WorldWideScience

Sample records for modelling community practice

  1. Evaluating a Community-School Model of Social Work Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Daniel; Frey, Andy

    2008-01-01

    While research has shown that social workers can have positive impacts on students' school adjustment, evaluations of overall practice models continue to be limited. This article evaluates a model of community-school social work practice by examining its effect on problem behaviors and concerns identified by teachers and parents at referral. As…

  2. A Model for Evaluating eXtension Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Kathleen D.; Stafne, Eric T.

    2012-01-01

    As Americans shift their work and leisure activities online, Extension seeks to remain viable by delivering programs through a website known as eXtension. eXtension is predicated on the voluntary labor of Extension specialists and educators who form Communities of Practice to create and deliver content through the website. Evaluation of eXtension…

  3. A Model for the Application of Interactive Digital Television to Communities of Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus de Melo Braga

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Communities of Practice make intensive use of information and communication technologies (ICT to meet their needs of interaction among their members. At present, the main supporting tool for these communities is the Internet and the software tools available for their users. With the advent of digital TV, however, new resources have become available to these interactive communities. This study aims at analyzing the basic needs of technology support for virtual communities, identifying the essential software services that can meet these needs and propose an application model for interactive digital television that can meet the main needs of a Community of Practice. To achieve that, the essential services for a Community of Practice were identified by means of a field research applied to a knowledge management Community of Practice in order to propose an application model for Interactive Digital TV to Communities of Practice. The results discussed here may be used to develop applications for Interactive Digital TV and Communities of Practice, exploring the interactive resources of this new platform.

  4. Exploring a Community of Practice Model for Professional Development to Address Challenges to Classroom Practices in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine

    2013-01-01

    This study explored whether or not, and how, an on-site and research-teacher community of practice model for professional development addressed the challenges to classroom practices in a Head Start program. Data sources included interviews with teachers, videos of planning and teaching sessions, and the researchers' fieldwork log and…

  5. A Community of Practice Model for Introducing Mobile Tablets to University Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Michelle; Vartanian, Lesa Rae; Birk, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of a community of practice (CoP) model for introducing tablets to 139 faculty members at a higher education institution. Using a CoP within a systems model, we used large- and small-group mentorship to foster collaboration among faculty members. Most faculty members agreed that the project was well organized and…

  6. Community Elder Mistreatment Intervention With Capable Older Adults: Toward a Conceptual Practice Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnes, David

    2016-02-12

    Community-based elder mistreatment response programs (EMRP), such as adult protective services, that are responsible for directly addressing elder abuse and neglect are under increasing pressure with greater reporting/referrals nationwide. Our knowledge and understanding of effective response interventions represents a major gap in the EM literature. At the center of this gap is a lack of theory or conceptual models to help guide EMRP research and practice. This article develops a conceptual practice model for community-based EMRPs that work directly with cognitively intact EM victims. Anchored by core EMRP values of voluntariness, self-determination, and least restrictive path, the practice model is guided by an overarching postmodern, constructivist, eco-systemic practice paradigm that accepts multiple, individually constructed mistreatment realities and solutions. Harm-reduction, client-centered, and multidisciplinary practice models are described toward a common EMRP goal to reduce the risk of continued mistreatment. Finally, the model focuses on client-practitioner relationship-oriented practice skills such as engagement and therapeutic alliance to elicit individual mistreatment realities and client-centered solutions. The practice model helps fill a conceptual gap in the EM intervention literature and carries implications for EMRP training, research, and practice. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The I-Tribe Community Pharmacy Practice Model: professional pharmacy unshackled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Greg L; Waitzman, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    To describe a mechanism by which pharmacists could create a disruptive innovation to provide professional primary care services via a Web-based delivery model. Several obstacles have prevented pharmacists from using available technology to develop business models that capitalize on their clinical skills in primary care. Community practice has experienced multiple sustaining innovations that have improved dispensing productivity but have not stimulated sufficient demand for pharmacy services to disrupt the marketplace and provide new opportunities for pharmacists. Pharmacists are in a unique position to bridge the gap between demand for basic primary medical care and access to a competent medical professional. Building on the historic strengths of community pharmacy practice, modern pharmacists could provide a disruptive innovation in the marketplace for primary care by taking advantage of new technology and implementing the I-Tribe Community Pharmacy Practice Model (I-Tribe). This model would directly connect pharmacists to patients through an interactive, secure Web presence that would liberate the relationship from geographic restrictions. The I-Tribe is a disruptive innovation that could become the foundation for a vibrant market in pharmacist professional service offerings. The I-Tribe model could benefit society by expanding access to primary medical care while simultaneously providing a new source of revenue for community practice pharmacists. Entrepreneurial innovation through I-Tribe pharmacy would free pharmacists to become the care providers envisioned by the profession's thought leaders.

  8. Developing a Multicomponent Model of Nutritious Food Access and Related Implications for Community and Policy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Darcy A; Blake, Christine E; Liese, Angela D

    2013-01-01

    Access to nutritious foods is limited in disenfranchised communities in the United States. Policies are beginning to focus on improving nutritious food access in these contexts; yet, few theories are available to guide this work. We developed a conceptual model of nutritious food access based on the qualitative responses of food consumers in 2 different regions of the American South. Five domains (economic, service delivery, spatial-temporal, social, and personal) and related dimensions of nutritious food access were identified. The conceptual model provides practical guidance to researchers, policy makers, and practitioners working to improve nutritious food access in communities.

  9. Developing a Multicomponent Model of Nutritious Food Access and Related Implications for Community and Policy Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    FREEDMAN, DARCY A.; BLAKE, CHRISTINE E.; LIESE, ANGELA D.

    2014-01-01

    Access to nutritious foods is limited in disenfranchised communities in the United States. Policies are beginning to focus on improving nutritious food access in these contexts; yet, few theories are available to guide this work. We developed a conceptual model of nutritious food access based on the qualitative responses of food consumers in 2 different regions of the American South. Five domains (economic, service delivery, spatial–temporal, social, and personal) and related dimensions of nutritious food access were identified. The conceptual model provides practical guidance to researchers, policy makers, and practitioners working to improve nutritious food access in communities. PMID:24563605

  10. Community of Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch-Jensen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A clear and informative description of the theoretical and methodological content and implications of the concept of Community of Practice......A clear and informative description of the theoretical and methodological content and implications of the concept of Community of Practice...

  11. Conceptual and practical challenges for implementing the communities of practice model on a national scale - a Canadian cancer control initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Browman George P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer program delivery, like the rest of health care in Canada, faces two ongoing challenges: to coordinate a pan-Canadian approach across complex provincial jurisdictions, and to facilitate the rapid translation of knowledge into clinical practice. Communities of practice, or CoPs, which have been described by Etienne Wenger as a collaborative learning platform, represent a promising solution to these challenges because they rely on bottom-up rather than top-down social structures for integrating knowledge and practice across regions and agencies. The communities of practice model has been realized in the corporate (e.g., Royal Dutch Shell, Xerox, IBM, etc and development (e.g., World Bank sectors, but its application to health care is relatively new. The Canadian Partnership Against Cancer (CPAC is exploring the potential of Wenger's concept in the Canadian health care context. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of Wenger's concept with a focus on its applicability to the health care sector. Discussion Empirical studies and social science theory are used to examine the utility of Wenger's concept. Its value lies in emphasizing learning from peers and through practice in settings where innovation is valued. Yet the communities of practice concept lacks conceptual clarity because Wenger defines it so broadly and sidelines issues of decision making within CoPs. We consider the implications of his broad definition to establishing an informed nomenclature around this specific type of collaborative group. The CoP Project under CPAC and communities of practice in Canadian health care are discussed. Summary The use of communities of practice in Canadian health care has been shown in some instances to facilitate quality improvements, encourage buy in among participants, and generate high levels of satisfaction with clinical leadership and knowledge translation among participating physicians. Despite these individual success

  12. Adopting an Advanced Community Pharmacy Practice Experiential Educational Model Across Colleges of Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Rodis, Pharm.D., BCPS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the experience of sharing an experiential model of education and practice development between two colleges of pharmacy and to provide a framework to guide faculty in this type of collaboration.Case Study: The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy (OSU COP Partner for Promotion (PFP program was developed in response to the need for advancing practice in the community pharmacy setting. After successful implementation of this program, the PFP program design and materials were shared, adapted, and implemented at the University of Utah College of Pharmacy (Utah COP. Collaborating faculty developed a framework based on lessons learned through this experience which proposes key guiding strategies as considerations to address prior to embarking on sharing any aspect of an educational program or model between institutions. Each step of the framework is described and applied to the process followed by The OSU COP and Utah COP in sharing the PFP program. Additional considerations related to transfer of educational models are discussed.Results/Conclusion: Sharing the education model and materials associated with the PFP program between institutions has enhanced experiential opportunities for students and helped develop residency training sites in the community setting. In addition, the relationship between the two colleges has contributed to faculty development, as well as an increase in community pharmacy service development with community pharmacy partners at each institution. It is hoped this experience will help guide collaborations between other colleges of pharmacy to enhance education of future pharmacists while positively impacting pharmacy practice, teaching, and research by faculty.

  13. Adapting a community of practice model to design an innovative ethics curriculum in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Sudeshni; Vernillo, Anthony T

    2014-01-01

    The focus of healthcare ethics within the framework of ethical principles and philosophical foundations has always, in recent times, been the community, namely, the healthcare provider, the patient or, in research, the study participant. An initiative is thus described whereby a community of practice (CoP) model was developed around health ethics in health research, education and clinical care. The ethics curriculum was redesigned to include several components that are integrated and all embracing, namely, health research ethics, healthcare ethics, health personnel education in ethics and global and public health ethics. A CoP is a group who share a common interest and a desire to learn from and contribute to the community with their variety of experiences. The CoP is dynamic and organic, generating knowledge that can be translated into effective healthcare delivery and ethical research. It requires the collaboration and social presence of active participants such as community members, healthcare professionals and educators, ethicists and policy makers to benefit the community by developing approaches that adapt to and resonate with the community and its healthcare needs. Philosophical principles constitute the foundation or underpinning of this innovative curriculum. Recommendations are presented that will continue to guide the consolidation and sustainability of the CoP.

  14. Risk assessment and management: a community forensic mental health practice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Teresa; Simmons, Warren; Gregory, Esther

    2002-12-01

    In Victoria, the Crimes (Mental Impairment and Unfitness to be Tried) Act (1997) reformed legal practice in relation to the detention, management and release of persons found by a court to be not guilty on the grounds of insanity or unfit to be tried. This Act provides a legal structure for such 'forensic patients' to move from secure inpatient facilities into the community. This new legislative landscape has generated challenges for all stakeholders and has provided the impetus for the development of a risk assessment and management model. The key components of the model are the risk profile, assessment and management plan. The discussion comprises theory, legislation, practice implications and limitations of the model. Practice implications concern the provision of objective tools, which identify risk and document strategic interventions to support clinical management. Some of the practice limitations include the model's applicability to risk assessment and management and its dependence on a mercurial multi-service interface in after-hours crisis situations. In addition to this, the paper articulates human limitations implicit in the therapeutic relationship that necessarily underpins the model. The paper concludes with an exploration of the importance of evaluative processes as well as the need for formal support and education for clinicians.

  15. Community-based senior health promotion program using a collaborative practice model: the Escalante Health Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, Diane E; Armbruster, Charlotte; Phillips, Wayne T; Gale, Betty J

    2003-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that, although the risk of disease and disability clearly increases with age, poor health need not be an inevitable consequence of aging. A healthy lifestyle is more influential than genetic factors in assisting older adults avoid the decline and deterioration traditionally associated with aging. Many effective strategies for reducing disease and disability are widely underused. The Escalante Health Partnerships is a community-based, nurse-managed health promotion and chronic disease care management program for community-residing older adults. The program base supports a multidisciplinary, collaborative practice model, which has responded to the health needs of members of a community at high risk of having or developing chronic conditions. Preliminary comparisons of the health status of program participants with national norms demonstrate that these seniors report better general health, performance of roles, and social functioning, with the strongest correlations occurring between general health and vitality and between general health and role-physical. In addition, these participants have 4.2 doctor visits per year, in comparison with 7.1 office visits for a national comparison group and 1.6 hospital days per year, in comparison with 2.1 hospital days in the same referenced population. This collaborative partnership is a model that can be replicated cost-effectively in other communities.

  16. Using Evidence Based Practice in LIS Education: Results of a Test of a Communities of Practice Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Yukawa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective ‐ This study investigated the use of a communities of practice (CoP model for blended learning in library and information science (LIS graduate courses. The purposes were to: (1 test the model’s efficacy in supporting student growth related to core LIS concepts, practices, professional identity, and leadership skills, and (2 develop methods for formative and summative assessment using the model.Methods ‐ Using design‐based research principles to guide the formative and summative assessments, pre‐, mid‐, and post‐course questionnaires were constructed to test the model and administered to students in three LIS courses taught by the author. Participation was voluntary and anonymous. A total of 34 students completed the three courses; response rate for the questionnaires ranged from 47% to 95%. The pre‐course questionnaire addressed attitudes toward technology and the use of technology for learning. The mid‐course questionnaire addressed strengths and weaknesses of the course and suggestions for improvement. The post‐course questionnaire addressed what students valued about their learning and any changes in attitude toward technology for learning. Data were analyzed on three levels. Micro‐level analysis addressed technological factors related to usability and participant skills and attitudes. Meso‐level analysis addressed social and pedagogical factors influencing community learning. Macro‐level analysis addressed CoP learning outcomes, namely, knowledge of core concepts and practices, and the development of professional identity and leadership skills.Results ‐ The students can be characterized as adult learners who were neither early nor late adopters of technology. At the micro‐level, responses indicate that the online tools met high standards of usability and effectively supported online communication and learning. Moreover, the increase in positive attitudes toward the use of technology for learning at

  17. Communities of Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jürg Thölke; Donald Ropes

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about helping human resource development professionals to understand how community of practice theory can inform the design of learning-based programs in order to link individual and organizational learning better. Learning is often considered a major contributor to the success or

  18. Preparing new nurse graduates for practice in multiple settings: a community-based academic-practice partnership model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Nikki; Berman, Audrey; Karshmer, Judith; Prion, Susan; Van, Paulina; Wallace, Jonalyn

    2014-06-01

    Responding to local and national concerns about the nursing workforce, the California Institute for Nursing and Health Care worked with private and public funders and community health care partners to establish community-based transition-to-practice programs for new RN graduates unable to secure nursing positions in the San Francisco Bay Area. The goals were to retain new RN graduates in nursing and further develop their skills and competencies to increase their employability. Leaders from academic and inpatient, ambulatory, and community-based practice settings, as well as additional community partners, collaboratively provided four 12- to 16-week pilot transition programs in 2010-2011. A total of 345 unemployed new nurse graduates enrolled. Eighty-four percent of 188 respondents to a post-program survey were employed in inpatient and community settings 3 months after completion. Participants and clinical preceptors also reported increases in confidence and competence.

  19. Portraiture of constructivist parental involvement: A model to develop a community of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignam, Christopher Anthony

    This qualitative research study addressed the problem of the lack of parental involvement in secondary school science. Increasing parental involvement is vital in supporting student academic achievement and social growth. The purpose of this emergent phenomenological study was to identify conditions required to successfully construct a supportive learning environment to form partnerships between students, parents, and educators. The overall research question in this study investigated the conditions necessary to successfully enlist parental participation with students during science inquiry investigations at the secondary school level. One hundred thirteen pairs of parents and students engaged in a 6-week scientific inquiry activity and recorded attitudinal data in dialogue journals, questionnaires, open-ended surveys, and during one-one-one interviews conducted by the researcher between individual parents and students. Comparisons and cross-interpretations of inter-rater, codified, triangulated data were utilized for identifying emergent themes. Data analysis revealed the active involvement of parents in researching with their child during inquiry investigations, engaging in journaling, and assessing student performance fostered partnerships among students, parents, and educators and supported students' social skills development. The resulting model, employing constructivist leadership and enlisting parent involvement, provides conditions and strategies required to develop a community of practice that can help effect social change. The active involvement of parents fostered improved efficacy and a holistic mindset to develop in parents, students, and teachers. Based on these findings, the interactive collaboration of parents in science learning activities can proactively facilitate a community of practice that will assist educators in facilitating social change.

  20. Science-based prevention through communities that care: a model of social work practice for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Kevin P; Shapiro, Valerie B

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a public health orientation to drug and alcohol abuse prevention; reviews the state of the science underlying a risk and protective factor approach to alcohol and drug abuse prevention; describes Communities That Care, a community practice model that makes use of this evidence; and considers how this model reflects four important principles of social work practice. The intent of this article is to provide guidance to social workers who support the National Association of Social Work's intention to make prevention practice central to the provision of alcohol and drug abuse services by social workers.

  1. Community Engagement by Higher Education Institutions--A Practical Model and Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, E.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the definition and understanding of the concept community engagement as one of the focal areas of Higher Education Institutions in South Africa. It captures the importance of a proper approach towards community engagement and contributes towards a practical method to guide the reader through the complex interaction between…

  2. Empowering marginalized communities in water resources management: addressing inequitable practices in Participatory Model Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Cameron; Adamowski, Jan

    2015-04-15

    Within the field of water resource management, Group Model Building (GMB) is a growing method used to engage stakeholders in the development of models that describe environmental and socioeconomic systems to create and test policy alternatives. While there is significant focus on improving stakeholder engagement, there is a lack of studies specifically looking at the experiences of marginalized communities and the barriers that prevent their fuller participation in the decision-making process. This paper explores the common issues and presents recommended improved practices, based on anti-oppression, related to the stages of problem framing, stakeholder identification and selection, workshop preparation, and workshop facilitation. For problem defining and stakeholder selection, the major recommendations are to engage diverse stakeholder communities from the earliest stages and give them control over framing the project scope. With regards to planning the model building workshops, it is recommended that the facilitation team work closely with marginalized stakeholders to highlight and address barriers that would prevent their inclusion. With the actual facilitation of the workshops, it is best to employ activities that allow stakeholders to provide knowledge and input in mediums that are most comfortable to them; additionally, the facilitation team needs to be able to challenge problematic interpersonal interactions as they manifest within conversations. This article focuses on building comfortability with political language so that the systemic oppression in which existing participatory processes occur can be understood, thus allowing GMB practitioners to engage in social justice efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Communities of Practice in an Arabic Culture: Wenger’s Model and the United Arab Emirates Implications for Online Learning

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    Mark LAMONTAGNE

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Communities of Practice in an Arabic Culture: Wenger’s Model and the United Arab Emirates Implications for Online Learning Mark LAMONTAGNE, M.Ed. Canadore College Ontorio, CANADA ABSTRACT With the advent of globalization and the proliferation of online learning, the creation of culturally sensitive online learning environments takes on increasing importance. Online education provides new opportunities for learners from different cultural backgrounds to come together, learn, expand their knowledge, share ideas, and develop passion for their vocation. Emerging models of how communities work, such as Communities of Practice (CoPs are being increasingly used to understand how online communities might grow and develop. Schwen & Hara (2003 outline 4 stages of design necessary to ensure that CoPs are properly designed for an online environment: phase 1 Possible Design Interventions, phase 2 Analysis, phase 3 Design and, phase 4 Evaluation and Revision. Phase 1 and phase 2 of this design model are considered in this study, in light of Etienne Wenger’s (2002 elements of a Community of Practice: domain, community and practice. These elements are considered in order to gauge the degree to which they can be applied in an Arab educational culture. The investigation focuses on College-level education in the United Arab Emirates (UAE, and the government-supported Higher Colleges of Technology (HCT system. By analyzing faculty perceptions related to the students’ propensity to adopt Community of Practice elements into their educational culture, we can provide guidance for the design of online learning that supports a cross-cultural Community of Practice, specifically as it relates to phase 1 and phase 2 of Schwen and Hara’s design structure.

  4. Improving Integrated Care: Modelling the performance of an online community of practice

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    Ángel Díaz-Chao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This article aims to confirm the following core hypothesis: a Community of Practice’s use of a Web 2.0 platform for communication between primary and hospital care leads to improved primary care and fewer hospital referrals. This core hypothesis will be corroborated by testing a further five partial hypotheses that complete the main hypothesis being estimated.Methods: An ad-hoc questionnaire was designed and sent to a sample group of 357 professionals from the Badalona-Sant Adrià de Besòs Primary Care Service in Catalonia, Spain, which includes nine primary care centres and three specialist care centres. The study sample was formed by 159 respondents. The partial least squares methodology was used to estimate the model of the causal relationship and the proposed hypotheses.Results: It was found that when healthcare staff used social networks and information and communication technologies professionally, and the more contact hours they have with patients, the more a Web 2.0 platform was likely to be used for communication between primary and hospital care professionals. Such use led to improved primary care and fewer hospital referrals according to the opinions of health professionals on its use.Conclusions: The research suggests that the efficiency of medical practice is explained by the intensity of Web 2.0 platform use for communication between primary and specialist care professionals. Public policies promoting the use of information and communication technologies in communities of practice should go beyond the technological dimension and consider other professional, organisational and social determinants.

  5. Modelling Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with the practicalities of building, testing, deploying and maintaining models. It gives specific advice for each phase of the modelling cycle. To do this, a modelling framework is introduced which covers: problem and model definition; model conceptualization; model data...... requirements; model construction; model solution; model verification; model validation and finally model deployment and maintenance. Within the adopted methodology, each step is discussedthrough the consideration of key issues and questions relevant to the modelling activity. Practical advice, based on many...... years of experience is providing in directing the reader in their activities.Traps and pitfalls are discussed and strategies also given to improve model development towards “fit-for-purpose” models. The emphasis in this chapter is the adoption and exercise of a modelling methodology that has proven very...

  6. Models of differentiated practice and specialization in community nursing: a review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.G.M.; Kerkstra, A.; Huijer Abu-Saad, H.; Zee, J. van der

    1996-01-01

    In most agencies for community nursing at least two types of nurse are employed. To ensure efficient use of personnel and high quality of nursing care, the principles of differentiated practice and specialization are used. It is suggested that these types of work redesign will have consequences for

  7. Models of differentiated practice and specialization in community nursing: a review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.G.M.; Kerkstra, A.; Huijer Abu-Saad, H.; Zee, J. van der

    1996-01-01

    In most agencies for community nursing at least two types of nurse are employed. To ensure efficient use of personnel and high quality of nursing care, the principles of differentiated practice and specialization are used. It is suggested that these types of work redesign will have consequences for

  8. Service Learning and Community-Based Partnerships: A Model for Teaching Macro Practice Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandan, Monica; Scott, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an innovative project that combined service learning and community-based partnerships to teach macro practice skills to social work students and citizenship skills to primary school students. The partners, a small social work program, several primary schools, and an internationally recognized civic engagement program,…

  9. A practical approach to Model Predictive Control (MPC) for solar communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Humberto

    Solar district heating (SDH) systems are part of the solution to reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions required for space heating. This kind of installation takes advantage of the convenience of a centralized system and of solar energy to reduce dependency on fossil-fuels. An SDH system is a proven concept that can be enhanced with the addition of long-term thermal energy storage to compensate the seasonal disparity between solar energy supply and heating load demand. These systems are especially deployed in Europe. In Canada, the only SDH installation is the Drake Landing Solar Community (DLSC). This project, which includes seasonal storage (Borehole Thermal Energy Storage-BTES), has been a remarkable success, reaching a solar fraction of 97% by the fifth year of operation. An SDH system cannot be complete without an appropriate supervisory control that coordinates the operation and interaction of system components. The control is based on a set of rules that must consider the system's internal status and external conditions to guarantee occupant comfort with minimal fossil-fuels consumption. This research project is mainly focused on conceiving and assessing new control mechanisms aiming towards an increase of SDH systems' overall energy efficiency. The case study is the DLSC plant, and the proposed control strategies are based on the practical application of Model Predictive Control (MPC) theory. A calibrated model of DLSC including the supervisory control strategies was developed in TRNSYS, building upon the model used for design studies. The model was improved and new components were created when needed. The calibration process delivered a very good agreement for the most important yearly energy performance indices (2 % for solar heat input to the district and for gas consumption, and 5 % for electricity use). Proposed control strategies were conceived for modifying four aspects of the current control: the parameters that define the interaction between

  10. A national clinician–educator program: a model of an effective community of practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R. Frank

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing complexity of medical training often requires faculty members with educational expertise to address issues of curriculum design, instructional methods, assessment, program evaluation, faculty development, and educational scholarship, among others. Discussion: In 2007, The Royal College of Physicians & Surgeons of Canada responded to this need by establishing the first national clinician–educator program. We define a clinician–educator and describe the development of the program. Adopting a construct from the business community, we use a community of practice framework to describe the benefits (with examples of this program and challenges in developing it. The benefits of the clinician–educator program include: improved educational problem solving, recognition of educational needs and development of new projects, enhanced personal educational expertise, maintenance of professional satisfaction and retention of group members, a positive influence within the Royal College, and a positive influence within other Canadian academic institutions. Summary: Our described experience of a social reorganization – a community of practice – suggests that the organizational and educational benefits of a national clinician–educator program are not theoretical, but real.

  11. Curriculum-Integrated Information Literacy (CIIL) in a Community College Nursing Program: A Practical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüelles, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a strategy to integrate information literacy into the curriculum of a nursing program in a community college. The model is articulated in four explained phases: preparatory, planning, implementation, and evaluation. It describes a collaborative process encouraging librarians to work with nursing faculty, driving students to…

  12. Curriculum-Integrated Information Literacy (CIIL) in a Community College Nursing Program: A Practical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüelles, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a strategy to integrate information literacy into the curriculum of a nursing program in a community college. The model is articulated in four explained phases: preparatory, planning, implementation, and evaluation. It describes a collaborative process encouraging librarians to work with nursing faculty, driving students to…

  13. Community Dissemination of the Early Start Denver Model: Implications for Science and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vismara, Laurie A.; Young, Gregory S.; Rogers, Sally J.

    2013-01-01

    The growing number of Autism Spectrum Disorder cases exceeds the services available for these children. This increase challenges both researchers and service providers to develop systematic, effective dissemination strategies for transporting university research models to community early intervention (EI) programs. The current study developed an…

  14. Community of Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch-Jensen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The concept of “communities of practice” is of relatively recent date. The concept gained momentum with Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger’s book from 1991, Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Since then, the notion of “communities of practice” has been a focus of attention, not least...

  15. A Novel Model for Teaching Primary Care in a Community Practice Setting: Tufts at Tech Community Veterinary Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCobb, Emily; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Malcolm, Elizabeth A; Wolfus, Gregory; Rush, John E

    2017-09-01

    Providing veterinary students with opportunities to develop clinical skills in a realistic, hands-on environment remains a challenge for veterinary education. We have developed a novel approach to teaching clinical medicine to fourth-year veterinary students and technical high school students via development of a primary care clinic embedded within a technical high school. The primary care clinic targets an underserved area of the community, which includes many of the participating high school students. Support from the veterinary community for the project has been strong as a result of communication, the opportunity for veterinarians to volunteer in the clinic, and the careful targeting of services. Benefits to veterinary students include the opportunity to build clinical competencies and confidence, as well as the exposure to a diverse client population. The financial model of the clinic is described and initial data on outcomes for case load, clinic income, veterinary student evaluations, and high school students' success in passing the veterinary assisting examination are reported. This clinical model, involving a partnership between a veterinary school and a technical high school, may be adoptable to other clinical teaching situations.

  16. Developing Learning Communities: Using Communities of Practice within Community Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawthom, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The idea that communities need to be inclusive is almost axiomatic. The process, whereby, community members engage in inclusive practices is far less understood. Similarly, UK universities are being encouraged to include the wider community and extent campus boundaries. Here, I suggest a particular theoretical lens which sheds light on engagement…

  17. Lebensphasen von Communities of Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Maier, M.

    2014-01-01

    Interdependencies between organizations are constantly increasing. Hence, more companies and employees are engaged in inter-organizational Communities of Practice (CoP). This paper focuses on the life cycle of such communities, using the case example of a German innovation network. For this reason...

  18. Lebensphasen von Communities of Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Maier, M.

    2014-01-01

    Interdependencies between organizations are constantly increasing. Hence, more companies and employees are engaged in inter-organizational Communities of Practice (CoP). This paper focuses on the life cycle of such communities, using the case example of a German innovation network. For this reason...

  19. Community pharmacy practice in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nousheen Aslam

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: This study concludes that the current status of community pharmacy practice is below par. There is a need to involve more pharmacists at community level and develop awareness programs to counter patients′ routine drug issues and reducing the burden of disease from society.

  20. Discourse Communities and Communities of Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogner, Karl-Heinz

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at giving a more detailed description and discussion of two concepts of `community' developed in the research areas of text production/ writing and social learning / information management / knowledge sharing and comparing them with each other. The purpose of this theoretical exer...... production at different Danish workplaces (a consulting engi-neering company, a university department and a bank) and discusses their significance in the context of co-located as well as geographically distrib-uted communities.......This paper aims at giving a more detailed description and discussion of two concepts of `community' developed in the research areas of text production/ writing and social learning / information management / knowledge sharing and comparing them with each other. The purpose of this theoretical exer......-cise is to determine the degree to which the concepts of discourse commu-nity and community of practice are suitable for investigating the social and organizational context of text and knowledge production. Finally, the paper examines the explanatory value of the two concepts for analyzing text and knowledge...

  1. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis screening for school, community, and clinical health promotion practice utilizing the PRECEDE-PROCEED model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyatt Lawrence A

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS is a commonly performed procedure for school children during the high risk years. The PRECEDE-PROCEDE (PP model is a health promotion planning model that has not been utilized for the clinical diagnosis of AIS. The purpose of this research is to study AIS in the school age population using the PP model and its relevance for community, school, and clinical health promotion. Methods MEDLINE was utilized to locate AIS data. Studies were screened for relevance and applicability under the auspices of the PP model. Where data was unavailable, expert opinion was utilized based on consensus. Results The social assessment of quality of life is limited with few studies approaching the long-term effects of AIS. Epidemiologically, AIS is the most common form of scoliosis and leading orthopedic problem in children. Behavioral/environmental studies focus on discovering etiologic relationships yet this data is confounded because AIS is not a behavioral. Illness and parenting health behaviors can be appreciated. The educational diagnosis is confounded because AIS is an orthopedic disorder and not behavioral. The administration/policy diagnosis is hindered in that scoliosis screening programs are not considered cost-effective. Policies are determined in some schools because 26 states mandate school scoliosis screening. There exists potential error with the Adam's test. The most widely used measure in the PP model, the Health Belief Model, has not been utilized in any AIS research. Conclusion The PP model is a useful tool for a comprehensive study of a particular health concern. This research showed where gaps in AIS research exist suggesting that there may be problems to the implementation of school screening. Until research disparities are filled, implementation of AIS screening by school, community, and clinical health promotion will be compromised. Lack of data and perceived importance by

  2. Reflecting on Research Practices and Indigenous Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reflecting on Research Practices and Indigenous Community Benefits for Poverty ... of various research projects within indigenous communities that brought forth ... Best research practices as well as practices that do not yield much success ...

  3. The concept of rural community practice (RCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, N Ole; Evans, Brian; King, Lonnie J

    2006-01-01

    The need to devote more human resources to veterinary public practice to cope with escalating threats to biological security, public health, and economic prosperity, while also addressing societal value changes, has been widely recognized and supported. Most envisage increasing the numbers of veterinarians in government employment. Why not at least combine this initiative, wherever possible, with far greater involvement of rural practitioners to deliver contractual public-practice services and provide an enhanced community interface? This could make the difference between having a local practice in a community or none at all, as well as promising to be more cost effective. The concept of rural community practice (RCP) envisages combining traditional services provided in a "mixed-animal" veterinary practice with an expanded portfolio of public-practice and communication services that meet the emerging animal, public, and ecosystem health needs of the collective community, not just those of animal owners. These services could include those involving active sentinel surveillance programs for both domestic animal and wildlife diseases; on-farm food safety; bio-security; traceability and export certification and audit programs; disease investigation, including foreign animal diseases; surge capacity emergency response; managing for ecosystem health; and client and community education. An expanded practice team of animal-health professionals and technologists, led by veterinarians, would deliver these services. This RCP approach should have the potential to make rural practice more attractive from economic, lifestyle, and job-satisfaction perspectives; to enhance the visibility and recognition of the profession; and to respond to changing and new societal needs. It also promises to maintain a stable network of veterinary practices in rural communities. In addition, the recognition of veterinary medicine as a public good should provide for consideration of increased

  4. Applications of Situated Learning to Foster Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds-Cady, Cynthia; Sosulski, Marya R.

    2012-01-01

    The authors discuss 2 macro-level community practice courses, examining how each applies the concepts of situated learning to foster the development of communities of practice through use of a unique model for antioppressive practice. The theoretical underpinnings and a discussion of the implementation of each stage of the model is provided. The…

  5. Learning from Decoding across Disciplines and within Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Young, Janice; Boman, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    This final chapter synthesizes the findings and implications derived from applying the Decoding the Disciplines model across disciplines and within communities of practice. We make practical suggestions for teachers and researchers who wish to apply and extend this work.

  6. Leaving Alinsu: Towards a Transformative Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePalma, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Wenger's portrait of Alinsu insurance claims processors as elaborated in "Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity" remains closely associated with the community of practice model. The enduring metaphor of Alinsu has limited the scope of Wenger's theory to relatively simplistic, closed, and reproductive systems. The model has both…

  7. Using intentional analysis to model knowledge management requirements in communities of practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guizzardi-Silva Souza, R.; Perini, Anna; Dignum, Virginia

    2003-01-01

    This working document presents a Knowledge Management (KM) fictitious scenario to be modeled using Intentional Analysis in order to guide us on choosing the appropriate Information System support for the given situation. In this scenario, a newcomer in a knowledge organization decides to join an

  8. Examining Electronic Learning Communities through the Communities of Practice Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Jayme N.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative interpretive case study used Wenger's (1998) communities of practice (CoP) framework to analyze how the electronic learning community (eLC) process at an established state virtual high school operated like a community of practice. Components of the eLC process were analyzed according to elements of the CoP framework, which…

  9. Developing model-based public health policy through knowledge translation: the need for a 'Communities of Practice'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driedger, S M; Cooper, E J; Moghadas, S M

    2014-06-01

    The 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic prompted public health agencies worldwide to respond in a context of substantial uncertainty. While many lessons around successful management strategies were learned during the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, the usefulness and impact of mathematical models to optimize policy decisions in protecting public health were poorly realized. The authors explored the experiences of modellers and public health practitioners in trying to develop model-based public health policies in the management of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in Canada. A qualitative case study design based on interviews and other textual data was used. Individual interviews were conducted with mathematical modellers and public health professionals from academia and government health departments during the second wave of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic (both prior to and following the vaccine roll-out), using a convergent interviewing process. Interviews were supplemented with discussions held during three separate workshops involving representatives from these groups on the role of modelling in pandemic preparedness and responses. NVivo9™ was used to analyse interview data and associated notes. Mathematical models were underutilized during the response phase of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, largely because many public health professionals were unaware of modelling infrastructure in Canada. Challenges were reflected in three ways: 1) the relevance of models to public health priorities; 2) the need for clear communication and plain language around modelling and its contributions and limitations; and 3) the need for increased trust and collaboration to develop strong working relationships. Developing a 'Communities of Practice' between public health professionals and mathematical modellers during inter-pandemic periods based on common targeted goals, using plain language, and where relationships between individuals and organizations are developed

  10. Communities of Practice: Literacy and Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, Ann-Elise; Simonsen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to discuss young deaf children's access to literacy within a sociocultural perspective. We introduce the concept of communities of practice as an aspect in early literacy development for young deaf children. Preschools are learning communities and thus constitute communities of practice. Our discussion on the use of communities…

  11. Communities of Practice in the School Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Patricia; Brekelmans, Mieke; Nieuwenhuis, Loek; Simons, Robert-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The first aim of this study is to explore to what extent communities of practice occur in the school workplace. The second aim is to explore the relation between communities of practice and diversity in composition of teacher teams. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative as well as qualitative data were gathered from seven teacher…

  12. Communities of Practice in the School Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Patricia; Brekelmans, Mieke; Nieuwenhuis, Loek; Simons, Robert-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The first aim of this study is to explore to what extent communities of practice occur in the school workplace. The second aim is to explore the relation between communities of practice and diversity in composition of teacher teams. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative as well as qualitative data were gathered from seven teacher…

  13. Learning Community Assessment 101--Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Juan Carlos; Hansen, Michele J.

