WorldWideScience

Sample records for modelling explain reader

  1. Modern elementary particle physics explaining and extending the standard model

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Gordon

    2017-01-01

    This book is written for students and scientists wanting to learn about the Standard Model of particle physics. Only an introductory course knowledge about quantum theory is needed. The text provides a pedagogical description of the theory, and incorporates the recent Higgs boson and top quark discoveries. With its clear and engaging style, this new edition retains its essential simplicity. Long and detailed calculations are replaced by simple approximate ones. It includes introductions to accelerators, colliders, and detectors, and several main experimental tests of the Standard Model are explained. Descriptions of some well-motivated extensions of the Standard Model prepare the reader for new developments. It emphasizes the concepts of gauge theories and Higgs physics, electroweak unification and symmetry breaking, and how force strengths vary with energy, providing a solid foundation for those working in the field, and for those who simply want to learn about the Standard Model.

  2. Modeling Reader's Emotional State Response on Document's Typographic Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Tsonos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of an experimental study towards modeling the reader's emotional state variations induced by the typographic elements in electronic documents. Based on the dimensional theory of emotions we investigate how typographic elements, like font style (bold, italics, bold-italics and font (type, size, color and background color, affect the reader's emotional states, namely, Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance (PAD. An experimental procedure was implemented conforming to International Affective Picture System guidelines and incorporating the Self-Assessment Manikin test. Thirty students participated in the experiment. The stimulus was a short paragraph of text for which any content, emotion, and/or domain dependent information was excluded. The Analysis of Variance revealed the dependency of (a all the three emotional dimensions on font size and font/background color combinations and (b the Pleasure dimension on font type and font style. We introduce a set of mapping rules showing how PAD vary on the discrete values of font style and font type elements. Moreover, we introduce a set of equations describing the PAD dimensions' dependency on font size. This novel model can contribute to the automated reader's emotional state extraction in order, for example, to enhance the acoustic rendition of the documents, utilizing text-to-speech synthesis.

  3. SOME THEORETICAL MODELS EXPLAINING ADVERTISING EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica Magdalena SOMEŞFĂLEAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Persuade clients is still the main focus of the companies, using a set of methods and techniques designed to influence their behavior, in order to obtain better results (profits over a longer period of time. Since the late nineteenth - early twentieth century, the american E.St.Elmo Lewis, considered a pioneer in advertising and sales, developed the first theory, AIDA model, later used by marketers and advertisers to develop a marketing communications strategy. Later studies have developed other models that are the main subject of this research, which explains how and why persuasive communication works, to understand why some approaches are effective and others are not.

  4. Boosted Regression Tree Models to Explain Watershed ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosted regression tree (BRT) models were developed to quantify the nonlinear relationships between landscape variables and nutrient concentrations in a mesoscale mixed land cover watershed during base-flow conditions. Factors that affect instream biological components, based on the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI), were also analyzed. Seasonal BRT models at two spatial scales (watershed and riparian buffered area [RBA]) for nitrite-nitrate (NO2-NO3), total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and total phosphorus (TP) and annual models for the IBI score were developed. Two primary factors — location within the watershed (i.e., geographic position, stream order, and distance to a downstream confluence) and percentage of urban land cover (both scales) — emerged as important predictor variables. Latitude and longitude interacted with other factors to explain the variability in summer NO2-NO3 concentrations and IBI scores. BRT results also suggested that location might be associated with indicators of sources (e.g., land cover), runoff potential (e.g., soil and topographic factors), and processes not easily represented by spatial data indicators. Runoff indicators (e.g., Hydrological Soil Group D and Topographic Wetness Indices) explained a substantial portion of the variability in nutrient concentrations as did point sources for TP in the summer months. The results from our BRT approach can help prioritize areas for nutrient management in mixed-use and heavily impacted watershed

  5. Type Testing of Model 7200 Automatic TLD Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek Mohammadi, M; Hosseini Pooya, S M

    2017-04-20

    The type testing of measuring devices is one of the most important parts of a quality management system in a personal dosimetry services program. In this study, based upon the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 62387 criteria, a reader-testing program was performed for a home-made personal thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) reader. The stability of the reader, the effects of light exposure, temperature and fluctuations of primary power supply on TLD read-outs as the main parameters were investigated in this program. Moreover, this study assesses some important criteria of dosimetry system including the non-linearity of response, reusability, after effect and overload that may include significant contribution in the performance of a reader. The results showed that the TLD reader met all requirements of the IEC for the reader tests by a large margin. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Explaining clinical behaviors using multiple theoretical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Martin P; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; MacLennan, Graeme; Bonetti, Debbie; Glidewell, Liz; Pitts, Nigel B; Steen, Nick; Thomas, Ruth; Walker, Anne; Johnston, Marie

    2012-10-17

    In the field of implementation research, there is an increased interest in use of theory when designing implementation research studies involving behavior change. In 2003, we initiated a series of five studies to establish a scientific rationale for interventions to translate research findings into clinical practice by exploring the performance of a number of different, commonly used, overlapping behavioral theories and models. We reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods, the performance of the theories, and consider where these methods sit alongside the range of methods for studying healthcare professional behavior change. These were five studies of the theory-based cognitions and clinical behaviors (taking dental radiographs, performing dental restorations, placing fissure sealants, managing upper respiratory tract infections without prescribing antibiotics, managing low back pain without ordering lumbar spine x-rays) of random samples of primary care dentists and physicians. Measures were derived for the explanatory theoretical constructs in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), and Illness Representations specified by the Common Sense Self Regulation Model (CSSRM). We constructed self-report measures of two constructs from Learning Theory (LT), a measure of Implementation Intentions (II), and the Precaution Adoption Process. We collected data on theory-based cognitions (explanatory measures) and two interim outcome measures (stated behavioral intention and simulated behavior) by postal questionnaire survey during the 12-month period to which objective measures of behavior (collected from routine administrative sources) were related. Planned analyses explored the predictive value of theories in explaining variance in intention, behavioral simulation and behavior. Response rates across the five surveys ranged from 21% to 48%; we achieved the target sample size for three of the five surveys. For the predictor variables

  7. Explaining clinical behaviors using multiple theoretical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eccles Martin P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the field of implementation research, there is an increased interest in use of theory when designing implementation research studies involving behavior change. In 2003, we initiated a series of five studies to establish a scientific rationale for interventions to translate research findings into clinical practice by exploring the performance of a number of different, commonly used, overlapping behavioral theories and models. We reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods, the performance of the theories, and consider where these methods sit alongside the range of methods for studying healthcare professional behavior change. Methods These were five studies of the theory-based cognitions and clinical behaviors (taking dental radiographs, performing dental restorations, placing fissure sealants, managing upper respiratory tract infections without prescribing antibiotics, managing low back pain without ordering lumbar spine x-rays of random samples of primary care dentists and physicians. Measures were derived for the explanatory theoretical constructs in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, and Illness Representations specified by the Common Sense Self Regulation Model (CSSRM. We constructed self-report measures of two constructs from Learning Theory (LT, a measure of Implementation Intentions (II, and the Precaution Adoption Process. We collected data on theory-based cognitions (explanatory measures and two interim outcome measures (stated behavioral intention and simulated behavior by postal questionnaire survey during the 12-month period to which objective measures of behavior (collected from routine administrative sources were related. Planned analyses explored the predictive value of theories in explaining variance in intention, behavioral simulation and behavior. Results Response rates across the five surveys ranged from 21% to 48%; we achieved the target sample size for three of

  8. The Seasons Explained by Refutational Modeling Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frede, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the principles and investigation of a small-group laboratory activity based on refutational modeling to teach the concept of seasons to preservice elementary teachers. The results show that these teachers improved significantly when they had to refute their initial misconceptions practically. (Contains 8 figures and 1 table.)

  9. The media effect in Axelrod's model explained

    CERN Document Server

    Peres, Lucas R

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the problem of introducing an external global field -- the mass media -- in Axelrod's model of social dynamics, where in addition to their nearest neighbors, the agents can interact with a virtual neighbor whose cultural features are fixed from the outset. The finding that this apparently homogenizing field actually increases the cultural diversity has been considered a puzzle since the phenomenon was first reported more than a decade ago. Here we offer a simple explanation for it, which is based on the pedestrian observation that Axelrod's model exhibits more cultural diversity, i.e., more distinct cultural domains, when the agents are allowed to interact solely with the media field than when they can interact with their neighbors as well. In this perspective, it is the local homogenizing interactions that work towards making the absorbing configurations less fragmented as compared with the extreme situation in which the agents interact with the media only.

  10. SOME THEORETICAL MODELS EXPLAINING ADVERTISING EFFECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilica Magdalena SOMEŞFĂLEAN

    2014-01-01

    Persuade clients is still the main focus of the companies, using a set of methods and techniques designed to influence their behavior, in order to obtain better results (profits) over a longer period of time. Since the late nineteenth - early twentieth century, the american E.St.Elmo Lewis, considered a pioneer in advertising and sales, developed the first theory, AIDA model, later used by marketers and advertisers to develop a marketing communications strategy. Later studies have developed o...

  11. Nonlinear Dynamic Model Explains The Solar Dynamic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuman, Maria

    Nonlinear mathematical model in torus representation describes the solar dynamic. Its graphic presentation shows that without perturbing force the orbits of the planets would be circles; only perturbing force could elongate the circular orbits into ellipses. Since the Hubble telescope found that the planetary orbits of other stars in the Milky Way are also ellipses, powerful perturbing force must be present in our galaxy. Such perturbing force is the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy with its heavy Black Hole and leftover stars, which we see orbiting around the center of our galaxy. Since observations of NASA's SDO found that magnetic fields rule the solar activity, we can expect when the planets align and their magnetic moments sum up, the already perturbed stars to reverse their magnetic parity (represented graphically as periodic looping through the hole of the torus). We predict that planets aligned on both sides of the Sun, when their magnetic moments sum-up, would induce more flares in the turbulent equatorial zone, which would bulge. When planets align only on one side of the Sun, the strong magnetic gradient of their asymmetric pull would flip the magnetic poles of the Sun. The Sun would elongate pole-to-pole, emit some energy through the poles, and the solar activity would cease. Similar reshaping and emission was observed in stars called magnetars and experimentally observed in super-liquid fast-spinning Helium nanodroplets. We are certain that NASA's SDO will confirm our predictions.

  12. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  13. Generalized linear mixed models for multi-reader multi-case studies of diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Pantoja-Galicia, Norberto; Zhang, Bo; Kotz, Richard M; Pennello, Gene; Zhang, Hui; Jacob, Jessie; Zhang, Zhiwei

    2017-06-01

    Diagnostic tests are often compared in multi-reader multi-case (MRMC) studies in which a number of cases (subjects with or without the disease in question) are examined by several readers using all tests to be compared. One of the commonly used methods for analyzing MRMC data is the Obuchowski-Rockette (OR) method, which assumes that the true area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for each combination of reader and test follows a linear mixed model with fixed effects for test and random effects for reader and the reader-test interaction. This article proposes generalized linear mixed models which generalize the OR model by incorporating a range-appropriate link function that constrains the true AUCs to the unit interval. The proposed models can be estimated by maximizing a pseudo-likelihood based on the approximate normality of AUC estimates. A Monte Carlo expectation-maximization algorithm can be used to maximize the pseudo-likelihood, and a non-parametric bootstrap procedure can be used for inference. The proposed method is evaluated in a simulation study and applied to an MRMC study of breast cancer detection.

  14. Probing Lexical Representations: Simultaneous Modeling of Word and Reader Contributions to Multidimensional Lexical Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Cho, Sun-Joo; Kearns, Devin M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study models reader, item, and word contributions to the lexical representations of 39 morphologically complex words for 172 middle school students using a crossed random-effects item response model with multiple outcomes. We report 3 findings. First, results suggest that lexical representations can be characterized by separate but…

  15. Probing Lexical Representations: Simultaneous Modeling of Word and Reader Contributions to Multidimensional Lexical Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Cho, Sun-Joo; Kearns, Devin M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study models reader, item, and word contributions to the lexical representations of 39 morphologically complex words for 172 middle school students using a crossed random-effects item response model with multiple outcomes. We report 3 findings. First, results suggest that lexical representations can be characterized by separate but…

  16. Modeling and performance analysis of SAW reader systems for delay-line sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiblhofer, Stefan; Schuster, Stefan; Stelzer, Andreas

    2009-10-01

    In this contribution, we present a comprehensive modeling approach for delay line-based surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor reader systems, which provides valuable insight into the interaction of the individual system parameters. A parametric analysis of signal strength, noise, and quantization effects and consideration of important signal processing parameters, such as data windows and averaging, allows prediction of the achievable statistical measurement accuracy by closed-form solutions. The performance and capabilities of the derived model are verified on system design examples as well as multiple practical measurement scenarios, using a prototype 2.45-GHz frequency-stepped continuous-wave SAW reader system.

  17. CHARMM-GUI ligand reader and modeler for CHARMM force field generation of small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonghoon; Lee, Jumin; Jo, Sunhwan; Brooks, Charles L; Lee, Hui Sun; Im, Wonpil

    2017-06-05

    Reading ligand structures into any simulation program is often nontrivial and time consuming, especially when the force field parameters and/or structure files of the corresponding molecules are not available. To address this problem, we have developed Ligand Reader & Modeler in CHARMM-GUI. Users can upload ligand structure information in various forms (using PDB ID, ligand ID, SMILES, MOL/MOL2/SDF file, or PDB/mmCIF file), and the uploaded structure is displayed on a sketchpad for verification and further modification. Based on the displayed structure, Ligand Reader & Modeler generates the ligand force field parameters and necessary structure files by searching for the ligand in the CHARMM force field library or using the CHARMM general force field (CGenFF). In addition, users can define chemical substitution sites and draw substituents in each site on the sketchpad to generate a set of combinatorial structure files and corresponding force field parameters for throughput or alchemical free energy simulations. Finally, the output from Ligand Reader & Modeler can be used in other CHARMM-GUI modules to build a protein-ligand simulation system for all supported simulation programs, such as CHARMM, NAMD, GROMACS, AMBER, GENESIS, LAMMPS, Desmond, OpenMM, and CHARMM/OpenMM. Ligand Reader & Modeler is available as a functional module of CHARMM-GUI at http://www.charmm-gui.org/input/ligandrm. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Using Peer Collaboration to Support Online Reading, Writing, and Communication: An Empowerment Model for Struggling Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Laurie A.; Castek, Jill; O'Byrne, W. Ian; Zawilinski, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This comparative case study investigated the implementation of an empowerment model for struggling readers that utilized the Internet as a context for reading, writing, and communicating in 3 different classroom contexts. Through student-centered techniques, such as flexible grouping and peer teaching, we designed Internet Reciprocal Teaching to…

  19. Natural products--a simple model to explain chemical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firn, Richard D; Jones, Clive G

    2003-08-01

    A simple evolutionary model is presented which explains why organisms produce so many natural products, why so many have low biological activity, why enzymes involved in natural product synthesis have the properties they do and why natural product metabolism is shaped as it is.

  20. A hierarchical Bayes error correction model to explain dynamic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); C. Horváth (Csilla); R. Paap (Richard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractFor promotional planning and market segmentation it is important to understand the short-run and long-run effects of the marketing mix on category and brand sales. In this paper we put forward a sales response model to explain the differences in short-run and long-run effects of promotio

  1. A model for explaining some features of shuttle glow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    A solid state model is proposed which hopefully removes some of the objections to excited atoms being sources for light emanating from surfaces. Glow features are discussed in terms of excited oxygen atoms impinged on the surface, although other species could be treated similarly. Band formation, excited lifetime shortening and glow color are discussed in terms of this model. The model's inability to explain glow emanating above surfaces indicates a necessity for other mechanisms to satisfy this requirements. Several ways of testing the model are described.

  2. Can model-free reinforcement learning explain deontological moral judgments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayars, Alisabeth

    2016-05-01

    Dual-systems frameworks propose that moral judgments are derived from both an immediate emotional response, and controlled/rational cognition. Recently Cushman (2013) proposed a new dual-system theory based on model-free and model-based reinforcement learning. Model-free learning attaches values to actions based on their history of reward and punishment, and explains some deontological, non-utilitarian judgments. Model-based learning involves the construction of a causal model of the world and allows for far-sighted planning; this form of learning fits well with utilitarian considerations that seek to maximize certain kinds of outcomes. I present three concerns regarding the use of model-free reinforcement learning to explain deontological moral judgment. First, many actions that humans find aversive from model-free learning are not judged to be morally wrong. Moral judgment must require something in addition to model-free learning. Second, there is a dearth of evidence for central predictions of the reinforcement account-e.g., that people with different reinforcement histories will, all else equal, make different moral judgments. Finally, to account for the effect of intention within the framework requires certain assumptions which lack support. These challenges are reasonable foci for future empirical/theoretical work on the model-free/model-based framework.

  3. Dynamical models explaining social balance and evolution of cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traag, Vincent Antonio; Van Dooren, Paul; De Leenheer, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Social networks with positive and negative links often split into two antagonistic factions. Examples of such a split abound: revolutionaries versus an old regime, Republicans versus Democrats, Axis versus Allies during the second world war, or the Western versus the Eastern bloc during the Cold War. Although this structure, known as social balance, is well understood, it is not clear how such factions emerge. An earlier model could explain the formation of such factions if reputations were assumed to be symmetric. We show this is not the case for non-symmetric reputations, and propose an alternative model which (almost) always leads to social balance, thereby explaining the tendency of social networks to split into two factions. In addition, the alternative model may lead to cooperation when faced with defectors, contrary to the earlier model. The difference between the two models may be understood in terms of the underlying gossiping mechanism: whereas the earlier model assumed that an individual adjusts his opinion about somebody by gossiping about that person with everybody in the network, we assume instead that the individual gossips with that person about everybody. It turns out that the alternative model is able to lead to cooperative behaviour, unlike the previous model.

  4. A convection model to explain anisotropy of the inner core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenk, H.-R. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of California, Berkeley (United States); Baumgardner, J. R. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Lebensohn, R. A. [CONICET, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, University of Rosario, Rosario, (Argentina); Tome, C. N. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)

    2000-03-10

    Seismic evidence suggests that the solid inner core of the Earth may be anisotropic. Several models have been proposed to explain this anisotropy as the result of preferred orientation of crystals. They range from a large annealed single crystal, growth at the melt interface, to deformation-induced texture. In this study texture development by deformation during inner core convection is explored for {epsilon}-iron (hcp) and {gamma}-iron (fcc). Convection patterns for harmonic degree two were investigated in detail. In the model it is assumed that traces of potassium are uniformly dispersed in the inner core and act as a heat source. Both for fcc and hcp iron, crystal rotations associated with intracrystalline slip during deformation can plausibly explain a 1-3% anisotropy in P waves with faster velocities along the N-S axis and slower ones in the equatorial plane. The effect of single crystal elastic constants is explored. (c) 2000 American Geophysical Union.

  5. Explaining dehumanization among children: the interspecies model of prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Kimberly; Hodson, Gordon

    2014-03-01

    Although many theoretical approaches have emerged to explain prejudices expressed by children, none incorporate outgroup dehumanization, a key predictor of prejudice among adults. According to the Interspecies Model of Prejudice, beliefs in the human-animal divide facilitate outgroup prejudice through fostering animalistic dehumanization (Costello & Hodson, 2010). In the present investigation, White children attributed Black children fewer 'uniquely human' characteristics, representing the first systematic evidence of racial dehumanization among children (Studies 1 and 2). In Study 2, path analyses supported the Interspecies Model of Prejudice: children's human-animal divide beliefs predicted greater racial prejudice, an effect explained by heightened racial dehumanization. Similar patterns emerged among parents. Furthermore, parent Social Dominance Orientation predicted child prejudice indirectly through children's endorsement of a hierarchical human-animal divide and subsequent dehumanizing tendencies. Encouragingly, children's human-animal divide perceptions were malleable to an experimental prime highlighting animal-human similarity. Implications for prejudice interventions are considered.

  6. Dynamical Models Explaining Social Balance and Evolution of Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Traag, V A; De Leenheer, P

    2013-01-01

    In social networks with positive and negative links the dominant theory of explaining its structure is that of social balance. The theory states that a network is balanced if its triads are balanced. Such a balanced network can be split into (at most) two opposing factions with positive links within a faction and negative links between them. Although inherently dynamical, the theory has long remained static, with a focus on finding such partitions. Recently however, a dynamical model was introduced which was shown to converge to a socially balanced state for certain symmetric initial conditions. Here we show this does not hold for general (non-symmetric) initial conditions. We propose an alternative model and show that it does converge to a socially balanced state generically. Moreover, in a basic model of evolution of cooperation of indirect reciprocity, the alternative model has an evolutionary advantage compared to the earlier model. The principal difference between the two models can be understood in term...

  7. A PARADOX OF TRANSIENT EKMAN DRIFT MODEL AND ITS EXPLAINATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In view of the fact that the simple analytic model is important both in acquiring the dynamic rule of Ocean and in understanding its mechanical essence, a unified solution of transient Ekman drift model encompassing the Fredholm’s solution with constant wind and the hidaka, Nomitsu, and Defant’s solution with unsteady wind is provided, and the paradox that it is uncertain if the solution satisfies the boundary condition is pointed out and explained. The present study shows that a simply mathematical treatment is able to remove this paradox, hoping to call for the mathematicians’ notice.

  8. Categorization of exchange fluxes explains the four relational models

    CERN Document Server

    Favre, Maroussia

    2013-01-01

    The theory of Relational Models (RMs) posits four elementary models of relationships governing all human interactions, singly or in combination: Communal Sharing, Authority Ranking, Equality Matching, and Market Pricing. By considering two agents that can act in one out of three ways towards one another: give resource A, give resource B, or give nothing, we find four discrete categories of exchange fluxes that map unequivocally to the four RMs. This categorization shows that the RMs form an exhaustive set of all possible elementary exchanges. Hence, the fluxes categorization answers why there are just four RMs and explains their discreteness. By considering the costs associated with extracting resources, storing them and implementing each flux category, we are able to propose conditions under which each RM should evolve. We also logically deduce the singular nature of the Authority Ranking model. Our propositions are compatible with anthropological, ethnological and historical observations and can be tested a...

  9. Trophic network models explain instability of Early Triassic terrestrial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine, Peter D; Angielczyk, Kenneth D; Wang, Steve C; Hertog, Rachel

    2007-09-07

    Studies of the end-Permian mass extinction have emphasized potential abiotic causes and their direct biotic effects. Less attention has been devoted to secondary extinctions resulting from ecological crises and the effect of community structure on such extinctions. Here we use a trophic network model that combines topological and dynamic approaches to simulate disruptions of primary productivity in palaeocommunities. We apply the model to Permian and Triassic communities of the Karoo Basin, South Africa, and show that while Permian communities bear no evidence of being especially susceptible to extinction, Early Triassic communities appear to have been inherently less stable. Much of the instability results from the faster post-extinction diversification of amphibian guilds relative to amniotes. The resulting communities differed fundamentally in structure from their Permian predecessors. Additionally, our results imply that changing community structures over time may explain long-term trends like declining rates of Phanerozoic background extinction.

  10. The Reader Response Approach to Teaching of English Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐芳

    2008-01-01

    During interview with English majors, it was found that a majority of students expressed disappointment with their experience of English literature classes. Students' dislike of learning English literature appears to be the major problem of teaching English literature in China. Reader response approach is a good way to solve this problem. In this paper, I explain the rationale behind the reader response approach, such as its origin, definition, features, assumptions, and strategies. Then I illustrate how reader response approach works as a teaching strategy by presenting several teaching models. At last I evaluate its usefuiness for teachers and present the advantages of reader response approach in Chinese context.

  11. [Model calculation to explain the BSE-incidence in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberthür, Radulf C

    2004-01-01

    The future development of BSE-incidence in Germany is investigated using a simple epidemiological model calculation. Starting point is the development of the incidence of confirmed suspect BSE-cases in Great Britain since 1988, the hitherto known mechanisms of transmission and the measures taken to decrease the risk of transmission as well as the development of the BSE-incidence in Germany obtained from active post mortem laboratory testing of all cattle older then 24 months. The risk of transmission is characterized by the reproduction ratio of the disease. There is a shift in time between the risk of BSE transmission and the BSE incidence caused by the incubation time of more than 4 years. The observed decrease of the incidence in Germany from 2001 to 2003 is not a consequence of the measures taken at the end of 2000 to contain the disease. It can rather be explained by an import of BSE contaminated products from countries with a high BSE incidence in the years 1995/96 being used in calf feeding in Germany. From the future course of the BSE-incidence in Germany after 2003 a quantification of the recycling rate of BSE-infected material within Germany before the end of 2000 will be possible by use of the proposed model if the active surveillance is continued.

  12. Explaining Self and Vicarious Reactance: A Process Model Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittenthaler, Sandra; Jonas, Eva; Traut-Mattausch, Eva

    2016-04-01

    Research shows that people experience a motivational state of agitation known as reactance when they perceive restrictions to their freedoms. However, research has yet to show whether people experience reactance if they merely observe the restriction of another person's freedom. In Study 1, we activated realistic vicarious reactance in the laboratory. In Study 2, we compared people's responses with their own and others' restrictions and found the same levels of experienced reactance and behavioral intentions as well as aggressive tendencies. We did, however, find differences in physiological arousal: Physiological arousal increased quickly after participants imagined their own freedom being restricted, but arousal in response to imagining a friend's freedom being threatened was weaker and delayed. In line with the physiological data, Study 3's results showed that self-restrictions aroused more emotional thoughts than vicarious restrictions, which induced more cognitive responses. Furthermore, in Study 4a, a cognitive task affected only the cognitive process behind vicarious reactance. In contrast, in Study 4b, an emotional task affected self-reactance but not vicarious reactance. We propose a process model explaining the emotional and cognitive processes of self- and vicarious reactance.

  13. Dynamic Models of Appraisal Networks Explaining Collective Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Wenjun; Friedkin, Noah E.; Lewis, Kyle; Bullo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes models of learning process in teams of individuals who collectively execute a sequence of tasks and whose actions are determined by individual skill levels and networks of interpersonal appraisals and influence. The closely-related proposed models have increasing complexity, starting with a centralized manager-based assignment and learning model, and finishing with a social model of interpersonal appraisal, assignments, learning, and influences. We show how rational optima...

  14. Stochastic Car-Following Model for Explaining Nonlinear Traffic Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jianping; Song, Tao; Dong, Liyun; Dai, Shiqiang

    There is a common time parameter for representing the sensitivity or the lag (response) time of drivers in many car-following models. In the viewpoint of traffic psychology, this parameter could be considered as the perception-response time (PRT). Generally, this parameter is set to be a constant in previous models. However, PRT is actually not a constant but a random variable described by the lognormal distribution. Thus the probability can be naturally introduced into car-following models by recovering the probability of PRT. For demonstrating this idea, a specific stochastic model is constructed based on the optimal velocity model. By conducting simulations under periodic boundary conditions, it is found that some important traffic phenomena, such as the hysteresis and phantom traffic jams phenomena, can be reproduced more realistically. Especially, an interesting experimental feature of traffic jams, i.e., two moving jams propagating in parallel with constant speed stably and sustainably, is successfully captured by the present model.

  15. Explaining Cooperation in Groups: Testing Models of Reciprocity and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biele, Guido; Rieskamp, Jorg; Czienskowski, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    What are the cognitive processes underlying cooperation in groups? This question is addressed by examining how well a reciprocity model, two learning models, and social value orientation can predict cooperation in two iterated n-person social dilemmas with continuous contributions. In the first of these dilemmas, the public goods game,…

  16. A unified model explains commonness and rarity on coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Sean R; Hughes, Terry P; Bellwood, David R

    2017-04-01

    Abundance patterns in ecological communities have important implications for biodiversity maintenance and ecosystem functioning. However, ecological theory has been largely unsuccessful at capturing multiple macroecological abundance patterns simultaneously. Here, we propose a parsimonious model that unifies widespread ecological relationships involving local aggregation, species-abundance distributions, and species associations, and we test this model against the metacommunity structure of reef-building corals and coral reef fishes across the western and central Pacific. For both corals and fishes, the unified model simultaneously captures extremely well local species-abundance distributions, interspecific variation in the strength of spatial aggregation, patterns of community similarity, species accumulation, and regional species richness, performing far better than alternative models also examined here and in previous work on coral reefs. Our approach contributes to the development of synthetic theory for large-scale patterns of community structure in nature, and to addressing ongoing challenges in biodiversity conservation at macroecological scales.

  17. SPSS explained

    CERN Document Server

    Hinton, Perry R; Brownlow, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    SPSS Explained provides the student with all that they need to undertake statistical analysis using SPSS. It combines a step-by-step approach to each procedure with easy to follow screenshots at each stage of the process. A number of other helpful features are provided: regular advice boxes with tips specific to each test explanations divided into 'essential' and 'advanced' sections to suit readers at different levels frequently asked questions at the end of each chapter. The first edition of this popular book has been fully updated for IBM SPSS version 21 and also includes: chapters that expl

  18. Change of plant phenophases explained by survival modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templ, Barbara; Fleck, Stefan; Templ, Matthias

    2017-05-01

    It is known from many studies that plant species show a delay in the timing of flowering events with an increase in latitude and altitude, and an advance with an increase in temperature. Furthermore, in many locations and for many species, flowering dates have advanced over the long-term. New insights using survival modeling are given based on data collected (1970-2010) along a 3000-km long transect from northern to eastern central Europe. We could clearly observe that in the case of dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale) the risk of flowering time, in other words the probability that flowering occurs, is higher for an earlier day of year in later decades. Our approach assume that temperature has greater influence than precipitation on the timing of flowering. Evaluation of the predictive power of tested models suggests that Cox models may be used in plant phenological research. The applied Cox model provides improved predictions of flowering dates compared to traditional regression methods and gives further insights into drivers of phenological events.

  19. Implicit Value Updating Explains Transitive Inference Performance: The Betasort Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Jensen

    Full Text Available Transitive inference (the ability to infer that B > D given that B > C and C > D is a widespread characteristic of serial learning, observed in dozens of species. Despite these robust behavioral effects, reinforcement learning models reliant on reward prediction error or associative strength routinely fail to perform these inferences. We propose an algorithm called betasort, inspired by cognitive processes, which performs transitive inference at low computational cost. This is accomplished by (1 representing stimulus positions along a unit span using beta distributions, (2 treating positive and negative feedback asymmetrically, and (3 updating the position of every stimulus during every trial, whether that stimulus was visible or not. Performance was compared for rhesus macaques, humans, and the betasort algorithm, as well as Q-learning, an established reward-prediction error (RPE model. Of these, only Q-learning failed to respond above chance during critical test trials. Betasort's success (when compared to RPE models and its computational efficiency (when compared to full Markov decision process implementations suggests that the study of reinforcement learning in organisms will be best served by a feature-driven approach to comparing formal models.

  20. The Convoy Model: Explaining Social Relations From a Multidisciplinary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Toni C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Social relations are a key aspect of aging and the life course. In this paper, we trace the scientific origins of the study of social relations, focusing in particular on research grounded in the convoy model. Design and Methods: We first briefly review and critique influential historical studies to illustrate how the scientific study of social relations developed. Next, we highlight early and current findings grounded in the convoy model that have provided key insights into theory, method, policy, and practice in the study of aging. Results: Early social relations research, while influential, lacked the combined approach of theoretical grounding and methodological rigor. Nevertheless, previous research findings, especially from anthropology, suggested the importance of social relations in the achievement of positive outcomes. Considering both life span and life course perspectives and grounded in a multidisciplinary perspective, the convoy model was developed to unify and consolidate scattered evidence while at the same time directing future empirical and applied research. Early findings are summarized, current evidence presented, and future directions projected. Implications: The convoy model has provided a useful framework in the study of aging, especially for understanding predictors and consequences of social relations across the life course. PMID:24142914

  1. Collective rationality: the integrative model explains it (as) well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lange, Paul A M

    2008-06-01

    In this commentary, I argue that there is indeed considerable evidence in support of the notion that people tend to reason from a collective (or team) perspective by asking themselves questions such as "What do we want, and what should I do help achieve it?" [Colman, A. M., Pulford, B. D., & Rose, J. (2008). Collective rationality in interactive decisions: Evidence for team reasoning. Acta Psychologica]. As such, in my view, team reasoning -- and thinking, feeling, and acting in terms of collective rationality -- is consistent with a social utility model (or transformational model) which considers the weights that people attach not only to outcomes for self, but also to outcomes for other, and to equality in outcomes [Van Lange, P. A. M. (1999). The pursuit of joint outcomes and equality in outcomes: An integrative model of social value orientation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,77, 337-349]. This commentary provides an illustration demonstrating that the integrative model is well-suited to account for the findings observed by Colman et al. (2008).

  2. Change of plant phenophases explained by survival modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templ, Barbara; Fleck, Stefan; Templ, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    It is known from many studies that plant species show a delay in the timing of flowering events with an increase in latitude and altitude, and an advance with an increase in temperature. Furthermore, in many locations and for many species, flowering dates have advanced over the long-term. New insights using survival modeling are given based on data collected (1970-2010) along a 3000-km long transect from northern to eastern central Europe. We could clearly observe that in the case of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) the risk of flowering time, in other words the probability that flowering occurs, is higher for an earlier day of year in later decades. Our approach assume that temperature has greater influence than precipitation on the timing of flowering. Evaluation of the predictive power of tested models suggests that Cox models may be used in plant phenological research. The applied Cox model provides improved predictions of flowering dates compared to traditional regression methods and gives further insights into drivers of phenological events.

  3. A model for explaining fusion suppression using classical trajectory method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phookan, C. K.; Kalita, K.

    2015-01-01

    We adopt a semi-classical approach for explanation of projectile breakup and above barrier fusion suppression for the reactions 6Li+152Sm and 6Li+144Sm. The cut-off impact parameter for fusion is determined by employing quantum mechanical ideas. Within this cut-off impact parameter for fusion, the fraction of projectiles undergoing breakup is determined using the method of classical trajectory in two-dimensions. For obtaining the initial conditions of the equations of motion, a simplified model of the 6Li nucleus has been proposed. We introduce a simple formula for explanation of fusion suppression. We find excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated fusion cross section. A slight modification of the above formula for fusion suppression is also proposed for a three-dimensional model.

  4. A model for explaining fusion suppression using classical trajectory method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phookan C. K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We adopt a semi-classical approach for explanation of projectile breakup and above barrier fusion suppression for the reactions 6Li+152Sm and 6Li+144Sm. The cut-off impact parameter for fusion is determined by employing quantum mechanical ideas. Within this cut-off impact parameter for fusion, the fraction of projectiles undergoing breakup is determined using the method of classical trajectory in two-dimensions. For obtaining the initial conditions of the equations of motion, a simplified model of the 6Li nucleus has been proposed. We introduce a simple formula for explanation of fusion suppression. We find excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated fusion cross section. A slight modification of the above formula for fusion suppression is also proposed for a three-dimensional model.

  5. A Unified Model Explaining Heterogeneous Ziegler-Natta Catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Credendino, Raffaele

    2015-08-12

    We propose a model for MgCl2 supported Ziegler-Natta catalysts capable to reconcile the discrepancies emerged in the last 20 years, when experimental data were tried to be rationalized by molecular models. We show that step defects on the neglected but thermodynamically more stable (104) facet of MgCl2 can lead to sites for strong TiCl4 adsorption. The corresponding Ti-active site is stereoeselective, and its stereoselectivity can be enhanced by coordination of Al-alkyls or Lewis bases in the close proximity. The surface energy of the step defected (104) MgCl2 facet is clearly lower than that of the well accepted (110) facet.

  6. Do expert ratings or economic models explain champagne prices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    2008-01-01

    Champagne is bought with low frequency and many consumers most likely do not have or seek full information on the quality of champagne. Some consumers may rely on the reputation of particular brands, e.g. "Les Grandes Marques", some consumers choose to gain information from sensory ratings...... of champagne. The aim of this paper is to analyse the champagne prices on the Scandinavian markets by applying a hedonic price function in a comparative framework with minimal models using sensory ratings....

  7. SAR exposure from UHF RFID reader in adult, child, pregnant woman, and fetus anatomical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, Serena; Markakis, Ioannis A; Ravazzani, Paolo; Samaras, Theodoros

    2013-09-01

    The spread of radio frequency identification (RFID) devices in ubiquitous applications without their simultaneous exposure assessment could give rise to public concerns about their potential adverse health effects. Among the various RFID system categories, the ultra high frequency (UHF) RFID systems have recently started to be widely used in many applications. This study addresses a computational exposure assessment of the electromagnetic radiation generated by a realistic UHF RFID reader, quantifying the exposure levels in different exposure scenarios and subjects (two adults, four children, and two anatomical models of women 7 and 9 months pregnant). The results of the computations are presented in terms of the whole-body and peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) averaged over 10 g of tissue to allow comparison with the basic restrictions of the exposure guidelines. The SAR levels in the adults and children were below 0.02 and 0.8 W/kg in whole-body SAR and maximum peak SAR levels, respectively, for all tested positions of the antenna. On the contrary, exposure of pregnant women and fetuses resulted in maximum peak SAR(10 g) values close to the values suggested by the guidelines (2 W/kg) in some of the exposure scenarios with the antenna positioned in front of the abdomen and with a 100% duty cycle and 1 W radiated power.

  8. Global Surface Temperature Response Explained by Multibox Energy Balance Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen, H. B.; Rypdal, M.

    2016-12-01

    We formulate a multibox energy balance model, from which global temperature evolution can be described by convolving a linear response function and a forcing record. We estimate parameters in the response function from instrumental data and historic forcing, such that our model can produce a response to both deterministic forcing and stochastic weather forcing consistent with observations. Furthermore, if we make separate boxes for upper ocean layer and atmosphere over land, we can also make separate response functions for global land and sea surface temperature. By describing internal variability as a linear response to white noise, we demonstrate that the power-law form of the observed temperature spectra can be described by linear dynamics, contrary to a common belief that these power-law spectra must arise from nonlinear processes. In our multibox model, the power-law form can arise due to the multiple response times. While one of our main points is that the climate system responds over a wide range of time scales, we cannot find one set of time scales that can be preferred compared to other choices. Hence we think the temperature response can best be characterized as something that is scale-free, but still possible to approximate by a set of well separated time scales.

  9. A microphysical model explains rate-and-state friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianye; Spiers, Christopher J.

    2015-04-01

    The rate-and-state friction (RSF) laws were originally developed as a phenomenological description of the frictional behavior observed in lab experiments. In previous studies, the empirical RSF laws have been extensively and quite successfully applied to fault mechanisms. However, these laws can not readily be envisioned in terms of the underlying physics. There are several critical discrepancies between seismological constraints on RSF behavior associated with earthquakes and lab-derived RSF parameters, in particular regarding the static stress drop and characteristic slip distance associated with seismic events. Moreover, lab friction studies can address only limited fault topographies, displacements, experimental durations and P-T conditions, which means that scale issues, and especially processes like dilatation and fluid-rock interaction, cannot be fully taken into account. Without a physical basis accounting for such effects, extrapolation of lab-derived RSF data to nature involves significant, often unknown uncertainties. In order to more reliably apply experimental results to natural fault zones, and notably to extrapolate lab data beyond laboratory pressure, temperature and velocity conditions, an understanding of the microphysical mechanisms governing fault frictional behavior is required. Here, following some pioneering efforts (e.g. Niemeijer and Spiers, 2007; Den Hartog and Spiers, 2014), a mechanism-based microphysical model is developed for describing the frictional behavior of carbonate fault gouge, assuming that the frictional behavior seen in lab experiments is controlled by competing processes of intergranular slip versus contact creep by pressure solution. The model basically consists of two governing equations derived from energy/entropy balance considerations and the kinematic relations that apply to a granular fault gouge undergoing shear and dilation/compaction. These two equations can be written as ˙τ/K = Vimp- Lt[λ˙γsbps +(1-

  10. Boolean Models of Biological Processes Explain Cascade-Like Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Guanyu; Simha, Rahul; Du, Chenghang; Zeng, Chen

    2016-01-29

    Biological networks play a key role in determining biological function and therefore, an understanding of their structure and dynamics is of central interest in systems biology. In Boolean models of such networks, the status of each molecule is either "on" or "off" and along with the molecules interact with each other, their individual status changes from "on" to "off" or vice-versa and the system of molecules in the network collectively go through a sequence of changes in state. This sequence of changes is termed a biological process. In this paper, we examine the common perception that events in biomolecular networks occur sequentially, in a cascade-like manner, and ask whether this is likely to be an inherent property. In further investigations of the budding and fission yeast cell-cycle, we identify two generic dynamical rules. A Boolean system that complies with these rules will automatically have a certain robustness. By considering the biological requirements in robustness and designability, we show that those Boolean dynamical systems, compared to an arbitrary dynamical system, statistically present the characteristics of cascadeness and sequentiality, as observed in the budding and fission yeast cell- cycle. These results suggest that cascade-like behavior might be an intrinsic property of biological processes.

  11. Explaining the Linguistic Diversity of Sahul Using Population Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesink, Ger; Singer, Ruth; Dunn, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The region of the ancient Sahul continent (present day Australia and New Guinea, and surrounding islands) is home to extreme linguistic diversity. Even apart from the huge Austronesian language family, which spread into the area after the breakup of the Sahul continent in the Holocene, there are hundreds of languages from many apparently unrelated families. On each of the subcontinents, the generally accepted classification recognizes one large, widespread family and a number of unrelatable smaller families. If these language families are related to each other, it is at a depth which is inaccessible to standard linguistic methods. We have inferred the history of structural characteristics of these languages under an admixture model, using a Bayesian algorithm originally developed to discover populations on the basis of recombining genetic markers. This analysis identifies 10 ancestral language populations, some of which can be identified with clearly defined phylogenetic groups. The results also show traces of early dispersals, including hints at ancient connections between Australian languages and some Papuan groups (long hypothesized, never before demonstrated). Systematic language contact effects between members of big phylogenetic groups are also detected, which can in some cases be identified with a diffusional or substrate signal. Most interestingly, however, there remains striking evidence of a phylogenetic signal, with many languages showing negligible amounts of admixture. PMID:19918360

  12. Data to support "Boosted Regression Tree Models to Explain Watershed Nutrient Concentrations & Biological Condition"

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Spreadsheets are included here to support the manuscript "Boosted Regression Tree Models to Explain Watershed Nutrient Concentrations and Biological Condition". This...

  13. COCHABAMBA READER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LASTRA, YOLANDA

    INTENDED AS FOLLOWUP MATERIAL AFTER THE COMPLETION OF THE TWO-VOLUME SPOKEN COCHABAMBA COURSE, THIS READER CONSISTS OF A SINGLE LONG STORY, "JUANITO," WRITTEN BY OSCAR TERAN. IT HAS BEEN USED AS A RADIO SCRIPT FOR A SERIES OF BROADCASTS FROM A COCHABAMBA STATION WHICH SERVES THE SURROUNDING INDIGENOUS POPULATION. THE MATERIAL IS…

  14. Reader's Guide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Dear readers: This is the last issue for year 2002. Thanks to your consistent assistance and concerns, our magazine has accordingly made much an effort to objectively and genuinely introduce and reflect new achievements and climate by port sector across the country in terms of reform, construction, operation and development.

  15. Children's Metafiction, Readers, and Reading: Building Thematic Models of Narrative Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpot, Don K.

    2005-01-01

    Gustavson (Gustavson, L., "Journal of Children's Literature," 2000, 26(1), 16) used the award-winning novel "The View From Saturday" (Konigsburg, 1996) to investigate the discourses constructed by adolescent readers in after-school discussion groups. Participants in his study, instead of constructing interpretive discourse as Gustavson expected,…

  16. Modeling Child-Based Theoretical Reading Constructs with Struggling Adult Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Alice O.; Greenberg, Daphne; Morris, Robin

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether measurement constructs behind reading-related tests for struggling adult readers are similar to what is known about measurement constructs for children. The sample included 371 adults reading between the third-and fifth-grade levels, including 127 men and 153 English speakers of other languages. Using measures of skills…

  17. Modeling Child-Based Theoretical Reading Constructs with Struggling Adult Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Alice O.; Greenberg, Daphne; Morris, Robin

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether measurement constructs behind reading-related tests for struggling adult readers are similar to what is known about measurement constructs for children. The sample included 371 adults reading between the third-and fifth-grade levels, including 127 men and 153 English speakers of other languages. Using measures of skills…

  18. Readers respond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra N. Wig

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Please allow me to congratulate you on bringing out Mens Sana 8th and 9th Monographs on Medical Practice, Psychiatry and the Pharmaceutical Industry. You and Shakuntala have obviously put in an enormous effort to study dozens of documents, articles and books to bring out such a comprehensive review of this topic with focus on important areas for debate in India. You deserve congratulations of all the readers of these Monographs.

  19. Influence of consonantal context on the pronunciation of vowels: a comparison of human readers and computational models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Kessler, Brett; Bick, Suzanne

    2003-05-01

    In two experiments, we found that college students' pronunciations of vowels in nonwords are influenced both by preceding and following consonants. The predominance of rimes in previous studies of reading does not appear to arise because readers are unable to pick up associations that cross the onset-rime boundary, but rather because English has relatively few such associations. Comparisons between people's vowel pronunciations and those produced by various computational models of reading showed that no model provided a good account of human performance on nonwords for which the vowel shows contextual conditioning. Possible directions for improved models are suggested.

  20. Explained variation and predictive accuracy in general parametric statistical models: the role of model misspecification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosthøj, Susanne; Keiding, Niels

    2004-01-01

    When studying a regression model measures of explained variation are used to assess the degree to which the covariates determine the outcome of interest. Measures of predictive accuracy are used to assess the accuracy of the predictions based on the covariates and the regression model. We give...... a detailed and general introduction to the two measures and the estimation procedures. The framework we set up allows for a study of the effect of misspecification on the quantities estimated. We also introduce a generalization to survival analysis....

  1. Deep supervised, but not unsupervised, models may explain IT cortical representation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Mahdi Khaligh-Razavi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Inferior temporal (IT cortex in human and nonhuman primates serves visual object recognition. Computational object-vision models, although continually improving, do not yet reach human performance. It is unclear to what extent the internal representations of computational models can explain the IT representation. Here we investigate a wide range of computational model representations (37 in total, testing their categorization performance and their ability to account for the IT representational geometry. The models include well-known neuroscientific object-recognition models (e.g. HMAX, VisNet along with several models from computer vision (e.g. SIFT, GIST, self-similarity features, and a deep convolutional neural network. We compared the representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs of the model representations with the RDMs obtained from human IT (measured with fMRI and monkey IT (measured with cell recording for the same set of stimuli (not used in training the models. Better performing models were more similar to IT in that they showed greater clustering of representational patterns by category. In addition, better performing models also more strongly resembled IT in terms of their within-category representational dissimilarities. Representational geometries were significantly correlated between IT and many of the models. However, the categorical clustering observed in IT was largely unexplained by the unsupervised models. The deep convolutional network, which was trained by supervision with over a million category-labeled images, reached the highest categorization performance and also best explained IT, although it did not fully explain the IT data. Combining the features of this model with appropriate weights and adding linear combinations that maximize the margin between animate and inanimate objects and between faces and other objects yielded a representation that fully explained our IT data. Overall, our results suggest that explaining

  2. Deep Supervised, but Not Unsupervised, Models May Explain IT Cortical Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaligh-Razavi, Seyed-Mahdi; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Inferior temporal (IT) cortex in human and nonhuman primates serves visual object recognition. Computational object-vision models, although continually improving, do not yet reach human performance. It is unclear to what extent the internal representations of computational models can explain the IT representation. Here we investigate a wide range of computational model representations (37 in total), testing their categorization performance and their ability to account for the IT representational geometry. The models include well-known neuroscientific object-recognition models (e.g. HMAX, VisNet) along with several models from computer vision (e.g. SIFT, GIST, self-similarity features, and a deep convolutional neural network). We compared the representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs) of the model representations with the RDMs obtained from human IT (measured with fMRI) and monkey IT (measured with cell recording) for the same set of stimuli (not used in training the models). Better performing models were more similar to IT in that they showed greater clustering of representational patterns by category. In addition, better performing models also more strongly resembled IT in terms of their within-category representational dissimilarities. Representational geometries were significantly correlated between IT and many of the models. However, the categorical clustering observed in IT was largely unexplained by the unsupervised models. The deep convolutional network, which was trained by supervision with over a million category-labeled images, reached the highest categorization performance and also best explained IT, although it did not fully explain the IT data. Combining the features of this model with appropriate weights and adding linear combinations that maximize the margin between animate and inanimate objects and between faces and other objects yielded a representation that fully explained our IT data. Overall, our results suggest that explaining IT requires

  3. Modelling cognitive skills, ability and school quality to explain labour market earnings differentials

    OpenAIRE

    Cobus Burger; Servaas van der Berg

    2011-01-01

    Attempts to explain wage differences between race groups in South Africa are constrained by the fact that quality of education is known to differ greatly between groups, thus the unexplained portion of the wage gap may be much affected by such differences in education quality. Using a simulation model that utilises school-leaving (matric) examination results and educational attainment levels to generate estimates of education quality, we find that much of the wage gap can indeed be explained ...

