of D 2 O during the experiment was monitored in situ by gamma-neutron counting. An automatic irrigation device was used for crop watering. Based on the results of two consecutive experiments (H 2 O and D 2 O balance and water transfer analysis), the system was found to provide fully satisfactory irrigation. Deuterated water labeling, moreover, proved to be an effective technique for evaluating root uptake in a soil horizon

  17. Advantages of Using Microwave Satellite Soil Moisture over Gridded Precipitation Products and Land Surface Model Output in Assessing Regional Vegetation Water Availability and Growth Dynamics for a Lateral Inflow Receiving Landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, T.; McVicar, T.R.; Wang, G.J.; Chen, X.; de Jeu, R.A.M.; Liu, Y.; Shen, H.; Zhang, F.; Dolman, A.J.


    To improve the understanding of water-vegetation relationships, direct comparative studies assessing the utility of satellite remotely sensed soil moisture, gridded precipitation products, and land surface model output are needed. A case study was investigated for a water-limited, lateral inflow

  18. Root water extraction and limiting soil hydraulic conditions estimated by numerical simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong van Lier, de Q.; Metselaar, K.; Dam, van J.C.


    Root density, soil hydraulic functions, and hydraulic head gradients play an important role in the determination of transpiration-rate-limiting soil water contents. We developed an implicit numerical root water extraction model to solve the Richards equation for the modeling of radial root water

  19. Scaling Soil Microbe-Water Interactions from Pores to Ecosystems (United States)

    Manzoni, S.; Katul, G. G.


    The spatial scales relevant to soil microbial activity are much finer than scales relevant to whole-ecosystem function and biogeochemical cycling. On the one hand, how to link such different scales and develop scale-aware biogeochemical and ecohydrological models remains a major challenge. On the other hand, resolving these linkages is becoming necessary for testing ecological hypotheses and resolving data-theory inconsistencies. Here, the relation between microbial respiration and soil moisture expressed in water potential is explored. Such relation mediates the water availability effects on ecosystem-level heterotrophic respiration and is of paramount importance for understanding CO2 emissions under increasingly variable rainfall regimes. Respiration has been shown to decline as the soil dries in a remarkably consistent way across climates and soil types (open triangles in Figure). Empirical models based on these respiration-moisture relations are routinely used in Earth System Models to predict moisture effects on ecosystem respiration. It has been hypothesized that this consistency in microbial respiration decline is due to breakage of water film continuity causing in turn solute diffusion limitations in dry conditions. However, this hypothesis appears to be at odds with what is known about soil hydraulic properties. Water film continuity estimated from soil water retention (SWR) measurements at the 'Darcy' scale breaks at far less negative water potential (micro-level relevant to microbial activity. Such downscaling resolves the inconsistency between respiration thresholds and hydrological thresholds. This result, together with observations of residual microbial activity well below -15 MPa (dashed back curve in Figure), lends support to the hypothesis that soil microbes are substrate-limited in dry conditions.

  20. Tomato Yield and Water Use Efficiency - Coupling Effects between Growth Stage Specific Soil Water Deficits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Si; Zhenjiang, Zhou; Andersen, Mathias Neumann


    To investigate the sensitivity of tomato yield and water use efficiency (WUE) to soil water content at different growth stages, the central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed in a five-factor-five-level pot experiment under regulated deficit irrigation. Two regression models concerning...... the effects of stage-specific soil water content on tomato yield and WUE were established. The results showed that the lowest available soil water (ASW) content (around 28%) during vegetative growth stage (here denoted θ1) resulted in high yield and WUE. Moderate (around 69% ASW) during blooming and fruit...... effects of ASW in two growth stages were between θ2 and θ5, θ3. In both cases a moderate θ2 was a precondition for maximum yield response to increasing θ5 and θ3. Sensitivity analysis revealed that yield was most sensitive to soil water content at fruit maturity (θ5). Numerical inspection...

  1. Water regime and growth of young oak stands subjected to air-warming and drought on two different forest soils in a model ecosystem experiment. (United States)

    Kuster, T M; Arend, M; Bleuler, P; Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Schulin, R


    Global climate change is expected to increase annual temperatures and decrease summer precipitation in Central Europe. Little is known of how forests respond to the interaction of these climate factors and if their responses depend on soil conditions. In a 3-year lysimeter experiment, we investigated the growth response of young mixed oak stands, on either acidic or calcareous soil, to soil water regime, air-warming and drought treatments corresponding to an intermediate climate change scenario. The air-warming and drought treatments were applied separately as well as in combination. The air-warming treatment had no effect on soil water availability, evapotranspiration or stand biomass. Decreased evapotranspiration from the drought-exposed stands led to significantly higher air and soil temperatures, which were attributed to impaired transpirational cooling. Water limitation significantly reduced the stand foliage, shoot and root biomass as droughts were severe, as shown in low leaf water potentials. Additional air warming did not enhance the drought effects on evapotranspiration and biomass, although more negative leaf water potentials were observed. After re-watering, evapotranspiration increased within a few days to pre-drought levels. Stands not subjected to the drought treatment produced significantly less biomass on the calcareous soil than on the acidic soil, probably due to P or Mn limitation. There was no difference in biomass and water regime between the two soils under drought conditions, indicating that nutrient availability was governed by water availability under these conditions. The results demonstrate that young oak stands can cope with severe drought and therefore can be considered for future forestry. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. Assessment of CREAMS [Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems] and ERHYM-II [Ekalaka Rangeland Hydrology and Yield Model] computer models for simulating soil water movement on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laundre, J.W.


    The major goal of radioactive waste management is long-term containment of radioactive waste. Long-term containment is dependent on understanding water movement on, into, and through trench caps. Several computer simulation models are available for predicting water movement. Of the several computer models available, CREAMS (Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems) and ERHYM-II (Ekalaka Rangeland Hydrology and Yield Model) were tested for use on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The models were calibrated, tested for sensitivity, and used to evaluate some basic trench cap designs. Each model was used to postdict soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and runoff of two watersheds for which such data were already available. Sensitivity of the models was tested by adjusting various input parameters from high to low values and then comparing model outputs to those generated from average values. Ten input parameters of the CREAMS model were tested for sensitivity. 17 refs., 23 figs., 20 tabs

  3. A simple model to predict soil moisture: Bridging Event and Continuous Hydrological (BEACH) modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheikh, V.; Visser, S.M.; Stroosnijder, L.


    This paper introduces a simple two-layer soil water balance model developed to Bridge Event And Continuous Hydrological (BEACH) modelling. BEACH is a spatially distributed daily basis hydrological model formulated to predict the initial condition of soil moisture for event-based soil erosion and

  4. Soil and ground-water remediation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.


    Urban areas typically contain numerous sites underlain by soils or ground waters which are contaminated to levels that exceed clean-up guidelines and are hazardous to public health. Contamination most commonly results from the disposal, careless use and spillage of chemicals, or the historic importation of contaminated fill onto properties undergoing redevelopment. Contaminants of concern in soil and ground water include: inorganic chemicals such as heavy metals; radioactive metals; salt and inorganic pesticides, and a range of organic chemicals included within petroleum fuels, coal tar products, PCB oils, chlorinated solvents, and pesticides. Dealing with contaminated sites is a major problem affecting all urban areas and a wide range of different remedial technologies are available. This chapter reviews the more commonly used methods for ground-water and soil remediation, paying particular regard to efficiency and applicability of specific treatments to different site conditions. (author). 43 refs., 1 tab., 27 figs

  5. Soil water content, runoff and soil loss prediction in a small ungauged agricultural basin in the Mediterranean region using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool


    Ramos Martín, Ma. C. (Ma. Concepción); Martínez Casasnovas, José Antonio


    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the possibilities of using sub-basin data for calibration of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model in a small (46 ha) ungauged basin (i.e. where the water flow is not systematically measured) and its response. This small basin was located in the viticultural Anoia-Penedès region (North-east Spain), which suffers severe soil erosion. The data sources were: daily weather data from an observatory located close to the basin; a detailed soil ma...

  6. Degradation process modelization in of metallic drink containers, in soil, in water and in water-soil interaction; Modelizacion del proceso de degradacion de envases metalicos para bebida, en el suelo, en el agua y en la interaccion agua-suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieiro, I.; Trivino, V.; Gutierrez, T.; Munoz, J.; Larrea, M. T.


    This study asses the environmental pollution by metal release that takes place during prolonged exposures when metallic drink containers are accidentally settle in the soil in a uncontrolled way, For comparative purposes, the F111 steel and the aluminium alloy 3003, widely used for the fabrication of these containers, are also considered. A experimental design is proposed to simulate the environmental pollution during prolonged exposures. Analytical indicators have been obtained determining the metallic concentration from three types of mediums; water, water in presence of soil, and absorption-adsorption in soil. An analytical methodology has been developed by Atomic Emission Spectrometry with ICP as exciting source (ICP-OES) for metallic quantification. The method was validated using Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) of soil and water and the precision obtained varies from 5.39 to 5.86% and from 5.75 to 6.27%, respectively according to of the element studied. A statistical descriptive study followed by a factorial analysis (linear general model) has been carried out for the treatment of the experimental data packages. The metallic quantification for the three mediums shows that the soil inhibits metallic solubility in water. The process to make packages reduces in both cases their metallic cession. (Author)

  7. The characteristics of soil and water loss in Pinus Massoniana forest in Quaternary red soil area of south China (United States)

    Song, Yuejun; Huang, Yanhe; Jie, Yang


    The soil and water loss in Pinus massoniana forests is an urgent environmental problem in the red soil region of southern China.Using the method of field monitoring, by analogy and statistical analysis, The characteristics of soil and water loss of Pinus massoniana forests in Quaternary red soil region under 30 rainfall were analyzed,the results show that the relationship models of rainfall,runoff and sediment of pure Pinus massoniana plot were slightly different from the naked control plot,were all the univariate quadratic linear regression models.the contribution of runoff and sediment in different rain types were different, and the water and soil loss in Pinus massoniana forest was most prominent under moderate rain.The merging effect of sparse Pinus massoniana forest on raindrop, aggravated the degree of soil and water loss to some extent.

  8. Zinc in soils, water and food crops. (United States)

    Noulas, Christos; Tziouvalekas, Miltiadis; Karyotis, Theodore


    A basic knowledge of the dynamics of zinc (Zn) in soils, water and plants are important steps in achieving sustainable solutions to the problem of Zn deficiency in crops and humans. This paper aims at reviewing and discussing the relevant aspects of the role of Zn in the soil-water-plant agro biological system: from the origins of Zn in soils and water to soil Zn deficiency distribution and the factors affecting soil Zn availability to plants, therefore to elucidate the strategies potentially help combating Zn deficiency problems in soil-plant-human continuum. This necessitates identifying the main areas of Zn-deficient soils and food crops and treating them with Zn amendments, mainly fertilizers in order to increase Zn uptake and Zn use efficiency to crops. In surface and groundwater, Zn enters the environment from various sources but predominately from the erosion of soil particles containing Zn. In plants is involved in several key physiological functions (membrane structure, photosynthesis, protein synthesis, and drought and disease tolerance) and is required in small but nevertheless critical contents. Several high revenue food crops such as beans, citrus, corn, rice etc are highly susceptible to Zn deficiency and biofortification is considered as a promising method to accumulate high content of Zn especially in grains. With the world population continuing to rise and the problems of producing extra food rich in Zn to provide an adequate standard of nutrition to increase, it is very important that any losses in production easily corrected so as Zn deficiencies are prevented. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Evidence for soil water control on carbon and water dynamics in European forests during the extremely dry year: 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granier, A.; Reichstein, M.; Breda, N.


    European monitoring sites covering various forest ecosystem types and a large climatic range in order to characterise the consequences of this drought on ecosystems functioning. As soil water content in the root zone was only monitored in a few sites, a daily water balance model was implemented at each...... stand to estimate the water balance terms: trees and understorey transpiration, rainfall interception, throughfall, drainage in the different soil layers and soil water content. This model calculated the onset date, duration and intensity of the soil water shortage (called water stress) using measured...... measured and modelled soil water content. Our analysis showed a wide spatial distribution of drought stress over Europe, with a maximum intensity within a large band extending from Portugal to NE Germany. Vapour fluxes in all the investigated sites were reduced by drought, due to stomatal closure, when...

  10. Soil Specific Surface Area and Non-Singularity of Soil-Water Retention at Low Saturations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Møldrup, Per


    The dry end of the soil water characteristic (SWC) is important for modeling vapor flow dynamics and predicting soil properties such as specific surface area (SSA) and clay content (CL). Verification of new instrumentation for rapid measurement of the dry end of the SWC is relevant to avoid long...... equilibration times and potential for hydraulic decoupling. The objectives of this study were to measure both adsorption and desorption branches of the dry end of the SWC for 21 variably-textured Arizona soils using new, fully automated instrumentation (AquaSorp); apply the data to parameterize the Tuller...... and Or (TO) and new single-parameter non-singularity (SPN) models; and evaluate estimates of SSA from water sorption, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME), and N2–BET methods. The AquaSorp successfully measured water sorption isotherms (∼140 data points) within a reasonably short time (1–3 d). The SPN...

  11. A model for nematode locomotion in soil (United States)

    Hunt, H. William; Wall, Diana H.; DeCrappeo, Nicole; Brenner, John S.


    Locomotion of nematodes in soil is important for both practical and theoretical reasons. We constructed a model for rate of locomotion. The first model component is a simple simulation of nematode movement among finite cells by both random and directed behaviours. Optimisation procedures were used to fit the simulation output to data from published experiments on movement along columns of soil or washed sand, and thus to estimate the values of the model's movement coefficients. The coefficients then provided an objective means to compare rates of locomotion among studies done under different experimental conditions. The second component of the model is an equation to predict the movement coefficients as a function of controlling factors that have been addressed experimentally: soil texture, bulk density, water potential, temperature, trophic group of nematode, presence of an attractant or physical gradient and the duration of the experiment. Parameters of the equation were estimated by optimisation to achieve a good fit to the estimated movement coefficients. Bulk density, which has been reported in a minority of published studies, is predicted to have an important effect on rate of locomotion, at least in fine-textured soils. Soil sieving, which appears to be a universal practice in laboratory studies of nematode movement, is predicted to negatively affect locomotion. Slower movement in finer textured soils would be expected to increase isolation among local populations, and thus to promote species richness. Future additions to the model that might improve its utility include representing heterogeneity within populations in rate of movement, development of gradients of chemical attractants, trade-offs between random and directed components of movement, species differences in optimal temperature and water potential, and interactions among factors controlling locomotion.

  12. Soil Water Dynamics In Central Europe and Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Markus; Mahler, Claudio F.; Trapp, Stefan


    The comprehension of the soil water dynamics is important for the study of environmental processes. Precipitation, temperature, and water balance of Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil and locations in Germany, Central Europe, are significantly different. Experience from one region could not be used...... on both approaches are applied to an actual case with the conditions in Germany. This case is also analyzed under the conditions of Rio de Janeiro. The effects of tropical environmental conditions on water transport in unsaturated soils are also discussed.......The comprehension of the soil water dynamics is important for the study of environmental processes. Precipitation, temperature, and water balance of Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil and locations in Germany, Central Europe, are significantly different. Experience from one region could not be used...... directly in the other region. This means that models of the water balance need to be tested again and the coefficients at least must be adapted to the new environmental conditions. Two methods for the calculation of water movement in the unsaturated soil zone are described. Simulation programs based...

  13. Observing plants dealing with soil water stress: Daily soil moisture fluctuations derived from polymer tensiometers (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Martine; de Rooij, Gerrit


    Periods of soil water deficit often occur within a plant's life cycle, even in temperate deciduous and rain forests (Wilson et al. 2001, Grace 1999). Various experiments have shown that roots are able to sense the distribution of water in the soil, and produce signals that trigger changes in leaf expansion rate and stomatal conductance (Blackman and Davies 1985, Gollan et al. 1986, Gowing et al. 1990 Davies and Zhang 1991, Mansfield and De Silva 1994, Sadras and Milroy 1996). Partitioning of water and air in the soil, solute distribution in soil water, water flow through the soil, and water availability for plants can be determined according to the distribution of the soil water potential (e.g. Schröder et al. 2013, Kool et al. 2014). Understanding plant water uptake under dry conditions has been compromised by hydrological instrumentation with low accuracy in dry soils due to signal attenuation, or a compromised measurement range (Whalley et al. 2013). Development of polymer tensiometers makes it possible to study the soil water potential over a range meaningful for studying plant responses to water stress (Bakker et al. 2007, Van der Ploeg et al. 2008, 2010). Polymer tensiometer data obtained from a lysimeter experiment (Van der Ploeg et al. 2008) were used to analyse day-night fluctuations of soil moisture in the vicinity of maize roots. To do so, three polymer tensiometers placed in the middle of the lysimeter from a control, dry and very dry treatment (one lysimeter per treatment) were used to calculate water content changes over 12 hours. These 12 hours corresponded with the operation of the growing light. Soil water potential measurements in the hour before the growing light was turned on or off were averaged. The averaged value was used as input for the van Genuchten (1980) model. Parameters for the model were obtained from laboratory determination of water retention, with a separate model parameterization for each lysimeter setup. Results show daily

  14. A Framework for Assessing Soil Moisture Deficit and Crop Water Stress at Multiple Space and Time Scales Under Climate Change Scenarios Using Model Platform, Satellite Remote Sensing, and Decision Support System

    KAUST Repository

    Mohanty, Binayak P.


    Better understanding of water cycle at different space–time scales would be a key for sustainable water resources, agricultural production, and ecosystems health in the twenty-first century. Efficient agricultural water management is necessary for sustainability of the growing global population. This warrants better predictive tools for aridity (based on precipitation, temperature, land use, and land cover), root zone (~top 1 m) soil moisture deficit, and crop water stress at farm, county, state, region, and national level, where decisions are made to allocate and manage the water resources. It will provide useful strategies for not only efficient water use but also for reducing potential risk of crop failure due to agricultural drought. Leveraging heavily on ongoing multiscale hydrologic modeling, data assimilation, soil moisture dynamics, and inverse model development research activities, and ongoing Land Data Assimilation (LDAS) and National Climate Assessment (NCA) indexing efforts we are developing a drought assessment framework. The drought assessment platform includes: (1) developing disaggregation methods for extracting various field-scale (1-km or less) climate indicators from the (SMOS, VIIRS, SMAP, AMSR-2) satellite / LDAS-based soil moisture in conjunction with a multimodel simulation–optimization approach using ensemble of Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer, SVAT (Noah, CLM, VIC, Mosaic in LIS) models; (2) predicting farm/field-scale long-term root zone soil moisture status under various land management and climate scenarios for the past decades in hindcast mode and for the next decades in forecast mode across the USA using effective land surface parameters and meteorological input from Global Circulation Model (GCM) outputs; (3) assessing the potential risk of agricultural drought at different space–time scales across the USA based on predicted root zone soil moisture; and (4) evaluating various water management and cropping practices (e


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    excess water for the field. However, according to farmers' opinion, through time most of these structures are accelerating soil erosion. During a transect walk with DAs gullies associated with the construction of these structure especially, between the boundaries of plots, were commonly observed. Leaving crop residues on ...