    2013-01-01

    Good assessment is part of all good learning communities, and this article provides a useful set of best practices for learning community assessment planning: (1) articulating agreed-upon learning community program goals; (2) identifying the purpose of assessment (e.g., summative or formative); (3) employing qualitative and quantitative assessment…

  14. Toward a Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Eduardo J.; Kutnowski, Martin; Gray, Peter

    2004-01-01

    For over 100 years, community colleges have been rightly seen as institutions designed to have an intimate relation to the community they serve. In order to know about the educational needs of the local communities, they were mandated to conduct frequent surveys and subsequently adapt the programs of study. Since its founding in 1959,…

  15. Reference Communities: Applying the Community of Practice Concept to Development of Reference Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robin E.

    2011-01-01

    Communities of practice offer reference librarians a conceptual model through which to develop and maintain general and subject specific knowledge. Reference librarians acquire general and subject-specific knowledge in many ways, sometimes independently and sometimes collaboratively. Applying the concept of the "community of practice" to reference…

  16. COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE IN UNIVERSITY: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARGARISOVÁ, Klára

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been a lot written about the benefits of communities of practice (CoP in university. The benefit of the communities of practice was described with respect to teachers’ qualification and teaching competencies influencing students implicitly as well as to areas related to the students themselves. Many studies prove the fact that the process of learning is of a social character (e.g. Lave, Wenger, 1991. That is why the communities of practice present suitable environment for collaborative learning which makes the process of generating, sharing and storing knowledge easier. The present paper defines on a theoretical level the concept of the communities of practice and moreover, provides a brief overview of the latest research in the communities of practice with regard to education. Another part of the article focuses on the pre-research of the communities of practice at Faculty of Economics and Management (FEM Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS. Although the authors conform with the opinion that the communities of practice are a natural feature and spontaneously develop wherever there is a need for sharing implicit or tacit knowledge, the pre-research focused on the verification of this premise in order to continue in the research of a quantitative character. The existence of the communities of practice was verified on the basis of fundamental characteristics following Wenger’s model. Other characteristics, considered significant in relation to the communities of practice by McDermott were also investigated. Based on a group interview the existence of the communities of practice of the students at FEM at CULS has been verified and a conceptual model was created. The determined work prerequisites will be investigated in another phase of the research.

  17. Conceptual Model of Physics Teacher Preparation: Developing Habits of Mind and Practice through Apprenticeship in a Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etkina, Eugenia

    2017-01-01

    This talk will describe a conceptual framework aimed at providing a better understanding of the process of physics teacher formation. Literature on teacher preparation suggests that pre-service teachers (PSTs) learn best when they are immersed in a community, which shares a common vision of good teaching and helps PSTs develop requisite knowledge, skills, and dispositions consistent with that vision. However, often due to the time pressures and complexities of classroom environment a teacher cannot afford multiple considerations and deliberations with oneself before every decision. We therefore suggest that good teacher preparation programs should, in addition to the knowledge, skills and dispositions, strive to develop in PSTs productive habits. We group these habits into habits of mind, habits of practice and habits of maintenance and improvement. I will present examples of those and provide suggestions on how to structure physics teacher preparation program to help future physics teachers develop these habits.

  18. Assessment of pharmaceutical care practices of community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of pharmaceutical care practices of community pharmacists in patients with co-morbidity of hypertension and diabetes in Delta state. ... The most encountered drug therapy problem was non- compliance. The low level of ...

  19. EPA CHEMICAL PRIORITIZATION COMMUNITY OF PRACTICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IN 2005 THE NATIONAL CENTER FOR COMPUTATIONAL TOXICOLOGY (NCCT) ORGANIZED EPA CHEMICAL PRIORITIATION COMMUNITY OF PRACTICE (CPCP) TO PROVIDE A FORUM FOR DISCUSSING THE UTILITY OF COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY, HIGH-THROUGHPUT SCREENIG (HTS) AND VARIOUS TOXICOGENOMIC TECHNOLOGIES FOR CH...

  20. Communities of practice as a professional and organizational development strategy in local public health organizations in Quebec, Canada: an evaluation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Lucie; Chiocchio, François; Essiembre, Hélène; Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Lamy, Geneviève; Champagne, François; Beaudet, Nicole

    2014-02-01

    Communities of practice (CoPs) are among the professional development strategies most widely used in such fields as management and education. Though the approach has elicited keen interest, knowledge pertaining to its conceptual underpinnings is still limited, thus hindering proper assessment of CoPs' effects and the processes generating the latter. To address this shortcoming, this paper presents a conceptual model that was developed to evaluate an initiative based on a CoP strategy: Health Promotion Laboratories are a professional development intervention that was implemented in local public health organizations in Montreal (Quebec, Canada). The model is based on latest theories on work-group effectiveness and organizational learning and can be usefully adopted by evaluators who are increasingly called upon to illuminate decision-making about CoPs. Ultimately, validation of this conceptual model will help advance knowledge and practice pertaining to CoPs as well as professional and organizational development strategies in public health.

  1. Unpacking University-Community Partnerships to Advance Scholarship of Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda; Mirza, Mansha Parven; Hansen, Anne Marie Witchger

    2015-01-01

    Today, more than ever, occupational therapists are engaged in close partnerships with community organizations and community settings such as service agencies, refugee and immigrant enclaves, and faith-based organizations, to name a few, for the purpose of engaging in scholarship of practice. However, we know little about the views of community partners regarding the development and sustainability of university-community partnerships. The purpose of this article is twofold: First, we will describe a pilot study in which we gathered qualitative data from community partners engaged in scholarship of practice with faculty and students, regarding their views about benefits of partnerships, challenges, and characteristics of sustainable partnerships. Second, based on this pilot study and extensive experience of the authors, we propose a revised version of a partnerships model available in the literature. We illustrate the model through examples of the authors' collective experiences developing and sustaining successful university-community partnerships.

  2. Electronic Learning Communities: Issues and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisman, Sorel, Ed.; Flores, John G., Ed.; Edge, Denzil, Ed.

    This book provides information for researchers and practitioners on the current issues and best practices associated with electronic learning communities. Fourteen contributed chapters include: "Interactive Online Educational Experiences: E-volution of Graded Projects" (James Benjamin); "Hybrid Courses as Learning Communities" (Penelope Walters…

  3. Wind Farms Community Engagement Good Practice Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aitken, Mhairi; Haggett, Claire; Rudolph, David Philipp

    2014-01-01

    This report sets out the findings of a review of community engagement for wind farm developments. We focus in particular on the engagement carried out by developers with communities. The aims of the study were to evaluate current good practice for engaging people in decision making about on...

  4. Nurturing communities of practice for transdisciplinary research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Cundill

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Transdisciplinary research practice has become a core element of global sustainability science. Transdisciplinary research brings with it an expectation that people with different backgrounds and interests will learn together through collective problem solving and innovation. Here we introduce the concept of "transdisciplinary communities of practice, " and draw on both situated learning theory and transdisciplinary practice to identify three key lessons for people working in, managing, or funding such groups. (1 Opportunities need to be purposefully created for outsiders to observe activities in the core group. (2 Communities of practice cannot be artificially created, but they can be nurtured. (3 Power matters in transdisciplinary communities of practice. These insights challenge thinking about how groups of people come together in pursuit of transdisciplinary outcomes, and call for greater attention to be paid to the social processes of learning that are at the heart of our aspirations for global sustainability science.

  5. Community Teaching Practice for Greater Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siao-cing Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experience has been considered a vital part of teacher education. Universities have to search for ways for student teachers to gain experience in an authentic teaching environment. Several successful models incorporating service learning have been reported across fields (Brooks & Schramm, 2007; Nandan, 2010; Salas, Safaradan, & Ugarte, 2008, but there is still insufficient research found that combined English teacher preparation and service learning (Hsieh, 2002. Consequently, this researcher incorporated service learning into an English methodology course in Taiwan to engage students in higher learning experiences that take them beyond traditional teacher training. This paper describes a four-stage process of community service teaching, presenting its benefits and challenges. This study which incorporated quantitative and qualitative methodologies proved that teaching practices in collaboration with community libraries created three-way benefits: advancing the quality of college education and bringing valuable learning opportunities to the student teachers as well as the children who participated; and creating memorable experiences for the students and the communities that participated. Keywords: service learning, teacher preparation, university partnership, higher education

  6. Communities of Practice: The Organizational Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Etienne C.; Snyder, William M.

    2000-01-01

    Communities of practice are groups of people informally bound by shared expertise and passion for joint enterprise. In organizations that value knowledge, they can help drive strategy, solve problems quickly, transfer best practices, develop professional skills, and help recruit and retain talented employees. (SK)

  7. Effects of Training on Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Malaria Prevention and Control among Community Role Model Care Givers in South Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olalekan, Adebimpe W; Adebukola, Adebimpe M

    2015-10-01

    Malaria is endemic in Nigeria, with significant records of mortality and morbidity. Adequate community involvement is central to a successful implementation of malaria control programs. This study assessed the effects of a training programme on knowledge of malaria prevention and control among community role model care givers. A descriptive cross sectional study of a pre-and post-test design method was conducted among 400 eligible community members in Osun State. Training was given in the form of organized lectures, health education and practical demonstration sessions. Scores of pre-test and post-test conducted after four months interval were compared. Multistage sampling method was adopted in selecting study participants, while data was analyzed using the SPSS software version 17.0. Mean age was 43.8 (±1.4) years. Average knowledge score of cause, transmission, risk factors and consequences, awareness of common symptoms and preventive practices improved during post-training test when compared with pr-training test. The overall descriptive mean knowledge score in pre-test and post-test were 2.1 and 3.5 respectively out of an average maximum score of 5.0, giving an increment of 66.7%. Role model care givers with formal education were twice and three times more likely to know about disease 'transmission' (OR 1.9, 95%CI 0.11-0.19, p=0.002) and 'consequences' (OR 2.9, 95%CI 0.25-0.65, p=0.040) respectively compared to those without formal education. Training on malaria improved the knowledge of malaria prevention and control among role model community care givers towards a successful implementation of malaria control programmes.

  8. 社区药学服务实践及模式创建%Practice and the model establishment of community pharmaceutical care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠壮

    2011-01-01

    Practice experience, establishment of the model, the evaluation index system and the beneficial results in respect of community pharmaceutical care are introduced in this paper. Meanwhile, the main problems are discussed and the way to resolve the problems are also pointed out.%介绍从事社区药学服务的工作实践、模式创建、评价指标及该模式产生的各种良好结果等,并就存在的问题进行讨论,指出解决方法.

  9. Community organizing goes to college: A practice-based model of community organizing to implement environmental strategies to reduce high-risk drinking on college campuses

    OpenAIRE

    Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Rhodes, Scott D.; Lentz, Ashley W.; Wolfson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Community organizing is a successful method to leverage resources and build community capacity to identify and intervene upon health issues. However, published accounts documenting the systematic facilitation of the process are limited. This qualitative analysis explored community organizing using data collected as part of the Study to Prevent Alcohol Related Consequences (SPARC), a randomized community trial of 10 North Carolina colleges focused on reducing consequences of high-risk drinking...

  10. Developing communities of interprofessional practice: using a communities of practice framework for interprofessional education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterrett, Susan E; Hawkins, Susan R; Hertweck, Mark L; Schreiber, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    Development of interprofessional education programs that meet new Interprofessional Education Collaborative competencies is a challenge for faculty and administrators. This article describes a curricular design that places students in learning communities over a 2-year period with a plan for 5 learning sessions. Communities of practice is the theoretical framework of the curricular design, creating interprofessional clinicians capable of effective collaborative practice.

  11. The power of practice and community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørring, Lise

    2013-01-01

    To combat environmental problems, it is necessary to investigate and draw inspiration from people who live in environmentally friendly ways. This paper describes an environmentalist community in El Bolson, Argentina, and identifies some of the key factors that explain its success. El Bolson is well...... known in Latin America for being a centre for citizen driven environmental action and for environmentally friendly living. Based on anthropological fieldwork, the paper presents and analyses how the environmentalist community in El Bolson is organised, and shows how practice and community are two...... decisive driving forces. These driving forces can be used to inspire environmentally friendly actions elsewhere....

  12. A Modular Pharmacy Practice Laboratory Course Integrating Role-Playing Scenarios with Community and Hospital Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, John W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the development and evolution of a modular pharmacy practice course that uses practitioners as role-model instructors in prepared and impromptu scenarios. The course reviews the top 200 drug products while introducing students to both community and institutional practice settings. Appendices include a summary of the…

  13. Canadian community pharmacists' use of digital health technologies in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Valerie; Tharmalingam, Sukirtha; Cooper, Janet; Charlebois, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, a pan-Canadian study on the current state and benefits of provincial drug information systems (DIS) found that substantial benefits were being realized and that pharmacists perceived DIS to be a valuable tool in the evolving models of pharmacy practice. To understand changes in digital health and the impact on practice since that time, a survey of community pharmacists in Canada was conducted. In 2014, Canada Health Infoway (Infoway) and the Canadian Pharmacists Association (CPhA) invited community pharmacists to participate in a Web-based survey to understand their use and perceived benefits of digital health in practice. The survey was open from April 15 to May 12, 2014. Of the 447 survey responses, almost all used some form of digital health in practice. Those with access to DIS and provincial laboratory information systems (LIS) reported increased productivity and better quality of care. Those without access to these systems would overwhelmingly like access. There have been significant advances in digital health and community pharmacy practice over the past several years. In addition to digital health benefits in the areas of productivity and quality of care, pharmacists are also experiencing substantial benefits in areas related to recently expanded scope of practice activities such as ordering lab tests. Community pharmacists frequently use digital health in practice and recognize the benefits of these technologies. Digital health is, and will continue to be, a key enabler for practice transformation and improved quality of care. Can Pharm J (Ott) 2016;149:xx-xx.

  14. Communities of Practice in Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortier, Kathleen; Hunt, Pam; Leroy, Mieke; Van de Putte, Inge; Van Hove, Geert

    2010-01-01

    The data in this paper represent the experiences and perspectives of parents and teachers who worked as communities of practice, designing support plans for the inclusion of three students with intellectual disabilities in general education classrooms. Their reflections, obtained through interviews and questionnaires, show how they constructed…

  15. Knowledge Retrieval through Virtual Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammelgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) manages knowledge retrieval by employees when they need to access documents written by colleagues in geographically distant units. CSC's establishment of virtual communities of practice facilitates the coordination of knowledge, and minimises contextual gaps between senders and…

  16. Community College Model Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, Rosalind Latiner

    This paper argues that community college models, especially in developing countries, can be victims of the vocational school fallacy, which holds that that two-year vocational/technical schools that ignore a general education foundation may not be an optimal means for solving worker needs. In addition, globalization has hastened a mirroring of the…

  17. Knowledge flows in health communities of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrott, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    This article will examine a case study of an outpatient's clinic in an Australian public hospital with the objective of gaining a better understanding of the issues related to knowledge dynamics in communities of practice within a health care environment. This case study research approach was considered to provide a fine-grained approach recommended for improved understanding of nuances, detail, and the forces underlying the phenomena under observation. Focus on detail was an important attribute of this study notwithstanding possible shortcomings in not being able to externalize the research findings. Of the four modes of knowledge exchange observed to take place in this public hospital community of practice, Mode C (tacit to explicit) stands out as a key finding. Here, the release of each individual's tacit knowledge is forthcoming and free flowing given the established culture of trust in this clinic. The informal communication environment in the luminal space of their workplace corridor provided a conducive environment that enabled a free-flowing exchange of community knowledge. Health-care managers are increasingly required to guide the use and flow of knowledge within their organizations. The insights gained from this project will provide them with a better understanding of knowledge dynamics within a health-care community of practice, which is a microcosm of the larger organization.

  18. A Plan for the Reorganization of the Family Practice Program at Irwin Army Community Hospital Using a Managed Care Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-25

    35 Reliability and Validity .............................. 35 III . REULTS ................................................... 36...Fanily Practice iii I would like to express my appreciation to the many people who helped me during the Adinis•rative Fesidency and in omgpleting...beneficiary population, the program needs to be structured to meet the expanded role. This • • • •• • • I Family Practice 5 paper exanie *s the existing

  19. Learning to teach in a coteaching community of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-Fox, Jennifer

    2009-12-01

    As a result of the standards and accountability reforms of the past two decades, heightened attention has been focused upon student learning in the K-12 classrooms, classroom teacher practice, and teacher preparation. This has led to the acknowledgement of limitations of traditional field practicum and that these learning experiences are not well understood (Bullough et al., 2003; Clift & Brady, 2005). Alternative models for student teaching, including those that foster social learning experiences, have been developed. However, research is necessary to understand the implications of these models for preservice teacher learning. Drawing on sociocultural theoretical frameworks and ethnographic perspectives (Gee and Green, 1998), this qualitative research study examined the learning experiences of a cohort of eight undergraduate preservice secondary science teachers who cotaught with eight cooperating teachers for their full practicum semester. In this model, interns planned and taught alongside multiple cooperating teachers and other interns. This study centers on the social and cultural learning that occurred within this networked model and the ways that the interns developed as high school science teachers within a coteaching community of practice (Wenger, 1998). This study utilized the following data sources: Intern and cooperating teachers interviews, field observations, meeting recordings, and program documentation. Analysis focused on community and interpersonal planes of development (Rogoff, 1995) in order understand of the nature of the learning experiences and the learning that was afforded through participant interactions. Several conclusions were made after the data were analyzed. On a daily basis, the interns participated in a wide range of cultural practices and in the activities of the community. The coteaching model challenged the idiosyncratic nature of traditional student teaching models by creating opportunities to learn across various classroom

  20. Context-Aware Support for Communities of Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonino da Silva Santos, L.O.; Guizzardi-Silva Souza, R.; Sinderen, van M.J.; Ferreira Pires, L.; Wagner, G.; Pereira Filho, J.G.; Konstantas, D.

    2004-01-01

    This poster concerns the need for software engineering support in providing Context-Aware solutions for Communities of Practice (CoP). We illustrate the use of an agent-oriented modeling language (AORML) for analyzing the contextual information and interactions between participating actors in a cont

  1. Cross-Cultural Communities of Practice for College Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Jack

    2014-01-01

    College readiness is a social construct requiring both student and adult preparedness. This paper used a case study methodology to explore how teaching in an early college program might promote adult college readiness in the instructors. A community of practice, enhanced by a co-teaching model, in two separate high school settings under one early…

  2. Influences on Case-Managed Community Aged Care Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Emily Chuanmei; Dunt, David; Doyle, Colleen

    2016-10-01

    Case management has been widely implemented in the community aged care setting. In this study, we aimed to explore influences on case-managed community aged care practice from the perspectives of community aged care case managers. We conducted 33 semistructured interviews with 47 participants. We drew these participants from a list of all case managers working in aged care organizations that provided publicly funded case management program(s)/packages in Victoria, Australia. We used a multilevel framework that included such broad categories of factors as structural, organizational, case manager, client, and practice factors to guide the data analysis. Through thematic analysis, we found that policy change, organizational culture and policies, case managers' professional backgrounds, clients with culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, and case management models stood out as key influences on case managers' practice. In the future, researchers can use the multilevel framework to undertake implementation research in similar health contexts.

  3. Developing communities of practice in health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus; Edwards, Kasper

    the use of SOPs. A CoP is a social community formed around a practice (e.g. ICU nursing) which induce a propensity to share experiences and thereby constitute knowledge sharing (Lave & Wenger 1991; Brown & Duguid 1991). CoP was conceived as a descriptive construct but has gained popularity and is found...... to improve practice performance, but knowledge about developing and measuring CoP is lacking (Ison et al. 2014). We propose a method to develop a CoP and the method is tested in a blood analysis unit at ‘Nordsjællands Hospital’ in Denmark. Design/methodology/approach The interventions were identified from...... current CoP research. Interventions were initiated just after baseline measurement.  The following interventions took place: The practice was operationalized narrowly as employees performing a specific operational task. The practice was chosen due to a high frequency and recurring problems. A voluntary Co...

  4. The practice role in the academic nursing community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, A B; Delahoussaye, C P; Poirrier, G P

    1996-02-01

    The practice role of nurse educators has emerged as a mechanism to unite practice, research, and education. The long-term outcome of such a synthesis should be an improvement in the quality of nursing care delivered to clients. Clinically focused nursing research designed by nurse educators who maintain a practice role or nurse clinicians who maintain a teaching role has the potential to unify and thus advance the profession. The authors discuss the historical background from which the practice role evolved, and efforts of recent nursing leaders to facilitate the incorporation of the nursing practice role by educators. Models for faculty practice are identified, and advantages of faculty practice are reviewed. The authors also describe barriers to the establishment of faculty practice, contemporary developments impacting faculty practice, and research needed to advance faculty practice. Nurse educators in many academic communities in the 1990s are discovering that not only must they produce scholarly work in addition to their teaching and service to the university and community, but that they may also be under growing pressure to be engaged in clinical practice. This pressure may be self-imposed or may be an expectation of their colleagues in nursing education or the administrators of their nursing programs. The focus of this research brief will be to describe the historical background from which this "new" role evolved, to discuss strategies or models developed to facilitate the faculty practice role, and to identify faculty practice issues that have emerged with the adoption of this role in academia. An additional focus will be to critically review faculty practice-related research performed since Chicadonz' (1987) review.

  5. Practical Marginalized Multilevel Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Michael E; Swihart, Bruce J; Caffo, Brian S; Zeger, Scott L

    2013-01-01

    Clustered data analysis is characterized by the need to describe both systematic variation in a mean model and cluster-dependent random variation in an association model. Marginalized multilevel models embrace the robustness and interpretations of a marginal mean model, while retaining the likelihood inference capabilities and flexible dependence structures of a conditional association model. Although there has been increasing recognition of the attractiveness of marginalized multilevel models, there has been a gap in their practical application arising from a lack of readily available estimation procedures. We extend the marginalized multilevel model to allow for nonlinear functions in both the mean and association aspects. We then formulate marginal models through conditional specifications to facilitate estimation with mixed model computational solutions already in place. We illustrate the MMM and approximate MMM approaches on a cerebrovascular deficiency crossover trial using SAS and an epidemiological study on race and visual impairment using R. Datasets, SAS and R code are included as supplemental materials.

  6. Community-Based Dental Education Models: An Analysis of Current Practices at U.S. Dental Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Keith A

    2016-10-01

    Community-based dental education (CBDE) enhances students' clinical expertise, improves their cultural competence, increases access to care, and fosters community engagement. As emphasis on CBDE has increased over the last decades, the aim of this survey study was to determine how CBDE is currently being implemented in U.S. dental schools. The study used a 20-item, author-designed survey emailed in April to August 2015 to 60 of the 65 U.S. dental schools, excluding those that had been recently established. Of the 60 schools, representatives of 33 responded, resulting in a 55% response rate: 70% public and 30% private. These respondents reported that the extramural sites being used the most were community clinics (90.9%), Federally Qualified Health Clinics (66.7%), public health clinics (54.5%), and Indian Health Service clinics (42.4%). The majority of responding schools (63.6%) had ten or more sites available for rotations, and the rotation lengths were 1-2 weeks (29%), 2-4 weeks (25%), 4-6 weeks (29%), 6-8 weeks (3.2%), and 8-10 weeks (12.9%). Most of the respondents (78.8%) reported that their students were unable to be assessed for clinical competencies at external clinical sites, but roughly half allowed students to receive clinical credit. After students completed their rotations, the majority of the respondents (81.8%) reported that students were required to produce a reflection, and 87.9% reported that students completed a post-rotation survey. Considering the benefits of CBDE for students' education and for improving access to oral health care, it is encouraging that over 45% of the responding schools required their students to spend four weeks or longer on external rotations.

  7. Representing Practice: Practice Models, Patterns, Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Isobel; Finlay, Janet; Fincher, Sally

    2011-01-01

    This article critiques learning design as a representation for sharing and developing practice, based on synthesis of three projects. Starting with the findings of the Mod4L Models of Practice project, it argues that the technical origins of learning design, and the consequent focus on structure and sequence, limit its usefulness for sharing…

  8. Succession Planning for Community Colleges: A Study of Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Susan Marie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply best practices for succession planning to community colleges. Succession planning is relevant to management practices in community colleges because there is a surge in retirements in higher education from the "baby boomer" generation. Community colleges need to implement a succession plan to ensure…

  9. Succession Planning for Community Colleges: A Study of Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Susan Marie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply best practices for succession planning to community colleges. Succession planning is relevant to management practices in community colleges because there is a surge in retirements in higher education from the "baby boomer" generation. Community colleges need to implement a succession plan to ensure…

  10. Deconstructing an Online Community of Practice: Teachers' Actions in the Edmodo Math Subject Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trust, Torrey

    2015-01-01

    New technologies seem to have expanded traditional face-to-face communities of practice across spatial and temporal boundaries into "online communities of practice." However, these virtual landscapes are significantly different from the context of face-to-face communities of practice that Lave and Wenger (1991) observed. This study…

  11. Searching Usenet for Virtual Communities of Practice: Using Mixed Methods to Identify the Constructs of Wenger's Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Enrique

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: This research set out to determine whether communities of practice can be entirely Internet-based by formally applying Wenger's theoretical framework to Internet collectives. Method: A model of a virtual community of practice was developed which included the constructs Wenger identified in co-located communities of practice: mutual…

  12. Participation in the community of scientific practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nadia Rahbek Dyrberg

    that the students are excited to work with a project of their own choice and interest, proud to present their result at the poster session and that the relation with the supervisor is critical to the feeling of being a part of and gaining insight into the world of scientific research....... of autonomy; the students chose the subject themselves and decide the course of action, 3) sense of relatedness; by group work and relations to the supervisors and the research groups 4) positive task value; the students works with their own interests doing authentic research and in many cases make a valuable...... contribution to an actual research project. In compliance with the idea of legitimate peripheral participation (Lave and Wegner, 1991), the students are invited into the world of scientific research and thereby taking the first step towards memberships of this community of practice. The project constitutes...

  13. Communities of Practice in Higher Education: A Challenge from the Discipline of Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Janne

    2012-01-01

    Uncritically applying a community of practice model has become rather prevalent in higher education settings (Lea, 2005). This paper attempts to return to the spirit of Lave and Wenger's earlier (1991) work and to use a community of practice perspective as a heuristic to analyse participation patterns in a final year design studio in the…

  14. Community psychology practice: expanding the impact of psychology's work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Tom

    2014-11-01

    This article introduces the reader to community psychology practice by defining the field and its key principles and then illustrating through brief case stories what community psychology practice looks like in various employment settings. An exploration of the development of the field includes a review of the competencies of community psychology practice. Finally, the emerging opportunities for community psychology practice for psychologists are outlined. Well-publicized issues such as health disparities give psychologists an opportunity to bring social problems such as racism, sexism, homophobia, and income inequality to the forefront and to create community-wide efforts to improve the ways in which people live. Community psychology practice offers psychologists a format and a set of competencies for moving forward on this work by focusing on approaches that are ecological, community centered, population based, preventive, focused on systems change and empowerment, and multidisciplinary and that bring those most affected by the issues to the heart of the decision making.

  15. Alternative models for academic family practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarnall Kimberly SH

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Future of Family Medicine Report calls for a fundamental redesign of the American family physician workplace. At the same time, academic family practices are under economic pressure. Most family medicine departments do not have self-supporting practices, but seek support from specialty colleagues or hospital practice plans. Alternative models for academic family practices that are economically viable and consistent with the principles of family medicine are needed. This article presents several "experiments" to address these challenges. Methods The basis of comparison is a traditional academic family medicine center. Apart of the faculty practice plan, our center consistently operated at a deficit despite high productivity. A number of different practice types and alternative models of service delivery were therefore developed and tested. They ranged from a multi-specialty office arrangement, to a community clinic operated as part of a federally-qualified health center, to a team of providers based in and providing care for residents of an elderly public housing project. Financial comparisons using consistent accounting across models are provided. Results Academic family practices can, at least in some settings, operate without subsidy while providing continuity of care to a broad segment of the community. The prerequisites are that the clinicians must see patients efficiently, and be able to bill appropriately for their payer mix. Conclusion Experimenting within academic practice structure and organization is worthwhile, and can result in economically viable alternatives to traditional models.

  16. The model of training the trainers in community general practice%社区全科师资培训模式效果初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈倩; 王天浩; 顾杰; 张渊; 祝蟮珠; 王宏长; 徐莉苹

    2013-01-01

    ,the test score in medical knowledge,physical examination and clinical skills of the teachers did not change significantly (P =0.794,0.674 and 0.326).The self assessment questionnaire survey of general practice teachers indicated a significant increase,especially in practice capability (t =-2.840,P =0.015) and overall quality (t =-3.017,P =0.011).After training by the teachers,the medical knowledge (t =-9.200,P =0.000),physical examination (t =-9.947,P =0.000) and clinical skills (t =-14.828,P =0.000) of 50 trainees increased markedly.Conclusions Differed from conventional training courses,the three-stage training enhances teaching ability and overall quality of community general practice teachers,and provides a effective training model.

  17. On Practical Model and Its Building of Teacher Professional Learning Community%教师专业学习共同体的实践基模及其本土化培育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓端; 龙宝新

    2012-01-01

    Teacher professional learning community (PLC) is an enterprise community, practical community and learning communitY. Analyzing its basic practical model scientifically is the premise of developing teacher professional learning community. Teacher development has such characteristics as double driving force and double subjects in teacher professional learning community. Its core mechanism is difference-based interaction, its learning content is learning curriculum and its object is creating practical theories. Arousing the developing need, paying attention to practice and consolidating the benign interactive culture are three key points in developing localized teacher professional learning community.%教师专业学习共同体(PLC)是作为专业人员的教师共同构建的事业型共同体、实践型共同体与学习型共同体。在教师专业学习共同体中,教师发展具有双驱动力和双主体特性,其核心机制是差异互动,其学习对象是学习型课程,其目标是创构实践性理论。要培育出本土化的教师专业学习共同体,必须抓住三个重要链环:成长需要的激发、实践问题的关注与良性互动文化的巩固。

  18. Community mental health nurses' perspectives of recovery-oriented practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, J; Marshall-Lucette, S

    2012-05-01

    Recovery-oriented practice, an approach aligned towards the service user perspective, has dominated the mental health care arena. Numerous studies have explored service users' accounts of the purpose, meaning and importance of 'recovery'; however, far less is known about healthcare staff confidence in its application to care delivery. A self-efficacy questionnaire and content analysis of nursing course documents were used to investigate a cohort of community mental health nurses' recovery-oriented practice and to determine the extent to which the current continuing professional development curriculum met their educational needs in this regard. Twenty-three community mental health nurses completed a self-efficacy questionnaire and 28 course documents were analysed. The findings revealed high levels of nurses' confidence in their understanding and ability to apply the recovery model and low levels of confidence were found in areas of social inclusion. The content analysis found only one course document that used the whole term 'recovery model'. The findings suggest a gap in the nurses' perceived ability and confidence in recovery-oriented practice with what is taught academically. Hence, nursing education needs to be more explicitly focused on the recovery model and its application to care delivery.

  19. Social Innovation using the Best Practice Unit model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilken, Jean Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The model of the Best Practice Unit (BPU) is a specific form of practice based research. It is a variation of the Community of Practice (CoP) as developed by Wenger, McDermott and Snyder (2002) with the specific aim to innovate a professional practice by combining learning, development and research.

  20. Communities of Practice: Professional Development Through Fostering Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N. A.; Raftery, C.; Shackleford, R.; Nelson, A.; Turney, D.

    2015-11-01

    A community of practice is a group of people informally bound together by shared expertise and passion for a joint enterprise. Through facilitated discussion, we will share best practices and research about communities of practice, and explore how they evolve as they grow. The target audience for this Special Interest Group session is Education and Public Outreach professionals who are interested in using communities of practice as a way to support the professional development of their audiences. This session will be of interest to people who want to learn more about communities of practice as well as those who are currently coordinating similar efforts. Participants will have the opportunity to share their challenges and success, as well as gain new ideas for the planning, implementation, and expansion of efforts. This session will be facilitated by the coordinators of NASA's SMD Heliophysics EPO Forum online community of practice for middle and high school science teachers.

  1. Synergizing expectation and execution for stroke communities of practice innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riopelle Richard J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regional networks have been recognized as an interesting model to support interdisciplinary and inter-organizational interactions that lead to meaningful care improvements. Existing communities of practice within the a regional network, the Montreal Stroke Network (MSN offers a compelling structure to better manage the exponential growth of knowledge and to support care providers to better manage the complex cases they must deal with in their practices. This research project proposes to examine internal and external factors that influence individual and organisational readiness to adopt national stroke best practices and to assess the impact of an e-collaborative platform in facilitating knowledge translation activities. Methods We will develop an e-collaborative platform that will include various social networking and collaborative tools. We propose to create online brainstorming sessions ('jams' around each best practice recommendation. Jam postings will be analysed to identify emergent themes. Syntheses of these analyses will be provided to members to help them identify priority areas for practice change. Discussions will be moderated by clinical leaders, whose role will be to accelerate crystallizing of ideas around 'how to' implement selected best practices. All clinicians (~200 involved in stroke care among the MSN will be asked to participate. Activities during face-to-face meetings and on the e-collaborative platform will be documented. Content analysis of all activities will be performed using an observation grid that will use as outcome indicators key elements of communities of practice and of the knowledge creation cycle developed by Nonaka. Semi-structured interviews will be conducted among users of the e-collaborative platform to collect information on variables of the knowledge-to-action framework. All participants will be asked to complete three questionnaires: the typology questionnaire, which classifies

  2. Enhancing Community Service Learning Via Practical Learning Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Ronen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of learning communities focused on analyzing social issues and educational repercussions in the field are presented in this study. The research examines the contribution of a learning community to enhancing student teachers' responsibility and their social involvement. The assumption was that participating in learning community would further implement student teachers' community social involvement while enhancing responsibility in their field of action. A questionnaire aimed to present the student teachers' attitudes involving all aspects of studying in the learning community and their social activity in the community was conducted. The findings pinpointed that there were positive contributions of the learning communities from a personal aspect such as developing self-learning, and learning about “me”, as well as broaden their teaching skills, through methodology for teacher training, and developing reflective thought. These insights can also be implemented in various educational frameworks and during service learning as part of teacher training.

  3. Communities of Practice: Using Blogs to Increase Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byington, Teresa A.

    2011-01-01

    A community of practice provides a forum for professionals to exchange ideas and discuss concerns related to the profession. Within this forum, technology can eliminate many of the constraints face-to-face communities of practice encounter by providing a convenient and highly interactive environment. A description of how to set up an online…

  4. Theoretical Trajectories within Communities of Practice in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummons, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the role of theory in higher education research is problematised using a communities of practice framework. Drawing on a case study derived from the author's own published work and doctoral study, the article concludes that the differential uses of theory within communities of research practice can be fruitfully explored, in part,…

  5. Teaching the Sociocultural Norms of an Undergraduate Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couper, Graeme; Denny, Heather; Watkins, Annette

    2016-01-01

    The importance of teaching second language learners the pragmatic norms of relevant communities of practice is widely recognised. Familiarisation with these norms is also an important aspect of socialisation for native speakers entering a new community of practice. This study focuses on pragmatic instruction of English as an additional language…

  6. A Communities of Practice Approach to the Synoptic Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Ramon Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Although the study of the Synoptic Problem has been the focus of scholarly attention for over two hundred years, the social learning theory known as Communities of Practice is a relatively recent phenomenon. This article describes a communities of practice approach to the study of the Synoptic Problem in an upper-division undergraduate course at a…

  7. Best practice eye care models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Babar M; Mansur, Rabiu; Al-Rajhi, Abdulaziz; Lansingh, Van; Eckert, Kristen; Hassan, Kunle; Ravilla, Thulasiraj; Muhit, Mohammad; Khanna, Rohit C; Ismat, Chaudhry

    2012-01-01

    Since the launching of Global Initiative, VISION 2020 “the Right to Sight” many innovative, practical and unique comprehensive eye care services provision models have evolved targeting the underserved populations in different parts of the World. At places the rapid assessment of the burden of eye diseases in confined areas or utilizing the key informants for identification of eye diseases in the communities are promoted for better planning and evidence based advocacy for getting / allocation of resources for eye care. Similarly for detection and management of diabetes related blindness, retinopathy of prematurity and avoidable blindness at primary level, the major obstacles are confronted in reaching to them in a cost effective manner and then management of the identified patients accordingly. In this regard, the concept of tele-ophthalmology model sounds to be the best solution. Whereas other models on comprehensive eye care services provision have been emphasizing on surgical output through innovative scales of economy that generate income for the program and ensure its sustainability, while guaranteeing treatment of the poorest of the poor. PMID:22944741

  8. 1 COMMUNITY THEATRE AND DEVELOPMENT PRACTICES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Alex C Asigbo

    Critical Foundations of Community Theatre. Theatre was born societal. ... analysis-which treats theatre as if it were independent of its social ... community predicated on highly participatory methodologies. This ..... discourses. This implies that ...