  4. Is expert peer review obsolete? A model suggests that post-publication reader review may exceed the accuracy of traditional peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Daniel M

    2012-08-01

    The peer review process is the gold standard by which academic manuscripts are vetted for publication. However, some investigators have raised concerns regarding its unopposed supremacy, including lack of expediency, susceptibility to editorial bias and statistical limitation due to the small number of reviewers used. Post-publication review-in which the article is assessed by the general readership of the journal instead of a small group of appointed reviewers-could potentially supplement or replace the peer-review process. In this study, we created a computer model to compare the traditional peer-review process to that of post-publication reader review. We created a mathematical model of the manuscript review process. A hypothetical manuscript was randomly assigned a "true value" representing its intrinsic quality. We modeled a group of three expert peer reviewers and compared it to modeled groups of 10, 20, 50, or 100 reader-reviewers. Reader-reviewers were assumed to be less skillful at reviewing and were thus modeled to be only ¼ as accurate as expert reviewers. Percentage of correct assessments was calculated for each group. 400,000 hypothetical manuscripts were modeled. The accuracy of the reader-reviewer group was inferior to the expert reviewer group in the 10-reviewer trial (93.24% correct vs. 97.67%, p reader-reviewer group surpassed the expert reviewer group in accuracy when 50 or 100 reader-reviewers were used (97.92 and 99.20% respectively, p reader-reviewers can surpass that of a small group of expert reviewers if the group of public reviewers is of sufficient size. Further study will be required to determine whether the mathematical assumptions of this model are valid in actual use.

  5. A Model of How Different Biology Experts Explain Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Caleb M.; Anderson, Trevor R.; Pelaez, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Constructing explanations is an essential skill for all science learners. The goal of this project was to model the key components of expert explanation of molecular and cellular mechanisms. As such, we asked: What is an appropriate model of the components of explanation used by biology experts to explain molecular and cellular mechanisms? Do…

  6. A Hierarchical Bayes Error Correction Model to Explain Dynamic Effects of Price Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); R. Paap (Richard); C. Horváth (Csilla); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe authors put forward a sales response model to explain the differences in immediate and dynamic effects of promotional prices and regular prices on sales. The model consists of a vector autoregression rewritten in error-correction format which allows to disentangle the immediate

  7. Small-signal charge transfer inefficiency experiments explained by the McWhorter interface state model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning De Vries, René G.M.; Wallinga, Hans

    1984-01-01

    The small-signal charge transfer inefficiency (SCTI) of a surface-channel CCD has been studied. The experimentally observed behavior of the SCTI could not be explained by the conventional interface state model. Using the McWhorter model for the interface states, which assumes a distribution of the s

  8. A Model of How Different Biology Experts Explain Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Caleb M.; Anderson, Trevor R.; Pelaez, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Constructing explanations is an essential skill for all science learners. The goal of this project was to model the key components of expert explanation of molecular and cellular mechanisms. As such, we asked: What is an appropriate model of the components of explanation used by biology experts to explain molecular and cellular mechanisms? Do…

  9. A Hierarchical Bayes Error Correction Model to Explain Dynamic Effects of Price Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); R. Paap (Richard); C. Horváth (Csilla); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe authors put forward a sales response model to explain the differences in immediate and dynamic effects of promotional prices and regular prices on sales. The model consists of a vector autoregression rewritten in error-correction format which allows to disentangle the immediate effec

  10. Readers Respond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Wig

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This is in response to the MSM theme monograph Academia-Industry Symposium 2007: Medical Practice and the Pharmaceutical Industry: And Ever the Duo shall Meet.I recall that it was just five years ago when you first wrote to me, informing me about the start of Mens Sana Monographs . I was excited because it was something new, something different that was happening in the field of mental health and philosophy in India.You have come a long way since then. In fact, it is amazing how rapidly MSM has progressed, as testified to by the present theme monograph. Your readers and contributors are no longer confined to India; you are now international in reach and outlook. Please allow me to wholeheartedly congratulate you. It is a remarkable achievement by any standard.The present volume is excellent in its design and contents. The two editorials by Jerome Kassirer and Joel Lexchin are outstanding and deeply thought provoking. The article by Martin Van Der Weyden is equally rewarding and has very useful information. The main monograph has been superbly, very competently, and comprehensively written by both of you.In the series "What Medicine Means To Me," I especially liked the piece by Helen Herrman. Her message of public health psychiatry is particularly relevant for developing countries.The book review of David Healy's book by Leemon McHenry is very refreshing and challenging. I congratulate you on your decision to publish it when other journals were still hesitating.And lastly, the obituary reference to my dear friend Dr. Ravi Kapur by Ajit Bhide and you were so touching; I cried all over again.So keep up your good work, dear friends. May God bless you and may you both achieve many more successes in your careers.

  11. Immediate survival focus: synthesizing life history theory and dual process models to explain substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, George B; Hardesty, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have recently applied evolutionary life history theory to the understanding of behaviors often conceived of as prosocial or antisocial. In addition, researchers have applied cognitive science to the understanding of substance use and used dual process models, where explicit cognitive processes are modeled as relatively distinct from implicit cognitive processes, to explain and predict substance use behaviors. In this paper we synthesized these two theoretical perspectives to produce an adaptive and cognitive framework for explaining substance use. We contend that this framework provides new insights into the nature of substance use that may be valuable for both clinicians and researchers.

  12. Immediate Survival Focus: Synthesizing Life History Theory and Dual Process Models to Explain Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George B. Richardson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have recently applied evolutionary life history theory to the understanding of behaviors often conceived of as prosocial or antisocial. In addition, researchers have applied cognitive science to the understanding of substance use and used dual process models, where explicit cognitive processes are modeled as relatively distinct from implicit cognitive processes, to explain and predict substance use behaviors. In this paper we synthesized these two theoretical perspectives to produce an adaptive and cognitive framework for explaining substance use. We contend that this framework provides new insights into the nature of substance use that may be valuable for both clinicians and researchers.

  13. A proposed theoretical model to explain relative age effects in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, David J; Adler, Ashley L; Côté, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Exemplary scientific methods describe concepts and provide theories for further testing. For the field of relative age effects (RAEs) in sport, the scientific method appears to be limited to description. The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical model to explain RAEs in sport, which researchers can use to test the effects, as well as to generate new hypotheses and recommendations. Herein, we argue that social agents have the largest influence on RAEs. Specifically, we propose that parents influence RAEs through Matthew effects, coaches influence RAEs through Pygmalion effects and athletes influence RAEs through Galatea effects. Integrating these three theories, we propose a model that explains RAEs through these various social agents. This paper provides a theoretical foundation from which researchers can further understand, explain and eventually use to create policies aimed at limiting the negative effect of relative age in sport.

  14. Can self-reported disability assessment behaviour of insurance physicians be explained? Applying the ASE model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, A.J.; Steenbeek, R.; Mulders, H.P.G.; Anema, J.R.; Kroneman, H.; Besseling, J.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Very little is known about the attitudes and views that might underlie and explain the variation in occupational disability assessment behaviour between insurance physicians. In an earlier study we presented an adjusted ASE model (Attitude, Social norm, Self-efficacy) to identify the determinants of

  15. Can self-reported disability assessment behaviour of insurance physicians be explained? Applying the ASE model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, A.J.M.; Steenbeek, R.; Mulders, H.P.G.; Anema, J.R.; Kroneman, H.; Besseling, J.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Very little is known about the attitudes and views that might underlie and explain the variation in occupational disability assessment behaviour between insurance physicians. In an earlier study we presented an adjusted ASE model (Attitude, Social norm, Self-efficacy) to identify the

  16. Simple Quantum Model of Learning Explains the Yerkes-Dodson Law in Psychology

    CERN Document Server

    Vol, E D

    2012-01-01

    We propose the simple model of learning based on which we derive and explain the Yerkes-Dodson law - one of the oldest laws of experimental psychology. The approach uses some ideas of quantum theory of open systems (QTOS) and develops the method of statistical description of psychological systems that was proposed by author earlier.

  17. Can self-reported disability assessment behaviour of insurance physicians be explained? Applying the ASE model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, A.J.; Steenbeek, R.; Mulders, H.P.G.; Anema, J.R.; Kroneman, H.; Besseling, J.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Very little is known about the attitudes and views that might underlie and explain the variation in occupational disability assessment behaviour between insurance physicians. In an earlier study we presented an adjusted ASE model (Attitude, Social norm, Self-efficacy) to identify the determinants of

  18. Can self-reported disability assessment behaviour of insurance physicians be explained? Applying the ASE model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, A.J.M.; Steenbeek, R.; Mulders, H.P.G.; Anema, J.R.; Kroneman, H.; Besseling, J.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Very little is known about the attitudes and views that might underlie and explain the variation in occupational disability assessment behaviour between insurance physicians. In an earlier study we presented an adjusted ASE model (Attitude, Social norm, Self-efficacy) to identify the det

  19. Alternative Multidimensional Models Explaining and Improving Academic Achievement in Latino Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Virginia; Soltero, Sonia W.

    2011-01-01

    Our objective is to provide two multidimensional models (i.e., contextual-interaction and Ethnic Educator) including sociopolitical, socioeconomic, sociocultural, and sociohistorical factors explaining underachievement in Latinos. First, we critically discuss single-factor theories (i.e., deficit, resistance, social reproduction, cultural…

  20. Explaining the Intention to Use Technology among University Students: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Timothy; Zhou, Mingming

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the factors that an influence higher education students' intention to use technology. Using an extended technology acceptance model as a research framework, a sample of 314 university students were surveyed on their responses to seven constructs hypothesized to explain their intention to use technology.…

  1. A model of how different biology experts explain molecular and cellular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Caleb M; Anderson, Trevor R; Pelaez, Nancy J

    2015-01-01

    Constructing explanations is an essential skill for all science learners. The goal of this project was to model the key components of expert explanation of molecular and cellular mechanisms. As such, we asked: What is an appropriate model of the components of explanation used by biology experts to explain molecular and cellular mechanisms? Do explanations made by experts from different biology subdisciplines at a university support the validity of this model? Guided by the modeling framework of R. S. Justi and J. K. Gilbert, the validity of an initial model was tested by asking seven biologists to explain a molecular mechanism of their choice. Data were collected from interviews, artifacts, and drawings, and then subjected to thematic analysis. We found that biologists explained the specific activities and organization of entities of the mechanism. In addition, they contextualized explanations according to their biological and social significance; integrated explanations with methods, instruments, and measurements; and used analogies and narrated stories. The derived methods, analogies, context, and how themes informed the development of our final MACH model of mechanistic explanations. Future research will test the potential of the MACH model as a guiding framework for instruction to enhance the quality of student explanations.

  2. Nematic world crystal model of gravity explaining absence of torsion in spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinert, H.; Zaanen, J

    2004-04-26

    We attribute the gravitational interaction between sources of curvature to the world being a crystal which has undergone a quantum phase transition to a nematic phase by a condensation of dislocations. The model explains why spacetime has no observable torsion and predicts the existence of curvature sources in the form of world sheets, albeit with different high-energy properties than those of string models.

  3. A plastic rheology phenomenological 201 . model that explains the Andes evolution in northern Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Introcaso, Antonio; Giménez, Mario; Martínez, María Patricia; Ruiz, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    A plastic rheology, partially phenomenological model is presented to explain the isostatically compensated Andean relief formation. This model considers a combination of lithospheric heating with long period relaxation and successive crustal shortenings on a north section of Argentina located at 24°S latitude. The present size of the Andean root –related to the Andes construction– was obtained by inverting regionalized Bouguer anomalies, also consistent with geoi...

  4. Reader Response in Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Glenna

    2002-01-01

    Presents an overview of critical theory to show how the method of Reader Response evolved. Discusses theories of reading and the reader; variations within reader response; and implementing reader response in literacy programs. Includes a brief response by Robert E. Probst. (RS)

  5. Explaining pathological changes in axonal excitability through dynamical analysis of conductance-based models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggan, Jay S.; Ocker, Gabriel K.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Prescott, Steven A.

    2011-10-01

    Neurons rely on action potentials, or spikes, to relay information. Pathological changes in spike generation likely contribute to certain enigmatic features of neurological disease, like paroxysmal attacks of pain and muscle spasm. Paroxysmal symptoms are characterized by abrupt onset and short duration, and are associated with abnormal spiking although the exact pathophysiology remains unclear. To help decipher the biophysical basis for 'paroxysmal' spiking, we replicated afterdischarge (i.e. continued spiking after a brief stimulus) in a minimal conductance-based axon model. We then applied nonlinear dynamical analysis to explain the dynamical basis for initiation and termination of afterdischarge. A perturbation could abruptly switch the system between two (quasi-)stable attractor states: rest and repetitive spiking. This bistability was a consequence of slow positive feedback mediated by persistent inward current. Initiation of afterdischarge was explained by activation of the persistent inward current forcing the system to cross a saddle point that separates the basins of attraction associated with each attractor. Termination of afterdischarge was explained by the attractor associated with repetitive spiking being destroyed. This occurred when ultra-slow negative feedback, such as intracellular sodium accumulation, caused the saddle point and stable limit cycle to collide; in that regard, the active attractor is not truly stable when the slowest dynamics are taken into account. The model also explains other features of paroxysmal symptoms, including temporal summation and refractoriness.

  6. Ability of matrix models to explain the past and predict the future of plant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, Elizabeth E; Ellis, Martha M; Morris, William F; Stanley, Amanda; Bell, Timothy; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Ehrlén, Johan; Kaye, Thomas N; Knight, Tiffany M; Lesica, Peter; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F; Ticktin, Tamara; Valverde, Teresa; Williams, Jennifer L; Doak, Daniel F; Ganesan, Rengaian; McEachern, Kathyrn; Thorpe, Andrea S; Menges, Eric S

    2013-10-01

    Uncertainty associated with ecological forecasts has long been recognized, but forecast accuracy is rarely quantified. We evaluated how well data on 82 populations of 20 species of plants spanning 3 continents explained and predicted plant population dynamics. We parameterized stage-based matrix models with demographic data from individually marked plants and determined how well these models forecast population sizes observed at least 5 years into the future. Simple demographic models forecasted population dynamics poorly; only 40% of observed population sizes fell within our forecasts' 95% confidence limits. However, these models explained population dynamics during the years in which data were collected; observed changes in population size during the data-collection period were strongly positively correlated with population growth rate. Thus, these models are at least a sound way to quantify population status. Poor forecasts were not associated with the number of individual plants or years of data. We tested whether vital rates were density dependent and found both positive and negative density dependence. However, density dependence was not associated with forecast error. Forecast error was significantly associated with environmental differences between the data collection and forecast periods. To forecast population fates, more detailed models, such as those that project how environments are likely to change and how these changes will affect population dynamics, may be needed. Such detailed models are not always feasible. Thus, it may be wiser to make risk-averse decisions than to expect precise forecasts from models. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Ability of matrix models to explain the past and predict the future of plant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Kathryn; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Ellis, Martha M.; Morris, William F.; Stanley, Amanda; Bell, Timothy; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Ehrlen, Johan; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Lesica, Peter; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Ticktin, Tamara; Valverde, Teresa; Williams, Jennifer I.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ganesan, Rengaian; Thorpe, Andrea S.; Menges, Eric S.

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainty associated with ecological forecasts has long been recognized, but forecast accuracy is rarely quantified. We evaluated how well data on 82 populations of 20 species of plants spanning 3 continents explained and predicted plant population dynamics. We parameterized stage-based matrix models with demographic data from individually marked plants and determined how well these models forecast population sizes observed at least 5 years into the future. Simple demographic models forecasted population dynamics poorly; only 40% of observed population sizes fell within our forecasts' 95% confidence limits. However, these models explained population dynamics during the years in which data were collected; observed changes in population size during the data-collection period were strongly positively correlated with population growth rate. Thus, these models are at least a sound way to quantify population status. Poor forecasts were not associated with the number of individual plants or years of data. We tested whether vital rates were density dependent and found both positive and negative density dependence. However, density dependence was not associated with forecast error. Forecast error was significantly associated with environmental differences between the data collection and forecast periods. To forecast population fates, more detailed models, such as those that project how environments are likely to change and how these changes will affect population dynamics, may be needed. Such detailed models are not always feasible. Thus, it may be wiser to make risk-averse decisions than to expect precise forecasts from models.

  8. A Simple Nonlinear Dynamic Model for Unemployment: Explaining the Spanish Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Faria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Spanish unemployment is characterized by three distinct regimes of low, medium, and high unemployment and by a fast transition between them. This paper presents a simple nonlinear dynamic model that is able to explain this behavior with multiple equilibria and jumps describing the transition between equilibria. The model has only a small number of parameters capturing the fundamentals of labor markets and macroeconomic and institutional factors. The model is capable of generating unemployment dynamics that encompass the “unique” natural rate hypothesis, the structuralist hypothesis, and the hysteresis hypothesis.

  9. Explaining Macroeconomic and Term Structure Dynamics Jointly in a Non-linear DSGE Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller

    This paper shows how a standard DSGE model can be extended to reproduce the dynamics in the 10 year yield curve for the post-war US economy with a similar degree of precision as in reduced form term structure models. At the same time, we are able to reproduce the dynamics of four key macro...... variables almost perfectly. Our extension of a standard DSGE model is to introduce three non-stationary shocks which allow us to explain interest rates with medium and long maturities without distorting the dynamics of the macroeconomy....

  10. A model explaining synchronization of neuron bioelectric frequency under weak alternating low frequency magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moral, A. del, E-mail: delmoral@unizar.es [Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Departamento de Física de Materia Condensada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, Universidad de Zaragoza and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratorio de Magnetobiología, Departamento de Anatomía e Histología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Centro de Tecnología Biomédica, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28223 Madrid (Spain); Azanza, María J., E-mail: mjazanza@unizar.es [Laboratorio de Magnetobiología, Departamento de Anatomía e Histología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Centro de Tecnología Biomédica, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28223 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-03-01

    A biomagnetic-electrical model is presented that explains rather well the experimentally observed synchronization of the bioelectric potential firing rate (“frequency”), f, of single unit neurons of Helix aspersa mollusc under the application of extremely low frequency (ELF) weak alternating (AC) magnetic fields (MF). The proposed model incorporates to our widely experimentally tested model of superdiamagnetism (SD) and Ca{sup 2+} Coulomb explosion (CE) from lipid (LP) bilayer membrane (SD–CE model), the electrical quadrupolar long range interaction between the bilayer LP membranes of synchronized neuron pairs, not considered before. The quadrupolar interaction is capable of explaining well the observed synchronization. Actual extension of our SD–CE-model shows that the neuron firing frequency field, B, dependence becomes not modified, but the bioelectric frequency is decreased and its spontaneous temperature, T, dependence is modified. A comparison of the model with synchronization experimental results of pair of neurons under weak (B{sub 0}≅0.2–15 mT) AC-MF of frequency f{sub M}=50 Hz is reported. From the deduced size of synchronized LP clusters under B, is suggested the formation of small neuron networks via the membrane lipid correlation. - Highlights: • Neuron pair synchronization under low frequency alternating (AC) magnetic field (MF). • Superdiamagnetism and Ca{sup 2+} Coulomb explosion for AC MF effect in synchronized frequency. • Membrane lipid electrical quadrupolar pair interaction as synchronization mechamism. • Good agreement of model with electrophysiological experiments on mollusc Helix neurons.

  11. SMS Advertising in India: Is TAM a Robust Model for Explaining Intention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Bamoriya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined mobile users’ intentions to receive SMS advertising in India using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM as research framework. 242 respondents completed a structured questionnaire; measuring their responses for the TAM’s five constructs viz. perceived utility, perceived ease of use, perceived trust, attitude and intention. Using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM both measurement model and structural model testing was done to analyze the data. Findings indicated that specified TAM model contributed to 81.8% of variance in the intention to receive SMS advertising and was a valid model in explaining the intention to receive SMS advertising. Study further indicated that perceived utility was much better predictor of attitude towards SMS advertising than perceived ease of use and perceived trust. Study suggested marketers that to increase acceptance of SMS advertising they should focus more on increasing utility of SMS ads, so that users would develop positive attitudes towards SMS advertising.

  12. Reader variability in QT measurement due to measurement error and variability in leads selection: a simulation study comparing 2-way vs. 3-way interaction ANOVA model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natekar, Mili; Karnad, Dilip R; Salvi, Vaibhav; Ramasamy, Arumugam; Kerkar, Vaibhav; Panicker, Gopi Krishna; Kothari, Snehal

    2014-01-01

    Reader variability (RV) results from measurement differences or variability in lead used for QT measurements; the latter is not reflected in conventional methods for estimating RV. Mean and SD of QT intervals in 12 leads of 100 ECGs measured twice were used to simulate data sets with inter-RV of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 ms and intra-RV of 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 ms. Six hundred twenty-five data sets were simulated such that different leads were used in Read1 and Read2 in 0, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% of ECGs by 25 readers. RV was estimated using ANOVA interaction models: three-way model using Reader, ECG and lead as factors, and 2-way model using reader and ECG as factors. Estimates from three-way model accurately matched inter- and intra-RV that were introduced during simulation regardless of percent of ECGs with lead selection variability. The two-way model provides identical estimates when both reads are in same leads, but higher, more realistically estimates when measurements are made in different leads. © 2013.

  13. Canonical Cortical Circuit Model Explains Rivalry, Intermittent Rivalry, and Rivalry Memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashaank Vattikuti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the same canonical cortical circuit model with mutual inhibition and a fatigue process can explain perceptual rivalry and other neurophysiological responses to a range of static stimuli. However, it has been proposed that this model cannot explain responses to dynamic inputs such as found in intermittent rivalry and rivalry memory, where maintenance of a percept when the stimulus is absent is required. This challenges the universality of the basic canonical cortical circuit. Here, we show that by including an overlooked realistic small nonspecific background neural activity, the same basic model can reproduce intermittent rivalry and rivalry memory without compromising static rivalry and other cortical phenomena. The background activity induces a mutual-inhibition mechanism for short-term memory, which is robust to noise and where fine-tuning of recurrent excitation or inclusion of sub-threshold currents or synaptic facilitation is unnecessary. We prove existence conditions for the mechanism and show that it can explain experimental results from the quartet apparent motion illusion, which is a prototypical intermittent rivalry stimulus.

  14. A model explaining synchronization of neuron bioelectric frequency under weak alternating low frequency magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Moral, A.; Azanza, María J.

    2015-03-01

    A biomagnetic-electrical model is presented that explains rather well the experimentally observed synchronization of the bioelectric potential firing rate ("frequency"), f, of single unit neurons of Helix aspersa mollusc under the application of extremely low frequency (ELF) weak alternating (AC) magnetic fields (MF). The proposed model incorporates to our widely experimentally tested model of superdiamagnetism (SD) and Ca2+ Coulomb explosion (CE) from lipid (LP) bilayer membrane (SD-CE model), the electrical quadrupolar long range interaction between the bilayer LP membranes of synchronized neuron pairs, not considered before. The quadrupolar interaction is capable of explaining well the observed synchronization. Actual extension of our SD-CE-model shows that the neuron firing frequency field, B, dependence becomes not modified, but the bioelectric frequency is decreased and its spontaneous temperature, T, dependence is modified. A comparison of the model with synchronization experimental results of pair of neurons under weak (B0 ≅0.2-15 mT) AC-MF of frequency fM=50 Hz is reported. From the deduced size of synchronized LP clusters under B, is suggested the formation of small neuron networks via the membrane lipid correlation.

  15. Testing an assumption of the E-Z Reader model of eye-movement control during reading: Using event-related potentials to examine the familiarity check

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichle, E.D.; Tokowicz, N.; Liu, Y.; Perfetti, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    According to the E-Z Reader model of eye-movement control, the completion of an early stage of lexical processing, the familiarity check, causes the eyes to move forward during reading (Reichle, Pollatsek, Fisher, & Rayner, 1998). Here, we report an event-related potential (ERP

  16. How the Human Capital Model Explains Why the Gender Wage Gap Narrowed

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon W. Polachek

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores secular changes in women?s pay relative to men?s pay. It shows how the human capital model predicts a smaller gender wage gap as male-female lifetime work expectations become more similar. The model explains why relative female wages rose almost unabated from 1890 to the early-1990s in the United States (with the exception of about 1940-1980), and why this relative wage growth tapered off since 1993. In addition to the US, the paper presents evidence from nine other countr...

  17. Explaining German imports of olive oil: evidence from a gravity model

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    In this study the case of olive oil imports of Germany is examined since olive oil is a traditional Mediterranean commodity and Germany is the biggest importer in the EU. A gravity model has been employed so as to analyse those factors that explain the German imports of olive oil that were identified in a preceding analysis of the German olive oil supply chain. The results of two random-effects models corrected for serial correlation and heteroskedasticity suggest that being a Mediterranean P...

  18. Spatial modelling of Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus helgolandicus: parameter differences explain differences in biogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert John Wilson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The North Atlantic copepods Calanus finmarchicus and C. helgolandicus are moving north in response to rising temperatures. Understanding the drivers of their relative geographic distributions is required in order to anticipate future changes. To explore this, we created a new spatially explicit stage-structured model of their populations throughout the North Atlantic. Recent advances in understanding Calanus biology, including U-shaped relationships between growth and fecundity and temperature, and a new model of diapause duration are incorporated in the model. Equations were identical for both species, but some parameters were species-specific. The model was parameterized using Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey data and tested using time series of abundance and fecundity. The geographic distributions of both species were reproduced by assuming that only known interspecific differences and a difference in the temperature influence on mortality exist. We show that differences in diapause capability are not necessary to explain why C. helgolandicus is restricted to the continental shelf. Smaller body size and higher overwinter temperatures likely make true diapause implausible for C. helgolandicus. Known differences were incapable of explaining why only C. helgolandicus exists southwest of the British Isles. Further, the fecundity of C. helgolandicus in the English Channel is much lower than we predict. We hypothesize that food quality is a key influence on the population dynamics of these species. The modelling framework presented can potentially be extended to further Calanus species.

  19. On Spatial Resolution in Habitat Models: Can Small-scale Forest Structure Explain Capercaillie Numbers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Storch

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effects of spatial resolution on the performance and applicability of habitat models in wildlife management and conservation. A Habitat Suitability Index (HSI model for the Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus in the Bavarian Alps, Germany, is presented. The model was exclusively built on non-spatial, small-scale variables of forest structure and without any consideration of landscape patterns. The main goal was to assess whether a HSI model developed from small-scale habitat preferences can explain differences in population abundance at larger scales. To validate the model, habitat variables and indirect sign of Capercaillie use (such as feathers or feces were mapped in six study areas based on a total of 2901 20 m radius (for habitat variables and 5 m radius sample plots (for Capercaillie sign. First, the model's representation of Capercaillie habitat preferences was assessed. Habitat selection, as expressed by Ivlev's electivity index, was closely related to HSI scores, increased from poor to excellent habitat suitability, and was consistent across all study areas. Then, habitat use was related to HSI scores at different spatial scales. Capercaillie use was best predicted from HSI scores at the small scale. Lowering the spatial resolution of the model stepwise to 36-ha, 100-ha, 400-ha, and 2000-ha areas and relating Capercaillie use to aggregated HSI scores resulted in a deterioration of fit at larger scales. Most importantly, there were pronounced differences in Capercaillie abundance at the scale of study areas, which could not be explained by the HSI model. The results illustrate that even if a habitat model correctly reflects a species' smaller scale habitat preferences, its potential to predict population abundance at larger scales may remain limited.

  20. Adapting a Multigenre-Response Model for College Readers of American Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jeng-yih Tim

    2006-01-01

    As an English teacher who has been teaching nearly 10 years in a college of southern Taiwan, the presenter reports his successful experience on a course, titled "Selected Readings from American Literature." In this try-out study, the presenter adapts a multigenre-response model via which he encourages Taiwan college students to bravely write down…

  1. Modeling Reader and Text Interactions during Narrative Comprehension: A Test of the Lexical Quality Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen T.; Freed, Erin M.; Long, Debra L.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine predictions derived from the Lexical Quality Hypothesis regarding relations among word decoding, working-memory capacity, and the ability to integrate new concepts into a developing discourse representation. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to quantify the effects of three text properties (length,…

  2. "A Context-Adaptive Model for Program Evaluation": A Reader Reacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Mark W.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses a model of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program evaluation and suggests ESL professionals begin to see themselves within the wider context of training and development and begin applying useful disciplines of the business world to their activities. (four references) (JL)

  3. Fitting the Mixed Rasch Model to a Reading Comprehension Test: Identifying Reader Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghaei, Purya; Carstensen, Claus H.

    2013-01-01

    Standard unidimensional Rasch models assume that persons with the same ability parameters are comparable. That is, the same interpretation applies to persons with identical ability estimates as regards the underlying mental processes triggered by the test. However, research in cognitive psychology shows that persons at the same trait level may…

  4. Knowledge Structure Measures of Reader's Situation Models across Languages: Translation Engenders Richer Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung; Clariana, Roy B.

    2015-01-01

    In order to further validate and extend the application of recent knowledge structure (KS) measures to second language settings, this investigation explores how second language (L2, English) situation models are influenced by first language (L1, Korean) translation tasks. Fifty Korean low proficient English language learners were asked to read an…

  5. Scaffolding in L2 Reading: How Repetition and an Auditory Model Help Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Etsuo; Gorsuch, Greta; Lems, Kristin; Rosszell, Rory

    2016-01-01

    Reading fluency research and practice have recently undergone some changes. While past studies and interventions focused on reading speed as their main goal, now more emphasis is being placed on exploring the role prosody plays in reading, and how listening to an audio model of a text while reading may act as a form of scaffolding, or aid, to…

  6. Update for nurse anesthetists. The Starling resistor: a model for explaining and treating obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalford, Catherine B

    2004-04-01

    Recent epidemiological research places the incidence of obstructive sleep apnea as high as 16% in the general population. Serious postoperative respiratory complications and death have been reported in this population. Anesthetic drugs contribute to these complications secondary to acute and residual influences on the complex orchestration of airway muscles and reflexes involved in airway patency. The Starling resistor model is a theoretical model that has application in explaining upper airway dynamics and the treatment and management of obstructive sleep apnea. The model postulates the oropharynx as a collapsible tube. The oropharynx remains open or partially or completely closed as a result of pressure upstream at the nose and mouth, pressure downstream at the trachea and below, or tissue pressure surrounding the oropharynx. This AANA Journal course provides an overview of the Starling resistor model, its application to obstructive sleep apnea, and preoperative and postoperative anesthetic considerations.

  7. Root traits explain observed tundra vegetation nitrogen uptake patterns: Implications for trait-based land models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing; Iversen, Colleen M.; Riley, William J.; Slette, Ingrid J.; Vander Stel, Holly M.

    2016-12-01

    Ongoing climate warming will likely perturb vertical distributions of nitrogen availability in tundra soils through enhancing nitrogen mineralization and releasing previously inaccessible nitrogen from frozen permafrost soil. However, arctic tundra responses to such changes are uncertain, because of a lack of vertically explicit nitrogen tracer experiments and untested hypotheses of root nitrogen uptake under the stress of microbial competition implemented in land models. We conducted a vertically explicit 15N tracer experiment for three dominant tundra species to quantify plant N uptake profiles. Then we applied a nutrient competition model (N-COM), which is being integrated into the ACME Land Model, to explain the observations. Observations using an 15N tracer showed that plant N uptake profiles were not consistently related to root biomass density profiles, which challenges the prevailing hypothesis that root density always exerts first-order control on N uptake. By considering essential root traits (e.g., biomass distribution and nutrient uptake kinetics) with an appropriate plant-microbe nutrient competition framework, our model reasonably reproduced the observed patterns of plant N uptake. In addition, we show that previously applied nutrient competition hypotheses in Earth System Land Models fail to explain the diverse plant N uptake profiles we observed. Our results cast doubt on current climate-scale model predictions of arctic plant responses to elevated nitrogen supply under a changing climate and highlight the importance of considering essential root traits in large-scale land models. Finally, we provided suggestions and a short synthesis of data availability for future trait-based land model development.

  8. Explaining neural signals in human visual cortex with an associative learning model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiefeng; Schmajuk, Nestor; Egner, Tobias

    2012-08-01

    "Predictive coding" models posit a key role for associative learning in visual cognition, viewing perceptual inference as a process of matching (learned) top-down predictions (or expectations) against bottom-up sensory evidence. At the neural level, these models propose that each region along the visual processing hierarchy entails one set of processing units encoding predictions of bottom-up input, and another set computing mismatches (prediction error or surprise) between predictions and evidence. This contrasts with traditional views of visual neurons operating purely as bottom-up feature detectors. In support of the predictive coding hypothesis, a recent human neuroimaging study (Egner, Monti, & Summerfield, 2010) showed that neural population responses to expected and unexpected face and house stimuli in the "fusiform face area" (FFA) could be well-described as a summation of hypothetical face-expectation and -surprise signals, but not by feature detector responses. Here, we used computer simulations to test whether these imaging data could be formally explained within the broader framework of a mathematical neural network model of associative learning (Schmajuk, Gray, & Lam, 1996). Results show that FFA responses could be fit very closely by model variables coding for conditional predictions (and their violations) of stimuli that unconditionally activate the FFA. These data document that neural population signals in the ventral visual stream that deviate from classic feature detection responses can formally be explained by associative prediction and surprise signals.

  9. Modeling Reader- and Text- Interactions During Narrative Comprehension: A Test of the Lexical Quality Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen T; Freed, Erin M; Long, Debra L

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine predictions derived from the Lexical Quality Hypothesis (Perfetti & Hart, 2002; Perfetti, 2007) regarding relations among word-decoding, working-memory capacity, and the ability to integrate new concepts into a developing discourse representation. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to quantify the effects of two text properties (length and number of new concepts) on reading times of focal and spillover sentences, with variance in those effects estimated as a function of individual difference factors (decoding, vocabulary, print exposure, and working-memory capacity). The analysis revealed complex, cross-level interactions that complement the Lexical Quality Hypothesis.

  10. Explained Variation and Predictive Accuracy with an Extension to the Competing Risks Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosthøj, Susanne; Keiding, Niels

    2003-01-01

    Competing risks; efficiency; explained variation; misspecification; predictive accuracy; survival analysis......Competing risks; efficiency; explained variation; misspecification; predictive accuracy; survival analysis...

  11. Partial hepatectomy hemodynamics changes: Experimental data explained by closed-loop lumped modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audebert, Chloe; Bekheit, Mohamed; Bucur, Petru; Vibert, Eric; Vignon-Clementel, Irene E

    2017-01-04

    The liver function may be degraded after partial liver ablation surgery. Adverse liver hemodynamics have been shown to be associated to liver failure. The link between these hemodynamics changes and ablation size is however poorly understood. This article proposes to explain with a closed-loop lumped model the hemodynamics changes observed during twelve surgeries in pigs. The portal venous tree is modeled with a pressure-dependent variable resistor. The variables measured, before liver ablation, are used to tune the model parameters. Then, the liver partial ablation is simulated with the model and the simulated pressures and flows are compared with post-operative measurements. Fluid infusion and blood losses occur during the surgery. The closed-loop model presented accounts for these blood volume changes. Moreover, the impact of blood volume changes and the liver lobe mass estimations on the simulated variables is studied. The typical increase of portal pressure, increase of liver pressure loss, slight decrease of portal flow and major decrease in arterial flow are quantitatively captured by the model for a 75% hepatectomy. It appears that the 75% decrease in hepatic arterial flow can be explained by the resistance increase induced by the surgery, and that no hepatic arterial buffer response (HABR) mechanism is needed to account for this change. The different post-operative states, observed in experiments, are reproduced with the proposed model. Thus, an explanation for inter-subjects post-operative variability is proposed. The presented framework can easily be adapted to other species circulations and to different pathologies for clinical hepatic applications.

  12. Explaining the CMS excesses, baryogenesis and neutrino masses in $E_{6}$ motivated $U(1)_{N}$ model

    CERN Document Server

    Dhuria, Mansi; Sarkar, Utpal

    2016-01-01

    We study the superstring inspired $E_{6}$ model motivated $U(1)_{N}$ extension of the supersymmetric standard model to explore the possibility of explaining the recent excess CMS events and the baryon asymmetry of the universe in eight possible variants of the model. In light of the hints from short-baseline neutrino experiments at the existence of one or more light sterile neutrinos, we also study the neutrino mass matrices dictated by the field assignments and the discrete symmetries in these variants. We find that all the variants can explain the excess CMS events via the exotic slepton decay, while for a standard choice of the discrete symmetry four of the variants have the feature of allowing high scale baryogenesis (leptogenesis). For one other variant three body decay induced soft baryogenesis mechanism is possible which can induce baryon number violating neutron-antineutron oscillation. We also point out a new discrete symmetry which has the feature of ensuring proton stability and forbidding tree lev...

  13. A necessarily complex model to explain the biogeography of the amphibians and reptiles of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jason L; Cameron, Alison; Yoder, Anne D; Vences, Miguel

    2014-10-09

    Pattern and process are inextricably linked in biogeographic analyses, though we can observe pattern, we must infer process. Inferences of process are often based on ad hoc comparisons using a single spatial predictor. Here, we present an alternative approach that uses mixed-spatial models to measure the predictive potential of combinations of hypotheses. Biodiversity patterns are estimated from 8,362 occurrence records from 745 species of Malagasy amphibians and reptiles. By incorporating 18 spatially explicit predictions of 12 major biogeographic hypotheses, we show that mixed models greatly improve our ability to explain the observed biodiversity patterns. We conclude that patterns are influenced by a combination of diversification processes rather than by a single predominant mechanism. A 'one-size-fits-all' model does not exist. By developing a novel method for examining and synthesizing spatial parameters such as species richness, endemism and community similarity, we demonstrate the potential of these analyses for understanding the diversification history of Madagascar's biota.

  14. N3 Bias Field Correction Explained as a Bayesian Modeling Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Thode; Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Van Leemput, Koen

    2014-01-01

    Although N3 is perhaps the most widely used method for MRI bias field correction, its underlying mechanism is in fact not well understood. Specifically, the method relies on a relatively heuristic recipe of alternating iterative steps that does not optimize any particular objective function....... In this paper we explain the successful bias field correction properties of N3 by showing that it implicitly uses the same generative models and computational strategies as expectation maximization (EM) based bias field correction methods. We demonstrate experimentally that purely EM-based methods are capable...... of producing bias field correction results comparable to those of N3 in less computation time....

  15. An Integrated Model to Explain How Corporate Social Responsibility Affects Corporate Financial Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Shien Lin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR on financial performance has important implications for enterprises, communities, and countries, and the significance of this issue cannot be ignored. Therefore, this paper proposes an integrated model to explain the influence of CSR on financial performance with intellectual capital as a mediator and industry type as a moderator. Empirical results indicate that intellectual capital mediates the relationship between CSR and financial performance, and industry type moderates the direct influence of CSR on financial performance. Such results have critical implications for both academia and practice.

  16. Explaining muon magnetic moment and AMS-02 positron excess in a gauged horizontal symmetric model

    CERN Document Server

    Tomar, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    We extended the standard model with a fourth generation of fermions to explain the discrepancy in the muon magnetic moment and to describe the positron excess observed by AMS-02 experiment. We introduce a gauged $SU(2)_{HV}$ horizontal symmetry between the muon and the 4th generation lepton families and identified the 4th generation right-handed neutrino as the dark matter with mass $\\sim 700$ GeV. The dark matter annihilates through $SU(2)_{HV}$ gauge boson into final states $(\\mu^+ \\mu^-)$ and $(\

  17. When high-capacity readers slow down and low-capacity readers speed up: Working memory and locality effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eNicenboim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of argument-head distance in SVO and SOV languages (Spanish and German, while taking into account readers’ working memory capacity and controlling for expectation (Levy, 2008 and other factors. We predicted only locality effects, that is, a slow-down produced by increased dependency distance (Gibson, 2000; Lewis & Vasishth, 2005. Furthermore, we expected stronger locality effects for readers with low working memory capacity. Contrary to our predictions, low-capacity readers showed faster reading with increased distance, while high-capacity readers showed locality effects. We suggest that while the locality effects are compatible with memory-based explanations, the speedup of low-capacity readers can be explained by an increased probability of retrieval failure. We present a computational model based on ACT-R built under the previous assumptions, which is able to give a qualitative account for the present data and can be tested in future research. Our results suggest that in some cases, interpreting longer RTs as indexing increased processing difficulty and shorter RTs as facilitation may be too simplistic: The same increase in processing difficulty may lead to slowdowns in high-capacity readers and speedups in low-capacity ones. Ignoring individual level capacity differences when investigating locality effects may lead to misleading conclusions.

  18. A model of growth restraints to explain the development and evolution of tooth shapes in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Jeffrey W

    2008-12-07

    The problem investigated here is control of the development of tooth shape. Cells at the growing soft tissue interface between the ectoderm and mesoderm in a tooth anlage are observed to buckle and fold into a template for the shape of the tooth crown. The final shape is created by enamel secreted onto the folds. The pattern in which the folds develop is generally explained as a response to the pattern in which genes are locally expressed at the interface. This congruence leaves the problem of control unanswered because it does not explain how either pattern is controlled. Obviously, cells are subject to Newton's laws of motion so that mechanical forces and constraints must ultimately cause the movements of cells during tooth morphogenesis. A computer model is used to test the hypothesis that directional resistances to growth of the epithelial part of the interface could account for the shape into which the interface folds. The model starts with a single epithelial cell whose growth is constrained by 4 constant directional resistances (anterior, posterior, medial and lateral). The constraints force the growing epithelium to buckle and fold. By entering into the model different values for these constraints the modeled epithelium is induced to buckle and fold into the different shapes associated with the evolution of a human upper molar from that of a reptilian ancestor. The patterns and sizes of cusps and the sequences in which they develop are all correctly reproduced. The model predicts the changes in the 4 directional constraints necessary to develop and evolve from one tooth shape into another. I conclude more generally expressed genes that control directional resistances to growth, not locally expressed genes, may provide the information for the shape into which a tooth develops.

  19. How the Self-Interacting Dark Matter Model Explains the Diverse Galactic Rotation Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Kamada, Ayuki; Pace, Andrew B; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2016-01-01

    The rotation curves of spiral galaxies exhibit a diversity that has been difficult to understand in the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm. We show that the self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) model provides excellent fits to the rotation curves of a sample of galaxies with asymptotic velocities in the 25 to 300 km/s range that exemplify the full range of diversity. We only assume the halo concentration-mass relation predicted by the CDM model and a fixed value of the self-interaction cross section.In dark matter dominated galaxies, thermalization due to self-interactions creates large cores and reduces dark matter densities. In contrast, thermalization leads to denser and smaller cores in more luminous galaxies, and naturally explains the flat rotation curves of the highly luminous galaxies. Our results demonstrate that the impact of the baryons on the SIDM halo profile and the scatter from the assembly history of halos as encoded in the concentration-mass relation can explain the diverse rotation curves of spi...

  20. A Little Knowledge of Ground Motion: Explaining 3-D Physics-Based Modeling to Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, K.

    2014-12-01

    Users of earthquake planning scenarios require the ground-motion map to be credible enough to justify costly planning efforts, but not all ground-motion maps are right for all uses. There are two common ways to create a map of ground motion for a hypothetical earthquake. One approach is to map the median shaking estimated by empirical attenuation relationships. The other uses 3-D physics-based modeling, in which one analyzes a mathematical model of the earth's crust near the fault rupture and calculates the generation and propagation of seismic waves from source to ground surface by first principles. The two approaches produce different-looking maps. The more-familiar median maps smooth out variability and correlation. Using them in a planning scenario can lead to a systematic underestimation of damage and loss, and could leave a community underprepared for realistic shaking. The 3-D maps show variability, including some very high values that can disconcert non-scientists. So when the USGS Science Application for Risk Reduction's (SAFRR) Haywired scenario project selected 3-D maps, it was necessary to explain to scenario users—especially engineers who often use median maps—the differences, advantages, and disadvantages of the two approaches. We used authority, empirical evidence, and theory to support our choice. We prefaced our explanation with SAFRR's policy of using the best available earth science, and cited the credentials of the maps' developers and the reputation of the journal in which they published the maps. We cited recorded examples from past earthquakes of extreme ground motions that are like those in the scenario map. We explained the maps on theoretical grounds as well, explaining well established causes of variability: directivity, basin effects, and source parameters. The largest mapped motions relate to potentially unfamiliar extreme-value theory, so we used analogies to human longevity and the average age of the oldest person in samples of

  1. A simple analytic model for explaining the ‘[CII] deficit’.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl

    2015-01-01

    The 158 μm far-infrared (FIR) fine-structure emission line of ionized carbon is quickly becoming the workhorse for studying high-z galaxies in the millimeter and submillimeter wavelength regimes. Given the capabilities of Atacama Large Millimeter Array it is sure to be used even more widely future for understanding early galaxies. This scientific popularity is owed much to its brightness, as easily 1% of a galaxies total FIR luminosity can appear just in the [CII] line itself. That being said, there are still many complexities involved in fully understanding the nature of [CII] emission in the plethora of different galaxies found in the universe. Of critical concern is understanding the '[CII] deficit' seen in low-z systems that showed a decline in the [CII]/FIR luminosity ratio for increasing FIR luminosity. While numerous studies of low-z systems have duplicated this result, observations of high-z systems break the trend. Here I present a simple analytic model that explains the trends in the [CII]/FIR ratio versus both total FIR luminosity and IR luminosity surface density, while consistently explaining the differences seen between low and high-z systems. This model assumes that star-forming ionized regions can be described by a simple Stromgren sphere. All trends in the [CII]/FIR ratio are then accounted for by either variations in the average luminosity of the ionizing source producing this average HII region or by changing the total number of said HII regions. Comparisons of the model with existing studies will be discussed as well as additional observation that can direct test the viability of the model.

  2. Consistency and bicharacteristic analysis of integral porosity shallow water models. Explaining model oversensitivity to mesh design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinot, Vincent

    2017-09-01

    The Integral Porosity and Dual Integral Porosity two-dimensional shallow water models have been proposed recently as efficient upscaled models for urban floods. Very little is known so far about their consistency and wave propagation properties. Simple numerical experiments show that both models are unusually sensitive to the computational grid. In the present paper, a two-dimensional consistency and characteristic analysis is carried out for these two models. The following results are obtained: (i) the models are almost insensitive to grid design when the porosity is isotropic, (ii) anisotropic porosity fields induce an artificial polarization of the mass/momentum fluxes along preferential directions when triangular meshes are used and (iii) extra first-order derivatives appear in the governing equations when regular, quadrangular cells are used. The hyperbolic system is thus mesh-dependent, and with it the wave propagation properties of the model solutions. Criteria are derived to make the solution less mesh-dependent, but it is not certain that these criteria can be satisfied at all computational points when real-world situations are dealt with.

  3. Can the social model explain all of disability experience? Perspectives of persons with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Renee R

    2005-01-01

    The social model of disability has had a major influence on the academic field of disability studies and on contemporary understandings of the causes and experience of disability. The purpose of this study was to examine the adequacy of the social model for explaining the disability experience of persons with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). This qualitative study examined the experiences of 47 adults with CFS participating in a research project that aimed to evaluate a participant-designed rehabilitation program. Data were aggregated from focus group interviews, open-ended questionnaires, progress notes, and from a program evaluation questionnaire. Data analysis was based on a grounded theory approach and used triangulation of multiple data sources and member checks to assure dependability of findings. Four themes emerged from the analysis: (1) minimization and mistrust of the disability; (2) negative experiences of impairment; (3) lack of identification with the disability community; and (4) the focus on advocacy as a quest for legitimacy. These themes varied in the extent to which they conformed to the principles set forth by the social model. Although the social model has important contributions to lend to occupational therapy practice, it is important to recognize that it may not capture the full reality of disability. In particular, the social model has serious limitations in describing the disability experience of individuals with disabilities who do not have visibly obvious disabilities and whose impairments do not conform to the traditional viewpoint of disability.

  4. PDF Explained

    CERN Document Server

    Whitington, John

    2011-01-01

    An introduction to the PDF file format, threaded through with practical examples - deconstructing, creating and processing PDF files. After exploring how PDF is produced, and how it can be edited with tools from text editors to Ghostscript to PDFTK, readers will learn to deal with problems with PDF files and common error messages.

  5. Explaining the suicide risk of sexual minority individuals by contrasting the minority stress model with suicide models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plöderl, Martin; Sellmeier, Maximilian; Fartacek, Clemens; Pichler, Eva-Maria; Fartacek, Reinhold; Kralovec, Karl

    2014-11-01

    Many studies have found elevated levels of suicide ideation and attempts among sexual minority (homosexual and bisexual) individuals as compared to heterosexual individuals. The suicide risk difference has mainly been explained by minority stress models (MSTM), but the application of established suicidological models and testing their interrelations with the MSTM has been lacking so far. Therefore, we have contrasted two established models explaining suicide risk, the Interpersonal Psychological Theory (IPT) (Joiner, 2005) and the Clinical Model (CM) (Mann et al., 1999), with the MSTM (Meyer, 2003) in a Bavarian online-sample of 255 adult sexual minority participants and 183 heterosexual participants. The results suggested that the CM and the IPT model can well explain suicide ideation among sexual minorities according to the factors depression, hopelessness, perceived burdensomeness, and failed belongingness. The CM and the IPT were intertwined with the MSTM via internalized homophobia, social support, and early age of coming out. Early coming out was associated with an increased suicide attempt risk, perhaps through violent experiences that enhanced the capability for suicide; however, coming out likely changed to a protective factor for suicide ideation by enhanced social support and reduced internalized homophobia. These results give more insight into the development of suicide risk among sexual minority individuals and may be helpful to tailor minority-specific suicide prevention strategies.