  16. Accumulation of Cd in agricultural soil under long-term reclaimed water irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Weiping; Lu, Sidan; Peng, Chi; Jiao, Wentao; Wang, Meie


    Safety of agricultural irrigation with reclaimed water is of great concern as some potential hazardous compounds like heavy metals may be accumulated in soils over time. Impacts of long-term reclaimed water on soil Cd pollution were evaluated based on the field investigation in two main crop areas in Beijing with long irrigation history and on simulation results of STEM-profile model. Under long-term reclaimed water, Cd content in the top 20 cm soil layer was greatly elevated and was more than 2 times higher than that in the deep soil layer. There was very small differences between the field measured and model simulated Cd content in the plow layer (top 20 cm) and entire soil layer. Long-term model prediction showed that reclaimed water irrigation had a low environmental risk of soil Cd pollution, but the risk would be aggravated when there were high metal loading from other sources. The risk is also depending on the soil and plant properties. -- Highlights: •Root zone soil Cd content was elevated by one time under long-term reclaimed water irrigation. •The STEM-profile model can well track the Cd balance in the soil profile. •Reclaimed water irrigation plays a limited role on soil Cd accumulation in Beijing croplands. -- There was a low risk of soil Cd pollution under long-term reclaimed water irrigation

  17. A study of the utilization of ERTS-1 data from the Wabash River Basin. [crop identification, water resources, urban land use, soil mapping, and atmospheric modeling (United States)

    Landgrebe, D. A. (Principal Investigator)


    The author has identified the following significant results. The most significant results were obtained in the water resources research, urban land use mapping, and soil association mapping projects. ERTS-1 data was used to classify water bodies to determine acreages and high agreement was obtained with USGS figures. Quantitative evaluation was achieved of urban land use classifications from ERTS-1 data and an overall test accuracy of 90.3% was observed. ERTS-1 data classifications of soil test sites were compared with soil association maps scaled to match the computer produced map and good agreement was observed. In some cases the ERTS-1 results proved to be more accurate than the soil association map.

  18. Theory of evapotranspiration. 2. Soil and intercepted water evaporation


    Budagovskyi, Anatolij Ivanovič; Novák, Viliam


    Evaporation of water from the soil is described and quantified. Formation of the soil dry surface layer is quantitatively described, as a process resulting from the difference between the evaporation and upward soil water flux to the soil evaporating level. The results of evaporation analysis are generalized even for the case of water evaporation from the soil under canopy and interaction between evaporation rate and canopy transpiration is accounted for. Relationships describing evapotranspi...

  19. Stochastic Models of Soil Denitrification (United States)

    Parkin, T. B.; Robinson, J. A.


    Soil denitrification is a highly variable process that appears to be lognormally distributed. This variability is manifested by large sample coefficients of variation for replicate estimates of soil core denitrification rates. Deterministic models for soil denitrification have been proposed in the past, but none of these models predicts the approximate lognormality exhibited by natural denitrification rate estimates. In this study, probabilistic (stochastic) models were developed to understand how positively skewed distributions for field denitrification rate estimates result from the combined influences of variables known to affect denitrification. Three stochastic models were developed to describe the distribution of measured soil core denitrification rates. The driving variables used for all the models were denitrification enzyme activity and CO2 production rates. The three models were distinguished by the functional relationships combining these driving variables. The functional relationships used were (i) a second-order model (model 1), (ii) a second-order model with a threshold (model 2), and (iii) a second-order saturation model (model 3). The parameters of the models were estimated by using 12 separate data sets (24 replicates per set), and their abilities to predict denitrification rate distributions were evaluated by using three additional independent data sets of 180 replicates each. Model 2 was the best because it produced distributions of denitrification rate which were not significantly different (P > 0.1) from distributions of measured denitrification rates. The generality of this model is unknown, but it accurately predicted the mean denitrification rates and accounted for the stochastic nature of this variable at the site studied. The approach used in this study may be applicable to other areas of ecological research in which accounting for the high spatial variability of microbiological processes is of interest. PMID:16347838

  20. Measuring Soil Water Potential for Water Management in Agriculture: A Review


    Marco Bittelli


    Soil water potential is a soil property affecting a large variety of bio-physical processes, such as seed germination, plant growth and plant nutrition. Gradients in soil water potential are the driving forces of water movement, affecting water infiltration, redistribution, percolation, evaporation and plants’ transpiration. The total soil water potential is given by the sum of gravity, matric, osmotic and hydrostatic potential. The quantification of the soil water potential is necessary for ...

  1. Tree root systems competing for soil moisture in a 3D soil-plant model (United States)

    Manoli, Gabriele; Bonetti, Sara; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Putti, Mario; Katul, Gabriel; Marani, Marco


    Competition for water among multiple tree rooting systems is investigated using a soil-plant model that accounts for soil moisture dynamics and root water uptake (RWU), whole plant transpiration, and leaf-level photosynthesis. The model is based on a numerical solution to the 3D Richards equation modified to account for a 3D RWU, trunk xylem, and stomatal conductances. The stomatal conductance is determined by combining a conventional biochemical demand formulation for photosynthesis with an optimization hypothesis that selects stomatal aperture so as to maximize carbon gain for a given water loss. Model results compare well with measurements of soil moisture throughout the rooting zone, of total sap flow in the trunk xylem, as well as of leaf water potential collected in a Loblolly pine forest. The model is then used to diagnose plant responses to water stress in the presence of competing rooting systems. Unsurprisingly, the overlap between rooting zones is shown to enhance soil drying. However, the 3D spatial model yielded transpiration-bulk root-zone soil moisture relations that do not deviate appreciably from their proto-typical form commonly assumed in lumped eco-hydrological models. The increased overlap among rooting systems primarily alters the timing at which the point of incipient soil moisture stress is reached by the entire soil-plant system.

  2. Soil - water relationships in the Weatherley catchment, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil water content is influenced by soil and terrain factors, but studies on the predictive value of diagnostic horizon type for the degree and duration of wetness seem to be lacking. The aim of this paper is therefore to describe selected hydropedological soil-water relationships for important soils and diagnostic horizons in the ...

  3. Water and nitrogen distribution in uncropped ridge- tilled soil under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 21, 2011 ... tional complexity by affecting infiltration and evaporation and soil water extraction by roots directly affects soil water content (Kemper et al., 1975). MATERIALS AND METHODS. Soil properties and experimental equipment description. Three horizons were identified for the clay-loam soil used in this.

  4. Predicting Soil-Water Characteristics from Volumetric Contents of Pore-Size Analogue Particle Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Møldrup, Per; Tuller, Markus

    *-model) for the SWC, derived from readily available soil properties such as texture and bulk density. A total of 46 soils from different horizons at 15 locations across Denmark were used for models evaluation. The Xw-model predicts the volumetric water content as a function of volumetric fines content (organic matter......Modelling water distribution and flow in partially saturated soils requires knowledge of the soil-water characteristic (SWC). However, measurement of the SWC is challenging and time-consuming, and in some cases not feasible. This study introduces two predictive models (Xw-model and Xw...... (organic matter, clay, silt, fine and coarse sand), variably included in the model depending on the pF value. The volumetric content of a particular soil particle size fraction was included in the model if it was assumed to contribute to the pore size fraction still occupied with water at the given p...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indira S. Jayaweera; Jordi Diaz-Ferraro


    SRI International is conducting experiments to develop and evaluate hydrothermal extraction technology for remediating petroleum-contaminated soils. Most current remediation practices generally fail (or are cost prohibitive) to remove the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in petroleum-contaminated sites or they require the use of organic solvents to achieve removal, at the expense of additional contamination and with the added cost of recycling solvents. Hydrothermal extraction offers the promise of efficiently extracting PAHs and other kinds of organics from contaminated soils at moderate temperatures and pressures, using only water and inorganic salts such as carbonate. Initial work is being conducted at SRI to measure the solubility and rate of solubilization of selected PAHs (anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene) in water, using SRI's hydrothermal optical cell with the addition of varying amounts of sodium carbonate to evaluate the efficiency of the technology for removing PAHs from the soil. Preliminary results with pyrene and fluoranthene in water clearly indicate a significant enhancement of solubility with increase in temperature. During this quarter, we conducted experiments with pyrene in the temperature range 200 to 300 C and observed a great enhancement in solubility with an increase in temperature. We also started experiments with real-world soil samples purchased from the subcontractor.

  6. Impact of regression methods on improved effects of soil structure on soil water retention estimates (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong Minh; De Pue, Jan; Le, Khoa Van; Cornelis, Wim


    Increasing the accuracy of pedotransfer functions (PTFs), an indirect method for predicting non-readily available soil features such as soil water retention characteristics (SWRC), is of crucial importance for large scale agro-hydrological modeling. Adding significant predictors (i.e., soil structure), and implementing more flexible regression algorithms are among the main strategies of PTFs improvement. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the improved effect of categorical soil structure information on estimating soil-water content at various matric potentials, which has been reported in literature, could be enduringly captured by regression techniques other than the usually applied linear regression. Two data mining techniques, i.e., Support Vector Machines (SVM), and k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN), which have been recently introduced as promising tools for PTF development, were utilized to test if the incorporation of soil structure will improve PTF's accuracy under a context of rather limited training data. The results show that incorporating descriptive soil structure information, i.e., massive, structured and structureless, as grouping criterion can improve the accuracy of PTFs derived by SVM approach in the range of matric potential of -6 to -33 kPa (average RMSE decreased up to 0.005 m3 m-3 after grouping, depending on matric potentials). The improvement was primarily attributed to the outperformance of SVM-PTFs calibrated on structureless soils. No improvement was obtained with kNN technique, at least not in our study in which the data set became limited in size after grouping. Since there is an impact of regression techniques on the improved effect of incorporating qualitative soil structure information, selecting a proper technique will help to maximize the combined influence of flexible regression algorithms and soil structure information on PTF accuracy.

  7. On the Need to Establish an International Soil Modeling Consortium (United States)

    Vereecken, H.; Vanderborght, J.; Schnepf, A.


    Soil is one of the most critical life-supporting compartments of the Biosphere. Soil provides numerous ecosystem services such as a habitat for biodiversity, water and nutrients, as well as producing food, feed, fiber and energy. To feed the rapidly growing world population in 2050, agricultural food production must be doubled using the same land resources footprint. At the same time, soil resources are threatened due to improper management and climate change. Despite the many important functions of soil, many fundamental knowledge gaps remain, regarding the role of soil biota and biodiversity on ecosystem services, the structure and dynamics of soil communities, the interplay between hydrologic and biotic processes, the quantification of soil biogeochemical processes and soil structural processes, the resilience and recovery of soils from stress, as well as the prediction of soil development and the evolution of soils in the landscape, to name a few. Soil models have long played an important role in quantifying and predicting soil processes and related ecosystem services. However, a new generation of soil models based on a whole systems approach comprising all physical, mechanical, chemical and biological processes is now required to address these critical knowledge gaps and thus contribute to the preservation of ecosystem services, improve our understanding of climate-change-feedback processes, bridge basic soil science research and management, and facilitate the communication between science and society. To meet these challenges an international community effort is required, similar to initiatives in systems biology, hydrology, and climate and crop research. Our consortium will bring together modelers and experimental soil scientists at the forefront of new technologies and approaches to characterize soils. By addressing these aims, the consortium will contribute to improve the role of soil modeling as a knowledge dissemination instrument in addressing key

  8. Mechanisms of Soil Aggregation: a biophysical modeling framework (United States)

    Ghezzehei, T. A.; Or, D.


    Soil aggregation is one of the main crosscutting concepts in all sub-disciplines and applications of soil science from agriculture to climate regulation. The concept generally refers to adhesion of primary soil particles into distinct units that remain stable when subjected to disruptive forces. It is one of the most sensitive soil qualities that readily respond to disturbances such as cultivation, fire, drought, flooding, and changes in vegetation. These changes are commonly quantified and incorporated in soil models indirectly as alterations in carbon content and type, bulk density, aeration, permeability, as well as water retention characteristics. Soil aggregation that is primarily controlled by organic matter generally exhibits hierarchical organization of soil constituents into stable units that range in size from a few microns to centimeters. However, this conceptual model of soil aggregation as the key unifying mechanism remains poorly quantified and is rarely included in predictive soil models. Here we provide a biophysical framework for quantitative and predictive modeling of soil aggregation and its attendant soil characteristics. The framework treats aggregates as hotspots of biological, chemical and physical processes centered around roots and root residue. We keep track of the life cycle of an individual aggregate from it genesis in the rhizosphere, fueled by rhizodeposition and mediated by vigorous microbial activity, until its disappearance when the root-derived resources are depleted. The framework synthesizes current understanding of microbial life in porous media; water holding and soil binding capacity of biopolymers; and environmental controls on soil organic matter dynamics. The framework paves a way for integration of processes that are presently modeled as disparate or poorly coupled processes, including storage and protection of carbon, microbial activity, greenhouse gas fluxes, movement and storage of water, resistance of soils against

  9. Predicting and mapping soil available water capacity in Korea


    Hong, Suk Young; Minasny, Budiman; Han, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Yihyun; Lee, Kyungdo


    The knowledge on the spatial distribution of soil available water capacity at a regional or national extent is essential, as soil water capacity is a component of the water and energy balances in the terrestrial ecosystem. It controls the evapotranspiration rate, and has a major impact on climate. This paper demonstrates a protocol for mapping soil available water capacity in South Korea at a fine scale using data available from surveys. The procedures combined digital soil mapping technology...

  10. Effect of Model Selection on Computed Water Balance Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhorar, R.K.; Smit, A.A.M.F.R.; Roest, C.W.J.


    Soil water flow modelling approaches as used in four selected on-farm water management models, namely CROPWAT. FAIDS, CERES and SWAP, are compared through numerical experiments. The soil water simulation approaches used in the first three models are reformulated to incorporate ail evapotranspiration

  11. LPRM/AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 Descending and 2-Layer Palmer Water Balance Model Root Zone Soil Moisture V001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 3 (gridded) root-zone soil moisture product is derived via the assimilation of Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM)/Advanced Microwave Scanning...

  12. Infiltration and redistribution of water in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroosnijder, L.


    The flow of the liquid phase through a soil can be predicted from pressure gradients. Different ways of predicting infiltration for irrigation of a basin were compared: numerical approximation; semi-analytical and analytical. A partly empirical equation was developed for description of rate of infiltration, after examination of existing equations. Under certain conditions, infiltration was influenced by under or over pressure of the trapped gas phase and by swelling of clays. Complex models for redistribution were of little value in practice, since they could not be generalized and required too many physical data about the soil. A scheme was developed that grouped techniques for estimating physical properties of soil, according to cost and expertise required. A new experimental technique based on gamma transmission is described for estimating the physical properties of the soil. (Auth.)

  13. Soil Structure - A Neglected Component of Land-Surface Models (United States)

    Fatichi, S.; Or, D.; Walko, R. L.; Vereecken, H.; Kollet, S. J.; Young, M.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; Hengl, T.; Agam, N.; Avissar, R.


    Soil structure is largely absent in most standard sampling and measurements and in the subsequent parameterization of soil hydraulic properties deduced from soil maps and used in Earth System Models. The apparent omission propagates into the pedotransfer functions that deduce parameters of soil hydraulic properties primarily from soil textural information. Such simple parameterization is an essential ingredient in the practical application of any land surface model. Despite the critical role of soil structure (biopores formed by decaying roots, aggregates, etc.) in defining soil hydraulic functions, only a few studies have attempted to incorporate soil structure into models. They mostly looked at the effects on preferential flow and solute transport pathways at the soil profile scale; yet, the role of soil structure in mediating large-scale fluxes remains understudied. Here, we focus on rectifying this gap and demonstrating potential impacts on surface and subsurface fluxes and system wide eco-hydrologic responses. The study proposes a systematic way for correcting the soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions—accounting for soil-structure—with major implications for near saturated hydraulic conductivity. Modification to the basic soil hydraulic parameterization is assumed as a function of biological activity summarized by Gross Primary Production. A land-surface model with dynamic vegetation is used to carry out numerical simulations with and without the role of soil-structure for 20 locations characterized by different climates and biomes across the globe. Including soil structure affects considerably the partition between infiltration and runoff and consequently leakage at the base of the soil profile (recharge). In several locations characterized by wet climates, a few hundreds of mm per year of surface runoff become deep-recharge accounting for soil-structure. Changes in energy fluxes, total evapotranspiration and vegetation productivity

  14. Conservation and maintenance of soil and water resources (United States)

    Brian G. Tavernia; Mark D. Nelson; Titus S. Seilheimer; Dale D. Gormanson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Peter V. Caldwell; Ge. Sun


    Forest ecosystem productivity and functioning depend on soil and water resources. But the reverse is also true—forest and land-use management activities can significantly alter forest soils, water quality, and associated aquatic habitats (Ice and Stednick 2004, Reid 1993, Wigmosta and Burges 2001). Soil and water resources are protected through the allocation of land...

  15. Soil and Water Indicators of the Sustainable Rangelands Roundtable (United States)

    M.G. Sherm Karl; D.A. Pyke; P.T. Tueller; G.E. Schuman; R.W. Shafer; S.J. Borchard; D.T. Booth; W.G. Ypsilantis; R.H. Jr. Barrett


    The Sustainable Rangelands Roundtable (SRR) has explicitly included conservation and maintenance of soil and water resources as a criterion, a category of conditions or processes that can be assessed nationally to determine if the current level of rangeland management will ensure sustainability. Within the soil/water criterion, 10 indicators, 5 soil-based and 5 water-...

  16. Environmental isotope profiles and evaporation in shallow water table soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.F.; Froehlich, K.; Nada, A.


    Environmental isotope methods have been employed to evaluate the processes of evaporation and soil salinisation in the Nile Delta. Stable isotope profiles (δ 18 O and δ 2 H) from three sites were analysed using a published isothermal model that analyses the steady-state isotopic profile in the unsaturated zone and provides an estimate of the evaporation rate. Evaporation rates estimated by this method at the three sites range between 60 and 98 mm y -1 which translates to an estimate of net water loss of one billion cubic meters per year from fallow soils on the Nile delta. Capillary rise of water through the root zone during the crop growing season is estimated to be three times greater than evaporation rate estimate and a modified water management strategy could be adopted in order to optimize water use and its management on the regional scale. (author)

  17. Principles of water capture, evaporation, and soil water retention (United States)

    Successful dryland crop production in semiarid environments is dependent upon efficient storage of precipitation and use of stored soil water supplies. The objectives of this presentation are to: 1. Summarize information regarding the effects of time of year; environmental parameters; residue orient...