  9. Literary Practice and Imagined Community in Christian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamarter, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Imagined communities are not bound by space or time, they exist in opposition to other communities, and the members perceive themselves as existentially similar. Multiple case studies and interviews revealed that the seven Christian schools in this study functioned as imagined communities, and their literary practices served to establish,…

  10. Current Practice and Infrastructures for Campus Centers of Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Marshall; Saltmarsh, John

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current practice and essential infrastructure of campus community engagement centers in their efforts to establish and advance community engagement as part of the college experience. The authors identified key characteristics and the prevalence of activities of community engagement centers at engaged campuses…

  11. Virtual Communities of Practice: Bridging Research and Practice Using Web 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Laura A.; Koston, Zoe; Quartley, Marjorie; Adsit, Jason

    2011-01-01

    A significant dilemma for the health and human service professions continues to be the question of how best to bridge the divide between academic research and practice. Communities of practice have traditionally been a vehicle for collaborative research and for information exchange (Moore, 2008). Through collaboration, communities of practice have…

  12. Modeling agriculture in the Community Land Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Drewniak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential impact of climate change on agriculture is uncertain. In addition, agriculture could influence above- and below-ground carbon storage. Development of models that represent agriculture is necessary to address these impacts. We have developed an approach to integrate agriculture representations for three crop types – maize, soybean, and spring wheat – into the coupled carbon–nitrogen version of the Community Land Model (CLM, to help address these questions. Here we present the new model, CLM-Crop, validated against observations from two AmeriFlux sites in the United States, planted with maize and soybean. Seasonal carbon fluxes compared well with field measurements for soybean, but not as well for maize. CLM-Crop yields were comparable with observations in countries such as the United States, Argentina, and China, although the generality of the crop model and its lack of technology and irrigation made direct comparison difficult. CLM-Crop was compared against the standard CLM3.5, which simulates crops as grass. The comparison showed improvement in gross primary productivity in regions where crops are the dominant vegetation cover. Crop yields and productivity were negatively correlated with temperature and positively correlated with precipitation, in agreement with other modeling studies. In case studies with the new crop model looking at impacts of residue management and planting date on crop yield, we found that increased residue returned to the litter pool increased crop yield, while reduced residue returns resulted in yield decreases. Using climate controls to signal planting date caused different responses in different crops. Maize and soybean had opposite reactions: when low temperature threshold resulted in early planting, maize responded with a loss of yield, but soybean yields increased. Our improvements in CLM demonstrate a new capability in the model – simulating agriculture in a realistic way, complete with

  13. Learning to walk the community of practice tightrope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Edgar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Community of Practice Research was established as a new local health district service initiative. The community comprises novice and experienced multidisciplinary health researchers. Aims: This paper reflects our experience of being Community of Practice Research members and aims to explore the practice development principles aligned to the purpose, progress and outcomes of this community. Conclusions: The journey is compared to walking a tightrope from the beginning to the end. Success in moving forward is attributed to positive leadership and group dynamics enabling a supportive environment. This environment allowed for different types of learning: new research skills and new understandings about oneself. Competing demands such as fluctuating membership and leadership, and the selection of a large initial project were identified as barriers to the Community of Practice Research. Implications for practice: As well as contributing to communities’ shared goals members should identify and make explicit their own learning goals to themselves, the community and their managers Community of practice meetings should include regular facilitated reflection about the learning that is occurring, the challenges and assumptions being made by the group, and the way forward A community of practice uses social processes to aid learning and collaboration across disciplines and organisations and therefore has potential to promote local culture change

  14. A Scholarship of Practice Revisited: Creating Community-Engaged Occupational Therapy Practitioners, Educators, and Scholars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammel, Joy; Magasi, Susan; Mirza, Mansha Parven; Fischer, Heidi; Preissner, Katharine; Peterson, Elizabeth; Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Trends in policy, practice, and research point to the need for a community-engaged Scholarship of Practice (SOP) model that can be used to inform the development of occupational therapy practitioners, educators, and researchers. This article describes a community-engaged SOP model, the evidence justifying the need for such a model, and strategies to effectively create community-engaged practitioners, educators and career scientists within occupational therapy. We highlight several examples of community-based participatory research to further inform this model, and in turn, translate this knowledge back to communities for action and systems change that can affect the lives of people with disabilities and the communities in which they seek to live and participate long term.

  15. Modeling agriculture in the Community Land Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Drewniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential impact of climate change on agriculture is uncertain. In addition, agriculture could influence above- and below-ground carbon storage. Development of models that represent agriculture is necessary to address these impacts. We have developed an approach to integrate agriculture representations for three crop types – maize, soybean, and spring wheat – into the coupled carbon-nitrogen version of the Community Land Model (CLM, to help address these questions. Here we present the new model, CLM-Crop, validated against observations from two AmeriFlux sites in the United States, planted with maize and soybean. Seasonal carbon fluxes compared well with field measurements. CLM-Crop yields were comparable with observations in some regions, although the generality of the crop model and its lack of technology and irrigation made direct comparison difficult. CLM-Crop was compared against the standard CLM3.5, which simulates crops as grass. The comparison showed improvement in gross primary productivity in regions where crops are the dominant vegetation cover. Crop yields and productivity were negatively correlated with temperature and positively correlated with precipitation. In case studies with the new crop model looking at impacts of residue management and planting date on crop yield, we found that increased residue returned to the litter pool increased crop yield, while reduced residue returns resulted in yield decreases. Using climate controls to signal planting date caused different responses in different crops. Maize and soybean had opposite reactions: when low temperature threshold resulted in early planting, maize responded with a loss of yield, but soybean yields increased. Our improvements in CLM demonstrate a new capability in the model – simulating agriculture in a realistic way, complete with fertilizer and residue management practices. Results are encouraging, with improved representation of human influences on the land

  16. Enhancing Community Service Learning via Practical Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Ilana; Shemer-Elkiyam, Tal

    2015-01-01

    The advantages of learning communities focused on analyzing social issues and educational repercussions in the field are presented in this study. The research examines the contribution of a learning community to enhancing student teachers' responsibility and their social involvement. The assumption was that participating in learning community…

  17. Faculty practice as partnership with a community coalition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, B J

    1998-01-01

    Faculty practice as partnership with a community coalition can be a dynamic strategy for retooling the future of nursing. The Escalante ElderCARE Coalition was formed in 1991, with the Community Health Division of the Arizona State College of Nursing taking a leadership role. Since that time, more than 50 aging network and community agencies have become involved. More than $300,000 in grant funding has been awarded for Healthy WAY services with low-income seniors as health care and program partners. The conceptual model includes health-promotion services, participation of community elders in program planning and evaluation, and education of health professionals. Participation theory is the basis for the conceptual model. A large number of undergraduate and graduate nursing students have been involved in the nontraditional delivery of services provided by the coalition. The Short Form 36 (SF-36) and the Lifestyle Directions Questionnaire are the health status outcome measures, and elder satisfaction, coalition effectiveness, and cost-savings measures are the process indicators. Elders reported healthier scores in six of the eight SF-36 dimensions, including general health, than the older US general population, but they also report that their amount of physical exercise and fiber intake is less than adequate. Overall, the elders express great satisfaction with the Healthy WAY programs but do not perceive as much ownership as do the coalition's agency professionals. Coalitions are emerging as a force for change and a public health strategy, and faculty members are encouraged to take seriously the opportunities afforded by them for proactive, advanced practice roles.

  18. Practical Life: The Keystone of Life, Culture, and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Uma Ramani's characterization of practical life is philosophical and anthropological, suggesting that "human history is the story of the evolution of our practical life activities." Practical life is a collaborative activity that creates community and culture. One's adaptation to life through the daily work of ordering our environment…

  19. Knowledge between communities of practice and firms in clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner

    . This paper presents a case study in which theory about knowledge, communities of practice and networks is used to understand how knowledge is developed in high-tech companies placed in a cluster. The case study illuminates how internal and external relations and factors affect the knowledge development...... which factors that affect the knowledge development process in communities in the case companies. By analysing the interplay between formal and informal relations utilized by the companies, the knowledge embedded in the persons constituting the communities as well as knowledge embedded in objects used...... by the communities, the case study shows that apparently a special practice has evolved in the cluster. This practice is apparently shared among the communities in the case companies, with the result that the communities possess special capabilities, they are good at developing "whole phones". An explanation about...

  20. The Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics as a Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, L.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2016-12-01

    Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics (CIG), geodynamics.org, originated in 2005 out of community recognition that the efforts of individual or small groups of researchers to develop scientifically-sound software is impossible to sustain, duplicates effort, and makes it difficult for scientists to adopt state-of-the art computational methods that promote new discovery. As a community of practice, participants in CIG share an interest in computational modeling in geodynamics and work together on open source software to build the capacity to support complex, extensible, scalable, interoperable, reliable, and reusable software in an effort to increase the return on investment in scientific software development and increase the quality of the resulting software. The group interacts regularly to learn from each other and better their practices formally through webinar series, workshops, and tutorials and informally through listservs and hackathons. Over the past decade, we have learned that successful scientific software development requires at a minimum: collaboration between domain-expert researchers, software developers and computational scientists; clearly identified and committed lead developer(s); well-defined scientific and computational goals that are regularly evaluated and updated; well-defined benchmarks and testing throughout development; attention throughout development to usability and extensibility; understanding and evaluation of the complexity of dependent libraries; and managed user expectations through education, training, and support. CIG's code donation standards provide the basis for recently formalized best practices in software development (geodynamics.org/cig/dev/best-practices/). Best practices include use of version control; widely used, open source software libraries; extensive test suites; portable configuration and build systems; extensive documentation internal and external to the code; and structured, human readable input formats.

  1. Community Sediment Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    are used to determine that model results are consistent across compilers, platforms, and computer architectures , and to ensure that changes in code do...Mississippi State University: Bhate During the early months of this project, the focus was on understanding ROMS-CSTM model, architecture , and...Marchesiello, J.C. McWilliams, & K.D. Stolzenbach, 2007: Sediment transport modeling on Southern Californian shelves: A ROMS case study. Continental

  2. Application of "Job experience" in the community nursing model of practice teaching%"岗位体验"实践教学法在社区护理学教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩爱敏; 姚志翠; 纪敬敏; 李冬莉; 郝总谦

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨社区护理学实践教学模式,培养社区实用型护理人才.方法:将2007级260名高职护生随机分为试验组159名和对照组101名,组织试验组同学假期开展"关爱社区人群健康"的社会实践活动.实施"岗位体验-任务引领-标准化评价"的实践教学方法.结果:100%的护生积极参与课堂教学,试验组同学综合素质评价优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:学习社区护理课程前,护生到自己熟悉的社区观察人群健康状况,能促进护生对社区人群健康现状的早认识,同时认识到社区需要高素质的护理人员,提高其学习社区护理兴趣.%Objective:To investigate the practice teaching mode of community nursing and train practical community health care professionals. Methods:260 nursing students of the year 2007 were randomly divided into the experimental group ( n = 159 ) and the control group ( n = 101 ). Taking advantage of the holidays,the students of the experimental group has developed social practice,which called"Care for the community populations health". Implements practice educational model of the job experience - the task to lead - the standardized evaluation. Results: 100% of nursing students were actively involved role -playing scenario care in classroom. Quality assessment parameters of experimental group were better than those of control group and the difference was significant P <0.05 ). Conclusion:Before learning community nursing,nursing students return to their communities to observe the health status,nursing students should be aware of community care as early as possible, while recognizing that community need high - quality nurses, students interest in learning community care should be improved.

  3. A community assessment model appropriate for the Iranian community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Holakouie Naieni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Community assessment is one of the core competencies for public health professionals; mainly because it gives them a better understanding of the strengths and drawbacks of their jurisdictions. We planned to recognize an appropriate model that provides a conceptual framework for the Iranian community.This study was conducted in Tehran, during 2009-2010 and consisted of two parts: a review of the literature and qualitative interview with selected experts as well as focus group discussion with health field staff. These steps were done to develop a conceptual framework: planning for a steering committee, forming a working committee, re-viewing community assessment models and projects, preparing the proposed model draft, in-depth interview and focused group discussions with national experts, finalizing the draft, and preparing the final model.Three different models published and applied routinely in different contexts. The 2008 North Carolina Community Assessment model was used as a reference. Ten national and 18 international projects were compared to the reference and one and six projects were completely compatible with this model, respectively.Our final proposed model takes communities through eight steps to complete a collaborative community assessment: form a community assessment team, solicit community participation and gain inter-sectoral collaboration, establish a working committee, empower the community, collect and analyze community's primary and secondary statistics, solicit community input to select health priorities, evaluate the community assessment and develop the community assessment document, an develop the community action plans.

  4. Creating a ``Heliophysics Community of Practice'' for Formal Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N. A.; Peticolas, L.; Fricke, K.; Yan, D.

    2013-04-01

    The Center for Science Education at the Space Sciences Laboratory (CSE@SSL) at the University of California, Berkeley, is expanding a community of practice for formal educators who teach Heliophysics-related subjects. The objective of this community of practice is to engage middle and high school teachers, their students, and the public in the science of Heliophysics. This community of practice provides teachers with a means of furthering their own content knowledge and understanding of space science and engineering, as well as provides them with a forum for discussing the challenges and sharing successes related to teaching these subjects. This community of practice grows out of the Geomagnetic Event Observation Network by Students (GEONS) project which is run the by the THEMIS-ARTEMIS mission Education/Public Outreach (EPO) program. The GEONS project established ground-based magnetometers at schools around the United States, and supports teachers and students at these schools by providing high quality science and math educational materials, a website which provides a content base, and opportunities for teachers and students to present their research at scientific conferences and outreach events. The RBSP EFW instrument EPO is providing additional support to leverage and build upon the success of the GEONS project to expand this community of practice. Eight teachers will be given honoraria to act as “seed teachers” for this community. These teachers will provide leadership regarding the design and direction of the community of practice, ensuring that the community is driven by teacher needs and creating a sense of ownership by the teachers. In moving forward with this initiative, CSE@SSL recognizes the need to work meaningfully within the landscape of existing NASA and other community of practice efforts. We are interested in getting feedback from the EPO community and discussing how this effort can complement, leverage and/or partner with other Heliophysics

  5. Educational clinical supervision: meeting the needs of specialist community practitioner students and professional practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canham, J

    1998-07-01

    In light of the possible demise of the community practice teacher, this paper proposes that a specific system of educationally led clinical supervision would benefit learning, teaching and assessing in the practice elements of specialist community practitioner education. Such a system would be additional to models of clinical supervision currently utilized in practice. An educative supervisory relationship would foster those skills and attributes essential for specialist community practice, enabling students to move toward mature responsible practice. It would provide experience of supportive frameworks that could be later utilized in professional practice. Clinical supervision specifically tailored for specialist community practitioner education would enable equity across branches and could be delivered in a variety of settings without a supervisor having to be 'on-site', thus benefiting comparatively isolated students in practice nursing and occupational health. To work successfully, educationally led clinical supervision necessitates a joint response by educational institutions and those practices where specialist community students undertake assessed placements. Without such a system in place to support specialist community practitioner courses, the standard of education and future practice cannot be assured.

  6. Perceptions and practices on schistosomiasis among communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community's awareness of preventive measures to ... People in developing countries carry a heavy burden of diseases .... Schistosomiasis is associated with venereal diseases and dirty .... preventive measures undertaken to avert the disease.

  7. It takes a Village: community practice, social work, and aging-in-place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Kathryn E; Davitt, Joan K

    2011-07-01

    The US population of older adults will increase significantly in the coming decades. Most of these individuals prefer to age in their homes/communities. However, most communities are not prepared to handle the long-term care needs of an aging population. This article examines one model that communities are using to help older adults age-in-place, the Village. A conceptual lens based in community practice and empowerment theory is offered to explicate this model and critically evaluate social work's role in it. It also presents challenges to social work roles in facilitation and evaluation of the model.

  8. Sense of Community in Academic Communities of Practice: Predictors and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistor, Nicolae; Daxecker, Irene; Stanciu, Dorin; Diekamp, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Sense of community (SoC) in communities of practice (CoP) seems to play a similar role to that of group cohesion in small groups: Both sustain participants' knowledge sharing, which in turn substantiates the socio-cognitive structures that make up the CoP such as scholar identities, practical repertoires in research and teaching or…

  9. Sense of Community in Academic Communities of Practice: Predictors and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistor, Nicolae; Daxecker, Irene; Stanciu, Dorin; Diekamp, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Sense of community (SoC) in communities of practice (CoP) seems to play a similar role to that of group cohesion in small groups: Both sustain participants' knowledge sharing, which in turn substantiates the socio-cognitive structures that make up the CoP such as scholar identities, practical repertoires in research and teaching or relationships…

  10. Federal Community of Practice for Crowdsourcing and Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    The community of practice includes agencies from across the federal government who convene to discuss ideas, activities, barriers, and ethics related to citizen science and crowdsourcing including scientific research, data management, and open innovation.

  11. New Ideas for Communities of Practice: Networks of Networks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WimHugo

    project and institutional websites, funder databases, community of practice portals, and social networks. .... World Data Centre for Biodiversity and Human Health in Africa. In some ... but typically linked into the portal environment manually.

  12. Community knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) on fluorosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... attitude and practices of endemic community on fluoride contamination, fluorosis and ... that health consequences of fluoride contaminated water are fairly understood. None of ...

  13. Practice through Partnership: Examining the Theoretical Framework and Development of a "Community of Musical Practice"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Ailbhe

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the development of a "community of musical practice" (CoMP) which emerged within a research case study in Limerick, Ireland. The case study was a music education partnership between a third level institution, a resource agency and a primary school. Using a "community of practice" (CoP) theoretical…

  14. A Tiered Model for Linking Students to the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Laura Landry; Gerard, Jean M.; Sturm, Michael R.; Wooldridge, Deborah G.

    2016-01-01

    A tiered practice model (introductory, pre-internship, and internship) embedded in the curriculum facilitates community engagement and creates relevance for students as they pursue a professional identity in Human Development and Family Studies. The tiered model integrates high-impact teaching practices (HIP) and student engagement pedagogies…

  15. A Tiered Model for Linking Students to the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Laura Landry; Gerard, Jean M.; Sturm, Michael R.; Wooldridge, Deborah G.

    2016-01-01

    A tiered practice model (introductory, pre-internship, and internship) embedded in the curriculum facilitates community engagement and creates relevance for students as they pursue a professional identity in Human Development and Family Studies. The tiered model integrates high-impact teaching practices (HIP) and student engagement pedagogies…

  16. A Learning Community of Colleagues Enhancing Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visone, Jeremy D.

    2016-01-01

    This article shares a promising practice: collegial visits. During collegial visits, educators watch a colleague teach a lesson about a predetermined focus as a form of professional development. Educators, including the host teacher, debrief after the lesson. These visits are part of a cycle of learning that moves from theory to practice, and the…

  17. A whole community approach to emergency management: Strategies and best practices of seven community programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobelson, Robyn K; Wigington, Corinne J; Harp, Victoria; Bronson, Bernice B

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) published the Whole Community Approach to Emergency Management: Principles, Themes, and Pathways for Action, outlining the need for increased individual preparedness and more widespread community engagement to enhance the overall resiliency and security of communities. However, there is limited evidence of how to build a whole community approach to emergency management that provides real-world, practical examples and applications. This article reports on the strategies and best practices gleaned from seven community programs fostering a whole community approach to emergency management. The project team engaged in informal conversations with community stakeholders to learn about their programs during routine monitoring activities, site visits, and during an in-person, facilitated workshop. A total of 88 community members associated with the programs examples contributed. Qualitative analysis was conducted. The findings highlighted best practices gleaned from the seven programs that other communities can leverage to build and maintain their own whole community programs. The findings from the programs also support and validate the three principles and six strategic themes outlined by FEMA. The findings, like the whole community document, highlight the importance of understanding the community, building relationships, empowering action, and fostering social capital to build a whole community approach.

  18. Best practices for community gardening in a US-Mexico border community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangadu, Thenral; Kelly, Michael; Orezzoli, Max C E; Gallegos, Rebecca; Matharasi, Pracheta

    2016-04-22

    Minority communities such as those on the US-Mexico border are placed at disproportionate high risk for child and adult obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. A built environment characterized by an arid desert climate, lack of access to healthy foods, barriers to increasing physical activity, cultural and community norms which deter healthy eating and sustainable food production, shape obesity-related health disparities in these communities. Three pilot community gardens (implemented by two local governmental organizations and one community-based organization) were funded through the local Healthy Eating Active Living (HEAL) initiative in El Paso, Texas, and Las Cruces and Anthony, New Mexico (US-MX border communities with high obesity rates) in order to encourage healthy lifestyles among families in the region. A mixed-methods evaluation (n = 223) examined the implementation process, immediate outcomes and best practices of implementing and sustaining community gardens in these minority binational communities. In addition to nutrition-related outcomes, the potential for psychosocial outcomes from participating in community and school garden projects were observed. The best practices in relation to (i) assessing community norms related to growing food, (ii) increasing access to land and water for community/school gardening and (iii) enhancing social support for gardening are discussed. The implications of these best practices for obesity prevention and implementing community gardens in a minority US-MX border community characterized by cultural, geographical and socioeconomic barriers are examined.

  19. Exploring Knowledge Sharing among Members of a Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Selena S.; Ruona, Wendy E. A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study that explored knowledge sharing among members of a community of practice (CoP) in a large, urban high school. Findings suggest that social relationships, informal channels, community culture, levels of trust, and spatial factors influence knowledge sharing, and that CoPs have the potential to…

  20. Practical School Community Partnerships Leading to Successful Educational Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kladifko, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    School leaders must have knowledge and understanding of the various external and internal entities in their school community. Partnerships, with a focus on communication and interaction with diverse community leaders and professionals, are essential for school success. In this article, the author discusses successful practical experiences and…

  1. Learning to Learn: A Hidden Dimension within Community Dance Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Sherrie

    2013-01-01

    This article explores ways of learning experienced by university dance students participating in a community dance project. The students were unfamiliar with community-based practices and found themselves needing to remediate held attitudes about dance. How the students came to approach their learning within the dance-making process drew on…

  2. Best management practices for creating a community wildfire protection plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Jakes; Christine Esposito; Sam Burns; Antony S. Cheng; Kristen C. Nelson; Victoria E. Sturtevant; Daniel R. Williams

    2012-01-01

    A community wildfire protection plan (CWPP) is a means of bringing local solutions to wildland fire management. In developing and implementing CWPPs, communities assume a leadership role in reducing wildfi re risk on federal and nonfederal land. In this publication, we identify best management practices for CWPP development and implementation based on the experiences...

  3. Integrating Best Practices: Learning Communities and the Writing Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Hope; Graziano-King, Janine

    2011-01-01

    Bringing together two evidence-based "best practices" in developmental education--learning communities and tutoring--seems natural, especially given that they share collaborative learning as a common pedagogical approach. And yet doing so raised questions around the role of the tutor in learning communities. In this article, a faculty development…

  4. Learning to Learn: A Hidden Dimension within Community Dance Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Sherrie

    2013-01-01

    This article explores ways of learning experienced by university dance students participating in a community dance project. The students were unfamiliar with community-based practices and found themselves needing to remediate held attitudes about dance. How the students came to approach their learning within the dance-making process drew on…

  5. An Exploration of Leadership in Virtual Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisentary, John

    2013-01-01

    Virtual community of practice (VCoP) teams are becoming a typical function in many knowledge-based organizations. VCoP teams can consist of team members located in various cities, states, and countries. The main characteristic of the VCoP is team members' sense of community that allows individuals to share knowledge. Knowledge sharing in a VCoP…

  6. From Academic-Practice Partnership to Professional Nursing Practice Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudacek, Sharon Smith; DiMattio, Mary Jane K; Turkel, Marian C

    2017-03-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ISSUE Instructions: 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded after you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. In order to obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "From Academic-Practice Partnership to Professional Nursing Practice Model," found on pages 104-112, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name, contact information, and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until February 28, 2020. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. OBJECTIVES Describe the benefits and barriers to participation in a community-based academic-practice partnership. Identify three

  7. Transportation Practices in Community College Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVetter, David; Kim, Hyun Duck

    2010-01-01

    Over 45,000 U.S. community college athletes were transported to events during 2005-2006. Transporting college athletes has been an overlooked risk management issue facing administrators. Team travel accidents have caused death, injury, liability claims, property loss, and grief. National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA) member…

  8. Nisqually Community Forest VELMA modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a set of modeling tools to support community-based forest management and salmon-recovery planning in Pacific Northwest watersheds. Here we describe how these tools are being applied to the Mashel River Watershed in collaboration with the Board of Directors of the Nis...

  9. Teaching HR Professionals: The Classroom as a Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Kate; Avramenko, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces an innovative course design incorporating both communities of practice and reflective practice as a learning strategy for part-time learners in higher education. The new design has been applied to teaching HR practitioners in a UK-based business school. Findings indicate that the suggested way of organizing teaching and…

  10. Using Developmental Evaluation Methods with Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Winkelen, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the use of developmental evaluation methods with community of practice programmes experiencing change or transition to better understand how to target support resources. Design/methodology/approach: The practical use of a number of developmental evaluation methods was explored in three organizations over a…

  11. Learning: A Process of Enculturation into the Community's Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ailing; Pearson, P. David

    2005-01-01

    The authors gave the following talk at the 2004 NCTE Annual Convention in Indianapolis upon receiving the Alan C. Purves Award, presented to the RTE article from the previous volume year judged most likely to have an impact on classroom practice ("The Road to Participation: The Construction of a Literacy Practice in a Learning Community of…

  12. Consumers’ Life Style, Social Identity and Consumption Practices in the Context of Communities of Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Ozhan Dedeoglu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Social networks on Internet cannot be regarded as media environments simply; they are discursive environments, where individuals actively commune and construct their identities. The present study represents an attempt to analyze the role of virtual communities of practice play in members’ identity, lifestyle and consumption practices. It is also aimed to find out how member types differ from each other in terms of their commitment to the community, identity, lifestyle and consumption. A survey was conducted with members Bilincli Hippiler Toplulugu, a virtual “community of practice”. The findings reveal that life projects, meanings and practices that are produced and consumed in the context of the researched virtual community are sited in central consumption context of, specifically, core and active members, and have identity construction and authorization functions in members’ life trajectories. These findings poses that although virtual communities did not take attention in Turkey, they get importance in analyzing consumer behavior with its effects on consumption practices.

  13. Teaching HR Professionals: The Classroom as a Community of Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Avramenko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an innovative course design incorporating both communities of practice and reflective practice as a learning strategy for part-time learners in higher education. The new design has been applied to teaching HR practitioners in a UK-based business school. Findings indicate that the suggested way of organizing teaching and learning for part-time professionals is very informative and facilitates a richer engagement with theory whilst addressing issues of practice.

  14. Surgical education and the theoretical concept of communities of practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Nestel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical practice is largely learned in the workplace. Changes in health services and education provision have seen a shift from traditional apprenticeship-type learning to competency-based curricula with the workplace remaining the principal site for learning. Sociocultural learning theories offer valuable lenses through which to observe, design for, and analyze workplace-based learning. In this paper, we consider the theoretical concept of communities of practice in surgery. We describe notions of legitimate peripheral participation and development of professional identity. We highlight the benefits that communities of practice bring to surgical training, as well as the limitations. By understanding community of practice theory as applied to the surgical workplace and the factors that both drive and impede its development, surgical trainers may improve the learning environment, enhancing the attainment of competencies by surgical trainees.

  15. Mobile immersive virtual technologies for professional communities of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micheli, Caterina; Galimberti, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an Immersive Virtual Technology (IVT) system serving a community of practice consisting of psychotherapists who use virtual environments for therapy and treatment of anxiety disorders. The psychosocial theoretical background includes the ethnomethodological approach, Situated Action Theory and the Intersubjectivity of the Utterance model. The dialogical importance promoted at each level of the analysis phases becomes the key to a deeper and more fluid understanding of the assumptions and meaning that guide the actions of and interactions between therapists and patients. The entire system design process is inspired by a dialogical perspective, which aims to effectively and non-rigidly integrate the design stages, analysis in context of use, ergonomic evaluation, creation of the virtual reality (VR) system, and final work on the clinical protocol in use.

  16. A Water and Energy Community of Practice (WECoP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, P. R.

    2008-12-01

    Earth is a unique, living planet due to the abundance and vigorous cycling and replenishing of water throughout the global environment. The water cycle operates on a continuum of time and space scales and exchanges large amounts of energy as water undergoes phase changes and is moved from one part of the Earth system to another. Water is essential to life and is central to society's welfare, progress, and sustainable economic growth. However, global water cycle variability which regulates flood, drought, and disease hazards is being continuously transformed by climate change, erosion, pollution, salinization, and agriculture and civil engineering practices. The most visible manifestation that could be expected from climate warming would be changes in the distribution of precipitation and evaporation, and the exacerbation of extreme hydrologic events, floods and droughts. Technological advances, climate modeling and forecasting improvements and the emergence of earth system science will enable development of solutions for these daunting global water problems, and much of the needed scientific information is already available. A plethora of institutional, policy, management and communication problems have been neglected, which has resulted in significant underutilization of existing scientific information for solving contemporary and anticipated water issues. Effective communication and outreach is the critical task to enable existing science to be used to its full potential, to develop comprehensive solution strategies and to set future research priorities. The missing link is a water-focused Community of Practice (CoP) who has knowledge of both the decision support needs and the cutting-edge research results, and therefore can formulate a broad array of solutions to water problems today and into the future. The concept of a community of practice refers to the process of social learning that occurs when people who have a common interest in some subject or problem

  17. VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE MULTIPLE LITERACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Melaré Varros

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Technologies have transformed the way we interact with others. Are expanding the dimensions of the participatory process in digital environments such as educational settings, thanks to social networks for learning. At the present time have created new ways to communicate and learn, a group of social networks that facilitate the participation of all involved, and therefore are also tools of social learning. Communication possibilities expand educational dimensions in digital scenarios. Participation goes from being a chance to become the main source of teaching and learning collaborative. It is necessary to the review of pedagogical approaches and methodologies to create a scenario, which arises in the virtual mode. The challenge now is training and developing literacy skills through providing multiple virtual learning communities.

  18. Clinical practice in community medicine: Challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical practice with community health perspective makes community medicine a unique specialty. In their health centers, community physicians not only implement disease prevention programs, assess community health needs, manage healthcare teams and advocate for health promoting policies but also diagnose and treat diseases. However, participation of community medicine faculty in the delivery of clinical care varies from place to place due to administrative constraints. Health centers attached with medical college are not dependent on community medicine faculty for clinical service as these centers have their own medical and paramedical staff; whereas, other clinical departments in medical colleges depend on their faculty for delivery of clinical care in the hospital. Consequently, a perception is gaining ground that community medicine is a para-clinical specialty. Strategies for a fixed tenured rotation of faculty in the health centers should be evolved. All faculty members of community medicine must also provide clinical care in the health centers and the quantum of clinical services provided by each one of them should be reported widely to all stakeholders. Community medicine residency programs must ensure that trainee community physicians acquire competency to deliver comprehensive primary health care (promotive, preventive, curative, and rehabilitative in a health center.

  19. To Enliven Virtual Communities of Practice through Gamification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Andrade

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Communities of practice are meant to generate knowledge through voluntary interaction between their members. With the expansion of electronic communication means these communities became virtual, in the sense that most of the innercommunication and collaboration are supported by synchronous and asynchronous electronic tools. However, research data shows that most of these virtual communities have great difficulty in reaching and maintaining healthy levels of activity. Gamification proposes to transfer the kind of intrinsic motivation found in games to increase the likeability and engagement in non-game contexts. Therefore it can be an approach to increase the member participation in communities of practice and, therefore, their chance to survive. Nevertheless, although gamification has proven useful in a number of cases, its implementation has to be carefully designed according to the intended audience to be effective.

  20. Cultivating a Doctoral Community of Inquiry and Practice: Designing and Facilitating Discussion Board Online Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Linda; Darrow, Rob

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a promising and powerful approach used to cultivate a doctoral community of inquiry and practice and harness the intelligence, commitment, and energy of all of its members in a blended learning environment. The discussion board online learning community approach was developed to transform a traditional face-to-face doctoral…

  1. A Community of Narratives: Developing Transracialized Selves through a Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughter, Judson; Han, Keonghee Tao; King, Donna; Madhuri, Marga; Nayan, Rohany; Williams, Toni

    2015-01-01

    The story presented here developed from a study group where we found space to explore and analyze ourselves and each other. In recounting our development from a Community of Interest to a Community of Practice (CoP), we first introduce a guiding theoretical framework building on a foundation of two concepts: "CoP" and…

  2. Introduction to Small Telescope Research Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Russell M.

    2016-06-01

    Communities of practice are natural, usually informal groups of people who work together. Experienced members teach new members the “ropes.” Social learning theorist Etienne Wenger’s book, Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity, defined the field. There are, in astronomy, many communities of practice. One set of communities uses relatively small telescopes to observe brighter objects such as eclipsing binaries, intrinsically variable stars, transiting exoplanets, tumbling asteroids, and the occultation of background stars by asteroids and the Moon. Advances in low cost but increasingly powerful instrumentation and automation have greatly increased the research capabilities of smaller telescopes. These often professional-amateur (pro-am) communities engage in research projects that require a large number of observers as exemplified by the American Association of Variable Star Observers. For high school and community college students with an interest in science, joining a student-centered, small telescope community of practice can be both educational and inspirational. An example is the now decade-long Astronomy Research Seminar offered by Cuesta College in San Luis Obispo, California. Each student team is required to plan a project, obtain observations (either locally or via a remote robotic telescope), analyze their data, write a paper, and submit it for external review and publication. Well over 100 students, composed primarily of high school juniors and seniors, have been coauthors of several dozen published papers. Being published researchers has boosted these students’ educational careers with admissions to choice schools, often with scholarships. This seminar was recently expanded to serve multiple high schools with a volunteer assistant instructor at each school. The students meet regularly with their assistant instructor and also meet online with other teams and the seminar’s overall community college instructor. The seminar

  3. Expectations and essentials for the community practice of pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Richard E. MD

    2006-01-01

    In 3 surveys during the past 10 years, community hospital pathologists were asked what they want, need, or look for when employing a pathologist and, more specifically, what skills and knowledge a newly minted pathologist should have to be successful in the community practice of pathology. The most recent survey, done in spring of 2005, cited surgical pathology diagnosis, frozen section diagnosis, dissection, and fine-needle aspiration as essentials in anatomic pathology. For clinical gross, ...

  4. Consumers’ Life Style, Social Identity and Consumption Practices in the Context of Communities of Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Ayla Ozhan Dedeoglu; Elif Ustundagli

    2011-01-01

    Social networks on Internet cannot be regarded as media environments simply; they are discursive environments, where individuals actively commune and construct their identities. The present study represents an attempt to analyze the role of virtual communities of practice play in members’ identity, lifestyle and consumption practices. It is also aimed to find out how member types differ from each other in terms of their commitment to the community, identity, lifestyle and consumption. A surve...