  6. Polarization in Raman spectroscopy helps explain bone brittleness in genetic mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Alexander J.; Pence, Isaac J.; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Zein-Sabatto, Ahbid; Huszagh, Meredith C.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Nyman, Jeffry S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Raman spectroscopy (RS) has been extensively used to characterize bone composition. However, the link between bone biomechanics and RS measures is not well established. Here, we leveraged the sensitivity of RS polarization to organization, thereby assessing whether RS can explain differences in bone toughness in genetic mouse models for which traditional RS peak ratios are not informative. In the selected mutant mice—activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) or matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) knock-outs—toughness is reduced but differences in bone strength do not exist between knock-out and corresponding wild-type controls. To incorporate differences in the RS of bone occurring at peak shoulders, a multivariate approach was used. Full spectrum principal components analysis of two paired, orthogonal bone orientations (relative to laser polarization) improved genotype classification and correlation to bone toughness when compared to traditional peak ratios. When applied to femurs from wild-type mice at 8 and 20 weeks of age, the principal components of orthogonal bone orientations improved age classification but not the explanation of the maturation-related increase in strength. Overall, increasing polarization information by collecting spectra from two bone orientations improves the ability of multivariate RS to explain variance in bone toughness, likely due to polarization sensitivity to organizational changes in both mineral and collagen. PMID:25402627

  7. A Particle Model Explaining Mass and Relativity in a Physical Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Albrecht

    Physicists' understanding of relativity and the way it is handled is up to present days dominated by the interpretation of Albert Einstein, who related relativity to specific properties of space and time. The principal alternative to Einstein's interpretation is based on a concept proposed by Hendrik A. Lorentz, which uses knowledge of classical physics alone to explain relativistic phenomena. In this paper, we will show that on the one hand the Lorentz-based interpretation provides a simpler mathematical way of arriving at the known results for both Special and General Relativity. On the other hand, it is able to solve problems which have remained open to this day. Furthermore, a particle model will be presented, based on Lorentzian relativity and the quantum mechanical concept of Louis de Broglie, which explains the origin of mass without the use of the Higgs mechanism. It is based on the finiteness of the speed of light and provides classical results for particle properties which are currently only accessible through quantum mechanics.

  8. Polarization in Raman spectroscopy helps explain bone brittleness in genetic mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Alexander J.; Pence, Isaac J.; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Zein-Sabatto, Ahbid; Huszagh, Meredith C.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Nyman, Jeffry S.

    2014-11-01

    Raman spectroscopy (RS) has been extensively used to characterize bone composition. However, the link between bone biomechanics and RS measures is not well established. Here, we leveraged the sensitivity of RS polarization to organization, thereby assessing whether RS can explain differences in bone toughness in genetic mouse models for which traditional RS peak ratios are not informative. In the selected mutant mice-activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) or matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) knock-outs-toughness is reduced but differences in bone strength do not exist between knock-out and corresponding wild-type controls. To incorporate differences in the RS of bone occurring at peak shoulders, a multivariate approach was used. Full spectrum principal components analysis of two paired, orthogonal bone orientations (relative to laser polarization) improved genotype classification and correlation to bone toughness when compared to traditional peak ratios. When applied to femurs from wild-type mice at 8 and 20 weeks of age, the principal components of orthogonal bone orientations improved age classification but not the explanation of the maturation-related increase in strength. Overall, increasing polarization information by collecting spectra from two bone orientations improves the ability of multivariate RS to explain variance in bone toughness, likely due to polarization sensitivity to organizational changes in both mineral and collagen.

  9. A Reader-Response Criticism towards "Trifles"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莎莉

    2007-01-01

    Susan Glaspell's Trifles is considered one of the most important feminist works in last century.This play is about a murder mystery that explores gender relationships,power between the sexes,and the nature of truth.In this article we are going to examine and explain the relationship between the text and the reader in the process of reading with the view of reader-response criticism.

  10. Building factorial regression models to explain and predict nitrate concentrations in groundwater under agricultural land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigter, T. Y.; Ribeiro, L.; Dill, A. M. M. Carvalho

    2008-07-01

    SummaryFactorial regression models, based on correspondence analysis, are built to explain the high nitrate concentrations in groundwater beneath an agricultural area in the south of Portugal, exceeding 300 mg/l, as a function of chemical variables, electrical conductivity (EC), land use and hydrogeological setting. Two important advantages of the proposed methodology are that qualitative parameters can be involved in the regression analysis and that multicollinearity is avoided. Regression is performed on eigenvectors extracted from the data similarity matrix, the first of which clearly reveals the impact of agricultural practices and hydrogeological setting on the groundwater chemistry of the study area. Significant correlation exists between response variable NO3- and explanatory variables Ca 2+, Cl -, SO42-, depth to water, aquifer media and land use. Substituting Cl - by the EC results in the most accurate regression model for nitrate, when disregarding the four largest outliers (model A). When built solely on land use and hydrogeological setting, the regression model (model B) is less accurate but more interesting from a practical viewpoint, as it is based on easily obtainable data and can be used to predict nitrate concentrations in groundwater in other areas with similar conditions. This is particularly useful for conservative contaminants, where risk and vulnerability assessment methods, based on assumed rather than established correlations, generally produce erroneous results. Another purpose of the models can be to predict the future evolution of nitrate concentrations under influence of changes in land use or fertilization practices, which occur in compliance with policies such as the Nitrates Directive. Model B predicts a 40% decrease in nitrate concentrations in groundwater of the study area, when horticulture is replaced by other land use with much lower fertilization and irrigation rates.

  11. A Simple Biomineralization Model to Explain Li, Mg, and Sr Incorporation into Aragonitic Foraminifera and Corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchitto, T. M.; Bryan, S. P.; Montagna, P.

    2011-12-01

    The relationships between growth temperature and individual metal/Ca ratios in biogenic aragonites may be fundamentally perturbed by at least two processes: Ca pumping and Rayleigh fractionation. We suggest that the ratio Li/Mg is insensitive to both processes. Theoretically this is because the two elements experience negligible leakage through the Ca pump and very low partitioning into aragonite, leading to relatively constant Li/Mg in the calcifying fluid. This behavior may be related to the small ionic radii of both elements compared to Ca. As a result, Li/Mg is well explained by the temperature dependence of Li and Mg partitioning into inorganic aragonite, lending promise to its utility as a paleothermometer. Coral Sr/Ca is shown to be consistent with this model if the Ca pump is leaky with respect to Sr.

  12. Bone marrow precursors: a model explaining radio-protection by opposite cell cycle-acting cytokines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmau, Sergio Ranto; Coelho, Marsen G.P. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica; Freitas, Claudia Sondermann [Instituto nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Basica

    1997-12-31

    Full text. Cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a), stem cell factor (SCF), and interleukin-12 (IL-12) are presently known to exert a radioprotective effect on bone marrow (BM) precursor cells. IL-1, SCF, and IL-12 are known to promote BM precursor cell cycling. Conversely, TNF-a and TGF-b, the latter a radio sensitizer, induce cycle arrest in these cells. Cycling is known to increase radioprotection. Therefore, the mechanism by which TNF-a exerts radio-protection on BM precursors is unclear. However, IL-1 and TNF-a are unique among these cytokines in their ability to induce detoxifying mechanisms. Supported on the literature, the present communication proposes a model, based on the induction of biochemical detoxifying mechanisms, aiming to explain BM cell radio-protection by opposite cell cycle-acting cytokines

  13. Computational model explains high activity and rapid cycling of Rho GTPases within protein complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B Goryachev

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Formation of multiprotein complexes on cellular membranes is critically dependent on the cyclic activation of small GTPases. FRAP-based analyses demonstrate that within protein complexes, some small GTPases cycle nearly three orders of magnitude faster than they would spontaneously cycle in vitro. At the same time, experiments report concomitant excess of the activated, GTP-bound form of GTPases over their inactive form. Intuitively, high activity and rapid turnover are contradictory requirements. How the cells manage to maximize both remains poorly understood. Here, using GTPases of the Rab and Rho families as a prototype, we introduce a computational model of the GTPase cycle. We quantitatively investigate several plausible layouts of the cycling control module that consist of GEFs, GAPs, and GTPase effectors. We explain the existing experimental data and predict how the cycling of GTPases is controlled by the regulatory proteins in vivo. Our model explains distinct and separable roles that the activating GEFs and deactivating GAPs play in the GTPase cycling control. While the activity of GTPase is mainly defined by GEF, the turnover rate is a sole function of GAP. Maximization of the GTPase activity and turnover rate places conflicting requirements on the concentration of GAP. Therefore, to achieve a high activity and turnover rate at once, cells must carefully maintain concentrations of GEFs and GAPs within the optimal range. The values of these optimal concentrations indicate that efficient cycling can be achieved only within dense protein complexes typically assembled on the membrane surfaces. We show that the concentration requirement for GEF can be dramatically reduced by a GEF-activating GTPase effector that can also significantly boost the cycling efficiency. Interestingly, we find that the cycling regimes are only weakly dependent on the concentration of GTPase itself.

  14. Metabolic energy-based modelling explains product yielding in anaerobic mixed culture fermentations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca González-Cabaleiro

    Full Text Available The fermentation of glucose using microbial mixed cultures is of great interest given its potential to convert wastes into valuable products at low cost, however, the difficulties associated with the control of the process still pose important challenges for its industrial implementation. A deeper understanding of the fermentation process involving metabolic and biochemical principles is very necessary to overcome these difficulties. In this work a novel metabolic energy based model is presented that accurately predicts for the first time the experimentally observed changes in product spectrum with pH. The model predicts the observed shift towards formate production at high pH, accompanied with ethanol and acetate production. Acetate (accompanied with a more reduced product and butyrate are predicted main products at low pH. The production of propionate between pH 6 and 8 is also predicted. These results are mechanistically explained for the first time considering the impact that variable proton motive potential and active transport energy costs have in terms of energy harvest over different products yielding. The model results, in line with numerous reported experiments, validate the mechanistic and bioenergetics hypotheses that fermentative mixed cultures products yielding appears to be controlled by the principle of maximum energy harvest and the necessity of balancing the redox equivalents in absence of external electron acceptors.

  15. A model for explaining fusion suppression using the classical trajectory method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phookan, C. K.; Kalita, K.

    2013-12-01

    A two-dimensional classical trajectory model is used to explain the projectile breakup and above-barrier fusion suppression for the reactions 6Li+209Bi, 6Li+152Sm and 6Li+144Sm. To obtain the initial conditions of the equations of motion, a simplified model of the 6Li nucleus has been developed. Numerical solutions of the equations lead to the classification of orbits into breakup and no-breakup trajectories. The breakup fraction is studied as a function of the impact parameter. Using quantum mechanical arguments, the cut-off impact parameter for fusion is determined by proposing a sharp cut-off model which assumes that there is an angular momentum limit to fusion. We introduce a simple formula for the explanation of fusion suppression, according to which fusion suppression is given by the average of the breakup fractions evaluated at impact parameters ranging from head-on collision up to the cut-off impact parameter. We find that there is excellent agreement between the experimental fusion cross section (σexp) and the calculated fusion cross section (σcal) for the systems studied.

  16. Psychological and physical dimensions explaining life satisfaction among the elderly: a structural model examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez, Juan Carlos; Tomás, José Manuel; Oliver, Amparo; Navarro, Esperanza

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to analyze the effects of psychological well-being, physical functioning and socio-demographic factors on life satisfaction. Both a bivariate and a multivariate level of analyses have been used. Finally, a structural model explaining life satisfaction has been developed and validated. With respect to bivariate relations, there was evidence of significant positive relations between psychological well-being dimensions and life satisfaction and between physical conditions and life satisfaction as well. Also, as age increased there was a slow decrease in life satisfaction. Educational level was positively related to life satisfaction. A structural model gave valuable information about the pattern of multivariate relationships among the variables. A first result of the model was the large effect of physical and psychological well-being on life satisfaction, albeit it was psychological well-being the major predictor of life satisfaction. A second result was that the effects of socio-demographic variables on life satisfaction were low and they operated through the effects that maintain either on psychological well-being (or its individual indicators) or on physical conditions. The role gender or age played was indirect rather than direct.

  17. DOES THE UPPSALA INTERNATIONALIZATION MODEL EXPLAIN THE INTERNATIONALIZATION PROCESS OF PROFESSIONAL BUSINESS SERVICE FIRMS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Górska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to verify if the Uppsala Model with later variations introduced by the authors is the right framework to explain internationalization process of Professional Business Service Firms (PBSFs. The focus is placed on the entry of one type of PBSFs, namely advertising agencies into the Chinese market. The example is based on a case study. This paper deliberates about identified factors in the internationalization process of advertising agencies that fit to the Uppsala model and about factors that deviate from it. Several stages are identified in the entrance of advertising agencies into the Chinese market. These are as follows: initial stage - external agent, participation stage - representative office, establishment stage - joint venture, network expansion stage – branch offices and other joint ventures. The presence of stages suggests that the Uppsala model may prove useful in explanation of foreign entry strategies in PBSFs in general. In addition to that, support is also found for market entry due to networking activities. Client following was identified as most common entry mode in the studied group of PBSFs.

  18. E-book Reader Devices and Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pažur, I.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Most library studies thematically related to electronic books don't consider readers of electronic books. Only in recent years librarians conduct studies in which they want to find out readers' opinions about the possibilities, advantages and disadvantages of reading using e-readers, as well as their possible application in the libraries.User studies of e-readers have shown that their opinion is generally positive, but great attachment to traditional books is still present, e-readers are still seen only as an additional tool for reading. Sony with its e-reader (the latest Reader model Daily and Reader Store online bookstore (http://ebookstore.sony.com/is the only one who cooperate with libraries and has made lending electronic books possible. Cooperation was launched in 2009th,and the New York Public Library was the first library that offered such a service.Cooperation between Sony and libraries, indicates clearly what the near future could be if other online booksellers / publishers begin to follow the model of lending e-books through the libraries over the network. However it is possible that a large online bookstores / publishers consider that the further price reduction of e-readers and electronic books will constantly increase their sales, and in that case lending e-books will be unnecessary.Are the libraries ready for this scenario?

  19. A ternary age-mixing model to explain contaminant occurrence in a deep supply well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, Bryant C; Bexfield, Laura M; Eberts, Sandra M

    2014-09-01

    The age distribution of water from a public-supply well in a deep alluvial aquifer was estimated and used to help explain arsenic variability in the water. The age distribution was computed using a ternary mixing model that combines three lumped parameter models of advection-dispersion transport of environmental tracers, which represent relatively recent recharge (post-1950s) containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs), old intermediate depth groundwater (about 6500 years) that was free of drinking-water contaminants, and very old, deep groundwater (more than 21,000 years) containing arsenic above the USEPA maximum contaminant level of 10 µg/L. The ternary mixing model was calibrated to tritium, chloroflorocarbon-113, and carbon-14 (14C) concentrations that were measured in water samples collected on multiple occasions. Variability in atmospheric 14C over the past 50,000 years was accounted for in the interpretation of (14) C as a tracer. Calibrated ternary models indicate the fraction of deep, very old groundwater entering the well varies substantially throughout the year and was highest following long periods of nonoperation or infrequent operation, which occured during the winter season when water demand was low. The fraction of young water entering the well was about 11% during the summer when pumping peaked to meet water demand and about 3% to 6% during the winter months. This paper demonstrates how collection of multiple tracers can be used in combination with simplified models of fluid flow to estimate the age distribution and thus fraction of contaminated groundwater reaching a supply well under different pumping conditions.

  20. "Readers Forum" in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    On 23 April in Shanghai, a "Readers Forum" was held by Women of China to promote contact and exchangewith our readers and improve our work. It was a great honor that some of our foreign women readers, who areliving in Shanghai with their families on business at present, joined us, and nine of them made speeches at theforum. Moreover, two readers who couldn’t attend the forum in person, accepted a telephone interview. Shown hereare their kind comments and suggestions for our magazine.

  1. Conceptual model and economic experiments to explain nonpersistence and enable mechanism designs fostering behavioral change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djawadi, Behnud Mir; Fahr, René; Turk, Florian

    2014-12-01

    Medical nonpersistence is a worldwide problem of striking magnitude. Although many fields of studies including epidemiology, sociology, and psychology try to identify determinants for medical nonpersistence, comprehensive research to explain medical nonpersistence from an economics perspective is rather scarce. The aim of the study was to develop a conceptual framework that augments standard economic choice theory with psychological concepts of behavioral economics to understand how patients' preferences for discontinuing with therapy arise over the course of the medical treatment. The availability of such a framework allows the targeted design of mechanisms for intervention strategies. Our conceptual framework models the patient as an active economic agent who evaluates the benefits and costs for continuing with therapy. We argue that a combination of loss aversion and mental accounting operations explains why patients discontinue with therapy at a specific point in time. We designed a randomized laboratory economic experiment with a student subject pool to investigate the behavioral predictions. Subjects continue with therapy as long as experienced utility losses have to be compensated. As soon as previous losses are evened out, subjects perceive the marginal benefit of persistence lower than in the beginning of the treatment. Consequently, subjects start to discontinue with therapy. Our results highlight that concepts of behavioral economics capture the dynamic structure of medical nonpersistence better than does standard economic choice theory. We recommend that behavioral economics should be a mandatory part of the development of possible intervention strategies aimed at improving patients' compliance and persistence behavior. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Can self-reported disability assessment behaviour of insurance physicians be explained? Applying the ASE model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellart, Antonius J M; Steenbeek, Romy; Mulders, Henny P G; Anema, Johannes R; Kroneman, Herman; Besseling, Jan J M

    2011-07-19

    Very little is known about the attitudes and views that might underlie and explain the variation in occupational disability assessment behaviour between insurance physicians. In an earlier study we presented an adjusted ASE model (Attitude, Social norm, Self-efficacy) to identify the determinants of the disability assessment behaviour among insurance physicians. The research question of this study is how Attitude, Social norm, Self-efficacy and Intention shape the behaviour that insurance physicians themselves report with regard to the process (Behaviour: process) and content of the assessment (Behaviour: assessment) while taking account of Knowledge and Barriers. This study was based on 231 questionnaires filled in by insurance physicians, resulting into 48 scales and dimension scores. The number of variables was reduced by a separate estimation of each of the theoretical ASE constructs as a latent variable in a measurement model. The saved factor scores of these latent variables were treated as observed variables when we estimated a path model with Lisrel to confirm the ASE model. We estimated latent ASE constructs for most of the assigned scales and dimensions. All could be described and interpreted. We used these constructs to build a path model that showed a good fit. Contrary to our initial expectations, we did not find direct effects for Attitude on Intention and for Intention on self reported assessment behaviour in the model. This may well have been due to the operationalization of the concept of 'Intention'. We did, however, find that Attitude had a positive direct effect on Behaviour: process and Behaviour: Assessment and that Intention had a negative direct effect on Behaviour: process. A path model pointed to the existence of relationships between Attitude on the one hand and self-reported behaviour by insurance physicians with regard to process and content of occupational disability assessments on the other hand. In addition, Intention was only

  3. Can self-reported disability assessment behaviour of insurance physicians be explained? Applying the ASE model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anema Johannes R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little is known about the attitudes and views that might underlie and explain the variation in occupational disability assessment behaviour between insurance physicians. In an earlier study we presented an adjusted ASE model (Attitude, Social norm, Self-efficacy to identify the determinants of the disability assessment behaviour among insurance physicians. The research question of this study is how Attitude, Social norm, Self-efficacy and Intention shape the behaviour that insurance physicians themselves report with regard to the process (Behaviour: process and content of the assessment (Behaviour: assessment while taking account of Knowledge and Barriers. Methods This study was based on 231 questionnaires filled in by insurance physicians, resulting into 48 scales and dimension scores. The number of variables was reduced by a separate estimation of each of the theoretical ASE constructs as a latent variable in a measurement model. The saved factor scores of these latent variables were treated as observed variables when we estimated a path model with Lisrel to confirm the ASE model. We estimated latent ASE constructs for most of the assigned scales and dimensions. All could be described and interpreted. We used these constructs to build a path model that showed a good fit. Results Contrary to our initial expectations, we did not find direct effects for Attitude on Intention and for Intention on self reported assessment behaviour in the model. This may well have been due to the operationalization of the concept of 'Intention'. We did, however, find that Attitude had a positive direct effect on Behaviour: process and Behaviour: Assessment and that Intention had a negative direct effect on Behaviour: process. Conclusion A path model pointed to the existence of relationships between Attitude on the one hand and self-reported behaviour by insurance physicians with regard to process and content of occupational disability

  4. Investigating the mechanics of multimedia box models: how to explain differences between models in terms of mass fluxes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheringer, Martin; Wegmann, Fabio; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2004-10-01

    The simple mathematical structure of multimedia fate models makes it possible to change the process descriptions and geometry of such models relatively easily. With different versions of a model, the effect of a process or compartment that is included in one version of the model but excluded in another version can be investigated. Here, a new method for performing such a model comparison in a quantitative way is presented. Based on the mass balances for the two model versions, it can be shown that, for a compartment contained in both model versions, the difference between a chemical's concentrations in this compartment is related directly to the difference in those mass fluxes that have different rate constants in the two models. Moreover, it is possible to identify the contributions to the concentration difference that stem from individual mass fluxes so that the concentration difference can be tracked back to specific differences in the process descriptions of the two models. This flux analysis method is illustrated with two versions of a unit-world model, one with and one without a vegetation compartment. With DDT and six polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners as example chemicals, the differences of the chemicals' concentrations in air and soil caused by the vegetation compartment are explained by using the flux analysis method. The future potential of the method for comparing not only versions of the same model but also models of different structure is discussed.

  5. Explaining nitrate pollution pressure on the groundwater resource in Kinshasa using a multivariate statistical modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mfumu Kihumba, Antoine; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2013-04-01

    Drinking water in Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo, is provided by extracting groundwater from the local aquifer, particularly in peripheral areas. The exploited groundwater body is mainly unconfined and located within a continuous detrital aquifer, primarily composed of sedimentary formations. However, the aquifer is subjected to an increasing threat of anthropogenic pollution pressure. Understanding the detailed origin of this pollution pressure is important for sustainable drinking water management in Kinshasa. The present study aims to explain the observed nitrate pollution problem, nitrate being considered as a good tracer for other pollution threats. The analysis is made in terms of physical attributes that are readily available using a statistical modelling approach. For the nitrate data, use was made of a historical groundwater quality assessment study, for which the data were re-analysed. The physical attributes are related to the topography, land use, geology and hydrogeology of the region. Prior to the statistical modelling, intrinsic and specific vulnerability for nitrate pollution was assessed. This vulnerability assessment showed that the alluvium area in the northern part of the region is the most vulnerable area. This area consists of urban land use with poor sanitation. Re-analysis of the nitrate pollution data demonstrated that the spatial variability of nitrate concentrations in the groundwater body is high, and coherent with the fragmented land use of the region and the intrinsic and specific vulnerability maps. For the statistical modeling use was made of multiple regression and regression tree analysis. The results demonstrated the significant impact of land use variables on the Kinshasa groundwater nitrate pollution and the need for a detailed delineation of groundwater capture zones around the monitoring stations. Key words: Groundwater , Isotopic, Kinshasa, Modelling, Pollution, Physico-chemical.

  6. Using Carl Rogers' person-centered model to explain interpersonal relationships at a school of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Venise D; Lindo, Jascinth; Anderson-Johnson, Pauline; Weaver, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Faculty members are viewed as nurturers within the academic setting and may be able to influence students' behaviors through the formation of positive interpersonal relationships. Faculty members' attributes that best facilitated positive interpersonal relationships according to Carl Rogers' Person-Centered Model was studied. Students (n = 192) enrolled in a 3-year undergraduate nursing program in urban Jamaica were randomly selected to participate in this descriptive cross-sectional study. A 38-item questionnaire on interpersonal relationships with nursing faculty and students' perceptions of their teachers was utilized to collect data. Factor analysis was used to create factors of realness, prizing, and empathetic understanding. Multiple linear regression analysis on the interaction of the 3 factors and interpersonal relationship scores was performed while controlling for nursing students' study year and age. One hundred sixty-five students (mean age: 23.18 ± 4.51years; 99% female) responded. The regression model explained over 46% of the variance. Realness (β = 0.50, P interpersonal relationship scores assigned by the nursing students. Of the total number of respondents, 99 students (60%) reported satisfaction with the interpersonal relationships shared with faculty. Nursing students' perception of faculty members' realness appeared to be the most significant attribute in fostering positive interpersonal relationships.

  7. Matlab for engineers explained

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Fredrik

    2003-01-01

    This book is written for students at bachelor and master programs and has four different purposes, which split the book into four parts: 1. To teach first or early year undergraduate engineering students basic knowledge in technical computations and programming using MATLAB. The first part starts from first principles and is therefore well suited both for readers with prior exposure to MATLAB but lacking a solid foundational knowledge of the capabilities of the system and readers not having any previous experience with MATLAB. The foundational knowledge gained from these interactive guided tours of the system will hopefully be sufficient for an effective utilization of MATLAB in the engineering profession, in education and in research. 2. To explain the foundations of more advanced use of MATLAB using the facilities added the last couple of years, such as extended data structures, object orientation and advanced graphics. 3. To give an introduction to the use of MATLAB in typical undergraduate courses in elec...

  8. Contextual interactions in grating plaid configurations are explained by natural image statistics and neural modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Alexander Ernst

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Processing natural scenes requires the visual system to integrate local features into global object descriptions. To achieve coherent representations, the human brain uses statistical dependencies to guide weighting of local feature conjunctions. Pairwise interactions among feature detectors in early visual areas may form the early substrate of these local feature bindings. To investigate local interaction structures in visual cortex, we combined psychophysical experiments with computational modeling and natural scene analysis. We first measured contrast thresholds for 2x2 grating patch arrangements (plaids, which differed in spatial frequency composition (low, high or mixed, number of grating patch co-alignments (0, 1 or 2, and inter-patch distances (1° and 2° of visual angle. Contrast thresholds for the different configurations were compared to the prediction of probability summation (PS among detector families tuned to the four retinal positions. For 1° distance the thresholds for all configurations were larger than predicted by PS, indicating inhibitory interactions. For 2° distance, thresholds were significantly lower compared to PS when the plaids were homogeneous in spatial frequency and orientation, but not when spatial frequencies were mixed or there was at least one misalignment. Next, we constructed a neural population model with horizontal laminar structure, which reproduced the detection thresholds after adaptation of connection weights. Consistent with prior work, contextual interactions were medium-range inhibition and long-range, orientation-specific excitation. However, inclusion of orientation-specific, inhibitory interactions between populations with different spatial frequency preferences were crucial for explaining detection thresholds. Finally, for all plaid configurations we computed their likelihood of occurrence in natural images. The likelihoods turned out to be inversely related to the detection thresholds obtained

  9. Do clones degenerate over time? Explaining the genetic variability of asexuals through population genetic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozd Pavel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quest for understanding the nature of mechanisms governing the life span of clonal organisms lasts for several decades. Phylogenetic evidence for recent origins of most clones is usually interpreted as proof that clones suffer from gradual age-dependent fitness decay (e.g. Muller's ratchet. However, we have shown that a neutral drift can also qualitatively explain the observed distribution of clonal ages. This finding was followed by several attempts to distinguish the effects of neutral and non-neutral processes. Most recently, Neiman et al. 2009 (Ann N Y Acad Sci.:1168:185-200. reviewed the distribution of asexual lineage ages estimated from a diverse array of taxa and concluded that neutral processes alone may not explain the observed data. Moreover, the authors inferred that similar types of mechanisms determine maximum asexual lineage ages in all asexual taxa. In this paper we review recent methods for distinguishing the effects of neutral and non-neutral processes and point at methodological problems related with them. Results and Discussion We found that contemporary analyses based on phylogenetic data are inadequate to provide any clear-cut answer about the nature and generality of processes affecting evolution of clones. As an alternative approach, we demonstrate that sequence variability in asexual populations is suitable to detect age-dependent selection against clonal lineages. We found that asexual taxa with relatively old clonal lineages are characterised by progressively stronger deviations from neutrality. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that some type of age-dependent selection against clones is generally operational in asexual animals, which cover a wide taxonomic range spanning from flatworms to vertebrates. However, we also found a notable difference between the data distribution predicted by available models of sequence evolution and those observed in empirical data. These findings point at the

  10. Contextual Interactions in Grating Plaid Configurations Are Explained by Natural Image Statistics and Neural Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Udo A.; Schiffer, Alina; Persike, Malte; Meinhardt, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Processing natural scenes requires the visual system to integrate local features into global object descriptions. To achieve coherent representations, the human brain uses statistical dependencies to guide weighting of local feature conjunctions. Pairwise interactions among feature detectors in early visual areas may form the early substrate of these local feature bindings. To investigate local interaction structures in visual cortex, we combined psychophysical experiments with computational modeling and natural scene analysis. We first measured contrast thresholds for 2 × 2 grating patch arrangements (plaids), which differed in spatial frequency composition (low, high, or mixed), number of grating patch co-alignments (0, 1, or 2), and inter-patch distances (1° and 2° of visual angle). Contrast thresholds for the different configurations were compared to the prediction of probability summation (PS) among detector families tuned to the four retinal positions. For 1° distance the thresholds for all configurations were larger than predicted by PS, indicating inhibitory interactions. For 2° distance, thresholds were significantly lower compared to PS when the plaids were homogeneous in spatial frequency and orientation, but not when spatial frequencies were mixed or there was at least one misalignment. Next, we constructed a neural population model with horizontal laminar structure, which reproduced the detection thresholds after adaptation of connection weights. Consistent with prior work, contextual interactions were medium-range inhibition and long-range, orientation-specific excitation. However, inclusion of orientation-specific, inhibitory interactions between populations with different spatial frequency preferences were crucial for explaining detection thresholds. Finally, for all plaid configurations we computed their likelihood of occurrence in natural images. The likelihoods turned out to be inversely related to the detection thresholds obtained at larger

  11. A model of the medial superior olive explains spatiotemporal features of local field potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwyn, Joshua H; Mc Laughlin, Myles; Verschooten, Eric; Joris, Philip X; Rinzel, John

    2014-08-27

    Local field potentials are important indicators of in vivo neural activity. Sustained, phase-locked, sound-evoked extracellular fields in the mammalian auditory brainstem, known as the auditory neurophonic, reflect the activity of neurons in the medial superior olive (MSO). We develop a biophysically based model of the neurophonic that accounts for features of in vivo extracellular recordings in the cat auditory brainstem. By making plausible idealizations regarding the spatial symmetry of MSO neurons and the temporal synchrony of their afferent inputs, we reduce the challenging problem of computing extracellular potentials in a 3D volume conductor to a one-dimensional problem. We find that postsynaptic currents in bipolar MSO neuron models generate extracellular voltage responses that strikingly resemble in vivo recordings. Simulations reproduce distinctive spatiotemporal features of the in vivo neurophonic response to monaural pure tones: large oscillations (hundreds of microvolts to millivolts), broad spatial reach (millimeter scale), and a dipole-like spatial profile. We also explain how somatic inhibition and the relative timing of bilateral excitation may shape the spatial profile of the neurophonic. We observe in simulations, and find supporting evidence in in vivo data, that coincident excitatory inputs on both dendrites lead to a drastically reduced spatial reach of the neurophonic. This outcome surprises because coincident inputs are thought to evoke maximal firing rates in MSO neurons, and it reconciles previously puzzling evoked potential results in humans and animals. The success of our model, which has no axon or spike-generating sodium currents, suggests that MSO spikes do not contribute appreciably to the neurophonic.

  12. Explaining the current geodetic field with geological models: A case study of the Haiyuan fault system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daout, S.; Jolivet, R.; Lasserre, C.; Doin, M. P.; Barbot, S.; Peltzer, G.; Tapponnier, P.

    2015-12-01

    Oblique convergence across Tibet leads to slip partitioning with the co-existence of strike-slip, normal and thrust motion in major fault systems. While such complexity has been shown at the surface, the question is to understand how faults interact and accumulate strain at depth. Here, we process InSAR data across the central Haiyuan restraining bend, at the north-eastern boundary of the Tibetan plateau and show that the surface complexity can be explained by partitioning of a uniform deep-seated convergence rate. We construct a time series of ground deformation, from Envisat radar data spanning from 2001-2011 period, across a challenging area because of the high jump in topography between the desert environment and the plateau. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio, we used the latest Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry methodology, such as Global Atmospheric Models (ERA Interim) and Digital Elevation Model errors corrections before unwrapping. We then developed a new Bayesian approach, jointly inverting our InSAR time series together with published GPS displacements. We explore fault system geometry at depth and associated slip rates and determine a uniform N86±7E° convergence rate of 8.45±1.4 mm/yr across the whole fault system with a variable partitioning west and east of a major extensional fault-jog. Our 2D model gives a quantitative understanding of how crustal deformation is accumulated by the various branches of this thrust/strike-slip fault system and demonstrate the importance of the geometry of the Haiyuan Fault, controlling the partitioning or the extrusion of the block motion. The approach we have developed would allow constraining the low strain accumulation along deep faults, like for example for the blind thrust faults or possible detachment in the San Andreas "big bend", which are often associated to a poorly understood seismic hazard.

  13. Birth and death of protein domains: A simple model of evolution explains power law behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berezovskaya Faina S

    2002-10-01

    models, are considered in details and the distributions of the equilibrium frequencies of domain families of different size are determined for each case. We apply the BDIM formalism to the analysis of the domain family size distributions in prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteomes and show an excellent fit between these empirical data and a particular form of the model, the second-order balanced linear BDIM. Calculation of the parameters of these models suggests surprisingly high innovation rates, comparable to the total domain birth (duplication and elimination rates, particularly for prokaryotic genomes. Conclusions We show that a straightforward model of genome evolution, which does not explicitly include selection, is sufficient to explain the observed distributions of domain family sizes, in which power laws appear as asymptotic. However, for the model to be compatible with the data, there has to be a precise balance between domain birth, death and innovation rates, and this is likely to be maintained by selection. The developed approach is oriented at a mathematical description of evolution of domain composition of proteomes, but a simple reformulation could be applied to models of other evolving networks with preferential attachment.

  14. Teachers as Readers: Building Communities of Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremin, Teresa; Mottram, Marilyn; Collins, Fiona; Powell, Sacha; Safford, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    Given the narrow scope of primary teachers' knowledge and use of children's literature identified in Phase I of "Teachers as Readers" (2006-2007), the core goal of the Phase II project was to improve teachers' knowledge and experience of such literature in order to help them increase children's motivation and enthusiasm for reading,…

  15. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM As a Predictor Model for Explaining Agricultural Experts Behavior in Acceptance of ICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Alambaigi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop Technology Acceptance Model (TAM model to explain adoption of information technologies process. a Descriptive – correlation study was conducted and data were collected through a survey. Statistical population was West Azerbaijan Agricultural Extension agents who 120 of them were selected randomly using the Krejcie and Morgan table. A questionnaire was employed to measure the variables in the model. Its validity was confirmed by a panel of experts. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient ranged between from 0.704 to 0.816 show satisfied reliability. For data processing, partial leastsquares (PLS method as a new approach to structural equation modeling was used. The results showed that among three variables for development oftechnology acceptance model including Job relevance, experience and organization willingness to invest, the first and second show significant effects.Thus,Job relevance and experience as an external variable was added to the basic TAM. Other relations between variablesin basic technology acceptance model in current study were also seen significant. Our developed TAM can explain 64% of the actual behavior of employee in information technology utilization. TAM is one of the most influential extensions of Ajzen and Fishbein’s theory of reasoned action (TRA in the literature. The theories behind it assume that when a person forms an intention to act, that s/he will be free to act without limitation. While In the real world there will be many constraints, such as limited freedom to act. For example, people in organized working environments are forced to use most of the relevant applications irrespective of their opinion or attitude. In this research mentioned model was used as a strong model to predict actual use behavior that affected by three variables namely Job relevance, experience and organization willingness to invest.

  16. Our Readers and Friends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In Shanghai,a rapidly-developing modern metropolisthere are a lot of foreign women who have moved with theirfamilies to live and work there.During their leisure time theytake sightseeing trips and study Chinese culture,so theybecome readers and friends of our magazine.Recently,at ourReaders Forum in Shanghai,women from the UK,Belgium,the

  17. Romancing the YA Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John; Mosley, Shelley; Bouricius, Ann

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the romance genre and provides guidelines for librarians with high school aged readers. Highlights include where to find information about the romance genre; the appeal of romance fiction; levels of sex and sensuality; reference tools; subgenres; and authors and titles that may be popular with young adult romance readers. (LRW)

  18. Dialect Readers Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickford, John R.; Rickford, Angela A.

    1995-01-01

    Presents the results of three experiments using dialect readers in African American Vernacular English (AAVE) to improve the reading comprehension of African American elementary and secondary school students. It is concluded that dialect readers represent a viable alternative for teaching AAVE speakers to read. (61 references) (MDM)

  19. Romancing the YA Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John; Mosley, Shelley; Bouricius, Ann

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the romance genre and provides guidelines for librarians with high school aged readers. Highlights include where to find information about the romance genre; the appeal of romance fiction; levels of sex and sensuality; reference tools; subgenres; and authors and titles that may be popular with young adult romance readers. (LRW)

  20. Can neuromuscular fatigue explain running strategies and performance in ultra-marathons?: the flush model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Guillaume Y

    2011-06-01

    exertion, and can increase or decrease based on (ii) the filling rate and (iii) the water evacuated through the waste pipe, and (iv) a security reserve that allows the subject to prevent physiological damage. We are suggesting that central regulation is not only based on afferent signals arising from the muscles and peripheral organs, but is also dependent on peripheral fatigue and spinal/supraspinal inhibition (or disfacilitation) since these alterations imply a higher central drive for a given power output. This holistic model also explains how environmental conditions, sleep deprivation/mental fatigue, pain-killers or psychostimulants, cognitive or nutritional strategies may affect ultra-running performance.

  1. Application of a radon model to explain indoor radon levels in a Swedish house

    CERN Document Server

    Font, L; Jönsson, G; Enge, W; Ghose, R

    1999-01-01

    Radon entry from soil into indoor air and its accumulation indoors depends on several parameters, the values of which normally depend on the specific characteristics of the site. The effect of a specific parameter is often difficult to explain from the result of indoor radon measurements only. The adaptation of the RAGENA (RAdon Generation, ENtry and Accumulation indoors) model to a Swedish house to characterise indoor radon levels and the relative importance of the different radon sources and entry mechanisms is presented. The building is a single-zone house with a naturally-ventilated crawl space in one part and a concrete floor in another part, leading to different radon levels in the two parts of the building. The soil under the house is moraine, which is relatively permeable to radon gas. The house is naturally-ventilated. The mean indoor radon concentration values measured with nuclear track detectors in the crawl-space and concrete parts of the house are respectively 75+-30 and 200+-80 Bq m sup - sup 3...

  2. Explaining the diphoton excess in Alternative Left-Right Symmetric Model

    CERN Document Server

    Hati, Chandan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a possible explanation of the recent diphoton excess reported by ATLAS and CMS collaborations, at around 750 GeV diphoton invariant mass, within the framework of $E_{6}$ motivated Alternative Left-Right Symmetric Model (ALRSM), which is capable of addressing the $B$ decay anomalies in the flavor sector, the $eejj$ and $e$ missing $p_{T}jj$ excesses reported by CMS in run 1 of LHC and has the feature of high scale leptogenesis. We find that gluon-gluon fusion can give the observed production rate of the 750 GeV resonance, $\\tilde{n}$, through a loop of scalar leptoquarks ($\\tilde{h}^{(c)}$) with mass below a few TeV range, while $\\tilde{n}$ can subsequently decay into $\\gamma\\gamma$ final state via loops of $\\tilde{h}^{(c)}$ and $\\tilde{E}^{(c)}$. Interestingly, the $\\tilde{E}^{(c)}$ loop can enhance the diphoton branching ratio significantly to successfully explain the observed cross section of the diphoton signal.

  3. Adaptive thermal comfort explained by means of the Fanger-model; Adaptief thermisch comfort verklaard met Fanger-model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Linden, W.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Hensen, J. [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2008-07-15

    This article examines the relation between the adaptive thermal comfort (ATC) model and the Fanger model. The most important data collected were the value ranges of individual parameters in relation to ATC assessment. The ATC model uses a relatively simple indicator of thermal comfort. It treats the desired operational indoor temperature as a measure of thermal comfort in direct comparison to the outdoor temperature. This has the advantage of providing a relatively straightforward and transparent way of assessing occupant comfort. The Fanger model makes use of human thermal equilibrium, and is more flexible and more widely applicable. The results of the comparison show that, in a temperate climate like that of the Netherlands, the Fanger model is fully capable of explaining the results of the ATC model. [Dutch] In dit artikel is de relatie tussen het adaptief thermisch comfort (ATC) model en het Fanger-model nader onderzocht. Hierbij is vooral gekeken naar de ranges van waarden van de individuele parameters in relatie tot de ATC-beoordeling. Her ATC-model maakt gebruik van een minder complexe indicator om een uitspraak te doen over het thermisch comfort. Bij deze aanpak wordt de gewenste operatieve binnentemperatuur, als maat voor her thermisch comfort, direct gerelateerd aan de buitentemperatuur. Een voordeel hiervan is dat op een relatief eenvoudige en inzichtelijke manier een waardering van her comfort kan worden gegeven. Het Fanger-model maakt gebruik van de warmtebalans van de mens en is flexibeler en breder toepasbaar. De resultaten van de vergelijking laten zien dat voor een gematigd klimaat als in Nederland het Fanger-model goed in staat is om de resultaten van het ATC-model te verklaren.

  4. An explanatory model of the organizational factors that explain the adoption of E-business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Beatriz García-Moreno

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to describe the factors that facilitate the adoption of e-business in firms. To go in deep on the factors, resources and capabilities that need to be present in those firms seeking to improve their levels of e-business adoption. Design/methodology/approach: analysis of the literature involving the main theories on business administration, and more specifically, on those related to technology innovation (TI and information systems (IS, as applicable to the organizational factors that explain the adoption of e-business. Findings: it identifies three main sources of influence: a first group covers the characteristics of the actual firm, which refer to the organisation’s specific features: firm size, the backing of top management, expected benefit, age, the level of human capital, and international projection. A second group of factors includes technology-related characteristics. The third group contains all those aspects in the environment that may affect the firm’s attitude to e-business. Research limitations/implications: the chosen variables play significant role following a review of the studies on the subject, but not all potential ones have been included. The variables have been chosen in view of the large number of studies that have reported conclusive results. Practical implications: the model presented is designed to enable both scholars in this field and decision-makers in strategic matters to reflect upon those aspects that may drive the adoption of e-business, and thereby help them to make more informed decisions on the matter. Social implications: In highly competitive industries, firms need to keep themselves permanently up to speed with technological advances and strategic innovations Originality/value: it is the first study that considers three different perspectives: the organizational, the technological and the environmental one.

  5. An explanatory model of the organizational factors that explain the adoption of E-business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Moreno, M.B.; García-Moreno, S.; Nájera-Sánchez, J.J.; Pablos-Heredero, C. de

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: to describe the factors that facilitate the adoption of e-business in firms. To go in deep on the factors, resources and capabilities that need to be present in those firms seeking to improve their levels of e-business adoption. Analysis of the literature involving the main theories on business administration, and more specifically, on those related to technology innovation (TI) and information systems (IS), as applicable to the organizational factors that explain the adoption of e-business. Findings: it identifies three main sources of influence: a first group covers the characteristics of the actual firm, which refer to the organisation’s specific features: firm size, the backing of top management, expected benefit, age, the level of human capital, and international projection. A second group of factors includes technology-related characteristics. The third group contains all those aspects in the environment that may affect the firm’s attitude to e-business. Research limitations/implications: the chosen variables play significant role following a review of the studies on the subject, but not all potential ones have been included. The variables have been chosen in view of the large number of studies that have reported conclusive results. Practical implications: the model presented is designed to enable both scholars in this field and decision-makers in strategic matters to reflect upon those aspects that may drive the adoption of e-business, and thereby help them to make more informed decisions on the matter. Social implications: In highly competitive industries, firms need to keep themselves permanently up to speed with technological advances and strategic innovations Originality/value: it is the first study that considers three different perspectives: the organizational, the technological and the environmental one. (Author)

  6. Testing an assumption of the E-Z Reader model of eye-movement control during reading: using event-related potentials to examine the familiarity check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Erik D; Tokowicz, Natasha; Liu, Ying; Perfetti, Charles A

    2011-07-01

    According to the E-Z Reader model of eye-movement control, the completion of an early stage of lexical processing, the familiarity check, causes the eyes to move forward during reading (Reichle, Pollatsek, Fisher, & Rayner, 1998). Here, we report an event-related potential (ERP) experiment designed to examine the hypothesized familiarity check at the electrophysiological level. The results indicate ERP components modulated by word frequency at the time of the predicted familiarity check. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that an early stage of lexical processing is linked to the "decisions" about when to move the eyes during reading. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  7. To Our Readers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Editor in Ch

    2006-01-01

    @@ Contemporary International Relations, the English journal published by China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations, is now 15 years old. Since its conception as the first Chinese journal in English covering the field of international relations, it has presented to our readers numerous articles written by the research fellows of our institutes on the subjects of international affairs, international relations, and international relations theories. We have received numerous letters of encouragement and positive comments. We have also gotten letters in which our readers have given their opinions on what they would like to see in this journal. Some readers pointed out to us the mistakes in the translation. Other readers noted the occasional delay in delivery or even missing issues. We are grateful to those who have always supported us. We also feel the need to improve for those who have not been totally satisfied with our journal.

  8. To our Readers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Contemporary International Relations, the English journal published by China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations, is now 15 years old. Since its conception as the first Chinese journal in English covering the field of international relations, it has presented to our readers numerous articles written by the research fellows of our institutes on the subjects of international affairs, international relations, and international relations theories. We have received numerous letters of encouragement and positive comments. We have also gotten letters in which our readers have given their opinions on what they would like to see in this journal. Some readers pointed out to us the mistakes in the translation. Other readers noted the occasional delay in delivery or even missing issues. We are grateful to those who have always supported us. We also feel the need to improve for those who have not been totally satisfied with our journal.

  9. To Our Readers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Contemporary International Relations, the English journal published by China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations, is now 15 years old. Since its conception as the first Chinese journal in English covering the field of international relations, it has presented to our readers numerous articles written by the research fellows of our institutes on the subjects of international affairs, international relations, and international relations theories. We have received numerous letters of encouragement and positive comments. We have also gotten letters in which our readers have given their opinions on what they would like to see in this journal. Some readers pointed out to us the mistakes in the translation. Other readers noted the occasional delay in delivery or even missing issues. We are grateful to those who have alwayssupported us. We also feel the need to improve for those who have not been totally satisfied with our journal.

  10. Letters from Our Readers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    Since the first publication of Cultural Exchang-China& World in October 1992,we have received a unmber of verykind letters from Chinese and foreign readers giving support andencouagement to this magazine.We would like to take thisopportunity to thank them all and to invite others to write in as well,especially if they have suggestions or criticisms to make.Thefollowing are letters from two of our overseas readers.

  11. PANJABI READER, LEVEL 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VATUK, VED P.

    THIS SECOND-LEVEL READER IN THE PANJABI LANGUAGE CAN BE USED IN A SECOND- OR THIRD-YEAR COURSE AS A SUPPLEMENT TO CONVERSATIONAL MATERIALS, OR BY ITSELF IN A COURSE ON THE WRITTEN LANGUAGE. THE GRAMMAR APPENDIX INCLUDED IS IDENTICAL TO THAT FOUND IN THE FIRST-LEVEL PANJABI READER (ED 010 485). THE MAIN PORTION OF THE BOOK CONSISTS OF 23 UNITS,…

  12. The Sensitization Model to Explain How Chronic Pain Exists Without Tissue Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C. Paul; Keizer, Doeke

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of nurses with chronic pain patients is often difficult. One of the reasons is that chronic pain is difficult to explain, because no obvious anatomic defect or tissue damage is present. There is now enough evidence available indicating that chronic pain syndromes such as low back pai

  13. Ability of Matrix Models to Explain the Past and Predict the Future of Plant Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.E. Crone; M.M. Ellis; W.F. Morris; A. Stanley; T. Bell; P. Bierzychudek; J. Ehrlén; T.N. Kaye; T.M. Knight; P. Lesica; G. Oostermeijer; P.F. Quintana-Ascencio; T. Ticktin; T. Valverde; J.L. Williams; D.F. Doak; R. Ganesan; K.A. McEachern; A. Thorpe; E.S. Menges

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainty associated with ecological forecasts has long been recognized, but forecast accuracy is rarely quantified. We evaluated how well data on 82 populations of 20 species of plants spanning 3 continents explained and predicted plant population dynamics. We parameterized stage-based matrix mod

  14. Finding versus Fixing: Self-Monitoring for Readers Who Struggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nancy L.; Kaye, Elizabeth L.