  18. Soil-structure interaction Vol.3. Influence of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantino, C.J.


    This study has been performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Structural Analysis Division of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The study was conducted during the fiscal year 1965 on the program entitled 'Benchmarking of Structural Engineering Problems' sponsored by NRC. The program considered three separate but complementary problems, each associated with the soil-structure interaction (551) phase of the seismic response analysis of nuclear plant facilities. The reports, all entitled Soil-Structure Interaction, are presented in three separate volumes, namely: Vol. 1 Influence of Layering by AJ Philippacopoulos, Vol. 2 Influence of Lift-Off by C.A. Miller, Vol. 3 Influence of Ground Water by C.J. Costantino. The two problems presented in Volumes 2 and 3 were conducted at the City University of New York (CUNY) under subcontract to BNL. This report, Volume 3 of the report, presents a summary of the first year's effort on the subject of the influence of foundation ground water on the SSI phenomenon. A finite element computer program was developed for the two-phased formulation of the combined soil-water problem. This formulation is based on the Biot dynamic equations of motion for both the solid and fluid phases of a typical soil. Frequency dependent interaction coefficients were generated for the two-dimensional plane problem of a rigid surface footing moving against a saturated linear soil. The results indicate that interaction coefficients are significantly modified as compared to the comparable values for a dry soil, particularly for the rocking mode of response. Calculations were made to study the impact of the modified interaction coefficients on the response of a typical nuclear reactor building. The amplification factors for a stick model placed atop a dry and saturated soil were computed. It was found that pore water caused the rocking response to decrease and translational response to increase over the frequency range of interest, as

  19. Impact of soil water property parameterization on atmospheric boundary layer simulation (United States)

    Cuenca, Richard H.; Ek, Michael; Mahrt, Larry


    Both the form of functional relationships applied for soil water properties and the natural field-scale variability of such properties can significantly impact simulation of the soil-plant-atmosphere system on a diurnal timescale. Various input parameters for soil water properties including effective saturation, residual water content, anerobiosis point, field capacity, and permanent wilting point are incorporated into functions describing soil water retention, hydraulic conductivity, diffusivity, sorptivity, and the plant sink function. The perception of the meaning of these values and their variation within a natural environment often differs from the perspective of the soil physicist, plant physiologist, and atmospheric scientist. This article investigates the sensitivity of energy balance and boundary layer simulation to different soil water property functions using the Oregon State University coupled atmosphere-plant-soil (CAPS) simulation model under bare soil conditions. The soil parameterizations tested in the CAPS model include those of Clapp and Hornberger [1978], van Genuchten [1980], and Cosby et al. [1984] using initial atmospheric conditions from June 16, 1986 in Hydrologic Atmospheric Pilot Experiment-Modélisation du Bilan Hydrique (HAPEX-MOBILHY). For the bare soil case these results demonstrate unexpected model sensitivity to soil water property parameterization in partitioning all components of the diurnal energy balance and corresponding boundary layer development.

  20. Tritium sorption behavior on the percolation of tritiated water into a soil packed bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuichi, Kazuya, E-mail: [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1, Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Katayama, Kazunari; Date, Hiroyuki [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1, Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Takeishi, Toshiharu [Factory of Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Fukada, Satoshi [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1, Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)


    Highlights: • We establish the permeation model of tritiated water in the soil layer. • Saturated hydraulic conductivity of water in soil was gained by using the model. • The isotope exchange reaction coefficient was good agreement with experimental data. - Abstract: Development of tritium transport model in natural soil is an important issue from a viewpoint of safety of fusion reactors. The spill of a large amount of tritiated water to the environment is a concern accident because huge tritiated water is handled in a fusion plant. In this work, a simple tritium transport model was proposed based on the tritium transport model in porous materials. The overall mass transfer coefficient representing isotope exchange reaction between tritiated water and structural water in soil particles was obtained by numerically analyzing the result of the percolation experiment of tritiated water into the soil packed bed. Saturated hydraulic conductivity in the natural soil packed bed was obtained to be 0.033 mm/s. By using this value, the overall mass transfer capacity coefficients representing the isotope exchange reaction between tritiated water percolating through the packed bed and overall structural water on soil particles was determined to be 6.0 × 10{sup −4} 1/s. This value is much smaller than the mass transfer capacity coefficient between tritiated water vapor and water on concrete material and metals.

  1. Calibration of a Field-Scale Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT Model with Field Placement of Best Management Practices in Alger Creek, Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine R. Merriman


    Full Text Available Subwatersheds within the Great Lakes “Priority Watersheds” were targeted by the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI to determine the effectiveness of the various best management practices (BMPs from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service National Conservation Planning (NCP Database. A Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model is created for Alger Creek, a 50 km2 tributary watershed to the Saginaw River in Michigan. Monthly calibration yielded very good Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE ratings for flow, sediment, total phosphorus (TP, dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP, and total nitrogen (TN (0.90, 0.79, 0.87, 0.88, and 0.77, respectively, and satisfactory NSE rating for nitrate (0.51. Two-year validation results in at least satisfactory NSE ratings for flow, sediment, TP, DRP, and TN (0.83, 0.54, 0.73, 0.53, and 0.60, respectively, and unsatisfactory NSE rating for nitrate (0.28. The model estimates the effect of BMPs at the field and watershed scales. At the field-scale, the most effective single practice at reducing sediment, TP, and DRP is no-tillage followed by cover crops (CC; CC are the most effective single practice at reducing nitrate. The most effective BMP combinations include filter strips, which can have a sizable effect on reducing sediment and phosphorus loads. At the watershed scale, model results indicate current NCP BMPs result in minimal sediment and nutrient reductions (<10%.

  2. Calibration of a field-scale Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model with field placement of best management practices in Alger Creek, Michigan (United States)

    Merriman-Hoehne, Katherine R.; Russell, Amy M.; Rachol, Cynthia M.; Daggupati, Prasad; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Hayhurst, Brett A.; Stuntebeck, Todd D.


    Subwatersheds within the Great Lakes “Priority Watersheds” were targeted by the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) to determine the effectiveness of the various best management practices (BMPs) from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service National Conservation Planning (NCP) Database. A Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is created for Alger Creek, a 50 km2 tributary watershed to the Saginaw River in Michigan. Monthly calibration yielded very good Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) ratings for flow, sediment, total phosphorus (TP), dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), and total nitrogen (TN) (0.90, 0.79, 0.87, 0.88, and 0.77, respectively), and satisfactory NSE rating for nitrate (0.51). Two-year validation results in at least satisfactory NSE ratings for flow, sediment, TP, DRP, and TN (0.83, 0.54, 0.73, 0.53, and 0.60, respectively), and unsatisfactory NSE rating for nitrate (0.28). The model estimates the effect of BMPs at the field and watershed scales. At the field-scale, the most effective single practice at reducing sediment, TP, and DRP is no-tillage followed by cover crops (CC); CC are the most effective single practice at reducing nitrate. The most effective BMP combinations include filter strips, which can have a sizable effect on reducing sediment and phosphorus loads. At the watershed scale, model results indicate current NCP BMPs result in minimal sediment and nutrient reductions (<10%).

  3. Estimating soil water evaporation using radar measurements (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ali M.; Scott, H. D.; Waite, W. P.; Asrar, G.


    Field studies were conducted to evaluate the application of radar reflectivity as compared with the shortwave reflectivity (albedo) used in the Idso-Jackson equation for the estimation of daily evaporation under overcast sky and subhumid climatic conditions. Soil water content, water potential, shortwave and radar reflectivity, and soil and air temperatures were monitored during three soil drying cycles. The data from each cycle were used to calculate daily evaporation from the Idso-Jackson equation and from two other standard methods, the modified Penman and plane of zero-flux. All three methods resulted in similar estimates of evaporation under clear sky conditions; however, under overcast sky conditions, evaporation fluxes computed from the Idso-Jackson equation were consistently lower than the other two methods. The shortwave albedo values in the Idso-Jackson equation were then replaced with radar reflectivities and a new set of total daily evaporation fluxes were calculated. This resulted in a significant improvement in computed soil evaporation fluxes from the Idso-Jackson equation, and a better agreement between the three methods under overcast sky conditions.

  4. Mapping soil resistance under different soil water content conditions using indicator kriging (United States)

    Miras-Avalos, J. M.; Bonnin-Acosta, J.; Sande-Fouz, P.; Pereira-Lanças, K.; Paz-Gonzalez, A.


    In many agricultural problems, it is of interest to map the zones where the variable under study shows the probability of being greater than a threshold value. Soil resistances higher than 2 MPa might difficult the establishment of cultures; therefore, further management or tillage techniques should be undertaken. The aim of this work was to map soil resistance using geostatistical techniques, therefore, an analysis of the spatial distribution of soil compaction and the influence of soil water content on the resistance to penetration was carried out. The studied clay-textured soil was managed under no-tillage practices. Soil resistance was described by the cone index which was obtained using a penetrometer. This attribute was assessed at 5 different depths, i.e. 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, 30-40 cm and deeper than 40 cm, whereas soil water content was described at 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm. In the end, 73 data points were surveyed. Soil water conditions varied during the five different samplings. Statistical analysis showed that datasets followed a normal distribution, therefore, no transformation was required. Studied attributes showed low and non-significant correlation coefficients which impeded the application of cross-variogram and cokriging techniques. Because of the limited number of measured data, only the omnidirectional semivariogram was computed, and hence the spatial variability is assumed to be identical in all directions. Spatial dependence was observed in 33 out of 35 data series, both for cone index and soil water content. Fitted theoretical structures corresponded to exponential models in 20 cases, 10 Gaussian models and 3 spherical models. Nugget effect varied from 0 to 44.4 depending on the dataset and spatial dependence maximum range was 90 m. A strong spatial dependence was observed in 18 of the data sets whereas only 2 showed a weak autocorrelation. Taking into account the 2 MPa threshold, indicator kriging was used to map the soil resistance

  5. Gravitational and capillary soil moisture dynamics for distributed hydrologic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Castillo


    Full Text Available Distributed and continuous catchment models are used to simulate water and energy balance and fluxes across varied topography and landscape. The landscape is discretized into computational plan elements at resolutions of 101–103 m, and soil moisture is the hydrologic state variable. At the local scale, the vertical soil moisture dynamics link hydrologic fluxes and provide continuity in time. In catchment models these local-scale processes are modeled using 1-D soil columns that are discretized into layers that are usually 10−3–10−1 m in thickness. This creates a mismatch between the horizontal and vertical scales. For applications across large domains and in ensemble mode, this treatment can be a limiting factor due to its high computational demand. This study compares continuous multi-year simulations of soil moisture at the local scale using (i a 1-pixel version of a distributed catchment hydrologic model and (ii a benchmark detailed soil water physics solver. The distributed model uses a single soil layer with a novel dual-pore structure and employs linear parameterization of infiltration and some other fluxes. The detailed solver uses multiple soil layers and employs nonlinear soil physics relations to model flow in unsaturated soils. Using two sites with different climates (semiarid and sub-humid, it is shown that the efficient parameterization in the distributed model captures the essential dynamics of the detailed solver.

  6. Selenium status in soil, water and essential crops of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazemi Lyly


    Full Text Available Abstracts As a contributing factor to health, the trace element selenium (Se is an essential nutrient of special interest for humans and all animals. It is estimated that 0.5 to 1 billion people worldwide suffer from Se deficiency. In spite of the important role of Se, its concentrations in soil, water and essential crops have not been studied in Iran. Therefore, the main aim of the current study was to determine the Se content of soil, water, and essential crops (rice in North, wheat in Center, date, and pistachio in South of different regions of Iran. Sampling was performed in the North, South, and Central regions of Iran. In each selected area in the three regions, 17 samples of surface soil were collected; samples of water and essential crops were also collected at the same sampling points. Upon preliminary preparation of all samples, the Se concentrations were measured by ICP-OES Model Varian Vista-MPX. The amount of soil-Se was found to be in the range between 0.04 and 0.45 ppm in the studied areas; the Se content of soil in the central region of Iran was the highest compared to other regions (p

  7. Stochastic modeling of soil salinity (United States)

    Suweis, S.; Porporato, A. M.; Daly, E.; van der Zee, S.; Maritan, A.; Rinaldo, A.


    A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The equations for the probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equations to a single stochastic differential equation (generalized Langevin equation) driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. Generalized Langevin equations with multiplicative white Poisson noise pose the usual Ito (I) or Stratonovich (S) prescription dilemma. Different interpretations lead to different results and then choosing between the I and S prescriptions is crucial to describe correctly the dynamics of the model systems. We show how this choice can be determined by physical information about the timescales involved in the process. We also show that when the multiplicative noise is at most linear in the random variable one prescription can be made equivalent to the other by a suitable transformation in the jump probability distribution. We then apply these results to the generalized Langevin equation that drives the salt mass dynamics. The stationary analytical solutions for the probability density functions of salt mass and concentration provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long term soil salinization. In particular, they show the existence of two distinct regimes, one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant (or decreases) with increasing rainfall frequency, and another where mean salt content increases markedly with increasing rainfall frequency. As a result, relatively small reductions of rainfall in drier climates may entail dramatic shifts in longterm soil salinization trends, with significant consequences, e.g. for climate change impacts on rain fed agriculture.

  8. Current advancements and challenges in soil-root interactions modelling (United States)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Huber, Katrin; Abesha, Betiglu; Meunier, Felicien; Leitner, Daniel; Roose, Tiina; Javaux, Mathieu; Vanderborght, Jan; Vereecken, Harry


    Roots change their surrounding soil chemically, physically and biologically. This includes changes in soil moisture and solute concentration, the exudation of organic substances into the rhizosphere, increased growth of soil microorganisms, or changes in soil structure. The fate of water and solutes in the root zone is highly determined by these root-soil interactions. Mathematical models of soil-root systems in combination with non-invasive techniques able to characterize root systems are a promising tool to understand and predict the behaviour of water and solutes in the root zone. With respect to different fields of applications, predictive mathematical models can contribute to the solution of optimal control problems in plant recourse efficiency. This may result in significant gains in productivity, efficiency and environmental sustainability in various land use activities. Major challenges include the coupling of model parameters of the relevant processes with the surrounding environment such as temperature, nutrient concentration or soil water content. A further challenge is the mathematical description of the different spatial and temporal scales involved. This includes in particular the branched structures formed by root systems or the external mycelium of mycorrhizal fungi. Here, reducing complexity as well as bridging between spatial scales is required. Furthermore, the combination of experimental and mathematical techniques may advance the field enormously. Here, the use of root system, soil and rhizosphere models is presented through a number of modelling case studies, including image based modelling of phosphate uptake by a root with hairs, model-based optimization of root architecture for phosphate uptake from soil, upscaling of rhizosphere models, modelling root growth in structured soil, and the effect of root hydraulic architecture on plant water uptake efficiency and drought resistance.

  9. Estimation of soil clay content from hygroscopic water content measurements


    Wuddivira, Mark N.; Robinson, David A.; Lebron, Inma; Brechet, Laëtitia; Atwell, Melissa; De Caires, Sunshine; Oatham, Michael; Jones, Scott B.; Abdu, Hiruy; Verma, Aditya K.; Tuller, Markus


    Soil texture and the soil water characteristic are key properties used to estimate flow and transport parameters. Determination of clay content is therefore critical for understanding of plot-scale soil heterogeneity. With increasing interest in proximal soil sensing, there is the need to relate obtained signals to soil properties of interest. Inference of soil texture, especially clay mineral content, from instrument response from electromagnetic induction and radiometric methods is of subst...

  10. Influence of the initial soil water content on Beerkan water infiltration experiments (United States)

    Lassabatere, L.; Loizeau, S.; Angulo-Jaramillo, R.; Winiarski, T.; Rossier, Y.; Delolme, C.; Gaudet, J. P.


    Understanding and modeling of water flow in the vadose zone are important with regards water management and infiltration devices design. Water infiltration process clearly depends on initial soil water content, in particular for sandy soils with high organic matter content. This study investigates the influence of initial water content on water infiltration in a hydrophobic sandy soil and on the related derivation of hydraulic parameters using the BEST algorithm (Lassabatere et al., 2006). The studied sandy soil has a high total organic content decreasing from 3.5% (w/w) at the surface to 0.5% (w/w) below 1cm depth. The highest TOC at surface was due to the presence of a dense biofilm and resulted in a high surface hydrophobicity under dry conditions (low initial water contents). The water infiltration experiments consisted in infiltrating known volumes of water through a simple ring at null pressure head (Beerkan method). The infiltrations were performed during three successive days after a dry period with a storm event between the first and the second day (5 mm) and another between the second and the third day (35 mm). These events resulted in an increase in initial water contents, from less than 5% for the first day to around 10% for the last day. Experiments were performed for appropriate conditions for Beerkan experiments: initial water contents below 1/4 of the saturated water content and uniform water profile resulting from water redistribution after each rainfall event. The analysis of the infiltration data clearly highlights the strong effect of hydrophobicity. For the driest initial conditions (first day), infiltration rates increased with time, whereas they decreased with time for wetter conditions. Such a decrease agreed with the principles of water infiltration without hydrophobicity. In addition, total cumulative infiltrations were far higher for the wettest conditions. Regarding hydraulic characterization, only the data obtained during the last

  11. Modeling soil erosion and transport on forest landscape (United States)

    Ge Sun; Steven G McNulty


    Century-long studies on the impacts of forest management in North America suggest sediment can cause major reduction on stream water quality. Soil erosion patterns in forest watersheds are patchy and heterogeneous. Therefore, patterns of soil erosion are difficult to model and predict. The objective of this study is to develop a user friendly management tool for land...

  12. Validating soil phosphorus routines in the SWAT model (United States)

    Phosphorus transfer from agricultural soils to surface waters is an important environmental issue. Commonly used models like SWAT have not always been updated to reflect improved understanding of soil P transformations and transfer to runoff. Our objective was to validate the ability of the P routin...

  13. Impacts of Soil-aquifer Heat and Water Fluxes on Simulated Global Climate (United States)

    Krakauer, N.Y.; Puma, Michael J.; Cook, B. I.


    Climate models have traditionally only represented heat and water fluxes within relatively shallow soil layers, but there is increasing interest in the possible role of heat and water exchanges with the deeper subsurface. Here, we integrate an idealized 50m deep aquifer into the land surface module of the GISS ModelE general circulation model to test the influence of aquifer-soil moisture and heat exchanges on climate variables. We evaluate the impact on the modeled climate of aquifer-soil heat and water fluxes separately, as well as in combination. The addition of the aquifer to ModelE has limited impact on annual-mean climate, with little change in global mean land temperature, precipitation, or evaporation. The seasonal amplitude of deep soil temperature is strongly damped by the soil-aquifer heat flux. This not only improves the model representation of permafrost area but propagates to the surface, resulting in an increase in the seasonal amplitude of surface air temperature of >1K in the Arctic. The soil-aquifer water and heat fluxes both slightly decrease interannual variability in soil moisture and in landsurface temperature, and decrease the soil moisture memory of the land surface on seasonal to annual timescales. The results of this experiment suggest that deepening the modeled land surface, compared to modeling only a shallower soil column with a no-flux bottom boundary condition, has limited impact on mean climate but does affect seasonality and interannual persistence.