  5. Thinking together: What makes Communities of Practice work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrko, Igor; Dörfler, Viktor; Eden, Colin

    2017-04-01

    In this article, we develop the founding elements of the concept of Communities of Practice by elaborating on the learning processes happening at the heart of such communities. In particular, we provide a consistent perspective on the notions of knowledge, knowing and knowledge sharing that is compatible with the essence of this concept - that learning entails an investment of identity and a social formation of a person. We do so by drawing richly from the work of Michael Polanyi and his conception of personal knowledge, and thereby we clarify the scope of Communities of Practice and offer a number of new insights into how to make such social structures perform well in professional settings. The conceptual discussion is substantiated by findings of a qualitative empirical study in the UK National Health Service. As a result, the process of 'thinking together' is conceptualized as a key part of meaningful Communities of Practice where people mutually guide each other through their understandings of the same problems in their area of mutual interest, and this way indirectly share tacit knowledge. The collaborative learning process of 'thinking together', we argue, is what essentially brings Communities of Practice to life and not the other way round.

  6. Linking Research and Practice through Teacher Communities: A Place Where Formal and Practical Knowledge Meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja Roblin, Natalie N.; Ormel, Bart J. B.; McKenney, Susan E.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.

    2014-01-01

    This study characterises the links between research and practice across 12 projects concerned with the collaborative design of lesson plans by teacher communities (TCs). Analyses focused on sources of knowledge used to inform lesson design, participants' roles and knowledge generated by the teacher community. Three patterns emerged pertaining…

  7. Linking Research and Practice through Teacher Communities: A Place Where Formal and Practical Knowledge Meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja Roblin, Natalie N.; Ormel, Bart J. B.; McKenney, Susan E.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.

    2014-01-01

    This study characterises the links between research and practice across 12 projects concerned with the collaborative design of lesson plans by teacher communities (TCs). Analyses focused on sources of knowledge used to inform lesson design, participants' roles and knowledge generated by the teacher community. Three patterns emerged pertaining…

  8. A Reference Model for Online Learning Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Seufert, Sabine; Lechner, Ulrike; Stanoevska, Katarina

    2002-01-01

    Online learning communities are introduced as a comprehensive model for technology-enabled learning. We give an analysis of goals in education and the requirements to community platforms. The main contribution of the article is a reference model for online learning communities that consists of four layers designing the organizational, interaction, channel or service and the technological model of learning communities. This reference model captures didactic goals, learning methods and learning...

  9. Group Organization and Communities of Practice in Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor J. Krawczyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The collective lived experience of translational research teams requires further appreciation, particularly at the stages of group formation. To achieve this, we conducted a case study of a translational research team (n = 16. Through the case description and then discussing case-based themes with community of practice theory, themes such as “Being Open” and “Working as a Group” found that this team’s mutual respect, cooperation, and their sharing of knowledge uncovered an alternative way that professionals organize themselves for translational research projects. In conjunction to this finding, our analysis showed that the team has qualities of a community of practice.

  10. Community, autonomy and bespoke services: Independent community pharmacy practice in hyperdiverse, London communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckett, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of pharmacy continues to evolve including in Great Britain, where, by 2012, almost 50% of pharmacy contracts were held by just 9 national chains. To further explicate the concept of 'independence' as it was positioned by independent pharmacists, particularly examining personal interpretations of their role in contemporary pharmacy and health care delivery. Research was situated in East and South-east London between 2008 and 2009. The study took an ethnographic approach; combining participant observation within 7 pharmacies and 36 active interviews with pharmacists. Recruitment criteria demanded that pharmacists self-identified as independent and were either owners or managers in sole-owned or independent chain pharmacies. Independence was expressed through a framework of three overarching themes: autonomy, engagement and bespoke practice. Autonomy formed the basis of professional expression ultimately enabling pharmacists to exercise control over customer relationships. This facilitated engagement with communities and individuals and ultimately made possible an offering of a bespoke 'personal' service. The diverse urban environment was a space where independence was seen to be of particular value. The complexity of this setting was used symbolically to support the need for independent thinking. These themes are examined through stories of 'acceptance' and developing pharmacy 'communities' alongside the practise of maintaining personal relationships to provide a distinct service offer. This study highlights distinct 'independent' expression of professional identity and suggests the need to assess the value of independent community pharmacy as being different from but complementary to the service provided by multiples/large chains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Community-Based Participatory Research Conceptual Model: Community Partner Consultation and Face Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belone, Lorenda; Lucero, Julie E; Duran, Bonnie; Tafoya, Greg; Baker, Elizabeth A; Chan, Domin; Chang, Charlotte; Greene-Moton, Ella; Kelley, Michele A; Wallerstein, Nina

    2016-01-01

    A national community-based participatory research (CBPR) team developed a conceptual model of CBPR partnerships to understand the contribution of partnership processes to improved community capacity and health outcomes. With the model primarily developed through academic literature and expert consensus building, we sought community input to assess face validity and acceptability. Our research team conducted semi-structured focus groups with six partnerships nationwide. Participants validated and expanded on existing model constructs and identified new constructs based on "real-world" praxis, resulting in a revised model. Four cross-cutting constructs were identified: trust development, capacity, mutual learning, and power dynamics. By empirically testing the model, we found community face validity and capacity to adapt the model to diverse contexts. We recommend partnerships use and adapt the CBPR model and its constructs, for collective reflection and evaluation, to enhance their partnering practices and achieve their health and research goals. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Modelling asymmetric growth in crowded plant communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2010-01-01

    A class of models that may be used to quantify the effect of size-asymmetric competition in crowded plant communities by estimating a community specific degree of size-asymmetric growth for each species in the community is suggested. The model consists of two parts: an individual size-asymmetric ......A class of models that may be used to quantify the effect of size-asymmetric competition in crowded plant communities by estimating a community specific degree of size-asymmetric growth for each species in the community is suggested. The model consists of two parts: an individual size...

  13. How evidence-based practices contribute to community integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Gary R; Salyers, Michelle P; Rollins, Angela L; Rapp, Charles A; Zipple, Anthony M

    2004-12-01

    Since the groundbreaking work of the Robert Wood Johnson Conference in 1998 identifying six evidence-based practices (EBPs) for people with severe mental illness (SMI), the mental health field has moved in the direction of re-examination and redesign of service systems. Surprisingly, one area that has not been fully explicated is the role that EBPs play in promoting community integration. In this paper, we explain how community integration is a unifying concept providing direction and vision for community mental health for people with SMI. As one crucial aspect of the recovery process, community integration clarifies the link between EBPs and recovery. We propose an alternate view, grounded in the empirical literature, to the assertion by Anthony, Rogers, and Farkas [2003, Community Mental Health Journal, 39, 101-114] that "EBP research has rarely demonstrated a positive impact on recovery related outcomes."

  14. Pharmacists’ social authority to transform community pharmacy practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy McPherson, PhD, RPh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaders in the profession of pharmacy have articulated a vision of pharmacists as providers of patient-centered care (PCC services and the Doctor of Pharmacy was established as the required practice degree to achieve this vision. Pharmacist-provided PCC services have been shown to reduce medication costs and improve patient compliance with therapies. While community pharmacists are capable of, and are ideally placed for, providing PCC services, in fact they devote most of their time to prescription dispensing rather than direct patient care. As professionals, community pharmacists are charged with protecting society by providing expert services to help consumers manage risks associated with drug therapies. Historically pharmacists fulfilled this responsibility by accurately dispensing prescription medications, verifying doses, and allergy checking. This limited view of pharmacy practice is insufficient in light of the modern view of pharmacists as providers of PCC. The consumers’ view of community pharmacy as a profession represents a barrier to transforming the basis of community pharmacy from product distribution to providing PCC services. Community pharmacists are conferred with social authority to dictate the manner in which their professional services are provided. Pharmacists can therefore facilitate the transition to PCC as the primary function of community pharmacy by exercising their social authority to engage consumers in their roles in the new patient-pharmacist relationship. Each pharmacist must decide to provide PCC services. Suggestions for initiating PCC services in community pharmacy are offered.

  15. Navy Community of Practice for Programmers and Developers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    design and sustainment of a Navy CoP for programmers and developers ? D. BENEFITS OF STUDY Organizations that have instituted well-designed and effective...Navy CoP for programmers and developers in order to make the Navy more combat effective. 5 E. ORGANIZATION OF STUDY Chapter II introduces...will refer to individuals who engage in this practice as programmers and developers . 9 Communities of Practice may self- organize or be sponsored

  16. Using an academic-community partnership model and blended learning to advance community health nursing pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeonwu, Mabel; Berkowitz, Bobbie; Vlasses, Frances R

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a model of teaching community health nursing that evolved from a long-term partnership with a community with limited existing health programs. The partnership supported RN-BSN students' integration in the community and resulted in reciprocal gains for faculty, students and community members. Community clients accessed public health services as a result of the partnership. A blended learning approach that combines face-to-face interactions, service learning and online activities was utilized to enhance students' learning. Following classroom sessions, students actively participated in community-based educational process through comprehensive health needs assessments, planning and implementation of disease prevention and health promotion activities for community clients. Such active involvement in an underserved community deepened students' awareness of the fundamentals of community health practice. Students were challenged to view public health from a broader perspective while analyzing the impacts of social determinants of health on underserved populations. Through asynchronous online interactions, students synthesized classroom and community activities through critical thinking. This paper describes a model for teaching community health nursing that informs students' learning through blended learning, and meets the demands for community health nursing services delivery.

  17. Intergenerational Practice: Mentoring and Social Capital for Twenty-First Century Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming-Potvin, Wendy Marie; MacCallum, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Aiming to elucidate the relationship between social capital and intergenerational practice within mentoring, this article presents data from a case study of the School Volunteer Program in Western Australia. Drawing on situated learning theory and the concept of community of practice (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998; Wenger, McDermott, &…

  18. Communities of practice: Participation patterns and professional impact for high school mathematics and science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Printy, Susan M.

    Improving the quality of teachers in schools is a keystone to educational improvement. New and veteran teachers alike need to enhance their content knowledge and pedagogical skills, but they must also examine, and often change, their underlying attitudes, beliefs, and values about the nature of knowledge and the abilities of students. Best accomplished collectively rather than individually, the interactions between teachers as they undertake the process of collaborative inquiry create "communities of practice." This dissertation investigates the importance of science and mathematics teachers' participation in communities of practice to their professional capabilities. The study tests the hypothesis that the social learning inherent in community of practice participation encourages teachers to learn from others with expertise, enhances teachers' sense of competence, and increases the likelihood that teachers' will use student-centered, problem-based instructional techniques aligned with national disciplinary standards. The researcher conceptualizes communities of practice along two dimensions that affect social learning: legitimate participation in activities and span of engagement with school members. Differences in teachers' subject area and the curricular track of their teaching assignment contribute to variation in teachers' participation in communities of practice along those dimensions. Using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study, first and second follow-up, the study has two stages of multi-level analysis. The first stage examines factors that contribute to teachers' participation in communities of practice, including teachers' social and professional characteristics and school demographic and organizational characteristics. The second stage investigates the professional impact of such participation on the three outcome variables: teacher learning, teacher competence, and use of standards-based pedagogy. Hierarchical linear models provide

  19. The role of community pharmacy-based vaccination in the USA: current practice and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach AT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Albert T Bach, Jeffery A Goad School of Pharmacy, Chapman University, Irvine, California, USA Abstract: Community pharmacy-based provision of immunizations in the USA has become commonplace in the last few decades, with success in increasing rates of immunizations. Community pharmacy-based vaccination services are provided by pharmacists educated in the practice of immunization delivery and provide a convenient and accessible option for receiving immunizations. The pharmacist's role in immunization practice has been described as serving in the roles of educator, facilitator, and immunizer. With a majority of pharmacist-provided vaccinations occurring in the community pharmacy setting, there are many examples of community pharmacists serving in these immunization roles with successful outcomes. Different community pharmacies employ a number of different models and workflow practices that usually consist of a year-round in-house service staffed by their own immunizing pharmacist. Challenges that currently exist in this setting are variability in scopes of immunization practice for pharmacists across states, inconsistent reimbursement mechanisms, and barriers in technology. Many of these challenges can be alleviated by continual education; working with legislators, state boards of pharmacy, stakeholders, and payers to standardize laws; and reimbursement design. Other challenges that may need to be addressed are improvements in communication and continuity of care between community pharmacists and the patient centered medical home. Keywords: immunization, pharmacy practice, pharmacists, continuity of care 

  20. Community Education and Youth Mentoring: How to Build Good Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Robyn; Papadopoulos, Theo

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, the Helen Macpherson Smith (HMS) Trust commissioned Victoria University to conduct an evaluation of the Mentoring and Capacity Building Initiative's Regional Coordination Projects (RCPs). The RCPs are founded on a model of community education and collaboration that aims to enhance cross-sectoral and whole-of-community approaches to…

  1. Modeling the principles of community-based participatory research in a community health assessment conducted by a health foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Karen Jaynes; Gail Bray, Patricia; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Reisz, Ilana; Peranteau, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss strategies used and lessons learned by a health foundation during development of a community health assessment model incorporating community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches. The assessment model comprises three models incorporating increasing amounts of CPBR principles. Model A combines local-area analysis of quantitative data, qualitative information (key informants, focus groups), and asset mapping. Model B, a community-based participatory model, emphasizes participatory rural appraisal approaches and quantitative assessment using rapid epidemiological assessment. Model C, a modified version of Model B, is financially more sustainable for our needs than Model B. The authors (a) describe origins of these models and illustrate practical applications and (b) explore the lessons learned in their transition from a traditional, nonparticipatory, quantitative approach to participatory approaches to community-health assessment. It is hoped that this article will contribute to the growing body of knowledge of practical aspects of incorporating CBPR approaches into community health assessments.

  2. Assessing University Nephrology Training as Preparation for Community Consultative Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muther, Richard S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Information about the consultative practice of nephrology in a community environment was gathered and used to speculate about improvements that could be made in the training of nephrologists in academic medical centers, based on their knowledge of such training. (Author/MLW)

  3. Communities of Practice: A Learning Strategy for Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Catherine H.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching students self-directed learning skills provides benefits that outlast individual courses. An individual self-directed approach is insufficient, however, given the fast pace of change students encounter in their professional lives. Communities of practice combine self-directed and collaborative learning to meet the challenges of today's…

  4. The Recipe for Promising Practices in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, John S.; Cox, Elizabeth M.; Cerven, Christine; Haberler, Zachary

    2010-01-01

    This study identifies and examines the key practices of California community college programs that have demonstrated success in improving (or that have shown significant potential to improve) the achievement of underrepresented groups whose educational attainment often lags behind the attainment of relatively well-off White students. Unlike many…

  5. Consultants: Love-Hate Relationships with Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastoors, Katja

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore consultants' experiences of communities of practice (CoPs) in one of the world's largest information technology companies against organisational strategies. The research focus concerns experiences of formal top-down and underground CoPs. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is an exploratory case study.…

  6. Community-Based Learning: Practices, Challenges, and Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Mavis

    2009-01-01

    This paper will highlight an innovate practice in teaching and learning by reflecting on two fourth-year sociology seminar classes that participated in a community-based learning project at York University. Fifty students collaborated in three to six person teams to work on a problem/issue identified by one of five not-for-profit organizations who…

  7. Development of Communities of Practice in School Library Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Elizabeth A.; Howard, Jody K.; Kimmel, Sue C.

    2016-01-01

    To properly prepare pre-service school librarians, school library educators in online courses must provide opportunities for collaborative engagement. This collaborative education should also recognize the pedagogical benefit of the organic formation of communities of practice that develop within areas outside of curriculum content. This…

  8. Environmental Sustainability Practices in Selected Publicly Supported Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods research study was to examine the environmental sustainability practices used at publicly supported community, junior, and technical college campuses in the eleven states accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools' Commission on Colleges. The Sustainability Assessment Questionnaire was emailed…

  9. Supporting Clinical Practice Candidates in Learning Community Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJarnette, Nancy K.; Sudeck, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to monitor pre-service teacher candidates' progression and implementation of the learning community philosophy along with classroom management strategies. The study took place during their final semester of clinical practice. Data were collected from self-reports, surveys, university supervisor…

  10. Evolution of TQM Principles and Practices at Jackson Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeTarte, Clyde E.; Schwinn, Carole J.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the Total Quality Management (TQM) effort undertaken three years ago by Jackson Community College (JCC), in Michigan. Discusses the history of JCC, its early TQM efforts, the basic tenets of TQM, steps taken by JCC to integrate TQM practices into its evaluation methods, and benefits of TQM. (MAB)

  11. Original Research Article Community Perceptions and Practices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    disciplines (including medicine, pharmacy, nursing, biotechnology, cell and ... published and not under consideration for publication) will be published without delay. ... Malaria in Under-five Children in Rivers State in Nigeria ..... communities are some of the factors that .... malaria treatment and referral practices by training.

  12. Evolution of TQM Principles and Practices at Jackson Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeTarte, Clyde E.; Schwinn, Carole J.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the Total Quality Management (TQM) effort undertaken three years ago by Jackson Community College (JCC), in Michigan. Discusses the history of JCC, its early TQM efforts, the basic tenets of TQM, steps taken by JCC to integrate TQM practices into its evaluation methods, and benefits of TQM. (MAB)

  13. Development of Communities of Practice in School Library Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Elizabeth A.; Howard, Jody K.; Kimmel, Sue C.

    2016-01-01

    To properly prepare pre-service school librarians, school library educators in online courses must provide opportunities for collaborative engagement. This collaborative education should also recognize the pedagogical benefit of the organic formation of communities of practice that develop within areas outside of curriculum content. This…

  14. Environmental Sustainability Practices in Selected Publicly Supported Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods research study was to examine the environmental sustainability practices used at publicly supported community, junior, and technical college campuses in the eleven states accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools' Commission on Colleges. The Sustainability Assessment Questionnaire was emailed…

  15. LabNet: Toward a Community of Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruopp, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Describes the LabNet project that has three interrelated goals: (1) encouraging the use of student projects to enhance science learning, (2) building a professional community of practice among high school science teachers, and (3) exploiting the potential of today's new technologies. (PR)

  16. Demystifying Virtual Communities of Practice: A Case Study of IBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Ayse

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this proposed research study is to empirically explore the nature of virtual communities of practice (CoP) in a global organisation within the context of its International Corporate Volunteer (ICV) Program. This study investigates whether and how the use of virtual CoP evolves and becomes embedded within this organization. Following…

  17. Sharing Knowledge in Universities: Communities of Practice the Answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Sheryl; du Toit, Adeline

    2009-01-01

    The change from an industrial economy to a knowledge economy forced many organizations to change their modus operandi if they were going to survive in a sustainable way. The introduction of communities of practice (CoPs) by Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger shed new light on knowledge sharing and dissemination of information. Sharing, interacting,…

  18. The Best Practice Unit: a model for learning, research and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilken, Jean Pierre; Slagmaat, Carla van; Gijzel, Sascha van

    2013-01-01

    The Best Practice Unit (BPU) model constitutes a unique form of practice-based research. A variant of the Community of Practice model developed by Wenger, McDermott and Snyder (2002), the BPU has the specific aim of improving professional practice by combining innovation and research. The model is u

  19. The Best Practice Unit: a model for learning, research and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr Jean Pierre Wilken; Carla van Slagmaat; Msc Sascha van Gijzel

    2013-01-01

    The Best Practice Unit (BPU) model constitutes a unique form of practice-based research. A variant of the Community of Practice model developed by Wenger, McDermott and Snyder (2002), the BPU has the specific aim of improving professional practice by combining innovation and research. The model is

  20. Development of Agile Practices in Romanian Software Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard BUDACU

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Agile Software Development (ASD promotes flexibility to change and emphasis the importance of individuals and interactions in producing software. The study presents the development of agile practices in Romanian software community. A literature review is conducted and the main agile methods are described. The characteristics of Romanian ICT sector is presented in relation with agile methodology. Practices are identified by a survey and an analysis on the groups of interests formed on Meetup website is performed. Future directions and development of agile practices is evaluated.

  1. Community of Practice: A Path to Strategic Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy M. Carlson

    2003-04-01

    To explore the concept of community of practice, the research initially concentrates on a strategic business process in a research and applied engineering laboratory discovering essential communication tools and processes needed to cultivate a high functioning cross-disciplinary team engaged in proposal preparation. Qualitative research in the human ecology of the proposal process blends topic-oriented ethnography and grounded theory and includes an innovative addition to qualitative interviewing, called meta-inquiry. Meta-inquiry uses an initial interview protocol with a homogeneous pool of informants to enhance the researcher's sensitivity to the unique cultures involved in the proposal process before developing a formal interview protocol. In this study the preanalysis process uses data from editors, graphic artists, text processors, and production coordinators to assess, modify, enhance, and focus the formal interview protocol with scientists, engineers, and technical managers-the heterogeneous informants. Thus this human ecology-based interview protocol values homogeneous and heterogeneous informant data and acquires data from which concepts, categories, properties, and both substantive and formal theory emerges. The research discovers the five essential processes of owning, visioning, reviewing, producing, and contributing for strategic learning to occur in a proposal community of practice. The apprenticeship, developmental, and nurturing perspectives of adult learning provide the proposal community of practice with cohesion, interdependence, and caring, while core and boundary practices provide insight into the tacit and explicit dimensions of the proposal process. By making these dimensions explicit, the necessary competencies, absorptive capacity, and capabilities needed for strategic learning are discovered. Substantive theory emerges and provides insight into the ability of the proposal community of practice to evolve, flourish, and adapt to the

  2. Communities of practice in participatory approaches to environmental regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mads Lægdsgaard; Noe, Egon

    2012-01-01

    Participatory approaches in environmental regulation are expected to be a part of achieving environmental targets, but experiences show that it is difficult to implement knowledge in practice. The aim of the article is to achieve a better understanding of prerequisites for participatory processes...... in interest groups and organisations. On the basis of the theory of communities of practice, we suggest to integrate both knowledge production and knowledge implementation in the work-related social setting of each individual farm.......Participatory approaches in environmental regulation are expected to be a part of achieving environmental targets, but experiences show that it is difficult to implement knowledge in practice. The aim of the article is to achieve a better understanding of prerequisites for participatory processes...... for change in agricultural contexts. The hypothesis is that the processes in the case project can be analysed by applying concepts of the theory of communities of practice. The first analytical component is a test for learning prerequisites conducted by the concepts of domain, community and practice...

  3. Practice of follow up training model of emergency nursing skills for community nurses%社区护士急救护理技术跟进式培训模式的实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巨海燕; 张发斌; 孙德俊; 袁怡婷; 刘善梅

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究社区护士急救护理技能培训模式的有效方式.方法 对学员实施急救理论讲授、实训、实习、跟踪指导和全程督导的跟进式培训模式.结果 学员对培训后的急救内容、创伤急救技术、中毒急救技术、传染病防护知识等认知较培训前有很大程度的提高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 社区护士急救护理技术跟进式培训模式,对学员跟进式管理和培训有积极的作用.%Objective To explore an effective training model of emergency nursing skills for community nurses. Method The follow up training model was implemented for community nurses .including emergency theory, experiment, clinical practice, follow up instruction and whole course supervision. Results The trainees showed significant improvement in the contents of e-mergency,trauma emergency skills,toxication emergency skills and prevention of infectious diseases (P<0.01). Conclusion The follow up training model of emergency nursing skills for community nurses has led to positive results to the follow up management and training.

  4. Modelling coevolution in multispecies communities

    CERN Document Server

    Caldarelli, G; McKane, A J; Caldarelli, Guido; Higgs, Paul G.; Kane, Alan J. Mc

    1998-01-01

    We introduce the Webworld model, which links together the ecological modelling of food web structure with the evolutionary modelling of speciation and extinction events. The model describes dynamics of ecological communities on an evolutionary timescale. Species are defined as sets of characteristic features, and these features are used to determine interaction scores between species. A simple rule is used to transfer resources from the external environment through the food web to each of the species, and to determine mean population sizes. A time step in the model represents a speciation event. A new species is added with features similar to those of one of the existing species and a new food web structure is then calculated. The new species may (i) add stably to the web, (ii) become extinct immediately because it is poorly adapted, or (iii) cause one or more other species to become extinct due to competition for resources. We measure various properties of the model webs and compare these with data on real f...

  5. From Blogs to Books: Blogging as Community, Practice and Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Caraher

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article expands a 2008 article prepared by William Caraher for Archaeology Online which celebrated the first generation of scholarly blogging in archaeology and classics. Caraher remains tremendously optimistic that the widespread accessibility of blogging platforms, the growth of social media, and new expectation for academic publication has created new communities of scholarly practice poised to revolutionize archaeological communication. Andrew Reinhard offers a more cautionary perspective on the relationship between blogging and publishing by introducing a global perspective on academic publishing and some of the practical issues related to including blogs within the larger tent of scholarly communication. Reinhard's perspectives reveal that the communities of practice in academia may not always be compatible, but like both article authors, they leave plenty of room for new publishing possibilities in a range of rapidly changing digital media and platforms.

  6. Understanding Ecodesign through a Communities of Practice Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skelton, Kristen; Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea; Schmidt, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Despite many years of tool development and legislative initiatives, companies are still challenged by ecodesign. This article applies Etienne Wenger's communities of practice approach to the existing environmental and product development practices of two Danish case companies. It is a contribution...... to the current ecodesign discussion and emphasises the social structures and practice perspectives when implementing ecodesign. The case studies reveal the importance of various social elements, which include the participatory role brokers play in organising, facilitating and negotiating meaning with different...... community members; the use of boundary objects for establishing dialogue and encouraging participation; and the balance between participation and reification in the process of continuously negotiating meaning. In conclusion, ways in which ecodesign can be strengthened using Wenger's principles...

  7. Using communities of practice towards the next level of knowledge-management maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lameshnee Chetty

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Effective communities of practice undoubtedly impact organisations’ knowledgemanagement and contribute towards building a learning-organisation culture. Communitiesof practice represent an environment conducive to learning and for exchanging ideas, andthey are a formal learning forum. However, the level of organisational learning to whichcommunities of practice contribute is difficult to measure.Objectives: The research was conducted to analyse the impact of communities of practiceon building a learning organisation. The organisational system, culture and people offerthe key towards leveraging knowledge as a strategic resource in a learning organisation.The awareness of the organisation concerning knowledge management was measured on areplicated knowledge-management maturity model.Method: The organisational knowledge base was analysed prior to the implementation of thecommunities of practice and was compared to the situation three years later. The research wasbased on experiential learning cycles that consisted of five consequential but perpetual stages,namely reflect, plan, act, observe and reflect again.Results: The results indicated that communities of practice were instrumental in leveraging theorganisation to the next level in the knowledge-management maturity model. A collaborationframework was developed for each business unit to work towards a common goal byharnessing the knowledge that was shared.Conclusion: Although a positive impact by communities of practice is visible, an instrumentfor the measurement of intellectual capital is necessary. It is recommended that the monetaryvalue of knowledge as an asset is determined so that the value of the potential intellectualcapital can be measured.

  8. Models of Community Colleges in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of community colleges in mainland China, addressing briefly the recent history of community college development, defining these institutions, detailing various models with examples, and discussing challenges faced by these institutions and recommendations for future development.

  9. Communities of Practice: Creating the Bilingual School Mental Health Network in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Bryn; Steensen, Becky; Klotz, Mary Beth; Skalski, Anastasia Kalamaros; Bieber, Barb

    2012-01-01

    A growing strategy in the world of educational reform is the use of "communities of practice" (CoP) as a tool for promoting sustainable systems change. There are three basic characteristics of a CoP that distinguish it from other types of communities: (1) the domain; (2) the community; and (3) the practice. A community of practice model…

  10. Re-examining concepts of occupation and occupation-based models: occupational therapy and community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclair, Leanne L

    2010-02-01

    A growing body of literature supports the role of occupational therapists in community development. Using a community development approach, occupational therapists respond to community-identified occupational needs. They work to build local resources and capacities and self-sustaining programs that foster change within the community and potentially beyond. The purpose of this paper is to highlight some key issues related to occupational therapy practice in community development. The definitions and classifications of occupation focus primarily on the individual and fail to elaborate on the shared occupations of a community. As well, occupation-based models of practice are not easily applied to occupational therapy practice in community development. In order for occupational therapy to articulate its role in community development, greater heed needs to be given to the definition and categorization of occupation, occupation-based models of practice, and their application to communities.

  11. PRACTICES AND TRADITIONAL SOCIAL ECONOMY MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Mihaela Mihalache

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This text is an analysis of the social economy practices as a means of reducing poverty. Besides the patterns of social economy of protected entities, we are seeking an extrapolation of social economy in traditional practices. We have analysed a series of interviews with people involved in the implementation and promotion of social economy projects and several possible models of traditional activities have been searched which may be the object of the social economy. Documentation made for this research suggests that there are models of traditional social economy in certain Romanian geographical areas not adequately promoted and shared with other communities. The analysis highlighted some weaknesses of the event and functioning of these practices and traditional social economy models. They concern the difficulties of traditional activities sustainability by lack of marketing, utilizing products, market and especially very small and occasional profit. Although profit is not found only in the last goals of social economy and is recommended for reinvestment, it remains important for covering minimum needs. In this context, these weaknesses constitute the risk factors in maintaining motivation to support these activities in the social economy.

  12. Community science, philosophy of science, and the practice of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

    2005-06-01

    Embedded in community science are implicit theories on the nature of reality (ontology), the justification of knowledge claims (epistemology), and how knowledge is constructed (methodology). These implicit theories influence the conceptualization and practice of research, and open up or constrain its possibilities. The purpose of this paper is to make some of these theories explicit, trace their intellectual history, and propose a shift in the way research in the social and behavioral sciences, and community science in particular, is conceptualized and practiced. After describing the influence and decline of logical empiricism, the underlying philosophical framework for science for the past century, I summarize contemporary views in the philosophy of science that are alternatives to logical empiricism. These include contextualism, normative naturalism, and scientific realism, and propose that a modified version of contextualism, known as perspectivism, affords the philosophical framework for an emerging community science. I then discuss the implications of perspectivism for community science in the form of four propositions to guide the practice of research.

  13. Ideology and community social psychology: theoretical considerations and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Marisela

    2002-08-01

    This paper addresses the importance of the concept of ideology in community work. The implications of a Marxist approach to ideology in community practice are analyzed in terms of the concepts of problematization (P. Freire, 1979) and consciousness-raising (J. Barreiro, 1976), illustrating the point with some examples. The traditional Marxist perspective is also examined in relation to the perspectives of social constructionism (I. Ibáñez, 1996), cultural studies (A. McRobbie, 1992), post-Marxism (E. Laclau & C. Mouffe, 1985), and feminism (D. Haraway, 1991). It is argued that the concepts of hegemony and habitus (P. Bourdieu, 1985) can be useful to community social psychology theory and practice. A "situated perspective"--in which it is possible to dialogue from different "subject positions," and articulate transformation and political action--is argued. The implications of this shifting in the concept of ideology by means of theoretical developments outside social communitypsychology can help to define the external (outside) agent's position in community practice.

  14. How do clinicians become teachers? A communities of practice perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillon, P; D'Eath, M; De Grave, W; Dornan, T

    2016-12-01

    There is widespread acceptance that clinical educators should be trained to teach, but faculty development for clinicians is undermined by poor attendance and inadequate learning transfer. As a result there has been growing interest in situating teacher development initiatives in clinical workplaces. The relationship between becoming a teacher and clinical workplace contexts is under theorised. In response, this qualitative research set out to explore how clinicians become teachers in relation to clinical communities and institutions. Using communities of practice (CoP) as a conceptual framework this research employed the sensitising concepts of regimes of competence and vertical (managerial) and horizontal (professional) planes of accountability to elucidate structural influences on teacher development. Fourteen hospital physicians completed developmental timelines and underwent semi-structured interviews, exploring their development as teachers. Despite having very different developmental pathways, participants' descriptions of their teacher identities and practice that were remarkably congruent. Two types of CoP occupied the horizontal plane of accountability i.e. clinical teams (Firms) and communities of junior doctors (Fraternities). Participants reproduced teacher identities and practice that were congruent with CoPs' regimes of competence in order to gain recognition and legitimacy. Participants also constructed their teacher identities in relation to institutions in the vertical plane of accountability (i.e. hospitals and medical schools). Institutions that valued teaching supported the development of teacher identities along institutionally defined lines. Where teaching was less valued, clinicians adapted their teacher identities and practices to suit institutional norms. Becoming a clinical educator entails continually negotiating one's identity and practice between two potentially conflicting planes of accountability. Clinical CoPs are largely

  15. A Virtual Community of Practice for General Practice Training: A Preimplementation Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Bennett, Sue; Iverson, Don; Robinson, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Background Professional isolation is an important factor in low rural health workforce retention. Objective The aim of this study was to gain insights to inform the development of an implementation plan for a virtual community of practice (VCoP) for general practice (GP) training in regional Australia. The study also aimed to assess the applicability of the findings of an existing framework in developing this plan. This included ascertaining the main drivers of usage, or usefulness, of the VCoP for users and establishing the different priorities between user groups. Methods A survey study, based on the seven-step health VCoP framework, was conducted with general practice supervisors and registrars—133 usable responses; 40% estimated response rate. Data was analyzed using the t test and the chi-square test for comparisons between groups. Factor analysis and generalized linear regression modeling were used to ascertain factors which may independently predict intention to use the VCoP. Results In establishing a VCoP, facilitation was seen as important. Regarding stakeholders, the GP training provider was an important sponsor. Factor analysis showed a single goal of usefulness. Registrars had a higher intention to use the VCoP (Psupervisors. Usefulness independently predicted intention to actively use the VCoP (Psupervisors to want allied health professional and specialist involvement (Pfeedback about site activity. Regarding technology and community, training can be online, but trust is better built face-to-face. Supervisors were significantly more likely than registrars to perceive that registrars needed help with knowledge (P=.01) and implementation of knowledge (P<.001). Conclusions Important factors for a GP training VCoP include the following: facilitation covering administration and expertise, the perceived usefulness of the community, focusing usefulness around knowledge sharing, and overcoming professional isolation with high-quality content. Knowledge needs

  16. Managerial skills of new practitioner pharmacists within community practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mospan, Cortney M; Casper, Kristin A; Coleman, Ashley; Porter, Kyle

    To identify managerial skills required in community pharmacy practice, explore new practitioners' previous exposure to these skills, and assess new practitioners' perceived preparedness to take on managerial responsibilities. A survey was developed with the use of Qualtrics and distributed by state pharmacy associations using a convenience sample of pharmacists from Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Pharmacists not practicing in a community pharmacy setting at the time of the study were excluded. New practitioners were defined as pharmacists practicing for no more than 10 years. A total of 168 pharmacists completed the survey. More than one-half (56%) of respondents self-reported being in a managerial position, and 90% of respondents thought that managerial skills were always or very often necessary. At graduation, 15% of respondents rated their managerial skill proficiency to be high to very high, with this increasing to 57% at current point in their career. When comparing managers versus non-managers, 78% of skills assessed showed higher utilization in managers. Interestingly, only 44% of skills showed a higher proficiency in managers. Finally, 88% of respondents thought that their managerial skills could be improved. New practitioners in community practice reported a high utilization of managerial skills, as well as improved proficiency throughout their careers. These skills are important in both community pharmacy training and practice. Managers reported higher utilization of managerial skills, but that utilization did not always correlate with proficiency. This highlights the need to further identify and improve managerial skills during pharmacy education and as part of ongoing continuing professional development. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment: bridging research and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan C. Durrance

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article results from a qualitative study of 1 information behavior in community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment and 2 approaches used by a best-practice library to anticipate information needs associated with community problem solving. Method. Several approaches to data collection were used - focus groups, interviews, observation of community and library meetings, and analysis of supporting documents. We focused first on the information behaviour of community groups. Finding that the library supported these activities we sought to understand its approach. Analysis. Data were coded thematically for both information behaviour concepts and themes germane to problem-solving activity. A grounded theory approach was taken to capture aspects of the library staff's practice. Themes evolved from the data; supporting documentation - reports, articles and library communication - was also coded. Results. The study showed 1 how information use environment components (people, setting, problems, problem resolutions combine in this distributed information use environment to determine specific information needs and uses; and 2 how the library contributed to the viability of this distributed information use environment. Conclusion. Community problem solving, here explicated as a distributed IUE, is likely to be seen in multiple communities. The library model presented demonstrates that by reshaping its information practice within the framework of an information use environment, a library can anticipate community information needs as they are generated and where they are most relevant.