    2017-01-01

    This article explains how teachers can understand, notice, and supportively respond to readers who struggle with self-monitoring during text reading. The unique strategic processing demands for readers who struggle support the argument that teaching children to find and notice errors is different than fixing a word, or getting it right. Three…

  15. Breaking the Silence: Toward Improving LGBTQ Representation in Composition Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, John

    2014-01-01

    Lesbian-Gay-Bisexual-Transgender-Queer (LGBTQ) representation in composition readers remains limited and is frequently nonexistent. In addition, the LGBTQ-related materials that do find their way into composition readers are often problematic. In this essay I explain why WPAs and composition teachers should be concerned about LGBTQ representation…

  16. Reader Response Approaches and the Growth of Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Dixie Lee

    1998-01-01

    Outlines what reader response might look like in the classroom. Presents four basic assumptions of reader response theory. Discusses ways reader response approaches to literature help students grow both in the depth and breadth of their responses to literature, and as strategic readers. (SR)

  17. The Bakhtin Reader The Bakhtin Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Reid Thomas

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The publication of Caryl Emerson’s book The First Hundred Years of Mikhail Bakhtin in December 1997 is an indication that interest in Bakhtin continues to flourish, among both Russian and Western scholars. Emerson’s book traces the interesting differences of attitude and emphasis between these two groups of critics and provides a broad-ranging and scholarly history of Bakhtin studies. The book I am concerned with here, The Bakhtin Reader, though of a different nature and designed for a different audience, is perhaps an even more significant testament to Bakhtin’s extraordinary and continuing influence. The publication of Caryl Emerson’s book The First Hundred Years of Mikhail Bakhtin in December 1997 is an indication that interest in Bakhtin continues to flourish, among both Russian and Western scholars. Emerson’s book traces the interesting differences of attitude and emphasis between these two groups of critics and provides a broad-ranging and scholarly history of Bakhtin studies. The book I am concerned with here, The Bakhtin Reader, though of a different nature and designed for a different audience, is perhaps an even more significant testament to Bakhtin’s extraordinary and continuing influence.

  18. A PUBLISHED KINETIC MODEL EXPLAINS THE VARIATION IN NITROGEN CONTENT OF Pichia guilliermondii DURING ITS BATCH CULTIVATION ON DIESEL OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORZANI W.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in nitrogen content of Pichia guilliermondii during its batch cultivation on media containing diesel oil as the main carbon source may be explained by means of a kinetic model proposed earlier to interpret the kinetics of nitrogen consumption during the process.

  19. Explaining the level of credit spreads: Option-implied jump risk premia in a firm value model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, K.J.M.; Driessen, J.; Maenhout, P.

    2008-01-01

    We study whether option-implied jump risk premia can explain the high observed level of credit spreads. We use a structural jump-diffusion firm value model to assess the level of credit spreads generated by option-implied jump risk premia. Prices and returns of equity index and individual options

  20. Efficiency of the Technology Acceptance Model to Explain Pre-Service Teachers' Intention to Use Technology: A Turkish Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Timothy; Ursavas, Omer Faruk; Bahcekapili, Ekrem

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the efficiency of the technology acceptance model (TAM) to explain pre-service teachers' intention to use technology in Turkey. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 197 pre-service teachers from a Turkish university completed a survey questionnaire measuring their responses to four constructs…

  1. Reader construction in interactive online journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    how online journalists are constructing their readers, seeking to explain how these views affect practices of journalism. Gans idea of the “constructed public” is re-visited, by analyzing the newsroom negotiations between one hand enabling the user participation and on the other hand their very...... be seen as journalistic positioning strategies and interactivity and mediated connectivity as both vital and challenging for the very field of journalism. This indicates that not only do the different kinds of interactivity seem to imply different kind of readers – they also seem to imply different ideals...

  2. Designing in an Interplay with a Product Model - Explained by Design Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1996-01-01

    If we expand the concept of product models from a bill of material and representations of parts to a genetic model (a chromosome), which is able to capture decisions on functions and design concepts during the design activity, a new design situation is created. This paper treats designing...... in an interplay with a product model in a so-called Designer's Workbench, based on the clarification of the structuring of the product model, the design operationswhich succesively build up the product model, and the role of the product model in the design work as basis for synthesis and modelling of properties....... The main results from this paper are identification of the classes of product models in a Designer's Workbench and description of a scenario for designing in an interplay with the product models....

  3. Models for explaining the homeopathic healing process: a historical and critical account of principles central to homeopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, G; Wilson, J

    2005-01-01

    The success of Homeopathy in curing many diseases has been a serious challenge to science. Nineteenth century explanations for the healing process of Homeopathy cannot withstand the scrutiny of modern science and need to be abandoned or modified. The surviving propositions are discussed. A biocybernetic model with multilevels of electromagnetic feedback loops offers a hope of explaining the healing process. This model, its explanation of the healing process and experimental support are elaborated.

  4. Capacitive label reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlowe, H. Duane

    1985-01-01

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  5. Mid-frequency readers

    OpenAIRE

    Nation, Ian Stephen Paul; Anthony, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a new free extensive reading resource for learning the mid-frequency words of English and for reading well known texts with minor vocabulary adaptation. A gap exists between the end of graded readers at around 3,000 word families and the vocabulary size needed to read unsimplified texts at around 8,000 word families. Mid-frequency readers are designed to fill this gap. They consist of texts from Project Gutenberg adapted for learners with a vocabulary size of 4,000 word...

  6. Towards Quranic reader controlled by speech

    CERN Document Server

    Yekache, Yacine; Kouninef, Belkacem

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe the process of designing a task-oriented continuous speech recognition system for Arabic, based on CMU Sphinx4, to be used in the voice interface of Quranic reader. The concept of the Quranic reader controlled by speech is presented, the collection of the corpus and creation of acoustic model are described in detail taking into account a specificities of Arabic language and the desired application.

  7. Towards Quranic reader controlled by speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacine Yekache

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the process of designing a task-oriented continuous speech recognition system for Arabic, based on CMU Sphinx4, to be used in the voice interface of Quranic reader. The concept of the Quranic reader controlled by speech is presented, the collection of the corpus and creation of acoustic model are described in detail taking into account a specificities of Arabic language and the desired application.

  8. Construction of the simplest model to explain complex receptor activation kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bywater, RP; Sorensen, A; Røgen, Peter;

    2002-01-01

    We study the mathematical solutions to the kinetic equations arising from various simple ligand-reactor models. Focusing on the prediction of the various models for the activity vs. concentration curve, we find that solutions to the kinetic equations arising from the so-called dimer model exibit...

  9. The Dielectric Breakdown Model applied to explain various morphologies of deposited metallic structures in thin gap metal electro-deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Chowdhury

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of metal electro-deposition in thin-gap geometry leads to very interesting and diverse two dimensional morphologies. This varies from dense ramified growth to thin dendritic projections. In this paper, we have proposed a stochastic model that incorporates such diversity. We carried out thin-gap electro-deposition of Copper and Zinc with varying electrolytic concentrations. A well known model, that until this work was used to explain dielectric breakdown patterns, was employed to explain the variation in deposition morphology with concentration. The sole parameter in the model was varied and the numerically obtained patterns was seen to correlate well with those obtained from electro-deposition. A linear relationship between the parameter and molar concentration was established. The established relationship was then analysed and interpreted.

  10. Purkinje cell activity during classical conditioning with different conditional stimuli explains central tenet of Rescorla–Wagner model [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zucca, Riccardo; Johansson, Fredrik; Jirenhed, Dan-Anders; Hesslow, Germund

    2015-11-10

    A central tenet of Rescorla and Wagner's model of associative learning is that the reinforcement value of a paired trial diminishes as the associative strength between the presented stimuli increases. Despite its fundamental importance to behavioral sciences, the neural mechanisms underlying the model have not been fully explored. Here, we present findings that, taken together, can explain why a stronger association leads to a reduced reinforcement value, within the context of eyeblink conditioning. Specifically, we show that learned pause responses in Purkinje cells, which trigger adaptively timed conditioned eyeblinks, suppress the unconditional stimulus (US) signal in a graded manner. Furthermore, by examining how Purkinje cells respond to two distinct conditional stimuli and to a compound stimulus, we provide evidence that could potentially help explain the somewhat counterintuitive overexpectation phenomenon, which was derived from the Rescorla-Wagner model.

  11. IMPORTANCE OF DIFFERENT MODELS IN DECISION MAKING, EXPLAINING THE STRATEGIC BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano de Oliveira Maciel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is about the different models of decision process analyzing the organizational strategy. The article presents the strategy according to a cognitive approach. The discussion about that approach has three models of decision process: rational actor model, organizational behavior, and political model. These models, respectively, present some improvement in the decision making results, search for a good decision facing the cognitive restrictions of the administrator, and lots of talks for making a decision. According to the emphasis of each model, the possibilities for analyzing the strategy are presented. The article also shows that it is necessary to take into account the three different ways of analysis. That statement is justified once the analysis as well as the decision making become more complex, mainly those which are more important for the organizations.

  12. An Analytic Mathematical Model to Explain the Spiral Structure and Rotation Curve of NGC 3198

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Bruce; Rout, Cameron

    2016-06-01

    An analytical model of galactic morphology is presented. This model presents resolutions to two inter-related parameters of spiral galaxies: one being the flat velocity rotation profile and the other being the spiral morphology of such galaxies. This model is a mathematical transformation dictated by the general theory of relativity applied to rotating polar coordinate systems that conserve the metric. The model shows that the flat velocity rotation profile and spiral shape of certain galaxies are both products of the general theory. Validation of the model is presented by application to 878 rotation curves provided by Salucci, and by comparing the results of a derived distance modulus to those using Cepheid variables, water masers and Tully-Fisher calculations. The model suggests means of determining galactic linear density, mass and angular momentum. We also show that the morphology of NGC 3198 is congruent to the geodesic as observed within a rotating reference frame and that galaxies are gravitationally viscous and self bound.

  13. Explaining Japan's Innovation and Trade: A Model of Quality Competition and Dynamic Comparative Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Gene M.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, I develop a model of dynamic comparative advantage based on endogenous innovation. Firms devote resources to R&D in order to improve the quality of high-technology products. Research successes generate profit opportunities in the world market. The model predicts that a country such as Japan, with an abundance of skilled labor and scarcity of natural resources, will specialize relatively in industrial innovation and in the production of high-technology goods. I use the model to ...

  14. PANJABI READER. LEVEL 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VATUK, VED P.

    A FIRST-LEVEL READER IS PRESENTED, PRIMARILY FOR THOSE STUDENTS WHO HAVE A SPEAKING KNOWLEDGE OF PANJABI AND SOME KNOWLEDGE OF PANJABI GRAMMAR. THIS VOLUME CAN BE USED IN A GENERAL PANJABI LANGUAGE COURSE AS A SUPPLEMENT TO CONVERSATIONAL MATERIALS, OR BY ITSELF IN A COURSE ON THE WRITTEN LANGUAGE. A GLOSSARY AND A BRIEF GRAMMATICAL APPENDIX HAVE…

  15. Understanding Readers' Differing Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucer, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the characteristics of reader understandings that vary from those stated in the text. Eighty-seven fourth graders orally read complex academic literary and scientific texts, followed by probed retellings. Retold ideas not directly supported by, or reflective of, the texts were identified. These differing understandings…

  16. Rockin' Readers Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alachua County Schools, Gainesville, FL.

    Designed for use by volunteers in the program, this handbook describes the "Rockin' Readers" program, in which senior-citizen volunteers are matched with specifically targeted at-risk children in Alachua County, Florida, who tested below their peer group in language development and reading readiness skills. The handbook notes that each…

  17. Rockin' Readers Coordinator Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alachua County Schools, Gainesville, FL.

    This coordinator's handbook describes the "Rockin' Readers" program, in which senior-citizen volunteers are matched with specifically targeted at-risk children (usually of kindergarten age or slightly older) in Alachua County, Florida, who tested below their peer group in language development and reading readiness skills. The handbook…

  18. Readers of histone modifications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miyong Yun; Jun Wu; Jerry L Workman; Bing Li

    2011-01-01

    Histone modifications not only play important roles in regulating chromatin structure and nuclear processes but also can be passed to daughter cells as epigenetic marks.Accumulating evidence suggests that the key function of histone modifications is to signal for recruitment or activity of downstream effectors. Here, we discuss the latest discovery of histone-modification readers and how the modification language is interpreted.

  19. Explaining Macroeconomic and Term Structure Dynamics Jointly in a Non-linear DSGE Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller

    This paper shows how a standard DSGE model can be extended to reproduce the dynamics in the 10 year yield curve for the post-war US economy with a similar degree of precision as in reduced form term structure models. At the same time, we are able to reproduce the dynamics of four key macro...

  20. Coupling hydrologic and infectious disease models to explain regional differences in schistosomiasis transmission in southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remais, Justin; Liang, Song; Spear, Robert C

    2008-04-01

    Rainfall-runoff models have become essential tools for conceptualizing and predicting the response of hydrologic processes to changing environments, but they have rarely been applied to challenges facing health scientists. Yet with their efficient parameterization and modest data requirements, they hold great promise for epidemiological application. A modeling analysis incorporating simple hydrologic constraints on transmission of the human parasite Schistosoma japonicum in southwestern China was conducted by coupling a lumped parameter rainfall-runoff model (IHACRES) with a delay-differential equation schistosomiasis transmission model modified to account for channel flows and on-field egg inactivation. Model predictions of prevalence and infection timing agree with observations in the region, which indicate that hydrological differences between sites can lead to pronounced differences in transmission. Channel flows are shown to be important in determining infection intensity and timing in modeled village populations. In the periodic absence of flow, overall transmission intensity is reduced among all modeled risk groups. However, the influence of hydrologic variability was greater on the cercarial stage of the parasite than the miracidial stage, due to the parasite ova's ability to survive dormant on fields between rain events. The predictive power gained from including hydrological data in epidemiological models can improve risk assessments for environmentally mediated diseases, under both long-term climate change scenarios and near-term weather fluctuations.

  1. Can Centre Surround Model Explain the Enhancement of Visual Perception through Stochastic Resonance?

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Ajanta

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the ability of centre surround model for simulating the enhancement of contrast sensitivity through stochastic resonance observed in psychophysical experiments. We also show that this model could be used to simulate the contrast sensitivity function through stochastic resonance. The quality of the fit of measured contrast sensitivity function to the simulated data is very good.

  2. Explaining and Selecting Treatments for Autism: Parental Explanatory Models in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Yea-Ing Lotus; Tsai, Jia-Ling; Tsai, Wen-Che

    2010-01-01

    Parental explanatory models about autism influence the type of therapy a child receives, the child's well-being, and the parents' own psychological adaptation. This qualitative study explored explanatory models used by parents of children with autism. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 parents of children with autism from a medical center…

  3. A temporal model for early vision that explains detection thresholds for light pulses on flickering backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, H.P.; Poot, L.; Hateren, J.H. van

    2000-01-01

    A model is presented for the early (retinal) stages of temporal processing of light inputs in the visual system. The model consists of a sequence of three adaptation processes, with two instantaneous nonlinearities in between. The three adaptation processes are, in order of processing of the light

  4. THE OPEN INNOVATION MODEL: EXPLAINING THE FACTORS THAT HINDER ITS IMPLEMENTATION IN THE ALBANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besarta Vladi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of an open innovation model is considered by many researchers, to be a great opportunity to help profit-making organizations become more competitive and successful. But some sectors, such as the banking sector, are not able to apply this model. In the Albanian banking sector, the concept of an open innovation model is almost unknown to executive directors. The question is: Why does this happen? The implementation of an open innovation model is strongly affected by cost, short term focus, legislative problems, lack of information, and frequently by a lack of interest in cooperation. As a possible solution for this problem, especially during the financial crisis which has impacted Albanian as well as the rest of the world, raising a strong awareness of the importance of this model could be one route to improve the level of competitiveness in the banking sector. 

  5. Explaining the internal behaviour of artificial neural network river flow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheer, K. P.; Jain, Ashu

    2004-03-01

    A novel method of visualizing and understanding the internal functional behaviour of an artificial neural network (ANN) river flow model is presented. The method hypothesizes that an ANN is able to map a function similar to the flow duration curve while modelling the river flow. A mathematical analysis of the hypothesis is presented, and a case study of an ANN river flow model confirms its significance. The proposed approach is also useful within other models that improve the performance of an ANN. The reasons why these models improve a raw ANN can be clearly understood using this approach. While the field of ANN knowledge-extraction is one that continues to attract considerable interest, it is anticipated that the current approach will initiate further research and make ANNs more useful to the hydrologic community.

  6. Size Evolution and Stochastic Models: Explaining Ostracod Size through Probabilistic Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, M.; Decker, S.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2014-12-01

    The biovolume of animals has functioned as an important benchmark for measuring evolution throughout geologic time. In our project, we examined the observed average body size of ostracods over time in order to understand the mechanism of size evolution in these marine organisms. The body size of ostracods has varied since the beginning of the Ordovician, where the first true ostracods appeared. We created a stochastic branching model to create possible evolutionary trees of ostracod size. Using stratigraphic ranges for ostracods compiled from over 750 genera in the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, we calculated overall speciation and extinction rates for our model. At each timestep in our model, new lineages can evolve or existing lineages can become extinct. Newly evolved lineages are assigned sizes based on their parent genera. We parameterized our model to generate neutral and directional changes in ostracod size to compare with the observed data. New sizes were chosen via a normal distribution, and the neutral model selected new sizes differentials centered on zero, allowing for an equal chance of larger or smaller ostracods at each speciation. Conversely, the directional model centered the distribution on a negative value, giving a larger chance of smaller ostracods. Our data strongly suggests that the overall direction of ostracod evolution has been following a model that directionally pushes mean ostracod size down, shying away from a neutral model. Our model was able to match the magnitude of size decrease. Our models had a constant linear decrease while the actual data had a much more rapid initial rate followed by a constant size. The nuance of the observed trends ultimately suggests a more complex method of size evolution. In conclusion, probabilistic methods can provide valuable insight into possible evolutionary mechanisms determining size evolution in ostracods.

  7. A neurophysiologically plausible population code model for feature integration explains visual crowding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald van den Berg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An object in the peripheral visual field is more difficult to recognize when surrounded by other objects. This phenomenon is called "crowding". Crowding places a fundamental constraint on human vision that limits performance on numerous tasks. It has been suggested that crowding results from spatial feature integration necessary for object recognition. However, in the absence of convincing models, this theory has remained controversial. Here, we present a quantitative and physiologically plausible model for spatial integration of orientation signals, based on the principles of population coding. Using simulations, we demonstrate that this model coherently accounts for fundamental properties of crowding, including critical spacing, "compulsory averaging", and a foveal-peripheral anisotropy. Moreover, we show that the model predicts increased responses to correlated visual stimuli. Altogether, these results suggest that crowding has little immediate bearing on object recognition but is a by-product of a general, elementary integration mechanism in early vision aimed at improving signal quality.

  8. A neurophysiologically plausible population code model for feature integration explains visual crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Ronald; Roerdink, Jos B T M; Cornelissen, Frans W

    2010-01-22

    An object in the peripheral visual field is more difficult to recognize when surrounded by other objects. This phenomenon is called "crowding". Crowding places a fundamental constraint on human vision that limits performance on numerous tasks. It has been suggested that crowding results from spatial feature integration necessary for object recognition. However, in the absence of convincing models, this theory has remained controversial. Here, we present a quantitative and physiologically plausible model for spatial integration of orientation signals, based on the principles of population coding. Using simulations, we demonstrate that this model coherently accounts for fundamental properties of crowding, including critical spacing, "compulsory averaging", and a foveal-peripheral anisotropy. Moreover, we show that the model predicts increased responses to correlated visual stimuli. Altogether, these results suggest that crowding has little immediate bearing on object recognition but is a by-product of a general, elementary integration mechanism in early vision aimed at improving signal quality.

  9. An improved structure models to explain retention behavior of atmos-pheric nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmin Esmaeilpoor

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR of nanoparticles in roadside atmosphere against the comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography which was coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry was studied. The genetic algorithm (GA was employed to select the variables that resulted in the best-fitted models. After the variables were selected, the linear multivariate regressions [e.g. the partial least squares (PLS] as well as the nonlinear regressions [e.g. the kernel PLS (KPLS and Levenberg- Marquardt artificial neural network (L-M ANN] were utilized to construct the linear and nonlinear QSRR models. The correlation coefficient cross validation (Q2 and relative error for test set L-M ANN model are 0.939 and 4.89, respectively. The resulting data indicated that L-M ANN could be used as a powerful modeling tool for the QSPR studies.

  10. Boosted Regression Tree Models to Explain Watershed Nutrient Concentrations and Biological Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosted regression tree (BRT) models were developed to quantify the nonlinear relationships between landscape variables and nutrient concentrations in a mesoscale mixed land cover watershed during base-flow conditions. Factors that affect instream biological components, based on ...

  11. Boosted Regression Tree Models to Explain Watershed Nutrient Concentrations and Biological Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosted regression tree (BRT) models were developed to quantify the nonlinear relationships between landscape variables and nutrient concentrations in a mesoscale mixed land cover watershed during base-flow conditions. Factors that affect instream biological components, based on ...

  12. Can natural variability explain the discrepancy between observed and modeled sea ice trends?

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenblum, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Observations indicate that the Arctic sea ice cover is rapidly retreating while the Antarctic sea ice cover is steadily expanding. State-of-the-art climate models, by contrast, tend to predict a moderate decrease in both the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice covers. A number of recent studies have attributed this discrepancy in each hemisphere to natural variability, suggesting that the models are consistent with the observations when simulated natural variability is taken into account. Here we examine sea ice changes during 1979-2013 in simulations from the most recent Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) as well as the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble (CESM-LE). We find that accurately simulated Arctic sea ice retreat occurs only in simulations with too much global warming, whereas accurately simulated Antarctic sea ice expansion tends to occur in simulations with too little global warming. We show that because of this, simulations from both ensembles do not capture the observed asymmetry bet...

  13. Leptoquark model to explain the $B$-physics anomalies, $R_K$ and $R_D$

    CERN Document Server

    Bečirević, Damir; Košnik, Nejc; Sumensari, Olcyr

    2016-01-01

    We show that a model with a scalar leptoquark of hypercharge $Y=1/6$ which includes the light right-handed neutrinos, can successfully describe both of the $B$-physics anomalies, $R_K^{\\rm exp} R_D^{\\rm SM}$. We discuss the corresponding low energy effective theory and, after using the known experimental data as constraints, we show that the model is viable and that it offers several predictions which can be tested experimentally.

  14. Explaining Japan's Innovation and Trade: A model of Quality Competition and Dynamic Comparive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Gene M.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, I develop a model of dynamic comparative advantage based on endogenous innovation. Firms in each of two countries devote resources to R&D in order to improve the quality of high-technology products. Research successes generate profit opportunities in the world market. The model predicts that a country such as Japan, with abundance of skilled labor and scarcity of natural resources, will specialize relatively in industrial innovation and in the production of high-technology good...

  15. Explaining intention to use the Islamic credit card: an extension of the TRA model

    OpenAIRE

    Hanudin, Amin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Purpose – The Islamic credit card is a type of banking product offered by Islamic banks. Given the importance to the Islamic credit card to Islamic banks, the study is aimed at identifying the factors determining the Malaysian bank customers’ behavioral intention to use the Islamic credit card. Design/methodology/approach – Drawing upon the Theory of Reasoned Action (the TRA model), this study proposes a modified model to examine the acceptance factors of attitude, subjective ...

  16. A quantum dynamic belief model to explain the interference effects of categorization on decision making

    OpenAIRE

    He, Zichang; Jiang, Wen

    2017-01-01

    Categorization is necessary for many decision making tasks. However, the categorization process may interfere the decision making result and the law of total probability can be violated in some situations. To predict the interference effect of categorization, some model based on quantum probability has been proposed. In this paper, a new quantum dynamic belief (QDB) model is proposed. Considering the precise decision may not be made during the process, the concept of uncertainty is introduced...

  17. Can a single model explain both breast cancer and prostate cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedman A Edward

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Estradiol-Dihydrotestosterone model of prostate cancer (PC showed how the interaction of hormones with specific hormone receptors affected apoptosis. The same hormone can produce different effects, depending on which hormone receptor it interacts with. Model This model proposes that the first step in the development of most PC and breast cancer (BC occurs when aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol (E2. A sufficiently high enough local level of E2 results in telomerase activity. The telomerase activity allows cell division and may lead to BC or PC, which will proliferate if the rate of cell division is greater than the rate of cell death. The effect of hormones on their hormone receptors will affect the rate of cell death and determine whether or not the cancer proliferates. Conclusion By minimizing bcl-2 and maximizing apoptotic proteins, new systemic treatments for BC and PC can be developed that may be more effective than existing treatments.

  18. Modeling Contagion Through Social Networks to Explain and Predict Gunshot Violence in Chicago, 2006 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ben; Horel, Thibaut; Papachristos, Andrew V

    2017-03-01

    Every day in the United States, more than 200 people are murdered or assaulted with a firearm. Little research has considered the role of interpersonal ties in the pathways through which gun violence spreads. To evaluate the extent to which the people who will become subjects of gun violence can be predicted by modeling gun violence as an epidemic that is transmitted between individuals through social interactions. This study was an epidemiological analysis of a social network of individuals who were arrested during an 8-year period in Chicago, Illinois, with connections between people who were arrested together for the same offense. Modeling of the spread of gunshot violence over the network was assessed using a probabilistic contagion model that assumed individuals were subject to risks associated with being arrested together, in addition to demographic factors, such as age, sex, and neighborhood residence. Participants represented a network of 138 163 individuals who were arrested between January 1, 2006, and March 31, 2014 (29.9% of all individuals arrested in Chicago during this period), 9773 of whom were subjects of gun violence. Individuals were on average 27 years old at the midpoint of the study, predominantly male (82.0%) and black (75.6%), and often members of a gang (26.2%). Explanation and prediction of becoming a subject of gun violence (fatal or nonfatal) using epidemic models based on person-to-person transmission through a social network. Social contagion accounted for 63.1% of the 11 123 gunshot violence episodes; subjects of gun violence were shot on average 125 days after their infector (the person most responsible for exposing the subject to gunshot violence). Some subjects of gun violence were shot more than once. Models based on both social contagion and demographics performed best; when determining the 1.0% of people (n = 1382) considered at highest risk to be shot each day, the combined model identified 728 subjects of gun violence

  19. The assessment of writing ability: Expert readers versus lay readers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, R.; Vergeer, M.; Eiting, M.

    1997-01-01

    This article reports on three studies about the reading reliability of lay and expert readers in rating three kinds of writing assignments. Readers had to rate the Con tent and Language Usage of students' writing performances. The studies show that expert readers are more reliable in rating Usage, w

  20. Readers' Readings: Applications of Reader-Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Linda

    In the interest of applying reader response theory to journalism this paper posits that readers of newspapers, like readers of literature, take an active role in making meaning from the articles they read, rather than passively accepting news as a finished, static product. Additionally, it proposes that journalism textbooks pay little attention to…

  1. CONFIGURATIONS OF THE ENCYCLOPEDIA AND THE MODEL READER IN A TEXTBOOK OF MISIONES, ARGENTINA / CONFIGURACIONES DE LA ENCICLOPEDIA Y EL LECTOR MODELO EN UN TEXTO ESCOLAR DE MISIONES, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Froilán Fernández

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to analyze, from the conceptual categories of Encyclopedia and Model Reader raised by Umberto Eco, a fragment of the school handbook Misiones 4, text required reading during the last two decades in schools in the State of Misiones, Argentina. The hypothesis to guide our analysis consider that the text fragment -but also the entire textbook Misiones 4- reinforces and configures an encyclopedia "official" that promotes the historical continuity -forgetting conflicts and tensions- between the Jesuit province of 18th century and the Argentine state of 20th century, postulating, at the same, a Reader Model that adheres to a simplified pedagogical and religious local memory.

  2. Explaining Attitudes and Adherence to Antipsychotic Medication: The Development of a Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wiesjahn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although nonadherence to antipsychotic medication poses a threat to outcome of medical treatment, the processes preceding the intake behavior have not been investigated sufficiently. This study tests a process model of medication adherence derived from the Health Belief Model which is based on cost-benefit considerations. The model includes an extensive set of potential predictors for medication attitudes and uses these attitudes as a predictor for medication adherence. We conducted an online study of 84 participants with a self-reported psychotic disorder and performed a path analysis. More insight into the need for treatment, a higher attribution of the symptoms to a mental disorder, experience of less negative side effects, presence of biological causal beliefs, and less endorsement of psychological causal beliefs were significant predictors of more positive attitudes towards medication. The results largely supported the postulated process model. Mental health professionals should consider attitudes towards medication and the identified predictors when they address adherence problems with the patient in a shared and informed decision process.

  3. The ternary sorption system U(VI)-phosphate-silica explained by spectroscopy and thermodynamic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerstendorf, Harald; Stockmann, Madlen; Heim, Karsten; Mueller, Katharina; Brendler, Vinzenz [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes; Comarmond, M.J.; Payne, T.E. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights (Australia); Steudtner, Robin [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology

    2017-06-01

    Spectroscopic data of sorption processes potentially provide direct impact on Surface Complexation Modelling (SCM) approaches. Based on spectroscopic data of the ternary sorption system U(VI)/phosphate/silica strongly suggesting the formation of a precipitate as the predominant surface process, SCM calculations accurately reproduced results from classical batch experiments.

  4. Explaining prosocial intentions : Testing causal relationships in the norm activation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, Linda; de Groot, Judith

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines factors influencing prosocial intentions. On the basis of the norm activation model (NAM), we propose that four variables influence prosocial intentions or behaviours: ( I) personal norms (PN), reflecting feelings of moral obligation to engage in prosocial behaviour, (2) awarenes

  5. Calcium-dependent calcium decay explains STDP in a dynamic model of hippocampal synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Standage

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the direction and magnitude of synaptic plasticity depends on post-synaptic calcium flux, where high levels of calcium lead to long-term potentiation and moderate levels lead to long-term depression. At synapses onto neurons in region CA1 of the hippocampus (and many other synapses, NMDA receptors provide the relevant source of calcium. In this regard, post-synaptic calcium captures the coincidence of pre- and post-synaptic activity, due to the blockage of these receptors at low voltage. Previous studies show that under spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP protocols, potentiation at CA1 synapses requires post-synaptic bursting and an inter-pairing frequency in the range of the hippocampal theta rhythm. We hypothesize that these requirements reflect the saturation of the mechanisms of calcium extrusion from the post-synaptic spine. We test this hypothesis with a minimal model of NMDA receptor-dependent plasticity, simulating slow extrusion with a calcium-dependent calcium time constant. In simulations of STDP experiments, the model accounts for latency-dependent depression with either post-synaptic bursting or theta-frequency pairing (or neither and accounts for latency-dependent potentiation when both of these requirements are met. The model makes testable predictions for STDP experiments and our simple implementation is tractable at the network level, demonstrating associative learning in a biophysical network model with realistic synaptic dynamics.

  6. Explaining Employees' Evaluations of Organizational Change with the Job-Demands Resources Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, I. J. Hetty; Bakker, Arnold B.; Euwema, Martin C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Departing from the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, the paper examined the relationship between job demands and resources on the one hand, and employees' evaluations of organizational change on the other hand. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 818 faculty members within six faculties of a Dutch university. Data were…

  7. Explaining prosocial intentions : Testing causal relationships in the norm activation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, Linda; de Groot, Judith

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines factors influencing prosocial intentions. On the basis of the norm activation model (NAM), we propose that four variables influence prosocial intentions or behaviours: ( I) personal norms (PN), reflecting feelings of moral obligation to engage in prosocial behaviour, (2)

  8. Modeling movement disorders¿CRPS-related dystonia explained by abnormal proprioceptive reflexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugge, W.; Munts, A.G.; Schouten, Alfred Christiaan; van der Helm, F.C.T.

    2012-01-01

    Humans control their movements using adaptive proprioceptive feedback from muscle afferents. The interaction between proprioceptive reflexes and biomechanical properties of the limb is essential in understanding the etiology of movement disorders. A non-linear neuromuscular model of the wrist incorp

  9. Rhizosphere anode model explains high oxygen levels during operation of a Glyceria maxima PMFC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, R.A.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Arampatzoglou, C.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of root oxygen loss on energy recovery of the plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) is described. In this manner, advanced understanding of competing processes within the rhizosphere-anode interface was provided. A microscopic model was developed on the basis of exudation, oxyge

  10. Effective civic education : an educational effectiveness model for explaining students' civic knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isac, Maria Magdalena; Maslowski, Ralf; van der Werf, Greetje

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a comprehensive educational effectiveness model is tested in relation to student's civic knowledge. Multilevel analysis was applied on the dataset of the IEA Civic Education Study (CIVED; Torney-Purta, Lehmann, Oswald, & Schulz, 2001), which was conducted among junior secondary-school

  11. Explaining attitudes and adherence to antipsychotic medication: the development of a process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesjahn, Martin; Jung, Esther; Lamster, Fabian; Rief, Winfried; Lincoln, Tania M

    2014-01-01

    Although nonadherence to antipsychotic medication poses a threat to outcome of medical treatment, the processes preceding the intake behavior have not been investigated sufficiently. This study tests a process model of medication adherence derived from the Health Belief Model which is based on cost-benefit considerations. The model includes an extensive set of potential predictors for medication attitudes and uses these attitudes as a predictor for medication adherence. We conducted an online study of 84 participants with a self-reported psychotic disorder and performed a path analysis. More insight into the need for treatment, a higher attribution of the symptoms to a mental disorder, experience of less negative side effects, presence of biological causal beliefs, and less endorsement of psychological causal beliefs were significant predictors of more positive attitudes towards medication. The results largely supported the postulated process model. Mental health professionals should consider attitudes towards medication and the identified predictors when they address adherence problems with the patient in a shared and informed decision process.

  12. School Factors Explaining Achievement on Cognitive and Affective Outcomes : Establishing a Dynamic Model of Educational Effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic model of educational effectiveness defines school level factors associated with student outcomes. Emphasis is given to the two main aspects of policy, evaluation, and improvement in schools which affect quality of teaching and learning at both the level of teachers and students: a) teach

  13. School Factors Explaining Achievement on Cognitive and Affective Outcomes: Establishing a Dynamic Model of Educational Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creemers, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic model of educational effectiveness defines school level factors associated with student outcomes. Emphasis is given to the two main aspects of policy, evaluation, and improvement in schools which affect quality of teaching and learning at both the level of teachers and students: a) teaching and b) school learning environment. Five…

  14. A Structural Equation Model Explaining 8th Grade Students' Mathematics Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurt, Eyüp; Sünbül, Ali Murat

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate, via a model, the explanatory and predictive relationships among the following variables: Mathematical Problem Solving and Reasoning Skills, Sources of Mathematics Self-Efficacy, Spatial Ability, and Mathematics Achievements of Secondary School 8th Grade Students. The sample group of the study, itself…

  15. A Mediation Model to Explain the Role of Mathematics Skills and Probabilistic Reasoning on Statistics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primi, Caterina; Donati, Maria Anna; Chiesi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Among the wide range of factors related to the acquisition of statistical knowledge, competence in basic mathematics, including basic probability, has received much attention. In this study, a mediation model was estimated to derive the total, direct, and indirect effects of mathematical competence on statistics achievement taking into account…

  16. Explaining Employees' Evaluations of Organizational Change with the Job-Demands Resources Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, I. J. Hetty; Bakker, Arnold B.; Euwema, Martin C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Departing from the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, the paper examined the relationship between job demands and resources on the one hand, and employees' evaluations of organizational change on the other hand. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 818 faculty members within six faculties of a Dutch university. Data were…

  17. Effective Civic Education: An Educational Effectiveness Model for Explaining Students' Civic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isac, Maria Magdalena; Maslowski, Ralf; van der Werf, Greetje

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a comprehensive educational effectiveness model is tested in relation to student's civic knowledge. Multilevel analysis was applied on the dataset of the IEA Civic Education Study (CIVED; Torney-Purta, Lehmann, Oswald, & Schulz, 2001), which was conducted among junior secondary-school students (age 14), their schools, and their…

  18. Using the Integrative Model to Explain How Exposure to Sexual Media Content Influences Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Published research demonstrates an association between exposure to media sexual content and a variety of sex-related outcomes for adolescents. What is not known is the mechanism through which sexual content produces this "media effect" on adolescent beliefs, attitudes, and behavior. Using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, this…

  19. Does the Sverdrup critical depth model explain bloom dynamics in estuaries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, L.V.; Cloern, J.E.; Koseff, Jeffrey R.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Thompson, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we use numerical models of coupled biological-hydrodynamic processes to search for general principles of bloom regulation in estuarine waters. We address three questions: what are the dynamics of stratification in coastal systems as influenced by variable freshwater input and tidal stirring? How does phytoplankton growth respond to these dynamics? Can the classical Sverdrup Critical Depth Model (SCDM) be used to predict the timing of bloom events in shallow coastal domains such as estuaries? We present results of simulation experiments which assume that vertical transport and net phytoplankton growth rates are horizontally homogeneous. In the present approach the temporally and spatially varying turbulent diffusivities for various stratification scenarios are calculated using a hydrodynamic code that includes the Mellor-Yamada 2.5 turbulence closure model. These diffusivities are then used in a time- and depth-dependent advection-diffusion equation, incorporating sources and sinks, for the phytoplankton biomass. Our modeling results show that, whereas persistent stratification greatly increases the probability of a bloom, semidiurnal periodic stratification does not increase the likelihood of a phytoplankton bloom over that of a constantly unstratified water column. Thus, for phytoplankton blooms, the physical regime of periodic stratification is closer to complete mixing than to persistent stratification. Furthermore, the details of persistent stratification are important: surface layer depth, thickness of the pycnocline, vertical density difference, and tidal current speed all weigh heavily in producing conditions which promote the onset of phytoplankton blooms. Our model results for shallow tidal systems do not conform to the classical concepts of stratification and blooms in deep pelagic systems. First, earlier studies (Riley, 1942, for example) suggest a monotonic increase in surface layer production as the surface layer shallows. Our model

  20. Adaptive intermittent control: A computational model explaining motor intermittency observed in human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Tanaka, Masato; Inoue, Yasuyuki

    2015-07-01

    It is a fundamental question how our brain performs a given motor task in a real-time fashion with the slow sensorimotor system. Computational theory proposed an influential idea of feed-forward control, but it has mainly treated the case that the movement is ballistic (such as reaching) because the motor commands should be calculated in advance of movement execution. As a possible mechanism for operating feed-forward control in continuous motor tasks (such as target tracking), we propose a control model called "adaptive intermittent control" or "segmented control," that brain adaptively divides the continuous time axis into discrete segments and executes feed-forward control in each segment. The idea of intermittent control has been proposed in the fields of control theory, biological modeling and nonlinear dynamical system. Compared with these previous models, the key of the proposed model is that the system speculatively determines the segmentation based on the future prediction and its uncertainty. The result of computer simulation showed that the proposed model realized faithful visuo-manual tracking with realistic sensorimotor delays and with less computational costs (i.e., with fewer number of segments). Furthermore, it replicated "motor intermittency", that is, intermittent discontinuities commonly observed in human movement trajectories. We discuss that the temporally segmented control is an inevitable strategy for brain which has to achieve a given task with small computational (or cognitive) cost, using a slow control system in an uncertain variable environment, and the motor intermittency is the side-effect of this strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Crash course in readers' advisory

    CERN Document Server

    Orr, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    One of the key services librarians provide is helping readers find books they'll enjoy. This ""crash course"" will furnish you with the basic, practical information you need to excel at readers' advisory (RA) for adults and teens.

  2. Growth dependence of conjugation explains limited plasmid invasion in biofilms: an individual‐based modelling study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merkey, Brian; Lardon, Laurent; Seoane, Jose Miguel;

    2011-01-01

    . By extending an individual‐based model of microbial growth and interactions to include the dynamics of plasmid carriage and transfer by individual cells, we were able to conduct in silico tests of this and other hypotheses on the dynamics of conjugal plasmid transfer in biofilms. For a generic model plasmid...... and scan speed) and spatial reach (EPS yield, conjugal pilus length) are more important for successful plasmid invasion than the recipients' growth rate or the probability of segregational loss. While this study identifies one factor that can limit plasmid invasion in biofilms, the new individual......Plasmid invasion in biofilms is often surprisingly limited in spite of the close contact of cells in a biofilm. We hypothesized that this poor plasmid spread into deeper biofilm layers is caused by a dependence of conjugation on the growth rate (relative to the maximum growth rate) of the donor...

  3. Saltation-threshold model can explain aeolian features on low-air-density planetary bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Pähtz, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the minimal fluid speeds at which sediment transport can be sustained is crucial for understanding whether underwater landscapes exposed to water streams and wind-blown loose planetary surfaces can be altered. It also tells us whether surface features, such as ripples and dunes, can evolve. Here, guided by state-of-the-art numerical simulations, we propose an analytical model predicting the minimal fluid speeds required to sustain sediment transport in a Newtonian fluid. The model results are consistent with measurements and estimates of the transport threshold in water and Earth's and Mars' atmospheres. Furthermore, it predicts reasonable wind speeds to sustain aeolian sediment transport ("saltation") on the low-air-density planetary bodies Triton, Pluto, and 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (comet). This offers an explanation for possible aeolian surface features photographed on these bodies during space missions.

  4. Mosquitoes drink with a burst in reserve: explaining pumping behavior with a fluid mechanics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Souvick; Socha, Jake; Stremler, Mark

    2014-11-01

    Mosquitoes drink using a pair of in-line pumps in the head that draw liquid food through the proboscis. Experimental observations with synchrotron x-ray imaging indicate two modes of drinking: a predominantly occurring continuous mode, in which the cibarial and pharyngeal pumps expand cyclically at a constant phase difference, and an occasional, isolated burst mode, in which the pharyngeal pump expansion is 10 to 30 times larger than in the continuous mode. We have used a reduced order model of the fluid mechanics to hypothesize an explanation of this variation in drinking behavior. Our model results show that the continuous mode is more energetically efficient, whereas the burst mode creates a large pressure drop across the proboscis, which could potentially be used to clear blockages. Comparisons with pump knock-out configurations demonstrate different functional roles of the pumps in mosquito feeding. This material is based upon work supported by the NSF under Grant No. #0938047.

  5. Network model explains why cancer cells use inefficient pathway to produce energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Sang; Marko, John; Motter, Adilson

    2012-02-01

    The Warburg effect---the use of the (energetically inefficient) fermentative pathway as opposed to (energetically efficient) respiration even in the presence of oxygen---is a common property of cancer metabolism. Here, we propose that the Warburg effect is in fact a consequence of a trade-off between the benefit of rapid growth and the cost for protein synthesis. Using genome-scale metabolic networks, we have modeled the cellular resources for protein synthesis as a growth defect that increases with enzyme concentration. Based on our model, we demonstrate that the cost of protein production during rapid growth drives the cell to rely on fermentation to produce ATP. We also identify an intimate link between extensive fermentation and rapid biosynthesis. Our findings emphasize the importance of protein synthesis as a limiting factor on cell proliferation and provide a novel mathematical framework to analyze cancer metabolism.

  6. A Stochastic Multiscale Model That Explains the Segregation of Axonal Microtubules and Neurofilaments in Neurological Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Xue

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The organization of the axonal cytoskeleton is a key determinant of the normal function of an axon, which is a long thin projection of a neuron. Under normal conditions two axonal cytoskeletal polymers, microtubules and neurofilaments, align longitudinally in axons and are interspersed in axonal cross-sections. However, in many neurotoxic and neurodegenerative disorders, microtubules and neurofilaments segregate apart from each other, with microtubules and membranous organelles clustered centrally and neurofilaments displaced to the periphery. This striking segregation precedes the abnormal and excessive neurofilament accumulation in these diseases, which in turn leads to focal axonal swellings. While neurofilament accumulation suggests an impairment of neurofilament transport along axons, the underlying mechanism of their segregation from microtubules remains poorly understood for over 30 years. To address this question, we developed a stochastic multiscale model for the cross-sectional distribution of microtubules and neurofilaments in axons. The model describes microtubules, neurofilaments and organelles as interacting particles in a 2D cross-section, and is built upon molecular processes that occur on a time scale of seconds or shorter. It incorporates the longitudinal transport of neurofilaments and organelles through this domain by allowing stochastic arrival and departure of these cargoes, and integrates the dynamic interactions of these cargoes with microtubules mediated by molecular motors. Simulations of the model demonstrate that organelles can pull nearby microtubules together, and in the absence of neurofilament transport, this mechanism gradually segregates microtubules from neurofilaments on a time scale of hours, similar to that observed in toxic neuropathies. This suggests that the microtubule-neurofilament segregation can be a consequence of the selective impairment of neurofilament transport. The model generates the

  7. A Model for Human Visual Processing Which Explains Perceptions of Motion-After-Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    rates of 3 Primary Visual Cortex Area 17 [_PercT t Aea 18 eprioptijon Pattern Recognition i/& Other Functions Semi-Circular Neck Canals Muscles...both. Funcional monents DI Visual Procesng As shown in the model at Figure 1, the visual stimulus is received at either or both of the two eyes. The...The inputs are sent nearly unaltered to the primary visual cortex. 6 Area 17 of the primary visual cortex is believed to hold a homeomorphic mapping of

  8. Parent of origin, mosaicism, and recurrence risk: probabilistic modeling explains the broken symmetry of transmission genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ian M; Stewart, Jonathan R; James, Regis A; Lupski, James R; Stankiewicz, Paweł; Olofsson, Peter; Shaw, Chad A

    2014-10-02

    Most new mutations are observed to arise in fathers, and increasing paternal age positively correlates with the risk of new variants. Interestingly, new mutations in X-linked recessive disease show elevated familial recurrence rates. In male offspring, these mutations must be inherited from mothers. We previously developed a simulation model to consider parental mosaicism as a source of transmitted mutations. In this paper, we extend and formalize the model to provide analytical results and flexible formulas. The results implicate parent of origin and parental mosaicism as central variables in recurrence risk. Consistent with empirical data, our model predicts that more transmitted mutations arise in fathers and that this tendency increases as fathers age. Notably, the lack of expansion later in the male germline determines relatively lower variance in the proportion of mutants, which decreases with paternal age. Subsequently, observation of a transmitted mutation has less impact on the expected risk for future offspring. Conversely, for the female germline, which arrests after clonal expansion in early development, variance in the mutant proportion is higher, and observation of a transmitted mutation dramatically increases the expected risk of recurrence in another pregnancy. Parental somatic mosaicism considerably elevates risk for both parents. These findings have important implications for genetic counseling and for understanding patterns of recurrence in transmission genetics. We provide a convenient online tool and source code implementing our analytical results. These tools permit varying the underlying parameters that influence recurrence risk and could be useful for analyzing risk in diverse family structures.

  9. Why did the apple fall? A new model to explain Einstein’s gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stannard, Warren; Blair, David; Zadnik, Marjan; Kaur, Tejinder

    2017-01-01

    Newton described gravity as an attractive force between two masses but Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity provides a very different explanation. Implicit in Einstein’s theory is the idea that gravitational effects are the result of a distortion in the shape of space-time. Despite its elegance, Einstein’s concept of gravity is rarely encountered outside of an advanced physics course as it is often considered to be too complex and too mathematical. This paper describes a new conceptual and quantitative model of gravity based on General Relativity at a level most science students should be able to understand. The model illustrates geodesics using analogies with paths of navigation on the surface of the Earth. This is extended to space and time maps incorporating the time warping effects of General Relativity. Using basic geometry, the geodesic path of a falling object near the surface of the Earth is found. From this the acceleration of an object in free fall is calculated. The model presented in this paper can answer the question, ‘Why do things fall?’ without resorting to Newton’s gravitational force.

  10. Two mathematical models explain the variation in cystometrograms of obstructed urinary bladders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaser, M S; Lehman, S L

    1996-12-01

    Overdistension of the urinary bladder, secondary to outlet obstruction, causes cellular changes in the bladder wall, including hypertrophy of the smooth muscle cells, which increase bladder mass. To investigate the effects of increased mass on the cystometrogram (CMG), we have developed two mathematical models. In the first model, we assume that mass is added such that the largest bladder volume at zero transmural pressure, the zero pressure volume (ZPV), is constant, It predicts increased pressures and decreased compliance in the CMG. In the second model, we assume that both mass and ZPV increase proportionally. It predicts unchanged pressures, increased compliance, and increased capacity in the CMG. These results allow use to divide animal experiments in the literature into two groups. Cystometrograms performed on animals that have had outlet obstruction induced by a cuff method, inducing a small increase in mass, belong to the first group: hypertrophy with no change in ZPV. Cystometrograms performed on animals that have had outlet obstruction induced by a ligature method, inducing a large increase in mass, belong to the second group: hypertrophy with increased ZPV. We conclude that increased ZPV results from a more severe obstruction which is indicated by the increased capacity and compliance.