  14. Mediterranean shrub vegetation: soil protection vs. water availability (United States)

    García Estringana, Pablo; Nieves Alonso-Blázquez, M.; Alegre, Alegre; Cerdà, Artemi


    is very dynamic (Cerdà 1998b). Acknowledgements The research projects 07 M/0077/1998, 07 M/0023/2000 and RTA01-078-C2- 2, GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE FP7 project 603498 supported this research. References Belmonte Serrato, F., Romero Díaz, A., López Bermúdez, F., Hernández Laguna, E. 1999. Óptimo de cobertura vegetal en relación a las pérdidas de suelo por erosión hídrica y las pérdidas de lluvia por interceptación. Papeles de Geografía 30, 5-15. Cammeraat, E., Cerdà, A., Imeson, A.C. 2010. Ecohydrological adaptation of soils following land abandonment in a semiarid environment. Ecohydrology, 3: 421-430. 10.1002/eco.161 Cerdà, A. 1997a. The effect of patchy distribution of Stipa tenacissima L. on runoff and erosion. Journal of Arid Environments, 36, 37-51. Cerdà, A. 1998. The influence of aspect and vegetation on seasonal changes in erosion under rainfall simulation on a clay soil in Spain. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 78, 321-330. Cerdà, A. 1998b. Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland. Hydrological Processes, 12, 1031-1042. Cerdà, A.1997b. Soil erosion after land abandonment in a semiarid environment of Southeastern Spain. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation, 11, 163-176. Garcia-Estringana, P., Alonso-Blázquez, N., Alegre, J. 2010b. Water storage capacity, stemflow and water funneling in Mediterranean shrubs. Journal of Hydrology 389, 363-372. Garcia-Estringana, P., Alonso-Blázquez, N., Marques, M.J., Bienes, R., Alegre, J. 2010a. Direct and indirect effects of Mediterranean vegetation on runoff and soil loss. European Journal of Soil Science 61, 174-185. García-Ruiz, J.M. 2010. The effects of land uses on soil erosion in Spain: a review. Catena 81, 1-11. Haregeweyn, N., Poesen, J., Verstraeten, G., Govers, G., de Vente, J., Nyssen, J., Deckers, J., and Moeyersons, J. 2013. Assessing the performance of a spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model

  15. Holistic irrigation water management approach based on stochastic soil water dynamics (United States)

    Alizadeh, H.; Mousavi, S. J.


    Appreciating the essential gap between fundamental unsaturated zone transport processes and soil and water management due to low effectiveness of some of monitoring and modeling approaches, this study presents a mathematical programming model for irrigation management optimization based on stochastic soil water dynamics. The model is a nonlinear non-convex program with an economic objective function to address water productivity and profitability aspects in irrigation management through optimizing irrigation policy. Utilizing an optimization-simulation method, the model includes an eco-hydrological integrated simulation model consisting of an explicit stochastic module of soil moisture dynamics in the crop-root zone with shallow water table effects, a conceptual root-zone salt balance module, and the FAO crop yield module. Interdependent hydrology of soil unsaturated and saturated zones is treated in a semi-analytical approach in two steps. At first step analytical expressions are derived for the expected values of crop yield, total water requirement and soil water balance components assuming fixed level for shallow water table, while numerical Newton-Raphson procedure is employed at the second step to modify value of shallow water table level. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, combined with the eco-hydrological simulation model, has been used to solve the non-convex program. Benefiting from semi-analytical framework of the simulation model, the optimization-simulation method with significantly better computational performance compared to a numerical Mote-Carlo simulation-based technique has led to an effective irrigation management tool that can contribute to bridging the gap between vadose zone theory and water management practice. In addition to precisely assessing the most influential processes at a growing season time scale, one can use the developed model in large scale systems such as irrigation districts and agricultural catchments. Accordingly

  16. Characterization of soil water content variability and soil texture using GPR groundwave techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, K.; Anger, C.; Kelly, B.; Hubbard, S.; Rubin, Y.


    Accurate characterization of near-surface soil water content is vital for guiding agricultural management decisions and for reducing the potential negative environmental impacts of agriculture. Characterizing the near-surface soil water content can be difficult, as this parameter is often both spatially and temporally variable, and obtaining sufficient measurements to describe the heterogeneity can be prohibitively expensive. Understanding the spatial correlation of near-surface soil water content can help optimize data acquisition and improve understanding of the processes controlling soil water content at the field scale. In this study, ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were used to characterize the spatial correlation of water content in a three acre field as a function of sampling depth, season, vegetation, and soil texture. GPR data were acquired with 450 MHz and 900 MHz antennas, and measurements of the GPR groundwave were used to estimate soil water content at four different times. Additional water content estimates were obtained using time domain reflectometry measurements, and soil texture measurements were also acquired. Variograms were calculated for each set of measurements, and comparison of these variograms showed that the horizontal spatial correlation was greater for deeper water content measurements than for shallower measurements. Precipitation and irrigation were both shown to increase the spatial variability of water content, while shallowly-rooted vegetation decreased the variability. Comparison of the variograms of water content and soil texture showed that soil texture generally had greater small-scale spatial correlation than water content, and that the variability of water content in deeper soil layers was more closely correlated to soil texture than were shallower water content measurements. Lastly, cross-variograms of soil texture and water content were calculated, and co-kriging of water content estimates and soil texture

  17. Estimating respiration of roots in soil: interactions with soil CO2, soil temperature and soil water content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.; Nielsen, K.F.; Eissenstat, D.M.; Lynch, J.P.


    Little information is available on the variability of the dynamics of the actual and observed root respiration rate in relation to abiotic factors. In this study, we describe I) interactions between soil CO2 concentration, temperature, soil water content and root respiration, and II) the effect of

  18. Remotely sensed soil moisture input to a hydrologic model (United States)

    Engman, E. T.; Kustas, W. P.; Wang, J. R.


    The possibility of using detailed spatial soil moisture maps as input to a runoff model was investigated. The water balance of a small drainage basin was simulated using a simple storage model. Aircraft microwave measurements of soil moisture were used to construct two-dimensional maps of the spatial distribution of the soil moisture. Data from overflights on different dates provided the temporal changes resulting from soil drainage and evapotranspiration. The study site and data collection are described, and the soil measurement data are given. The model selection is discussed, and the simulation results are summarized. It is concluded that a time series of soil moisture is a valuable new type of data for verifying model performance and for updating and correcting simulated streamflow.

  19. Air sparging and soil vapor extraction to remediate ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, T.P.; Finkbeiner, J.A.; Warmus, P.J. [ATEC Associates, Inc., Raleigh, NC (United States)


    An Air Sparging and Soil Vapor Extraction System was chosen to remediate petroleum impacted ground water over traditional remedial alternatives, such as ``pump and treat``, to expedite site closure. Field pilot testing, computer modeling and cost benefit analyses performed for several alternatives. Air Sparging and Soil Vapor Extraction pilot studies proved this technology to be the most effective with respect to remedial and economic concerns. Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) were closed at the facility located in North Eastern North Carolina in August of 1992. During UST closure, petroleum impacted ground water and soils were encountered. ATEC performed a Comprehensive Site assessment to delineate the impacted soil and ground water plume. Following completion of the site assessment, a Corrective Action Plan was prepared. As part of the Corrective Action Plan preparation, field pilot testing was performed to evaluate remedial alternatives and provide information for full scale design. The full scale treatment system was installed and started in January 1994. This effective Remedial System was selected over other options due to successful pilot testing results with site closure petitioning scheduled within 12 to 14 months after start up. The Air Sparging System, properly applied, is an effective and ``quick`` remedial option with no generation of ground water for disposal and permitting. This paper concentrates on the Air Sparging application applied at this North Carolina site. Although Vapor extraction was also implemented, this presentation does not elaborate on vapor extraction design or implementation and only discusses vapor extraction where it is directly related to the Air Sparging System.

  20. Development of one-dimensional atmosphere-soil-vegetation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, Haruyasu; Yamazawa, Hiromi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    To study dynamical behaviors of air and water as media of radionuclide migration in the atmosphere-soil-vegetation system, a one-dimensional numerical model was developed. The atmospheric part, which is based on the existing one-dimensional meteorological model PHYD1V3, consists of prognostic equations for horizontal wind components, potential temperature, specific humidity, fog water, turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence length scale. This part also consists of a second-order turbulence closure model and solar-atmospheric radiation model. The soil part consists of prognostic equations for soil temperature, volumetric water content and specific humidity in soil air. The atmosphere and soil parts are interfaced with the ground surface water and heat budget equations. The vegetation part consists of a heat budget equation for the leaf surface temperature and prognostic equations for the leaf surface water and vertical water flux in the canopy. This model employs a finite difference scheme with multi-layer description for the atmosphere, vegetation, and soil parts. (author)

  1. Integrating soil water and tracer balances, numerical modelling and GIS tools to estimate regional groundwater recharge: Application to the Alcadozo Aquifer System (SE Spain). (United States)

    Hornero, Jorge; Manzano, Marisol; Ortega, Lucía; Custodio, Emilio


    Groundwater recharge is one of the key variables for aquifer management and also one of the most difficult to be evaluated with acceptable accuracy. This is especially relevant in semiarid areas, where the processes involved in recharge are widely variable. Uncertainty should be estimated to know how reliable recharge estimations are. Groundwater recharge has been calculated in the Alcadozo Aquifer System, under steady state conditions, at regional (aquifer) and sub-regional (spring catchment) scales applying different methods. The regional distribution of long-term average recharge values has been estimated with the chloride mass balance method using data from four rain stations and 40 groundwater samples covering almost the whole aquifer surface. A remarkable spatial variability has been found. Average annual recharge rates ranges from 20 to 243mmyear(-1) across the aquifer, with an estimated coefficient of variation between 0.16 and 0.38. The average recharge/precipitation ratio decreases from 34% in the NW to 6% in the SE, following the topographic slope. At spring-catchment scale, recharge has been estimated by modelling the soil water balance with the code Visual Balan 2.0. The results, calibrated with discharge data of the two main springs Liétor and Ayna, are 35.5 and 50mmyear(-1) respectively, with estimated coefficients of variation of 0.49 and 0.36. A sensitivity analysis showed that soil parameters influence the most the uncertainty of recharge estimations. Recharge values estimated with both methods and at two temporal and spatial scales are consistent, considering the regional variability obtained with the chloride method and the respective confidence intervals. Evaluating the uncertainties of each method eased to compare their relative results and to check their agreement, which provided confidence to the values obtained. Thus, the use of independent methods together with their uncertainties is strongly recommended to constrain the magnitude and to

  2. Effects of Soil Management Practices on Water Erosion under Natural Rainfall Conditions on a Humic Dystrudept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Ferreira Chaves de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water erosion is the main cause of soil degradation and is influenced by rainfall, soil, topography, land use, soil cover and management, and conservation practices. The objective of this study was to quantify water erosion in a Humic Dystrudept in two experiments. In experiment I, treatments consisted of different rates of fertilizer applied to the soil surface under no-tillage conditions. In experiment II, treatments consisted of a no-tillage in natural rangeland, burned natural rangeland and natural rangeland. Forage turnip, black beans, common vetch, and corn were used in rotation in the treatments with crops in the no-tillage during study period. The treatments with crops and the burned rangeland and natural rangeland were compared to a bare soil control, without cultivation and without fertilization. Increasing fertilization rates increased organic carbon content, soil resistance to disintegration, and the macropore volume of the soil, due to the increase in the dry mass of the crops, resulting in an important reduction in water erosion. The exponential model of the ŷ = ae-bx type satisfactorily described the reduction in water and soil losses in accordance with the increase in fertilization rate and also described the decrease in soil losses in accordance with the increase in dry mass of the crops. Water erosion occurred in the following increasing intensity: in natural rangeland, in cultivated natural rangeland, and in burned natural rangeland. Water erosion had less effect on water losses than on soil losses, regardless of the soil management practices.

  3. Structural Soil and Water Conservation Practices in Farta District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil degradation is one of the most serious environmental problems in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian highlands have been experiencing declining soil fertility and severe soil erosion due to intensive farming on steep and fragile lands and other factors attributed to population pressure. Although different soil and water conservation ...

  4. Effects of burning intensity on soil water storage and transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... slight burn and heavy burn over no burn. Burning appeared beneficial to both soil water movement and crop yield although with temporary effects. To maintain soil productivity, leguminous species were suggested to protect the soil from leaching and erosion and to improve both soil physical and chemical conditions.

  5. Study on the subgrade deformation under high-speed train loading and water-soil interaction (United States)

    Han, Jian; Zhao, Guo-Tang; Sheng, Xiao-Zhen; Jin, Xue-Song


    It is important to study the subgrade characteristics of high-speed railways in consideration of the water-soil coupling dynamic problem, especially when high-speed trains operate in rainy regions. This study develops a nonlinear water-soil interaction dynamic model of slab track coupling with subgrade under high-speed train loading based on vehicle-track coupling dynamics. By using this model, the basic dynamic characteristics, including water-soil interaction and without water induced by the high-speed train loading, are studied. The main factors-the permeability coefficient and the porosity-influencing the subgrade deformation are investigated. The developed model can characterize the soil dynamic behaviour more realistically, especially when considering the influence of water-rich soil.

  6. Plant Response to Differential Soil Water Content and Salinity (United States)

    Moradi, A. B.; Dara, A.; Kamai, T.; Ngo, A.; Walker, R.; Hopmans, J. W.


    ' response to water- or salinity-stress ranges from full compensation to severe reduction in transpiration, depending on the availability of water in their surrounding soil. Results of applying different treatments of salinity and drought will be shown. Available models of root water uptake will be employed to simulate the obtained results.

  7. Regional vegetation water effects on satellite soil moisture estimations for West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friesen, J.C.


    Soil moisture information is a vital parameter for water resources planning and food production. In particular for West Africa, where income largely depends on rainfed agriculture, reliable information on available soil water is required for modeling and prediction. Over large areas and,

  8. Modelling multicomponent solute transport in structured soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beinum, van G.W.


    The mobility of contaminants in soil is an important factor in determining their ability to spread into the wider environment. For non-volatile substances, transport within the soil is generally dominated by transport of dissolved fractions in the soil water phase, via either diffusion or

  9. Effect of soil and cover conditions on soil-water relationships (United States)

    George R., Jr. Trimble; Charles E. Hale; H. Spencer Potter


    People who make flood-control surveys for the U.S. Department of Agriculture are concerned with the physical condition of the soils in the watersheds. The condition of the soil determines how fast water moves into and through the soil, and how much water is held in storage. The condition of the soil has a great influence on stream flow, erosion, floods and water supply...

  10. Relation of some Soil Water-transmission Characteristics to some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine soil physical properties of an Alfisol constituting the soil of a proposed tillage and irrigation water management field laboratory and to relate the physical properties to the water transmission characteristics. The soil was found to be mainly sandy loam on the surface with high infiltration ...

  11. Pedotransfer functions to estimate soil water content at field capacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    available scarce water resources in dry land agriculture, but direct measurement thereof for multiple locations in the field is not always feasible. Therefore, pedotransfer functions (PTFs) were developed to estimate soil water retention at FC and PWP for dryland soils of India. A soil database available for Arid Western India ...

  12. Effects of fire ash on soil water retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, C.R.; Wesseling, J.G.; Ritsema, C.J.


    Despite the pronounced effect of fire on soil hydrological systems, information on the direct effect of fire on soil water retention characteristics is limited and contradictory. To increase understanding in this area, the effect of fire on soil water retention was evaluated using laboratory burning

  13. Determination of radionuclide levels in soil and water around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of the radionuclide concentration levels in soil and water samples in Eagle, Atlas and rock cement companies in Port Harcourt was carried out. Soil and water samples collected from the respective premises were analyzed using the gamma -ray spectrometry. The average absorbed dose rates of the soil samples ...

  14. Response of Eucalyptus grandis trees to soil water deficits

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dye, PJ


    Full Text Available site, plastic sheeting was laid over the ground to prevent soil water recharge and thereby allow the roots in the soil to induce a continuous progressive depletion of soil water. Measurements of predawn xylem pressure potential, leaf area index, growth...

  15. Saturate hydraulic conductivity, water stable aggregates and soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saturate hydraulic conductivity, water stable aggregates and soil organic matter in a sandy-loam soil in Ikwuano lga of Abia state. ... carbon content of the soil. . Keywords: Toposequence, Water stable aggregates, Saturated hydraulic conductivity, Organic carbon, Slope position. Agro-Science Vol. 4 (1) 2005: pp. 34-37.

  16. Measuring Soil Water Potential for Water Management in Agriculture: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bittelli


    Full Text Available Soil water potential is a soil property affecting a large variety of bio-physical processes, such as seed germination, plant growth and plant nutrition. Gradients in soil water potential are the driving forces of water movement, affecting water infiltration, redistribution, percolation, evaporation and plants’ transpiration. The total soil water potential is given by the sum of gravity, matric, osmotic and hydrostatic potential. The quantification of the soil water potential is necessary for a variety of applications both in agricultural and horticultural systems such as optimization of irrigation volumes and fertilization. In recent decades, a large number of experimental methods have been developed to measure the soil water potential, and a large body of knowledge is now available on theory and applications. In this review, the main techniques used to measure the soil water potential are discussed. Subsequently, some examples are provided where the measurement of soil water potential is utilized for a sustainable use of water resources in agriculture.

  17. Soil water regime under homogeneous eucalyptus and pine forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, W.P.; Reichardt, K.


    Measurement of precipitation and monthly soil water content during two consecutive years, in 6-year old plantations of eucalypt and pine, and also in an open plot containing natural herbaceous vegetation, were used to compare the soil water regime of these vegetation covers. Precipitation was measured in the open plot with a recording and a non-recording rain gage. Soil water was assessed by the neutron scattering technique to a depth of 1,80 meters. Results indicate that there was, in general, water available in the soil over the entire period of study in all three vegetation conditions. The annual range of soil water in eucalypt, pine, and in natural herbaceous vegetation was essentially similar. The analysis of the average soil water regime showed that the soil under herbaceous vegetation was, generally, more umid than the soil under eucalypt and pine during the period of soil water recharge (September through February); during the period of soil water depletion, the opposite was true. Collectively, the results permit the conclusion that there were no adverse effects on the soil water regime which could be ascribed to reflorestation with eucalypt or pine, as compared with that observed for the natural herbaceous vegetation [pt

  18. Impact of agricultural extensification on the relation between soil biodiversity and ecosystem services (soil structure maintenance, water regulation)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, J.; Pérès, G.; Groot, A. de

    Introduction – There are increasing pressures on soil biodiversity and soil degradation remains a pertinent issue. In this context, one aim of the EcoFINDERS European project was to assess the impact of agricultural extensification, across a broad range of European land-use systems, on the relati...... biodiversity, providing better soil structure and water infiltration. These results provide more quantitative insights that allow for ecohydrological modelling (forecasting) and economic valuation......., on the relationships between soil biodiversity and ecosystem services. Special attention was given to the relation between i) soil biodiversity and aggregate stability, and ii) earthworms and soil macroporosity and water infiltration.  Method - Data from seven long-term field studies (France, Germany, United......-Kingdom, Slovenia, Denmark) on replicated plots of different land management scenarios (grassland, arable cropping, mixed crop-grassland, reduced or conventional tillage) were analysed. Earthworms were sampled using hand sorting and chemical extraction. Aggregate stability was measured using wet sieving method...

  19. Simulating soil-water movement through loess-veneered landscapes using nonconsilient saturated hydraulic conductivity measurements (United States)

    Williamson, Tanja N.; Lee, Brad D.; Schoeneberger, Philip J.; McCauley, W. M.; Indorante, Samuel J.; Owens, Phillip R.


    Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO) data are available for the entire United States, so are incorporated in many regional and national models of hydrology and environmental management. However, SSURGO does not provide an understanding of spatial variability and only includes saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) values estimated from particle size analysis (PSA). This study showed model sensitivity to the substitution of SSURGO data with locally described soil properties or alternate methods of measuring Ksat. Incorporation of these different soil data sets significantly changed the results of hydrologic modeling as a consequence of the amount of space available to store soil water and how this soil water is moved downslope. Locally described soil profiles indicated a difference in Ksat when measured in the field vs. being estimated from PSA. This, in turn, caused a difference in which soil layers were incorporated in the hydrologic simulations using TOPMODEL, ultimately affecting how soil water storage was simulated. Simulations of free-flowing soil water, the amount of water traveling through pores too large to retain water against gravity, were compared with field observations of water in wells at five slope positions along a catena. Comparison of the simulated data with the observed data showed that the ability to model the range of conditions observed in the field varied as a function of three soil data sets (SSURGO and local field descriptions using PSA-derived Ksat or field-measured Ksat) and that comparison of absolute values of soil water storage are not valid if different characterizations of soil properties are used.