  18. A community of practice: librarians in a biomedical research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jager-Loftus, Danielle P; Midyette, J David; Harvey, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Providing library and reference services within a biomedical research community presents special challenges for librarians, especially those in historically lower-funded states. These challenges can include understanding needs, defining and communicating the library's role, building relationships, and developing and maintaining general and subject specific knowledge. This article describes a biomedical research network and the work of health sciences librarians at the lead intensive research institution with librarians from primarily undergraduate institutions and tribal colleges. Applying the concept of a community of practice to a collaborative effort suggests how librarians can work together to provide effective reference services to researchers in biomedicine.

  19. Community Informatics Studio: Designing Experiential Learning to Support Teaching, Research, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolske, Martin; Rhinesmith, Colin; Kumar, Beth

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a model of experiential learning to support teaching, research, and practice in library and information science (LIS). The concept we call "Community Informatics (CI) Studio" uses studio-based learning (SBL) to support enculturation into the field of CI. The SBL approach, closely related to John Dewey's…

  20. Engaging the University in Building Communities of Practice for Aging in Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jessyna M.

    2011-01-01

    Based upon the principles of the Engaged University (Kellogg Commission 2001), The Institute of Gerontology (IOG) at the University of the District of Columbia developed a model for the scholarship of engagement by building communities of practice within the aging network which may support and enhance student learning outcomes and experiences. The…

  1. Saint Anthony Hospital: Infusing Developmental and Family Support Services in Community-Based Medical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Paula; Isarowong, Nucha

    2015-01-01

    Physicians affiliated with small community hospitals face numerous barriers to using developmentally oriented best practices in primary care with young children. Saint Anthony Hospital's Developmental Support Project model promotes improved developmental outcomes for children through two complementary strands of services: (a) training and…

  2. The Evolution of a Teacher Community of Practice: Identifying Facilitating and Constraining Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Tracey

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a larger, qualitative study that explored the potential of a school-based teacher community of practice as a model for a transformative form of teacher professional development. This paper reports on initial findings from a grounded theory exploration of the factors that facilitated and constrained the evolution…

  3. Saint Anthony Hospital: Infusing Developmental and Family Support Services in Community-Based Medical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Paula; Isarowong, Nucha

    2015-01-01

    Physicians affiliated with small community hospitals face numerous barriers to using developmentally oriented best practices in primary care with young children. Saint Anthony Hospital's Developmental Support Project model promotes improved developmental outcomes for children through two complementary strands of services: (a) training and…

  4. Graduate Students' Communication Practices and Perceived Sense of Community: An Examination of Information Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between graduate students' communication practices and their perceived sense of program-level community within a graduate program. The program under study consists of both traditional on-campus students, as well as students who take classes via a distributed-learning model. This particular program has made a…

  5. Knowledge Construction, Meaning-Making and Interaction in CLIL Science Classroom Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evnitskaya, Natalia; Morton, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on Wenger's model of community of practice to present preliminary findings on how processes of negotiation of meaning and identity formation occur in knowledge construction, meaning-making and interaction in two secondary Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) science classrooms. It uses a multimodal conversation analysis…

  6. The Evolution of a Teacher Community of Practice: Identifying Facilitating and Constraining Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Tracey

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a larger, qualitative study that explored the potential of a school-based teacher community of practice as a model for a transformative form of teacher professional development. This paper reports on initial findings from a grounded theory exploration of the factors that facilitated and constrained the evolution…

  7. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Daisy; Vendla, Kaidi; Vetka, Andre; Bell, J Simon; Hamilton, David

    2008-07-01

    To describe practice and research related to pharmaceutical care in Estonia following the country's restoration of independence from Russia in 1991. The transition from a Soviet to a free market economy has impacted the healthcare and pharmacy systems in Estonia. Following independence, ownership of community pharmacies was transferred from the State government to individual pharmacists. However, pharmacy ownership is no longer restricted to pharmacists and recent years have seen the emergence of large pharmacy chains. The number of community pharmacies in Estonia increased from 270 in 1992 to 523 in 2007. In addition to dispensing, Estonian pharmacies retain a focus on compounding of extemporaneous products and supply of herbal medications. Research into pharmaceutical care has addressed topics including pharmaceutical policy and the quality of pharmacy services provided at community pharmacies. There has been limited pressure to date from the governmental institutions and patient organizations to introduce extended pharmaceutical services. However, the trend toward providing health services in primary care will create greater responsibilities and new opportunities for community pharmacists. Recent inclusion of clinical pharmacy and interprofessional learning in the undergraduate pharmacy curriculum will help ensure ongoing development of the profession and high-quality pharmacy services in the future. Pharmaceutical care services in Estonian community pharmacies have become more patient-oriented over the past 17 years. However, community pharmacies continue to retain a focus on traditional roles.

  8. 2011 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT COMMUNITY OF PRACTICE TECHNICAL EXCHANGE - SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, R.

    2011-12-30

    The Performance Assessment Community of Practice (PA CoP) was developed in 2008 to improve consistency and quality in the preparation of performance assessments (PAs) and risk assessments across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. The term, PA, is used to represent all of these modeling applications in this report. The PA CoP goals are to foster the exchange of information among PA practitioners and to share lessons learned from PAs conducted for DOE, commercial disposal facilities, and international entities. Technical exchanges and workshops are a cornerstone of PA CoP activities. Previous technical exchanges have addressed Engineered Barriers (2009 - http://www.cresp.org/education/workshops/pacop/), the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management and the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (2010 - http://srnl.doe.gov/copexchange/links.htm). Each technical exchange also includes summary presentations regarding activities at DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and other organizations (e.g., International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)) as well as a number of presentations from selected sites to provide insight and perspective from on-going modeling activities. Through the deployment of PA Assistance Teams, the PA CoP has also been engaged in the development of new PAs across the DOE Complex. As a way of improving consistency in the preparation of new PAs, the teams provide technical advice and share experiences, noteworthy practices, and lessons learned from previous Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) reviews. Teams have provided support for PAs at Hanford, Idaho, Paducah and Portsmouth. The third annual PA CoP Technical Exchange was held on May 25-26, 2011 in Atlanta, GA. The PA CoP Steering Committee Meeting held its first meeting on May 24 prior to the Technical Exchange. Decision making using models and software quality assurance were the topical emphasis for the exchange. A new feature at the 2011 technical

  9. 精神病人社会回归的社区模式实践与经验%Practice and Experience of the Community Model for the ;Return of Mental Patients to the Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁静文

    2014-01-01

    精神病人最终回归社会是指精神病人在正常的环境下康复,并在专业人士和社会工作者的帮助下,逐渐恢复社会功能并正常生活和工作。这是西方现在的精神病医疗理念,而这种医疗理念在国际上已获得共识。美国的“非住院化运动”引起的社区模式的实践将精神病人从医院那个“牢笼”里解放出来;日本的“开放管理”模式让病人在自由中自主生活;香港完备的社区康复机构让病人在机构活动中培养了自立能力和互助精神;北京的“温馨家园”使病人迅速融入家庭和社会。鉴于以上实践模式的经验,着重在社区服务能力建设、机构建设、支持网络建设方面对我国精神病人社会回归的社区模式进行了探讨。%The return of mental patients to the society refers to the patients' gradual recovery of social functions and normal life and work in a normal environment, with the help of specialists and social workers. This is the Western medical concept for mental diseases, but it has been recognized internationally. The practice of the community model aroused by American "non-hospital campaign"relieves mental patients from the"cage", the hospital;Japanese "open management" model offers patients a free and autonomous life;the perfect community rehabilitation institutions of Hong Kong cultivate patients independent ability and mutual help spirit; Beijing's "warm family" helps patients rapidly inte-grate their families and the society. In view of the above experi-ence, this paper explored the community model for the return of mental patients to the society from community service ability construction, institution construction, and supporting network construction.

  10. Towards a new theory of practice for community health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolas, Sevasti-Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The article sets out the value of theorizing collective action from a social science perspective that engages with the messy actuality of practice. It argues that community health psychology relies on an abstract version of Paulo Freire's earlier writing, the Pedagogy of the Oppressed, which provides scholar-activists with a 'map' approach to collective action. The article revisits Freire's later work, the Pedagogy of Hope, and argues for the importance of developing a 'journey' approach to collective action. Theories of practice are discussed for their value in theorizing such journeys, and in bringing maps (intentions) and journeys (actuality) closer together.

  11. Knitting Mochilas: A Sociocultural, Developmental Practice in Arhuaco Indigenous Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Patricia Rodríguez-Burgos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the psycho-cultural processes involved in knitting “mochilas” (traditional bags, a common craft in the Arhuaco indigenous community located in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. The article is structured in three parts, as follows: first, issues related to child development are discussed; then, the analysis method used to study the processes involved in the practice of knitting is presented and, finally, we reflect on the importance of recovering the sense and meaning of this everyday practice as a way to study child development.

  12. Knitting Mochilas: A Sociocultural, Developmental Practice in Arhuaco Indigenous Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Burgos, Lilian Patricia; Rodríguez-Castro, Jennifer; Bojacá-Rodríguez, Sandra Milena; Izquierdo-Martínez, Dwrya Elena; Amórtegui-Lozano, Allain Alexander; Prieto-Castellanos, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the psycho-cultural processes involved in knitting “mochilas” (traditional bags), a common craft in the Arhuaco indigenous community located in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. The article is structured in three parts, as follows: first, issues related to child development are discussed; then, the analysis method used to study the processes involved in the practice of knitting is presented and, finally, we reflect on the importance of recovering the sense and meaning of this everyday practice as a way to study child development. PMID:27298634

  13. Multiscale Modeling of Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Andrew

    Although bacteria are single-celled organisms, they exist in nature primarily in the form of complex communities, participating in a vast array of social interactions through regulatory gene networks. The social interactions between individual cells drive the emergence of community structures, resulting in an intricate relationship across multiple spatiotemporal scales. Here, I present my work towards developing and applying the tools necessary to model the complex dynamics of bacterial communities. In Chapter 2, I utilize a reaction-diffusion model to determine the population dynamics for a population with two species. One species (CDI+) utilizes contact dependent inhibition to kill the other sensitive species (CDI-). The competition can produce diverse patterns, including extinction, coexistence, and localized aggregation. The emergence, relative abundance, and characteristic features of these patterns are collectively determined by the competitive benefit of CDI and its growth disadvantage for a given rate of population diffusion. The results provide a systematic and statistical view of CDI-based bacterial population competition, expanding the spectrum of our knowledge about CDI systems and possibly facilitating new experimental tests for a deeper understanding of bacterial interactions. In the following chapter, I present a systematic computational survey on the relationship between social interaction types and population structures for two-species communities by developing and utilizing a hybrid computational framework that combines discrete element techniques with reaction-diffusion equations. The impact of deleterious and beneficial interactions on the community are quantified. Deleterious interactions generate an increased variance in relative abundance, a drastic decrease in surviving lineages, and a rough expanding front. In contrast, beneficial interactions contribute to a reduced variance in relative abundance, an enhancement in lineage number, and a

  14. Examining the Role of Social Network Intervention as an Integral Component of Community-Based, Family-Focused Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Kathleen F.

    2005-01-01

    Social network intervention aimed at bolstering the informal supports of high risk families is recognized as a common element of community-based, family-focused practice models, such as intensive family preservation services (IFPS), multisystemic therapy (MST), and the wraparound process. The empirical research basis for these practice models is…

  15. Nasogastric feeding in the community: safe and effective practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Carolyn

    2013-10-01

    A small percentage of patients receiving enteral tube feeding in the community receive feed via a nasogastric tube. There are risks associated with this method if the correct procedures for monitoring tube displacement are not in place. Guidance for checking tube position has been provided by the National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA). Nurses caring for patients with nasogastric tube feeds need to be aware of how NPSA alerts impact on practice and the advice and support they may need to offer patients.

  16. A Virtual Community of Practice for General Practice Training: A Preimplementation Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, Stephen; Jones, Sandra C; Bennett, Sue; Iverson, Don; Robinson, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Background Professional isolation is an important factor in low rural health workforce retention. Objective The aim of this study was to gain insights to inform the development of an implementation plan for a virtual community of practice (VCoP) for general practice (GP) training in regional Australia. The study also aimed to assess the applicability of the findings of an existing framework in developing this plan. This included ascertaining the main drivers of usage, or usefulness, of the VC...

  17. A Community Membership Life Cycle Model

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnenbichler, Andreas C

    2010-01-01

    Web 2.0 is transforming the internet: Information consumers become information producers and consumers at the same time. In virtual places like Facebook, Youtube, discussion boards and weblogs diversificated topics, groups and issues are propagated and discussed. Today an internet user is a member of lots of communities at different virtual places. "Real life" group membership and group behavior has been analyzed in science intensively in the last decades. Most interestingly, to our knowledge, user roles and behavior have not been adapted to the modern internet. In this work, we give a short overview of traditional community roles. We adapt those models and apply them to virtual online communities. We suggest a community membership life cycle model describing roles a user can take during his membership in a community. Our model is systematic and generic; it can be adapted to concrete communities in the web. The knowledge of a community's life cycle allows influencing the group structure: Stage transitions can...

  18. Evaluation of a Cape Town Safety Intervention as a Model for Good Practice: A Partnership between Researchers, Community and Implementing Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tali Cassidy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available VPUU has a wealth of experience to share and is engaged with broader national and international policymakers and implementing agencies. Researchers are grappling with the difficulty of providing a rigorous project evaluation for these collaborations which could identify project elements that work with a view to their replication. This paper traces the evolution of an evidence-based approach to violence prevention in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The Violence Prevention through Urban Upgrading (VPUU project in Cape Town uses such an approach, and relies on a ‘whole-of-society’ methodology as well. The project and the difficulty of its evaluation are discussed. A partnership between VPUU, researchers, the community and local government has revealed both opportunities and obstacles, which are the subjects of a case study described here.

  19. Re-Examining Communities of Practice: Contradiction, Power, and Reification in Professional Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilensky, Hiroko Nishi

    2011-01-01

    The concept of communities of practice (CoP) was first introduced by Lave and Wenger in their short monograph, "Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation." Since then, the concept has become immensely popular in a variety of disciplines. This dissertation traces the concept of CoP back to its inception and early transformation at the…

  20. Rhizomes and plateaus: A study of digital communities of practice in University College English Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Rhizomes and plateaus: A study of digital communities of practice in University College English Teaching......Rhizomes and plateaus: A study of digital communities of practice in University College English Teaching...

  1. Interconnection of Communities of Practice: A Web Platform for Knowledge Management

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    Garrot-Lavoué, Elise

    2012-01-01

    Our works aim at developing a Web platform to connect various Communities of Practice (CoPs) and to capitalise on all their knowledge. This platform addresses CoPs interested in a same general activity, for example tutoring. For that purpose, we propose a general model of Interconnection of Communities of Practice (ICP), based on the concept of Constellation of Practice (CCP) developed by Wenger (1998). The model of ICP was implemented and has been used to develop the TE-Cap 2 platform which has, as its field of application, educational tutoring activities. In particular, we propose an indexation and search tool for the ICP knowledge base. The TE-Cap 2 platform has been used in real conditions. We present the main results of this descriptive investigation to validate this work.

  2. General practice training and virtual communities of practice - a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnett Stephen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Good General Practice is essential for an effective health system. Good General Practice training is essential to sustain the workforce, however training for General Practice can be hampered by a number of pressures, including professional, structural and social isolation. General Practice trainees may be under more pressure than fully registered General Practitioners, and yet isolation can lead doctors to reduce hours and move away from rural practice. Virtual communities of practice (VCoPs in business have been shown to be effective in improving knowledge sharing, thus reducing professional and structural isolation. This literature review will critically examine the current evidence relevant to virtual communities of practice in General Practice training, identify evidence-based principles that might guide their construction and suggest further avenues for research. Methods Major online databases Scopus, Psychlit and Pubmed were searched for the terms “Community of Practice” (CoP AND (Online OR Virtual OR Electronic AND (health OR healthcare OR medicine OR “Allied Health”. Only peer-reviewed journal articles in English were selected. A total of 76 articles were identified, with 23 meeting the inclusion criteria. There were no studies on CoP or VCoP in General Practice training. The review was structured using a framework of six themes for establishing communities of practice, derived from a key study from the business literature. This framework has been used to analyse the literature to determine whether similar themes are present in the health literature and to identify evidence in support of virtual communities of practice for General Practice training. Results The framework developed by Probst is mirrored in the health literature, albeit with some variations. In particular the roles of facilitator or moderator and leader whilst overlapping, are different. VCoPs are usually collaborations between stakeholders

  3. Linking research and practice through teacher communities: a place where formal and practical knowledge meet?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pareja Roblin, Natalie N.; Ormel, Bart J.B.; McKenney, Susan E.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.

    2014-01-01

    This study characterises the links between research and practice across 12 projects concerned with the collaborative design of lesson plans by teacher communities (TCs). Analyses focused on sources of knowledge used to inform lesson design, participants’ roles and knowledge generated by the teacher

  4. Linking research and practice through teacher communities: A place where formal and practical knowledge meet?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pareja Roblin, Natalie; Ormel, Bart; McKenney, Susan; Voogt, Joke; Pieters, Jules

    2015-01-01

    This study characterizes the links between research and practice across twelve projects concerned with the collaborative design of lesson plans by teacher communities. Analyses focused on sources of knowledge used to inform lesson design, participants’ roles, and knowledge generated by the teacher c

  5. Poco a Poco: Leadership Practices Supporting Productive Communities of Practice in Schools Serving the New Mainstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Martin; Kim, Minsong; Burns, Mary Bridget; Vuilleumier, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Culturally and linguistically diverse students frequently do not receive equitable educational opportunities. Schools across public and private sectors that are striving to ameliorate this problem typically work in isolation, not collaboratively. This article examines how communities of practice emerge within a network of schools striving…

  6. Communities of practice in nursing academia: a growing need to practice what we teach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risling, Tracie; Ferguson, Linda

    2013-08-22

    Although the community of practice (CoP) concept has been heavily utilized in business literature since its inception in the 1990s, it has not been significantly featured in nursing research. With student-centered approaches increasingly infusing nursing classrooms, including opportunities for collaborative learning and the development of student learning communities, it may be time to ask: Do we practice what we teach? Nursing academia faces challenges related to recruitment and retention, scholarly productivity and engagement of new faculty, and increasing demands for collaborative research. Challenges, some would argue, that could be addressed through CoPs; a sentiment reflected in the recent expansion of nursing CoP literature. What is the current state of the application of this concept in nursing academia and what barriers present in the promotion and development of CoPs in the academy? This article addresses these questions and provides guidance for those in search of community.

  7. Child feeding practices in a rural Western Kenya community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace M. Mbagaya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding is nearly universal in Kenya. However, supplementation of breast milk starts too early, thereby exposing the infants to diarrhoea and other infections. Despite the recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO of exclusive breastfeeding (EB from birth to six months, EB is rare and poorly timed and complementary feeding (CF practices are still common. The study describes feeding practices of children aged 0 to 24 months in the Mumias Division of the Kakamega district in Kenya. Method: Using a cross-sectional study, 180 mothers of infants/children were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, feeding practices and sources of information on the same were obtained from the mothers.Results: Whereas 92.1% of the children were breastfed, only 12.2% of the mothers practiced EB up to 4 to 6 months. Mothers introduced liquids and complementary foods at a mean age of 2.7 months and by the fourth month, more than one-third (34.5% of the mothers had initiated CF. Apart from water, fresh milk, tea, commercial juices, maize-meal/millet porridge, mashed potatoes, bananas and fruits were also introduced. The perceived reasons for introducing these foods included the child being old enough (33.8%, another pregnancy (25%, insufficient milk (20.3%, sickness of the mother or child (10.5% and in order for the child to eat other foods (11.4%. Over half (53.3% of the mothers obtained information on BF and CF from friends, neighbours, media advertisements and health workers.Conclusion: Breastfeeding is common; however, mothers do not seem to practice the WHO recommendations. Mothers in this study area and other rural communities need to be empowered with information on the correct BF and CF practices through existing government health services, nongovernmental organisations and other community-based networks, especially in the light of the HIV/AIDS pandemic.

  8. Application of quality-improvement methods in a community practice: the Sandhills Pediatrics Asthma Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroth, Thomas H; Boals, Joseph C

    2005-01-01

    This case study demonstrates the use of quality improvement methods to improve asthma care in a busy community practice. The practice used disease-management strategies, such as population identification, self-management education, and performance measurement and feedback. The practice then applied several practice-based quality improvement methods, such as PDSA cycles, to improve care. From 1998 to 2003, process measures, such as staging of asthmatics, use of long-term control medications, use of peak flow meters and spacers, and use of action plans, improved. There was also a substantial decrease in emergency department use and hospitalizations among patients with asthma. Although there have been several studies demonstrating the efficacy of disease management strategies, most lack generalizability to community practices. Often, interventions are so intensive and cumbersome, that they are unlikely to be replicated in primary care setting. Researchers have been unable to determine which components of the interventions are most effective and replicable. Furthermore, many studies of disease management strategies enroll participants who lack the co-morbidities seen in community practice. There are also few studies of disadvantaged populations that face other barriers to care, such as lack of transportation, poor access to specialists, and medical illiteracy. In this case study, there were several unique factors that enabled the practice to improve care for this population. The AccessCare case manager who worked with the practice not only provided data and feedback to the practice team, but also served as an improvement "coach," often pushing the team and facilitating many of the improvement efforts. AccessCare's approach is in contrast to many of the commercial disease management companies' "carve out" models that do not sufficiently involve providers or practices in their interventions. The other necessary ingredient for success in this project was organizational

  9. Student Scientific Research within Communities-of-Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Russell; Armstrong, James; Blanko, Philip; Boyce, Grady Boyce, Pat; Brewer, Mark; Buchheim, Robert; Calanog, Jae; Castaneda, Diana Chamberlin, Rebecca; Clark, R. Kent; Collins, Dwight; Conti, Dennis Cormier, Sebastien; Fitzgerald, Michael; Estrada, Chris; Estrada, Reed; Freed, Rachel Gomez, Edward; Hardersen, Paul; Harshaw, Richard; Johnson, Jolyon Kafka, Stella; Kenney, John; Mohanan, Kakkala; Ridgely, John; Rowe, David Silliman, Mark; Stojimirovic, Irena; Tock, Kalee; Walker, Douglas; Wallen, Vera

    2017-06-01

    Social learning theory suggests that students who wish to become scientists will benefit by being active researchers early in their educational careers. As coauthors of published research, they identify themselves as scientists. This provides them with the inspiration, motivation, and staying power that many will need to complete the long educational process. This hypothesis was put to the test over the past decade by a one-semester astronomy research seminar where teams of students managed their own research. Well over a hundred published papers coauthored by high school and undergraduate students at a handful of schools substantiated this hypothesis. However, one could argue that this was a special case. Astronomy, after all, is supported by a large professional-amateur community-of-practice. Furthermore, the specific area of research-double star astrometry-was chosen because the observations could be quickly made, the data reduction and analysis was straight forward, and publication of the research was welcomed by the Journal of Double Star Observations. A recently initiated seminar development and expansion program-supported in part by the National Science Foundation-is testing a more general hypothesis that: (1) the seminar can be successfully adopted by many other schools; (2) research within astronomy can be extended from double star astrometry to time series photometry of variable stars, exoplanet transits, and asteroids; and (3) the seminar model can be extended to a science beyond astronomy: environmental science-specifically atmospheric science. If the more general hypothesis is also supported, seminars that similarly feature published high school and undergraduate student team research could have the potential to significantly improve science education by increasing the percentage of students who complete the education required to become professional scientists.

  10. Dual Language Graduates' Participation in Bilingual and Biliterate Communities of Practice across Time and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Nadia Regina

    2015-01-01

    Through a Communities of Practice Network Analysis, this research illustrates the ways in which dual language graduates participate in multiple, varied, and overlapping communities of practice across time. Findings highlight that the dual language school as a shared community of practice represents a critical and formative part of participants'…

  11. Professional Development on an International Scale: Council of Europe--Pestalozzi Programme Virtual Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mompoint Gaillard, Pascale; Rajic, Višnja

    2014-01-01

    Communities of practice as organisations of learning have developed different forms as: task-based, practice-based or knowledge based communities (Barab et al., 2004). The paper presents a case study of a successful community of practice developed under the umbrella of Council of Europe Pestalozzi programme for teacher development. The programme…

  12. Sustaining health in faith community nursing practice: emerging processes that support the development of a middle-range theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyess, Susan MacLeod; Chase, Susan K

    2012-01-01

    This article reveals processes that support theoretical development for holistic nursing in the context of a faith community. The emerging processes enhance the articulation of the holistically focused practice, add clarity to faith community nursing activities and outcomes, and contribute to theoretical clarification and development. Theoretical clarity is essential to guide faith community nursing practice, research, and education because there is tremendous potential for the specialty practice to contribute to the health of a community across the continuum of caring and because to date there has been no unifying model for this practice proposed. A lack of a theoretical basis can result in disparate and disconnected approaches to studying, testing, and promoting the practice.

  13. Performance Engineering in the Community Atmosphere Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, P; Mirin, A; Drake, J; Sawyer, W

    2006-05-30

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) is the atmospheric component of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) and is the primary consumer of computer resources in typical CCSM simulations. Performance engineering has been an important aspect of CAM development throughout its existence. This paper briefly summarizes these efforts and their impacts over the past five years.

  14. Bridging Research, Practice, and Policy: The "Evidence Academy" Conference Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohweder, Catherine L; Laping, Jane L; Diehl, Sandra J; Moore, Alexis A; Isler, Malika Roman; Scott, Jennifer Elissa; Enga, Zoe Kaori; Black, Molly C; Dave, Gaurav; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Melvin, Cathy L

    2016-01-01

    Innovative models to facilitate more rapid uptake of research findings into practice are urgently needed. Community members who engage in research can accelerate this process by acting as adoption agents. We implemented an Evidence Academy conference model bringing together researchers, health care professionals, advocates, and policy makers across North Carolina to discuss high-impact, life-saving study results. The overall goal is to develop dissemination and implementation strategies for translating evidence into practice and policy. Each 1-day, single-theme, regional meeting focuses on a leading community-identified health priority. The model capitalizes on the power of diverse local networks to encourage broad, common awareness of new research findings. Furthermore, it emphasizes critical reflection and active group discussion on how to incorporate new evidence within and across organizations, health care systems, and communities. During the concluding session, participants are asked to articulate action plans relevant to their individual interests, work setting, or area of expertise.

  15. Contextualizing learning to improve care using collaborative communities of practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffs, Lianne; McShane, Julie; Flintoft, Virginia; White, Peggy; Indar, Alyssa; Maione, Maria; Lopez, A J; Bookey-Bassett, Sue; Scavuzzo, Lauren

    2016-09-02

    The use of interorganizational, collaborative approaches to build capacity in quality improvement (QI) in health care is showing promise as a useful model for scaling up and accelerating the implementation of interventions that bridge the "know-do" gap to improve clinical care and provider outcomes. Fundamental to a collaborative approach is interorganizational learning whereby organizations acquire, share, and combine knowledge with other organizations and have the opportunity to learn from their respective successes and challenges in improvement areas. This learning approach aims to create the conditions for collaborative, reflective, and innovative experiential systems that enable collective discussions regarding daily practice issues and finding solutions for improvement. The concepts associated with interorganizational learning and deliberate learning activities within a collaborative 'Communities-of-practice'(CoP) approach formed the foundation of the of an interactive QI knowledge translation initiative entitled PERFORM KT. Nine teams participated including seven teams from two acute care hospitals, one from a long term care center, and one from a mental health sciences center. Six monthly CoP learning sessions were held and teams, with the support of an assigned mentor, implemented a QI project and monitored their results which were presented at an end of project symposium. 47 individuals participated in either a focus group or a personal interview. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using an iterative content analysis. Four key themes emerged from the narrative dataset around experiences and perceptions associated with the PERFORM KT initiative: 1) being successful and taking it to other levels by being systematic, structured, and mentored; 2) taking it outside the comfort zone by being exposed to new concepts and learning together; 3) hearing feedback, exchanging stories, and getting new ideas; and 4) having a pragmatic and accommodating approach to

  16. A Student-Centered Astronomical Research Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Russell; Johnson, Jolyon; Boyce, Pat; Boyce, Grady; Buchheim, obert; Harshaw, Richard; Kenney, John; Collins, Dwight; Rowe, David; Brewer, Mark; Estrada, Reed; Estrada, Chris; Gillette, Sean; Ridgely, John; McNab, Christine; Freed, Rachel; Wallen, Vera

    2016-05-01

    For over a decade, students from Cuesta College and number of high schools have engaged in astronomical research during one-term seminars. A community of practice - consisting of students, educators, and astronomers - has formed that is centered on supporting the students' astronomical research. The seminar has recently adopted distance education technology and automated telescopes in a hybrid form of on-line and inperson collaborations between students, educators, and astronomers. This hybridization is not only resulting in new areas of growth and opportunity, but has created a number of challenges. For example, as more schools joined this seminar, standardized teaching materials such as a textbook and self-paced, online learning units had to be developed. Automated telescopes devoted to expanding student research opportunities within this community of practice are being brought on line by Concordia University and the Boyce Research Initiatives and Educational Foundation. The Institute for Student Astronomical Research supports this growing community in many ways including maintaining a website and editing books of student papers published through the Collins Foundation Press.

  17. Expectations and essentials for the community practice of pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Richard E

    2006-08-01

    In 3 surveys during the past 10 years, community hospital pathologists were asked what they want, need, or look for when employing a pathologist and, more specifically, what skills and knowledge a newly minted pathologist should have to be successful in the community practice of pathology. The most recent survey, done in spring of 2005, cited surgical pathology diagnosis, frozen section diagnosis, gross dissection, cytology, and fine-needle aspiration as essentials in anatomic pathology. For clinical pathology, knowledge of clinical medicine and test strategies that use the laboratory for clinical problem solving was paramount. New expectations in the latest survey were knowledge of molecular pathology and experience in quality assurance procedures. New pathologists generally meet the expectations of the community hospital workplace; however, there were some deficiencies: they were not proficient in gross pathology or autopsy pathology, they were slow, and many lack the clinical knowledge and experience to be effective consultants. The principal attribute that determines success in the practice of pathology, however, is skill in communication and interpersonal relations, and this remains the major deficiency of the fledgling pathologist.

  18. A stochastic model for detecting overlapping and hierarchical community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Cao

    Full Text Available Community detection is a fundamental problem in the analysis of complex networks. Recently, many researchers have concentrated on the detection of overlapping communities, where a vertex may belong to more than one community. However, most current methods require the number (or the size of the communities as a priori information, which is usually unavailable in real-world networks. Thus, a practical algorithm should not only find the overlapping community structure, but also automatically determine the number of communities. Furthermore, it is preferable if this method is able to reveal the hierarchical structure of networks as well. In this work, we firstly propose a generative model that employs a nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF formulization with a l(2,1 norm regularization term, balanced by a resolution parameter. The NMF has the nature that provides overlapping community structure by assigning soft membership variables to each vertex; the l(2,1 regularization term is a technique of group sparsity which can automatically determine the number of communities by penalizing too many nonempty communities; and hence the resolution parameter enables us to explore the hierarchical structure of networks. Thereafter, we derive the multiplicative update rule to learn the model parameters, and offer the proof of its correctness. Finally, we test our approach on a variety of synthetic and real-world networks, and compare it with some state-of-the-art algorithms. The results validate the superior performance of our new method.

  19. A community of practice for knowledge translation trainees: an innovative approach for learning and collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, Robin; Cornelissen, Evelyn; Lal, Shalini; Colquhoun, Heather; Klein, Gail; Richmond, Sarah; Witteman, Holly O

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of researchers and trainees identify knowledge translation (KT) as their field of study or practice. Yet, KT educational and professional development opportunities and established KT networks remain relatively uncommon, making it challenging for trainees to develop the necessary skills, networks, and collaborations to optimally work in this area. The Knowledge Translation Trainee Collaborative is a trainee-initiated and trainee-led community of practice established by junior knowledge translation researchers and practitioners to: examine the diversity of knowledge translation research and practice, build networks with other knowledge translation trainees, and advance the field through knowledge generation activities. In this article, we describe how the collaborative serves as an innovative community of practice for continuing education and professional development in knowledge translation and present a logic model that provides a framework for designing an evaluation of its impact as a community of practice. The expectation is that formal and informal networking will lead to knowledge sharing and knowledge generation opportunities that improve individual members' competencies (eg, combination of skills, abilities, and knowledge) in knowledge translation research and practice and contribute to the development and advancement of the knowledge translation field.

  20. Expanding access to midwifery care: using one practice's success to create community change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijagal, Malini Anand; Wice, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Starting in 1991, Marin's County Certified Nurse-Midwife-Physician Collaborative Practice has proven to be a successful model of care for underinsured women. Functioning within the same hospital as traditional physician-led practices, the practice displayed excellent clinical outcomes and gained respect within the community. Twenty years later, the Marin obstetric community decided to restructure its programs to incorporate the care of underinsured and privately insured women into one system. The goal was to design a system that would be patient-centered, financially and professionally sustainable, and accessible to all women and would provide evidence-based care with excellent outcomes. The community agreed, based on its own experience and on current literature, that continuing and expanding the midwife-led model of care was a way to achieve these goals. Here we describe the history, practice, and outcomes of Marin's county practice and the factors that contributed to extending the availability of midwifery care to privately insured women. © 2012 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  1. Pharmacists implementing transitions of care in inpatient, ambulatory and community practice settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To introduce pharmacists to the process, challenges, and opportunities of creating transitions of care (TOC models in the inpatient, ambulatory, and community practice settings. Methods: TOC literature and resources were obtained through searching PubMed, Ovid, and GoogleScholar. The pharmacist clinicians, who are the authors in this manuscript are reporting their experiences in the development, implementation of, and practice within the TOC models. Results: Pharmacists are an essential part of the multidisciplinary team and play a key role in providing care to patients as they move between health care settings or from a health care setting to home. Pharmacists can participate in many aspects of the inpatient, ambulatory care, and community pharmacy practice settings to implement and ensure optimal TOC processes. This article describes establishing the pharmacist’s TOC role and practicing within multiple health care settings. In these models, pharmacists focus on medication reconciliation, discharge counseling, and optimization of medications. Additionally, a checklist has been created to assist other pharmacists in developing the pharmacist’s TOC roles in a practice environment or incorporating more TOC elements in their practice setting. Conclusion: Optimizing the TOC process, reducing medication errors, and preventing adverse events are important focus areas in the current health care system, as emphasized by The Joint Commission and other health care organizations. Pharmacists have the unique opportunity and skillset to develop and participate in TOC processes that will enhance medication safety and improve patient care.

  2. Evolutionary Approach of Virtual Communities of Practice: A Reflection within a Network of Spanish Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, Frédérique; Trifonova, Anna; Barajas Frutos, Mario

    The isolation of rural communities creates special necessities for teachers and students in rural schools. The present article describes "Rural Virtual School", a Virtual Community of Practice (VCoP) in which Spanish teachers of rural schools share learning resources and teaching methodologies through social software applications. The article arrives to an evolutionary model, in which the use of the social software tools evolves together with the needs and the activities of the VCoP through the different stages of its lifetime. Currently, the community has reached a high level of maturity and, in order to keep its momentum, the members intentionally use appropriate technologies specially designed to enhance rich innovative educational approaches, through which they collaboratively generate creative practices.