  11. A stochastic step model of replicative senescence explains ROS production rate in ageing cell populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Lawless

    Full Text Available Increases in cellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS concentration with age have been observed repeatedly in mammalian tissues. Concomitant increases in the proportion of replicatively senescent cells in ageing mammalian tissues have also been observed. Populations of mitotic human fibroblasts cultured in vitro, undergoing transition from proliferation competence to replicative senescence are useful models of ageing human tissues. Similar exponential increases in ROS with age have been observed in this model system. Tracking individual cells in dividing populations is difficult, and so the vast majority of observations have been cross-sectional, at the population level, rather than longitudinal observations of individual cells.One possible explanation for these observations is an exponential increase in ROS in individual fibroblasts with time (e.g. resulting from a vicious cycle between cellular ROS and damage. However, we demonstrate an alternative, simple hypothesis, equally consistent with these observations which does not depend on any gradual increase in ROS concentration: the Stochastic Step Model of Replicative Senescence (SSMRS. We also demonstrate that, consistent with the SSMRS, neither proliferation-competent human fibroblasts of any age, nor populations of hTERT overexpressing human fibroblasts passaged beyond the Hayflick limit, display high ROS concentrations. We conclude that longitudinal studies of single cells and their lineages are now required for testing hypotheses about roles and mechanisms of ROS increase during replicative senescence.

  12. To Our Readers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Editor in Chief

    2006-01-01

    @@ Contemporary International Relations, the English journal published by China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations, is now 15 years old. Since its conception as the first Chinese journal in English covering the field of international relations, it has presented to our readers numerous articles written by the research fellows of our institutes on the subjects of international affairs, international relations, and international relations theories. We have received numerous letters of encouragement and positive comments.

  13. Twist and Stretch of Helices Explained via the Kirchhoff-Love Rod Model of Elastic Filaments

    KAUST Repository

    Đuričković, Bojan

    2013-09-05

    In various single-molecule experiments, a chiral polymer, such as DNA, is simultaneously pulled and twisted. We address an elementary but fundamental question raised by various authors: does the molecule overwind or unwind under tension? We show that within the context of the classic Kirchhoff-Love rod model of elastic filaments, both behaviors are possible, depending on the precise constitutive relations of the polymer. More generally, our analysis provides an effective linear response theory for helical structures that relates axial force and axial torque to axial translation and rotation. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  14. Explaining Dark Matter and $B$ Decay Anomalies with an $L_\\mu - L_\\tau$ Model

    OpenAIRE

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Gori, Stefania; Profumo, Stefano; Farinaldo S. Queiroz(Department of Physics and Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, U.S.A.)

    2016-01-01

    We present a dark sector model based on gauging the $L_\\mu - L_\\tau$ symmetry that addresses anomalies in $b \\rightarrow s \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ decays and that features a particle dark matter candidate. The dark matter particle candidate is a vector-like Dirac fermion coupled to the $Z^\\prime$ gauge boson of the $L_{\\mu}-L_{\\tau}$ symmetry. We compute the dark matter thermal relic density, its pair-annihilation cross section, and the loop-suppressed dark matter-nucleon scattering cross section, and c...

  15. Realistic model for a fifth force explaining anomaly in ${^8Be^*} \\to {^8Be} \\;{e^+e^-}$ Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Pei-Hong

    2016-01-01

    A 6.8$\\sigma$ anomaly has been reported in the opening angle and invariant mass distributions of $e^+e^-$ pairs produced in ${^8Be}$ nuclear transitions. It has been shown that the data can be explained by the existence of a fifth force mediated by a 17 MeV gauge boson X with pure vector current interaction, that is produced in the decay of an excited state to the ground state, ${^8Be^*} \\to {^8Be}\\; X$, and then decays through $X \\to e^+e^-$. We propose a first renormalizable model which is gauge anomaly free to explain the data without introducing new fermions beyond the standard model (SM). Although in this model, $X$ boson also has axial vector current interactions, their contribution cancel out in ${^8Be^*} \\to {^8Be} X$. The model realizes protophobic vector current interaction of $X$ with SM fermions, and is also electron neutrino phobic. Within the allowed parameter space, this model can solve the $(g-2)_\\mu$ anomaly problem. Several other implications are discussed.

  16. Applying the Health Belief Model in Explaining the Stages of Exercise Change in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sas-Nowosielski Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The benefits of physical activity (PA have been so well documented that there is no doubt about the significance of PA for personal and social health. Several theoretical models have been proposed with a view to understanding the phenomenon of PA and other health behaviours. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if and how the variables suggested in the Health Belief Model (HBM determine physical activity stages of change in older adults. Material and methods. A total of 172 students of Universities of the Third Age aged 54 to 75 (mean = 62.89 ± 4.83 years agreed to participate in the study, filling out an anonymous survey measuring their stage of exercise change and determinants of health behaviours proposed by the HBM, including: perceived benefits of physical activity, perceived barriers to physical activity, perceived severity of diseases associated with sedentary lifestyle, perceived susceptibility to these diseases, and self-efficacy. Results. The results only partially support the hypothesis that the HBM predicts intentions and behaviours related to the physical activity of older adults. Only two variables were moderately-to-strongly related to stages of exercise change, namely perceived barriers and self-efficacy. Conclusion. Interventions aimed at informing older adults about the benefits of physical activity and the threats associated with sedentary lifestyle can be expected to have rather a weak influence on their readiness for physical activity.

  17. Explaining dark matter and B decay anomalies with an L μ - L τ model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Gori, Stefania; Profumo, Stefano; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.

    2016-12-01

    We present a dark sector model based on gauging the L μ - L τ symmetry that addresses anomalies in b → sμ + μ - decays and that features a particle dark matter candidate. The dark matter particle candidate is a vector-like Dirac fermion coupled to the Z' gauge boson of the L μ - L τ symmetry. We compute the dark matter thermal relic density, its pair-annihilation cross section, and the loop-suppressed dark matter-nucleon scattering cross section, and compare our predictions with current and future experimental results. We demonstrate that after taking into account bounds from B s meson oscillations, dark matter direct detection, and the CMB, the model is highly predictive: B physics anomalies and a viable particle dark matter candidate, with a mass of ˜ (5 - 23) GeV, can be accommodated only in a tightly-constrained region of parameter space, with sharp predictions for future experimental tests. The viable region of parameter space expands if the dark matter is allowed to have L μ - L τ charges that are smaller than those of the SM leptons.

  18. Explaining Dark Matter and $B$ Decay Anomalies with an $L_\\mu - L_\\tau$ Model

    CERN Document Server

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Profumo, Stefano; Queiroz, Farinaldo S

    2016-01-01

    We present a dark sector model based on gauging the $L_\\mu - L_\\tau$ symmetry that addresses anomalies in $b \\rightarrow s \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ decays and that features a particle dark matter candidate. The dark matter particle candidate is a vector-like Dirac fermion coupled to the $Z^\\prime$ gauge boson of the $L_{\\mu}-L_{\\tau}$ symmetry. We compute the dark matter thermal relic density, its pair-annihilation cross section, and the loop-suppressed dark matter-nucleon scattering cross section, and compare our predictions with current and future experimental results. We demonstrate that after taking into account bounds from $B_s$ meson oscillations, dark matter direct detection, and the CMB, the model is highly predictive: $B$ physics anomalies and a viable particle dark matter candidate, with a mass of $\\sim (5-23)$~GeV, can be accommodated only in a tightly-constrained region of parameter space, with sharp predictions for future experimental tests. The viable region of parameter space expands if the dark matter is ...

  19. A Dynamic Network Model to Explain the Development of Excellent Human Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J R; Van Dijk, Marijn W G; Steenbeek, Henderien W; Van Geert, Paul L C

    2016-01-01

    Across different domains, from sports to science, some individuals accomplish excellent levels of performance. For over 150 years, researchers have debated the roles of specific nature and nurture components to develop excellence. In this article, we argue that the key to excellence does not reside in specific underlying components, but rather in the ongoing interactions among the components. We propose that excellence emerges out of dynamic networks consisting of idiosyncratic mixtures of interacting components such as genetic endowment, motivation, practice, and coaching. Using computer simulations we demonstrate that the dynamic network model accurately predicts typical properties of excellence reported in the literature, such as the idiosyncratic developmental trajectories leading to excellence and the highly skewed distributions of productivity present in virtually any achievement domain. Based on this novel theoretical perspective on excellent human performance, this article concludes by suggesting policy implications and directions for future research.

  20. A dynamic network model to explain the development of excellent human performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud J.R. Den Hartigh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Across different domains, from sports to science, some individuals accomplish excellent levels of performance. For over 150 years, researchers have debated the roles of specific nature and nurture components to develop excellence. In this article, we argue that the key to excellence does not reside in specific underlying components, but rather in the ongoing interactions among the components. We propose that excellence emerges out of dynamic networks consisting of idiosyncratic mixtures of interacting components such as genetic endowment, motivation, practice, and coaching. Using computer simulations we demonstrate that the dynamic network model accurately predicts typical properties of excellence reported in the literature, such as the idiosyncratic developmental trajectories leading to excellence and the highly skewed distributions of productivity present in virtually any achievement domain. Based on this novel theoretical perspective on excellent human performance, this article concludes by suggesting policy implications and directions for future research.

  1. A Dynamic Network Model to Explain the Development of Excellent Human Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J. R.; Van Dijk, Marijn W. G.; Steenbeek, Henderien W.; Van Geert, Paul L. C.

    2016-01-01

    Across different domains, from sports to science, some individuals accomplish excellent levels of performance. For over 150 years, researchers have debated the roles of specific nature and nurture components to develop excellence. In this article, we argue that the key to excellence does not reside in specific underlying components, but rather in the ongoing interactions among the components. We propose that excellence emerges out of dynamic networks consisting of idiosyncratic mixtures of interacting components such as genetic endowment, motivation, practice, and coaching. Using computer simulations we demonstrate that the dynamic network model accurately predicts typical properties of excellence reported in the literature, such as the idiosyncratic developmental trajectories leading to excellence and the highly skewed distributions of productivity present in virtually any achievement domain. Based on this novel theoretical perspective on excellent human performance, this article concludes by suggesting policy implications and directions for future research. PMID:27148140

  2. Erroneous Arrhenius: modified arrhenius model best explains the temperature dependence of ectotherm fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knies, Jennifer L; Kingsolver, Joel G

    2010-08-01

    The initial rise of fitness that occurs with increasing temperature is attributed to Arrhenius kinetics, in which rates of reaction increase exponentially with increasing temperature. Models based on Arrhenius typically assume single rate-limiting reactions over some physiological temperature range for which all the rate-limiting enzymes are in 100% active conformation. We test this assumption using data sets for microbes that have measurements of fitness (intrinsic rate of population growth) at many temperatures and over a broad temperature range and for diverse ectotherms that have measurements at fewer temperatures. When measurements are available at many temperatures, strictly Arrhenius kinetics are rejected over the physiological temperature range. However, over a narrower temperature range, we cannot reject strictly Arrhenius kinetics. The temperature range also affects estimates of the temperature dependence of fitness. These results indicate that Arrhenius kinetics only apply over a narrow range of temperatures for ectotherms, complicating attempts to identify general patterns of temperature dependence.

  3. A mathematical model coupling polarity signaling to cell adhesion explains diverse cell migration patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R Holmes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Protrusion and retraction of lamellipodia are common features of eukaryotic cell motility. As a cell migrates through its extracellular matrix (ECM, lamellipod growth increases cell-ECM contact area and enhances engagement of integrin receptors, locally amplifying ECM input to internal signaling cascades. In contrast, contraction of lamellipodia results in reduced integrin engagement that dampens the level of ECM-induced signaling. These changes in cell shape are both influenced by, and feed back onto ECM signaling. Motivated by experimental observations on melanoma cells lines (1205Lu and SBcl2 migrating on fibronectin (FN coated topographic substrates (anisotropic post-density arrays, we probe this interplay between intracellular and ECM signaling. Experimentally, cells exhibited one of three lamellipodial dynamics: persistently polarized, random, or oscillatory, with competing lamellipodia oscillating out of phase (Park et al., 2017. Pharmacological treatments, changes in FN density, and substrate topography all affected the fraction of cells exhibiting these behaviours. We use these observations as constraints to test a sequence of hypotheses for how intracellular (GTPase and ECM signaling jointly regulate lamellipodial dynamics. The models encoding these hypotheses are predicated on mutually antagonistic Rac-Rho signaling, Rac-mediated protrusion (via activation of Arp2/3 actin nucleation and Rho-mediated contraction (via ROCK phosphorylation of myosin light chain, which are coupled to ECM signaling that is modulated by protrusion/contraction. By testing each model against experimental observations, we identify how the signaling layers interact to generate the diverse range of cell behaviors, and how various molecular perturbations and changes in ECM signaling modulate the fraction of cells exhibiting each. We identify several factors that play distinct but critical roles in generating the observed dynamic: (1 competition between

  4. Explaining the CMS $eejj$ and $e \\slashed {p}_T jj$ Excess and Leptogenesis in Superstring Inspired $E_6$ Models

    CERN Document Server

    Dhuria, Mansi; Rangarajan, Raghavan; Sarkar, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    We show that superstring inspired $E_6$ models can explain both the recently detected excess $eejj$ and $e \\slashed p_T jj$ signals at CMS, and also allow for leptogenesis. Working in a R-parity conserving low energy supersymmetric effective model, we show that the excess CMS events can be produced via the decay of exotic sleptons in alternative left-right symmetric models of $E_6$, which can also accommodate leptogenesis at a high scale. On the other hand, either the $eejj$ excess or the $e \\slashed p_T jj$ excess can be produced via the decays of right handed gauge bosons, but some of these scenarios may not accommodate letptogenesis as there will be strong $B-L$ violation at low energy, which, along with the anomalous fast electroweak $B+L$ violation, will wash out all baryon asymmetry. Baryogenesis below the electroweak scale may then need to be implemented in these models.

  5. Graphical modeling of gene expression in monocytes suggests molecular mechanisms explaining increased atherosclerosis in smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A Verdugo

    Full Text Available Smoking is a risk factor for atherosclerosis with reported widespread effects on gene expression in circulating blood cells. We hypothesized that a molecular signature mediating the relation between smoking and atherosclerosis may be found in the transcriptome of circulating monocytes. Genome-wide expression profiles and counts of atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries were collected in 248 smokers and 688 non-smokers from the general population. Patterns of co-expressed genes were identified by Independent Component Analysis (ICA and network structure of the pattern-specific gene modules was inferred by the PC-algorithm. A likelihood-based causality test was implemented to select patterns that fit models containing a path "smoking→gene expression→plaques". Robustness of the causal inference was assessed by bootstrapping. At a FDR ≤0.10, 3,368 genes were associated to smoking or plaques, of which 93% were associated to smoking only. SASH1 showed the strongest association to smoking and PPARG the strongest association to plaques. Twenty-nine gene patterns were identified by ICA. Modules containing SASH1 and PPARG did not show evidence for the "smoking→gene expression→plaques" causality model. Conversely, three modules had good support for causal effects and exhibited a network topology consistent with gene expression mediating the relation between smoking and plaques. The network with the strongest support for causal effects was connected to plaques through SLC39A8, a gene with known association to HDL-cholesterol and cellular uptake of cadmium from tobacco, while smoking was directly connected to GAS6, a gene reported to have anti-inflammatory effects in atherosclerosis and to be up-regulated in the placenta of women smoking during pregnancy. Our analysis of the transcriptome of monocytes recovered genes relevant for association to smoking and atherosclerosis, and connected genes that before, were only studied in separate contexts

  6. A sensory-motor control model of animal flight explains why bats fly differently in light versus dark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadav S Bar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal flight requires fine motor control. However, it is unknown how flying animals rapidly transform noisy sensory information into adequate motor commands. Here we developed a sensorimotor control model that explains vertebrate flight guidance with high fidelity. This simple model accurately reconstructed complex trajectories of bats flying in the dark. The model implies that in order to apply appropriate motor commands, bats have to estimate not only the angle-to-target, as was previously assumed, but also the angular velocity ("proportional-derivative" controller. Next, we conducted experiments in which bats flew in light conditions. When using vision, bats altered their movements, reducing the flight curvature. This change was explained by the model via reduction in sensory noise under vision versus pure echolocation. These results imply a surprising link between sensory noise and movement dynamics. We propose that this sensory-motor link is fundamental to motion control in rapidly moving animals under different sensory conditions, on land, sea, or air.

  7. Explaining the CMS excesses, baryogenesis, and neutrino masses in a E6 motivated U (1 )N model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuria, Mansi; Hati, Chandan; Sarkar, Utpal

    2016-01-01

    We study the superstring inspired E6 model motivated U (1 )N extension of the supersymmetric standard model to explore the possibility of explaining the recent excess CMS events and the baryon asymmetry of the Universe in eight possible variants of the model. In light of the hints from short-baseline neutrino experiments at the existence of one or more light sterile neutrinos, we also study the neutrino mass matrices dictated by the field assignments and the discrete symmetries in these variants. We find that all the variants can explain the excess CMS events via the exotic slepton decay, while for a standard choice of the discrete symmetry four of the variants have the feature of allowing high scale baryogenesis (leptogenesis). For one other variant three body decay induced soft baryogenesis mechanism is possible which can induce baryon number violating neutron-antineutron oscillation. We also point out a new discrete symmetry which has the feature of ensuring proton stability and forbidding tree level flavor changing neutral current processes while allowing for the possibility of high scale leptogenesis for two of the variants. On the other hand, neutrino mass matrix of the U (1 )N model variants naturally accommodates three active and two sterile neutrinos which acquire masses through their mixing with extra neutral fermions giving rise to interesting textures for neutrino masses.

  8. A model to explain simultaneously the {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn emanation from thin electrodeposited sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, M.J.M. Jurado. E-mail: mjv@unex.es

    2000-06-11

    In thin radioactive sources, loss of radon by emanation is a very common phenomenon, especially in sources made by electrodeposition. A quantification of this effect in radium sources can be easily developed by using a simple model that assumes a radon diffusion term in the ingrowth equations. By measuring the corresponding Rn/Ra activity ratio, a constant diffusion factor can be determined which represents the Rn emanation from the whole source. However, this simple model cannot explain simultaneously the {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn diffusion produced in a thin source, because it gives diffusion factors that are different by many orders of magnitude for these two isotopes, while these values must be fairly close. In this paper, a new model of diffusion is proposed, which includes a linear dependence of the diffusion factor on the depth of Rn nuclides in the source. This new model has been applied to radium electrodeposited sources and allows us to explain satisfactorily both the {sup 220}Rn/{sup 224}Ra and {sup 222}Rn/{sup 226}Ra activity ratios observed in thin sources.

  9. A high power impulse magnetron sputtering model to explain high deposition rate magnetic field configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Priya; Weberski, Justin; Cheng, Matthew; Shchelkanov, Ivan; Ruzic, David N.

    2016-10-01

    High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) is one of the recent developments in the field of magnetron sputtering technology that is capable of producing high performance, high quality thin films. Commercial implementation of HiPIMS technology has been a huge challenge due to its lower deposition rates compared to direct current Magnetron Sputtering. The cylindrically symmetric "TriPack" magnet pack for a 10 cm sputter magnetron that was developed at the Center for Plasma Material Interactions was able to produce higher deposition rates in HiPIMS compared to conventional pack HiPIMS for the same average power. The "TriPack" magnet pack in HiPIMS produces superior substrate uniformity without the need of substrate rotation in addition to producing higher metal ion fraction to the substrate when compared to the conventional pack HiPIMS [Raman et al., Surf. Coat. Technol. 293, 10 (2016)]. The films that are deposited using the "TriPack" magnet pack have much smaller grains compared to conventional pack DC and HiPIMS films. In this paper, the reasons behind the observed increase in HiPIMS deposition rates from the TriPack magnet pack along with a modified particle flux model is discussed.

  10. Can Core Flows inferred from Geomagnetic Field Models explain the Earth's Dynamo?

    CERN Document Server

    Schaeffer, Nathanaël; Pais, Maria Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    We test the ability of velocity fields inferred from geomagnetic secular variation data to produce the global magnetic field of the Earth. Our kinematic dynamo calculations use quasi-geostrophic (QG) flows inverted from geomagnetic field models which, as such, incorporate flow structures that are Earth-like and may be important for the geodynamo. Furthermore, the QG hypothesis allows straightforward prolongation of the flow from the core surface to the bulk. As expected from previous studies, we check that a simple quasi-geostrophic flow is not able to sustain the magnetic field against ohmic decay. Additional complexity is then introduced in the flow, inspired by the action of the Lorentz force. Indeed, on centenial timescales, the Lorentz force can balance the Coriolis force and strict quasi-geostrophy may not be the best ansatz. When the columnar flow is modified to account for the action of the Lorentz force, magnetic field is generated for Elsasser numbers larger than 0.25 and magnetic Reynolds numbers l...

  11. A Twin Protection Effect? Explaining Twin Survival Advantages with a Two-Process Mortality Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrow, David J; Anderson, James J

    2016-01-01

    Twin studies that focus on the correlation in age-at-death between twin pairs have yielded important insights into the heritability and role of genetic factors in determining lifespan, but less attention is paid to the biological and social role of zygosity itself in determining survival across the entire life course. Using data from the Danish Twin Registry and the Human Mortality Database, we show that monozygotic twins have greater cumulative survival proportions at nearly every age compared to dizygotic twins and the Danish general population. We examine this survival advantage by fitting these data with a two-process mortality model that partitions survivorship patterns into extrinsic and intrinsic mortality processes roughly corresponding to acute, environmental and chronic, biological origins. We find intrinsic processes confer a survival advantage at older ages for males, while at younger ages, all monozygotic twins show a health protection effect against extrinsic death akin to a marriage protection effect. While existing research suggests an increasingly important role for genetic factors at very advanced ages, we conclude that the social closeness of monozygotic twins is a plausible driver of the survival advantage at ages <65.

  12. The Role of Technology Acceptance Model in Explaining Effect on E-Commerce Application System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Gapar Md Johar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Today e-commerce has become crucial element to transform some of the world countries into aninformation society. Business to consumer (B2C in the developing countries is not yet a normalcy ascompared to the developed countries. Consumer behaviour research has shown disappointing resultsregarding the overall use of the Web for online shopping, despite its considerable promise as a channel forcommerce. As the use of the Internet continues to grow in all aspects of daily life, there is an increasingneed to better understand what trends of internet usage and to study the barriers and problem of ecommerceadoption. Hence, the purpose of this research is to define how far Technology Acceptance Model(TAM contributed in e-commerce adoption. Data for this study was collected by the means of a surveyconducted in Malaysia in 2010. A total of 611 questionnaire forms were delivered to respondents. Thelocation of respondents was within Penang state. By studying this sample, conclusions would be drawn togeneralize the interests of the population.

  13. Measuring And Explaining Turkey’s Competitiveness in Services Using Balassa Index and Diamond Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Gümüş

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims investigating the competitiveness of the selected services in Turkey in comparison with the European Union (EU and the selected EU countries. The main argument of conducting this research stems from the fact that there is a lack of complementary research integrating qualitative and quantitative methodologies in gainingdeeper understanding on the competitiveness of the nations in services in the related literature. In order to contribute to the current body of knowledge on that matter, Porter’s Diamond Model and three different revealed comparative advantage indices have been employed in a combined way within the scope of this study. The findings show that strong comparative advantages exist for Turkey in construction, tourism and transportation sectors. Although Turkish financial and insurance and communication and computer-information sectors appear to be weak compared to EU, there is a substantial potential for improvement. The policy decision makers in Turkey and in Europe’s selected countries can utilize the findings and recommendations of the study for projection ofthe investigated sectors.

  14. Modeling and experiments to explain the potential dependency of an UHSS to hydrogen environment assisted cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehler, Beth A.

    Modern ultra high strength steels have been developed with outstanding combinations of strength and fracture toughness but lack intrinsic corrosion resistance. Such steels are used by the military for aircraft components such as landing gears but require coatings and cathodic protection which can lead to various rates of hydrogen production depending on material, geometry, and electro(chemistry). The susceptibility of such steels to internal hydrogen embrittlement (IHE) and hydrogen environment embrittlement (HEE) limits their use in marine environments. The objective of this research is to develop the understanding necessary to design coated ultra high strength steels that resist HEE when stressed in marine environments. The cause of HEE is the establishment of high diffusible hydrogen concentrations (CH,diff) at the crack tip. There is a window of applied potentials (Eapplied) where susceptibility to HEE is reduced because CH,diff is reduced. However, Eapplied itself does not yield insight as to the exact conditions at the crack tip. Ohmic potential drop and electrochemical/chemical reactions in the crack can lead to a significantly different environment at the crack tip than on the surface. The issues that hinder understanding of HEE center on the capability to quantify and ultimately predict crack tip hydrogen concentrations (C H,Tip) relative to critical concentrations that trigger fracture as a function of Eapplied. CH,tip was characterized using a multi-pronged approach. Scaling laws were developed to enable measurements of E and pH in a scaled-up crack as a function of the scaling parameter, x2/G and Eapplied . Such measurements were correlated with CH,diff using an experimentally determined hydrogen uptake law based on first order absorption laws and trapping theory. CH,diff values were then used as inputs into existing micromechanical models for KTH and da/dtII to predict cracking susceptibility. The scientific contributions of this work include the

  15. The Eco-Geo-Clim model: explaining Madagascar’s endemism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Mercier

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pleistocene paleoclimatic oscillations have had a major influence on the hydrological balance in Madagascar, from the scale of individual sites to watersheds. Water availability is one of the major factor influencing plant and animal life. An Eco-Geo-Clim model is considered here that encompasses ecological and geomorphological features in the context of changing climate to identify areas where water remained available during the driest periods, but also how water availability increased again when climatic conditions become warmer and wetter. This model is applied to a portion of western Madagascar encompassing the Tsiribihina and Mangoky watersheds and the Central Menabe center of endemism to describe the mechanism leading to landscape-level evolution and especially the distribution patterns observed today in some of the island’s endemic animal species, comparing narrowly vs. broadly endemic taxa.RésuméLes oscillations paléoclimatiques au cours du Pléistocène ont influencé tous les termes du bilan d'énergie stationnel (rayonnements, flux de chaleur latente, flux de chaleur dans le sol et flux de chaleur sensible. Associées aux précipitations, ces fluctuations ont contrôlé les bilans hydriques stationnels. Les bilans hydrologiques des bassins versants sont l'intégration spatiale et temporelle de ces bilans hydriques. La végétation et plus généralement la biomasse végétale sont dépendantes de ces deux types de bilans. L'interface entre l'atmosphère et la végétation est occupée par les sols et les formations superficielles, celles-ci sont le résultat de la dégradation des roches et de l'érosion des versants. Lorsqu'ils existent, ces sols ou géosols sont hérités de périodes humides antérieures.La disponibilité en eau est l'élément majeur de la vie végétale et animale, or celle-ci a fluctué au cours du Pléistocène ; lors de périodes sèches, les bilans sont déficitaires, la biomasse diminue, l

  16. The application of a social cognition model in explaining fruit intake in Austrian, Norwegian and Spanish schoolchildren using structural equation modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Rodrigo Carmen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this paper was to test the goodness of fit of the Attitude – Social influence – self-Efficacy (ASE model in explaining schoolchildren's intentions to eat fruit and their actual fruit intake in Austria, Norway and Spain; to assess how well the model could explain the observed variance in intention to eat fruit and in reported fruit intake and to investigate whether the same model would fit data from all three countries. Methods Samples consisted of schoolchildren from three of the countries participating in the cross-sectional part of the Pro Children project. Sample size varied from 991 in Austria to 1297 in Spain. Mean age ranged from 11.3 to 11.4 years. The initial model was designed using items and constructs from the Pro Children study. Factor analysis was conducted to test the structure of the measures in the model. The Norwegian sample was used to test the latent variable structure, to make a preliminary assessment of model fit, and to modify the model to increase goodness of fit with the data. The original and modified models were then applied to the Austrian and Spanish samples. All model analyses were carried out using structural equation modelling techniques. Results The ASE-model fitted the Norwegian and Spanish data well. For Austria, a slightly more complex model was needed. For this reason multi-sample analysis to test equality in factor structure and loadings across countries could not be used. The models explained between 51% and 69% of the variance in intention to eat fruit, and 27% to 38% of the variance in reported fruit intake. Conclusion Structural equation modelling showed that a rather parsimonious model was useful in explaining the variation in fruit intake of 11-year-old schoolchildren in Norway and Spain. For Austria, more modifications were needed to fit the data.

  17. Bytes, Books and Readers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Krista Stinne Greve

    2016-01-01

    Geschichte von Editionen und der Entwicklung der Digital Humanities besonderes Augenmerk geschenkt, um zu demonstrieren, wie bedeutsam die Analyse der Überlieferung und der Textbegriff für die Geschichte von Editionen sind. Beispiele aus Alastair McKinnons erster digitaler Edition von Soren Kierkegaards......In diesem Beitrag werden Ergebnisse aus der Dissertation der Autorin Bytes, Books, and Readers. A Historical Analysis of the Transition from Printed to Digital Scholarly Editions Focusing on ‘The Writings of Søren Kierkegaard’ (2015) vorgestellt. Dabei wird dem Wechselverhältnis zwischen der...

  18. Chipless RFID reader architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Karmakar, Nemai Chandra; Kalansuriya, Prasanna

    2013-01-01

    In the era of information communication technology (ICT), radio frequency identification (RFID) has been going through tremendous development. RFID technology has the potential of replacing barcodes due to its large information carrying capacity, flexibility in operations, and applications. The deployment of RFID has been hindered by its cost. However, with the advent of low powered ICs, energy scavenging techniques, and low-cost chipless tags, RFID technology has achieved significant development. This book addresses the new reader architecture, presents fundamentals of chipless RFID systems,

  19. A model explaining and predicting lamb flavour from the aroma-active chemical compounds released upon grilling light lamb loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Mónica; Campo, M Mar; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Escudero, Ana

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the work is to understand the role of the different aroma compounds in the perception of the local "lamb flavour" concept. For this, a set of 70 loins (Longissimus dorsi) from approximately seventy day-old Rasa Aragonesa male lambs were grilled and the aroma-active chemicals released during the grilling process were trapped and analyzed. Carbonyl compounds were derivatizated and determined by GC-NCI-MS, whereas other aromatic compounds were directly analyzed by GC-GC-MS. Odour activity values (OAVs) were calculated using their odour threshold values in air. Lamb flavour could be satisfactory explained by a partial least-squares model (74% explained variance in cross-validation) built by the OAVs of 32 aroma-active chemical compounds. The model demonstrates that the lamb flavour concept is the result of a complex balance. Its intensity critically and positively depends to the levels of volatile fatty acids and several dimethylpyrazines while is negatively influenced by the different alkenals and alkadienals. (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and (E)-2-nonenal showed top OAVs.

  20. The contagious nature of imprisonment: an agent-based model to explain racial disparities in incarceration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Kristian; Swarup, Samarth; Eubank, Stephen; Hawdon, James

    2014-09-01

    We build an agent-based model of incarceration based on the susceptible-infected-suspectible (SIS) model of infectious disease propagation. Our central hypothesis is that the observed racial disparities in incarceration rates between Black and White Americans can be explained as the result of differential sentencing between the two demographic groups. We demonstrate that if incarceration can be spread through a social influence network, then even relatively small differences in sentencing can result in large disparities in incarceration rates. Controlling for effects of transmissibility, susceptibility and influence network structure, our model reproduces the observed large disparities in incarceration rates given the differences in sentence lengths for White and Black drug offenders in the USA without extensive parameter tuning. We further establish the suitability of the SIS model as applied to incarceration by demonstrating that the observed structural patterns of recidivism are an emergent property of the model. In fact, our model shows a remarkably close correspondence with California incarceration data. This work advances efforts to combine the theories and methods of epidemiology and criminology.

  1. Confidence-based integrated reweighting model of task-difficulty explains location-based specificity in perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talluri, Bharath Chandra; Hung, Shao-Chin; Seitz, Aaron R; Seriès, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual learning is classically thought to be highly specific to the trained stimuli's retinal locations. However, recent research using a novel double-training paradigm has found dramatic transfer of perceptual learning to untrained locations. These results challenged existing models of perceptual learning and provoked intense debate in the field. Recently, Hung and Seitz (2014) showed that previously reported results could be reconciled by considering the details of the training procedure, in particular, whether it involves prolonged training at threshold using a single staircase procedure or multiple staircases. Here, we examine a hierarchical neural network model of the visual pathway, built upon previously proposed integrated reweighting models of perceptual learning, to understand how retinotopic transfer depends on the training procedure adopted. We propose that the transfer and specificity of learning between retinal locations can be explained by considering the task-difficulty and confidence during training. In our model, difficult tasks lead to higher learning of weights from early visual cortex to the decision unit, and thus to specificity, while easy tasks lead to higher learning of weights from later stages of the visual hierarchy and thus to more transfer. To model interindividual difference in task-difficulty, we relate task-difficulty to the confidence of subjects. We show that our confidence-based reweighting model can account for the results of Hung and Seitz (2014) and makes testable predictions.

  2. Explaining happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterlin, Richard A

    2003-09-16

    What do social survey data tell us about the determinants of happiness? First, that the psychologists' setpoint model is questionable. Life events in the nonpecuniary domain, such as marriage, divorce, and serious disability, have a lasting effect on happiness, and do not simply deflect the average person temporarily above or below a setpoint given by genetics and personality. Second, mainstream economists' inference that in the pecuniary domain "more is better," based on revealed preference theory, is problematic. An increase in income, and thus in the goods at one's disposal, does not bring with it a lasting increase in happiness because of the negative effect on utility of hedonic adaptation and social comparison. A better theory of happiness builds on the evidence that adaptation and social comparison affect utility less in the nonpecuniary than pecuniary domains. Because individuals fail to anticipate the extent to which adaptation and social comparison undermine expected utility in the pecuniary domain, they allocate an excessive amount of time to pecuniary goals, and shortchange nonpecuniary ends such as family life and health, reducing their happiness. There is need to devise policies that will yield better-informed individual preferences, and thereby increase individual and societal well-being.

  3. Narrative tension analysis: reader`s and text aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Вениаминовна Лещенко

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article narrative tension is conceptualized as a complex cognitive and affective phenomenon being analysed in two dimensions: psychological and textological. In the receptive and psychological framework narrative tension is considered as reader`s psychological response to the fictional events of the storyworld. In modern text theory narrative tension is thought as a specific narrative strategy represented by definite narrative structures inducing the particular emotional state of the reader

  4. Model for adhesion clutch explains biphasic relationship between actin flow and traction at the cell leading edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Erin M.; Stricker, Jonathan; Gardel, Margaret; Mogilner, Alex

    2015-05-01

    Cell motility relies on the continuous reorganization of a dynamic actin-myosin-adhesion network at the leading edge of the cell, in order to generate protrusion at the leading edge and traction between the cell and its external environment. We analyze experimentally measured spatial distributions of actin flow, traction force, myosin density, and adhesion density in control and pharmacologically perturbed epithelial cells in order to develop a mechanical model of the actin-adhesion-myosin self-organization at the leading edge. A model in which the F-actin network is treated as a viscous gel, and adhesion clutch engagement is strengthened by myosin but weakened by actin flow, can explain the measured molecular distributions and correctly predict the spatial distributions of the actin flow and traction stress. We test the model by comparing its predictions with measurements of the actin flow and traction stress in cells with fast and slow actin polymerization rates. The model predicts how the location of the lamellipodium-lamellum boundary depends on the actin viscosity and adhesion strength. The model further predicts that the location of the lamellipodium-lamellum boundary is not very sensitive to the level of myosin contraction.

  5. Model for adhesion clutch explains biphasic relationship between actin flow and traction at the cell leading edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Erin M.; Stricker, Jonathan; Gardel, Margaret L.; Mogilner, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Cell motility relies on the continuous reorganization of a dynamic actin-myosin-adhesion network at the leading edge of the cell, in order to generate protrusion at the leading edge and traction between the cell and its external environment. We analyze experimentally measured spatial distributions of actin flow, traction force, myosin density, and adhesion density in control and pharmacologically perturbed epithelial cells in order to develop a mechanical model of the actin-adhesion-myosin self-organization at the leading edge. A model in which the F-actin network is treated as a viscous gel, and adhesion clutch engagement is strengthened by myosin but weakened by actin flow, can explain the measured molecular distributions and correctly predict the spatial distributions of the actin flow and traction stress. We test the model by comparing its predictions with measurements of the actin flow and traction stress in cells with fast and slow actin polymerization rates. The model predicts how the location of the lamellipodium-lamellum boundary depends on the actin viscosity and adhesion strength. The model further predicts that the location of the lamellipodium-lamellum boundary is not very sensitive to the level of myosin contraction. PMID:25969948

  6. Explaining clinical effects of deep brain stimulation through simplified target-specific modeling of the volume of activated tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mädler, B; Coenen, V A

    2012-06-01

    Although progress has been made in understanding the optimal anatomic structures as target areas for DBS, little effort has been put into modeling and predicting electromagnetic field properties of activated DBS electrodes and understanding their interactions with the adjacent tissue. Currently, DBS is performed with the patient awake to assess the effectiveness and the side effect spectrum of stimulation. This study was designed to create a robust and rather simple numeric and visual tool that provides sufficient and practical relevant information to visualize the patient's individual VAT. Multivariate polynomial fitting of previously obtained data from a finite-element model, based on a similar DBS system, was used. The model estimates VAT as a first-approximation sphere around the active DBS contact, using stimulation voltages and individual tissue-electrode impedances. Validation uses data from 2 patients with PD by MR imaging, DTI, fiber tractography, and postoperative CT data. Our model can predict VAT for impedances between 500 and 2000 Ω with stimulation voltages up to 10 V. It is based on assumptions for monopolar DBS. Evaluation of 2 DBS cases showed a convincing correspondence between predicted VAT and neurologic (side) effects (internal capsule activation). Stimulation effects during DBS can be readily explained with this simple VAT model. Its implementation in daily clinical routine might help in understanding the types of tissues activated during DBS. This technique might have the potential to facilitate DBS implantations with the patient under general anesthesia while yielding acceptable clinical effectiveness.

  7. Modelling condom use: Does the theory of planned behaviour explain condom use in a low risk, community sample?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joanna; Shiels, Chris; Gabbay, Mark B

    2014-01-01

    To date, most condom research has focused on young or high-risk groups, with little evidence about influences on condom use amongst lower-risk community samples. These groups are not risk free and may still wish to negotiate safer sex; yet the considerations involved could be different from those in higher-risk groups. Our research addresses this gap: We report a cross-sectional questionnaire study enquiring about recent condom use and future use intentions in community settings. Our sample (n = 311) purposively included couples in established relationships, known to be condom users. Items included demographics, sexual history and social-cognitive variables taken from the theory of planned behaviour. The strongest association with condom use/use intentions amongst our respondents was sexual partner's perceived willingness to use them. This applied across both univariate and multivariate analyses. Whilst most social-cognitive variables (attitudes; self-efficacy and peer social norms) were significant in univariate analyses, this was not supported in multivariate regression. Of the social-cognitive variables, only "condom-related attitudes" were retained in the model explaining recent condom use, whilst none of them entered the model explaining future use intentions. Further analysis showed that attitudes concerning pleasure, identity stigma and condom effectiveness were most salient for this cohort. Our results suggest that, in community samples, the decision to use a condom involves different considerations from those highlighted in previous research. Explanatory models for established couples should embrace interpersonal perspectives, emphasising couple-factors rather than individual beliefs. Messages to this cohort could usefully focus on negotiation skills, condom advantages (other than disease prevention) and reducing the stigma associated with use.

  8. Reader construction in interactive online journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    Studies suggest that online news journalists are very sceptical towards the value of the user participation, because of what they perceive as poor quality of the public participation, the scepticism varies from one interactivity feature to another and from newsroom to newsroom. This paper examines...... how online journalists are constructing their readers, seeking to explain how these views affect practices of journalism. Gans idea of the “constructed public” is re-visited, by analyzing the newsroom negotiations between one hand enabling the user participation and on the other hand their very...... be seen as journalistic positioning strategies and interactivity and mediated connectivity as both vital and challenging for the very field of journalism. This indicates that not only do the different kinds of interactivity seem to imply different kind of readers – they also seem to imply different ideals...

  9. Shakespeare and Reader's Theatre: Fellow Traveling Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Gerald Lee

    2010-01-01

    Whether constructed on literary analysis models or inspired by conventional acting theories, Reader's Theatre performance techniques are an invaluable instructional tool available to teachers who want their students to see, hear and feel Shakespeare texts in classroom discussion and performance. These exercises are designed to promote both a…

  10. To Our Readers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    Golden October is a harvest month in China,bringing hope andjoy to people,so it is an appropriate time for us to dedicate,withgood wishes and deep friendship,Cultural Exchange—China World to both Chinese and foreign readers.Today the rising tide of reform and opening to the outside world inChina impels Chinese to pursue novelty and development.Looking tothe future,the Chinese are creating a beautiful life for themselves withunprecedented enthusiasm and ambition.This magazine is born at a timewhen exchanges in various fields between the Chinese people and thepeoples of the world are increasing and relationships are becoming closerand closer.The magazine will work to promote Chinese and foreigncultural exchanges.

  11. Magnetic Symbology Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Harry F. (Inventor); Shih, William C. L. (Inventor); Fitzpatrick, Gerald L. (Inventor); Knisely, Craig (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A magnetic symbology reader has a housing containing a polarized light source which directs light though a magneto-optic sensor onto a reflector which reflects light least one analyzer and into at least one camera. A view finder allows the user to monitor the image on the sensor as seen by a viewfinder camera while a processor is coupled to possibly a second camera so that when an image is detected, the image from the camera may be processed by the processor to output information associated with the symbol to an external source. The analyzer and polarized light source provide contrast in the images detected by the sensor. A bias/erase coil located about the magneto-optic sensor can enhance or erase images on the sensor.

  12. How Think-and-Feel-Aloud Instruction Influences Poetry Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva-Wood, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    Assuming readers' emotional responses can inform literary analysis, this study of poetry readers featured an instructional intervention that involved modeling both cognitive and affective reading processes through a think-and-feel-aloud pedagogy. Eleventh-grade students in 2 conditions participated in a 4-week unit on reading poetry. Control group…

  13. A model to explain plant growth promotion traits: a multivariate analysis of 2,211 bacterial isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Beschoren da Costa

    Full Text Available Plant growth-promoting bacteria can greatly assist sustainable farming by improving plant health and biomass while reducing fertilizer use. The plant-microorganism-environment interaction is an open and complex system, and despite the active research in the area, patterns in root ecology are elusive. Here, we simultaneously analyzed the plant growth-promoting bacteria datasets from seven independent studies that shared a methodology for bioprospection and phenotype screening. The soil richness of the isolate's origin was classified by a Principal Component Analysis. A Categorical Principal Component Analysis was used to classify the soil richness according to isolate's indolic compound production, siderophores production and phosphate solubilization abilities, and bacterial genera composition. Multiple patterns and relationships were found and verified with nonparametric hypothesis testing. Including niche colonization in the analysis, we proposed a model to explain the expression of bacterial plant growth-promoting traits according to the soil nutritional status. Our model shows that plants favor interaction with growth hormone producers under rich nutrient conditions but favor nutrient solubilizers under poor conditions. We also performed several comparisons among the different genera, highlighting interesting ecological interactions and limitations. Our model could be used to direct plant growth-promoting bacteria bioprospection and metagenomic sampling.

  14. A model to explain plant growth promotion traits: a multivariate analysis of 2,211 bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Pedro Beschoren; Granada, Camille E; Ambrosini, Adriana; Moreira, Fernanda; de Souza, Rocheli; dos Passos, João Frederico M; Arruda, Letícia; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting bacteria can greatly assist sustainable farming by improving plant health and biomass while reducing fertilizer use. The plant-microorganism-environment interaction is an open and complex system, and despite the active research in the area, patterns in root ecology are elusive. Here, we simultaneously analyzed the plant growth-promoting bacteria datasets from seven independent studies that shared a methodology for bioprospection and phenotype screening. The soil richness of the isolate's origin was classified by a Principal Component Analysis. A Categorical Principal Component Analysis was used to classify the soil richness according to isolate's indolic compound production, siderophores production and phosphate solubilization abilities, and bacterial genera composition. Multiple patterns and relationships were found and verified with nonparametric hypothesis testing. Including niche colonization in the analysis, we proposed a model to explain the expression of bacterial plant growth-promoting traits according to the soil nutritional status. Our model shows that plants favor interaction with growth hormone producers under rich nutrient conditions but favor nutrient solubilizers under poor conditions. We also performed several comparisons among the different genera, highlighting interesting ecological interactions and limitations. Our model could be used to direct plant growth-promoting bacteria bioprospection and metagenomic sampling.

  15. Readers Responding--And Then?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Gunnar

    1992-01-01

    Argues that recognition of the reader's role in the production of meanings in literary works has major consequences for the theory, research, and teaching of literature. Discusses the need to include the reader's role when writing the history of literature; develop new language for the description of the meanings of works; and develop new models…

  16. THE E-READER BOOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU SHUJUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The fire Amazon.com Inc.'s Kindle has kindled in the United States has spread to China. But it's not a buying spree of Kindle products, which aren't being sold here, but a manufacturing frenzy of Kindle-like products——electronicbook readers (e-readers).

  17. Shifting Perspectives on Struggling Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primeaux, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Draws on social constructivist theory to present principles of reading instruction for struggling readers. Focuses on three social constructivist-based components that have been used successfully with struggling readers to enhance their reading instruction: a responsive literacy environment, explicit comprehension-strategy instruction, and time…

  18. The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad interpretation of the subject…

  19. The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad…

  20. A data-model synthesis to explain variability in calcification observed during a CO2 perturbation mesocosm experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Shubham; Schartau, Markus

    2017-04-01

    The effect of ocean acidification on growth and calcification of the marine algae Emiliania huxleyi was investigated in a series of mesocosm experiments where enclosed water volumes that comprised a natural plankton community were exposed to different carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. Calcification rates observed during those experiments were found to be highly variable, even among replicate mesocosms that were subject to similar CO2 perturbations. Here, data from an ocean acidification mesocosm experiment are reanalysed with an optimality-based dynamical plankton model. According to our model approach, cellular calcite formation is sensitive to variations in CO2 at the organism level. We investigate the temporal changes and variability in observations, with a focus on resolving observed differences in total alkalinity and particulate inorganic carbon (PIC). We explore how much of the variability in the data can be explained by variations of the initial conditions and by the level of CO2 perturbation. Nine mesocosms of one experiment were sorted into three groups of high, medium, and low calcification rates and analysed separately. The spread of the three optimised ensemble model solutions captures most of the observed variability. Our results show that small variations in initial abundance of coccolithophores and the prevailing physiological acclimation states generate differences in calcification that are larger than those induced by ocean acidification. Accordingly, large deviations between optimal mass flux estimates of carbon and of nitrogen are identified even between mesocosms that were subject to similar ocean acidification conditions. With our model-based data analysis we document how an ocean acidification response signal in calcification can be disentangled from the observed variability in PIC.

  1. Using the Health Belief Model to Explain Mothers' and Fathers' Intention to Participate in Universal Parenting Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Raziye; Filus, Ania

    2017-01-01

    Using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework, we studied factors related to parental intention to participate in parenting programs and examined the moderating effects of parent gender on these factors. Participants were a community sample of 290 mothers and 290 fathers of 5- to 10-year-old children. Parents completed a set of questionnaires assessing child emotional and behavioral difficulties and the HBM constructs concerning perceived program benefits and barriers, perceived child problem susceptibility and severity, and perceived self-efficacy. The hypothesized model was evaluated using structural equation modeling. The results showed that, for both mothers and fathers, perceived program benefits were associated with higher intention to participate in parenting programs. In addition, higher intention to participate was associated with lower perceived barriers only in the sample of mothers and with higher perceived self-efficacy only in the sample of fathers. No significant relations were found between intention to participate and perceived child problem susceptibility and severity. Mediation analyses indicated that, for both mothers and fathers, child emotional and behavioral problems had an indirect effect on parents' intention to participate by increasing the level of perceived benefits of the program. As a whole, the proposed model explained about 45 % of the variance in parental intention to participate. The current study suggests that mothers and fathers may be motivated by different factors when making their decision to participate in a parenting program. This finding can inform future parent engagement strategies intended to increase both mothers' and fathers' participation rates in parenting programs.

  2. Model to explain the effects of halide ions on the increase in surface enhanced Raman spectral intensity over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael A.

    Understanding the mechanisms responsible for the large increase in spectral intensity when molecules are adsorbed to nanoparticle surfaces such as occurs during surface enhanced Raman (SER) spectroscopy will allow scientists to probe ever smaller scales, even allowing single molecule detection. One particular scenario that increased the SER scattering efficiency was the addition of halide ions to Rhodamine 6G (R6G)-ethanol solution. This thesis presents a theoretical model explaining the effects of halide ions on the SER spectral intensity of the Rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecule when co-adsorbed to a silver nanoparticle surface. Glaspell et al. 2005, found a linear correlation between the increase in spectral intensities of selected vibrational normal modes of R6G over time and the polarizabilities of co-adsorbed halide ions. When the R6G molecule co-adsorbs to the silver nanoparticle surface with the halide ions, the molecule is exposed to three external electric fields that add vectorially, creating a total external electric field. Modelling the fields from the halide ions and the silver nanoparticles as electric dipole fields introduces the polarizability of the halide ion linearly into the Raman spectral intensity equation. This model also shows that there is a necessary interaction between the halide ions and the silver nanoparticle surface in order to see the effects as described by Glaspell et al. Furthermore, we will present experimental results that show that there is a necessary interaction between the halide ions and the nanoparticle surface. Without this interaction there was no increase in the SER spectral intensity of R6G or pyridine molecules in solution with the halide ions but without the silver nanoparticles.