  20. Mitigation of water repellency in burned soils applying hydrophillic polymers (United States)

    Neris, Jonay; de la Torre, Sara; Vidal-Vazquez, Eva; Lado, Marcos


    In this study, the effect of fire on water repellency was analyzed in soils from different parent materials, as well as the suitability of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) to reduce water repellency in these soils. Samples were collected in four different sites where wildfires took place: two in the Canary Islands, with soils developed on volcanic materials, and two in Galicia (NW Spain), with soils developed on plutonic rocks. In Galicia, two soil samples were collected in each site, one in the burnt area and one in an adjacent unburnt area. In the Canary Islands, four samples were collected from each site, three inside the burnt area where the soils were affected by different fire intensities, and one in an unburnt adjacent area. Samples were air-dried and sieved by a 2-mm mesh sieve. Water repellency was measured using the Water Drop Penetration Time test. An amount of 10 g of soil was placed in a tray. Five drops of deionized water were place on the soil surface with a pipette, and the time for each drop to fully penetrate into the soil was recorded. PAM solution was applied to the burnt soils simulating a field application rate of 1gm-2. The polymer used was Superfloc A-110 (Kemira Water Solutions BV, Holland) with 1x107 Da molecular weigth and 15% hydrolysis. PAM was sprayed on the soil surface as solution with a concentration 0.2 g/L. After the application, the samples were dried and the WDPT test was performed. Three replicates for each treatment and soil were used, and the treatments included: dry soil, dry soil after a wetting treatment, dry PAM-treated soil. The results showed that water repellency was modified by fire differently in the various soils. In hydrophilic soils and soils with low water repellency, water repellency was increased after the action of fire. In soils with noticeable initial water repellency, this was reduced or eliminated after the fire. Wetting repellent soils caused a decrease in water repellency most probably because of the spatial

  1. Importance of soil-water relation in assessment endpoint in bioremediated soils: Plant growth and soil physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Sawatsky, N.


    Much effort has been focused on defining the end-point of bioremediated soils by chemical analysis (Alberta Tier 1 or CCME Guideline for Contaminated Soils) or toxicity tests. However, these tests do not completely assess the soil quality, or the capability of soil to support plant growth after bioremediation. This study compared barley (Hordeum vulgare) growth on: (i) non-contaminated, agricultural topsoil, (2) oil-contaminated soil (4% total extractable hydrocarbons, or TEH), and (3) oil-contaminated soil treated by bioremediation (< 2% TEH). Soil physical properties including water retention, water uptake, and water repellence were measured. The results indicated that the growth of barley was significantly reduced by oil-contamination of agricultural topsoil. Furthermore, bioremediation did not improve the barley yield. The lack of effects from bioremediation was attributed to development of water repellence in hydrocarbon contaminated soils. There seemed to be a critical water content around 18% to 20% in contaminated soils. Above this value the water uptake by contaminated soil was near that of the agricultural topsoil. For lower water contents, there was a strong divergence in sorptivity between contaminated and agricultural topsoil. For these soils, water availability was likely the single most important parameter controlling plant growth. This parameter should be considered in assessing endpoint of bioremediation for hydrocarbon contaminated soils

  2. Increases in the annual range of soil water storage at northern middle and high latitudes under global warming (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Ying; Lan, Chia-Wei; Lo, Min-Hui; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.


    Soil water storage is a fundamental signal in the land hydrological cycle and changes in soil moisture can affect regional climate. In this study, we used simulations from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 archives to investigate changes in the annual range of soil water storage under global warming at northern middle and high latitudes. Results show that future warming could lead to significant declines in snowfall, and a corresponding lack of snowmelt water recharge to the soil, which makes soil water less available during spring and summer. Conversely, more precipitation as rainfall results in higher recharge to soil water during its accumulating season. Thus, the wettest month of soil water gets wetter, and the driest month gets drier, resulting in an increase of the annual range and suggesting that stronger heterogeneity in global water distribution (changing extremes) could occur under global warming; this has implications for water management and water security under a changing climate.

  3. How the soil-root interface affects water availability to plants (United States)

    Carminati, Andrea; Moradi, Ahmad


    Water supply to roots is essential for plant life. To sustain the root water uptake, a continuous liquid phase has to be maintained at the interface between soil and roots. Gaps between soil and roots may interrupt the liquid-phase continuity across the soil-root interface, acting as capillary barriers for the water flow. Additionally, due to the radial geometry of the flow to roots and the non-linearity of the soil hydraulic conductivity, a drop in water potential and consequently of water content is expected to occur next to the roots, in particular when soil dries and transpiration demand is high. Such a drop in water content may limit water and nutrient uptake by roots. How plants can overcome these mechanical and hydraulic flow resistances at the root-soil interface? Recent experiments with neutron radiography showed that during transpiration the water content next to roots was larger than in the bulk soil. Immediately after rewetting, the picture reversed and the soil next to roots remained markedly dry. During the following days the water content next to roots increased, exceeding that of the bulk soil. These water dynamics cannot be described by models assuming homogeneous soil around roots. Our hypothesis is that the observed moisture dynamics at the soil-root interface were caused by mucilage exuded by roots. Mucilage is mainly composed of polymeric substances and has a high water holding capacity. Mucilage is known to be exuded by roots but its effect on water uptake is not known. By calculating the water flux to roots we demonstrate that mucilage weakens the drop in water potential at the root-soil interface, increasing the conductivity of the flow path across soil and roots and reducing the energy needed to take up water. Additionally, mucilage improves the mechanical contact between soil and roots, avoiding formation of gaps as roots shrink in response to high transpiration demand or drought stress. In conclusion, mucilage works as hydraulic and

  4. Modelling erosion and its interaction with soil organic carbon. (United States)

    Oyesiku-Blakemore, Joseph; Verrot, Lucile; Geris, Josie; Zhang, Ganlin; Peng, Xinhua; Hallett, Paul; Smith, Jo


    Water driven soil erosion removes and relocates a significant quantity of soil organic carbon. In China the quantity of carbon removed from the soil through water erosion has been reported to be 180+/-80 Mt y-1 (Yue et al., 2011). Being able to effectively model the movement of such a large quantity of carbon is important for the assessment of soil quality and carbon storage in the region and further afield. A large selection of erosion models are available and much work has been done on evaluating the performance of these in developed countries (Merritt et al., 2006). Fewer studies have evaluated the application of these models on soils in developing countries. Here we evaluate and compare the performance of two of these models, WEPP (Laflen et al., 1997) and RUSLE (Renard et al., 1991), for simulations of soil erosion and deposition at the slope scale on a Chinese Red Soil under cultivation using measurements taken at the site. We also describe work to dynamically couple the movement of carbon presented in WEPP to a model of soil organic matter and nutrient turnover, ECOSSE (Smith et al., 2010). This aims to improve simulations of both erosion and carbon cycling by using the simulated rates of erosion to alter the distribution of soil carbon, the depth of soil and the clay content across the slopes, changing the simulated rate of carbon turnover. This, in turn, affects the soil carbon available to be eroded in the next timestep, so improving estimates of carbon erosion. We compare the simulations of this coupled modelling approach with those of the unaltered ECOSSE and WEPP models to determine the importance of coupling erosion and turnover models on the simulation of carbon losses at catchment scale.

  5. Underground waters and soil contamination studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Camargos, Claudio C.; Santos, Rosana A.M.


    Maybe the greatest problem associated to the nuclear energy is what to do with the waste generated. As example, in Portugal, two of the most important of uranium mines produced a significant amount of waste, now deposited in several storage facilities. To evaluate the impacts generated, samples of water, sediments and soils were analyzed. The space distribution of these samples revealed that the contamination is restricted in the vicinity of the mining areas, and the biggest problem happened due to the illegal use of waters for irrigation, originated from the mine effluents treatment stations. In Brazil, the radioactive waste remains a problem for the authorities and population, since there is not until now a final repository to storage them. The objective of this work is to do studies with the software FRAC3DVS, which simulates the contamination of soils and underground waters due to radioactive and no radioactive sources of pollution. The obtained results show that this tool can help in environmental evaluations and decision making processes in the site selection of a radioactive waste repository. (author)

  6. Uranium in soils and water; Uran in Boden und Wasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dienemann, Claudia; Utermann, Jens


    The report of the Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environmental Agency) on uranium in soils and water covers the following chapters: (1) Introduction. (2) Deposits and properties: Use of uranium; toxic effects on human beings, uranium in ground water and drinking water, uranium in surface waters, uranium in soils, uranium in the air. (3) Legal regulations. (4) Uranium deposits, uranium mining, polluted area recultivation. (5) Diffuse uranium entry in soils and water: uranium insertion due to fertilizers, uranium insertion due to atmospheric precipitation, uranium insertion from the air. (6) Diffuse uranium release from soils and transfer in to the food chain. (7) Conclusions and recommendations.

  7. Impacts of mining on water and soil. (United States)

    Warhate, S R; Yenkie, M K N; Pokale, W K


    Out of seven coal mines situated in Wardha River Valley located at Wani (Dist. Yavatmal), five open caste coal mines are run by Western Coal Field Ltd, India. The results of 25 water and 19 soil samples (including one over burden) from Nilapur, Bramhani, Kolera, Gowari, Pimpari and Aheri for their pH, TDS, hardness, alkalinity, fluoride, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, cadmium, lead, zinc, copper, nickel, arsenic, manganese, sodium and potassium are studied in the present work. Statistical analysis and graphical presentation of the results are discussed in this paper.

  8. Water-stability of soil aggregates in relation to selected properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbagwu, J.S.C.; Bazzoffi, P.; Unamba Oparah, I.


    The stability of soil aggregates in water is an important soil physical property for evaluating the potential of agricultural soils to erode and elucidating the mechanisms of soil erosion. In this study we used aggregates from 15 surface soil samples in Italy to evaluate the influence of intrinsic soil physical, chemical and mineralogical properties on aggregates stability (AS). The aim was to develop a model for predicting AS from a subset of these soil properties. The index of stability used is the mean-weight diameter of water-stable aggregates (MWD). The model developed with soil physical properties alone explained just 42% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in only 20% of test soils. The model developed with mineralogical properties alone explained 70% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in 60% of the test soils. The chemical properties - based model explained 90% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in 80% of the test soils. The best-fit model was developed with soil properties from the physical, chemical and mineralogical subsets. It explained 98% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in 100% of the test soils. This model shows that the most important soil properties which influence the AS of these soils include ratio of total sand to clay, concentrations of iron oxide, magnesium oxide, organic matter, silica/alumina ratio, chlorite, feldspar and muscovite. This indicates that fairly good estimates of the relative stability of these aggregates in water and hence of their potential to erode, requires a knowledge of the physico-chemical and mineralogical properties. (author). 40 refs, 4 tabs

  9. Integrated double mulching practices optimizes soil temperature and improves soil water utilization in arid environments (United States)

    Yin, Wen; Feng, Fuxue; Zhao, Cai; Yu, Aizhong; Hu, Falong; Chai, Qiang; Gan, Yantai; Guo, Yao


    Water shortage threatens agricultural sustainability in many arid and semiarid areas of the world. It is unknown whether improved water conservation practices can be developed to alleviate this issue while increasing crop productivity. In this study, we developed a "double mulching" system, i.e., plastic film coupled with straw mulch, integrated together with intensified strip intercropping. We determined (i) the responses of soil evaporation and moisture conservation to the integrated double mulching system and (ii) the change of soil temperature during key plant growth stages under the integrated systems. Experiments were carried out in northwest China in 2009 to 2011. Results show that wheat-maize strip intercropping in combination with plastic film and straw covering on the soil surface increased soil moisture (mm) by an average of 3.8 % before sowing, 5.3 % during the wheat and maize co-growth period, 4.4 % after wheat harvest, and 4.9 % after maize harvest, compared to conventional practice (control). The double mulching decreased total evapotranspiration of the two intercrops by an average of 4.6 % ( P < 0.05), compared to control. An added feature was that the double mulching system decreased soil temperature in the top 10-cm depth by 1.26 to 1.31 °C in the strips of the cool-season wheat, and by 1.31 to 1.51 °C in the strips of the warm-season maize through the 2 years. Soil temperature of maize strips higher as 1.25 to 1.94 °C than that of wheat strips in the top 10-cm soil depth under intercropping with the double mulching system; especially higher as 1.58 to 2.11 °C under intercropping with the conventional tillage; this allows the two intercrops to grow in a well "collaborative" status under the double mulching system during their co-growth period. The improvement of soil moisture and the optimization of soil temperature for the two intercrops allow us to conclude that wheat-maize intensification with the double mulching system can be used as an

  10. Integrated double mulching practices optimizes soil temperature and improves soil water utilization in arid environments. (United States)

    Yin, Wen; Feng, Fuxue; Zhao, Cai; Yu, Aizhong; Hu, Falong; Chai, Qiang; Gan, Yantai; Guo, Yao


    Water shortage threatens agricultural sustainability in many arid and semiarid areas of the world. It is unknown whether improved water conservation practices can be developed to alleviate this issue while increasing crop productivity. In this study, we developed a "double mulching" system, i.e., plastic film coupled with straw mulch, integrated together with intensified strip intercropping. We determined (i) the responses of soil evaporation and moisture conservation to the integrated double mulching system and (ii) the change of soil temperature during key plant growth stages under the integrated systems. Experiments were carried out in northwest China in 2009 to 2011. Results show that wheat-maize strip intercropping in combination with plastic film and straw covering on the soil surface increased soil moisture (mm) by an average of 3.8 % before sowing, 5.3 % during the wheat and maize co-growth period, 4.4 % after wheat harvest, and 4.9 % after maize harvest, compared to conventional practice (control). The double mulching decreased total evapotranspiration of the two intercrops by an average of 4.6 % (P soil temperature in the top 10-cm depth by 1.26 to 1.31 °C in the strips of the cool-season wheat, and by 1.31 to 1.51 °C in the strips of the warm-season maize through the 2 years. Soil temperature of maize strips higher as 1.25 to 1.94 °C than that of wheat strips in the top 10-cm soil depth under intercropping with the double mulching system; especially higher as 1.58 to 2.11 °C under intercropping with the conventional tillage; this allows the two intercrops to grow in a well "collaborative" status under the double mulching system during their co-growth period. The improvement of soil moisture and the optimization of soil temperature for the two intercrops allow us to conclude that wheat-maize intensification with the double mulching system can be used as an effective farming model in alleviating water shortage issues experiencing in water

  11. Hydrological balance and water transport processes of partially sealed soils (United States)

    Timm, Anne; Wessolek, Gerd


    With increased urbanisation, soil sealing and its drastic effects on hydrological processes have received a lot of attention. Based on safety concerns, there has been a clear focus on urban drainage and prevention of urban floods caused by storm water events. For this reason, any kind of sealing is often seen as impermeable runoff generator that prevents infiltration and evaporation. While many hydrological models, especially storm water models, have been developed, there are only a handful of empirical studies actually measuring the hydrological balance of (partially) sealed surfaces. These challenge the general assumption of negligible infiltration and evaporation and show that these processes take place even for severe sealing such as asphalt. Depending on the material, infiltration from partially sealed surfaces can be equal to that of vegetated ones. Therefore, more detailed knowledge is needed to improve our understanding and models. In Berlin, two partially sealed weighable lysimeters were equipped with multiple temperature and soil moisture sensors in order to study their hydrological balance, as well as water and heat transport processes within the soil profile. This combination of methods affirms previous observations and offers new insights into altered hydrological processes of partially sealed surfaces at a small temporal scale. It could be verified that not all precipitation is transformed into runoff. Even for a relatively high sealing degree of concrete slabs with narrow seams, evaporation and infiltration may exceed runoff. Due to the lack of plant roots, the hydrological balance is mostly governed by precipitation events and evaporation generally occurs directly after rainfall. However, both surfaces allow for upward water transport from the upper underlying soil layers, sometimes resulting in relatively low evaporation rates on days without precipitation. The individual response of the surfaces differs considerably, which illustrates how

  12. Leaf area index drives soil water availability and extreme drought-related mortality under elevated CO2 in a temperate grassland model system. (United States)

    Manea, Anthony; Leishman, Michelle R


    The magnitude and frequency of climatic extremes, such as drought, are predicted to increase under future climate change conditions. However, little is known about how other factors such as CO2 concentration will modify plant community responses to these extreme climatic events, even though such modifications are highly likely. We asked whether the response of grasslands to repeat extreme drought events is modified by elevated CO2, and if so, what are the underlying mechanisms? We grew grassland mesocosms consisting of 10 co-occurring grass species common to the Cumberland Plain Woodland of western Sydney under ambient and elevated CO2 and subjected them to repeated extreme drought treatments. The 10 species included a mix of C3, C4, native and exotic species. We hypothesized that a reduction in the stomatal conductance of the grasses under elevated CO2 would be offset by increases in the leaf area index thus the retention of soil water and the consequent vulnerability of the grasses to extreme drought would not differ between the CO2 treatments. Our results did not support this hypothesis: soil water content was significantly lower in the mesocosms grown under elevated CO2 and extreme drought-related mortality of the grasses was greater. The C4 and native grasses had significantly higher leaf area index under elevated CO2 levels. This offset the reduction in the stomatal conductance of the exotic grasses as well as increased rainfall interception, resulting in reduced soil water content in the elevated CO2 mesocosms. Our results suggest that projected increases in net primary productivity globally of grasslands in a high CO2 world may be limited by reduced soil water availability in the future.

  13. Leaf area index drives soil water availability and extreme drought-related mortality under elevated CO2 in a temperate grassland model system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Manea

    Full Text Available The magnitude and frequency of climatic extremes, such as drought, are predicted to increase under future climate change conditions. However, little is known about how other factors such as CO2 concentration will modify plant community responses to these extreme climatic events, even though such modifications are highly likely. We asked whether the response of grasslands to repeat extreme drought events is modified by elevated CO2, and if so, what are the underlying mechanisms? We grew grassland mesocosms consisting of 10 co-occurring grass species common to the Cumberland Plain Woodland of western Sydney under ambient and elevated CO2 and subjected them to repeated extreme drought treatments. The 10 species included a mix of C3, C4, native and exotic species. We hypothesized that a reduction in the stomatal conductance of the grasses under elevated CO2 would be offset by increases in the leaf area index thus the retention of soil water and the consequent vulnerability of the grasses to extreme drought would not differ between the CO2 treatments. Our results did not support this hypothesis: soil water content was significantly lower in the mesocosms grown under elevated CO2 and extreme drought-related mortality of the grasses was greater. The C4 and native grasses had significantly higher leaf area index under elevated CO2 levels. This offset the reduction in the stomatal conductance of the exotic grasses as well as increased rainfall interception, resulting in reduced soil water content in the elevated CO2 mesocosms. Our results suggest that projected increases in net primary productivity globally of grasslands in a high CO2 world may be limited by reduced soil water availability in the future.