  3. Theory to Practice: Building the 21st Century Writing Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Frances; Garza, Susan; Ballmer, Noelle

    2009-01-01

    Not too many years ago, right about the start of the new millennium, the TAMU-CC Writing Center began to pull away from the model of a center that focuses mostly on individual consultations and began to build a greater sense of the place of the Writing Center in the larger university Writing Community. In this article, we share how we have built…

  4. Intergenerational Community Schools: A New Practice for a New Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Peter J.; Bendezu, Eve; FallCreek, Stephanie; Whitehouse, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    A proposed intergenerational learning community is a model for a charter school focused on literacy, artistic studies, technology, environment, and personal wellness. Instructional design includes nongraded, multiage, heterogeneous groupings with flexible looping to support individualized learning. Mentoring and apprenticeships will be featured.…

  5. The practice of OTC counseling by community pharmacists in Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halila GC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to provide appropriate advice to the patient at the time of dispensing and over-the-counter (OTC medication counseling, community pharmacists need access to current and reliable information about medicines. Brazilian pharmacists have assumed new functions such as prescribing medication, in a dependent model, based in protocols. Objective: To examine the practice of community pharmacists in a Brazilian State, focusing on OTC recommendation. Method: A cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists in a state of Brazil was conducted from October 2013 to January 2014, with data collection through a pre-piloted self-administered anonymous survey via Survey Monkey® platform. Following ethical approval, the online instrument was sent to 8,885 pharmacists registered in Parana State, Brazil, focusing on professionals working in community pharmacies. The questionnaire assessed the community pharmacy setting, the search for information, the knowledge of the evidence-based practice, the important factors to consider when recommending an OTC medicine, and the pharmacist prescribing. Responses were imported into SPSS® (version 22.0 for analysis. Nonparametric tests were used to assess the association between responses and demographic information with a significance level less than 5% (p<0.05. Results: Of the pharmacists, 97.4% dispensed medications and counseled patients for a median of six hours per day. Product's efficacy (97% and adverse effects (62.3% were the most important factors taken into account when counseling a nonprescription medicine. Few pharmacists knew the meaning of terms related to evidence-based health. Most respondents agreed that pharmacists have the necessary training to prescribe. Conclusion: Over-the-counter medication counseling is a daily practice among Brazilian pharmacists. Learning needs exist for community pharmacists in relation to evidence-based practice. Thus, sources of information with good evidence

  6. Scientific knowledge dissemination in Danish seed communities of practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Svend; Misfeldt, Morten; Boelt, Birte

    2012-01-01

    scientific knowledge communication. Theoretically, we consider these actors participants in different communities of practice relating to the production of seeds (Seed-CoP), and we conclude that strong network collaboration is present among Danish seed-CoP effectuated by the valuable work undertaken......Danish agriculture and seed science have a history of successful collaboration spanning more than a hundred years. In this study, we interviewed 26 growers, consultants, and scientists from the Danish seed community focusing on their current knowledge status and on their views on improving......, as only the innovative growers prioritized time allocation for additional knowledge search. To improve scientific knowledge dissemination and interdisciplinary collaboration among Danish seed-CoP we recommend a combination of face-to-face and online communication processes....

  7. Disseminating Effective Community Prevention Practices: Opportunities for Social Work Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, J David; Shapiro, Valerie B; Fagan, Abigail A

    2010-01-01

    In the United States about 17% of adolescents meet diagnostic criteria for mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. Six million young people receive treatment services annually for mental, emotional, or behavioral problems. These problems affect 1 in 5 families and cost $247 million annually (O'Connell, Boat, & Warner, 2009). Some strategies for preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders in young people have been developed, tested, and found to be effective in preventing the onset, persistence, and severity of psychological disorders, drug abuse, and delinquency. Unfortunately, tested and effective prevention policies, programs, and practices are not widely used (O'Connell, Boat, & Warner, 2009). This paper highlights recent advances in prevention science and describes some opportunities and challenges in advancing the use of science-based prevention in communities. The chapter concludes by exploring the potential role of social work education in developing a workforce ready to increase community access to effective prevention strategies.

  8. Born to be Wild: Using Communities of Practice as a Tool for Knowledge Management

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    Chanal, Valérie

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at what happens when Communities of Practice are used as a tool for Knowledge Management. The original concept of a Community of Practice appears to have very little in common with the knowledge sharing communities found in Knowledge Management, which are based on a revised view of 'cultivated' communities. We examine the risks and benefits of cultivating Communities of Practice rather than leaving them 'in the wild'. The paper presents the findings from two years of research in a small microelectronics firm to provide some insights into the wild vs domesticated dichotomy and discusses the implications of attempting to tame Communities of Practice in this way.

  9. Developing Empirically Based Models of Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythe, Betty J.; Briar, Scott

    1985-01-01

    Over the last decade emphasis has shifted from theoretically based models of practice to empirically based models whose elements are derived from clinical research. These models are defined and a developing model of practice through the use of single-case methodology is examined. Potential impediments to this new role are identified. (Author/BL)

  10. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herborg, Hanne; Sørensen, Ellen Westh; Frøkjaer, Bente

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the current status of Danish community pharmacy in both practice and research and discuss future trends. FINDINGS: Denmark has a social welfare system that provides health care, social services, and pensions to its population. Medical care and surgery are free. Prescription......-the-counter products, advice about medicine use, dose dispensing, generic substitutions, and administration of individual reimbursement registers. Except for very simple processes, compounding is centralized at 3 pharmacies. Many pharmacies offer measurement of blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol, and 60...

  11. A Virtual Community of Practice Proposal for Business Intelligence Researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana TÂRNĂVEANU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In an economical post-crisis context, the general tendency is to migrate to stronger alliances that offer support. One solution is a virtual community of practice (VCoPs that offers an im-portant knowledge management tool, as it is based on common goals and shared interests on a large period of time, it is capable to develop the social capital, create new knowledge, exploit the existing tacit knowledge, stimulate innovation and disseminate the results. An organization can remain an important competitor in a changing market only optimizing performance, constantly taking advantage of the raisin opportunities, risking and being flexible at new multiple demands.

  12. Infant feeding practices among tribal communities of Andhra Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimala, V; Ratnaprabha, C

    1987-10-01

    Some of the major obstacles to the practice of breast feeding among tribal communities are ignorance and taboos concerning food and feeding. 100 nursing mothers in 12 tribal villages were observed in a study of infant feeding practices. Information about the existing feeding practices was collected; in addition, the study researched attitudes and values concerning the topic of infant feeding. 95% of the women breast fed their babies. Many of the mothers (42%) understood that supplementary foods could be given by the end of the 1st year. Although breast feeding practice was high, the majority of the women (83%) did not believe that it was necessary to make changes in their diets or work styles during the lactating period. 66% of the women did not comprehend how lactation performance could decrease. Only 17% of the mothers took good care during the period of lactation. Education programs should be designed to encourage a unique work and dietary routine for mothers who are breast feeding.

  13. Toward Development of a Model for Instructor Tenure in the Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, D. F.

    Unlike either secondary schools, in which tenure practices are established by law, or universities, in which tenure practices are patterned after policies of the American Association of University Professors, the community colleges abide by no uniform policy. This paper presents a model on which community colleges can base their tenure policy. The…

  14. Community-based study of circumcision practices in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Olajide Abdur-Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Circumcision practice around the world has various implications and has generated a lot of debate about the pros and cons of the practice. Nigeria is one of the countries where male and female circumcision practice still occurs however, there has been claim of reduction in female genital cutting. Congregational or ′group′ circumcision prevails in some communities as a means of upholding traditions and commemoration of festive period. Objective: To determine the pattern of circumcision practice and identify factors affecting the practice in Ilorin community. Materials and Methods: The study was a descriptive, cross sectional study conducted among parents of under-5 children of both the sexes using pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaires, which were administered to the respondents by trained research assistants over a six-week period. Clinical examination of genital area in index child of each respondent was done by a pediatric surgeon, who was the principal investigator. Results: Three hundred and ninety three (93% respondents completed the questionnaire and the same number of index children′s external genitalia was examined by the pediatric surgeon. The mean age of respondents was 33.2±9.3 years, and the main source of family income was private enterprises and civil services. The circumcision status of fathers was 100%, mothers, 65.6%, and overall female-child circumcision rate was 46.7%. Though, most of the index children were delivered at health centers (72.3%, the circumcisions were performed at almost equal frequencies by traditional circumcisionists (39.8% and doctors (39.2%, with more than half of the circumcision being done outside the hospital. The mean age at circumcision was 22 ±0.69 months, with 73.9% of girls as against 91.7% boys being circumcised by the age of five years. Family choice was the main determinant of the age at circumcision and the circumcisionist. Female circumcision was done by traditional

  15. 2012 Community Earth System Model (CESM) Tutorial - Proposal to DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Marika [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Bailey, David A [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2013-03-18

    The Community Earth System Model (CESM) is a fully-coupled, global climate model that provides state-of-the-art computer simulations of the Earth's past, present, and future climate states. This document provides the agenda and list of participants for the conference. Web materials for all lectures and practical sessions available from: http://www.cesm.ucar.edu/events/tutorials/073012/ .

  16. Data synthesis in community health assessment: practical examples from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Paul Campbell; Knight, Margaret; Graham, Jennifer; Kalos, Alan V; Kent, Louise A; Glenn, Michael; Rayman, Rebecca J; Read, Erin; Welch, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    State and local health departments (LHDs) are increasingly conducting community health assessments, using models such as Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships. Within the peer-reviewed literature, relevant Web sites, and textbooks on health planning, there is limited practical guidance for bridging data collection and prioritization. The purpose of this article was to provide examples of how LHDs have bridged these steps through "data synthesis." We provide examples from 3 LHDs that have extensive experience with the Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships model. The LHDs provide a detailed synopsis of data synthesis activities, including the setting, participants, processes, and outcomes. Commonalities between the LHDs' processes emerged, including daylong (or more) retreats, multiple nominal group-like techniques, and iterative approaches to reduce the number of strategic issues. These processes provide examples of data synthesis and are relevant to current practice, given the national voluntary accreditation process and the new nonprofit hospital requirements to conduct community health assessments.

  17. Comparison of Family Clinic Community Health Service Model with State-owned Community Health Service Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万方荣; 卢祖洵; 张金隆

    2002-01-01

    Summary: Based on a survey of community health service organization in several cities, communi-ty health service model based on the family clinic was compared with state-owned communityhealth service model, and status quo, advantages and problems of family community health serviceorganization were analyzed. Furthermore, policies for the management of community health ser-vice organization based on the family clinic were put forward.

  18. Lessons for Research Policy and Practice: The Case of Co-enquiry Research With Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Caruso

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between institutional funding for research and community-based or co-enquiry research practice. It examines the implementation of co-enquiry research in the COMBIOSERVE project, which was funded by the European Commission’s Seventh Framework Programme for research and innovation, between the years 2012 and 2015. Research partnerships between Latin American and European civil society organisations, research institutions, and Latin American rural communities are analysed. Challenges for effective collaboration in co-enquiry and lessons learned for research policy and practice are outlined. Based on our case study we suggest that: (1 the established values and practices of academia seem largely unfavourable towards alternative forms of research, such as co-enquiry; (2 the policies and administrative practices of this European Commission funding are unsuitable for adopting participatory forms of enquiry; and (3 the approach to research funding supports short engagements with communities whereas long-term collaborations are more desirable. Based on our case study, we propose more flexible funding models that support face-to-face meetings between researchers and communities from the time of proposal drafting, adaptation of research processes to local dynamics, adaptation of administrative processes to the capacities of all participants, and potential for long-term collaborations. Large-scale funding bodies such as European Commission research programmes are leaders in the evolution of research policy and practice. They have the power and the opportunity to publicly acknowledge the value of partnerships with civil society organisations and communities, actively support co-enquiry, and foment interest in innovative forms of research.

  19. Breast Feeding Practices in Urban Community of Surat City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak Sunil, Jay Padodara, Patel Sushil, Gharat Vaibhav, Patel Swati, Choksi Vivek, Desai Toral

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The breast feeding practices adopted in terms of duration, frequency and exclusiveness of breast feeding and weaning have great impact on complete physical, mental and psycho-social development of the child. The objective of conducting the study is to evaluate the breast feeding practices adopted by women in urban community, and s to study factors affecting time of initiation of breast feeding, age of weaning, and food given to the baby other than breast milk. The current cross sectional study conducted among 200 women reveal that 70% of mothers were able to start breast feeding within first hour of life after normal delivery. Out of 26 complicated deliveries, 6 mothers were able to start breast feeding within 4 hours of life. The major reasons for delay in starting of breast feeding were uneasiness to mother and not having adequate breast milk. Exclusive breast feeding was practiced by 50% of the mothers for first six month of life. The common reason given by mother for not giving exclusive breast feeding were no knowledge of exclusive breast feeding (40% and not having adequate breast milk(35%. This study emphasizes the need of breast feeding education programme regarding the duration of exclusive breast feeding and the age of weaning.

  20. Virtuous Hackers: developing ethical sensitivity in a community of practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Roberts

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that losses due to computer break-ins by malicious 'crackers' (who might be external intruders or disgruntled employees intent on personal gain or revenge are costing companies billions of dollars each year. But former hackers are now assisting the computer security industry to track down such intruders, and to develop sound security practices in order to ward off future attacks. It is argued that in recent times computer programming has moved from a craft-based, bricolage activity to a scientific approach which has led to a knowledge gap developing between the former fraternity of hackers and the computer security industry. The current inadequacies of the security industry have made this co-operation with hackers necessary but problematic, that is, should hackers who have developed their unique skill by breaking into company and government systems now be used for the rightful purposes of strengthening computer security? However, this relationship might also suggest that the hacker ethos, which has developed through the membership of a 'community of practice', and which has as its cornerstone the moral custodianship of computers and the information they contain, may represent the best way of developing ethical practice in the computer industry.

  1. Gendered Communities of Practice and the Construction of Masculinities in Turkish Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atencio, Matthew; Koca, Canan

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the construction of masculinities in Turkish physical education through Carrie Paechter's conceptualisation of gendered communities of practice. According to Paechter, educational communities of practice operate as sites of gendered activity. Membership within these communities contributes to the construction of a gendered…

  2. USEM workshop: designing for knowledge collaboration in distributed communities of practice

    OpenAIRE

    Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies

    2009-01-01

    Bitter-Rijpkema, M. (2009). USEM workshop: designing for knowledge collaboration in distributed communities of practice. 1st Presentation: Introduction. June, 3, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands. 2nd Presentation: From distance learning courses to knowledge collaboration in distributed communities. June, 3, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands. 3rd presentation: Distributed communities of practice: USEM workshop. June, 4, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  3. Bringing Communities of Practice into Schools: Implications for Instructional Technologies from Vygotskian Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, David; Nichani, Maish Ramlal

    2002-01-01

    Suggests how the principles undergirding communities of practice can be brought into schools. Examines learning clubs, learning communities, and communities of practice from a Vygotskian perspective and discusses activity theory, peer apprenticeship learning, collaboration between experts and students, and small group collaborative learning.…

  4. Investigating the Possibilities of Creating a Community of Practice. Action Research in Three Educational Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flogaitis, Evgenia; Nomikou, Christina; Naoum, Elli; Katsenou, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The educational approach views the community of practice as a community of teachers and students who share common rules and values, information and experiences through dialogue and collaboration. Three doctoral theses are in progress at the University of Athens which study the possibilities of creating a community of practice in three different…

  5. Research to support evidence-based practice in COPD community nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Pamela; Wilson, Ethel; Wimpenny, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a requirement of nurses through the generation of evidence to implementing it, in a bid to to improve clinical practice. However, EBP is difficult to achieve. This paper highlights an approach to generating evidence for enhancing community nursing services for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) through a collaborative partnership. A district nurse and two nursing lecturers formed a partnership to devise a systematic review protocol and perform a systematic review to enhance COPD practice. This paper illustrates the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) systematic review process, the review outcomes and the practitioner learning. Collaborative partnerships between academics, researchers and clinicians are a potentially useful model to facilitate enhanced outcomes in evidence-based practice and evidence application.

  6. Consultation in university-based and community-based infectious disease practices: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, D J; Corey, G R; Ingram, C W; Morris, V M; Haywood, H B

    1995-02-01

    Infectious disease physicians in university and community practices completed a standard data form following each of 1,366 inpatient consultations during a 7-month period. The rate of consultation was higher in the university practice than in the community practice (3.4 vs. 1.8 per 100 discharges, respectively). Known or suspected bacterial pathogens accounted for more than half of all consultations in both practice groups. The three organ systems most commonly affected by infection were pulmonary (20% in university practice vs. 19% in community practice), skin and soft tissue (13% in university practice vs. 20% in community practice), and musculoskeletal (12% in university practice vs. 16% in community practice). Bloodstream infection, pneumonia, unexplained fever, osteomyelitis, urinary tract infection, and cellulitis were the six most common disease processes that led to consultation in both practice groups. The percentage of patients with noninfectious diseases and the percentage for whom a change in antimicrobial therapy was advised was nearly identical in both practice settings. Physicians in private practice performed more consultations on weekends (20% vs. 11% in university practices, P consultants in community practices are nearly identical to those of their colleagues in university-based practices.

  7. The practice of neogeography in community-based organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Patrick

    Neogeography and Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) are two terms that have emerged recently to describe the practice of geography by those not formally trained in it as a discipline and spatial data provided by individuals through social media and other Web-based tools. Both neogeography and VGI can be directly linked to the growth of various online mapping websites and applications that allow for the creation of electronic maps that are interactive, adaptable, and easily shared via the Internet and Web. As recent phenomena, the practice of neogeography and VGI is not well understood, nor are the links these new fields have to previously established knowledge on Geographic Information Systems and its associated practices. This thesis attempts to fill this knowledge gap through a participatory study of neogeographic practice. Using a participatory workshop format, I observed and documented representatives of community-based organizations in Syracuse, NY as they encountered online mapping tools for the first time. I followed up with two of those organizations in longer case studies to better understand how organizations with no obvious geographic focus come to see geography as a way of communicating complex ideas about space. This study revealed that while the technical complexity of the online mapping software continues to prove to be a hindrance to its use, there remains space for professional geographers to interact with laypeople who make maps. Furthermore, such engagement is necessary to begin to understand the issues involved with location-based information and privacy, access to data, and ability to use and communicate geographic concepts and knowledge.

  8. Taking Part in the Dance: Technology Teachers Interacting with Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatter, Wendy; France, Bev

    2011-01-01

    This research investigated how secondary school technology teachers planned and implemented units that enabled students to access authentic technological practice through their contact with a community of practice (CoP). It was found that when teachers plan to access a community of practice for their students a complex dance-style relationship…

  9. Central Practitioners' Developing Legitimate Peripheral Participation in a Community of Practice for Changing Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, David James

    2015-01-01

    As new technologies continue to shape society, there has been a greater need for communities of practice to facilitate changing teaching and learning practices through technology in schools. Legitimate peripheral participation through these communities of practice has become an essential means to spread and support this technology integration…

  10. Identifying Factors That Encourage and Hinder Knowledge Sharing in a Longstanding Online Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hew, Khe Foon; Hara, Noriko

    2006-01-01

    Despite the strong interests among practitioners, there is a knowledge gap with regard to online communities of practice. This study examines knowledge sharing among critical-care and advanced-practice nurses, who are engaged in a longstanding online community of practice. Data were collected about members' online knowledge contribution as well as…

  11. School Teacher Professional Development in Online Communities of Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Strange, Majbrit Højland

    2016-01-01

    This study informs researchers of educational technology, teachers, teacher associations and moderators or admins of online platforms who are interested in knowledge sharing among teachers within online communities of practice (CoPs). The continuous professional development of teachers is primarily...... hand, informal knowledge sharing through CoPs can transform teachers by contributing to their immediate context or needs. There are various national and global IT platforms that are designed to enable teachers to participate and share knowledge in a CoP but in many countries, online platforms......) What knowledge do teachers share in the online CoP? (3) What motivates teachers to participate and share knowledge in the online CoPs? (4) What are the barriers to teachers’ participation and knowledge sharing in the online CoP? (5) What roles do moderators play in teachers’ online platforms? (6) What...

  12. Scientific knowledge dissemination in Danish seed communities of practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Svend; Misfeldt, Morten; Boelt, Birte

    2012-01-01

    scientific knowledge communication. Theoretically, we consider these actors participants in different communities of practice relating to the production of seeds (Seed-CoP), and we conclude that strong network collaboration is present among Danish seed-CoP effectuated by the valuable work undertaken...... by the consultants. We discovered a divergence in knowledge dissemination among the growers – an innovative group of growers with a high demand for new scientific knowledge versus a majority of growers content with the level of knowledge provided by the consultants. ‘Time’ was recognized as an important parameter......, as only the innovative growers prioritized time allocation for additional knowledge search. To improve scientific knowledge dissemination and interdisciplinary collaboration among Danish seed-CoP we recommend a combination of face-to-face and online communication processes....

  13. Building communities of practice: MEPI creates a commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frehywot, Seble; Mullan, Fitzhugh; Vovides, Yianna; Korhumel, Kristine; Chale, Selamawit Bedada; Infanzon, Alexandra; Kiguli-Malwadde, Elsie; Omaswa, Francis

    2014-08-01

    The Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) supports medical education capacity development, retention, and research in Sub-Saharan African institutions. Today, MEPI comprises more than 40 medical schools in Africa and 20 in the United States. Since 2011, the MEPI Coordinating Center, working with the MEPI schools and the U.S. government, has laid the groundwork and served as a catalyst for the creation and development of MEPI "communities of practice" (CoPs). These CoPs encompass seven components, some of which are virtual while others are tangible. They include technical working groups, principal investigator site visit exchanges, an annual symposium, a MEPI journal supplement, the MEPI Web site, newsletters, and webinars. Despite certain challenges and the question of sustainability, the presence within the MEPI network of an organization focused on promoting group consciousness and facilitating collaborative projects is an asset that is likely to continue to pay dividends for the foreseeable future.

  14. Supporting communities of practice: A reflection on the benefits and challenges facing communities of practice for research and engagement in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maretha De Waal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of its potential self-sustainability, communities of practice may serve as useful practice-based knowledge sharing platforms for collaborative research and training, and thereby enhance development of human resources in the health sector. However, communities of practice are complex structures and need support from their host organisations and commitment from their members.  This article examines the diverse ways in which communities of nurse educators and practitioners who were part of a funded program in Tshwane District, South Africa evolved over a period of seven years. Adopting an ethnographic approach of reflexivity and learning, we compared and analysed the ways in which the communities of practice became sustainable over time. Our recommendations for institutional support of communities of practice in the health sector are based on the lessons we learned during the program that contributed to the configuration and reconfiguration of some of our communities of practice and the disengagement of others. We believe that our findings may have implications for replicability and sustainability of other communities of practice. Keywords: collaborative learning, collective knowledge, self-sustainability

  15. Prostate-specific antigen testing accuracy in community practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams-Cameron Meg

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most data on prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing come from urologic cohorts comprised of volunteers for screening programs. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of PSA testing for detecting prostate cancer in community practice. Methods PSA testing results were compared with a reference standard of prostate biopsy. Subjects were 2,620 men 40 years and older undergoing (PSA testing and biopsy from 1/1/95 through 12/31/98 in the Albuquerque, New Mexico metropolitan area. Diagnostic measures included the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios. Results Cancer was detected in 930 subjects (35%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.67 and the PSA cutpoint of 4 ng/ml had a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 33%. The likelihood ratio for a positive test (LR+ was 1.28 and 0.42 for a negative test (LR-. PSA testing was most sensitive (90% but least specific (27% in older men. Age-specific reference ranges improved specificity in older men (49% but decreased sensitivity (70%, with an LR+ of 1.38. Lowering the PSA cutpoint to 2 ng/ml resulted in a sensitivity of 95%, a specificity of 20%, and an LR+ of 1.19. Conclusions PSA testing had fair discriminating power for detecting prostate cancer in community practice. The PSA cutpoint of 4 ng/ml was sensitive but relatively non-specific and associated likelihood ratios only moderately revised probabilities for cancer. Using age-specific reference ranges and a PSA cutpoint below 4 ng/ml improved test specificity and sensitivity, respectively, but did not improve the overall accuracy of PSA testing.

  16. Double Star Research: A Student-Centered Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jolyon

    2016-06-01

    Project and team-based pedagogies are increasingly augmenting lecture-style science classrooms. Occasionally, university professors will invite students to tangentially partcipate in their research. Since 2006, Dr. Russ Genet has led an astronomy research seminar for community college and high school students that allows participants to work closely with a melange of professional and advanced amatuer researchers. The vast majority of topics have centered on measuring the position angles and searations of double stars which can be readily published in the Journal of Double Star Observations. In the intervening years, a collaborative community of practice (Wenger, 1998) formed with the students as lead researchers on their projects with the guidance of experienced astronomers and educators. The students who join the research seminar are often well prepared for further STEM education in college and career. Today, the research seminar involves multile schools in multiple states with a volunteer educator acting as an assistant instructor at each location. These assistant instructors interface with remote observatories, ensure progress is made, and recruit students. The key deliverables from each student team include a published research paper and a public presentation online or in-person. Citing a published paper on scholarship and college applications gives students' educational carreers a boost. Recently the Journal of Double Star Observations published its first special issue of exlusively student-centered research.

  17. Men's health and communities of practice in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henwood, Maree; Shaw, Amie; Cavanagh, Jillian; Bartram, Timothy; Marjoribanks, Timothy; Kendrick, Madeleine

    2017-04-10

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the social opportunities for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men created through Men's Groups/Sheds across urban, regional and remote areas of Australia. Men's Sheds are a safe space, resembling a work-shop setting or backyard shed, where men are encouraged to socialise and participate in health promotion, informal learning and engage in meaningful tasks both individually and at the community level. Design/methodology/approach Explore five case study sites through Wenger's (1998) active communities of practice (CoP). Qualitative methods are presented and analysed; methods comprise semi-structured interviews and yarning circles (focus groups). Five Indigenous leaders/coordinators participated in semi-structured interviews, as well as five yarning circles with a total of 61 Indigenous men. Findings In a societal context in which Indigenous men in Australia experience a number of social and health issues, impeding their quality of life and future opportunities, the central finding of the paper is that the effective development of social relations and socially designed programs through Men's Groups, operating as CoP, may contribute to overcoming many social and health well-being concerns. Originality/value Contributions will provide a better understanding of how Indigenous men are engaging with Men's Sheds, and through those interactions, are learning new skills and contributing to social change.

  18. [Intervention of Schizophrenia From the Community Model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborda Zapata, Eliana María; Montoya González, Laura Elisa; Gómez Sierra, Natalia María; Arteaga Morales, Laura María; Correa Rico, Oscar Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex disease for which pharmacological management is an insufficient therapeutic measure to ensure adaptation to the community and restoring the quality of life of the patient, with a multidimensional management and community interventions being necessary. Case report. This case report illustrates a multidisciplinary treatment response, based on a community care model for mental health from Envigado, Colombia. The management of schizophrenia requires multimodal interventions that include community screening, psychoeducation of individuals, their families and society, addressing different areas of operation that allow adaptation of the subject to his social environment. A integrated intervention that can be provided on a Community scale, with the implementation of policies that allow it to be applied. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. USEM workshop: designing for knowledge collaboration in distributed communities of practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies

    2009-01-01

    Bitter-Rijpkema, M. (2009). USEM workshop: designing for knowledge collaboration in distributed communities of practice. 1st Presentation: Introduction. June, 3, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands. 2nd Presentation: From distance learning courses to knowledge collaboration in distributed communities. Ju

  20. Clinical Decision Support for Vascular Disease in Community Family Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavjee, K; Holbrook, AM; Lau, E; Esporlas-Jewer, I; Troyan, S

    2006-01-01

    The COMPETE III Vascular Disease Tracker (C3VT) is a personalized, Web-based, clinical decision support tool that provides patients and physicians access to a patient’s 16 individual vascular risk markers, specific advice for each marker and links to best practices in vascular disease management. It utilizes the chronic care model1 so that physicians can better manage patients with chronic diseases. Over 1100 patients have been enrolled into the COMPETE III study to date.

  1. Food Preparation, Practices, and Safety In The Hmong Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Pérez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne illnesses are syndromes that are acquired as a result of eating foods that contain sufficient quantities of poisonous substances or pathogens. Cultural practices place the Hmongat an increased risk for food borne illnesses resulting from improper food handling, preparation, and storage. The risk for illness is further complicated by the fact that the Hmong have verylimited knowledge about food-borne disease and they find themselves in a situation in which they cannot control the space in the house available for food preparation. Data for this qualitative study were collected from 25 Hmong individuals aged 18 and over residing in Fresno, California. Participants in this study did not appear to understand the direct relationship between bacteria and food borne illnesses. Similarly, study participants were more likely to reportreliance on traditional medicine to address foodborne illnesses. Results from this study indicate a need to reach the Hmong community with culturally appropriate messages relating to food preparation and practice. Messages must acknowledge the role of food in cultural celebrations, while seeking to decrease the risk for foodborne illnesses.

  2. Partnering with those we serve: using experiential learning activities to support community nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Kathleen; Stewart, Julie G

    2012-01-01

    The concept of community is multidimensional and may include geographical boundaries and/or the shared interests of its members. Community nursing practice involves nurses, patients, and families who collaborate to address health issues and to promote positive health initiatives. Informed by community health theorists, experiential learning activities provide the structure to promote partnering in community nursing practice to achieve outcomes that benefit those who serve and those who are served.

  3. Scientific literacy and academic identity: Creating a community of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveles, John Michael

    2005-07-01

    This one-year ethnographic study of a third grade classroom examined the construction of elementary school science. The research focused on the co-development of scientific literacy and academic identity. Unlike much research in science education that views literacy as merely supportive of science; this dissertation research considers how students learned both disciplinary knowledge in science as well as about themselves as learners through language use. The study documented and analyzed how students came to engage with scientific knowledge and the impact this engagement had upon their academic identities over time. Ethnographic and discourse analytic methods were employed to investigate three research questions: (a) How were the students in a third grade classroom afforded opportunities to acquire scientific literate practices through the spoken/written discourse and science activities? (b) In what ways did students develop and maintain academic identities taken-up over time as they discursively appropriated scientific literate practices via classroom discourse? and (c) How did students collectively and individually inscribe their academic identities and scientific knowledge into classroom artifacts across the school year? Through multiple forms of analyses, I identified how students' communication and participation in science investigations provided opportunities for them to learn specific scientific literate practices. The findings of this empirical research indicate that students' communication and participation in science influenced the ways they perceived themselves as active participants within the classroom community. More specifically, students were observed to appropriate particular discourse practices introduced by the teacher to frame scientific disciplinary knowledge and investigations. Thus, emerging academic identities and developing literate practices were documented via analysis of discursive (spoken, written, and enacted) classroom interactions. A

  4. Community Detection Using Multilayer Edge Mixture Model

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Han; Lai, Jian-Huang; Yu, Philip S

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of complex systems can be modeled as networks with corresponding constraints on the edges and nodes, which have been extensively studied in recent years. Nowadays, with the progress of information technology, systems that contain the information collected from multiple perspectives have been generated. The conventional models designed for single perspective networks fail to depict the diverse topological properties of such systems, so multilayer network models aiming at describing the structure of these networks emerge. As a major concern in network science, decomposing the networks into communities, which usually refers to closely interconnected node groups, extracts valuable information about the structure and interactions of the network. Unlike the contention of dozens of models and methods in conventional single-layer networks, methods aiming at discovering the communities in the multilayer networks are still limited. In order to help explore the community structure in multilayer networks, we...

  5. Understanding practice change in community pharmacy: a qualitative research instrument based on organisational theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Alison S; Hopp, Trine; Sørensen, Ellen Westh; Benrimoj, Shalom I; Chen, Timothy F; Herborg, Hanne; Williams, Kylie; Aslani, Parisa

    2003-10-01

    The past decade has seen a notable shift in the practice of pharmacy, with a strong focus on the provision of cognitive pharmaceutical services (CPS) by community pharmacists. The benefits of these services have been well documented, yet their uptake appears to be slow. Various strategies have been developed to overcome barriers to the implementation of CPS, with varying degrees of success, and little is known about the sustainability of the practice changes they produce. Furthermore, the strategies developed are often specific to individual programs or services, and their applicability to other CPS has not been explored. There seems to be a need for a flexible change management model for the implementation and dissemination of a range of CPS, but before it can be developed, a better understanding of the change process is required. This paper describes the development of a qualitative research instrument that may be utilised to investigate practice change in community pharmacy. Specific objectives included gaining knowledge about the circumstances surrounding attempts to implement CPS, and understanding relationships that are important to the change process. Organisational theory provided the conceptual framework for development of the qualitative research instrument, within which two theories were used to give insight into the change process: Borum's theory of organisational change, which categorizes change strategies as rational, natural, political or open; and Social Network Theory, which helps identify and explain the relationships between key people involved in the change process. A semi-structured affecting practice change found in the literature that warranted further investigation with the theoretical perspectives of organisational change and social networks. To address the research objectives, the instrument covered four broad themes: roles, experiences, strategies and networks. The qualitative research instrument developed in this study provides a

  6. Practical simplifications for radioimmunotherapy dosimetric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, S.; DeNardo, G.L.; O`Donnell, R.T.; Yuan, A.; DeNardo, D.A.; Macey, D.J.; DeNardo, S.J. [Univ. of California, Sacramento, CA (United States). Davis Medical Center

    1999-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry is potentially useful for assessment and prediction of efficacy and toxicity for radionuclide therapy. The usefulness of these dose estimates relies on the establishment of a dose-response model using accurate pharmacokinetic data and a radiation dosimetric model. Due to the complexity in radiation dose estimation, many practical simplifications have been introduced in the dosimetric modeling for clinical trials of radioimmunotherapy. Although research efforts are generally needed to improve the simplifications used at each stage of model development, practical simplifications are often possible for specific applications without significant consequences to the dose-response model. In the development of dosimetric methods for radioimmunotherapy, practical simplifications in the dosimetric models were introduced. This study evaluated the magnitude of uncertainty associated with practical simplifications for: (1) organ mass of the MIRD phantom; (2) radiation contribution from target alone; (3) interpolation of S value; (4) macroscopic tumor uniformity; and (5) fit of tumor pharmacokinetic data.

  7. Public health, medicine, and dentistry as partners in community health: a pioneering initiative in interprofessional, practice-based education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Lois; Condon, Rebecca; Shanahan, Christopher W; Wolff, James; Culler, Corinna; Kalish, Richard

    2011-01-01

    As public health challenges grow more complex, the call for professional education to be interprofessional, collaborative, and grounded in real world practice has intensified. In this article, we describe the development, implementation, and results of one pioneering course at Boston University that aims to prepare public health, medical, and dental students for their combined roles in community health settings. The Schools of Public Health, Medicine, and Dental Medicine jointly offered the course in partnership with 3 community organizations. Participants include MPH, MD, and DMD candidates. The course design integrates the use of "The Challenge Model" (created by Management Sciences for Health) with training in public health consultation techniques (eg, community-based participatory research, logic models, monitoring and evaluation). Teams of 6 to 8 medical and public health students collaborate with managers and staff of a community health center to address 1 organizational challenge and recommend a sustainability plan. Postcourse evaluations revealed that a cross-disciplinary, practice-based education model is feasible and can meet students' learning objectives and exceed expectations of community partners. We overcame formidable obstacles related to the "silo'ed" nature of academic institutions and the competing priorities within overburdened community organizations. We found that sustained project implementation was attained at some but not all sites, yet all sites highly valued the perspective and contribution of student teams. Dynamic and replicable, this practice-based education model is adaptable to professional schools whose work intersects in the real world and calls for collaborative leadership.

  8. Living MedsCheck: Learning how to deliver MedsCheck in community practice in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindrod, Kelly; Sanghera, Niki; Rahmaan, Israa; Roy, Meghna; Tritt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    To share the experiences of graduating students as they learn to deliver a new medication review service in community pharmacies in Ontario, Canada. Four graduating pharmacy students volunteered in different community pharmacies to learn how to navigate a new provincial program called MedsCheck, which pays pharmacists to do medication reviews. Each student selected his or her own practice site, including 2 independent community pharmacies, a grocery store chain pharmacy and a hospital outpatient pharmacy. To help the students learn to deliver the new MedsCheck services, a faculty mentor met with them on a weekly basis. To reflect on doing MedsChecks in the "real world" and to elicit feedback from the online community, each student blogged about his or her experiences. All 4 students felt that peer mentoring improved their ability to deliver MedsCheck services. They also identified a number of barriers to delivering the MedsChecks and helped each other try to overcome the barriers. MedsCheck is a new service in Ontario and is not easily implemented in the current pharmacy model of practice. Peer mentoring is a helpful way to share successes and overcome barriers to delivery. Can Pharm J 2013;146:33-38.