  3. Explaining Differences in Subjective Well-Being Across 33 Nations Using Multilevel Models: Universal Personality, Cultural Relativity, and National Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cecilia; Cheung, Mike W-L; Montasem, Alex

    2016-02-01

    This multinational study simultaneously tested three prominent hypotheses--universal disposition, cultural relativity, and livability--that explained differences in subjective well-being across nations. We performed multilevel structural equation modeling to examine the hypothesized relationships at both individual and cultural levels in 33 nations. Participants were 6,753 university students (2,215 men; 4,403 women; 135 did not specify), and the average age of the entire sample was 20.97 years (SD = 2.39). Both individual- and cultural-level analyses supported the universal disposition and cultural relativity hypotheses by revealing significant associations of subjective well-being with Extraversion, Neuroticism, and independent self-construal. In addition, interdependent self-construal was positively related to life satisfaction at the individual level only, whereas aggregated negative affect was positively linked with aggregate levels of Extraversion and interdependent self-construal at the cultural level only. Consistent with the livability hypothesis, gross national income (GNI) was related to aggregate levels of negative affect and life satisfaction. There was also a quadratic relationship between GNI and aggregated positive affect. Our findings reveal that universal disposition, cultural self-construal, and national income can elucidate differences in subjective well-being, but the multilevel analyses advance the literature by yielding new findings that cannot be identified in studies using individual-level analyses alone. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Narrative tension analysis: reader`s and text aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Анна Вениаминовна Лещенко

    2016-01-01

    In this article narrative tension is conceptualized as a complex cognitive and affective phenomenon being analysed in two dimensions: psychological and textological. In the receptive and psychological framework narrative tension is considered as reader`s psychological response to the fictional events of the storyworld. In modern text theory narrative tension is thought as a specific narrative strategy represented by definite narrative structures inducing the particular emotional state of the ...

  5. Can 3-D models explain the observed fractions of fossil and non-fossil carbon in and near Mexico City?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hodzic

    2010-06-01

    -fire vs. low-fire periods. The absolute modeled values of fCNFOC are consistent with the PM10 dataset but lower than the PM1 filters. Resolving the 14C measurement discrepancies is necessary for further progress in model evaluation. The model simulations that included secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from semi-volatile and intermediate volatility (S/IVOC vapors showed better skill in explaining both total OA mass and fCNFOC compared to simulations which only included SOA from VOCs. Urban sources of modern carbon are important in reducing or closing the gap between model and measurements, even though they are often neglected on the interpretation of 14C datasets. The fCNF of urban POA and SOA precursors is an important parameter that needs to be better constrained by measurements. Performing faster (≤3 h 14C measurements in future campaigns is critical to further progress in this area. To our knowledge this is the first time that radiocarbon measurements are used together with aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS organic components to assess the performance of a regional model for organic aerosols.

  6. Choosing the Right Basal Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Ruth H.

    1980-01-01

    Looks at factors in the textbook publishing industry, especially costs and censorship, which affect the quality of available reading series. Notes the problem of readability and content bias. Finally, presents a checklist of basal reader evaluation criteria. (SJL)

  7. Measuring with the spiral reader

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The spiral reader shown here was at the time, together with the Shivamatic scanning system, the basic equipment used for measuring bubble chamber pictures. Anne Anton sits at the table. (See Photo Archive 7408343.)

  8. Writing for the Invisible Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden, Nancy

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the role of the lesbian writer in addressing the invisibility of teenage readers. Argues that writing about homosexuality is a matter of presenting it rather than promoting it. Includes a review of "The Year they Burned the Books." (NH)

  9. An Experimental Examination of Readers' Perceptions of Media Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessio, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Explores perceptions of media bias by manipulating expectations of bias and news topic. Explains that university students read dummy newspaper articles and then responded to a survey. Concludes that readers were more likely to designate material opposing their own views as biased. (PM)

  10. The UGRID Reader - A ParaView Plugin for the Visualization of Unstructured Climate Model Data in NetCDF Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisc, Felicia; Vater, Stefan; Behrens, Joern

    2016-04-01

    We present the UGRID Reader, a visualization software component that implements the UGRID Conventions into Paraview. It currently supports the reading and visualization of 2D unstructured triangular, quadrilateral and mixed triangle/quadrilateral meshes, while the data can be defined per cell or per vertex. The Climate and Forecast Metadata Conventions (CF Conventions) have been set for many years as the standard framework for climate data written in NetCDF format. While they allow storing unstructured data simply as data defined at a series of points, they do not currently address the topology of the underlying unstructured mesh. However, it is often necessary to have additional mesh topology information, i.e. is it a one dimensional network, a 2D triangular mesh or a flexible mixed triangle/quadrilateral mesh, a 2D mesh with vertical layers, or a fully unstructured 3D mesh. The UGRID Conventions proposed by the UGRID Interoperability group are attempting to fill in this void by extending the CF Conventions with topology specifications. As the UGRID Conventions are increasingly popular with an important subset of the CF community, they warrant the development of a customized tool for the visualization and exploration of UGRID-conforming data. The implementation of the UGRID Reader has been designed corresponding to the ParaView plugin architecture. This approach allowed us to tap into the powerful reading and rendering capabilities of ParaView, while the reader is easy to install. We aim at parallelism to be able to process large data sets. Furthermore, our current application of the reader is the visualization of higher order simulation output which demands for a special representation of the data within a cell.

  11. Modeling Interactions among Individual P2 Receptors to Explain Complex Response Patterns over a Wide Range of ATP Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shu; Grol, Matthew W; Grutter, Peter H; Dixon, S Jeffrey; Komarova, Svetlana V

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular ATP acts on the P2X family of ligand-gated ion channels and several members of the P2Y family of G protein-coupled receptors to mediate intercellular communication among many cell types including bone-forming osteoblasts. It is known that multiple P2 receptors are expressed on osteoblasts (P2X2,5,6,7 and P2Y1,2,4,6). In the current study, we investigated complex interactions within the P2 receptor network using mathematical modeling. To characterize individual P2 receptors, we extracted data from published studies of overexpressed human and rodent (rat and mouse) receptors and fit their dependencies on ATP concentration using the Hill equation. Next, we examined responses induced by an ensemble of endogenously expressed P2 receptors. Murine osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1 cells) were loaded with fluo-4 and stimulated with varying concentrations of extracellular ATP. Elevations in the concentration of cytosolic free calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) were monitored by confocal microscopy. Dependence of the calcium response on ATP concentration exhibited a complex pattern that was not explained by the simple addition of individual receptor responses. Fitting the experimental data with a combination of Hill equations from individual receptors revealed that P2Y1 and P2X7 mediated the rise in [Ca(2+)]i at very low and high ATP concentrations, respectively. Interestingly, to describe responses at intermediate ATP concentrations, we had to assume that a receptor with a K 1∕2 in that range (e.g. P2Y4 or P2X5) exerts an inhibitory effect. This study provides new insights into the interactions among individual P2 receptors in producing an ensemble response to extracellular ATP.

  12. Modeling interactions among individual P2 receptors to explain complex response patterns over a wide range of ATP concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Xing

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available EExtracellular ATP acts on the P2X family of ligand-gated ion channels and several members of the P2Y family of G protein-coupled receptors to mediate intercellular communication among many cell types including bone-forming osteoblasts. It is known that multiple P2 receptors are expressed on osteoblasts (P2X2,5,6,7 and P2Y1,2,4,6. In the current study, we investigated complex interactions within the P2 receptor network using mathematical modeling. To characterize individual P2 receptors, we extracted data from published studies of overexpressed human and rodent (rat and mouse receptors and fit their dependencies on ATP concentration using the Hill equation. Next, we examined responses induced by an ensemble of endogenously expressed P2 receptors. Murine osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1 cells were loaded with fluo-4 and stimulated with varying concentrations of extracellular ATP. Elevations in the concentration of cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]i were monitored by confocal microscopy. Dependence of the calcium response on ATP concentration exhibited a complex pattern that was not explained by the simple addition of individual receptor responses. Fitting the experimental data with a combination of Hill equations from individual receptors revealed that P2Y1 and P2X7 mediated the rise in [Ca2+]i at very low and high ATP concentrations, respectively. Interestingly, to describe responses at intermediate ATP concentrations, we had to assume that a receptor with a K1/2 in that range (e.g. P2Y4 or P2X5 exerts an inhibitory effect. This study provides new insights into the interactions among individual P2 receptors in producing an ensemble response to extracellular ATP.

  13. Generalized Model for Explaining Construction Contract Disputes%工程施工合同争议成因模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张灵芝; 徐伟; 成虎

    2016-01-01

    When constructioncontract disputes ( CCDs ) are effectively reduced and prevented , performance of construction project management will be greatly improved .That why CCDs may happen has been explored , it could extremely help us to keep away from bad influences of these disputes.A generalized model for explaining why contract disputes may happen is present based on the analysis of many typical construction dispute cases and human error and project pathogens . Subsequently , an explanatory analysis on a delay dispute in construction and engineering is showed by using the methodology of case study and the aforementioned model .At the same time , relative counter measures of reducing and preventing these disputes are put forward .%有效防范和减少建筑业中的工程施工合同争议,是提升工程管理绩效的重要手段之一。如果能够深入了解工程施工合同争议形成过程与原因,对于防范和减少争议将有重大助益,但目前对于工程施工合同争议成因机制少有系统性的研究。本文在深入分析众多典型建设工程施工合同纠纷判决书的基础上,基于人因失误理论和项目病原体模型构建了系统视角下的工程施工合同争议成因一般模型,并采用案例研究方法运用上述所提出的一般成因模型对相关争议如何形成及其发展过程给出解释性说明,同时基于成因模型提出相应防范和减少工程施工合同争议的具体措施。

  14. Explaining differences between bioaccumulation measurements in laboratory and field data through use of a probabilistic modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selck, Henriette; Drouillard, Ken; Eisenreich, Karen; Koelmans, Albert A.; Palmqvist, Annemette; Ruus, Anders; Salvito, Daniel; Schultz, Irv; Stewart, Robin; Weisbrod, Annie; van den Brink, Nico W.; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine

    2012-01-01

    In the regulatory context, bioaccumulation assessment is often hampered by substantial data uncertainty as well as by the poorly understood differences often observed between results from laboratory and field bioaccumulation studies. Bioaccumulation is a complex, multifaceted process, which calls for accurate error analysis. Yet, attempts to quantify and compare propagation of error in bioaccumulation metrics across species and chemicals are rare. Here, we quantitatively assessed the combined influence of physicochemical, physiological, ecological, and environmental parameters known to affect bioaccumulation for 4 species and 2 chemicals, to assess whether uncertainty in these factors can explain the observed differences among laboratory and field studies. The organisms evaluated in simulations including mayfly larvae, deposit-feeding polychaetes, yellow perch, and little owl represented a range of ecological conditions and biotransformation capacity. The chemicals, pyrene and the polychlorinated biphenyl congener PCB-153, represented medium and highly hydrophobic chemicals with different susceptibilities to biotransformation. An existing state of the art probabilistic bioaccumulation model was improved by accounting for bioavailability and absorption efficiency limitations, due to the presence of black carbon in sediment, and was used for probabilistic modeling of variability and propagation of error. Results showed that at lower trophic levels (mayfly and polychaete), variability in bioaccumulation was mainly driven by sediment exposure, sediment composition and chemical partitioning to sediment components, which was in turn dominated by the influence of black carbon. At higher trophic levels (yellow perch and the little owl), food web structure (i.e., diet composition and abundance) and chemical concentration in the diet became more important particularly for the most persistent compound, PCB-153. These results suggest that variation in bioaccumulation

  15. Readers Theatre: A different approach to English for struggling readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Drew

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a study of the use of Readers Theatre in English lessons with groups of academically-challenged pupils in a Norwegian lower secondary school. The study is based on the teacher’s logs, interviews with the teacher, a questionnaire answered by the pupils, and lesson observations. Readers Theatre, a group reading activity that can be used with a wide range of texts, was successfully incorporated into the curriculum with relatively small ‘fordypning’ (specialisation groups in English. These pupils had opted for more English lessons instead of learning a second foreign language. Most of them struggled with English as their first foreign language and were struggling readers. However, the majority of the pupils experienced Readers Theatre as both enjoyable and educational. The experience had a positive effect on their confidence and motivation to read. It also helped to improve their reading fluency and accuracy, for example pronunciation, and facilitated growth in vocabulary. The experience of practising and performing as a group was especially satisfying and motivating for the pupils involved. The majority were keen to participate in other Readers Theatre projects.

  16. Can 3-D models explain the observed fractions of fossil and non-fossil carbon in and near Mexico City?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hodzic

    2010-11-01

    >fNFOCare similar to those in the measurements between the urban vs. suburban sites, and high-fire vs. low-fire periods. The absolute modeled values of fNFOC are consistent with the Swiss dataset but lower than the US dataset. Resolving the 14C measurement discrepancies is necessary for further progress in model evaluation. The model simulations that included secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from semi-volatile and intermediate volatility (S/IVOC vapors showed improved closure for the total OA mass compared to simulations which only included SOA from VOCs, providing a more realistic basis to evaluate the fNF predictions. fNFOC urban sources of modern carbon are important in reducing or removing the difference in fNF between model and measurements, even though they are often neglected on the interpretation of 14C datasets. An underprediction of biomass burning POA by the model during some mornings also explains a part of the model-measurement differences. The fNF of urban POA and SOA precursors is an important parameter that needs to be better constrained by measurements. Performing faster (≤3 h 14C measurements in future campaigns is critical to further progress in this area. To our knowledge this is the first time that radiocarbon measurements are used together with aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS organic components to assess the performance of a regional model for organic aerosols.

  17. Readers' Theatre as a History Teaching Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Sandra D.; Riney-Kehrberg, Pamela; Westbury, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Describes the production of a readers' theater version of the first women's rights convention held at Seneca Falls, New York (includes script). Discusses the benefits of readers' theater for studying women's history and encouraging female student class participation; strategies for using readers' theater; and students creating their own readers'…

  18. Three Properties of the Ideal Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Paul

    The main experience of an ideal reader while reading a text is an "envisionment" of that text, a representation in the reader's mind of the content of the text. According to this view the envisionment grows and sometimes changes as the reader progresses through the text, and the ideal reader not only updates and supplements the…

  19. Turgenev as a Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Петер Бранг

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In his book Zvučaščee slovo (Moskva 2010 the author dealt with the mutual relations between the theory of versification and the theory of declamation and with the question of how Pushkin, Gogol, Dostoyevsky and Blok used to read literary texts aloud, and, in addition, with their general attitude towards the “sounding word”. In this study, starting from B.M. Ejchenbaum’s remark that Turgenev is always striving to “tell” and “always addresses himself to a listener”, the author examines several aspects of the role that the “sounding word” played in the writer’s life and work. The most important sources he used are the memoirs of Turgenev’s contemporaries and his letters. It turns out that readings of still unpublished literary works in small circles played an unexpectedly large role. This can be explained by the writer’s wish to test the reaction of the public, but also by sociocultural factors: the atmosphere of friendly competition that reigned during that period in the aristocratic republic of Russian ‘literary workers’.

  20. A sequential vesicle pool model with a single release sensor and a ca(2+)-dependent priming catalyst effectively explains ca(2+)-dependent properties of neurosecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Alexander M; da Silva Pinheiro, Paulo César; Verhage, Matthijs;

    2013-01-01

    identified. We here propose a Sequential Pool Model (SPM), assuming a novel Ca(2+)-dependent action: a Ca(2+)-dependent catalyst that accelerates both forward and reverse priming reactions. While both models account for fast fusion from the Readily-Releasable Pool (RRP) under control of synaptotagmin-1...... that the elusive 'alternative Ca(2+) sensor' for slow release might be the upstream priming catalyst, and that a sequential model effectively explains Ca(2+)-dependent properties of secretion without assuming parallel pools or sensors....

  1. Explaining Intention to Use an Information Technology Innovation: an empirical comparison of the perceived characteristics of innovating and technology acceptance models

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Jebeile; Robert Reeve

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the issue of technology acceptance in a multi-campus secondary college in Sydney, Australia. Seventy-five teachers across two campuses were surveyed as to their perceptions regarding technology acceptance. Regression analysis was used to compare the explanatory power of the perceived characteristics of innovating model (PCIM), and the technology acceptance model (TAM). Both models explained a substantial amount of variation in technology acceptance. However, our findings...

  2. A Difficult Choice for Newspapers: Advertisers or Readers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Bulunmnaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Almost entire advertisement revenues are acquired by newspapers in print media. Along with rapid technological developments and the intensive competitive climate in newspaper sector; the gulf between high cost and low revenue has widened, and newspapers are obliged to subsidize this deficit with advertisement revenues. Newspapers in Turkey have two separate groups of customers. The first one of those groups is the advertisers and the other is the readers of that newspaper. Due to economic reasons, this compulsory dependency on advertisement revenue causes newspapers to fall into a paradox between advertisers and readers. In this article we will firstly explain advertisement and its place in marketing; then give information about the advertising sector and the distribution of Turkish advertising pie among media. Later, the relation between advertisers and readers that place newspapers in difficult circumstances will be explicated in detail, analysis and assessments will be made regarding about it.

  3. Off-Planar Geometry and Structural Instability of EDO-TTF Explained by Using the Extended Debye Polarizability Model for Bond Angles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linker, Gerrit-Jan; van Duijnen, Piet Th.; van Loosdrecht, Paul H. M.; Broer-Braam, Henderika

    2012-01-01

    The geometry of ethylenedioxy-tetrathiafulvalene, EDO-TTF, plays an important role in the metal-insulator transition in the charge transfer salt (EDO-TTF)(2)PF6. The planar and off-planar geometrical conformations of the EDO-TTF molecules are explained using an extended Debye polarizability model fo

  4. Readers' Knowledge of Popular Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Peter; Bortolussi, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    This research examined readers' knowledge of popular genres. Participants wrote short essays on fantasy, science fiction, or romance. The similarities among the essays were measured using latent semantic analysis (LSA) and were then analyzed using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. The clusters and scales were interpreted by searching…

  5. Enduring and Diagnosing Reader's Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Lisa Stapleton

    1990-01-01

    Describes a condition called "reader's block" whereby the mind fails to comprehend the meaning of the text because of digressing thoughts. Suggests that "freereading," like freewriting, can help to clarify thoughts. Argues that it is not necessary to read things correctly the first time through. (PRA)

  6. Writing Reviews for Readers' Advisory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Reviews are an important resource for readers' advisory and collection development. They are also a helpful promotional tool, introducing patrons to what is new on the shelf. This resource includes: (1) Tips for writing strong, relevant reviews; (2) Different ways reviews can be used to promote your library; and (3) A chapter by Joyce Saricks…

  7. A comprehensive model of stress - The roles of experienced stress and neuroticism in explaining the stress-distress relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, GM; van Sonderen, E; Emmelkamp, PMG

    1999-01-01

    Background: In this study, a complex theoretical model regarding the stress-distress relationship was evaluated. The various components in the model included experienced stress (daily hassles), psychological distress, neuroticism, problem-focused coping, avoidant coping, satisfaction with received s

  8. Explaining moral religions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumard, Nicolas; Boyer, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    Moralizing religions, unlike religions with morally indifferent gods or spirits, appeared only recently in some (but not all) large-scale human societies. A crucial feature of these new religions is their emphasis on proportionality (between deeds and supernatural rewards, between sins and penance, and in the formulation of the Golden Rule, according to which one should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself). Cognitive science models that account for many properties of religion can be extended to these religions. Recent models of evolved dispositions for fairness in cooperation suggest that proportionality-based morality is highly intuitive to human beings. The cultural success of moralizing movements, secular or religious, could be explained based on proportionality.

  9. THE HEURISTIC POTENTIAL OF THE ABRIDGED BIG-5 DIMENSIONAL CIRCUMPLEX (AB5C) MODEL - EXPLAINING THE CHIASMIC ILLUSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOFSTEE, WKB; ARENDS, LR

    1994-01-01

    In two small-scale investigations, chiasmic configurations of personality traits (e.g., Thrifty/Generous/Stingy/Extravagant) derived from the Peabody and Goldberg (1989) Double-Cone model were compared with chasms derived from the Abridged Big-Five dimensional Circumplex (AB5C) model. To this end,

  10. Making a Commitment to Strategic-Reader Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FREDRICKA L. STOLLER; REIKO KOMIYAMA

    2013-01-01

    Skilled readers by definition are strategic; they are able to use a repertoire of reading strategies , flexibly and in meaningful combinations , to achieve their reading comprehension goals . Thus , one of the aims of foreign and second language (L2) reading curricula should be to move students toward becoming more strategic readers . This curricular orientation can be best achieved when a strong commitment is made to strategic-reader training as a regular and consistent component of instruction across the curriculum . To explore this stance , we examine the reading strategies used by skilled readers , contrast teaching strategies with training strategic readers ( i .e . , strategic-reader training) , and examine five strategic-reader training approaches from first language contexts that can be adapted by L2 professionals to enhance the reading instruction offered in their L 2 classes . The five approaches targeted for exploration include Directed Reading-Thinking Activity , Reciprocal Teaching , Transactional Strategies Instruction , Questioning the Author , and Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction . Though distinct from one another , they all acknowledge the importance of explicit explanations about strategies (or reminders about the use of select strategies) , teacher modeling , scaffolded tasks , active student engagement , student practice , classroom discussions of strategy use , and the gradual release of responsibility to students who eventually decide for themselves (and/or with peers) when , where , and why to use which strategies to achieve their comprehension goals . We conclude with a discussion of the challenges , and suggestions for overcoming them , that L 2 teachers and students often face in making a commitment to strategic-reader training .

  11. A Two-Factor Model Better Explains Heterogeneity in Negative Symptoms: Evidence from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seon-Kyeong; Choi, Hye-Im; Park, Soohyun; Jaekal, Eunju; Lee, Ga-Young; Cho, Young Il; Choi, Kee-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Acknowledging separable factors underlying negative symptoms may lead to better understanding and treatment of negative symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia. The current study aimed to test whether the negative symptoms factor (NSF) of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) would be better represented by expressive and experiential deficit factors, rather than by a single factor model, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two hundred and twenty individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders completed the PANSS; subsamples additionally completed the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) and the Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MAP-SR). CFA results indicated that the two-factor model fit the data better than the one-factor model; however, latent variables were closely correlated. The two-factor model's fit was significantly improved by accounting for correlated residuals between N2 (emotional withdrawal) and N6 (lack of spontaneity and flow of conversation), and between N4 (passive social withdrawal) and G16 (active social avoidance), possibly reflecting common method variance. The two NSF factors exhibited differential patterns of correlation with subdomains of the BNSS and MAP-SR. These results suggest that the PANSS NSF would be better represented by a two-factor model than by a single-factor one, and support the two-factor model's adequate criterion-related validity. Common method variance among several items may be a potential source of measurement error under a two-factor model of the PANSS NSF.

  12. Postmodern theories about readers in electronic environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanka Kuić

    2015-01-01

    Introductory part of the paper discusses theories about readers in the last decades of the 20th century. In particular, two big theoretical schools are discussed: aesthetic reception theory and reader-response-criticism movement. Readers are a subject of very different scientific disciplines: literature theory, sociology, anthropology, book history and library science. The idea that a reader is an essential subject for future life of a literary work is common to all theorists. By constructing...

  13. PENGEMBANGAN MODEL PEMBELAJARAN PREDICT-OBSERVE-EXPLAIN-WRITE UNTUK MENDAPATKAN GAMBARAN KUANTITAS MISKONSEPSI SISWA SMA MATERI SUHU DAN KALOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyati Supriyati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Application of learning models POEW done to minimize the quantity of misconceptions experienced by students. The research was conducted by applying the POEW model of the experimental class and POE model of the control class. A method use quasi-experimental by design “Randomized Control Group Pretest-Posttest Design” implemented in X class one of high school at the city Cimahi in 2012/2013. Research results show that the description of misconception experienced by students in the experimental class lower than the control class. Responses of students to learn with the application of this POEW generally positive.

  14. 38 CFR 21.150 - Reader service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reader service. 21.150... Special Rehabilitation Services § 21.150 Reader service. (a) Limitations on vision. A veteran considered to have a visual impairment necessitating reader service includes a veteran: (1) Whose best corrected...

  15. Moving Readers from Struggling to Proficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    If we want to move children from struggling to read to being proficient readers, we must address the disparate ways that teachers respond to readers with varying abilities. Restorative practices, akin to restorative justice, build relationships, make connections, and foster a reader's sense of ownership and empowerment. What would happen if…

  16. Graded Readers: Validating Reading Levels across Publishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Graded readers can be an optimal resource to help language students improve and personalize their learning experience. An extensive reading library with graded readers and well-defined levels of reading difficulty increases language students' chances of having a successful reading experience and become independent readers. However, when it comes…

  17. Recent trends of high-latitude vegetation activity assessed and explained by contrasting modelling approaches with earth observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkel, M.; Carvalhais, N.; Reichstein, M.; Thonicke, K.

    2012-04-01

    Satellite observations of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) showed increasing trends in the arctic tundra and the boreal forests since the 1980s. This greening is related to an increase in photosynthetic activity and is driven by increasing temperatures and a prolongation of the growing season. However, NDVI experienced a decrease in large regions of the boreal forests since the mid-1990s. This browning is related to fire disturbances, temperature-induced summer drought and potentially to insect infestations and diseases. Terrestrial biosphere models (TBM) can be used to assess the impacts of these changes in vegetation productivity on the carbon and water cycles and on the climate system. In general, these models provide descriptions of ecosystem processes and states that are forced by and feedback to the climate system such as photosynthesis and transpiration, ecosystem respiration, soil carbon and water stocks and vegetation composition. The evaluation of TBMs against observations is a necessary step to assess their suitability to simulate such processes and dynamics. The increasing availability of long-term observations of vegetation activity enables us to evaluate the model ability to diagnose these vegetation greening and browning trends in arctic and boreal regions. The first aim of this study is to evaluate trends in vegetation activity in high-latitude regions as simulated by TBMs against observed trends in vegetation activity. The second aim is to identify potential drivers of these observed and simulated trends to evaluate the ability of models to reproduce the observed functional relations between climatic and environmental drivers and the vegetation trends. The trends in vegetation activity were estimated for a set of satellite-based remote sensing products: NDVI from AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer), as well as FAPAR observations (Fraction of Observed Photosynthetically

  18. A model of human motor sequence learning explains facilitation and interference effects based on spike-timing dependent plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quan; Rothkopf, Constantin A; Triesch, Jochen

    2017-08-01

    The ability to learn sequential behaviors is a fundamental property of our brains. Yet a long stream of studies including recent experiments investigating motor sequence learning in adult human subjects have produced a number of puzzling and seemingly contradictory results. In particular, when subjects have to learn multiple action sequences, learning is sometimes impaired by proactive and retroactive interference effects. In other situations, however, learning is accelerated as reflected in facilitation and transfer effects. At present it is unclear what the underlying neural mechanism are that give rise to these diverse findings. Here we show that a recently developed recurrent neural network model readily reproduces this diverse set of findings. The self-organizing recurrent neural network (SORN) model is a network of recurrently connected threshold units that combines a simplified form of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) with homeostatic plasticity mechanisms ensuring network stability, namely intrinsic plasticity (IP) and synaptic normalization (SN). When trained on sequence learning tasks modeled after recent experiments we find that it reproduces the full range of interference, facilitation, and transfer effects. We show how these effects are rooted in the network's changing internal representation of the different sequences across learning and how they depend on an interaction of training schedule and task similarity. Furthermore, since learning in the model is based on fundamental neuronal plasticity mechanisms, the model reveals how these plasticity mechanisms are ultimately responsible for the network's sequence learning abilities. In particular, we find that all three plasticity mechanisms are essential for the network to learn effective internal models of the different training sequences. This ability to form effective internal models is also the basis for the observed interference and facilitation effects. This suggests that STDP, IP, and SN

  19. Explaining the high number of infected people by dengue in Rio de Janeiro in 2008 using a susceptible-infective-recovered model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botari, Tiago; Alves, S. G.; Leonel, Edson D.

    2011-03-01

    An epidemiological model for dengue propagation using cellular automata is constructed. Dependence on temperature and rainfall index are taken into account. Numerical results fit pretty well with the registered cases of dengue for the city of Rio de Janeiro for the period from 2006 to 2008. In particular, our approach explains very well an abnormally high number of cases registered in 2008. A phase transition from endemic to epidemic regimes is discussed.

  20. A dynamic genetic-hormonal regulatory network model explains multiple cellular behaviors of the root apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Mónica L; Azpeitia, Eugenio; Álvarez-Buylla, Elena R

    2017-04-01

    The study of the concerted action of hormones and transcription factors is fundamental to understand cell differentiation and pattern formation during organ development. The root apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana is a useful model to address this. It has a stem cell niche near its tip conformed of a quiescent organizer and stem or initial cells around it, then a proliferation domain followed by a transition domain, where cells diminish division rate before transiting to the elongation zone; here, cells grow anisotropically prior to their final differentiation towards the plant base. A minimal model of the gene regulatory network that underlies cell-fate specification and patterning at the root stem cell niche was proposed before. In this study, we update and couple such network with both the auxin and cytokinin hormone signaling pathways to address how they collectively give rise to attractors that correspond to the genetic and hormonal activity profiles that are characteristic of different cell types along A. thaliana root apical meristem. We used a Boolean model of the genetic-hormonal regulatory network to integrate known and predicted regulatory interactions into alternative models. Our analyses show that, after adding some putative missing interactions, the model includes the necessary and sufficient components and regulatory interactions to recover attractors characteristic of the root cell types, including the auxin and cytokinin activity profiles that correlate with different cellular behaviors along the root apical meristem. Furthermore, the model predicts the existence of activity configurations that could correspond to the transition domain. The model also provides a possible explanation for apparently paradoxical cellular behaviors in the root meristem. For example, how auxin may induce and at the same time inhibit WOX5 expression. According to the model proposed here the hormonal regulation of WOX5 might depend on the cell type. Our results

  1. Variation in grouping patterns, mating systems and social structure: what socio-ecological models attempt to explain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Andreas; Scarry, Clara J; Wheeler, Brandon C; Borries, Carola

    2013-05-19

    Socio-ecological models aim to predict the variation in social systems based on a limited number of ecological parameters. Since the 1960s, the original model has taken two paths: one relating to grouping patterns and mating systems and one relating to grouping patterns and female social structure. Here, we review the basic ideas specifically with regard to non-human primates, present new results and point to open questions. While most primates live in permanent groups and exhibit female defence polygyny, recent studies indicate more flexibility with cooperative male resource defence occurring repeatedly in all radiations. In contrast to other animals, the potential link between ecology and these mating systems remains, however, largely unexplored. The model of the ecology of female social structure has often been deemed successful, but has recently been criticized. We show that the predicted association of agonistic rates and despotism (directional consistency of relationships) was not supported in a comparative test. The overall variation in despotism is probably due to phylogenetic grade shifts. At the same time, it varies within clades more or less in the direction predicted by the model. This suggests that the model's utility may lie in predicting social variation within but not across clades.

  2. Relativity simply explained

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Since the publication of Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity in 1905, the discovery of such astronomical phenomena as quasars, pulsars, and black holes - all intimately connected to relativity - has provoked a tremendous upsurge of interest in the subject. This volume, a revised version of Martin Gardner's earlier Relativity for the Million, brings this fascinating topic up to date. Witty, perceptive, and easily accessible to the general reader, it is one of the clearest and most entertaining introductions to relativity ever written.

  3. Explaining embodied cognition results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakoff, George

    2012-10-01

    From the late 1950s until 1975, cognition was understood mainly as disembodied symbol manipulation in cognitive psychology, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and the nascent field of Cognitive Science. The idea of embodied cognition entered the field of Cognitive Linguistics at its beginning in 1975. Since then, cognitive linguists, working with neuroscientists, computer scientists, and experimental psychologists, have been developing a neural theory of thought and language (NTTL). Central to NTTL are the following ideas: (a) we think with our brains, that is, thought is physical and is carried out by functional neural circuitry; (b) what makes thought meaningful are the ways those neural circuits are connected to the body and characterize embodied experience; (c) so-called abstract ideas are embodied in this way as well, as is language. Experimental results in embodied cognition are seen not only as confirming NTTL but also explained via NTTL, mostly via the neural theory of conceptual metaphor. Left behind more than three decades ago is the old idea that cognition uses the abstract manipulation of disembodied symbols that are meaningless in themselves but that somehow constitute internal "representations of external reality" without serious mediation by the body and brain. This article uniquely explains the connections between embodied cognition results since that time and results from cognitive linguistics, experimental psychology, computational modeling, and neuroscience.

  4. Development of a Novel Simplified PBPK Absorption Model to Explain the Higher Relative Bioavailability of the OROS® Formulation of Oxybutynin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Morales, Andrés; Ghosh, Avijit; Aarons, Leon; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

    2016-11-01

    A new minimal Segmented Transit and Absorption model (mSAT) model has been recently proposed and combined with intrinsic intestinal effective permeability (P eff,int ) to predict the regional gastrointestinal (GI) absorption (f abs ) of several drugs. Herein, this model was extended and applied for the prediction of oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of oxybutynin and its enantiomers to provide a mechanistic explanation of the higher relative bioavailability observed for oxybutynin's modified-release OROS® formulation compared to its immediate-release (IR) counterpart. The expansion of the model involved the incorporation of mechanistic equations for the prediction of release, transit, dissolution, permeation and first-pass metabolism. The predicted pharmacokinetics of oxybutynin enantiomers after oral administration for both the IR and OROS® formulations were in close agreement with the observed data. The predicted absolute bioavailability for the IR formulation was within 5% of the observed value, and the model adequately predicted the higher relative bioavailability observed for the OROS® formulation vs. the IR counterpart. From the model predictions, it can be noticed that the higher bioavailability observed for the OROS® formulation was mainly attributable to differences in the intestinal availability (F G ) rather than due to a higher colonic f abs , thus confirming previous hypotheses. The predicted f abs was almost 70% lower for the OROS® formulation compared to the IR formulation, whereas the F G was almost eightfold higher than in the IR formulation. These results provide further support to the hypothesis of an increased F G as the main factor responsible for the higher bioavailability of oxybutynin's OROS® formulation vs. the IR.

  5. Theory development in nursing and healthcare informatics: a model explaining and predicting information and communication technology acceptance by healthcare consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ji-Young; Hayman, Laura L; Panniers, Teresa; Carty, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    About 110 million American adults are looking for health information and services on the Internet. Identification of the factors influencing healthcare consumers' technology acceptance is requisite to understanding their acceptance and usage behavior of online health information and related services. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of the Information and Communication Technology Acceptance Model (ICTAM). From the literature reviewed, ICTAM was developed with emphasis on integrating multidisciplinary perspectives from divergent frameworks and empirical findings into a unified model with regard to healthcare consumers' acceptance and usage behavior of information and services on the Internet.

  6. Explaining Today's Physics Through History and Biography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, David

    2014-03-01

    Quantum computers, string theory, holographic universes - to the general audience, today's physics can be as mystifying as it is fascinating. But modern ideas evolved from an earlier phase of physics - Newtonian mechanics, simple cause and effect - that is in principle easier for the non-expert to grasp. I have found that writing about physics from a historical and biographical perspective is an effective way to convey modern thinking by explaining where it comes from - it is a way of carrying the reader from concepts that make intuitive sense to ideas that seem, on first encounter, utterly bizarre. Smuggling explanations into stories satisfies the reader's desire for narrative - bearing in mind that narrative can include the evolution of ideas as well as tales about intriguing and original people.

  7. Why kin and group selection models may not be enough to explain human other-regarding behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veelen, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Models of kin or group selection usually feature only one possible fitness transfer. The phenotypes are either to make this transfer or not to make it and for any given fitness transfer, Hamilton's rule predicts which of the two phenotypes will spread. In this article we allow for the possibility

  8. The Reader's Devices: The affordances of ebook readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather MacFadyen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Print books and ebook devices now co-exist in a reading eco-system. The ways in which readers understand and describe their experience of reading on ebook devices is shaped by long-established cultural expectations about the abstract as well as the physical affordances of the print book. Ebook devices cannot help but challenge those expectations. A review of readers’ reactions to the emergence of ebook devices offers a glimpse into the complex cultural position of both the idea and the experience of reading.

  9. Mathematical model with spatially uniform regulation explains long-range bidirectional transport of early endosomes in fungal hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Jia; Edelstein-Keshet, Leah; Allard, Jun

    2014-08-15

    In many cellular contexts, cargo is transported bidirectionally along microtubule bundles by dynein and kinesin-family motors. Upstream factors influence how individual cargoes are locally regulated, as well as how long-range transport is regulated at the whole-cell scale. Although the details of local, single-cargo bidirectional switching have been extensively studied, it remains to be elucidated how this results in cell-scale spatial organization. Here we develop a mathematical model of early endosome transport in Ustilago maydis. We demonstrate that spatiotemporally uniform regulation, with constant transition rates, results in cargo dynamics that is consistent with experimental data, including data from motor mutants. We find that microtubule arrays can be symmetric in plus-end distribution but asymmetric in binding-site distribution in a manner that affects cargo dynamics and that cargo can travel past microtubule ends in microtubule bundles. Our model makes several testable predictions, including secondary features of dynein and cargo distributions.

  10. The balanced ideological antipathy model: explaining the effects of ideological attitudes on inter-group antipathy across the political spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jarret T; Mallinas, Stephanie R; Furman, Bryan J

    2015-12-01

    We introduce the balanced ideological antipathy (BIA) model, which challenges assumptions that right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and social dominance orientation (SDO) predict inter-group antipathy per se. Rather, the effects of RWA and SDO on antipathy should depend on the target's political orientation and political objectives, the specific components of RWA, and the type of antipathy expressed. Consistent with the model, two studies (N = 585) showed that the Traditionalism component of RWA positively and negatively predicted both political intolerance and prejudice toward tradition-threatening and -reaffirming groups, respectively, whereas SDO positively and negatively predicted prejudice (and to some extent political intolerance) toward hierarchy-attenuating and -enhancing groups, respectively. Critically, the Conservatism component of RWA positively predicted political intolerance (but not prejudice) toward each type of target group, suggesting it captures the anti-democratic impulse at the heart of authoritarianism. Recommendations for future research on the relationship between ideological attitudes and inter-group antipathy are discussed.

  11. Integrating stage and continuum models to explain processing of exercise messages and exercise initiation among sedentary college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, C S

    2000-03-01

    Concepts from the transtheoretical model (J.O. Prochaska, C.C. DiClemente, & J.C. Norcross, 1992), theory of planned behavior (I. Ajzen, 1985), and the elaboration likelihood model (R.E. Petty & J.T. Cacioppo, 1986b) were used to examine how exercise readiness impacted processing of exercise messages and exercise initiation. Sedentary college students (n = 147) were assessed for exercise attitude, intent, behavior, and stage of change. Students also listed their thoughts after reading messages with either strong or weak arguments for exercise. Attitude predicted depth of message processing, but stage of change did not. Stage of change and intent at baseline predicted exercise adoption at 1- to 3-month follow-up (n = 134), with baseline activity moderating the effect of intent. Tailoring messages to recipients' depth of processing and interactive effects of intent and behavior on exercise adoption should be considered in future research.

  12. Modeling Heat Transfer to Explain Observed Temperature Anomalies in Near-Surface Ice, Greenland Ice Sheet Ablation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, B. H.; Harper, J. T.; Meierbachtol, T. W.; Humphrey, N. F.; Johnson, J. V.

    2016-12-01

    Measured ice temperatures in over 30 boreholes at 6 different field sites within the Greenland Ice Sheet ablation area indicate that the near-surface ice temperature warms toward the margin. The rate of warming is significantly greater than the atmospheric lapse rate, meaning that the mean annual ice temperature is far warmer than the mean annual air temperature near the margin. Theoretically, ice within 15 meters of the surface should oscillate seasonally around the mean air temperature. However, observations of mean ice and air temperatures differ by as much as 5 degrees Celsius. Here we numerically model heat transfer in ice to investigate the physical processes that could drive this discrepancy. Modeling results are compared to measured ice temperatures in the first 20 meters of ice below the surface. First, we model pure conduction to analyze the thermal effect of snow accumulation, a fixed melting temperature, ablation at the ice surface, emergent flow of ice, and long-term changes in the mean air temperature. Next, we consider a secondary process beyond pure conduction with the air - a latent heat flux which adds energy by refreezing meltwater below the surface. While our measurement locations have no open crevasses exposed to the surface, borehole field observations reveal that void spaces exist below the ice surface. These subsurface voids could provide a route for water to move to depth where it then refreezes and adds energy to the surrounding ice, thus warming ice above the mean air temperature. Finally, we use the near-surface results as a boundary condition for heat transfer through the full thickness of the ice column. The subsequent model output is compared to borehole temperature measurements at depth to examine the effect of near-surface heat transfer on the rest of the ice column.

  13. The Two-Wrongs model explains perception-action dissociations for illusions driven by distortions of the egocentric reference frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eDassonville

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated a dissociation of the effects of illusion on perception and action, with perception generally reported to be susceptible to illusions, while actions are seemingly immune. These findings have been interpreted to support Milner and Goodale's Two Visual Systems model, which proposes the existence of separate visual processing streams for perception and action. However, an alternative interpretation suggests that this type of behavioral dissociation will occur for any illusion that is caused by a distortion of the observer's egocentric reference frame, without requiring the existence of separate perception and action systems that are differently affected by the illusion. In this scenario, movements aimed at illusory targets will be accurate if they are guided within the same distorted reference frame used for target encoding, since the error of motor guidance will cancel with the error of encoding (hence, for actions, two wrongs do make a right. We further test this Two-Wrongs model by examining two illusions for which the hypothesis makes very different predictions: the rod-and-frame illusion (which affects perception but not actions and the simultaneous-tilt illusion (which affects perception and actions equally. We demonstrate that the rod-and-frame illusion is caused by a distortion of the observer's egocentric reference frame suitable for the cancellation of errors predicted by the Two-Wrongs model. In contrast, the simultaneous-tilt illusion is caused by local interactions between stimulus elements within an undistorted reference frame, precluding the cancellation of errors associated with the Two-Wrongs model such that the illusion is reflected in both perception and actions. These results provide evidence for a class of illusions that lead to dissociations of perception and action through distortions of the observer's spatial reference frame, rather than through the actions of functionally separate visual

  14. Explaining coexistence of nitrogen fixing and non-fixing rhizobia in legume-rhizobia mutualism using mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano, G; Marco, D; Knopoff, D; Torres, G; Turner, C

    2017-10-01

    In the mutualism established between legumes and soil bacteria known as rhizobia, bacteria from soil infect plants roots and reproduce inside root nodules where they fix atmospheric N2 for plant nutrition, receiving carbohydrates in exchange. Host-plant sanctions against non N2 fixing, cheating bacterial symbionts have been proposed to act in the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis, to preserve the mutualistic relationship. Sanctions include decreased rhizobial survival in nodules occupied by cheating rhizobia. Previously, a simple population model experimentally based showed that the coexistence of fixing and cheating rhizobia strains commonly found in field conditions is possible, and that the inclusion of sanctions leads to the extinction of cheating strains in soil. Here, we extend the previous model to include other factors that could complicate the sanction scenario, like horizontal transmission of symbiotic plasmids, turning non-nodulating strains into nodulating rhizobia, and competition between fixing and cheating strains for nodulation. In agreement with previous results, we show that plant populations persist even in the presence of cheating rhizobia without incorporating any sanction against the cheater populations in the model, under the realistic assumption that plants can at least get some amount of fixed N2 from the effectively mutualistic rhizobia occupying some nodules. Inclusion of plant sanctions leads to the unrealistic extinction of cheater strains in soil. Our results agree with increasing experimental evidence and theoretical work showing that mutualisms can persist in presence of cheating partners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Catalytic Efficiency Is a Function of How Rhodium(I) (5 + 2) Catalysts Accommodate a Conserved Substrate Transition State Geometry: Induced Fit Model for Explaining Transition Metal Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, Thomas J L; Wender, Paul A; Cheong, Paul Ha-Yeon

    2015-03-06

    The origins of differential catalytic reactivities of four Rh(I) catalysts and their derivatives in the (5 + 2) cycloaddition reaction were elucidated using density functional theory. Computed free energy spans are in excellent agreement with known experimental rates. For every catalyst, the substrate geometries in the transition state remained constant (Catalytic efficiency is shown to be a function of how well the catalyst accommodates the substrate transition state geometry and electronics. This shows that the induced fit model for explaining biological catalysis may be relevant to transition metal catalysis. This could serve as a general model for understanding the origins of efficiencies of catalytic reactions.

  16. Nonlinear Effects in Piezoelectric Transformers Explained by Thermal-Electric Model Based on a Hypothesis of Self-Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius;

    2012-01-01

    As the trend within power electronic still goes in the direction of higher power density and higher efficiency, it is necessary to develop new topologies and push the limit for the existing technology. Piezoelectric transformers are a fast developing technology to improve efficiency and increase...... power density of power converters. Nonlinearities in piezoelectric transformers occur when the power density is increased enough. The simple linear equations are not valid at this point and more complex theory of electro elasticity must be applied. In This work a simplified thermo-electric model...

  17. The Diffusion of Global Models of Appropriate Leadership Behavior: Explaining Changing Leadership Priorities of High Ranking Public Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle

    The question posed is whether and how public senior managers’ perceptions of what is important in performing their roles have changed from the beginning of the 1990s to the end of the 2000s. The theoretical approach to the analysis is based on a macro-phenomenological institutional perspective...... models of good leadership. Municipal senior managers orient themselves more towards leadership priorities that are recommended in the international literature on leadership. They have generally become more oriented towards production, development of relations, innovation and attention to the external...... environment. During the same period the classic administrator role has been given a lower priority...

  18. An exercise in glacier length modeling: Interannual climatic variability alone cannot explain Holocene glacier fluctuations in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Alice M.; Mackintosh, Andrew N.; Anderson, Brian M.; Dadic, Ruzica; Putnam, Aaron E.; Barrell, David J. A.; Denton, George H.; Chinn, Trevor J. H.; Schaefer, Joerg M.

    2017-07-01

    Recent model studies suggest that interannual climatic variability could be confounding the interpretation of glacier fluctuations as climate signals. Paleoclimate interpretations of moraine positions and associated cosmogenic exposure ages may have large uncertainties if the glacier in question was sensitive to interannual variability. Here we address the potential for interannual temperature and precipitation variability to cause large shifts in glacier length during the Holocene. Using a coupled ice-flow and mass-balance model, we simulate the response of Cameron Glacier, a small mountain glacier in New Zealand's Southern Alps, to two types of climate forcing: equilibrium climate and variable climate. Our equilibrium results suggest a net warming trend from the Early Holocene (10.69 ± 0.41 ka; 2.7 °C cooler than present) to the Late Holocene (CE 1864; 1.3 °C cooler than present). Interannual climatic variability cannot account for the Holocene glacier fluctuations in this valley. Future studies should consider local environmental characteristics, such as a glacier's climatic setting and topography, to determine the magnitude of glacier length changes caused by interannual variability.

  19. Dynamics of melanoma tumor therapy with vesicular stomatitis virus: explaining the variability in outcomes using mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommelfanger, D M; Offord, C P; Dev, J; Bajzer, Z; Vile, R G; Dingli, D

    2012-05-01

    Tumor selective, replication competent viruses are being tested for cancer gene therapy. This approach introduces a new therapeutic paradigm due to potential replication of the therapeutic agent and induction of a tumor-specific immune response. However, the experimental outcomes are quite variable, even when studies utilize highly inbred strains of mice and the same cell line and virus. Recognizing that virotherapy is an exercise in population dynamics, we utilize mathematical modeling to understand the variable outcomes observed when B16ova malignant melanoma tumors are treated with vesicular stomatitis virus in syngeneic, fully immunocompetent mice. We show how variability in the initial tumor size and the actual amount of virus delivered to the tumor have critical roles on the outcome of therapy. Virotherapy works best when tumors are small, and a robust innate immune response can lead to superior tumor control. Strategies that reduce tumor burden without suppressing the immune response and methods that maximize the amount of virus delivered to the tumor should optimize tumor control in this model system.

  20. Neptune's ring arcs: VLT/NACO near-infrared observations and a model to explain their stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, S.; Sicardy, B.; Souami, D.; Carry, B.; Dumas, C.

    2014-03-01

    Context. Neptune's incomplete ring arcs have been stable since their discovery in 1984 although these structures should be destroyed in a few months through differential Keplerian motion. Regular imaging data are needed to address the question of the arc stability. Aims: We present the first NACO observations of Neptune's ring arcs taken at 2.2 μm (Ks band) with the Very Large Telescope in August 2007, and propose a model for the arc stability based on co-orbital motion. Methods: The images were aligned using the ephemerides of the satellites Proteus and Triton and were suitably co-added to enhance ring or satellite signals. Resonance theory and N-body simulations were used to model the arcs' confinement. Results: We derive accurate mean motion values for the arcs and Galatea and confirm the mismatch between the arcs' position and the location of the 42:43 corotation inclination resonance. We propose a new confinement mechanism where small co-orbital satellites in equilibrium trap ring arc material. We constrain the masses and locations of these hypothetical co-orbital bodies. Collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile - 079.C-0682.