  14. Quantitative imaging of water flow in soil and roots using neutron radiography and deuterated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen


    Where and how fast do roots take up water? Despite its importance in plant and soil sciences, there is limited experimental information on the location of water uptake along the roots of transpiring plants growing in soil. The answer to this question requires direct and in-situ measurement of the local flow of water into the roots. The aim of this study was to develop and apply a new method to quantify the local fluxes of water into different segments of the roots of intact plants. To this end, neutron radiography was used to trace the transport of deuterated water (D 2 O) into the roots of lupines. Lupines were grown in aluminum containers filled with sandy soil. The soil was partitioned into different compartments using 1 cm-thick layers of coarse sand as capillary barriers. These barriers limited the diffusion of D 2 O within the soil compartments. D 2 O was locally injected into the selected soil compartments during the day (transpiring plants) and night (non-transpiring plants). Transport of D 2 O into roots was then monitored by neutron radiography with spatial resolution of 100 μm and time intervals of 10 seconds. Neutron radiographs showed that: i) transport of D 2 O into roots was faster during the day than during the night; 2) D 2 O quickly moved along the roots towards the shoots during the day, while at night this axial transport was negligible. The differences between day and night measurements were explained by convective transport of D 2 O into the roots. To quantify the net flow of water into roots, a simple convection-diffusion model was developed, where the increase rate of D 2 O concentration in roots depended on the convective transport (net root water uptake) and the diffusion of D 2 O into roots. The results showed that water uptake was not uniform along the roots. Water uptake was higher in the upper soil layers than in the deeper ones. Along an individual roots, the water uptake rate was higher in the proximal segments than in the distal

  15. Sugarbeet leaf growth and yield response to soil water deficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    18 oct. 1999 ... This study evaluated the responses of sugarbeet leaf growth, sugar yield and yield components to soil water deficit imposed at various periods during growth in a glasshouse. Leaf growth showed high sensitivity to soil water deficit and responses varied with periods at which the deficit occurred. Water deficit ...

  16. Soil water characteristics of Middle Pleistocene paleosol layers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil water plays an important role in water quality monitoring, irrigation scheduling, solute migration, and plant growth. ... Information about the soil hydraulic properties of Middle Pleistocene paleosol layers within the Yingpan section on the Loess Plateau of China is necessary since it may affect water cycle processes both ...

  17. Pedotransfer functions to estimate soil water content at field capacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Soil water retention, Dry lands, Western India, Pedotransfer functions, Soil moisture calculator. 1. 2. 3. 4 ..... samples although it is known that structure and macro-porosity of the sample affect water retention (Unger ..... and OC content has positive influence on water retention whereas interaction of clay and OC has negative ...

  18. Structure stability and water retention near saturation characteristics as affected by soil texture, and polyacrylamide concentration (United States)

    Mamedov, Amrakh I.; Ekberli, Imanverdi A.; Ozturk, Hasan S.; Wagner, Larry E.; Norton, Darrell L.; Levy, Guy J.


    Studying the effects of soil properties and amendment application on soil structure stability is important for the development of effective soil management and conservation practices for sustaining semi-arid soil and water quality under climate change scenarios. Two sets of experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of soil texture and soil amendment polyacrylamide (PAM) rate on soil structural stability expressed in terms of near saturation soil water retention and aggregate stability using the high energy (0-5 J kg-1) moisture characteristic (HEMC) method. Contribution of (i) soil type were assessed using 30 soil samples varying in texture from sandy to clay taken from long term cultivated lands, covering a range of crop and land management practices, and (ii) anionic PAM concentration (0, 10, 25, 50, 100 & 200 mg l-1) were tested on selected loam and clay soils. The water retention curves of slow and fast wetted soil samples were characterized by a modified van Genuchten (1980) model that provides (i) model parameters α and n, which represent the location of the inflection point and the steepness of the S-shaped water retention curves, and (ii) a composite soil structure index (SI =VDP/MS; VDP-volume of drainable pores, MS-modal suction). The studied treatments had, generally, considerable effects on the shape of the water retention curves (α and n). Soil type, PAM concentration and their interaction had significantly effects on the stability indices (SI, VDP and MS) and the model parameters (α and n). The SI and α increased, and ndecreased exponentially with the increase in soil clay content and PAM concentration, but the shape of curves were soil texture and management dependent, since predominant changes were observed in the various range of studied macropores (pore size > 60 μm). An exponential type of relationship existed between SI and α and n. Effect of PAM contribution and wetting condition was more pronounced in the loam soil at low PAM

  19. Developing relations between soil erodibilty factors in two different soil erosion prediction models (USLE/RUSLE and wWEPP) and fludization bed technique for mechanical soil cohesion (United States)

    Soil erosion models are valuable analysis tools that scientists and engineers use to examine observed data sets and predict the effects of possible future soil loss. In the area of water erosion, a variety of modeling technologies are available, ranging from solely qualitative models, to merely quan...

  20. Reflectance of vegetation, soil, and water (United States)

    Wiegand, C. L. (Principal Investigator)


    The author has identified the following significant results. The ability to read the 24-channel MSS CCT tapes, select specified agricultural land use areas from the CCT, and perform multivariate statistical and pattern recognition analyses has been demonstrated. The 5 optimum channels chosen for classifying an agricultural scene were, in the order of their selection the far red visible, short reflective IR, visible blue, thermal infrared, and ultraviolet portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, respectively. Although chosen by a training set containing only vegetal categories, the optimum 4 channels discriminated pavement, water, bare soil, and building roofs, as well as the vegetal categories. Among the vegetal categories, sugar cane and cotton had distinctive signatures that distinguished them from grass and citrus. Acreages estimated spectrally by the computer for the test scene were acceptably close to acreages estimated from aerial photographs for cotton, sugar cane, and water. Many nonfarmable land resolution elements representing drainage ditch, field road, and highway right-of-way as well as farm headquarters area fell into the grass, bare soil plus weeds, and citrus categories and lessened the accuracy of the farmable acreage estimates in these categories. The expertise developed using the 24-channel data will be applied to the ERTS-1 data.

  1. Transport of Pathogen Surrogates in Soil Treatment Units: Numerical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Morales


    Full Text Available Segmented mesocosms (n = 3 packed with sand, sandy loam or clay loam soil were used to determine the effect of soil texture and depth on transport of two septic tank effluent (STE-borne microbial pathogen surrogates—green fluorescent protein-labeled E. coli (GFPE and MS-2 coliphage—in soil treatment units. HYDRUS 2D/3D software was used to model the transport of these microbes from the infiltrative surface. Mesocosms were spiked with GFPE and MS-2 coliphage at 105 cfu/mL STE and 105–106 pfu/mL STE, respectively. In all soils, removal rates were >99.99% at 25 cm. The transport simulation compared (1 optimization; and (2 trial-and-error modeling approaches. Only slight differences between the transport parameters were observed between these approaches. Treating both the die-off rates and attachment/detachment rates as variables resulted in an overall better model fit, particularly for the tailing phase of the experiments. Independent of the fitting procedure, attachment rates computed by the model were higher in sandy and sandy loam soils than clay, which was attributed to unsaturated flow conditions at lower water content in the coarser-textured soils. Early breakthrough of the bacteria and virus indicated the presence of preferential flow in the system in the structured clay loam soil, resulting in faster movement of water and microbes through the soil relative to a conservative tracer (bromide.

  2. Soil CO2 Dynamics in a Tree Island Soil of the Pantanal: The Role of Soil Water Potential (United States)

    Johnson, Mark S.; Couto, Eduardo Guimarães; Pinto Jr, Osvaldo B.; Milesi, Juliana; Santos Amorim, Ricardo S.; Messias, Indira A. M.; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi


    The Pantanal is a biodiversity hotspot comprised of a mosaic of landforms that differ in vegetative assemblages and flooding dynamics. Tree islands provide refuge for terrestrial fauna during the flooding period and are particularly important to the regional ecosystem structure. Little soil CO2 research has been conducted in this region. We evaluated soil CO2 dynamics in relation to primary controlling environmental parameters (soil temperature and soil water). Soil respiration was computed using the gradient method using in situ infrared gas analyzers to directly measure CO2 concentration within the soil profile. Due to the cost of the sensors and associated equipment, this study was unreplicated. Rather, we focus on the temporal relationships between soil CO2 efflux and related environmental parameters. Soil CO2 efflux during the study averaged 3.53 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1, and was equivalent to an annual soil respiration of 1220 g C m−2 y−1. This efflux value, integrated over a year, is comparable to soil C stocks for 0–20 cm. Soil water potential was the measured parameter most strongly associated with soil CO2 concentrations, with high CO2 values observed only once soil water potential at the 10 cm depth approached zero. This relationship was exhibited across a spectrum of timescales and was found to be significant at a daily timescale across all seasons using conditional nonparametric spectral Granger causality analysis. Hydrology plays a significant role in controlling CO2 efflux from the tree island soil, with soil CO2 dynamics differing by wetting mechanism. During the wet-up period, direct precipitation infiltrates soil from above and results in pulses of CO2 efflux from soil. The annual flood arrives later, and saturates soil from below. While CO2 concentrations in soil grew very high under both wetting mechanisms, the change in soil CO2 efflux was only significant when soils were wet from above. PMID:23762259

  3. Biochar particle size, shape, and porosity act together to influence soil water properties. (United States)

    Liu, Zuolin; Dugan, Brandon; Masiello, Caroline A; Gonnermann, Helge M


    Many studies report that, under some circumstances, amending soil with biochar can improve field capacity and plant-available water. However, little is known about the mechanisms that control these improvements, making it challenging to predict when biochar will improve soil water properties. To develop a conceptual model explaining biochar's effects on soil hydrologic processes, we conducted a series of well constrained laboratory experiments using a sand matrix to test the effects of biochar particle size and porosity on soil water retention curves. We showed that biochar particle size affects soil water storage through changing pore space between particles (interpores) and by adding pores that are part of the biochar (intrapores). We used these experimental results to better understand how biochar intrapores and biochar particle shape control the observed changes in water retention when capillary pressure is the main component of soil water potential. We propose that biochar's intrapores increase water content of biochar-sand mixtures when soils are drier. When biochar-sand mixtures are wetter, biochar particles' elongated shape disrupts the packing of grains in the sandy matrix, increasing the volume between grains (interpores) available for water storage. These results imply that biochars with a high intraporosity and irregular shapes will most effectively increase water storage in coarse soils.

  4. Modeling methane fluxes in wetlands with gas-transporting plants 2. Soil layer scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, R; Rappoldt, C; Leffelaar, PA


    Methane dynamics in a water-saturated soil layer with gas-transporting roots is modeled with a weighed set of single-loot model systems. Each model system consists of a soil cylinder with a gas-transporting root along its axis or a soil sphere with a gas-transporting root at its centre. The weights

  5. Creation of Soil Water and Physical data base and its inclusion in a new version of GIS of Soil Resources Attributive Table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolev, Boyko


    For better using of GIS of Soil Resources a new version of the attributive table formation was created. This makes possible soil, physical, and water properties to be included into the table. The simulation procedure for soil hydro-physical properties determination was realized by using the soil particle size distribution data only. This develops a calculation algorithm for soil water content dynamic monitoring, which was realized for some of Bulgarian soils. The main aims of the study are: To demonstrate the usefulness of the new version of the attributive table formation. To show how the simulation model can be applied for environment conditions monitoring and agricultural production management. Keywords: environment conditions, simulation model, soil moisture at field capacity, wilting point, effective soil water content, particle size distribution

  6. Influence of salinity and water content on soil microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Yan


    Full Text Available Salinization is one of the most serious land degradation problems facing world. Salinity results in poor plant growth and low soil microbial activity due to osmotic stress and toxic ions. Soil microorganisms play a pivotal role in soils through mineralization of organic matter into plant available nutrients. Therefore it is important to maintain high microbial activity in soils. Salinity tolerant soil microbes counteract osmotic stress by synthesizing osmolytes which allows them to maintain their cell turgor and metabolism. Osmotic potential is a function of the salt concentration in the soil solution and therefore affected by both salinity (measured as electrical conductivity at a certain water content and soil water content. Soil salinity and water content vary in time and space. Understanding the effect of changes in salinity and water content on soil microorganisms is important for crop production, sustainable land use and rehabilitation of saline soils. In this review, the effects of soil salinity and water content on microbes are discussed to guide future research into management of saline soils.

  7. Field soil-water properties measured through radiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report shows a major effort to make soil physics applicable to the behaviour of the field soils and presents a rich and diverse set of data which are essential for the development of effective soil-water management practices that improve and conserve the quality and quantity of agricultural lands. This piece of research has shown that the neutron moisture meter together with some complementary instruments like tensiometers, can be used not only to measure soil water contents but also be extremely handy to measure soil hydraulic characteristics and soil water flow. It is, however, recognized that hydraulic conductivity is highly sensitive to small changes in soil water content and texture, being extremely variable spatially and temporally

  8. Use of Clay Dispersed in Water for Decreasing Soil Water Repellency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diamantis, Vasileios; Pagorogon, Lorvi; Gazani, Eleutheria; Gkiougkis, Ioannis; Pechtelidis, Alexandros; Pliakas, Fotios; Elsen, van den Erik; Doerr, Stefan H.; Ritsema, Coen


    In this study, we examined the efficiency of a kaolinite clayey soil to mitigate water repellency of a sandy soil with olive trees. The treatment was applied to the soil zone below the tree canopy, which displayed the highest degree of water repellency [average water drop penetration time (WDPT)

  9. Citrus orchards management and soil water repellency in Eastern Spain (United States)

    Cerdà, A.; González Peñaloza, F. A.; Jordán, A.; Zavala, L. M.


    Water repellent soils are found around the world, although originally was found on fire affected soil (DeBano, 1981). However, for decades, water repellency was found to be a rare soil property. One of the pioneer research that shown that water repellency was a common soil property is the Wander (1949) publication in Science. Wander researched the water repellency on citrus groves, and since then, no information is available about the water repellency on citrus plantations. The Mediterranean soils are prone to water repellency due to the summer dry conditions (Cerdà and Doerr, 2007). And Land Use and Land Management are key factors (Harper et al., 2000; Urbanek et al., 2007) to understand the water repellency behaviour of agriculture soils. Valencia region (Eastern Spain) is the largest exporter in the world and citrus plantations located in the alluvial plains and fluvial terraces are moving to alluvial fans and slopes where the surface wash is very active (Cerdà et al., 2009). This research aims to show the water repellency on citrus orchards located on the sloping terrain (treatment induced slight water repellency in citrus-cropped soils compared to other treatments. Small but significant soil water repellency was observed under NT and HNT treatments (mean WDTP 4 ± 4 s and 2 ± 2 s, respectively), which may be regarded as subcritical soil water repellency. Slight water repellency observed in soils under MNT treatment may be attributed to the input of hydrophobic organic compounds as a consequence of the addition of plant residues and organic manure. A further issue to be achieved is the study of geomorphological processes associated to sub-critical soil water repellency. The experimental setup within the citrus plantation is being supported by the research project CGL2008-02879/BTE

  10. Predicting and mapping soil available water capacity in Korea. (United States)

    Hong, Suk Young; Minasny, Budiman; Han, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Yihyun; Lee, Kyungdo


    The knowledge on the spatial distribution of soil available water capacity at a regional or national extent is essential, as soil water capacity is a component of the water and energy balances in the terrestrial ecosystem. It controls the evapotranspiration rate, and has a major impact on climate. This paper demonstrates a protocol for mapping soil available water capacity in South Korea at a fine scale using data available from surveys. The procedures combined digital soil mapping technology with the available soil map of 1:25,000. We used the modal profile data from the Taxonomical Classification of Korean Soils. The data consist of profile description along with physical and chemical analysis for the modal profiles of the 380 soil series. However not all soil samples have measured bulk density and water content at -10 and -1500 kPa. Thus they need to be predicted using pedotransfer functions. Furthermore, water content at -10 kPa was measured using ground samples. Thus a correction factor is derived to take into account the effect of bulk density. Results showed that Andisols has the highest mean water storage capacity, followed by Entisols and Inceptisols which have loamy texture. The lowest water retention is Entisols which are dominated by sandy materials. Profile available water capacity to a depth of 1 m was calculated and mapped for Korea. The western part of the country shows higher available water capacity than the eastern part which is mountainous and has shallower soils. The highest water storage capacity soils are the Ultisols and Alfisols (mean of 206 and 205 mm, respectively). Validation of the maps showed promising results. The map produced can be used as an indication of soil physical quality of Korean soils.

  11. Predicting and mapping soil available water capacity in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk Young Hong


    Full Text Available The knowledge on the spatial distribution of soil available water capacity at a regional or national extent is essential, as soil water capacity is a component of the water and energy balances in the terrestrial ecosystem. It controls the evapotranspiration rate, and has a major impact on climate. This paper demonstrates a protocol for mapping soil available water capacity in South Korea at a fine scale using data available from surveys. The procedures combined digital soil mapping technology with the available soil map of 1:25,000. We used the modal profile data from the Taxonomical Classification of Korean Soils. The data consist of profile description along with physical and chemical analysis for the modal profiles of the 380 soil series. However not all soil samples have measured bulk density and water content at −10 and −1500 kPa. Thus they need to be predicted using pedotransfer functions. Furthermore, water content at −10 kPa was measured using ground samples. Thus a correction factor is derived to take into account the effect of bulk density. Results showed that Andisols has the highest mean water storage capacity, followed by Entisols and Inceptisols which have loamy texture. The lowest water retention is Entisols which are dominated by sandy materials. Profile available water capacity to a depth of 1 m was calculated and mapped for Korea. The western part of the country shows higher available water capacity than the eastern part which is mountainous and has shallower soils. The highest water storage capacity soils are the Ultisols and Alfisols (mean of 206 and 205 mm, respectively. Validation of the maps showed promising results. The map produced can be used as an indication of soil physical quality of Korean soils.

  12. Estimating water retention curves and strength properties of unsaturated sandy soils from basic soil gradation parameters (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Peng; Hu, Nian; François, Bertrand; Lambert, Pierre


    This study proposed two pedotransfer functions (PTFs) to estimate sandy soil water retention curves. It is based on the van Genuchten's water retention model and from a semiphysical and semistatistical approach. Basic gradation parameters of d60 as particle size at 60% passing and the coefficient of uniformity Cu are employed in the PTFs with two idealized conditions, the monosized scenario and the extremely polydisperse condition, satisfied. Water retention tests are carried out on eight granular materials with narrow particle size distributions as supplementary data of the UNSODA database. The air entry value is expressed as inversely proportional to d60 and the parameter n, which is related to slope of water retention curve, is a function of Cu. The proposed PTFs, although have fewer parameters, have better fitness than previous PTFs for sandy soils. Furthermore, by incorporating with the suction stress definition, the proposed pedotransfer functions are imbedded in shear strength equations which provide a way to estimate capillary induced tensile strength or cohesion at a certain suction or degree of saturation from basic soil gradation parameters. The estimation shows quantitative agreement with experimental data in literature, and it also explains that the capillary-induced cohesion is generally higher for materials with finer mean particle size or higher polydispersity.