  9. Understanding the Learning Assistant experience with Physics Identity and Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Eleanor; Close, Hunter; Donnelly, David

    2012-10-01

    Learning Assistants (LAs) have been shown to have better conceptual understanding and more favorable beliefs about science than non-LAs, and are more likely to choose a career in K-12 science teaching [1]. We propose that connections between elements of identity, persistence, and participation in an LA program can be explained using the concept of the community of practice and its intimate relationship to identity [2]. In separate work, Hazari et al. found that physics identity was highly correlated to expressed career plans in physics [3]. We hypothesize that a thriving LA program has many features of a well-functioning community of practice and contributes to all four elements of physics identity: personal interest, student performance, competence, and recognition by others. We explore how this analysis of the LA experience might shape decisions and influence outcomes of adoption and adaptations of the LA model.[4pt] [1] Otero, Pollock, & Finkelstein, Am. J. Phys. 78 (11), 1218-1224 (2010).[0pt] [2] Wenger, Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity. (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998).[0pt] [3] J. Res. Sci. Teach. 47 (8), 978-1003 (2010).

  10. Knowledge of community care workers about key family practices in a rural community in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethelwynn Stellenberg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interventions by community care workers within the context of communitybased integrated management of childhood illness (CIMCI may have a positive effect on child health if the health workers have adequate knowledge about key family practices.Setting: The study was conducted in rural areas of the West Coast district in the Western Cape, South Africa.Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge of community care workers about five of the 16 key family practices of CIMCI.Methods: A descriptive survey collected a self-administered questionnaire from 257 community care workers out of a possible total of 270 (95.2% response rate. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was applied.Results: Only 25 of the respondents (10% obtained a score higher than 70% on the knowledgebased items of the questionnaire. Less than 25% of respondents answered questions in these key areas correctly (pneumonia [17%], tuberculosis [13%], HIV/AIDS [9%] immunisation [3%] and recommendations for a child with fever [21%]. Statistically significant correlations were found between the total score a respondent achieved and the highest level of education obtained (p < 0.01, the level of in-service training (p < 0.01, attendance of a CIMCI five-day training course (p < 0.01, and completing a subsequent refresher course (p < 0.01.Conclusion: The knowledge of CCWs was inadequate to provide safe, quality CIMCI. CIMCI refresher courses should be offered annually to improve CCWs’ knowledge and the quality of care that they render. Regular update courses could contribute to building competence.

  11. Validation of the knowledge, attitude and perceived practice of asthma instrument among community pharmacists using Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Waqas; Hussein, Maryam S E; Ahmad, Sohail; Mamat, Mohd N; Ismail, Nahlah E

    2015-10-01

    There is no instrument which collectively assesses the knowledge, attitude and perceived practice of asthma among community pharmacists. Therefore, this study aimed to validate the instrument which measured the knowledge, attitude and perceived practice of asthma among community pharmacists by producing empirical evidence of validity and reliability of the items using Rasch model (Bond & Fox software®) for dichotomous and polytomous data. This baseline study recruited 33 community pharmacists from Penang, Malaysia. The results showed that all PTMEA Corr were in positive values, where an item was able to distinguish between the ability of respondents. Based on the MNSQ infit and outfit range (0.60-1.40), out of 55 items, 2 items from the instrument were suggested to be removed. The findings indicated that the instrument fitted with Rasch measurement model and showed the acceptable reliability values of 0.88 and 0.83 and 0.79 for knowledge, attitude and perceived practice respectively.

  12. Meaningful Engagement in Scientific Practices: How Classroom Communities Develop Authentic Epistemologies for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krist, Christina Rae

    Recent reforms in science education, based on decades of learning research, emphasize engaging students in science and engineering practices as the means to develop and refine disciplinary ideas. These reforms advocate an epistemic shift in how school science is done: from students learning about science ideas to students figuring out core science ideas. This shift is challenging to implement: how do we bring the goals and practices of a discipline into classroom communities in meaningful ways that go beyond simply following rote scientific procedures? In this dissertation, I investigate how classroom communities learn to engage meaningfully in scientific practices, characterizing their engagement as a process of epistemic learning. I take a situated perspective that defines learning as shifts in how members engage in communities of practice. I examine students' epistemic learning as a function of their participation in a classroom community of scientific practice along two dimensions: what they do, or the practical epistemic heuristics they use to guide how they build knowledge; and who they are, or how ownership and authorship of ideas is negotiated and affectively marked through interaction. I focus on a cohort of students as they move from 6th to 8 th grade. I analyze three science units, one from each grade level, to look at the epistemic heuristics implicit in student and teacher talk and how the use of those heuristics shifts over time. In addition, I examine one anomalous 8th grade class to look at how students and the teacher position themselves and each other with respect to the ideas in their classroom and how that positioning supports epistemic learning. Taken together, these analyses demonstrate how students' engagement in scientific practices evolves in terms of what they do and who they are in relation to the knowledge and ideas in their classroom over time. I propose a model for epistemic learning that articulates how classroom communities develop

  13. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Dale B; Farris, Karen B

    2006-01-01

    To describe the state of community pharmacy, including patient care services, in the US. Chain pharmacies, including traditional chains, mass merchandisers, and supermarkets, comprise more than 50% of community pharmacies in the US. Dispensing of drugs remains the primary focus, yet the incidence of patients being counseled on medications appears to be increasing. More than 25% of independent community pharmacy owners report providing some patient clinical care services, such as medication counseling and chronic disease management. Most insurance programs pay pharmacists only for dispensing services, yet there are a growing number of public and private initiatives that reimburse pharmacists for cognitive services. Clinical care opportunities exist in the new Medicare prescription drug benefit plan, as it requires medication therapy management services for specific enrollees. The private market approach to healthcare delivery in the US, including pharmacy services, precludes national and statewide strategies to change the basic business model. To date, most pharmacies remain focused on dispensing prescriptions. With lower dispensing fees and higher operating costs, community pharmacies are focused on increasing productivity and efficiency through technology and technicians. Pharmacists remain challenged to establish the value of their nondispensing-related pharmaceutical care services in the private sector. As the cost of suboptimal drug therapy becomes more evident, medication therapy management may become a required pharmacy benefit in private drug insurance plans. Pharmacy school curricula, as well as national and state pharmacy associations, continually work to train and promote community pharmacists for these roles. Practice research is driven primarily by interested academics and, to a lesser degree, by pharmacy associations. Efficient dispensing of prescriptions is the primary focus of community pharmacies in the US. Some well designed practice-based research

  14. [Promotion of community-based care in Africa: example of community general practice in Benin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplain, Roland; Yacoubou, Ismaïl; Adedemy, Didier; Sani, Alidou; Takam, Sandrine; Desplats, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Considerable effort has been made to provide rural African populations with basic health care, but the quality of this care remains unsatisfactory due to the absence of first-line GPs. This is a paradoxical situation in view of the large number of physicians trained in medical schools in French-speaking Africa and Madagascar. of the lack of GPs working in rural areas is a real concern, as many young doctors remain unemployed in cities. For more than 20 years, the NGO Santé Sud has proposed a Community General Medicine concept, which, combined with a support system, has allowed the installation of more than 200 community GPs in Mali and Madagascar. The advantage of this concept is that it provides family medicine and primary health care in the same practice. Since 2009, Santé Sud supports an installation project in rural areas of northern Benin, where community GPs work independently, as a complementary partner of the public sector. Since 2013, the installation process comprises a university degree created with the University of Parakou Faculty of Medicine. Based on this experience in Benin, the authors show that the presence of a first-line general practitioner is an original strategy that provides a major contribution to health promotion : reducing health inequalities between rural and urban populations, allowing women to receive medically assisted childbirth close to home, developing family planning activities, education and health care for chronic diseases, strengthening health coverage by participating in vaccination campaigns, etc. Due to their functions and proximity, community GPs represent an added value for health promotion.

  15. The Healthy Aging Research Network: Modeling Collaboration for Community Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belza, Basia; Altpeter, Mary; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G

    2017-03-01

    As the first Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Prevention Research Centers Program thematic network, the Healthy Aging Research Network was established to better understand the determinants of healthy aging within older adult populations, identify interventions that promote healthy aging, and assist in translating research into sustainable community-based programs throughout the nation. To achieve these goals requires concerted efforts of a collaborative network of academic, community, and public health organizational partnerships. For the 2001-2014 Prevention Research Center funding cycles, the Healthy Aging Research Network conducted prevention research and promoted the wide use of practices known to foster optimal health. Organized around components necessary for successful collaborations (i.e., governance and infrastructure, shaping focus, community involvement, and evaluation and improvement), this commentary highlights exemplars that demonstrate the Healthy Aging Research Network's unique contributions to the field. The Healthy Aging Research Network's collaboration provided a means to collectively build capacity for practice and policy, reduce fragmentation and duplication in health promotion and aging research efforts, maximize the efficient use of existing resources and generate additional resources, and ultimately, create synergies for advancing the healthy aging agenda. This collaborative model was built upon a backbone organization (coordinating center); setting of common agendas and mutually reinforcing activities; and continuous communications. Given its successes, the Healthy Aging Research Network model could be used to create new and evaluate existing thematic networks to guide the translation of research into policy and practice.

  16. Modeling Techniques: Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Odd A. Asbjørnsen

    1985-01-01

    A survey is given of some crucial concepts in chemical process modeling. Those are the concepts of physical unit invariance, of reaction invariance and stoichiometry, the chromatographic effect in heterogeneous systems, the conservation and balance principles and the fundamental structures of cause and effect relationships. As an example, it is shown how the concept of reaction invariance may simplify the homogeneous reactor modeling to a large extent by an orthogonal decomposition of the pro...

  17. Community Pharmacists’ Views and Practices Regarding Natural Health Products Sold in Community Pharmacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necyk, Candace

    2016-01-01

    Background Reports of regulatory and evidentiary gaps have raised concerns about the marketing and use of natural health products (NHPs). The majority of NHPs offered for sale are purchased at a community pharmacy and pharmacists are “front-line” health professionals involved in the marketing and provision of NHPs. To date, the involvement of pharmacists in pharmacy care involving NHPs and the degree to which concerns over the safety, efficacy, marketing and regulation of NHPs are addressed in pharmacy care in Canada have not been studied. Methods Using Qualtrics, a web-based data collection and analysis software, and a study instrument made up of fifteen (15) open-ended, closed and rating scale questions, we surveyed the attitudes and practices of 403 community pharmacists in the Canadian province of Alberta regarding NHPs offered for sale in community pharmacies. Results The majority of pharmacists surveyed (276; 68%) recommend NHPs to clients sometimes to very often. Vitamin D, calcium, multivitamins, prenatal vitamins, probiotics and fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids were the most frequently recommended NHPs. The most common indications for which NHPs are recommended include bone and musculoskeletal disorders, maintenance of general health, gastrointestinal disorders and pregnancy. Review articles published in the Pharmacist’s Letter and Canadian Pharmacists Journal were the primary basis for recommending NHPs. The majority of pharmacists surveyed (339; 84%) recommend the use of NHPs concurrently with conventional drugs, while a significant number and proportion (125; 31%) recommend alternative use. Pharmacists in the study overwhelmingly reported providing counselling on NHPs to clients based on information obtained mainly from the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Conclusions The study findings indicate a high prevalence of pharmacy care relating to NHPs among study participants. Although pharmacists’ practices around NHPs are consistent with

  18. Community Pharmacists' Views and Practices Regarding Natural Health Products Sold in Community Pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbogu, Ubaka; Necyk, Candace

    Reports of regulatory and evidentiary gaps have raised concerns about the marketing and use of natural health products (NHPs). The majority of NHPs offered for sale are purchased at a community pharmacy and pharmacists are "front-line" health professionals involved in the marketing and provision of NHPs. To date, the involvement of pharmacists in pharmacy care involving NHPs and the degree to which concerns over the safety, efficacy, marketing and regulation of NHPs are addressed in pharmacy care in Canada have not been studied. Using Qualtrics, a web-based data collection and analysis software, and a study instrument made up of fifteen (15) open-ended, closed and rating scale questions, we surveyed the attitudes and practices of 403 community pharmacists in the Canadian province of Alberta regarding NHPs offered for sale in community pharmacies. The majority of pharmacists surveyed (276; 68%) recommend NHPs to clients sometimes to very often. Vitamin D, calcium, multivitamins, prenatal vitamins, probiotics and fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids were the most frequently recommended NHPs. The most common indications for which NHPs are recommended include bone and musculoskeletal disorders, maintenance of general health, gastrointestinal disorders and pregnancy. Review articles published in the Pharmacist's Letter and Canadian Pharmacists Journal were the primary basis for recommending NHPs. The majority of pharmacists surveyed (339; 84%) recommend the use of NHPs concurrently with conventional drugs, while a significant number and proportion (125; 31%) recommend alternative use. Pharmacists in the study overwhelmingly reported providing counselling on NHPs to clients based on information obtained mainly from the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. The study findings indicate a high prevalence of pharmacy care relating to NHPs among study participants. Although pharmacists' practices around NHPs are consistent with the existing licensing framework, we found some

  19. Complete graph model for community detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng Gang; Sun, Xiya

    2017-04-01

    Community detection brings plenty of considerable problems, which has attracted more attention for many years. This paper develops a new framework, which tries to measure the interior and the exterior of a community based on a same metric, complete graph model. In particular, the exterior is modeled as a complete bipartite. We partition a network into subnetworks by maximizing the difference between the interior and the exterior of the subnetworks. In addition, we compare our approach with some state of the art methods on computer-generated networks based on the LFR benchmark as well as real-world networks. The experimental results indicate that our approach obtains better results for community detection, is capable of splitting irregular networks and achieves perfect results on the karate network and the dolphin network.

  20. Concept Modeling vs. Data modeling in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    account of the inheritance of characteristics and allows us to introduce a number of principles and constraints which render concept modeling more coherent than earlier approaches. Second, we explain how terminological ontologies can be used as the basis for developing conceptual and logical data models......This chapter shows the usefulness of terminological concept modeling as a first step in data modeling. First, we introduce terminological concept modeling with terminological ontologies, i.e. concept systems enriched with characteristics modeled as feature specifications. This enables a formal...

  1. Modeling Techniques: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odd A. Asbjørnsen

    1985-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey is given of some crucial concepts in chemical process modeling. Those are the concepts of physical unit invariance, of reaction invariance and stoichiometry, the chromatographic effect in heterogeneous systems, the conservation and balance principles and the fundamental structures of cause and effect relationships. As an example, it is shown how the concept of reaction invariance may simplify the homogeneous reactor modeling to a large extent by an orthogonal decomposition of the process variables. This allows residence time distribution function parameters to be estimated with the reaction in situ, but without any correlation between the estimated residence time distribution parameters and the estimated reaction kinetic parameters. A general word of warning is given to the choice of wrong mathematical structure of models.

  2. Accounting Community of Practice Pedagogy: A Course Management Invention for Developing Personal Competencies in Accounting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Sandria S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of an exploratory qualitative study using the implementation of Wenger's [(1998). "Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity." Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press; Wenger, E. (2000). Communities of practice and social learning systems. "Organization," 7(2), 225-246] Theory of…

  3. SciJourn Is Magic: Construction of a Science Journalism Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Celeste R.

    2017-01-01

    This article is the first to describe the discoursal construction of an adolescent community of practice (CoP) in a non-school setting. CoPs can provide optimal learning environments. The adolescent community centered around science journalism and positioned itself dichotomously in relationship to school literacy practices. The analysis focuses on…

  4. Understanding and Supporting Online Communities of Practice: Lessons Learned from Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Bishop, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    In order to seek more effective ways to design and support online communities of practice, we examined how Wikipedia, a large-scale online community of practice, is developed and emerges over time. We conducted a Delphi study to explore the social, organizational, and technical factors that Wikipedia experts believe have supported the evolution of…

  5. Using Communities of Practice to Enhance Interdisciplinary Teaching: Lessons from Four Australian Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharo, Emma; Davison, Aidan; McGregor, Helen; Warr, Kristin; Brown, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We report on the establishment of communities of practice at four Australian institutions and evaluate their effectiveness and durability as a means of building staff and institutional capacity for interdisciplinary teaching. A community of practice approach is a potentially valuable methodology for overcoming dynamics of fragmentation, isolation…

  6. Blended-Format Professional Development and the Emergence of Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Thomas E.; Cady, JoAnn

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we draw on Wenger's (1998) conception of communities of practice to observe the emergence of a community of practice among middle grades mathematics teachers who participated in a two-year blended-format (online synchronous, online asynchronous, and face to face) professional development program designed to increase middle-grades…

  7. Service-Learning and Emergent Communities of Practice: A Teacher Education Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschak, Jennifer Cutsforth; Letwinsky, Karim Medico

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the unexpected emergence of a community of practice in a middle level mathematics and science methods course. The authors describe how preservice teacher participation in a collaborative, project-based service-learning experience resulted in the formation of a community of practice characterized by teamwork, meaningful…

  8. Presence without Being Present: Reflection and Action in a Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enfield, Mark; Stasz, Bird

    2011-01-01

    Reflection and Communities of Practice are common constructs in teacher education. Co-teaching is often seen as beneficial, yet teacher education students rarely have experiences being co-taught. Thus, reflection, communities of practice, and co-teaching, deserve careful consideration in designing teacher education learning experiences. Based on…

  9. Legitimate Peripheral Participation in Communities of Practice: Participation Support Structures for Newcomers in Faculty Student Councils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Julia; Stegmann, Karsten; Fischer, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Participating in communities of practice (CoPs) is an important way of learning. For newcomers in such communities, the learning process can be described as legitimate peripheral participation (LPP). Although a body of knowledge on LPP has been accumulated from qualitative case studies, mostly focusing on the use of practices, the concrete…

  10. A Theoretical Framework for Building Online Communities of Practice with Social Networking Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Charlotte N.; Hermans, Mary Beth; Sanchez, Damien; Richmond, Carol; Bohley, Maribeth; Tuttle, Rebekah

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework as a foundation for building online communities of practice when a suite of social networking applications referred to as collective intelligence tools are utilized to develop a product or solutions to a problem. Drawing on recent developments in Web 2.0 tools, research on communities of practice and…

  11. Professional Learning Communities' Impact on Science Teacher Classroom Practice in a Midwestern Urban School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this reputation-based, multiple-site case study was to explore professional learning communities' impact on teacher classroom practice. The goal of this research was to describe the administrator and teachers' perceptions with respect to professional learning communities as it related to teacher practice in their school. Educators…

  12. Accounting Community of Practice Pedagogy: A Course Management Invention for Developing Personal Competencies in Accounting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Sandria S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of an exploratory qualitative study using the implementation of Wenger's [(1998). "Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity." Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press; Wenger, E. (2000). Communities of practice and social learning systems. "Organization," 7(2), 225-246] Theory of…

  13. Exploring Preservice Mathematics Teachers' Perception of the Mathematics Teacher through Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoç, Hatice; Balkanlioglu, Mehmet Ali; Yesildere-Imre, Sibel

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to analyse the induction experiences of preservice mathematics teachers during their school placements through the lens of communities of practice. The main research question was concerned with how preservice mathematics teachers perceive what constitutes the practice of a professional community of mathematics teachers. A…

  14. Sustained benefits of a community dietetics intervention designed to improve oral nutritional supplement prescribing practices.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennelly, S

    2011-10-01

    Healthcare professionals working in the community do not always prescribe oral nutritional supplements (ONS) according to best practice guidelines for the management of malnutrition. The present study aimed to determine the impact of a community dietetics intervention on ONS prescribing practices and expenditure 1 year later.

  15. Students improve patient care and prepare for professional practice: an interprofessional community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth Susan; Thorpe, Lucy Nichola

    2014-06-01

    We report on an education model that enables students to contribute to practice while experiencing the realities of complex team-working in the community. The study considers how interprofessional learning impacts on patient care and service delivery. A qualitative study using a realist approach. The views of practice-staff, patients and facilitators on how student team learning impacted on practice was obtained through focus groups, interviews and an e-questionnaire and compared to student analysis as feedback forms. Staff from six Primary Health Care Teams (n = 23) stated that the student teams had offered solutions to improve the quality of patient care and on organisational systems. The positive value of the student work was confirmed by the course facilitators (n = 8). In addition, practitioners were propelled to maintain high professional standards. Patients (n = 23) recalled benefits directly attributable to the student work confirmed by the 434 student feedback forms. Undergraduate interprofessional student teams in mid-training can support and help practice teams, and this subsequently benefits patient care. This practice-based interprofessional learning model offers learning, which is theory-based, and supports positive student contributions. This learning fits today's requirements for positive outcomes from education when mapped against the Kirkpatrick or the NHS (UK) education outcomes framework.

  16. Identifying 'Hidden' Communities of Practice within Electronic Networks: Some Preliminary Premises

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the possibility of discovering 'hidden' (potential) Communities of Practice (CoPs) inside electronic networks, and then using this knowledge to nurture them into a fully developed Virtual Community of Practice (VCoP). Starting from the standpoint of the need to manage knowledge, it discusses several questions related to this subject: the characteristics of 'hidden' communities; the relation between CoPs, Virtual Communities (VCs), Distributed Communities of Practice (DCoPs) and Virtual Communities of Practice (VCoPs); the methods used to search for 'hidden' CoPs; and the possible ways of changing 'hidden' CoPs into fully developed VCoPs. The paper also presents some preliminary findings from a semi-structured interview conducted in The Higher Education Academy Psychology Network (UK). These findings are contrasted against the theory discussed and some additional proposals are suggested at the end.

  17. Network Modeling and Simulation A Practical Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Guizani, Mohsen; Khan, Bilal

    2010-01-01

    Network Modeling and Simulation is a practical guide to using modeling and simulation to solve real-life problems. The authors give a comprehensive exposition of the core concepts in modeling and simulation, and then systematically address the many practical considerations faced by developers in modeling complex large-scale systems. The authors provide examples from computer and telecommunication networks and use these to illustrate the process of mapping generic simulation concepts to domain-specific problems in different industries and disciplines. Key features: Provides the tools and strate

  18. "Cultivando Confianza": A Bilingual Community of Practice Negotiates Restrictive Language Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Sarah N.; Puzio, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from an ethnographic study of how one school community negotiates English-only policy in Arizona, we investigated how a bilingual community of practice was established at one school. Integral to establishing this bilingual community was the mobilization of Spanish-speaking families in the school's daily life and operation. This…

  19. Learning in the Permaculture Community of Practice in England: An Analysis of the Relationship between Core Practices and Boundary Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Julie; Maye, Damian; Kirwan, James; Curry, Nigel; Kubinakova, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article utilizes the Communities of Practice (CoP) framework to examine learning processes among a group of permaculture practitioners in England, specifically examining the balance between core practices and boundary processes. Design/methodology/approach: The empirical basis of the article derives from three participatory workshops…

  20. Learning in the Permaculture Community of Practice in England: An Analysis of the Relationship between Core Practices and Boundary Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Julie; Maye, Damian; Kirwan, James; Curry, Nigel; Kubinakova, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article utilizes the Communities of Practice (CoP) framework to examine learning processes among a group of permaculture practitioners in England, specifically examining the balance between core practices and boundary processes. Design/methodology/approach: The empirical basis of the article derives from three participatory workshops…

  1. Male circumcision: care practices and attitudes in a Muslim community of western Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Paudel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract:
    Background: Male circumcision is a removal of the foreskin of the glans penis. There are medical, ritual and religious reasons for male circumcision. The purpose of this study is to explore the current practices, perceptions, future recommendations and health seeking behavior during and after performing male circumcision in a Muslim community of western Nepal. Method: A total of 64 households were sampled by a simple random sampling method. Information was collected using semi-structured questionnaires and focus group discussions. Result: Circumcision was practiced among all Muslim households and the main reason was religious rite and ritual. It was the traditional circumciser, locally known as hazam, who circumcised all male children in the community. Interestingly, in only 5 % of the household children had been circumcised using modern medicines. The rest of the households, i.e. 95%, relied on traditional healing systems, the use of local herbs and homemade ointments (mainly the suspension of ghee and ash.A Non-sterilized knife was the main surgical instrument used during circumcision. The wound healing after circumcision was much longer, even up to 90 days or more. Conclusions: Circumcision is a practice that is still largely carried out outside the domain of the formal health care system in this community. It demands a design of service delivery models from health policy makers in the Ministry of Health, thus bringing circumcision within formal health care systems in those communities. It deserves an urgent attention to provide safe, culturally acceptable and sustainable services from health institutions.

  2. Effectiveness of Key Knowledge Spreader Identification in Online Communities of Practice: A Simulation Study from Network Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of online communities of practice (CoPs), how to identify key knowledge spreader (KKS) in online CoPs has grown up to be a hot issue. In this paper, we construct a network with variable clustering based on Holme-Kim model to represent CoPs, a simple dynamics of knowledge sharing is considered. Kendall's Tau coefficient…

  3. Takaful Models and Global Practices

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    There is a global interest in Islamic finance in general and Takāful in particular. The main feature that differentiates Takāful services from conventional ones is Sharī‟ah compliance nature of these services. Investors are taking keen interest in this potential market as Muslims constitute about one fourth of the world population (Muslim population, 2006). To streamline operations of a Takāful company, management and Sharī‟ah experts have developed different operational models for Takāful bu...

  4. The experience of being a member of the Student International Community of Practice: a collaborative reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brighide M. Lynch

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2010 a community of practice was set up for and by doctoral students engaged in person-centred and practitioner research. After three years, this community became part of a larger international community of practice. Aims and objectives: Captured under the stanzas of a poem and supported by the literature, this paper uses member narratives and creative expressions in a critical reflection on the experience of being a member of the Student International Community of Practice. Conclusions: Membership in the community of practice was experienced as beneficial, providing both support and challenge to enrich the doctoral students’ development as person-centred researchers. Retaining connectivity across an international landscape and finding effective ways to integrate new members into the community presented the greatest challenges. Implications for practice development: • The theoretical foundation and experiential knowledge could assist others considering support structures for the development of person-centred practices • Shared learning and co-creation of knowledge add value to the experience of being a doctoral researcher • Membership fluctuations present challenges to continuity of learning and the maintenance of a safe space with communities of practice. Such fluctuations, however, create chances for community members to experience diverse roles within the group and encourage explicit attention to person-centredness

  5. A virtue ethics guide to best practices for community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Marjorie A

    2009-01-01

    Rule ethics, or principled thinking, is important in the analysis of risks and benefits of research and informed consent, but is not completely adequate for guiding ethical responses to communities as research participants and collaborators. Virtue ethics theory can be used to guide actions in relationships, which are foundational to the implementation of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Virtues are strengths of character that contribute to a life of flourishing or well-being for individuals and communities. This article provides an overview of virtue ethics theory, identifies common ethical problems in CBPR, and discusses how professional virtues can be used to guide ethical research practice. The virtues of compassion, courage, honesty, humility, justice, and practical reasoning are defined and applied to ethical practice in the development, implementation, and dissemination of CBPR. Best practices for CBPR that consider the well-being of communities are identified. The virtues of compassion and humility foster inclusiveness and integration of community perspectives in research collaboration. Courage requires researchers to step out of the research safety-net to listen to community member voices and wisdom and share power in research decisions. Honesty requires researchers to communicate realistic expectations for research outcomes, share all findings with the community, and consider community perspectives in research dissemination. Systematic involvement of the community in all steps of the research process represents the virtue of practical reasoning. From a justice perspective, CBPR aims to restore communities rather than take from them.

  6. Student questions in urban middle school science communities of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groome, Meghan

    This dissertation examines student questions within three Communities of Practice (CoP), all urban middle school science environments. The study analyzed student questions from a sociocultural perspective and used ethnographic research techniques to detail how the CoP's shaped questions in the classroom. In the first study, two case study girls attempted to navigate questioning events that required them to negotiation participation. Their access to participation was blocked by participation frameworks that elevated some students as "gatekeepers" while suppressing the participation of others. The next two studies detail the introduction of written questioning opportunities, one into a public middle school classroom and the other into an informal classroom. In both studies, students responded to the interventions differently, most notable the adoption of the opportunity by female students who do not participate orally. Dissertation-wide findings indicate all students were able to ask questions, but varied in level of cognitive complexity, and the diagnostic interventions were able to identify students who were not known to be "target students", students who asked a high number of questions and were considered "interested in science". Some students' roles were as "gatekeepers" to participation of their peers. Two out of three teachers in the studies reported major shifts in their teaching practice due to the focus on questions and the methods used here have been found to be effective in producing educational research as well as supporting high-need classrooms in prior research. In conclusion, these studies indicate that social factors, including participation frameworks, gender dynamics, and the availability of alternative participation methods, play an important role in how students ask science-related questions. It is recommended that researchers continue to examine social factors that reduce student questions and modify their teaching strategies to facilitate

  7. Knowledge of folic acid and counseling practices among Ohio community pharmacists

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues CR; DiPietro NA

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine knowledge of folic acid use for neural tube defect (NTD) prevention and counseling practices among community pharmacists registered in Ohio.Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on a random sample (n=500) of community pharmacists registered with the Ohio Board of Pharmacy and practicing in Ohio. A survey previously used by researchers to assess folic acid knowledge and practices among samples of other healthcare provider groups in the United States was adapted...

  8. Photonic Crystals Physics and Practical Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Sukhoivanov, Igor A

    2009-01-01

    The great interest in photonic crystals and their applications in the past decade requires a thorough training of students and professionals who can practically apply the knowledge of physics of photonic crystals together with skills of independent calculation of basic characteristics of photonic crystals and modelling of various photonic crystal elements for application in all-optical communication systems. This book combines basic backgrounds in fiber and integrated optics with detailed analysis of mathematical models for 1D, 2D and 3D photonic crystals and microstructured fibers, as well as with descriptions of real algorithms and codes for practical realization of the models.

  9. Teaching-Family Model: Insuring Quality Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElgunn, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    The Teaching-Family Model was one of the earliest approaches to be supported by an extensive research base. As it has evolved over four decades, it retains the focus on teaching and learning but incorporates a strength- and relationship-based orientation. The model is also unique in gathering ongoing practice-based evidence to insure quality.

  10. Community Tourism as Practiced in the Mountainous Qiang Region of Sichuan Province, China-a Case Study in Zhenghe Village

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lianbin; LIU Kaibang

    2008-01-01

    In China, community tourism is still a relatively new phenomenon, but the villagers of a small Qiang village in the Qiang Autonomous County of Beichuan in Southwestern Sichuan have initiated tourism in a way which conforms to the basic theory of community tourism development. This demonstrates that community tourism possesses a strength and vitality that can promote the development of tourism in the rural and mountainous areas. In the district of Zhenghe Village, the tourism industry, based on the community tourism model, is the mainstay of its economy. The practice of community tourism in the village not only promotes the economic development of the village community, but also leads to the protection of the mountainous natural environment and of the culture of the Qiang people. This paper investigates the development process of community tourism in Zhenghe and shows how the local residents participate in this process. It also looks at how profits have been distributed within the community. It demonstrates that community tourism is a correct choice by the Zhenghe people as they have clearly been moving from poverty to prosperity, while the local ecology and environment have been simultaneously protected. The authors hope that other minority villages with similar local conditions and natural resources will be able to use this example to develop their own community tourism.

  11. Sustainability in care through an ethical practice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyholm, Linda; Salmela, Susanne; Nyström, Lisbet; Koskinen, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    While sustainability is a key concept in many different domains today, it has not yet been sufficiently emphasized in the healthcare sector. Earlier research shows that ethical values and evidence-based care models create sustainability in care practice. The aim of this study was to gain further understanding of the ethical values central to the realization of sustainability in care and to create an ethical practice model whereby these basic values can be made perceptible and active in care practice. Part of the ongoing "Ethical Sustainable Caring Cultures" research project, a hermeneutical application research design was employed in this study. Dialogues were used, where scientific researchers and co-researchers were given the opportunity to reflect on ethical values in relation to sustainability in care. An ethical practice model with ethos as its core was created from the results of the dialogues. In the model, ethos is encircled by the ethical values central to sustainability: dignity, responsibility, respect, invitation, and vows. The model can be used as a starting point for ethical conversations that support carers' reflections on the ethical issues seen in day-to-day care work and the work community, allowing ethical values to become visible throughout the entire care culture. It is intended as a tool whereby carers can more deeply understand an organization's common basic values and what they entail in regard to sustainability in care.

  12. Conditions for building a community of practice in an advanced physics laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Irving, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore the theory of communities of practice in the context of a physics college course and in particular the classroom environment of an advanced laboratory. We introduce the idea of elements of a classroom community being able to provide students with the opportunity to have an accelerated trajectory towards being a more central participant of the community of practice of physicists. This opportunity is a result of structural features of the course and a primary instructional choice which result in the development of a learning community with several elements that encourage students to engage in more authentic practices of a physicist. A jump in accountable disciplinary knowledge is also explored as a motivation for enculturation into the community of practice of physicists. In the advanced laboratory what students are being assessed on as counting as physics is significantly different and so they need to assimilate in order to succeed.

  13. Modeling business processes: theoretical and practical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Dubininа

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The essence of process-oriented enterprise management has been examined in the article. The content and types of information technology have been analyzed in the article, due to the complexity and differentiation of existing methods, as well as the specificity of language, terminology of the enterprise business processes modeling. The theoretical aspects of business processes modeling have been reviewed and the modern traditional modeling techniques received practical application in the visualization model of retailers activity have been studied in the article. In the process of theoretical analysis of the modeling methods found that UFO-toolkit method that has been developed by Ukrainian scientists due to it systemology integrated opportunities, is the most suitable for structural and object analysis of retailers business processes. It was designed visualized simulation model of the business process "sales" as is" of retailers using a combination UFO-elements with the aim of the further practical formalization and optimization of a given business process.

  14. Community Mobilization Model Applied to Support Grandparents Raising Grandchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacque; Bruce, Ann; Bundy-Fazioli, Kimberly; Fruhauf, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the application of a community mobilization model through a case study of one community's response to address the needs of grandparents raising grandchildren. The community mobilization model presented is one that is replicable in addressing diverse community identified issues. Discussed is the building of the partnerships,…

  15. Microbial Community Metabolic Modeling: A Community Data-Driven Network Reconstruction: COMMUNITY DATA-DRIVEN METABOLIC NETWORK MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Christopher S. [Division of Mathematics and Computer Science, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois; Computation Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Bernstein, Hans C. [Biodetection Sciences, National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland Washington; Biological Sciences Division, Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; The Gene and Linda Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University, Pullman Washington; Weisenhorn, Pamela [Division of Mathematics and Computer Science, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois; Division of Biosciences, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois; Taylor, Ronald C. [Biological Sciences Division, Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Lee, Joon-Yong [Biological Sciences Division, Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Zucker, Jeremy [Biological Sciences Division, Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Song, Hyun-Seob [Biological Sciences Division, Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington

    2016-06-02

    Metabolic network modeling of microbial communities provides an in-depth understanding of community-wide metabolic and regulatory processes. Compared to single organism analyses, community metabolic network modeling is more complex because it needs to account for interspecies interactions. To date, most approaches focus on reconstruction of high-quality individual networks so that, when combined, they can predict community behaviors as a result of interspecies interactions. However, this conventional method becomes ineffective for communities whose members are not well characterized and cannot be experimentally interrogated in isolation. Here, we tested a new approach that uses community-level data as a critical input for the network reconstruction process. This method focuses on directly predicting interspecies metabolic interactions in a community, when axenic information is insufficient. We validated our method through the case study of a bacterial photoautotroph-heterotroph consortium that was used to provide data needed for a community-level metabolic network reconstruction. Resulting simulations provided experimentally validated predictions of how a photoautotrophic cyanobacterium supports the growth of an obligate heterotrophic species by providing organic carbon and nitrogen sources.