  1. Multi-epitope Models Explain How Pre-existing Antibodies Affect the Generation of Broadly Protective Responses to Influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika I Zarnitsyna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of next-generation influenza vaccines that elicit strain-transcendent immunity against both seasonal and pandemic viruses is a key public health goal. Targeting the evolutionarily conserved epitopes on the stem of influenza's major surface molecule, hemagglutinin, is an appealing prospect, and novel vaccine formulations show promising results in animal model systems. However, studies in humans indicate that natural infection and vaccination result in limited boosting of antibodies to the stem of HA, and the level of stem-specific antibody elicited is insufficient to provide broad strain-transcendent immunity. Here, we use mathematical models of the humoral immune response to explore how pre-existing immunity affects the ability of vaccines to boost antibodies to the head and stem of HA in humans, and, in particular, how it leads to the apparent lack of boosting of broadly cross-reactive antibodies to the stem epitopes. We consider hypotheses where binding of antibody to an epitope: (i results in more rapid clearance of the antigen; (ii leads to the formation of antigen-antibody complexes which inhibit B cell activation through Fcγ receptor-mediated mechanism; and (iii masks the epitope and prevents the stimulation and proliferation of specific B cells. We find that only epitope masking but not the former two mechanisms to be key in recapitulating patterns in data. We discuss the ramifications of our findings for the development of vaccines against both seasonal and pandemic influenza.

  2. Shared-Book Experience Using Science-Themed Books to Develop Scientific Literacy: An Interactive Approach with Struggling Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mi-Hyun; Keckler, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This paper will explain what a reading teacher learned from working with a group of first-grade struggling readers in a series of shared-book experience classes. The shared-book experience approach used a variety of science-themed books that were aligned with the first-grade curriculum and appropriate for beginning readers. Considering the…

  3. The LHC Incident in Sector 3-4: A Simplified Mechanical Model to Explain the Mechanical Damages

    CERN Document Server

    Fessia, P; Lackner, F; Regis, F

    2012-01-01

    On the 19th of September 2008 during powering tests of the LHC main dipole circuit in sector 3-4 an electrical fault occurred. A part of the most important resulting damages were caused by the displacements of cryostated cold masses due to the effect of an over pressurization in the insulation vacuum enclosure. The relative displacement of the interconnected units was resulting in mechanical and electrical damages. Main objects concerned were the mechanical interconnect and the magnet bus bar system. Furthermore electrical arcs induced open breaches in the helium enclosure. In this paper a simplified dynamic numerical model is described to reproduce the observed mechanical defects. In addition the analysis indicates that only a few parameters are dominating the physical quantities in this very complex event.

  4. Explaining Differences Between Bioaccumulation Measurements in Laboratory and Field Data Through Use of a Probabilistic Modeling Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selck, Henriette; Drouillard, Ken; Eisenreich, Karen

    2012-01-01

    of ecological conditions and biotransformation capacity. The chemicals, pyrene and the polychlorinated biphenyl congener PCB-153, represented medium and highly hydrophobic chemicals with different susceptibilities to biotransformation. An existing state of the art probabilistic bioaccumulation model...... in bioaccumulation was mainly driven by sediment exposure, sediment composition and chemical partitioning to sediment components, which was in turn dominated by the influence of black carbon. At higher trophic levels (yellow perch and the little owl), food web structure (i.e., diet composition and abundance......) and chemical concentration in the diet became more important particularly for the most persistent compound, PCB-153. These results suggest that variation in bioaccumulation assessment is reduced most by improved identification of food sources as well as by accounting for the chemical bioavailability in food...

  5. Can the Point Defect Model Explain the Influence of Temperature and Anion Size on Pitting of Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwood, Daniel J. [National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore)

    2015-12-15

    The pitting behaviours of 304L and 316L stainless steels were investigated at 3 °C to 90 °C in 1 M solutions of NaCl, NaBr and NaI by potentiodynamic polarization. The temperature dependences of the pitting potential varied according to the anion, being near linear in bromide but exponential in chloride. As a result, at low temperatures grades 304L and 316L steel are most susceptible to pitting by bromide ions, while at high temperatures both stainless steels were more susceptible to pitting by small chloride anions than the larger bromide and iodide. Thus, increasing temperature appears to favour attack by smaller anions. This paper will attempt to rationalise both of the above findings in terms of the point defect model. Initial findings are that qualitatively this approach can be reasonably successful, but not at the quantitative level, possibly due to insufficient data on the mechanical properties of thin passive films.

  6. A computerized track detector reader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosinski, S.W. (Centralne Lab. Ochrony Radiologicznej, Warsaw (Poland))

    1993-01-01

    The structure and basic operation function of a computerized facility named Track Detection Reader is described. This facility is used for recording, counting and evaluation of defects made by [alpha]-particles in a solid state detector. It consists of a microscope equipped with the movable stage, a TV screen and PC-AT computer. The microscope stage is being controlled by a stepper motor. The TV screen enables surface visualization of the detector analyzed while the PC-AT computer is being used for digital analysis of the detector surface, according to the functions of the program. (author). 4 refs, 3 figs.

  7. Variable Distance Angular Symbology Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Harry F., Jr. (Inventor); Corder, Eric L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A variable distance angular symbology, reader utilizes at least one light source to direct light through a beam splitter and onto a target. A target may be angled relative to the impinging light beam up to and maybe even greater than 45deg. A reflected beam from the target passes through the beam splitter and is preferably directed 90deg relative to the light source through a telecentric lens to a scanner which records an image of the target such as a direct part marking code.

  8. A comparison of the psychological refractory period and prioritized processing paradigms: Can the response-selection bottleneck model explain them both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeff; Durst, Moritz

    2015-10-01

    Four experiments examined whether well-established phenomena from the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm are also observed in the prioritized processing paradigm, as would be expected from a common description of the 2 paradigms with the response selection bottleneck (RSB) model. Consistent with a generalization of the RSB model to the prioritized processing paradigm, Experiments 1 and 2 showed that this paradigm yields effects of SOA and stimulus discriminability analogous to those observed in the PRP paradigm. In Experiments 3 and 4, however, overall RTs and effect sizes differed between the PRP and prioritized processing paradigms in ways that are difficult to explain within the RSB model. Understanding the differences between these 2 paradigms offers considerable promise as a way to extend the RSB model beyond the domain of the PRP paradigm and to generalize our understanding of multitasking interference.

  9. Can DCE-MRI explain the heterogeneity in radiopeptide uptake imaged by SPECT in a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Bol

    Full Text Available Although efficient delivery and distribution of treatment agents over the whole tumor is essential for successful tumor treatment, the distribution of most of these agents cannot be visualized. However, with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, both delivery and uptake of radiolabeled peptides can be visualized in a neuroendocrine tumor model overexpressing somatostatin receptors. A heterogeneous peptide uptake is often observed in these tumors. We hypothesized that peptide distribution in the tumor is spatially related to tumor perfusion, vessel density and permeability, as imaged and quantified by DCE-MRI in a neuroendocrine tumor model. Four subcutaneous CA20948 tumor-bearing Lewis rats were injected with the somatostatin-analog (111In-DTPA-Octreotide (50 MBq. SPECT-CT and MRI scans were acquired and MRI was spatially registered to SPECT-CT. DCE-MRI was analyzed using semi-quantitative and quantitative methods. Correlation between SPECT and DCE-MRI was investigated with 1 Spearman's rank correlation coefficient; 2 SPECT uptake values grouped into deciles with corresponding median DCE-MRI parametric values and vice versa; and 3 linear regression analysis for median parameter values in combined datasets. In all tumors, areas with low peptide uptake correlated with low perfusion/density/ /permeability for all DCE-MRI-derived parameters. Combining all datasets, highest linear regression was found between peptide uptake and semi-quantitative parameters (R(2>0.7. The average correlation coefficient between SPECT and DCE-MRI-derived parameters ranged from 0.52-0.56 (p<0.05 for parameters primarily associated with exchange between blood and extracellular extravascular space. For these parameters a linear relation with peptide uptake was observed. In conclusion, the 'exchange-related' DCE-MRI-derived parameters seemed to predict peptide uptake better than the 'contrast amount- related' parameters. Consequently, fast and efficient

  10. Antagonistic interactions are sufficient to explain self-assemblage of bacterial communities in a homogeneous environment: a computational modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapién-Campos, Román; Olmedo-Álvarez, Gabriela; Santillán, Moisés

    2015-01-01

    Most of the studies in Ecology have been devoted to analyzing the effects the environment has on individuals, populations, and communities, thus neglecting the effects of biotic interactions on the system dynamics. In the present work we study the structure of bacterial communities in the oligotrophic shallow water system of Churince, Cuatro Cienegas, Mexico. Since the physicochemical conditions of this water system are homogeneous and quite stable in time, it is an excellent candidate to study how biotic factors influence the structure of bacterial communities. In a previous study, the binary antagonistic interactions of 78 bacterial strains, isolated from Churince, were experimentally determined. We employ these data to develop a computer algorithm to simulate growth experiments in a cellular grid representing the pond. Remarkably, in our model, the dynamics of all the simulated bacterial populations is determined solely by antagonistic interactions. Our results indicate that all bacterial strains (even those that are antagonized by many other bacteria) survive in the long term, and that the underlying mechanism is the formation of bacterial community patches. Patches corresponding to less antagonistic and highly susceptible strains are consistently isolated from the highly-antagonistic bacterial colonies by patches of neutral strains. These results concur with the observed features of the bacterial community structure previously reported. Finally, we study how our findings depend on factors like initial population size, differential population growth rates, homogeneous population death rates, and enhanced bacterial diffusion.

  11. Testing an expanded theory of planned behavior model to explain marijuana use among emerging adults in a promarijuana community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tiffany A; Henry, Erika A; Cordova, Kismet A; Bryan, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Opinions about marijuana use in the United States are becoming increasingly favorable, making it important to understand how psychosocial influences impact individuals' use in this context. Here, we used the theory of planned behavior to examine the influence of initial attitudes, norms, and efficacy to resist use on initial intentions and then to examine the effect of initial intentions on actual marijuana use measured 1 year later using data drawn from a community with relatively high use. We expanded the traditional theory of planned behavior model by investigating 2 types of normative influence (descriptive and injunctive) and 2 types of intentions (use intentions and proximity intentions), reasoning that exposure to high use in the population may produce high descriptive norms and proximity intentions overall, but not necessarily increase actual use. By contrast, we expected greater variability in injunctive norms and use intentions and that only use intentions would predict actual use. Consistent with hypotheses, intentions to use marijuana were predicted by injunctive norms (and attitudes) and in turn predicted marijuana use 1 year later. By contrast, descriptive norms were relatively high among all participants and did not predict intentions. Moreover, proximity intentions were not predictive of actual use. We also found that increasing intentions to use over a 1-year period predicted greater use. Given the greater efficacy of theory-based as compared with non-theory-based interventions, these findings provide critical information for the design of successful interventions to decrease marijuana-associated harms.

  12. Antagonistic interactions are sufficient to explain self-assemblage of bacterial communities in a homogeneous environment: a computational modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román eZapién-Campos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the studies in Ecology have been devoted to analyzing the effects the environment has on individuals, populations, and communities, thus neglecting the effects of biotic interactions on the system dynamics. In the present work we study the structure of bacterial communities in the oligotrophic shallow water system of Churince, Cuatro Cienegas, Mexico. Since the physicochemical conditions of this water system are homogeneous and quite stable in time, it is an excellent candidate to study how biotic factors influence the structure of bacterial communities. In a previous study, the binary antagonistic interactions of 78 bacterial strains, isolated from Churince, were experimentally determined. We employ these data to develop a computer algorithm to simulate growth experiments in a cellular grid representing the pond. Remarkably, in our model, the dynamics of all the simulated bacterial populations is determined solely by antagonistic interactions. Our results indicate that all bacterial strains (even those that are antagonized by many other bacteria survive in the long term, and that the underlying mechanism is the formation of bacterial community patches. Patches corresponding to less antagonistic and highly susceptible strains are consistently isolated from the highly-antagonistic bacterial colonies by patches of neutral strains. These results concur with the observed features of the bacterial community structure previously reported. Finally, we study how our findings depend on factors like initial population size, differential population growth rates, homogeneous population death rates, and enhanced bacterial diffusion.

  13. Explaining the high voice superiority effect in polyphonic music: evidence from cortical evoked potentials and peripheral auditory models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Laurel J; Marie, Céline; Bruce, Ian C; Bidelman, Gavin M

    2014-02-01

    Natural auditory environments contain multiple simultaneously-sounding objects and the auditory system must parse the incoming complex sound wave they collectively create into parts that represent each of these individual objects. Music often similarly requires processing of more than one voice or stream at the same time, and behavioral studies demonstrate that human listeners show a systematic perceptual bias in processing the highest voice in multi-voiced music. Here, we review studies utilizing event-related brain potentials (ERPs), which support the notions that (1) separate memory traces are formed for two simultaneous voices (even without conscious awareness) in auditory cortex and (2) adults show more robust encoding (i.e., larger ERP responses) to deviant pitches in the higher than in the lower voice, indicating better encoding of the former. Furthermore, infants also show this high-voice superiority effect, suggesting that the perceptual dominance observed across studies might result from neurophysiological characteristics of the peripheral auditory system. Although musically untrained adults show smaller responses in general than musically trained adults, both groups similarly show a more robust cortical representation of the higher than of the lower voice. Finally, years of experience playing a bass-range instrument reduces but does not reverse the high voice superiority effect, indicating that although it can be modified, it is not highly neuroplastic. Results of new modeling experiments examined the possibility that characteristics of middle-ear filtering and cochlear dynamics (e.g., suppression) reflected in auditory nerve firing patterns might account for the higher-voice superiority effect. Simulations show that both place and temporal AN coding schemes well-predict a high-voice superiority across a wide range of interval spacings and registers. Collectively, we infer an innate, peripheral origin for the higher-voice superiority observed in human

  14. A three-compartment open pharmacokinetic model can explain variable toxicities of cobra venoms and their alpha toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M; Aly, M H; Abd-Elsalam, M A; Morad, A M

    1996-09-01

    The pharmacokinetic profiles of labelled Naja melanoleuca, Naja nivea, Naja nigricollis and Naja haje venoms and their alpha neurotoxins were determined following rapid i.v. injection into rabbits. The data obtained fitted a triexponential equation characteristic of a three-compartment open pharmacokinetic model comprising a central compartment 'blood', a rapidly equilibrating 'shallow' tissue compartment and a slowly equilibrating 'deep' tissue compartment. The distribution half-lives for the shallow compartment ranged from 3.2 to 5 min, reflecting the rapid uptake of venoms and toxins compared with 22-47 min for the deep tissue compartment denoting much slower uptake. The overall elimination half-lives, t1/2 beta, ranged from 15 to 29 hr, indicating a slow body elimination. Peak tissue concentration was reached within 15-20 min in the shallow tissue compartment. The corresponding values for the deep tissue compartment were 120 min for N. melanoleuca and N. nigricollis venoms and their toxins and 240 min for N. nivea and N. haje venoms and their toxins. Steady-state distribution between the shallow tissue compartment and the blood gave values of 0.50 and 0.92 (N. melanoleuca), 1.64 and 1.05 (N. nivea), 0.78 and 0.92 (N. nigricollis) and 1.70 and 1.03 (N. haje) for the venoms and their toxins, respectively. The corresponding values for the deep tissue compartment gave ratios of 3.31 and 3.44 (N. melanoleuca), 2.99 and 1.68 (N. nivea), 3.74 and 3.79 (N. nigricollis) and 1.39 and 2.46 (N. haje) for the venoms and their toxins, respectively. Ratios lower than unity indicate lower venom and toxin concentrations in the tissues than in the blood, while larger ratios denote higher tissue concentrations. The values thus reflect a higher affinity of the venoms and their toxins for the central than the shallow tissue compartment and for the deep tissue than the central compartment. The sites of action of the venoms seem to be located in the deep tissue compartment since most

  15. The role of recalibration response shift in explaining bodily pain in cancer patients undergoing invasive surgery: an empirical investigation of the Sprangers and Schwartz model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Mechteld R M; Oort, Frans J; van Lanschot, J Jan B; van der Velden, Jacobus; Kloek, Jaap J; Gouma, Dirk J; Schwartz, Carolyn E; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2013-03-01

    This study aims to explain bodily pain using the Sprangers and Schwartz theoretical model (1999) on quality of life (QL) and response shift in its entirety. Response shift refers to the phenomenon that the meaning of a person's self-evaluation changes over time. In this model, response shift mediates effects of changes in health status (catalysts), stable characteristics of the person (antecedents), and coping mechanisms (mechanisms) on QL. Cancer patients (202) were assessed prior to and 3 months following surgery. Measures were for catalysts: type of operation and possibility of tumor resection; for antecedents: age, duration of pain, optimism, and rigidity; for mechanisms: post-traumatic growth, social comparisons, social support, denial, and acceptance; and for QL: bodily pain; for response shift: the pretest-minus-thentest bodily pain score, further referred to as recalibration response shift. Structural equation modeling and sequential regression analyses were used. The final model reached close fit (RMSEA = 0.03; 90% CI = 0.000-0.071; χ2 (18) = 21.13; p = 0.27). Significant effects were found for catalysts on mechanisms, antecedents on mechanisms, mechanisms on response shift, and response shift on bodily pain. Four extra model effects had to be permitted. Using sequential regression analysis, recalibration response shift added 4.4% to the total amount of 29.8% explained variance of bodily pain. Many effects as hypothesized by the model were found. Recalibration response shift had a unique albeit small contribution to the explanation of bodily pain. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. A Sign Language Screen Reader for Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghoul, Oussama; Jemni, Mohamed

    Screen reader technology has appeared first to allow blind and people with reading difficulties to use computer and to access to the digital information. Until now, this technology is exploited mainly to help blind community. During our work with deaf people, we noticed that a screen reader can facilitate the manipulation of computers and the reading of textual information. In this paper, we propose a novel screen reader dedicated to deaf. The output of the reader is a visual translation of the text to sign language. The screen reader is composed by two essential modules: the first one is designed to capture the activities of users (mouse and keyboard events). For this purpose, we adopted Microsoft MSAA application programming interfaces. The second module, which is in classical screen readers a text to speech engine (TTS), is replaced by a novel text to sign (TTSign) engine. This module converts text into sign language animation based on avatar technology.

  17. Plagiarism explainer for students

    OpenAIRE

    Barba, Lorena A

    2016-01-01

    A slide deck to serve as an explainer of plagiarism in academic settings, with a personal viewpoint. For my students.Also on SpeakerDeck:https://speakerdeck.com/labarba/plagiarism-explainer-for-students(The slide viewer on SpeakerDeck is much nicer.)

  18. The M7.2 2010 El-Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake: How much of the Complexity Can We Explain With Our Models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakopoulos, C.; Funning, G.; Oglesby, D. D.; Fletcher, J. M.; Ryan, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    The 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake is one of the most complex multi-segment events ever documented in the Pacific-North America plate boundary zone, rupturing at least seven distinct segments, some of which were previously unknown. An important question for both earthquake physics and seismic hazard analysis of other complex fault systems is whether this earthquake's complex rupture and slip pattern can be reproduced and explained with dynamic rupture models. In particular, what details of the fault geometry and of the pre-event fault stress distribution are required to allow such a rupture, with multiple stepovers and changes in dip and strike, to take place? We perform 3D Finite Element (FE) modeling of this event using realistic fault geometry and topography, and explore the effects of geometry, frictional properties, and stress assumptions on the ability to reproduce observed features of this earthquake. These models are part of a larger project that combines a 3D geodetic model of the El Mayor-Cucapah event with dynamic rupture models that are designed to match this inverted slip distribution. By combining observations with dynamic modeling in an iterative fashion, we are able to produce physically-reasonable models that match primary observations of this event.

  19. Reader Response Theory and Classroom Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Harold K., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Presents annotations of nine journal articles, monographs, and "learning packages" (published between 1989 and 1993) that examine teaching approaches founded upon the insights of reader response theory. (RS)

  20. Selective targeting of epigenetic reader domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greschik, Holger; Schüle, Roland; Günther, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Epigenetic regulators including writers, erasers, and readers of chromatin marks have been implicated in numerous diseases and are therefore subject of intense academic and pharmaceutical research. While several small-molecule inhibitors targeting writers or erasers are either approved drugs or are currently being evaluated in clinical trials, the targeting of epigenetic readers has lagged behind. Proof-of-principle that epigenetic readers are also relevant drug targets was provided by landmark discoveries of selective inhibitors targeting the BET family of acetyl-lysine readers. More recently, high affinity chemical probes for non-BET acetyl- and methyl-lysine reader domains have also been developed. Areas covered: This article covers recent advances with the identification and validation of inhibitors and chemical probes targeting epigenetic reader domains. Issues related to epigenetic reader druggability, quality requirements for chemical probes, interpretation of cellular action, unexpected cross-talk, and future challenges are also discussed. Expert opinion: Chemical probes provide a powerful means to unravel biological functions of epigenetic readers and evaluate their potential as drug targets. To yield meaningful results, potency, selectivity, and cellular target engagement of chemical probes need to be stringently validated. Future chemical probes will probably need to fulfil additional criteria such as strict target specificity or the targeting of readers within protein complexes.

  1. Reader-Response Theory and the English Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the affinities between reader response theory and the proper objectives of English instruction. Describes students not as potential literary scholars but as curious people needing personal experiences with reading and writing. Outlines a model for teaching literature focused on this conception. (HB)

  2. Can Zee-Babu model implemented with scalar dark matter explain both Fermi/LAT 130 GeV $\\gamma$-ray excess and neutrino physics ?

    CERN Document Server

    Baek, Seungwon; Senaha, Eibun

    2012-01-01

    We implement the Zee-Babu model for the neutrino masses and mixings by incorporating a scalar dark matter $X$. The singly and doubly charged scalars that are new in the Zee-Babu model can explain the large annihilation cross section of a dark matter pair into two photons as hinted by the recent analysis of the Fermi $\\gamma$-ray space telescope data, if new charged scalars are relatively light and have large couplings to a pair of dark matter particles. These new scalars can also enhance the $B (H \\rightarrow \\gamma\\gamma)$, as the recent LHC results may suggest. The dark matter relic density can be explained. The direct detection rate of the dark matter is predicted to be about one order of magnitude down from the current experimental bound. However, it turns out that neutrino masses are too small within the parameter space fitting the 130 GeV $\\gamma$-ray excess. There should be additional contributions to the neutrino masses and mixings without new extra charged particles, and the Type-I seesaw can do this...

  3. [Readers' position against induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-25

    Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited.

  4. A Mediational Model Explaining the Connection Between Religiosity and Anti-Homosexual Attitudes in Italy: The Effects of Male Role Endorsement and Homosexual Stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piumatti, Giovanni

    2017-01-31

    This study aimed to better understand the relationship between religiosity and anti-homosexual attitudes in Italy by examining the mediation effects of male role endorsement and homosexual stereotyping. A sample of 5,522 Italian residents (age range = 18-74) was drawn from a cross-sectional national representative survey carried out in 2011. Measures included general religiosity, male role endorsement, homosexual stereotyping, social acceptance of homosexuality, and homosexual rights endorsement. Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediational effects of male role endorsement and homosexual stereotyping on the relationship between general religiosity and attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Results showed that both male role endorsement and homosexual stereotyping partially mediated the relationship. In a model where religiosity and both mediators positively explained anti-homosexual attitudes, male role endorsement was the strongest mediator. Endorsement of gender role beliefs and homosexual stereotyping may thus exacerbate the connection between religiosity and anti-homosexual attitudes among Italians.

  5. Off-planar geometry and structural instability of EDO-TTF explained by using the extended debye polarizability model for bond angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, Gerrit-Jan; van Duijnen, Piet Th; van Loosdrecht, Paul H M; Broer, Ria

    2012-07-05

    The geometry of ethylenedioxy-tetrathiafulvalene, EDO-TTF, plays an important role in the metal-insulator transition in the charge transfer salt (EDO-TTF)(2)PF(6). The planar and off-planar geometrical conformations of the EDO-TTF molecules are explained using an extended Debye polarizability model for the bond angle. The geometrical structure of EDO-TTF is dictated by its four sulfur bond angles and these are, in turn, determined by the polarizability of the sulfur atoms. With Hartree-Fock and second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory calculations on EDO-TTF, TTF, H(2)S, and their oxygen and selenium substituted counterparts we confirm this hypothesis. The Debye polarizability model for bond angles relates directly the optimum bond angle with the polarizability of the center atom. Considering the (EDO-TTF)(2)PF(6) material in this light proves to be very fruitful.

  6. The Pragmatist Reader: Reading as a Meaning-Making Transaction in the English Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Rosenblatt's transactional theory and Pike's aesthetic model of reading both put the reader at the heart of the reading transaction. A re-envisionment of these approaches in terms of the pragmatist reader, a concept derived from Norbert Wiley's "pragmatism's self" and the findings of a recent case study into classroom reading, leads to a…

  7. The Usefulness Metrics of The Most Popular eReader Used by Higher Education Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Puspita Sari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the digital technology era, mobile devices have an important rule to deploy a copy of data and information through the network. An electronic reader (eReader allows readers to read written materials in an electronic manner that is available in many models. The objective of this study is to evaluate the usage of eReader by higher education students. We firstly identified the most frequently used eReader by surveying higher education students. The survey results showed that Apple iPad, Amazon Kindle, and Samsung Tablet are the most popular eReader devices used by higher education students. We presented these results, and then we analyzed the surveyed results in detail in order to develop an evaluation metric of the eReader in a mobile platform that clearly allows the selection of the most suitable eReader for higher education students. The main contribution of this paper is the development of a set of criteria that can be used by students in the selection of an eReader that matches their specific needs and requirements.

  8. Model cheese aroma perception is explained not only by in vivo aroma release but also by salivary composition and oral processing parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, E; Repoux, M; Qannari, E M; Laboure, H; Feron, G

    2017-02-22

    The aim of the present paper was to determine, from four model cheeses differing in fat content and firmness and consumed by fourteen well characterised subjects, the respective impacts of in vivo aroma release, bolus rheology, chewing activity, mouth coating and salivary composition on dynamic aroma perception. The originality of the approach is that it considers all the parameters together and is able to evaluate their relative contribution using multi-block partial least square (MB-PLS) regression. The fruity aroma perception of the more hydrophilic compound (ethyl propanoate) was related to its dynamic release parameters before swallowing whereas the blue cheese aroma perception of the more hydrophobic compound (nonan-2-one) was related to its dynamic release parameters after swallowing and was highly impacted by mouth coating. Moreover the MB-PLS approach made it possible to evidence the combined effects of saliva composition and cross-modal interactions to understand why in some cases dynamic aroma perception could not be explained by dynamic in vivo aroma release data. Subjects with a low sodium content in saliva perceived fruity aroma which is not congruent with saltiness as less intense and salt- congruent (blue cheese) aroma as more intense, which was explained by their higher sensitivity to salt. Subjects with high lipolysis activity perceived fruity aroma which is not congruent to fat as less intense and fat-congruent (blue cheese) aroma as more intense, which should be explained by the link between lipolysis activity and fat sensitivity. These results could be considered for the reformulation of foods towards specific populations taking into account nutritional recommendations.

  9. Reader Profiles for Adults with Low Literacy Skills: A Quest to Find Resilient Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Katherine S.; Lee, Cheryl S.

    2012-01-01

    Resilient readers are those who, despite their poor phonological decoding skills, have good comprehension abilities (Jackson & Doellinger, 2002). Thus far, these readers have been identified in college settings. The purpose of this study was to a) determine if this reader profile was present in a sample taken from an Adult Basic Education…

  10. How Does a Reader Make a Poem Meaningful? Reader-Response Theory and the Poetry Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Sandra Lee

    1997-01-01

    Describes how a reader-response approach can help students construct a portfolio of readings that reflects their development as poetry readers. Describes using a reader-response journal, communal learning activities, and a portfolio to create a recursive process through which students develop a better understanding of how poetry works. Discusses…

  11. Using E-Z Reader to examine the concurrent development of eye-movement control and reading skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Erik D; Liversedge, Simon P; Drieghe, Denis; Blythe, Hazel I; Joseph, Holly S S L; White, Sarah J; Rayner, Keith

    2013-06-01

    Compared to skilled adult readers, children typically make more fixations that are longer in duration, shorter saccades, and more regressions, thus reading more slowly (Blythe & Joseph, 2011). Recent attempts to understand the reasons for these differences have discovered some similarities (e.g., children and adults target their saccades similarly; Joseph, Liversedge, Blythe, White, & Rayner, 2009) and some differences (e.g., children's fixation durations are more affected by lexical variables; Blythe, Liversedge, Joseph, White, & Rayner, 2009) that have yet to be explained. In this article, the E-Z Reader model of eye-movement control in reading (Reichle, 2011; Reichle, Pollatsek, Fisher, & Rayner, 1998) is used to simulate various eye-movement phenomena in adults vs. children in order to evaluate hypotheses about the concurrent development of reading skill and eye-movement behavior. These simulations suggest that the primary difference between children and adults is their rate of lexical processing, and that different rates of (post-lexical) language processing may also contribute to some phenomena (e.g., children's slower detection of semantic anomalies; Joseph et al., 2008). The theoretical implications of this hypothesis are discussed, including possible alternative accounts of these developmental changes, how reading skill and eye movements change across the entire lifespan (e.g., college-aged vs. older readers), and individual differences in reading ability.

  12. PHF20 Readers Link Methylation of Histone H3K4 and p53 with H4K16 Acetylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna J. Klein

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available PHF20 is a core component of the lysine acetyltransferase complex MOF (male absent on the first-NSL (non-specific lethal that generates the major epigenetic mark H4K16ac and is necessary for transcriptional regulation and DNA repair. The role of PHF20 in the complex remains elusive. Here, we report on functional coupling between methylation readers in PHF20. We show that the plant homeodomain (PHD finger of PHF20 recognizes dimethylated lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4me2 and represents an example of a native reader that selects for this modification. Biochemical and structural analyses help to explain this selectivity and the preference of Tudor2, another reader in PHF20, for dimethylated p53. Binding of the PHD finger to H3K4me2 is required for histone acetylation, accumulation of PHF20 at target genes, and transcriptional activation. Together, our findings establish a unique PHF20-mediated link between MOF histone acetyltransferase (HAT, p53, and H3K4me2, and suggest a model for rapid spreading of H4K16ac-enriched open chromatin.

  13. Human Development VII: A Spiral Fractal Model of Fine Structure of Physical Energy Could Explain Central Aspects of Biological Information, Biological Organization and Biological Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have made a draft of a physical fractal essence of the universe, a sketch of a new cosmology, which we believe to lay at the root of our new holistic biological paradigm. We present the fractal roomy spiraled structures and the energy-rich dancing “infinite strings” or lines of the universe that our hypothesis is based upon. The geometric language of this cosmology is symbolic and both pre-mathematical and pre-philosophical. The symbols are both text and figures, and using these we step by step explain the new model that at least to some extent is able to explain the complex informational system behind morphogenesis, ontogenesis, regeneration and healing. We suggest that it is from this highly dynamic spiraled structure that organization of cells, organs, and the wholeness of the human being including consciousness emerge. The model of ““dancing fractal spirals” carries many similarities to premodern cultures descriptions of the energy of the life and universe. Examples are the Native American shamanistic descriptions of their perception of energy and the old Indian Yogis descriptions of the life-energy within the body and outside. Similar ideas of energy and matter are found in the modern superstring theories. The model of the informational system of the organism gives new meaning to Bateson’s definition of information: “A difference that makes a difference”, and indicates how information-directed self-organization can exist on high structural levels in living organisms, giving birth to their subjectivity and consciousness.

  14. A Spatially Detailed Model of Isometric Contraction Based on Competitive Binding of Troponin I Explains Cooperative Interactions between Tropomyosin and Crossbridges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Land

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biophysical models of cardiac tension development provide a succinct representation of our understanding of force generation in the heart. The link between protein kinetics and interactions that gives rise to high cooperativity is not yet fully explained from experiments or previous biophysical models. We propose a biophysical ODE-based representation of cross-bridge (XB, tropomyosin and troponin within a contractile regulatory unit (RU to investigate the mechanisms behind cooperative activation, as well as the role of cooperativity in dynamic tension generation across different species. The model includes cooperative interactions between regulatory units (RU-RU, between crossbridges (XB-XB, as well more complex interactions between crossbridges and regulatory units (XB-RU interactions. For the steady-state force-calcium relationship, our framework predicts that: (1 XB-RU effects are key in shifting the half-activation value of the force-calcium relationship towards lower [Ca(2+], but have only small effects on cooperativity. (2 XB-XB effects approximately double the duty ratio of myosin, but do not significantly affect cooperativity. (3 RU-RU effects derived from the long-range action of tropomyosin are a major factor in cooperative activation, with each additional unblocked RU increasing the rate of additional RU's unblocking. (4 Myosin affinity for short (1-4 RU unblocked stretches of actin of is very low, and the resulting suppression of force at low [Ca(2+] is a major contributor in the biphasic force-calcium relationship. We also reproduce isometric tension development across mouse, rat and human at physiological temperature and pacing rate, and conclude that species differences require only changes in myosin affinity and troponin I/troponin C affinity. Furthermore, we show that the calcium dependence of the rate of tension redevelopment k(tr is explained by transient blocking of RU's by a temporary decrease in XB-RU effects.

  15. Does market competition explain fairness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descioli, Peter

    2013-02-01

    The target article by Baumard et al. uses their previous model of bargaining with outside options to explain fairness and other features of human sociality. This theory implies that fairness judgments are determined by supply and demand but humans often perceive prices (divisions of surplus) in competitive markets to be unfair.

  16. Reader responses to literary depictions of rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Koopman (Emy); M. Hilscher (Michelle); G.C. Cupchik (Gerald)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis study explored reader responses to different literary depictions of rape. Four literary excerpts were used and divided as aesthetic versus nonaesthetic (style) and allusive versus explicit (detail). The general question was how readers would react to literary fragments depicting rap

  17. The active reader: what is active?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerkum, van C.

    2012-01-01

    How writers can adapt to their readers is an important issue in effective communication strategies, and certainly crucial in the case of functional texts. Therefore, it is necessary to look at how readers are constructed as partners in a communication co-production. This article explores the concept

  18. Intermediate Amharic Cultural Reader. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslau, Wolf

    This reader is intended to provide material for the intermediate-level student of Amharic, as well as to introduce the student to the cultural and social life of Ethiopia. The 39 texts were each prepared by a different student at Haile Selassie I University, thus providing the reader with a variety of language styles. The Amharic texts are…

  19. Advanced Hindi Reader in the Social Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatuk, Ved Prakash

    This reader contains 25 selections in standard Hindi by recognized authorities in the major fields of social science; namely sociology, anthropology, folklore, economics, and political science. The writings, evenly divided both in content and style, are intended to give the reader a broad perspective of Indian culture. A 128-page Hindi-English…

  20. Fiction Reading Strategies of College Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that skilled college readers use a variety of strategies in flexible ways in order to comprehend academic texts. However, little is known about how skilled college readers use strategies when reading fiction, in spite of the fact that literature courses are required at many universities and thousands of students regularly major…

  1. Using Nooks to Hook Reluctant Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierking, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a two-year qualitative study of electronic reading device use with high school sophomores, most of whom self-identified as reluctant or struggling readers. Electronic readers were used primarily in one weekly fifty-minute class period, during silent sustained reading, wherein students chose freely their texts.…

  2. Developing Preservice Teachers' Perspectives on Reader Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, Dana L.

    2001-01-01

    Examines preservice teachers' developing conceptions of reader response theory, specifically focusing on the importance of aesthetic response to students' engagement with and motivation for reading. Finds that the aesthetic reader stance predominated in students' written responses and discussions; and that written response did not influence the…

  3. An Overview of Reader-Response Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高扬

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to give a brief introduction to reader-response theory.including its origin,main concepts and general classification. with the following conclusion drawn in the end: reader-response theory. in spite of its subjectivity,has provided a broader horizon for literary criticism due to its variety and openness.

  4. Developing Readers: Lessons from Agatha Christie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Margaret

    1991-01-01

    Reminds readers that looking at individual authors rather than dealing in generalizations is a very meaningful approach to increasing an understanding of how reading works by making sense of the text. Discusses how Agatha Christie's writing follows very predictable patterns and may provide useful experiences for novice readers. (MG)

  5. Reader Imposed Structure and Prose Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabe, Mark D.

    1979-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the impact of a reader's perspective on prose learning: (1) subjects read stories from one of two directed perspectives or with no directed perspective; or (2) readers organized and familiarized themselves with a perspective before the perspective was applied to a story. Perspective influenced recall and organization.…

  6. Planning Behaviour in Good and Poor Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Shamita

    2016-01-01

    A group of 50 good readers and a group of 50 poor readers of Grade 5 matched for age and intelligence and selected on the basis of their proficiency in reading comprehension were tested for their competence in word reading and the process of planning at three different levels, namely, perceptual, memory and conceptual in order to study the…

  7. Postmodern theories about readers in electronic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Kuić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introductory part of the paper discusses theories about readers in the last decades of the 20th century. In particular, two big theoretical schools are discussed: aesthetic reception theory and reader-response-criticism movement. Readers are a subject of very different scientific disciplines: literature theory, sociology, anthropology, book history and library science. The idea that a reader is an essential subject for future life of a literary work is common to all theorists. By constructing the theory about a reader, theorists have thought about the reader who uses the conventions of printed text. The issue whether these concepts correspond to electronic surroundings is discussed. Characteristics of the hypertext are emphasized as a new paradigm, and also the issue weather readers enjoys in hypertextual fiction. In conclusion, paper expands the virtual dimension of Isers's theory about interaction between the text and the reader, and also Fish's concept of “interpretative community” which may be constituted on the Internet as a flexible virtual community.

  8. Writer-reader contagion of inspiration and related states: Conditional process analyses within a cross-classified writer × reader framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrash, Todd M; Maruskin, Laura A; Moldovan, Emil G; Oleynick, Victoria C; Belzak, Will C

    2017-09-01

    A longstanding tradition in the humanities holds that a writer's inspiration is infectious, but this thesis has not been tested. We hypothesized that (a) inspiration is infectious, such that inspired writers are more inspiring to the average reader; (b) contagion is mediated by the insightfulness of the text; and (c) contagion is moderated by readers' openness to experience, such that open readers are more prone to contagion. To test these hypotheses, a sample of 195 student writers, each of whom wrote 1 poem, was crossed with a sample of 220 student readers, who read all poems. Data were available for 36,020 cells of the resulting Writer × Reader matrix. Our analytic approach integrated cross-classified multilevel modeling with conditional process analysis. As hypothesized, writers who were more inspired elicited higher levels of inspiration in the average reader. Inspiration contagion was mediated by the insightfulness and pleasantness of the text and was partially suppressed by originality. Inspiration contagion was moderated by reader openness. Moderated mediation analyses indicated that open readers were prone to contagion because they were tolerant of the originality and sublimity of inspired writing. Additional analyses differentiated contagion of inspiration from contagion of its covariates (awe, positive affect), documented effects of writer inspiration on reader enthrallment (awe, chills), and showed that writer effort is a poor predictor of reader states. The infectiousness of inspiration-through poetry, if not also through scripture and academic writing-suggests that a given instance of inspiration may have far-reaching cultural implications, including dissemination of innovations and ideologies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Reader-Centered Technical Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Technical writing is an essential part of professional communication and in recent years it has shifted from a genre-based approach. Formerly, technical writing primarily focused on generating templates of documents and sometimes it was creating or reproducing traditional forms with minor modifications and updates. Now, technical writing looks at the situations surrounding the need to write. This involves deep thinking about the goals and objectives of the project on hand. Furthermore, one observes that it is very important for any participatory process to have the full support of management. This support needs to be well understood and believed by employees. Professional writing may be very persuasive in some cases. When presented in the appropriate context, technical writing can persuade a company to improve work conditions ensuring employee safety and timely production. However, one must recognize that lot of professional writing still continues to make use of reports and instruction manuals. Normally, technical and professional writing addresses four aspects. Objective: The need for generating a given professionally written technical document and the goals the document is expected to achieve and accomplish. Clientele: The clientele who will utilize the technical document. This may include the people in the organization. This may also include "unintended readers." Customers: The population that may be affected by the content of the technical document generated. This includes the stakeholders who will be influenced. Environment: The background in which the document is created. Also, the nature of the situation that warranted the generation of the document. Swiss Psychologist Jean Piaget's view of Learning focuses on three aspects. The author likes to extend Jean Piaget's ideas to students, who are asked to prepare and submit Reader-Centered Technical Writing reports and exercises. Assimilation: Writers may benefit specifically, by assimilating a new object into

  10. Chemical Inhibitors of Epigenetic Methyllysine Reader Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevich, Natalia; Hof, Fraser

    2016-03-22

    Protein methylation is a common post-translational modification with diverse biological functions. Methyllysine reader proteins are increasingly a focus of epigenetics research and play important roles in regulating many cellular processes. These reader proteins are vital players in development, cell cycle regulation, stress responses, oncogenesis, and other disease pathways. The recent emergence of a small number of chemical inhibitors for methyllysine reader proteins supports the viability of these proteins as targets for drug development. This article introduces the biochemistry and biology of methyllysine reader proteins, provides an overview of functions for those families of readers that have been targeted to date (MBT, PHD, tudor, and chromodomains), and reviews the development of synthetic agents that directly block their methyllysine reading functions.

  11. The histone code reader SPIN1 controls RET signaling in liposarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Henriette; Greschik, Holger; Willmann, Dominica; Ozretić, Luka; Jilg, Cordula Annette; Wardelmann, Eva; Jung, Manfred; Buettner, Reinhard; Schüle, Roland

    2015-03-10

    The histone code reader Spindlin1 (SPIN1) has been implicated in tumorigenesis and tumor growth, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we show that reducing SPIN1 levels strongly impairs proliferation and increases apoptosis of liposarcoma cells in vitro and in xenograft mouse models. Combining signaling pathway, genome-wide chromatin binding, and transcriptome analyses, we found that SPIN1 directly enhances expression of GDNF, an activator of the RET signaling pathway, in cooperation with the transcription factor MAZ. Accordingly, knockdown of SPIN1 or MAZ results in reduced levels of GDNF and activated RET explaining diminished liposarcoma cell proliferation and survival. In line with these observations, levels of SPIN1, GDNF, activated RET, and MAZ are increased in human liposarcoma compared to normal adipose tissue or lipoma. Importantly, a mutation of SPIN1 within the reader domain interfering with chromatin binding reduces liposarcoma cell proliferation and survival. Together, our data describe a molecular mechanism for SPIN1 function in liposarcoma and suggest that targeting SPIN1 chromatin association with small molecule inhibitors may represent a novel therapeutic strategy.

  12. Readers of histone methylarginine marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayatri, Sitaram; Bedford, Mark T

    2014-08-01

    Arginine methylation is a common posttranslational modification (PTM) that alters roughly 0.5% of all arginine residues in the cells. There are three types of arginine methylation: monomethylarginine (MMA), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA). These three PTMs are enriched on RNA-binding proteins and on histones, and also impact signal transduction cascades. To date, over thirty arginine methylation sites have been cataloged on the different core histones. These modifications alter protein structure, impact interactions with DNA, and also generate docking sites for effector molecules. The primary "readers" of methylarginine marks are Tudor domain-containing proteins. The complete family of thirty-six Tudor domain-containing proteins has yet to be fully characterized, but at least ten bind methyllysine motifs and eight bind methylarginine motifs. In this review, we will highlight the biological roles of the Tudor domains that interact with arginine methylated motifs, and also address other types of interactions that are regulated by these particular PTMs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Molecular mechanisms of histone modification function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. PressReader User Guide for Android eReader

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Представлено краткое руководство для работы с электронными газетами и журналами на платформе Library PressDisplay на английском языке с помощью Android eReader. "Библиотека ПрессДисплей" - самый большой киоск ежедневной прессы, предлагает полные цифровые копии (больше контента, чем на Google) более 2300 газет и журналов из 100 стран на 54 языках и мнгновенный перевод с 13 языков....

  14. Normalization of Mendeley reader impact on the reader- and paper-side

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haunschild, R.; Bornmann, L.

    2016-07-01

    For the normalization of citation counts, two different kinds of methods are possible and used in bibliometrics: the cited-side and citing-side normalizations both of which can also be applied in the normalization of “Mendeley reader counts”. Recently, we introduced the paper-side normalization of reader counts (mean normalized reader score, MNRS) which is an adaptation of the cited-side normalization. Since the calculation of the MNRS needs further data besides data from Mendeley (a field-classification scheme, such as the Web of Science subject categories), we introduce here the reader-side normalization of reader counts which is an adaptation of the citing-side normalization and does not need further data from other sources. In this study, all articles and reviews of the Web of Science core collection with publication year 2012 (and a DOI) are used to normalize their Mendeley reader counts. The newly proposed indicator (mean discipline normalized reader score, MDNRS) is obtained, compared with the MNRS and bare reader counts, and studied empirically. We find that: (i) normalization of Mendeley reader counts is necessary, (ii) the MDNRS is able to normalize Mendeley reader counts in several disciplines, and (iii) the MNRS is able to normalize Mendeley reader counts in all disciplines. This generally favorable result for the MNRS in all disciplines lead to the recommendation to prefer the MNRS over the MDNRS – provided that the user has an external field-classification scheme at hand. (Author)

  15. Computer jargon explained

    CERN Document Server

    Enticknap, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Computer Jargon Explained is a feature in Computer Weekly publications that discusses 68 of the most commonly used technical computing terms. The book explains what the terms mean and why the terms are important to computer professionals. The text also discusses how the terms relate to the trends and developments that are driving the information technology industry. Computer jargon irritates non-computer people and in turn causes problems for computer people. The technology and the industry are changing so rapidly; it is very hard even for professionals to keep updated. Computer people do not

  16. A process-driven sedimentary habitat modelling approach, explaining seafloor integrity and biodiversity assessment within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galparsoro, Ibon; Borja, Ángel; Kostylev, Vladimir E.; Rodríguez, J. Germán; Pascual, Marta; Muxika, Iñigo

    2013-10-01

    The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) seeks to achieve good environmental status, by 2020, for European seas. This study analyses the applicability of a process-driven benthic sedimentary habitat model, to be used in the implementation of the MSFD in relation to biodiversity and seafloor integrity descriptors for sedimentary habitats. Our approach maps the major environmental factors influencing soft-bottom macrobenthic community structure and the life-history traits of species. Among the 16 environmental variables considered, a combination of water depth, mean grain size, a wave-induced sediment resuspension index and annual bottom maximum temperature, are the most significant factors explaining the variability in the structure of benthic communities in the study area. These variables are classified into those representing the ‘Disturbance' and ‘Scope for Growth' components of the environment. It was observed that the habitat classes defined in the process-driven model reflected different structural and functional characteristics of the benthos. Moreover, benthic community structure anomalies due to human pressures could also be detected within the model produced. Thus, the final process-driven habitat map can be considered as being highly useful for seafloor integrity and biodiversity assessment, within the European MSFD as well as for conservation, environmental status assessment and managing human activities, especially within the marine spatial planning process.

  17. Subduction zone decoupling/retreat modeling explains south Tibet (Xigaze) and other supra-subduction zone ophiolites and their UHP mineral phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Jared P.; Beaumont, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    The plate tectonic setting in which proto-ophiolite 'oceanic' lithosphere is created remains controversial with a number of environments suggested. Recent opinions tend to coalesce around supra-subduction zone (SSZ) forearc extension, with a popular conceptual model in which the proto-ophiolite forms during foundering of oceanic lithosphere at the time of spontaneous or induced onset of subduction. This mechanism is favored in intra-oceanic settings where the subducting lithosphere is old and the upper plate is young and thin. We investigate an alternative mechanism; namely, decoupling of the subducting oceanic lithosphere in the forearc of an active continental margin, followed by subduction zone (trench) retreat and creation of a forearc oceanic rift basin, containing proto-ophiolite lithosphere, between the continental margin and the retreating subduction zone. A template of 2D numerical model experiments examines the trade-off between strength of viscous coupling in the lithospheric subduction channel and net slab pull of the subducting lithosphere. Three tectonic styles are observed: 1) C, continuous subduction without forearc decoupling; 2) R, forearc decoupling followed by rapid subduction zone retreat; 3) B, breakoff of subducting lithosphere followed by re-initiation of subduction and in some cases, forearc decoupling (B-R). In one case (BA-B-R; where BA denotes backarc) subduction zone retreat follows backarc rifting. Subduction zone decoupling is analyzed using frictional-plastic yield theory and the Stefan solution for the separation of plates containing a viscous fluid. The numerical model results are used to explain the formation of Xigaze group ophiolites, southern Tibet, which formed in the Lhasa terrane forearc, likely following earlier subduction and not necessarily during subduction initiation. Either there was normal coupled subduction before subduction zone decoupling, or precursor slab breakoff, subduction re-initiation and then decoupling

  18. The wireless internet explained

    CERN Document Server

    Rhoton, John

    2001-01-01

    The Wireless Internet Explained covers the full spectrum of wireless technologies from a wide range of vendors, including initiatives by Microsoft and Compaq. The Wireless Internet Explained takes a practical look at wireless technology. Rhoton explains the concepts behind the physics, and provides an overview that clarifies the convoluted set of standards heaped together under the umbrella of wireless. It then expands on these technical foundations to give a panorama of the increasingly crowded landscape of wireless product offerings. When it comes to actual implementation the book gives abundant down-to-earth advice on topics ranging from the selection and deployment of mobile devices to the extremely sensitive subject of security.Written by an expert on Internet messaging, the author of Digital Press''s successful Programmer''s Guide to Internet Mail and X.400 and SMTP: Battle of the E-mail Protocols, The Wireless Internet Explained describes and evaluates the current state of the fast-growing and crucial...