  13. Snowmelt water drives higher soil erosion than rainfall water in a mid-high latitude upland watershed (United States)

    Wu, Yuyang; Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Zengchao; Yang, Bowen; Wang, Li


    The impacts of precipitation and temperature on soil erosion are pronounced in mid-high latitude areas, which lead to seasonal variations in soil erosion. Determining the critical erosion periods and the reasons behind the increased erosion loads are essential for soil management decisions. Hence, integrated approaches combining experiments and modelling based on field investigations were applied to investigate watershed soil erosion characteristics and the dynamics of water movement through soils. Long-term and continuous data for surface runoff and soil erosion variation characteristics of uplands in a watershed were observed via five simulations by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). In addition, laboratory experiments were performed to quantify the actual soil infiltrabilities in snowmelt seasons (thawed treatment) and rainy seasons (non-frozen treatment). The results showed that over the course of a year, average surface runoff and soil erosion reached peak values of 31.38 mm and 1.46 t ha-1 a-1, respectively, in the month of April. They also ranked high in July and August, falling in the ranges of 23.73 mm to 24.91 mm and 0.55 t ha-1 a-1 to 0.59 t ha-1 a-1, respectively. With the infiltration time extended, thawed soils showed lower infiltrabilities than non-frozen soils, and the differences in soil infiltration amounts between these two were considerable. These results highlighted that soil erosion was very closely and positively correlated with surface runoff. Soil loss was higher in snowmelt periods than in rainy periods due to the higher surface runoff in early spring, and the decreased soil infiltrability in snowmelt periods contributed much to this higher surface runoff. These findings are helpful for identification of critical soil erosion periods when making soil management before critical months, especially those before snowmelt periods.

  14. Challenges in the development of analytical soil compaction models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Thomas; Lamandé, Mathieu


    Soil compaction can cause a number of environmental and agronomic problems (e.g. flooding, erosion, leaching of agrochemicals to recipient waters, emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, crop yield losses), resulting in significant economic damage to society and agriculture. Strategies...... and recommendations for the prevention of soil compaction often rely on simulation models. This paper highlights some issues that need further consideration in order to improve soil compaction modelling, with the focus on analytical models. We discuss the different issues based on comparisons between experimental...... to stress propagation, an anomaly that needs further attention. We found large differences between soil stress-strain behaviour obtained from in situ measurements during wheeling experiments and those measured on cylindrical soil samples in standard laboratory tests. We concluded that the main reason...

  15. Modeling Soil Temperature Variations | Ogunlela | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on modeling soil temperature variations. Transient heat flow principles were used in the study, with the assumptions that the heat flow was one-dimensional, the soil was homogenous and that the thermal diffusivity was constant. Average conditions are also assumed. The annual and diurnal (daily) soil ...


    Maintaining soil productivity is essential if agriculture production systems are to be sustainable, thus soil quality is an essential issue. However, there is a paucity of tools for measurement for the purpose of understanding changes in soil quality. Here the possibility of using fuzzy modeling t...

  17. SWB-A modified Thornthwaite-Mather Soil-Water-Balance code for estimating groundwater recharge (United States)

    Westenbroek, S.M.; Kelson, V.A.; Dripps, W.R.; Hunt, R.J.; Bradbury, K.R.


    A Soil-Water-Balance (SWB) computer code has been developed to calculate spatial and temporal variations in groundwater recharge. The SWB model calculates recharge by use of commonly available geographic information system (GIS) data layers in combination with tabular climatological data. The code is based on a modified Thornthwaite-Mather soil-water-balance approach, with components of the soil-water balance calculated at a daily timestep. Recharge calculations are made on a rectangular grid of computational elements that may be easily imported into a regional groundwater-flow model. Recharge estimates calculated by the code may be output as daily, monthly, or annual values.

  18. Effects of soil management techniques on soil water erosion in apricot orchards. (United States)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Brevik, Eric C; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Jordán, Antonio; Cerdà, Artemi


    Soil erosion is extreme in Mediterranean orchards due to management impact, high rainfall intensities, steep slopes and erodible parent material. Vall d'Albaida is a traditional fruit production area which, due to the Mediterranean climate and marly soils, produces sweet fruits. However, these highly productive soils are left bare under the prevailing land management and marly soils are vulnerable to soil water erosion when left bare. In this paper we study the impact of different agricultural land management strategies on soil properties (bulk density, soil organic matter, soil moisture), soil water erosion and runoff, by means of simulated rainfall experiments and soil analyses. Three representative land managements (tillage/herbicide/covered with vegetation) were selected, where 20 paired plots (60 plots) were established to determine soil losses and runoff. The simulated rainfall was carried out at 55mmh(-1) in the summer of 2013 (soil moisture) for one hour on 0.25m(2) circular plots. The results showed that vegetation cover, soil moisture and organic matter were significantly higher in covered plots than in tilled and herbicide treated plots. However, runoff coefficient, total runoff, sediment yield and soil erosion were significantly higher in herbicide treated plots compared to the others. Runoff sediment concentration was significantly higher in tilled plots. The lowest values were identified in covered plots. Overall, tillage, but especially herbicide treatment, decreased vegetation cover, soil moisture, soil organic matter, and increased bulk density, runoff coefficient, total runoff, sediment yield and soil erosion. Soil erosion was extremely high in herbicide plots with 0.91Mgha(-1)h(-1) of soil lost; in the tilled fields erosion rates were lower with 0.51Mgha(-1)h(-1). Covered soil showed an erosion rate of 0.02Mgha(-1)h(-1). These results showed that agricultural management influenced water and sediment dynamics and that tillage and herbicide

  19. Utilization of Weibull equation to obtain soil-water diffusivity in horizontal infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrini, I.A.


    Water movement was studied in horizontal infiltration experiments using laboratory columns of air-dry and homogeneous soil to obtain a simple and suitable equation for soil-water diffusivity. Many water content profiles for each one of the ten soil columns utilized were obtained through gamma-ray attenuation technique using a 137 Cs source. During the measurement of a particular water content profile, the soil column was held in the same position in order to measure changes in time and so to reduce the errors in water content determination. The Weibull equation utilized was excellent in fitting water content profiles experimental data. The use of an analytical function for ν, the Boltzmann variable, according to Weibull model, allowed to obtain a simple equation for soil water diffusivity. Comparisons among the equation here obtained for diffusivity and others solutions found in literature were made, and the unsuitability of a simple exponential variation of diffusivity with water content for the full range of the latter was shown. The necessity of admitting the time dependency for diffusivity was confirmed and also the possibility fixing that dependency on a well known value extended to generalized soil water infiltration studies was found. Finally, it was shown that the soil water diffusivity function given by the equation here proposed can be obtained just by the analysis of the wetting front advance as a function of time. (Author) [pt

  20. Effects on Soil Water and Soil Air Caused by the Dry Summer 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theis, D.; Aeschlimann, D.; Blum, H. [Eth Zurich (Switzerland); Frossard, E. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland); Siegwolf, R.T.W.


    Efflux of CO{sub 2} and water vapor from soils influence the isotopic composition of above ground air. Prolonged hot and dry weather conditions can cause significant changes in soil air and soil water {sup 13}C and {sup 18}O isotope ratios. After a period of hot and dry weather in summer 2003 soil samples showed an increase of up to 0.5% on{delta}{sup 18}O of soil water in all sampled depths (0-12cm), and at the same time {delta}{sup 13}C of soil air CO{sub 2} rose by 0.4% with an up to four-fold decrease of soil CO{sub 2} concentration. These effects are thought to be caused by alteration of the soil structure and changes in microbial activity due to dryness. (author)

  1. Modelling the economic tradeoffs between allocating water for crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 5, 2009 ... typically evaluated with an optimisation model. Critical to the analysis is the modelling of the non-linear relationship between the increasing leaching requirement, resulting from soil water salinity, and final crop yield as affected by soil water salinity. Within a South African context, Armour and Viljoen (2002;.

  2. Criterion 4: Conservation and maintenance of soil and water resources (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield


    Soils are the fundamental resource enabling land to provide a wide array of benefits. Both humans and wildlife rely on soils for the production of life-sustaining nourishment and shelter. Soil is important to society because it supports plants that supply food, fibers, drugs, and other essentials and because it filters water and recycles wastes.The factors that affect...

  3. Imaging and modelling root water uptake (United States)

    Zarebanadkouki, M.; Meunier, F.; Javaux, M.; Kaestner, A.; Carminati, A.


    Spatially resolved measurement and modelling of root water uptake is urgently needed to identify root traits that can improve capture of water from the soil. However, measuring water fluxes into roots of transpiring plants growing in soil remains challenging. Here, we describe an in-situ technique to measure local fluxes of water into roots. The technique consists of tracing the transport of deuterated water (D2O) in soil and roots using time series neutron radiography and tomography. A diffusion-convection model was used to model the transport of D2O in roots. The model includes root features such as the endodermis, xylem and the composite flow of water in the apoplastic and symplastic pathways. Diffusion permeability of root cells and of the endodermis were estimated by fitting the experiment during the night, when transpiration was negligible. The water fluxes at different position of the root system were obtained by fitting the experiments at daytime. The results showed that root water uptake was not uniform along root system and varied among different root types. The measured profiles of root water uptake into roots were used to estimate the radial and axial hydraulic of the roots. A three-dimensional model of root water uptake was used to fit the measured water fluxes by adjusting the root radial and axial hydraulic conductivities. We found that the estimated radial conductivities decreased with root age, while the axial conducances increased, and they are different among root types. The significance of this study is the development of a method to estimate 1) water uptake and 2) the radial and axial hydraulic conductivities of roots of transpiring plants growing in the soil.

  4. Isotope fractionation of sandy-soil water during evaporation - an experimental study. (United States)

    Rao, Wen-Bo; Han, Liang-Feng; Tan, Hong-Bing; Wang, Shuai


    Soil samples containing water with known stable isotopic compositions were prepared. The soil water was recovered by using vacuum/heat distillation. The experiments were held under different conditions to control rates of water evaporation and water recovery. Recoveries, δ 18 O and δ 2 H values of the soil water were determined. Analyses of the data using a Rayleigh distillation model indicate that under the experimental conditions only loosely bound water is extractable in cases where the recovery is smaller than 100 %. Due to isotopic exchange between vapour and remaining water in the micro channels or capillaries of the soil matrix, isotopic fractionation may take place under near-equilibrium conditions. This causes the observed relationship between δ 2 H and δ 18 O of the extracted water samples to have a slope close to 8. The results of this study may indicate that, in arid zones when soil that initially contains water dries out, the slope of the relationship between δ 2 H and δ 18 O values should be close to 8. Thus, a smaller slope, as observed by some groundwater and soil water samples in arid zones, may be caused by evaporation of water before the water has entered the unsaturated zone.

  5. Effect of Two Halophyte Plants Irrigated with Saline Water on Soil Salinization under Different Soil Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Sabour, M. F.; Rizk, M. A.; Abdel Aziz, A.; Moustafa, S. M.; Eigala, A. M.; Abuo El-Naga, H.


    A lysimeter experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of saline water irrigation at three levels namely, fresh water (0.3), 4 and 8 dS/m on salt accumulation and its effect on different soil types. The tested halophyte plants were Kallar grass and Atriplex (Salt bush). The tested soil types were sandy, calcareous and clayey soils. Irrigating the soil with saline water (either 4 or 8 dS/m) resulted in increasing salinity levels in soil profile with different orders of magnitude, depending on the soil type layer and the cultivated plant. Kallar grass seems limit the accumulation of salts in soil profile, compared to Atriplex at any tested soil. This may be attributed to its root effect on soil profile such as dispersed soil matrix and improved soil structure, which provide channels for solute movement through the profile under halophyte cultivation. Calculating the SAR average values for each irrigation treatment (18 values) showed significant increase in soil SAR values, especially under Kallar grass compared to Atriplex. The highest SAR values were observed in the case of clayey soil. However, the relevant SAR values under Atriplex cultivation were always lower. Values for SAR were always higher in the saline clayey > calcareous > sandy soils

  6. Role of soil sorption and microbial degradation on dissipation of mesotrione in plant-available soil water. (United States)

    Shaner, Dale; Brunk, Galen; Nissen, Scott; Westra, Phil; Chen, Wenlin


    Mesotrione is a carotenoid biosynthesis-inhibiting herbicide labeled for pre-emergence and postemergence weed control in corn production. Understanding the factors that influence the dissipation of mesotrione in soil and in the plant-available water (PAW) is important for the environmental fate assessment and optimal weed management practices. The present research investigated the role of soil properties and microbial activities on the interrelated sorption and degradation processes of mesotrione in four soils by direct measurements of PAW. We found that mesotrione bound to the soils time dependently, with approximately 14 d to reach equilibrium. The 24-h batch-slurry equilibrium experiments provided the sorption partition coefficient ranging from 0.26 to 3.53 L kg(-1), depending on soil organic carbon and pH. The dissipation of mesotrione in the soil-bound phase was primarily attributed to desorption to the PAW. Degradation in the PAW was rapid and primarily dependent on microbial actions, with half-degradation time (DT(50)) soils tested. The rapid degradation in the PAW became rate limited by sorption as more available molecules were depleted in the soil pore water, resulting in a more slowed overall process for the total soil-water system (DT(50) soils. A coupled kinetics model calibrated with the data from the laboratory centrifugation technique provided an effective approach to investigate the interrelated processes of sorption and degradation in realistic soil moisture conditions. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Measurement and inference of profile soil-water dynamics at different hillslope positions in a semiarid agricultural watershed (United States)

    Green, Timothy R.; Erskine, Robert H.


    Dynamics of profile soil water vary with terrain, soil, and plant characteristics. The objectives addressed here are to quantify dynamic soil water content over a range of slope positions, infer soil profile water fluxes, and identify locations most likely influenced by multidimensional flow. The instrumented 56 ha watershed lies mostly within a dryland (rainfed) wheat field in semiarid eastern Colorado. Dielectric capacitance sensors were used to infer hourly soil water content for approximately 8 years (minus missing data) at 18 hillslope positions and four or more depths. Based on previous research and a new algorithm, sensor measurements (resonant frequency) were rescaled to estimate soil permittivity, then corrected for temperature effects on bulk electrical conductivity before inferring soil water content. Using a mass-conservation method, we analyzed multitemporal changes in soil water content at each sensor to infer the dynamics of water flux at different depths and landscape positions. At summit positions vertical processes appear to control profile soil water dynamics. At downslope positions infrequent overland flow and unsaturated subsurface lateral flow appear to influence soil water dynamics. Crop water use accounts for much of the variability in soil water between transects that are either cropped or fallow in alternating years, while soil hydraulic properties and near-surface hydrology affect soil water variability across landscape positions within each management zone. The observed spatiotemporal patterns exhibit the joint effects of short-term hydrology and long-term soil development. Quantitative methods of analyzing soil water patterns in space and time improve our understanding of dominant soil hydrological processes and provide alternative measures of model performance.

  8. Correlative assessment of two predictive soil hydrology models with measured surface soil geochemistry (United States)

    Filley, T. R.; Li, M.; Le, P. V.; Kumar, P.; Yan, Q.; Papanicolaou, T.; Hou, T.; Wang, J.


    Spatial variability of surface soil organic matter on the hill slope scale is strongly influenced by topographic variation, especially in sloping terrains, where the coupled effects of soil moisture and texture are principle drivers for stabilization and decomposition. Topographic wetness index (TWI) calculations have shown reasonable correlations with soil organic carbon (SOC) content at broad spatial scales. However, due to inherent limitations of the "depression filling" approach, traditional TWI methods are generally ineffectual at capturing how small-scale micro-topographic ( 1m2) variation controls water dynamics and, subsequently, poorly correlate to surface soil biogeochmical measures. For TWI models to capture biogeochmical controls at the scales made possible by LiDAR data they need to incoportate the dynamic connection between soil moisture, local climate, edaphic properties, and micro-topographic variability. We present the results of a study correlating surface soil geochemical data across field sites in the Upper Sangamon River Basin (USRB) in Central Illinois, USA with a range of land use types to SAGA TWI and a newly developed Dynamic Topographic Wetness Index (DTWI). The DTWI for all field sites were obtained from the probability distribution of long-term stochastically modeled soil moisture in between wilting point (WP) and field capacity (FC) using Dhara modeling framework. Whereas the SAGA TWI showed no correlation with soil geochemistry measures across the site-specific data, the DTWI, within a site, was strongly, positively correlated with soil nitrogen, organic carbon, and δ15N at three of the six sites and revealed controls potentially related to connectivity to local drainage paths. Overall, this study indicates that soil moisture derived by DTWI may offer a significant improvement in generating estimates in long-term soil moisture, and subsequently, soil biogeochemistry dynamics at a crucial landscape scale.

  9. Intensified Vegetation Water Use due to Soil Calcium Leaching under Acid Deposition (United States)

    Lanning, M.; Wang, L.; Scanlon, T. M.; Vadeboncoeur, M. A.; Adams, M. B.; Epstein, H. E.; Druckenbrod, D.


    Despite the important role vegetation plays in the global water cycle, the exact controls of vegetation water use, especially the role of soil biogeochemistry, remain elusive. Nitrate and sulfate deposition from fossil fuel burning has caused significant soil acidification, leading to the leaching of soil base cations. From a physiological perspective, plants require various soil cations as signaling and regulatory ions as well as integral parts of structural molecules; a depletion of soil cations can cause reduced productivity and abnormal responses to environmental change. A deficiency in calcium could also potentially prolong stomatal opening, leading to increased transpiration until enough calcium had been acquired to stimulate stomatal closure. Based on the plant physiology and the nature of acidic deposition, we hypothesize that depletion of the soil calcium supply, induced by acid deposition, would intensify vegetation water use at the watershed scale. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing a long-term and unique data set (1989-2012) of soil lysimeter data along with stream flow and evapotranspiration data at the Fernow Experimental Forest. We show that depletion of soil calcium by acid deposition can intensify vegetation water use ( 10% increase in evapotranspiration and depletion in soil water) for the first time. These results are critical to understanding future water availability, biogeochemical cycles, and surficial energy flux and may help reduce uncertainties in terrestrial biosphere models.

  10. Chemical-Specific Representation of Air-Soil Exchange and Soil Penetration in Regional Multimedia Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.; Bennett, D.H.


    In multimedia mass-balance models, the soil compartment is an important sink as well as a conduit for transfers to vegetation and shallow groundwater. Here a novel approach for constructing soil transport algorithms for multimedia fate models is developed and evaluated. The resulting algorithms account for diffusion in gas and liquid components; advection in gas, liquid, or solid phases; and multiple transformation processes. They also provide an explicit quantification of the characteristic soil penetration depth. We construct a compartment model using three and four soil layers to replicate with high reliability the flux and mass distribution obtained from the exact analytical solution describing the transient dispersion, advection, and transformation of chemicals in soil with fixed properties and boundary conditions. Unlike the analytical solution, which requires fixed boundary conditions, the soil compartment algorithms can be dynamically linked to other compartments (air, vegetation, ground water, surface water) in multimedia fate models. We demonstrate and evaluate the performance of the algorithms in a model with applications to benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, MTBE, TCDD, and tritium.