  19. Kobo eReader for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sandler, Corey

    2010-01-01

    Here's how to use and love your Kobo eReader, the gadget dedicated to reading! Want to carry hundreds of books, magazines, and newspapers everywhere and not hurt your back? Load this e-book onto your Kobo eReader and we'll show you how! It's a quick-and-easy course in reading electronically, shopping for e-books, converting your own files for the eReader, getting the most from the device, and keeping your Kobo happy. Hello, Kobo - get acquainted with all the features and controls and learn how to charge the battery Go shopping - download e-books, find free books, an

  20. The hierarchical model of stem cell genesis explains the man mouse paradox, Peto's paradox, the red cell paradox and Wright's enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, James A

    2014-12-01

    The central dogma of carcinogenesis is that deleterious mutations accumulate in regularly cycling stem cells and eventually one of the cells will acquire a specific set of mutations which leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation. Each mutation is rare and the specific set is extremely rare so that even though there are millions of stem cells in a small area of mucosa the specific set of mutations to initiate the process of malignancy will only arise in one stem cell at most; hence neoplasia is clonal. But this model predicts that men, who are 1000 times larger than mice and live 30 times as long, should have a vastly increased risk of cancer compared with mice, but they don't (man-mouse paradox). The model also predicts that the prevalence of cancer in men should rise as power function of age and mutagen dose, the former is correct but not the latter (Peto's paradox). Furthermore there are more mitotic divisions in red cell precursors than in all other stem cells combined and yet erythroleukaemia is rare (red cell paradox). The central dogma is also challenged by Wright's enigma; the observation that some gastro-intestinal neoplasms are polyclonal in origin. The problem with the central dogma is the concept of a regularly cycling stem cell. In fact it is possible to produce all the cells that arise in a human lifetime with fewer than 60 rounds of DNA replication separating the zygote from mature differentiated cells in extreme old age. This hierarchical model of stem cell genesis leads to a very low prevalence of cancer, unless the orderly progression of the hierarchy is disturbed by inflammation, ulceration or trauma. This model explains the paradoxes and Wright's enigma. It is suggested that the number of cell divisions that separate the zygote from stem cells is a key variable in carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. The Role of Online Reader Experience in Explaining Students' Performance in Digital Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Flores, Javier; Torres-Gordillo, Juan-Jesus; Perera-Rodriguez, Victor-Hugo

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between students' extracurricular experiences online and their performance on the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), focusing specifically on students' competence in digital reading. The study uses a descriptive, correlational, ex post facto design. The data are taken from Spanish students'…

  2. The Role of Online Reader Experience in Explaining Students' Performance in Digital Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Flores, Javier; Torres-Gordillo, Juan-Jesus; Perera-Rodriguez, Victor-Hugo

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between students' extracurricular experiences online and their performance on the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), focusing specifically on students' competence in digital reading. The study uses a descriptive, correlational, ex post facto design. The data are taken from Spanish students'…

  3. Applying cognitive neuropsychological principles to the rehabilitation of Spanish readers with acquired dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuetos, Fernando; Centeno, José G

    2009-08-01

    Cognitive neuropsychological models (CNMs) have been useful to generate a theory of aphasia rehabilitation. In contrast to the traditional syndrome approach, CNMs employ cognitive accounts to interpret language disturbances after brain damage. In this article, we apply CNMs to monolingual Spanish and bilingual Spanish-English readers with acquired dyslexia whose first language is Spanish. Although there are many studies of acquired dyslexia (reading errors associated with aphasia), they primarily have focused on English and French readers. Similar investigations on Spanish readers are limited. Unlike the opaque orthographic systems of English and French (inconsistent grapheme-to-phoneme relationships), Spanish has a mostly transparent orthography (regular grapheme-to-phoneme relationships). Thus evaluating and treating dyslexia secondary to brain damage in Spanish readers may involve different strategies from those employed with English and French readers. The increasingly large numbers of Spanish speakers in aphasia rehabilitation worldwide underscore the critical need to develop plausible theoretically grounded clinical strategies to serve these individuals.

  4. Monod kinetics rather than a first-order degradation model explains atrazine fate in soil mini-columns: implications for pesticide fate modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyns, K; Mertens, J; Diels, J; Smolders, E; Springael, D

    2010-05-01

    Pesticide transport models commonly assume first-order pesticide degradation kinetics for describing reactive transport in soil. This assumption was assessed in mini-column studies with associated batch degradation tests. Soil mini-columns were irrigated with atrazine in two intermittent steps of about 30 days separated by 161 days application of artificial rain water. Atrazine concentration in the effluent peaked to that of the influent concentration after initial break-through but sharply decreased while influx was sustained, suggesting a degradation lag phase. The same pattern was displayed in the second step but peak height and percentage of atrazine recovered in the effluent were lower. A Monod model with biomass decay was successfully calibrated to this data. The model was successfully evaluated against batch degradation data and mini-column experiments at lower flow rate. The study suggested that first-order degradation models may underestimate risk of pesticide leaching if the pesticide degradation potential needs amplification during degradation.

  5. The pH-dependent toxicity of basic pharmaceuticals in the green algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus can be explained with a toxicokinetic ion-trapping model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuwoehner, Judith [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstr. 133, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics (IBP), ETH Zuerich, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Escher, Beate I., E-mail: b.escher@uq.edu.au [The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), 39 Kessels Road, Brisbane, QLD 4108 (Australia); Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstr. 133, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2011-01-17

    were deduced from experimentally determined liposome-water distribution ratios at various pH values measured with an equilibrium dialysis method. The modelled internal effect concentrations were independent of the external pH and effective membrane burdens were in the same range as for other baseline toxicants found in the literature for algae, daphnids and fish. These results confirm that the higher algal toxicity of pharmaceuticals with an aliphatic amine group can be explained by a toxicokinetic effect and that these pharmaceuticals do not exhibit a specific mode of action in algae but act as baseline toxicants.

  6. Representing written vowels in university students with dyslexia compared with normal Hebrew readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Rachel; Ravid, Dorit

    2004-06-01

    The study investigates dyslexic and normal Hebrew readers' perception of words containing a vowel letter in different orthographic and morphological contexts. In the first experiment, 72 undergraduate education students (half diagnosed with reading disabilities and half normal readers) were asked to judge pointed words with different morphological structures with and without the grapheme W. Half of the words had consistent (obligatory) W and half had inconsistent (optional) W. In the second experiment, the same procedure was repeated using the same words without pointing marks. Response latencies and accuracy were measured. In both experiments, dyslexic readers did less well than normal readers, they had lower scores on accurate lexical decisions, and they took more time over these decisions. They also exhibited some deviant patterns indicating that they cannot make use of orthographic and morphological cues which are available to normal readers, especially in the pointed experiment. Processing pointed words placed a heavier cognitive burden on the dyslexic readers. These findings are in line with other studies of adult dyslexic reader/writers, and support a reading / spelling processing model, which claims that internal orthographic representations of words are increasingly strengthened with each exposure during reading, but not all graphemes are strengthened equally. The general implication is that the ambiguities that exist in the relationships between orthography, phonology and morphology underlie spelling knowledge and are particularly difficult for dyslexic readers.

  7. Turning Polite Guests into Executive Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Dale D.

    1983-01-01

    Expands the usual notion of critical reading from just the judgments readers make about the text to include judgments they make about their "reading" of the text. Describes activities to develop "executive" metacomprehension skills. (HTH)

  8. Inter-reader variability in alternate forced choice studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, W.; Ogden, K. M.; Samei, E.; Scalzetti, E. M.; Lavallee, R. L.; Roskopf, M. L.

    2008-03-01

    In this study, we investigated differences in detection performance for twelve observers who each generated a CT contrast detail curve. An anthropomorphic newborn phantom's abdomen was imaged using a GE Light Speed CT scanner (4-slice). Alternate Forced Choice (AFC) experiments were performed with lesions sizes ranging from 2.5 to 12.5 mm to determine the intensity needed to achieve 92% correct (I 92%). Following training, twelve readers consisting of (2 technologists, 4 college students, 4 medical students, and 2 radiology residents) generated a single contrast detail curve. Eight readers produced approximately linear contrast detail curves while the remaining four readers required a second order polynomial fit because of reduced performance when detecting the largest (i.e., 12.5 mm) lesion. For the three smallest lesions, the coefficient of variation between the twelve readers was ~12%, which increases with increasing lesion size to ~23% for 12.5 mm lesion size. The ratio of the maximum I 92% to minimum I 92% values was ~1.6 for the smallest lesions, which increased to a factor of ~2.1 for the 12.5 mm lesion. Our results show that minimizing inter-reader variability in our AFC experiments could be achieved by eliminating the largest lesion that cause detection problems in one third of observers. The combined experimental data showed that the slope of the contrast detail curve was -0.42, lower than the value of -1.0 predicted by the Rose model, suggesting that the noise texture in CT associated with both quantum mottle and anatomic structure is an important factor affecting detection of these lesions.

  9. To what extent can aerosol water explain the discrepancy between model calculated and gravimetric PM10 and PM2.5?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyro, S. G.

    2005-02-01

    Inter-comparisons of European air quality models show that regional transport models, including the EMEP (Co-operative Programme for monitoring and evaluation of the long-range transmission of air pollutants in Europe) aerosol model, tend to underestimate the observed concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5. Obviously, an accurate representation of the individual aerosol constituents is a prerequisite for adequate calculation of PM concentrations. On the other hand, available measurements on the chemical characterization of ambient particles reveal that full chemical PM mass closure is rarely achieved. The fraction unaccounted for by chemical analysis can comprise as much as 30-40% of gravimetric PM10 or PM2.5 mass. The unaccounted PM mass can partly be due to non-C atoms in organic aerosols and/or due to sampling and measurement artefacts. Moreover, a part of the unaccounted PM mass is likely to consist of water associated with particles. Thus, the gravimetrically measured particle mass does not necessarily represent dry PM10 and PM2.5 mass. This is thought to be one of the reasons for models under-prediction of observed PM, if calculated dry PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations are compared with measurements. The EMEP aerosol model has been used to study to what extent particle-bound water can explain the chemically unidentified PM mass in filter-based particle samples. Water content of PM2.5 and PM10 has been estimated with the model for temperature 20°C and relative humidity 50%, which are conditions required for equilibration of dust-loaded filters according to the Reference method recommended by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). Model calculations for Europe show that, depending on particle composition, particle-bound water constitutes 20-35% of the annual mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations, which is consistent with existing experimental estimates. At two Austrian sites, in Vienna and Streithofen, where daily measurements of PM2.5 mass and chemical

  10. To what extent can aerosol water explain the discrepancy between model calculated and gravimetric PM10 and PM2.5?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Tsyro

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Inter-comparisons of European air quality models show that regional transport models, including the EMEP (Co-operative Programme for monitoring and evaluation of the long-range transmission of air pollutants in Europe aerosol model, tend to underestimate the observed concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5. Obviously, an accurate representation of the individual aerosol constituents is a prerequisite for adequate calculation of PM concentrations. On the other hand, available measurements on the chemical characterization of ambient particles reveal that full chemical PM mass closure is rarely achieved. The fraction unaccounted for by chemical analysis can comprise as much as 30–40% of gravimetric PM10 or PM2.5 mass. The unaccounted PM mass can partly be due to non-C atoms in organic aerosols and/or due to sampling and measurement artefacts. Moreover, a part of the unaccounted PM mass is likely to consist of water associated with particles. Thus, the gravimetrically measured particle mass does not necessarily represent dry PM10 and PM2.5 mass. This is thought to be one of the reasons for models under-prediction of observed PM, if calculated dry PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations are compared with measurements. The EMEP aerosol model has been used to study to what extent particle-bound water can explain the chemically unidentified PM mass in filter-based particle samples. Water content of PM2.5 and PM10 has been estimated with the model for temperature 20°C and relative humidity 50%, which are conditions required for equilibration of dust-loaded filters according to the Reference method recommended by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN. Model calculations for Europe show that, depending on particle composition, particle-bound water constitutes 20–35% of the annual mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations, which is consistent with existing experimental estimates. At two Austrian sites, in Vienna and Streithofen, where daily measurements of PM2

  11. To what extent can aerosol water explain the discrepancy between model calculated and gravimetric PM10 and PM2.5?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Tsyro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Inter-comparisons of European air quality models show that regional transport models, including the EMEP (Co-operative Programme for monitoring and evaluation of the long-range transmission of air pollutants in Europe aerosol model, tend to underestimate the observed concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5. Obviously, an accurate representation of the individual aerosol constituents is a prerequisite for adequate calculation of PM concentrations. On the other hand, available measurements on the chemical characterization of ambient particles reveal that full chemical PM mass closure is rarely achieved. The fraction unaccounted for by chemical analysis can comprise as much as 30-40% of gravimetric PM10 or PM2.5 mass. The unaccounted PM mass can partly be due to non-C atoms in organic aerosols and/or due to sampling and measurement artefacts. Moreover, a part of the unaccounted PM mass is likely to consist of water associated with particles. Thus, the gravimetrically measured particle mass does not necessarily represent dry PM10 and PM2.5 mass. This is thought to be one of the reasons for models under-prediction of observed PM, if calculated dry PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations are compared with measurements. The EMEP aerosol model has been used to study to what extent particle-bound water can explain the chemically unidentified PM mass in filter-based particle samples. Water content of PM2.5 and PM10 has been estimated with the model for temperature 20°C and relative humidity 50%, which are conditions required for equilibration of dust-loaded filters according to the Reference method recommended by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN. Model calculations for Europe show that, depending on particle composition, particle-bound water constitutes 20-35% of the annual mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations, which is consistent with existing experimental estimates. At two Austrian sites, in Vienna and Streithofen, where daily measurements of PM2.5 mass

  12. The Importance of Intrinsic Motivation for High and Low Ability Readers' Reading Comprehension Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Sarah; Medford, Emma; Hughes, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    The study examined how cognitive and motivational factors predicted reading skill and whether intrinsic reading motivation would explain significantly more variance in low ability readers' reading performance. One hundred and eleven children (aged 9-11) completed assessments of reading comprehension skill, verbal IQ, decoding skill and intrinsic…

  13. Effects of Stress and Working Memory Capacity on Foreign Language Readers' Inferential Processing during Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Manpreet K.; Loschky, Lester C.; Harris, Richard Jackson; Peck, Nicole R.; Cook, Lindsay G.

    2011-01-01

    Although stress is frequently claimed to impede foreign language (FL) reading comprehension, it is usually not explained how. We investigated the effects of stress, working memory (WM) capacity, and inferential complexity on Spanish FL readers' inferential processing during comprehension. Inferences, although necessary for reading comprehension,…

  14. Effects of Stress and Working Memory Capacity on Foreign Language Readers' Inferential Processing during Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Manpreet K.; Loschky, Lester C.; Harris, Richard Jackson; Peck, Nicole R.; Cook, Lindsay G.

    2011-01-01

    Although stress is frequently claimed to impede foreign language (FL) reading comprehension, it is usually not explained how. We investigated the effects of stress, working memory (WM) capacity, and inferential complexity on Spanish FL readers' inferential processing during comprehension. Inferences, although necessary for reading comprehension,…

  15. How the nonlinear coupled oscillators modelization explains the Blazhko effect, the synchronisation of layers, the mode selection, the limit cycle, and the red limit of the instability strip

    CERN Document Server

    Zalian, Cyrus

    2016-01-01

    Context. The Blazhko effect, in RR Lyrae type stars, is a century old mystery. Dozens of theory exists, but none have been able to entirely reproduce the observational facts associated to this modulation phenomenon. Existing theory all rely on the usual continuous modelization of the star. Aims. We present a new paradigm which will not only explain the Blazhko effect, but at the same time, will give us alternative explanations to the red limit of the instability strip, the synchronization of layers, the mode selection and the existence of a limit cycle for radially pulsating stars. Methods. We describe the RR Lyrae type pulsating stars as a system of coupled nonlinear oscillators. Considering a spatial discretisation of the star, supposing a spherical symmetry, we develop the equation of motion and energy up to the third order in the radial and adiabatic case. Then, we include the influence of the ionization region as a relaxation oscillator by including elements from synchronisation theory. Results. This dis...

  16. What explains rare and conspicuous colours in a snail? A test of time-series data against models of drift, migration or selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, K; Butlin, R K

    2017-01-01

    It is intriguing that conspicuous colour morphs of a prey species may be maintained at low frequencies alongside cryptic morphs. Negative frequency-dependent selection by predators using search images (‘apostatic selection') is often suggested without rejecting alternative explanations. Using a maximum likelihood approach we fitted predictions from models of genetic drift, migration, constant selection, heterozygote advantage or negative frequency-dependent selection to time-series data of colour frequencies in isolated populations of a marine snail (Littorina saxatilis), re-established with perturbed colour morph frequencies and followed for >20 generations. Snails of conspicuous colours (white, red, banded) are naturally rare in the study area (usually <10%) but frequencies were manipulated to levels of ~50% (one colour per population) in 8 populations at the start of the experiment in 1992. In 2013, frequencies had declined to ~15–45%. Drift alone could not explain these changes. Migration could not be rejected in any population, but required rates much higher than those recorded. Directional selection was rejected in three populations in favour of balancing selection. Heterozygote advantage and negative frequency-dependent selection could not be distinguished statistically, although overall the results favoured the latter. Populations varied idiosyncratically as mild or variable colour selection (3–11%) interacted with demographic stochasticity, and the overall conclusion was that multiple mechanisms may contribute to maintaining the polymorphisms. PMID:27649616

  17. Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained

    CERN Document Server

    Vujičić, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject suitable for adoption as a self-contained text for courses at undergraduate and postgraduate level. The clear and comprehensive presentation of the basic theory is illustrated throughout with an abundance of worked examples. The book is written for teachers and students of linear algebra at all levels and across mathematics and the applied sciences, particularly physics and engineering. It will also be an invaluable addition to research libraries as a comprehensive resource book for the subject.

  18. The Narratological Style and the Reader of Evelyn Waugh’s Early Satires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksana Zgierska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the role of the implied reader in Evelyn Waugh’s novels. An attempt will be made to define who the implied reader is and what is his position and role in fictional realm. By analysing narrative strategies and techniques within a selection of Waugh’s works, I attempt to discuss the changing relationship between author/narrator and the implied reader. I try to point that within Evelyn Waugh’s writing one can observe a simultaneous evolution of the narrator voice and the role ascribed to the implied reader. What is more, I discuss the limits of interpretation. I try to present and analyse how both the author/narrator and the text can impose limitations on the implied reader allowing him to move freely, however, within a set frame. Intertextuality is one of the focal points of the article, as I try to propose that the use of specific intertextual references in several different novels enhances the reader’s understanding of  Waugh’s fictional world. An attempt is made to prove that through analysis of different levels of understanding intertextual relation the reader takes on himself a role of creator. Furthermore, I draw attention to the places of indeterminacy. In this discussion I include both structures of indeterminacy proposed by Roman Ingarden i.e. blanks and negations, as both are needed not only to establish the interaction that takes place between text and the implied reader, but also to try to regulate such relation. An attempt will be made to explain how important filling the gaps within the text is and how completing the blanks affects the reader and the process of reading as such.

  19. THE FUTURE OF THE READER OR THE READER OF THE FUTURE: CHILDREN’S INTERATIVE BOOKS AND MULTILITERACIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Frederico

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work explores the interactive book app for children as a form of literary expression that requires from the young reader the capacity to orchestrate various forms of literacy to promote their ability of reading critically multimodal, digital and interactive texts. Serafini’s model for the analysis of picturebooks in three levels, perceptive, structural, and ideological (SERAFINI, 2010; 2015, is proposed as a didactic tool to promote these multiliteracies at school through the reading of picturebook apps.

  20. Serial Peripheral Interface Communication Between MCU EM78P447A and RF Reader IC MF RC530

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Zhi; CHEN Shu-zhen; HUANG Ji-wu

    2005-01-01

    A significant method in the way the MCU EM78P447A manipulates the RF reader IC MF RC530's functions used in RF IC card application is presented. In this paper, RF reader IC MF RC530's SPI compatible interface is introduced. The kernel technologies including SPI connection, software design,register initiation, request-response between the reader IC and the MCU, authentication and the proper format of the key are explained. Adopting the serial peripheral interface is the innovation in the paper. The SPI communication mode proves feasible and precise. Furthermore, in the way we avoid the abuse of parallel interface.

  1. Explaining wartime rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschall, Jonathan

    2004-05-01

    In the years since the first reports of mass rapes in the Yugoslavian wars of secession and the genocidal massacres in Rwanda, feminist activists and scholars, human rights organizations, journalists, and social scientists have dedicated unprecedented efforts to document, explain, and seek solutions for the phenomenon of wartime rape. While contributors to this literature agree on much, there is no consensus on causal factors. This paper provides a brief overview of the literature on wartime rape in historical and ethnographical societies and a critical analysis of the four leading explanations for its root causes: the feminist theory, the cultural pathology theory, the strategic rape theory, and the biosocial theory. The paper concludes that the biosocial theory is the only one capable of bringing all the phenomena associated with wartime rape into a single explanatory context.

  2. Study on individualized information service for the reader in the library based on the network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With the massive increase of digital resource based on the network, it becomes very important that how to help readers acquire the information needed according to the individualized requirement and interest in an accurate, convenient and prompt method. Therefore, it is very urgent to investigate individualized information service of library. In this paper, based on the development of the individualized information service for the reader in the college library, the individualized information service is clarified by using three perspectives, including establishment of individualized information demand model, integration of internal and external resource and protection of the reader privacy. Finally, the corresponding strategy and related measure are presented.

  3. How the cerebral serotonin homeostasis predicts environmental changes: a model to explain seasonal changes of brain 5-HTT as intermediate phenotype of the 5-HTTLPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbitzer, Jan; Kalbitzer, Urs; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Cumming, Paul; Heinz, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    Molecular imaging studies with positron emission tomography have revealed that the availability of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) in the human brain fluctuates over the course of the year. This effect is most pronounced in carriers of the short allele of the 5-HTT promoter region (5-HTTLPR), which has in several previous studies been linked to an increased risk to develop mood disorders. We argue that long-lasting fluctuations in the cerebral serotonin transmission, which is regulated via the 5-HTT, are responsible for mediating responses to environmental changes based on an assessment of the expected "safety" of the environment; this response is obtained in part through serotonergic modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We posit that the intermediate phenotype of the s-allele may properly be understood as mediating a trade-off, wherein increased responsiveness of cerebral serotonin transmission to seasonal and other forms of environmental change imparts greater behavioral flexibility, at the expense of increased vulnerability to stress. This model may explain the somewhat higher prevalence of the s-allele in some human populations dwelling at geographic latitudes with pronounced seasonal climatic changes, while this hypothesis does not rule out that genetic drift plays an additional or even exclusive role. We argue that s-allele manifests as an intermediate phenotype in terms of an increased responsiveness of the 5-HTT expression to number of daylight hours, which may serve as a stable surrogate marker of other environmental factors, such as availability of food and safety of the environment in populations that live closer to the geographic poles.

  4. A new model involving ethylene, nitric oxide and Fe to explain the regulation of Fe-acquisition genes in Strategy I plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, María J; Suárez, Vicente; Romera, Francisco J; Alcántara, Esteban; Pérez-Vicente, Rafael

    2011-05-01

    In previous work it has been shown that both ethylene and NO (nitric oxide) participate in a similar way in the up-regulation of several Fe-acquisition genes of Arabidopsis and other Strategy I plants. This raises the question as to whether NO acts through ethylene or ethylene acts through NO, or whether both act in conjunction. One possibility is that NO could increase ethylene production. Conversely, ethylene could increase NO production. By using Arabidopsis and cucumber plants, we have found that both possibilities occur: NO greatly induces the expression in roots of genes involved in ethylene synthesis: AtSAM1, AtSAM2, AtACS4, AtACS6, AtACO1, AtACO2, AtMTK; CsACS2 and CsACO2; on the other hand, ethylene greatly enhances NO production in the subapical region of the roots. These results suggest that each substance influences the production of the other and that both substances could be necessary for up-regulation of Fe-acquisition genes. This has been further confirmed in experiments with simultaneous application of the NO donor GSNO (S-nitrosoglutathione) and ethylene inhibitors; or with simultaneous application of the ethylene precursor ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) and an NO scavenger. Both GSNO and ACC enhanced ferric reductase activity in control plants, but not in those plants simultaneously treated with the ethylene inhibitors or the NO scavenger, respectively. To explain all these results and previous ones we have proposed a new model involving ethylene, NO, and Fe in the up-regulation of Fe-acquisition genes of Strategy I plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Reader Response Theory in the High School English Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Karen Yvonne

    A study examined the theory concerning reader response and the rationale and practice of reader response in the high school English curriculum. Formal experimental studies existed that explored reader response practices in the high school setting, but no formal studies existed on the questioning practices of potential reader response teachers. A…

  6. Examining Readers' Evaluations of Objectivity and Bias in News Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Peter; Eisenhart, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Readers' objectivity and bias evaluations of news texts were investigated in order to better understand the process by which readers make these kinds of judgments and the evidence on which they base them. Readers were primed to evaluate news texts for objectivity and bias, and their selections and metacommentary were analyzed. Readers detected…

  7. E-Book Readers in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur N. Olsen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a research project at the University of Agder that has studied the use of e-readers as a tool for academic study. E-readers (Kindle DX and iPad were loaded with texts from required reading lists in five courses with 94 participating students. Initially, 87 students responded to the invitation to participate in a survey, but eventually 13 of these submissions had to be removed, as the degree of completion was not sufficient. The final response rate achieved was 79%. Students were in general positive to the use of e-readers but still show a preference for print on paper as the best medium for serious academic study. When reading books, 54% preferred print, 28% a combination of print and e-reader, and finally only 11% were satisfied solely using an e-reader. The iPad scored significantly better than the Kindle DX on tasks that required active interaction with the texts such as highlighting and note taking.

  8. The differential effects of position, ad and reader characteristics on readers' processing of newspaper ads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.G.; Neijens, P.C.; Heath, R.

    2013-01-01

    Building on previous research on the processing of newspaper ads, this comprehensive field study, with 26,556 newspaper readers and 290 unique advertisements, investigated the combined effects of position in the newspaper, ad characteristics and reader characteristics. The results show a

  9. "It's All Coming Together": An Encounter between Implied Reader and Actual Reader in the Australian Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sandra J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I discuss how taking a particular literary theory--the implied reader--serves to offer a focus for the teacher's initial reading of a text and provides a formative assessment tool. Iser's Implied Reader theory is discussed, after which a picture book, "Where the Forest Meets the Sea" by Jeannie Baker, is analysed from this…

  10. The differential effects of position, ad and reader characteristics on readers' processing of newspaper ads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.G.; Neijens, P.C.; Heath, R.

    2013-01-01

    Building on previous research on the processing of newspaper ads, this comprehensive field study, with 26,556 newspaper readers and 290 unique advertisements, investigated the combined effects of position in the newspaper, ad characteristics and reader characteristics. The results show a differentia

  11. Analysis on Reader Response Criticism Based on A Rose For Emily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯鑫初

    2014-01-01

    Plots and characters being centered as something never mentioned before,Faulkner designed images so as to maintain his works stable and open to construct a tensile space for imagination. Readers could be attracted to imagination,thinking and refiling. Works from Faulkner also made the charm of art sensible,beauty entertainable to readers. Here,the thesis is trying analyzing the Appeal Structure of A Rose for Emily according to Readers’ Response Criticism so that the aesthetic value and the meaning construction could be wel explained.

  12. How to explain mistakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Leuschel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Usually we teach formal methods relying for a large part on one kind of reasoning technique about a formal model. For instance, we either use formal proof or we use model-checking. It would appear that it is already hard enough to learn one technique and having to cope with two puts just another...

  13. Explaining the Evolution of Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Azhar; Jones, Edward Samuel

    2012-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive approach for analyzing the evolution of poverty using Mozambique as a case study. Bringing together data from disparate sources, we develop a novel “back-casting” framework that links a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to a micro-simulation poverty module....... This framework provides a new approach to explaining and decomposing the evolution of poverty, as well as to examining rigorously the coherence between poverty, economic growth, and inequality outcomes. Finally, various simple but useful and rarely-applied approaches to considering regional changes in poverty...

  14. Contrast Study of structuralism and reader- response criticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建晓; 郑灵珍

    2012-01-01

    In literary criticism, both structuralism and reader-response criticism enjoy their positions. They share similarities in some ways, but obviously they are two different ways of literary criticism, with structuralism focusing on text and reader-response criti- cism focusing on readers. This essay attempts to contrast structuralism with reader-response criticism in their assumption on text's meaning and the reader's role in the process of reading a text.

  15. Every reader his book – every book its reader?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kann-Christensen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte

    2014-01-01

    ’ advisory and audience development. This is achieved through an analysis of opinions and reflections expressed by 13 managers and librarians in all six county libraries in Denmark. The interviews are analysed through the model which merges three concepts: cultural policy, new public management...... and professional logics. Our findings show that Danish librarians’ views on readers’ advisory and audience development strike a balance between the experience and empowerment rationales with a prevailing focus on users. A user orientation and focus on user experiences have created a situation wherein the notions...

  16. To Our Readers In the New Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    WITH the deepening of China’s reform and the expansion of the policy of opening to the world, we greet the year 1995. A new year means a chance for development and a new beginning for any person or career. The editorial department of Women of China sends its best wishes to all our readers. Women of China magazine has entered its 39th year since its establishment. With love and concern from our large readership, the magazine has made friends with readers from countries and regions all over the

  17. Passive microfluidic array card and reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Lawrence Christopher [Modesto, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA

    2011-08-09

    A microfluidic array card and reader system for analyzing a sample. The microfluidic array card includes a sample loading section for loading the sample onto the microfluidic array card, a multiplicity of array windows, and a transport section or sections for transporting the sample from the sample loading section to the array windows. The microfluidic array card reader includes a housing, a receiving section for receiving the microfluidic array card, a viewing section, and a light source that directs light to the array window of the microfluidic array card and to the viewing section.

  18. Every reader his book – every book its reader?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kann-Christensen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte

    2014-01-01

    ’ advisory and audience development. This is achieved through an analysis of opinions and reflections expressed by 13 managers and librarians in all six county libraries in Denmark. The interviews are analysed through the model which merges three concepts: cultural policy, new public management...... and professional logics. Our findings show that Danish librarians’ views on readers’ advisory and audience development strike a balance between the experience and empowerment rationales with a prevailing focus on users. A user orientation and focus on user experiences have created a situation wherein the notions...... of passion, commitment, enthusiasm become central to the work of librarians who champion and manage these activities. However, this strategy has limitations related to the choice of content and intended user groups. Audience development, founded on dedication and experience, tends to cater for users who look...

  19. Explaining Social Exclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerda Jehoel-Gijsbers; Cok Vrooman

    2007-01-01

    Although social exclusion has become a key issue on the European policy agenda in recent years, both the social phenomena the term refers to and the best way to monitor these remain unclear. In response to this, we developed a conceptual model for social exclusion and a methodology for its empirical

  20. Explaining through causal mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesbroek, Robbert; Dupuis, Johann; Wellstead, Adam

    2017-01-01

    This paper synthesizes and builds on recent critiques of the resilience literature; namely that the field has largely been unsuccessful in capturing the complexity of governance processes, in particular cause–effects relationships. We demonstrate that absence of a causal model is reflected in the

  1. Readerly and Writerly "Letters from the Park."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Susana

    1993-01-01

    Discusses in depth the film "Cartas del parque" ("Letters from the Park"), the first of six films in the "Amores Dificiles" series. Notes that the film is pervaded by the traditional overdetermination of gender roles. Suggests that an intrusive and authoritative narrator makes of this both a "readerly" and a…

  2. Reader Response: Young Children Can Do That!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Kaye; Johnston, Cammie

    2000-01-01

    Describes "reader response" teaching techniques to enhance young children's critical thinking skills, build a sound literacy foundation, and clarify the relationship between reading and writing. Provides examples of response logs/journal entries, aesthetic responses such as drawings and dramatic reenactments, and student discussions…

  3. Critical Literacy as Comprehension: Expanding Reader Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Maureen; De Voogd, Glenn

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the theoretical underpinnings of critical literacy and related principles. It also provides ideas for creating environments to promote reading from a critical stance, teaching strategies, sample classroom applications, and annotated lists of theme-related texts. When engaging in critical literacy, readers move beyond…

  4. Reader-Response and the Pathos Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nan

    1988-01-01

    Reviews and equates theories of reader-response and rhetorical theories on audience response (the pathos principle). Concludes that the fundamental synonymity between them represents a significant bridge between analysis of literary texts and the dynamics of formal and social discourse and provides a theoretical foundation for teaching reading and…

  5. Author and reader in Instructions for use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steehouder, Michael F.

    1997-01-01

    Instructions for use should not be seen as merely instrumental-they should also persuade the reader to read the text and to act accordingly. Moreover, they should establish a positive image of the product and the manufacturer. In this paper, a collection of instructions for use is used to identify s

  6. The Emergent Reader's Working Kit of Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on a careful study of series fiction read in the 1950s to explore how stereotypes feature in the development of a young reader's competence in learning to process stories in print. Five categories of stereotype are teased out: "embodied stereotypes," understood through physical experience; "working stereotypes," discerned…

  7. Japanese-American Internment. A Historical Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    This Historical Reader on "Japanese American Internment" in World War II introduces students to key events and issues during the period through the voices of people with firsthand experienced. Source documents and illustrations are arranged in chronological order and/or thematic units that establish context. Each selection is followed by…

  8. Identification of N(6)-methyladenosine reader proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Katherine I; Liu, Nian; Pan, Tao

    2017-08-15

    The reversible N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) modification of eukaryotic messenger RNAs (mRNAs) is a widespread regulatory mechanism that impacts every step in the mRNA life cycle. The effect of m(6)A on mRNA fate depends on the binding of "m(6)A reader" proteins - RNA binding proteins that specifically bind to RNAs containing m(6)A. Here, we describe an RNA pull-down method that can be used to identify novel m(6)A reader proteins starting from a known m(6)A-modified site in cellular or viral RNA. We further describe how a combination of immunoprecipitation-based sequencing methods can be used to identify m(6)A-modified sites bound by an m(6)A reader protein on a transcriptome-wide level. The discovery of new m(6)A reader proteins and their m(6)A-modified targets would provide further insight into the mechanisms and functions of m(6)A in the cell. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Advanced Vietnamese: A Reader in Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Nguyen Dang

    This fourth-year reader in Vietnamese presents a broad picture of Vietnamese culture through a selection of scholarly texts written by Vietnamese. The book seeks to introduce students to the culture of the Vietnamese and facilitate a transition from general reading matter to a more literary and technical style of writing. General chapter…

  10. Understanding Deaf Readers: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelstone, Aaron Weir

    2013-01-01

    The development of reading skills, beyond a functional level, is difficult for most deaf readers. Standardized testing demonstrates a median 4th grade reading level that remains consistent even after national norming of the Stanford Achievement test on the population of deaf school children. Deaf education continues to generate various educational…

  11. Towards a Culturally Situated Reader Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Wanda; Browne, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a theory of how culture enables literary interpretations of texts. We begin with a brief overview of the reader response field. From there, we introduce the theory and provide illustrative participant data examples. These data examples illustrate the four cultural positions middle grade students in our research assumed when…

  12. Classic Readers Theatre for Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchers, Suzanne I.; Kroll, Jennifer L.

    This book presents 16 original scripts that have been adapted from classic works of literature for use for readers theatre with young adults and ESL (English as a Second Language) students. Adaptations of the following works are included: "Little Women" (Louisa May Alcott); episodes from "Don Quixote" (Miguel de Cervantes; "The Necklace" (Guy de…

  13. Revisiting the Reader's Rudder: A Comprehension Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    Presents the structured comprehension method, a strategy that facilitates literal, inferential, and critical reading comprehension for passive readers who can decode but not comprehend. Uses the method to illustrate how other areas of students' instruction (e.g., vocabulary enhancement through morphemic analysis, use of a phonogram approach to…

  14. Understanding readers' understanding theory to practice

    CERN Document Server

    Tierney, Robert J; Mitchell, Judy Nichols

    2013-01-01

    This collection features papers addressing current issues in reading comprehension from cognitive and linguistic perspectives. Organized into three sections, the volume investigates text considerations and reader-text interactions. Each paper presents a substantial and comprehensive review of theory and research related to cognition and reading comprehension.

  15. The Emergent Reader's Working Kit of Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on a careful study of series fiction read in the 1950s to explore how stereotypes feature in the development of a young reader's competence in learning to process stories in print. Five categories of stereotype are teased out: "embodied stereotypes," understood through physical experience; "working stereotypes," discerned…

  16. Vocabulary Instruction for Second Language Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Deanna L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, research has consistently affirmed the importance of explicit vocabulary instruction for adult learners of English as a second language (ESL). Given the significant vocabulary demands faced by adult second language readers, ESL teachers must carefully target their instruction for maximum impact and to foster meaningful…

  17. Print Readers' Perceptions of Various Advertising Formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Charles W., Jr.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The findings of a study of print readers' perceptions of the believability and interest of various advertising formats fail to support increasing either the frequency or specificity of comparative messages. The findings suggest that advertisers should consider the dimensions of intensity and directionality in their message development. (GT)

  18. Transcending Bias through Reader-Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soublis, Theoni; Winkler, Erik

    2004-01-01

    The preservice teachers from all disciplines will be benefited if they incorporate reading in their classes according to Dr. Louise Rosenblatt's reader-response theory. A teacher's experience with her students while reading Chris Crutcher's "Staying Fat for Sarah Byanes" in the Secondary Content Area and a student's response on the novel are…

  19. Combining Phonics: Approaches for Problem Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, M. K.

    1982-01-01

    A method of teaching phonics to primary grade disabled readers which combines analytic, synthetic, and linguistic methods is described. The method involves starting with sight words, starting phonics synthetically with consonants, teaching other consonants analytically, adapting linguistic methods for vowels, and encouraging the use of context.…

  20. Filling Empty Pockets: Remedial Readers Make Meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Marie

    1989-01-01

    Describes the effect on junior high remedial readers of a reading workshop applying principles from Nancie Atwell's "In the Middle," including self-selection of adolescent literature books, silent reading, dialogue journal writing, and sharing work with others. Augments the workshop with "mini-lessons" on elements of reading…

  1. French immersion experience and reading skill development in at-risk readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Richard S; Reynolds, Kristin A A

    2012-06-01

    We tracked the developmental influences of exposure to French on developing English phonological awareness, decoding and reading comprehension of English-speaking at-risk readers from Grade 1 to Grade 3. Teacher-nominated at-risk readers were matched with not-at-risk readers in French immersion and English language programs. Exposure to spoken French phonetic and syllabic forms and to written French orthographic and morphological forms by children attending French immersion programs was expected to promote phonological, decoding and reading comprehension achievement. Growth in all outcomes was found, with children in immersion experiencing higher final status in phonological awareness and more rapid growth and higher final status in decoding, using multilevel modeling. At-risk readers in French immersion experienced faster growth and higher final status in reading comprehension. Benefits to reading of exposure to an additional language are discussed in relation to cross-language transfer, phonological grain size and enhanced executive control processes.

  2. Basal metabolic rate of endotherms can be modeled using heat-transfer principles and physiological concepts: reply to "can the basal metabolic rate of endotherms be explained by biophysical modeling?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael F; Lightfoot, Edwin N; Porter, Warren P

    2011-01-01

    Our recent article (Roberts et al. 2010 ) proposes a mechanistic model for the relation between basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body mass (M) in mammals. The model is based on heat-transfer principles in the form of an equation for distributed heat generation within the body. The model can also be written in the form of the allometric equation BMR = aM(b), in which a is the coefficient of the mass term and b is the allometric exponent. The model generates two interesting results: it predicts that b takes the value 2/3, indicating that BMR is proportional to surface area in endotherms. It also provides an explanation of the physiological components that make up a, that is, respiratory heat loss, core-skin thermal conductance, and core-skin thermal gradient. Some of the ideas in our article have been questioned (Seymour and White 2011 ), and this is our response to those questions. We specifically address the following points: whether a heat-transfer model can explain the level of BMR in mammals, whether our test of the model is inadequate because it uses the same literature data that generated the values of the physiological variables, and whether geometry and empirical values combine to make a "coincidence" that makes the model only appear to conform to real processes.

  3. Explaining algorithms using metaphors

    CERN Document Server

    Forišek, Michal

    2013-01-01

    There is a significant difference between designing a new algorithm, proving its correctness, and teaching it to an audience. When teaching algorithms, the teacher's main goal should be to convey the underlying ideas and to help the students form correct mental models related to the algorithm. This process can often be facilitated by using suitable metaphors. This work provides a set of novel metaphors identified and developed as suitable tools for teaching many of the 'classic textbook' algorithms taught in undergraduate courses worldwide. Each chapter provides exercises and didactic notes fo

  4. Explaining Poverty Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Mohammad Azhar; Jones, Edward Samuel

    Measuring poverty remains a complex and contentious issue. This is particularly true in sub-Saharan Africa where poverty rates are higher, information bases typically weaker, and the underlying determinants of welfare relatively volatile. This paper employs recently collected data on household...... consumption in Mozambique to examine the evolution of consumption poverty with focus on the period 2002/03 to 2008/09. The paper contributes in four areas. First, the period in question was characterized by major movements in international commodity prices. Mozambique provides an illuminating case study...... of the implications of these world commodity price changes for living standards of poor people. Second, a novel ‘backcasting’ approach using a computable general equilibrium model of Mozambique, linked to a poverty module is introduced. Third, the backcasting approach is also employed to rigorously examine...

  5. Metacognition and reading: Comparing three forms of metacognition in normally developing readers and readers with dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Furnes, Bjarte Reidar; Norman, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Metacognition refers to ‘cognition about cognition’ and includes metacognitive knowledge, strategies and experiences (Efklides, 2008; Flavell, 1979). Research on reading has shown that better readers demonstrate more metacognitive knowledge than poor readers (Baker & Beall, 2009), and that reading ability improves through strategy instruction (Gersten, Fuchs, Williams, & Baker, 2001). The current study is the first to specifically compare the three forms of metacognition in dyslexic (N = 22) ...

  6. Integrated Fluency Instruction: Three Approaches for Working with Struggling Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie KUHN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective fluency instruction should focus on reading with understanding, rather than simply reading quickly or expressively. This article outlines three research-based instructional approaches that assist students in developing accurate, automatic word recognition and prosody; at the same time, they ensure learners attend to the text’s meaning as they read. All three approaches integrate instructional principles known to improve reading fluency (modeling, scaffolding, repetition, and extensive opportunity for the reading of connected text. They are also clear and easy-to-implement and have proven successful with struggling readers. As a result, these approaches contribute to learners’ reading success both within and outside of the classroom.

  7. Using Reader Response in a College Literature Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soles, Derek

    1995-01-01

    Claims that the insights of reader response theory can be brought into the teaching of poetry in college literature courses. Outlines methods for utilizing reader response techniques to help students enjoy and understand poetry. (HB)

  8. 21 CFR 866.2850 - Automated zone reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2850 Automated zone reader. (a) Identification. An automated zone reader is a mechanical device intended for medical purposes...

  9. A Problem Solving Framework for Managing Poor Readers in Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Judith S.

    1988-01-01

    Points out that poor readers may exhibit behavioral, cognitive, and emotional problems. Offers a problem-solving framework for intervention in poor readers' nonacademic problems, and describes several possible types of intervention. (ARH)

  10. Understanding Racism and Sexism in Harry Potter and Stuart Hall’s Model of Three Reading Positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigita Pavšič

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Harry Potter book series there are several examples of sexist and racist stereotypes which can distort children’s understanding of reality and thus cause them to adopt prejudices and inappropriate judgments. The reason for such strong impact on the young readers can be explained with the use of Stuart Hall’s encoding/decoding model that suggests three reading positions and; as a result; three different ways of understanding one and the same text. The fact that oppositional reading; which allows the reader to asses the text critically; can only be adopted by educated and well-read readers explains why adult help is needed in directing the child reader towards a correct interpretation of such deficiencies of a text and offering a grounded explanation.

  11. RFID reader immunity test against electrostatic discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pospisilik Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a description of an immunity test against the electrostatic discharge according to the standard EN 61000-4-2 that was applied to an RFID reader. The RFID reader was primarily developed for access systems, employing the on-board recognition of the RFID tags. The results obtained by the test are described hereby as well as the discussion on the security of this solution. The results of this experiment are beneficial for the developers of RFID devices, as these devices are endangered by the electrostatic discharge brought by their users. The hereby described results also shown a security hole in a simple access system based on the RFID technology. Details can be found in the paper.

  12. Blind Braille readers mislocate tactile stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterr, Annette; Green, Lisa; Elbert, Thomas

    2003-05-01

    In a previous experiment, we observed that blind Braille readers produce errors when asked to identify on which finger of one hand a light tactile stimulus had occurred. With the present study, we aimed to specify the characteristics of this perceptual error in blind and sighted participants. The experiment confirmed that blind Braille readers mislocalised tactile stimuli more often than sighted controls, and that the localisation errors occurred significantly more often at the right reading hand than at the non-reading hand. Most importantly, we discovered that the reading fingers showed the smallest error frequency, but the highest rate of stimulus attribution. The dissociation of perceiving and locating tactile stimuli in the blind suggests altered tactile information processing. Neuroplasticity, changes in tactile attention mechanisms as well as the idea that blind persons may employ different strategies for tactile exploration and object localisation are discussed as possible explanations for the results obtained.

  13. Developing the Reader Self-Efficacy Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan ÜLPER

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Reading comprehension has affective and social dimensions as well as its cognitive dimension. Thus, to understand and improve reading instruction, affective and social dimensions should be well understood. Perceived self-efficacy is one of affective issues influencing learning and it should be taken into consideration in reading instruction. With this in mind, this study aims at developing the Reader Self-Efficacy Scale with a group of 518 students as participants. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a 6-item scale with one factor. The Cronbach Alpha coefficient was determined to be 0.948. This new Reader Self-Efficacy Scale could easily be used for training and research purposes depending on its high validity and reliability.

  14. Plastic Logic quits e-reader market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perks, Simon

    2012-07-01

    A UK firm spun out from the University of Cambridge that sought to be a world leader in flexible organic electronic circuits and displays has pulled out of the competitive e-reader market as it struggles to find a commercial outlet for its technology. Plastic Logic announced in May that it is to close its development facility in Mountain View, California, with the loss of around 40 jobs.

  15. Formalist criticism and reader-response theory

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMMAD AL FUADI

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the interaction of formalism as a trend in language and literature studies, on the one hand, and a teaching method, a technique of teaching to understand and investigate literary text proceeding from its structure and content, on the other hand. One of the main principles is dialogism (M. Bakhtin) that creates the coeducation between the writer and reader. Thus the process becomes bilateral, or even multilateral and it includes criticism on both parts a teacher and a st...

  16. The StorySpinner Sculptural Reader

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, Clare; Weal, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This demo is of a hypertext reading system called StorySpinner. It follows the sculptural hypertext methodology and has been used as a test bed for experimenting with the authoring of narrative flow in automatically generated stories. Readers are able to select and read one of two available stories. Reading a story involves selecting tarot cards which are mapped to chunks of story text based on possible interpretations of the cards and information concerning current story state.

  17. Wikipedia Reader's Guide: The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Broughton, John

    2008-01-01

    Wikipedia Reader's Guide: The Missing Manual gives you the essential tools for getting the most out of Wikipedia. As a supplement to Wikipedia: The Missing Manual, this handbook provides a basic road map to the largest online collaborative encyclopedia. You'll learn the best ways to search Wikipedia for the information you need, how to navigate the encyclopedia by category, and what to do if you spot an error in an article.

  18. E-readers and visual fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Benedetto

    Full Text Available The mass digitization of books is changing the way information is created, disseminated and displayed. Electronic book readers (e-readers generally refer to two main display technologies: the electronic ink (E-ink and the liquid crystal display (LCD. Both technologies have advantages and disadvantages, but the question whether one or the other triggers less visual fatigue is still open. The aim of the present research was to study the effects of the display technology on visual fatigue. To this end, participants performed a longitudinal study in which two last generation e-readers (LCD, E-ink and paper book were tested in three different prolonged reading sessions separated by--on average--ten days. Results from both objective (Blinks per second and subjective (Visual Fatigue Scale measures suggested that reading on the LCD (Kindle Fire HD triggers higher visual fatigue with respect to both the E-ink (Kindle Paperwhite and the paper book. The absence of differences between E-ink and paper suggests that, concerning visual fatigue, the E-ink is indeed very similar to the paper.

  19. A Comparison of Laterality Between Normal and Dyslexic Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Barbara

    Examined with 38 right-handed boys who were either dyslexic or normal readers and matched for age and IQ (mean age both groups=10.6, mean IQ normal readers=106, mean IQ dyslexic readers=105) were the weak, strong, and equal lateralization theories of dyslexia. Cerebral lateralization was measured for linguistic material (digits) using the dichotic…

  20. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a...