  11. Soil fauna: key to new carbon models (United States)

    Filser, Juliane; Faber, Jack H.; Tiunov, Alexei V.; Brussaard, Lijbert; Frouz, Jan; De Deyn, Gerlinde; Uvarov, Alexei V.; Berg, Matty P.; Lavelle, Patrick; Loreau, Michel; Wall, Diana H.; Querner, Pascal; Eijsackers, Herman; José Jiménez, Juan


    Soil organic matter (SOM) is key to maintaining soil fertility, mitigating climate change, combatting land degradation, and conserving above- and below-ground biodiversity and associated soil processes and ecosystem services. In order to derive management options for maintaining these essential services provided by soils, policy makers depend on robust, predictive models identifying key drivers of SOM dynamics. Existing SOM models and suggested guidelines for future SOM modelling are defined mostly in terms of plant residue quality and input and microbial decomposition, overlooking the significant regulation provided by soil fauna. The fauna controls almost any aspect of organic matter turnover, foremost by regulating the activity and functional composition of soil microorganisms and their physical-chemical connectivity with soil organic matter. We demonstrate a very strong impact of soil animals on carbon turnover, increasing or decreasing it by several dozen percent, sometimes even turning C sinks into C sources or vice versa. This is demonstrated not only for earthworms and other larger invertebrates but also for smaller fauna such as Collembola. We suggest that inclusion of soil animal activities (plant residue consumption and bioturbation altering the formation, depth, hydraulic properties and physical heterogeneity of soils) can fundamentally affect the predictive outcome of SOM models. Understanding direct and indirect impacts of soil fauna on nutrient availability, carbon sequestration, greenhouse gas emissions and plant growth is key to the understanding of SOM dynamics in the context of global carbon cycling models. We argue that explicit consideration of soil fauna is essential to make realistic modelling predictions on SOM dynamics and to detect expected non-linear responses of SOM dynamics to global change. We present a decision framework, to be further developed through the activities of KEYSOM, a European COST Action, for when mechanistic SOM models

  12. Predicting the water-drop energy required to breakdown dry soil aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbagwu, J.S.C.; Bazzoffi, P.


    The raindrop energy required to breakdown dry soil aggregates is an index of structural stability which has been found very useful in modelling soil erosion process and in evaluating the suitability of tillage implements for different soils. The aim of this research was to develop and validate a model for predicting the specific water-drop energy required to breakdown aggregates (D) as influenced by soil properties. Air-dry aggregates (2-4 mm in diameter), collected from 15 surface (0-20 cm) soils in north central Italy were used for this study. The actual and natural log-transformed D values were regressed on the soil properties. Clay content, wilting point moisture content (WP) and percent water-stable aggregates (WSA) > 2.0 mm were good predictors of D. Empirical models developed from either clay content or WP predicted D in 70% of the test soils whereas the model developed from WSA > 2.0 mm predicted D in 90% of the test soils. The correlation coefficients (r) between measured and predicted D were 0.961, 0.963 and 0.997 respectively, for models developed from clay, WP and WSA > 2.0 mm. The validity of these models need to be tested on other soils with a wider variation in properties than those used to developed the models. (author). 42 refs, 5 tabs

  13. Net carbon allocation in soybean seedlings as influenced by soil water stress at two soil temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, E.L.; Boersma, L.; Ekasingh, M.


    The influence of water stress at two soil temperatures on allocation of net photoassimilated carbon in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) was investigated using compartmental analysis. The experimental phase employed classical 14 C labeling methodology with plants equilibrated at soil water potentials of -0.04, -0.25 and -0.50 MPa; and soil temperatures of 25 and 10C. Carbon immobilization in the shoot apex generally followed leaf elongation rates with decreases in both parameters at increasing water stress at both soil temperatures. However, where moderate water stress resulted in dramatic declines in leaf elongation rates, carbon immobilization rates were sharply decreased only at severe water stress levels. Carbon immobilization was decreased in the roots and nodules of the nonwater stressed treatment by the lower soil temperature. This relation was reversed with severe water stress, and carbon immobilization in the roots and nodules was increased at the lower soil temperature. Apparently, the increased demand for growth and/or carbon storage in these tissues with increased water stress overcame the low soil temperature limitations. Both carbon pool sizes and partitioning of carbon to the sink tissues increased with moderate water stress at 25C soil temperature. Increased pool sizes were consistent with whole plant osmotic adjustment at moderate water stress. Increased partitioning to the sinks was consistent with carbon translocation processes being less severely influenced by water stress than is photosynthesis

  14. Application of the Modified Compaction Material Model to the Analysis of Landmine Detonation in Soil with Various Degrees of Water Saturation (United States)


    TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 21 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a...Simulating Stress Wave Propagation due to Blast Loading, International Journal for Numerical and Analytical methods in Geomechanics 28 (2004), 33–56. [19...B. Loret and N. Khalili, A three-phase Model for Unsaturated Soils, International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 24

  15. Prediction of clay content from water vapour sorption isotherms considering hysteresis and soil organic matter content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, E.; Tuller, M.; Møldrup, Per


    for estimating clay content from hygroscopic water at different relative humidity (RH) levels while considering hysteresis and organic matter content. Continuous adsorption/desorption vapour sorption isotherm loops were measured for 150 differently textured soils with a state-of-the-art vapour sorption analyser...... vapour sorption, which can be measured within a shorter period of time, have recently been developed. Such models are often based on single-point measurements of water adsorption and do not account for sorption hysteresis or organic matter content. The present study introduces regression relationships...... model encompasses all 150 soils regardless of organic carbon (OC) content, the second model considers only soils with OC

  16. Soil-water repellency characteristic curves for soil profiles with organic carbon gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijewardana, Nadeeka Senani; Müller, Karin; Møldrup, Per


    Highlights •Water repellency at different soil organic carbon (SOC) contents was measured. •Repellency was restricted to the top 20 cm of the soil profiles. •The sessile drop method is highly sensitive at high SOC contents. •We proposed six repellency parameters for repellent soils. •Functions...

  17. Soil variability and effectiveness of soil and water conservation in the Sahel.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hien, F.G.; Rietkerk, M.; Stroosnijder, L.


    Sahelian sylvopastoral lands often degrade into bare and crusted areas where regeneration of soil and vegetation is impossible in the short term unless soil and water conservation measures are implemented. Five combinations of tillage with and without mulch on three crust type/soil type combinations

  18. Performance Evaluation of Infiltration Models in a Hydromorphic Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four infiltration models were investigated for their capacity to describe water infiltration into hydromorphic (gleysol) soil. The Models were Kostiakov\\'s (1932), Philip\\'s (1957) Kostiakov- Lewis\\'(1982) and Modified Kostiakov (1978). Field measurement of infiltration was made using double ring infiltrometers on an ...

  19. Dielectric Relaxation of Bound Water versus Soil Matric Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.A.; Dirksen, C.; Kampers, F.W.H.; Feddes, R.A.


    The electrical permittivity of soil is a function of the water content, which facilitates water content measurements. The permittivity of soil is also a function of the frequency of the applied electric field. This frequency dependence can be described by the relationship between the dielectric

  20. Soil water use by Ceanothus velutinus and two grasses. (United States)

    W. Lopushinsky; G.O. Klock


    Seasonal trends of soil water content in plots of snowbrush (Ceanothus velutinus Dougl.), orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata L), and pinegrass (Calamagrostis rubes- cens Buckl.) and in bare plots were measured on a burned-over forest watershed in north-central Washington. A comparison of soil water contents at depths of 12, 24,...

  1. Field, laboratory and estimated soil-water content limits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 21, 2005 ... For the purpose of irrigation scheduling, estimates of soil-water content limits are determined using field or laboratory meas- urements or empirically-based regression equations. In this study the field method involved measuring simultaneously the soil-water content (using a frequency domain reflectometer ...

  2. Comparison of soil water potential sensors: a drying experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degre, Aurore; Ploeg, van der M.J.; Caldwell, Todd; Gooren, H.P.A.


    The soil water retention curve (WRC) plays a major role in a soil’s hydrodynamic behavior. Many measurement techniques are currently available for determining the WRC in the laboratory. Direct in situ WRC can be obtained from simultaneous soil moisture and water potential readings covering a wide

  3. Soil water potential requirement for germination of winter wheat (United States)

    In semi-arid climates seed is often sown into soil with inadequate water for rapid germination. This study was designed to measure the soil water potential limits for rapid, adequate, and marginal germination of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). We also tested for differences between cultivars an...

  4. Linkages between forest soils and water quality and quantity (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; George G. Ice; C. Rhett Jackson


    The most sustainable and best quality fresh water sources in the world originate in forest ecosystems. The biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of forest soils are particularly well suited to delivering high quality water to streams, moderating stream hydrology, and providing diverse aquatic habitat. Forest soils feature litter layers and...

  5. Field, laboratory and estimated soil-water content limits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the purpose of irrigation scheduling, estimates of soil-water content limits are determined using field or laboratory measurements or empirically-based regression equations. In this study the field method involved measuring simultaneously the soil-water content (using a frequency domain reflectometer with the PR1 ...

  6. Movement of Irrigation Water in Soil from a Surface Emitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Abbas Dawood


    Full Text Available rickle irrigation is one of the most conservative irrigation techniques since it implies supplying water directly on the soil through emitters. Emitters dissipate energy of water at the end of the trickle irrigation system and provide water at emission points. The area wetted by an emitter depends upon the discharge of emitter, soil texture, initial soil water content, and soil permeability. The objectives of this research were to predict water distribution profiles through different soils for different conditions and quantify the distribution profiles in terms of main characteristics of soil and emitter. The wetting patterns were simulated at the end of each hour for a total time of application of 12 hrs, emitter discharges of 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 lph, and five initial volumetric soil water contents. Simulation of water flow from a single surface emitter was carried out by using the numerically-based software Hydrus-2D/3D, Version 2.04. Two approaches were used in developing formulas to predict the domains of the wetted pattern. In order to verify the results obtained by implementing the software Hydrus-2D/3D a field experiment was conducted to measure the wetted diameter and compare measured values with simulated ones. The results of the research showed that the developed formulas to express the wetted diameter and depth in terms of emitter discharge, time of application, and initial soil water content are very general and can be used with very good accuracy.

  7. Evaluating lysimeter drainage against soil deep percolation modeled with profile soil moisture, field tracer propagation, and lab measured soil hydraulic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasquez, Vicente; Thomsen, Anton Gårde; Iversen, Bo Vangsø

    Quantifying recharge to shallow aquifers via soil deep percolation is needed for sustainable management of water resources. This includes modeled predictions to address the effects of climate change on recharge. Different methods to estimate soil deep percolation exist but few comparisons among...... them have been reported. To compare among methods, one year of four large-scale lysimeters drainage (D) was evaluated against modeled soil deep percolation using either profile soil moisture, bromide breakthrough curves from suction cups, or measured soil hydraulic properties in the laboratory....... Measured volumetric soil water content (q) was 3-4% higher inside lysimeters than in the field probably due to a zero tension lower boundary condition inside lysimeters. D from soil hydraulic properties measured in the laboratory resulted in a 15% higher evapotranspiration and 12% lower drainage...

  8. Percolation theory and its application for interpretation of soil water retention curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodesova, R.


    The soil porous system has traditionally been deduced from the soil-water retention curve with the assumption of homogeneity and free accessibility of pores, defined as capillary tubes, from the sink/source of water. But real soil fabric is mostly characterized by aggregates. In this case, the soil porous system cannot be modeled as a homogeneous one. To examine the differences between homogeneous and heterogeneous soil porous systems, we studied two types of soils: sandy soil and coarse sandy soil. We applied image processing filters and the ARC/INFO Grid module to analyze pore sizes in both soils from their electron microscope images taken at two different magnifications. We used the resulting pore-size distribution data to generate 3-D porous media consisting of pores and throats. The homogeneous pore structure was created as a mono-modal pore-throat network with one pore-size distribution. The heterogeneous pore structure was designed as a bi-modal pore-throat network with two pore-size distributions, where the pore sizes were hierarchically arranged in the nodes of the network. We applied the percolation model to simulate water and air displacement in these networks. The distribution of water in the nodes of the networks was studied increasing/decreasing steps of pressure head and the drainage and wetting branches of the retention curves were evaluated. The soil-water retention curves modeled for the mono-modal and bi-modal porous systems had different characters. The simulated shape of the retention curve in the mono-modal case was close to the step-like form of a retention curve characteristic of unstructured soil. The shape of the simulated retention curve in the bi-modal case was smoother, more gradual, and closer to the shape of the retention curve of a real, structured soil. (author)

  9. Soil water balance scenario studies using predicted soil hydraulic parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nemes, A.; Wösten, J.H.M.; Bouma, J.; Várallyay, G.


    Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) have become a topic drawing increasing interest within the field of soil and environmental research because they can provide important soil physical data at relatively low cost. Few studies, however, explore which contributions PTFs can make to land-use planning, in

  10. Evaluating status change of soil potassium from path model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenming He

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine critical environmental parameters of soil K availability and to quantify those contributors by using a proposed path model. In this study, plot experiments were designed into different treatments, and soil samples were collected and further analyzed in laboratory to investigate soil properties influence on soil potassium forms (water soluble K, exchangeable K, non-exchangeable K. Furthermore, path analysis based on proposed path model was carried out to evaluate the relationship between potassium forms and soil properties. Research findings were achieved as followings. Firstly, key direct factors were soil S, ratio of sodium-potassium (Na/K, the chemical index of alteration (CIA, Soil Organic Matter in soil solution (SOM, Na and total nitrogen in soil solution (TN, and key indirect factors were Carbonate (CO3, Mg, pH, Na, S, and SOM. Secondly, path model can effectively determine direction and quantities of potassium status changes between Exchangeable potassium (eK, Non-exchangeable potassium (neK and water-soluble potassium (wsK under influences of specific environmental parameters. In reversible equilibrium state of [Formula: see text], K balance state was inclined to be moved into β and χ directions in treatments of potassium shortage. However in reversible equilibrium of [Formula: see text], K balance state was inclined to be moved into θ and λ directions in treatments of water shortage. Results showed that the proposed path model was able to quantitatively disclose moving direction of K status and quantify its equilibrium threshold. It provided a theoretical and practical basis for scientific and effective fertilization in agricultural plants growth.

  11. Soil water movement in the unsaturated zone of an inland arid region: Mulched drip irrigation experiment (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Zhou, Tiantian


    Agricultural irrigation with trans-basin water diversion can effectively relieve the water paucity in arid and semi-arid regions, however, this may be accompanied by eco-environmental problems (e.g., saline soils, rising groundwater levels, water quality problems). The mechanism of soil water movement under irrigation in the unsaturated zone of arid regions is a key scientific problem that should be solved in order to evaluate agricultural water management and further improve current irrigation practices. This study investigated the impact of drip irrigation on soil water movement in the unsaturated zone of a cotton field in an inland arid region (the Karamay Agricultural Development Area), northwest China. Combining in situ observational physical data with temporal variation in stable isotopic compositions of soil water, we described the soil water flow system and mechanism in severe (Plot 1) and mild (Plot 2) saline-alkali cotton fields. The infiltration depths are 0-150 cm for both plots. Drip irrigation scheduling makes no significant contribution to local groundwater recharge, however, groundwater can move into the unsaturated zone through capillary rise during cotton flowering and boll periods. Plot 2 is less prone to having secondary soil salinization than Plot 1 due to the existence of a middle layer (approximately 100 cm thick), which elongated the distance between the root zone and aquifer. Rise in the water table (approximately 60 cm for Plot 1 and 50 cm for Plot 2) could be caused by lateral groundwater flow instead of vertical infiltration. We estimated the soil water storage changes in the unsaturated zone and proposed a conceptual model for deciphering the movement process of soil water. This study provides a scientific basis for determining the rise of groundwater levels and potential development of saline soils and improving agricultural water management in arid regions.

  12. Untangle soil-water-mucilage interactions: 1H NMR Relaxometry is lifting the veil (United States)

    Brax, Mathilde; Buchmann, Christian; Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen


    Mucilage is mainly produced at the root tips and has a high water holding capacity derived from highly hydrophilic gel-forming substances. The objective of the MUCILAGE project is to understand the mechanistic role of mucilage for the regulation of water supply for plants. Our subproject investigates the chemical and physical properties of mucilage as pure gel and mixed with soil. 1H-NMR Relaxometry and PFG NMR represent non-intrusive powerful methods for soil scientific research by allowing quantification of the water distribution as well as monitoring of the water mobility in soil pores and gel phases.Relaxation of gel water differs from the one of pure water due to additional interactions with the gel matrix. Mucilage in soil leads to a hierarchical pore structure, consisting of the polymeric biohydrogel network surrounded by the surface of soil particles. The two types of relaxation rates 1/T1 and 1/T2 measured with 1H-NMR relaxometry refer to different relaxation mechanisms of water, while PFG-NMR measures the water self-diffusion coefficient. The objective of our study is to distinguish in situ water in gel from pore water in a simplified soil system, and to determine how the "gel effect" affects both relaxation rates and the water self-diffusion coefficient in porous systems. We demonstrate how the mucilage concentration and the soil solution alter the properties of water in the respective gel phases and pore systems in model soils. To distinguish gel-inherent processes from classical processes, we investigated the variations of the water mobility in pure chia mucilage under different conditions by using 1H-NMR relaxometry and PFG NMR. Using model soils, the signals coming from pore water and gel water were differentiated. We combined the equations describing 1H-NMR relaxation in porous systems and our experimental results, to explain how the presence of gel in soil affects 1H-NMR relaxation. Out of this knowledge we propose a method, which determines in

  13. Plant-available soil water capacity: estimation methods and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Montoani Silva


    Full Text Available The plant-available water capacity of the soil is defined as the water content between field capacity and wilting point, and has wide practical application in planning the land use. In a representative profile of the Cerrado Oxisol, methods for estimating the wilting point were studied and compared, using a WP4-T psychrometer and Richards chamber for undisturbed and disturbed samples. In addition, the field capacity was estimated by the water content at 6, 10, 33 kPa and by the inflection point of the water retention curve, calculated by the van Genuchten and cubic polynomial models. We found that the field capacity moisture determined at the inflection point was higher than by the other methods, and that even at the inflection point the estimates differed, according to the model used. By the WP4-T psychrometer, the water content was significantly lower found the estimate of the permanent wilting point. We concluded that the estimation of the available water holding capacity is markedly influenced by the estimation methods, which has to be taken into consideration because of the practical importance of this parameter.

  14. Wood chip mulch thickness effects on soil water, soil temperature, weed growth, and landscape plant growth (United States)

    Wood chip mulches are used in landscapes to reduce soil water evaporation and competition from weeds. A study was conducted over a three-year period to determine soil water content at various depths under four wood chip mulch treatments and to evaluate the effects of wood chip thickness on growth of...

  15. Large zero-tension plate lysimeters for soil water and solute collection in undisturbed soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Peters


    Full Text Available Water collection from undisturbed unsaturated soils to estimate in situ water and solute fluxes in the field is a challenge, in particular if soils are heterogeneous. Large sampling devices are required if preferential flow paths are present. We present a modular plate system that allows installation of large zero-tension lysimeter plates under undisturbed soils in the field. To investigate the influence of the lysimeter on the water flow field in the soil, a numerical 2-D simulation study was conducted for homogeneous soils with uni- and bimodal pore-size distributions and stochastic Miller-Miller heterogeneity. The collection efficiency was found to be highly dependent on the hydraulic functions, infiltration rate, and lysimeter size, and was furthermore affected by the degree of heterogeneity. In homogeneous soils with high saturated conductivities the devices perform poorly and even large lysimeters (width 250 cm can be bypassed by the soil water. Heterogeneities of soil hydraulic properties result into a network of flow channels that enhance the sampling efficiency of the lysimeter plates. Solute breakthrough into zero-tension lysimeter occurs slightly retarded as compared to the free soil, but concentrations in the collec