  16. Assessing participatory practices in community-based natural resource management: experiences in community engagement from southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, J; Stringer, L C; Dougill, A J; Leventon, J; Nshimbi, M; Chama, F; Kafwifwi, A; Muledi, J I; Kaumbu, J-M K; Falcao, M; Muhorro, S; Munyemba, F; Kalaba, G M; Syampungani, S

    2014-05-01

    The emphasis on participatory environmental management within international development has started to overcome critiques of traditional exclusionary environmental policy, aligning with shifts towards decentralisation and community empowerment. However, questions are raised regarding the extent to which participation in project design and implementation is meaningful and really engages communities in the process. Calls have been made for further local-level (project and community-scale) research to identify practices that can increase the likelihood of meaningful community engagement within externally initiated projects. This paper presents data from three community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) project case studies from southern Africa, which promote Joint Forest Management (JFM), tree planting for carbon and conservation agriculture. Data collection was carried out through semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders, community-level meetings, focus groups and interviews. We find that an important first step for a meaningful community engagement process is to define 'community' in an open and participatory manner. Two-way communication at all stages of the community engagement process is shown to be critical, and charismatic leadership based on mutual respect and clarity of roles and responsibilities is vital to improve the likelihood of participants developing understanding of project aims and philosophy. This can lead to successful project outcomes through community ownership of the project goals and empowerment in project implementation. Specific engagement methods are found to be less important than the contextual and environmental factors associated with each project, but consideration should be given to identifying appropriate methods to ensure community representation. Our findings extend current thinking on the evaluation of participation by making explicit links between the community engagement process and project outcomes, and by

  17. Information Literacy Practices and Student Protests: Mapping Community Information Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špiranec, Sonja; Kos, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This paper provides a contribution to understandings of information literacy regarding context and transferability of information practices. Specifically, the paper analyses the subset of information practices in situations of student protests and addresses issues of transfer of information literacy practice from a highly formal…

  18. Modelling in Accounting. Theoretical and Practical Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Szot-Gabryś

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accounting in the theoretical approach is a scientific discipline based on specific paradigms. In the practical aspect, accounting manifests itself through the introduction of a system for measurement of economic quantities which operates in a particular business entity. A characteristic of accounting is its flexibility and ability of adaptation to information needs of information recipients. One of the main currents in the development of accounting theory and practice is to cover by economic measurements areas which have not been hitherto covered by any accounting system (it applies, for example, to small businesses, agricultural farms, human capital, which requires the development of an appropriate theoretical and practical model. The article illustrates the issue of modelling in accounting based on the example of an accounting model developed for small businesses, i.e. economic entities which are not obliged by law to keep accounting records.

  19. Organizing graduate medical education programs into communities of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing-You, Robert G.; Varaklis, Kalli

    2016-01-01

    Background A new organizational model of educational administrative support was instituted in the Department of Medical Education (DME) to better meet increasing national accreditation demands. Residency and fellowship programs were organized into four ‘Communities of Practice’ (CoOPs) based on discipline similarity, number of learners, and geographic location. Program coordinator reporting lines were shifted from individual departments to a centralized reporting structure within the DME. The goal of this project was to assess the impact on those most affected by the change. Methods This was a mixed methods study that utilized structured interviews and the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI). Eleven members of the newly formed CoOPs participated in the study. Results Three major themes emerged after review and coding of the interview transcripts: improved group identity, improved availability of resources, and increased opportunity for professional growth. OCAI results indicated that respondents are committed to the DME and perceived the culture to be empowering. The ‘preferred culture’ was very similar to the culture at the time of the study, with some indication that DME employees are ready for more creativity and innovation in the future. Conclusion Reorganization within the DME of residency programs into CoOPs was overwhelmingly perceived as a positive change. Improved resources and accountability may position our DME to better handle the increasing complexity of graduate medical education. PMID:27712619

  20. Organizing graduate medical education programs into communities of practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bing-You

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: A new organizational model of educational administrative support was instituted in the Department of Medical Education (DME to better meet increasing national accreditation demands. Residency and fellowship programs were organized into four ‘Communities of Practice’ (CoOPs based on discipline similarity, number of learners, and geographic location. Program coordinator reporting lines were shifted from individual departments to a centralized reporting structure within the DME. The goal of this project was to assess the impact on those most affected by the change. Methods: This was a mixed methods study that utilized structured interviews and the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI. Eleven members of the newly formed CoOPs participated in the study. Results: Three major themes emerged after review and coding of the interview transcripts: improved group identity, improved availability of resources, and increased opportunity for professional growth. OCAI results indicated that respondents are committed to the DME and perceived the culture to be empowering. The ‘preferred culture’ was very similar to the culture at the time of the study, with some indication that DME employees are ready for more creativity and innovation in the future. Conclusion: Reorganization within the DME of residency programs into CoOPs was overwhelmingly perceived as a positive change. Improved resources and accountability may position our DME to better handle the increasing complexity of graduate medical education.

  1. The Development and Implementation of a Community Pharmacy Practice Clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Fred G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A clerkship at the University of Southern California School of Pharmacy was developed to provide students with (1) experience in the identification, development,, implementation, and evaluation of patient care services in community pharmacies and (2) the skills required to successfully operate a community pharmacy on a day-to-day basis.…

  2. Family, School, and Community Partnerships: Practical Strategies for Afterschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn-Stevenson, Matia

    2014-01-01

    Much attention is given today to the importance of forging family, school, and community partnerships. Growing numbers of schools, many of them with afterschool programs, are dedicating resources to support and sustain relationships with families and community-based organizations. And, among government agencies and the philanthropic sector, there…

  3. Resource-Based Intervention: Success with Community-Centered Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, Michelle Kerber; Leginus, Mary Anne; Cecere, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In this commentary the authors share their experiences on the design and implementation of community-centered early intervention programs in Prince George's County, MD. Their aim in designing community-centered programs was to provide infants and toddlers opportunities for learning, language, and motor development in natural environments with…

  4. Applying Cultura in the Community College Counseling Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Blanca E.

    2015-01-01

    Latino students represent the fastest-growing population in the state of California, the United States, and the California Community College (CCC) system. Unfortunately, compared to other ethnic groups, Latino community college students continue to lag academically. Given the importance of counseling services and the scarce research related to…

  5. Practice, Ritual and Community Music: Doing as Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Helen

    2008-01-01

    As a specialist in ritual theory and performance, with some professional experience of community music, I have always been struck by the robust resistance to clear-cut definitions or identities, by both "ritual" and "community music". This article takes as its point of departure the proposal of ritual scholar Catherine Bell, that we abandon the…

  6. Applying Cultura in the Community College Counseling Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Blanca E.

    2015-01-01

    Latino students represent the fastest-growing population in the state of California, the United States, and the California Community College (CCC) system. Unfortunately, compared to other ethnic groups, Latino community college students continue to lag academically. Given the importance of counseling services and the scarce research related to…

  7. Model Youth Programs: A Key Strategy for Developing Community-University Partnerships Using a Community Youth Development Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Anyon

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Universities across the nation face the charge of enhancing their intellectual capital as a learning institution while also contributing to the greater social good. While there is great potential for university-community partnerships to generate lessons for youth workers and policy makers, create powerful new knowledge for the academic field, and provide transformative experiences for community members, partnerships often fail to produce such meaningful results. In the San Francisco Bay Area, community residents who have been involved in such unsuccessful initiatives frequently perceived that university partners spent insufficient time learning about the community context, prioritized research objectives over community needs and did not make long-term commitments. Despite these challenges, community-university partnerships can be useful strategies for advancing the field of youth development by strengthening research and practice in local contexts. This paper presents how the design and implementation of model youth programs served as an effective strategy in developing a partnership between a university-based center and two local communities over a 5-year period. It also describes essential lessons that other communities, research institutions or universities may use to launch, implement, expand and sustain their own successful partnerships to build local capacity to implement youth development practices, promote positive outcomes for young people, and generate knowledge about the impact of youth development approaches.

  8. Developing modelling lenses among practicing teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awawdeh Shahbari, Juhaina; Tabach, Michal

    2016-07-01

    Growing awareness of the importance of modelling activities in mathematics education has raised the question of whether teachers are prepared to facilitate the engagement of students in such activities. The current study investigates the effects of how teachers cope with modelling activities in developing their abilities to identify modelling cycles. The research was conducted among 34 practicing teachers studying for master's degrees at a college of education. The data were collected from two reports and one reflection provided by the participants about a modelling activity conducted by a group of five sixth-grade students. The first report was submitted before the participants themselves dealt with the modelling activities, while the second report and the reflection were submitted after their participation in the modelling activities. The findings indicate that prior to participating in the activity most of the teachers described the students' participation in modelling activity as a linear process. The participating teachers noticed the final mathematical model and the mathematical results obtained from applying the model, but most of them ignored the realistic results, the validating process and the cyclical nature of the mathematical model's progress. However, after the practicing teachers participated in modelling activities as learners, their reports indicated that most were able to recognize all the modelling phases and to distinguish the cyclical processes of the progress of the mathematical models. Moreover, according to the analyses of the reflections, the participating teachers are aware of the changes in their descriptions.

  9. Are Universities Role Models for Communities? A Gender Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Cornelia MACARIE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper explores the degree in which universities could/should serve as role models for communities from the perspective of gender integration. Although the theoretical/ moral answer would be affirmative (universities should be in such a position that would allow local communities to regard them as role models of gender integration, the primary empirical analysis leads to another conclusion. A brief theoretical review (that connects gender discrimination, sustainable development, universities and local communities is followed by an empirical analysis that compares the management structures of 12 Romanian Universities of Advanced Research and Education (the best Romanian universities according to a national ranking with those of four local communities where they are located (as geographic proximity would lead to a better diffusion of best practices. Contrary to initial expectations, even in higher education institutions, women are underrepresented both in executive and legislative positions. Since universities are subject to the same major patterns of gender discrimination (such as role theory, glass ceiling and glass elevator as private and public organizations, they lose the moral high ground that theory would suggest. However, medicine and pharmacy universities that can be connected with the traditional roles attributed to women provide better gender integration, but glass escalator phenomena remain present even in these limited fields.

  10. Cross-Cultural “Allies” in Immigrant Community Practice: Roles of foreign-trained former Montagnard health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Xin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This pilot case study describes foreign-trained former Montagnard refugee physicians’ practice experiences in Vietnam and their current community health worker and “ally” roles within the Montagnard refugee community. It highlights key features that facilitate cross-culturally responsive health care. We interviewed five Vietnam-trained former Montagnard refugee physicians using an open-ended interview format during March, 2012. We used content analysis procedures to identify key themes characterizing Montagnard physicians’ former and current practice experiences and emphasizing the roles they currently play in their new homeland. Montagnard physicians were fighting infectious diseases in homeland Vietnamese communities. Since coming to the U.S., Montagnard physicians have reoriented their competencies to fit within a community health workers model, and have shifted practice to fighting chronic disease in this refugee community. Tasks now include describing and contextualizing unique characteristics of the Montagnard languages and cultures to outside constituents. They become cross-cultural allies to the U.S. health care and facilitate individuals’ medical adherence with mainstream physicians’ orders. They ensure accuracy of interpretation of Montagnard patients’ medical complaints during a medical visit. Our findings reveal the potential roles that can be ascribed to a cross-cultural ally and can be built into practice to fulfill the Montagnard community’s unmet health needs: oral historian, mediator, facilitator/negotiator, quality assurer, psychosocial confidant, and health advocate. Normal 0 false false false EN-US ZH-CN X-NONE

  11. Evolution of Wenger's concept of community of practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coyte Peter C

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the experience of health professionals, it appears that interacting with peers in the workplace fosters learning and information sharing. Informal groups and networks present good opportunities for information exchange. Communities of practice (CoPs, which have been described by Wenger and others as a type of informal learning organization, have received increasing attention in the health care sector; however, the lack of uniform operating definitions of CoPs has resulted in considerable variation in the structure and function of these groups, making it difficult to evaluate their effectiveness. Objective To critique the evolution of the CoP concept as based on the germinal work by Wenger and colleagues published between 1991 and 2002. Discussion CoP was originally developed to provide a template for examining the learning that happens among practitioners in a social environment, but over the years there have been important divergences in the focus of the concept. Lave and Wenger's earliest publication (1991 centred on the interactions between novices and experts, and the process by which newcomers create a professional identity. In the 1998 book, the focus had shifted to personal growth and the trajectory of individuals' participation within a group (i.e., peripheral versus core participation. The focus then changed again in 2002 when CoP was applied as a managerial tool for improving an organization's competitiveness. Summary The different interpretations of CoP make it challenging to apply the concept or to take full advantage of the benefits that CoP groups may offer. The tension between satisfying individuals' needs for personal growth and empowerment versus an organization's bottom line is perhaps the most contentious of the issues that make CoPs difficult to cultivate. Since CoP is still an evolving concept, we recommend focusing on optimizing specific characteristics of the concept, such as support for members

  12. Defining sustainable practice in community-based health promotion: a Delphi study of practitioner perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Neil; Sandor, Maria

    2013-04-01

    Sustainability of practice must be a central imperative in the practice of community-based health promotion to achieve population health and attract a greater share of public health spending. Although there has been some consideration of sustainability at the project or program levels, often understood as intervention longevity, very limited attention has been given to understanding sustainable practice. The present study develops a definition and features of sustainable practice in community-based health promotion through a Delphi method with health promotion practitioners in Queensland, Australia. The study presents a consensus definition and features of sustainable practice. The definition highlights the importance of collaboration, health determinants and aspirations, processes and outcomes. The four features of sustainable practice identified in the study are: (1) effective relationships and partnerships; (2) evidence-based decision making and practice; (3) emphasis on building community capacity; and (4) supportive context for practice. The definition and features are, to a large extent, consistent with the limited literature around sustainability at the project and program levels of health promotion. Together, they provide insight into a form of community-based health promotion that will be both viable and productive. So what? This consensus understanding of sustainable practice articulates the foundations of working effectively with local communities in achieving improved population health within global limits.

  13. A model for community physiotherapy from the perspective of newly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A model for community physiotherapy from the perspective of newly graduated physiotherapists as a guide to curriculum revision. ... To develop a model of community service physiotherapy to guide curriculum reform. Methods ... Article Metrics.

  14. Goal setting practice in services delivering community-based stroke rehabilitation: a United Kingdom (UK) wide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scobbie, Lesley; Duncan, Edward A; Brady, Marian C; Wyke, Sally

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the nature of services providing community-based stroke rehabilitation across the UK, and goal setting practice used within them, to inform evaluation of a goal setting and action planning (G-AP) framework. We designed, piloted and electronically distributed a survey to health professionals working in community-based stroke rehabilitation settings across the UK. We optimised recruitment using a multi-faceted strategy. Responses were analysed from 437 services. Services size, composition and input was highly variable; however, most were multi-disciplinary (82%; n = 335/407) and provided input to a mixed diagnostic group of patients (71%; n = 312/437). Ninety one percent of services (n = 358/395) reported setting goals with "all" or "most" stroke survivors. Seventeen percent (n = 65/380) reported that no methods were used to guide goal setting practice; 47% (n = 148/315) reported use of informal methods only. Goal setting practice varied, e.g. 98% of services (n = 362/369) reported routinely asking patients about goal priorities; 39% (n = 141/360) reported routinely providing patients with a copy of their goals. Goal setting is embedded within community-based stroke rehabilitation; however, practice varies and is potentially sub-optimal. Further evaluation of the G-AP framework is warranted to inform optimal practice. Evaluation design will take account of the diverse service models that exist. Implications for Rehabilitation Community-based stroke rehabilitation services across the UK are diverse and tend to see a mixed diagnostic group of patients. Goal setting is implemented routinely within community-based stroke rehabilitation services; however, practice is variable and potentially sub-optimal. Further evaluation of the G-AP framework is warranted to assess its effectiveness in practice.

  15. Changes in soil microbial community structure influenced by agricultural management practices in a mediterranean agro-ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuensanta García-Orenes

    Full Text Available Agricultural practices have proven to be unsuitable in many cases, causing considerable reductions in soil quality. Land management practices can provide solutions to this problem and contribute to get a sustainable agriculture model. The main objective of this work was to assess the effect of different agricultural management practices on soil microbial community structure (evaluated as abundance of phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA. Five different treatments were selected, based on the most common practices used by farmers in the study area (eastern Spain: residual herbicides, tillage, tillage with oats and oats straw mulching; these agricultural practices were evaluated against an abandoned land after farming and an adjacent long term wild forest coverage. The results showed a substantial level of differentiation in the microbial community structure, in terms of management practices, which was highly associated with soil organic matter content. Addition of oats straw led to a microbial community structure closer to wild forest coverage soil, associated with increases in organic carbon, microbial biomass and fungal abundances. The microbial community composition of the abandoned agricultural soil was characterised by increases in both fungal abundances and the metabolic quotient (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass, suggesting an increase in the stability of organic carbon. The ratio of bacteria:fungi was higher in wild forest coverage and land abandoned systems, as well as in the soil treated with oat straw. The most intensively managed soils showed higher abundances of bacteria and actinobacteria. Thus, the application of organic matter, such as oats straw, appears to be a sustainable management practice that enhances organic carbon, microbial biomass and activity and fungal abundances, thereby changing the microbial community structure to one more similar to those observed in soils under wild forest coverage.

  16. Changes in soil microbial community structure influenced by agricultural management practices in a mediterranean agro-ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; Zornoza, Raul; Cerdà, Artemi; Scow, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural practices have proven to be unsuitable in many cases, causing considerable reductions in soil quality. Land management practices can provide solutions to this problem and contribute to get a sustainable agriculture model. The main objective of this work was to assess the effect of different agricultural management practices on soil microbial community structure (evaluated as abundance of phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA). Five different treatments were selected, based on the most common practices used by farmers in the study area (eastern Spain): residual herbicides, tillage, tillage with oats and oats straw mulching; these agricultural practices were evaluated against an abandoned land after farming and an adjacent long term wild forest coverage. The results showed a substantial level of differentiation in the microbial community structure, in terms of management practices, which was highly associated with soil organic matter content. Addition of oats straw led to a microbial community structure closer to wild forest coverage soil, associated with increases in organic carbon, microbial biomass and fungal abundances. The microbial community composition of the abandoned agricultural soil was characterised by increases in both fungal abundances and the metabolic quotient (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass), suggesting an increase in the stability of organic carbon. The ratio of bacteria:fungi was higher in wild forest coverage and land abandoned systems, as well as in the soil treated with oat straw. The most intensively managed soils showed higher abundances of bacteria and actinobacteria. Thus, the application of organic matter, such as oats straw, appears to be a sustainable management practice that enhances organic carbon, microbial biomass and activity and fungal abundances, thereby changing the microbial community structure to one more similar to those observed in soils under wild forest coverage.

  17. Community-based practices: integrating dissemination theory with critical theories of power and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Jen

    2007-12-01

    This paper critically reviews two diverse intellectual traditions concerned with community-based interventions: the literature on dissemination of community interventions and the critical psychology literature that is concerned with systemic power inequalities and structural injustice. The dominant dissemination-of-innovations framework has shifted toward an emphasis on community, yet it does not generally take into account issues of power and inequality within the diverse community spheres into which interventions are disseminated. On the other hand, critical psychologists, who have concerned themselves with both understanding and addressing issues of power and structural injustice, have tended to eschew the possibility of standardizing and making transferable practices, programs, and even processes that address these issues in particular settings. This paper traces and critiques both sides of this divide within community psychology, positing a framework to bring these diverse intellectual resources together so that community interventions might fruitfully be examined in terms of their community-based practices, or practices that bear on structural injustice. This framework is illustrated with a case study of the community-based practices of a widely disseminated evidence-based community intervention.

  18. Digital Modeling and Shaping of Design Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijonen, Satu

    This paper focuses on the role of digital modeling in shaping coordinative practices between architects and energy engineers in construction design. The paper presents a case study of the use of an energy performance calculation programme, a numeric digital modeling tool, that not only enables......, 2010), and the socio-material constructivist studies of technology (Akrich 1992, Akrich et al. 2000, Latour 1991). The programme influences the coordinative practices in following ways: it shapes the modus of interaction between energy engineers and architects and enforces particular jurisdictional...... of this study suggest that generative potential of digital modeling tools such as the calculation programme resides in their ability to restrictively define the possible roles in, focus of and sequence of working. In addition, digital modeling provides a separate medium with the help of which the design object...

  19. Sharing best practices through online communities of practice: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Peter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The USAID-funded Capacity Project established the Global Alliance for Pre-Service Education (GAPS to provide an online forum to discuss issues related to teaching and acquiring competence in family planning, with a focus on developing countries' health related training institutions. The success of the Global Alliance for Nursing and Midwifery's ongoing web-based community of practice (CoP provided a strong example of the successful use of this medium to reach many participants in a range of settings. Case description GAPS functioned as a moderated set of forums that were analyzed by a small group of experts in family planning and pre-service education from three organizations. The cost of the program included the effort provided by the moderators and the time to administer responses and conduct the analysis. Discussion and evaluation Family planning is still considered a minor topic in health related training institutions. Rather than focusing solely on family planning competencies, GAPS members suggested a focus on several professional competencies (e.g. communication, leadership, cultural sensitivity, teamwork and problem solving that would enhance the resulting health care graduate's ability to operate in a complex health environment. Resources to support competency-based education in the academic setting must be sufficient and appropriately distributed. Where clinical competencies are incorporated into pre-service education, responsible faculty and preceptors must be clinically proficient. The interdisciplinary GAPS memberships allowed for a comparison and contrast of competencies, opportunities, promising practices, documents, lessons learned and key teaching strategies. Conclusions Online CoPs are a useful interface for connecting developing country experiences. From CoPs, we may uncover challenges and opportunities that are faced in the absorption of key public health competencies required for decreasing maternal

  20. Poetry Therapy within a Therapist's Practice Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina-Kammerer, Veronika

    1999-01-01

    Demonstrates that poetry is a valuable tool in individual and couples therapy; specifically, that the Bowen Family Systems Theory and attachment theory are useful paradigms for including poetry. Offers several case examples demonstrating the usefulness of poetry within a therapist's practice model. (SR)

  1. Knowledge creation in virtual communities – Exploring practices in open source software hacker communities

    OpenAIRE

    Matheus, Thomas; Sarma, Meera

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers an exploratory conceptual and theoretical examination of knowledge creation within virtual communities of hackers. By distinguishing between different types of virtual communities, we argue that hacker communities involved in free and open source activities possess special structural and processual characteristics that are conducive to innovative product development. Drawing on diverse literatures, this paper thus builds an initial understanding of how a hacker community is ...

  2. A Practical Philosophy of Complex Climate Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gavin A.; Sherwood, Steven

    2014-01-01

    We give an overview of the practice of developing and using complex climate models, as seen from experiences in a major climate modelling center and through participation in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP).We discuss the construction and calibration of models; their evaluation, especially through use of out-of-sample tests; and their exploitation in multi-model ensembles to identify biases and make predictions. We stress that adequacy or utility of climate models is best assessed via their skill against more naive predictions. The framework we use for making inferences about reality using simulations is naturally Bayesian (in an informal sense), and has many points of contact with more familiar examples of scientific epistemology. While the use of complex simulations in science is a development that changes much in how science is done in practice, we argue that the concepts being applied fit very much into traditional practices of the scientific method, albeit those more often associated with laboratory work.

  3. A Practical Philosophy of Complex Climate Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gavin A.; Sherwood, Steven

    2014-01-01

    We give an overview of the practice of developing and using complex climate models, as seen from experiences in a major climate modelling center and through participation in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP).We discuss the construction and calibration of models; their evaluation, especially through use of out-of-sample tests; and their exploitation in multi-model ensembles to identify biases and make predictions. We stress that adequacy or utility of climate models is best assessed via their skill against more naive predictions. The framework we use for making inferences about reality using simulations is naturally Bayesian (in an informal sense), and has many points of contact with more familiar examples of scientific epistemology. While the use of complex simulations in science is a development that changes much in how science is done in practice, we argue that the concepts being applied fit very much into traditional practices of the scientific method, albeit those more often associated with laboratory work.

  4. A note on organizational learning and knowledge sharing in the context of communities of practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonova, Albena; Gourova, Elissaveta

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Antonova, A. & Gourova, E. (2006). A note on organizational learning and knowledge sharing in the context of communities of practice. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. September

  5. Communities of Practice and Social Learning Systems: the Career of a Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Etienne

    The concept of community of practice was not born in the systems theory tradition. It has its roots in attempts to develop accounts of the social nature of human learning inspired by anthropology and social theory (Lave, 1988; Bourdieu, 1977; Giddens, 1984; Foucault, 1980; Vygotsky, 1978). But the concept of community of practice is well aligned with the perspective of systems traditions. A community of practice itself can be viewed as a simple social system. And a complex social system can be viewed as constituted by interrelated communities of practice. In this essay I first explore the systemic nature of the concept at these two levels. Then I use this foundation to look at the applications of the concept, some of its main critiques, and its potential for developing a social discipline of learning.

  6. Student Pharmacists’ Clinical Interventions in Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences at a Community Nonteaching Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Shogbon, Angela O.; Lundquist, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess student pharmacists’ clinical interventions in advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) at a community nonteaching hospital and evaluate completed interventions based on the type of documentation method used.

  7. Toward a Transdisciplinary Model of Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, Jason M; Spring, Bonnie; Brownson, Ross C; Mullen, Edward J; Newhouse, Robin P; Walker, Barbara B; Whitlock, Evelyn P

    2009-01-01

    Context This article describes the historical context and current developments in evidence-based practice (EBP) for medicine, nursing, psychology, social work, and public health, as well as the evolution of the seminal “three circles” model of evidence-based medicine, highlighting changes in EBP content, processes, and philosophies across disciplines. Methods The core issues and challenges in EBP are identified by comparing and contrasting EBP models across various health disciplines. Then a unified, transdisciplinary EBP model is presented, drawing on the strengths and compensating for the weaknesses of each discipline. Findings Common challenges across disciplines include (1) how “evidence” should be defined and comparatively weighted; (2) how and when the patient's and/or other contextual factors should enter the clinical decision-making process; (3) the definition and role of the “expert”; and (4) what other variables should be considered when selecting an evidence-based practice, such as age, social class, community resources, and local expertise. Conclusions A unified, transdisciplinary EBP model would address historical shortcomings by redefining the contents of each model circle, clarifying the practitioner's expertise and competencies, emphasizing shared decision making, and adding both environmental and organizational contexts. Implications for academia, practice, and policy also are discussed. PMID:19523122

  8. Biodiversity, carbon stocks and community monitoring in traditional agroforestry practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartoyo, Adisti Permatasari Putri; Siregar, Iskandar Z.; Supriyanto;

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agroforestry practices in Berau, East Kalimantan, are suitable land use types to conserve that potentially support the implementation of REDD+. The objectives of this research are to assess biodiversity and carbon stock in various traditional agroforestry practices, also to determine...

  9. Biodiversity, carbon stocks and community monitoring in traditional agroforestry practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartoyo, Adisti Permatasari Putri; Siregar, Iskandar Z.; Supriyanto

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agroforestry practices in Berau, East Kalimantan, are suitable land use types to conserve that potentially support the implementation of REDD+. The objectives of this research are to assess biodiversity and carbon stock in various traditional agroforestry practices, also to determine...

  10. Communities of Practice: A Knowledge Translation Tool for Rehabilitation Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezyak, Jill L.; Ditchman, Nicole; Burke, Jana; Chan, Fong

    2013-01-01

    Increased attention to evidence-based practice (EBP) among rehabilitation professionals closely corresponds to recent interest in knowledge translation, which connects quality research to rehabilitation practice aimed at improving the lives of people with disabilities. Despite the importance of knowledge translation for rehabilitation…

  11. Medication dispensing errors in Palestinian community pharmacy practice: a formal consensus using the Delphi technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawahna, Ramzi; Haddad, Aseel; Khawaja, Baraa; Raie, Rand; Zaneen, Sireen; Edais, Tasneem

    2016-10-01

    Background Medication dispensing errors (MDEs) are frequent in community pharmacy practice. A definition of MDEs and scenarios representing MDE situations in Palestinian community pharmacy practice were not previously approached using formal consensus techniques. Objective This study was conducted to achieve consensus on a definition of MDEs and a wide range of scenarios that should or should not be considered as MDEs in Palestinian community pharmacy practice by a panel of community pharmacists. Setting Community pharmacy practice in Palestine. Method This was a descriptive study using the Delphi technique. A panel of fifty community pharmacists was recruited from different geographical locations of the West Bank of Palestine. A three round Delphi technique was followed to achieve consensus on a proposed definition of MDEs and 83 different scenarios representing potential MDEs using a nine-point scale. Main outcome measure Agreement or disagreement of a panel of community pharmacists on a proposed definition of MDEs and a series of scenarios representing potential MDEs. Results In the first Delphi round, views of key contact community pharmacists on MDEs were explored and situations representing potential MDEs were collected. In the second Delphi round, consensus was achieved to accept the proposed definition and to include 49 (59 %) of the 83 proposed scenarios as MDEs. In the third Delphi round, consensus was achieved to include further 13 (15.7 %) scenarios as MDEs, exclude 9 (10.8 %) scenarios and the rest of 12 (14.5 %) scenarios were considered equivocal based on the opinions of the panelists. Conclusion Consensus on a definition of MDEs and scenarios representing MDE situations in Palestinian community pharmacy practice was achieved using a formal consensus technique. The use of consensual definitions and scenarios representing MDE situations in community pharmacy practice might minimize methodological variations and their significant effects on the

  12. The integration of information and communication technology into community pharmacists practice in Barcelona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupiáñez-Villanueva, Francisco; Hardey, Michael; Lluch, Maria

    2014-03-01

    The study aims to identify community pharmacists' (CPs) utilization of information and communication technology (ICT); to develop and characterize a typology of CPs' utilization of ICT and to identify factors that can enhance or inhibit the use of these technologies. An online survey of the 7649 members of the Pharmacist Association of Barcelona who had a registered email account in 2006 was carried out. Factor analysis, cluster analysis and binomial logit modelling were undertaken. Multivariate analysis of the CPs' responses to the survey (648) revealed two profiles of adoption of ICT. The first profile (40.75%) represents those CPs who place high emphasis on ICT within their practice. This group is therefore referred to as 'integrated CPs'. The second profile (59.25%) represents those CPs who make less use of ICT and so are consequently labelled 'non-integrated CPs'. Statistical modelling was used to identify variables that were important in predisposing CPs to integrate ICT with their work. From the analysis it is evident that responses to questions relating to 'recommend patients going on line for health information'; 'patients discuss or share their Internet health information findings'; 'emphasis on the Internet for communication and dissemination' and 'Pharmacists Professional Association information' play a positive and significant role in the probability of being an 'integrated CP'. The integration of ICT within CPs' practices cannot be adequately understood and appreciated without examining how CPs are making use of ICT within their own practice, their organizational context and the nature of the pharmacists-client relationship.

  13. ScoPe system for electronic learning in the practical community environment

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper is the research of the effects of social connection to the process of education and to test the sustainability of the idea about the free exchange of knowledge in the students' population, with the means of development of special system of electronic learning, which is based on the principles of virtual practical communities. Apart from the theoretical analysis of the references about practical communities, in the paper, by the method of case study, the process of develop...

  14. Reaching Graduate Students: A Community of Practice for Teaching ICT Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Macklin, Alexis; Culp, F. Bartow

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the use of a community of practice for teaching information and communication technology (ICT) skills to graduate students. Two questions were posed. The first addressed the ICT skill needs of 15 students enrolled in a research methods course in chemistry education. The second focused on the use of a community of practice to facilitate ICT skill acquisition. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected and analyzed. Results indicate that ICT instruction was most u...

  15. Community-Based Urban Teacher Education: Theoretical Frameworks and Practical Considerations for Developing Promising Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Traditional campus-based teacher education programs, located on college or university campuses, have been criticized for being removed from the "real world" of community life, and a number of programs have moved directly into urban communities in order for preservice teachers to become immersed in the life of the community. This article…

  16. Community-Based Urban Teacher Education: Theoretical Frameworks and Practical Considerations for Developing Promising Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Traditional campus-based teacher education programs, located on college or university campuses, have been criticized for being removed from the "real world" of community life, and a number of programs have moved directly into urban communities in order for preservice teachers to become immersed in the life of the community. This article…

  17. Indigenous Communities: A Way of Living that puts the Earth Charter into Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ovares-Barquero

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to draw attention to the role that indigenous communities have historically fulfilled by practicing the values proposed in the Earth Charter upon its ancestral construction. The intention is to reflect on the fact that the principles stated in the Earth Charter have been intrinsically performed by these groups on a daily basis. That is, these groups become a role model because they respect life in all its diverse forms, promoting a democratic, participative, sustainable, and peaceful existence, which ensures, the balance of Earth to present and future generations. On the other hand, this paper analyzes the damage caused by human beings, through their unfriendly practices, to Latin American natural resources and therefore to the planet. Moreover, the human species is the only one able to reverse the damage caused. Based on this context, the hope is to place the human being as the center of the planetary system. This requires an education that raises awareness and contributes to the overall view of the problems and takes into account their short, medium, and long term consequences, not only for a community but also for the entire humankind.

  18. Public health program planning logic model for community engaged type 2 diabetes management and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joseph F

    2014-02-01

    Diabetes remains a growing epidemic with widening health inequity gaps in disease management, self-management knowledge, access to care and outcomes. Yet there is a paucity of evaluation tools for community engaged interventions aimed at closing the gaps and improving health. The Guide to Community Preventive Services (the Community Guide) developed by the Task Force on Community Preventive Services (the Task Force) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends two healthcare system level interventions, case management interventions and disease management programs, to improve glycemic control. However, as a public health resource guide for diabetes interventions a model for community engagement is a glaringly absent component of the Community Guide recommendations. In large part there are few evidence-based interventions featuring community engagement as a practice and system-level focus of chronic disease and Type 2 diabetes management. The central argument presented in this paper is that the absence of these types of interventions is due to the lack of tools for modeling and evaluating such interventions, especially among disparate and poor populations. A conceptual model emphasizing action-oriented micro-level community engagement is needed to complement the Community Guide and serve as the basis for testing and evaluation of these kinds of interventions. A unique logic model advancing the Community Guide diabetes recommendations toward measureable and sustainable community engagement for improved Type 2 diabetes outcomes is presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Continuous Community Pharmacy Practice Experience: Design and Evaluation of Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Selby Greer; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A two-year community pharmacy clinical experience using self-directed learning modules is described and evaluated. The modules were designed to stimulate interest in community pharmacy, motivate learning by demonstrating applicability of didactic work to contemporary practice, develop communication and psychosocial skills, and promote…

  20. Community conversations as a strategy to change harmful traditional practices against women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Cao, Elisabetta; Huis, Marloes; Jemaneh, Samson; Lensink, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This article conducts a series of list experiments to detect whether community conversations contribute to a change in thinking about harmful traditional practices in Ethiopia. While our findings are mixed, we provide evidence that community conversations are indeed a valuable instrument to induce a

  1. Student-Created Musical as a Community of Practice: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Research on the improvement of learning shifted from a focus on the learner as individual to the concept of sociocultural learning in communities of learning, communities of practice or learning cultures during the 1990s. A similar shift in the focus of the development of a single construct of individual musical creativity to socially situated…

  2. Research, Policy, and Practice in Action: The Office of Community College Research and Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani-Gallaher, Eboni M.; Bragg, Debra D.

    2015-01-01

    The Office for Community College Research and Leadership (OCCRL) founded in 1989 focuses on P-20 education and the role of community colleges in facilitating educational access and equity. This article highlights the work of OCCRL as a research center that bridges inquiry, policy, and practice in contributing to the national dialogue on relevant…

  3. Community Problem-Solving Framed as a Distributed Information Use Environment: Bridging Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrance, Joan C.; Souden, Maria; Walker, Dana; Fisher, Karen E.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This article results from a qualitative study of 1) information behavior in community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment and 2) approaches used by a best-practice library to anticipate information needs associated with community problem solving. Method: Several approaches to data collection were…

  4. Extending Content-Focused Professional Development through Online Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavasseur, Cynthia B.; MacGregor, S. Kim

    2008-01-01

    This mixed method case study provides insights about how the professional development of middle school teachers is facilitated through their participation in content-focused online communities of practice. A key finding from this research reveals that the online community provided teachers with enhanced opportunities to share ideas, to discuss…

  5. "Turning the Sugar": Adult Learning and Cultural Repertoires of Practice in a Puerto Rican Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laura Ruth; Stribling, Colleen; Almburg, Anne; Vitale, Gail

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the processes of knowledge acquisition and transmission among adults within two "communities of practice" in Humboldt Park/"Paseo Boricua," a Puerto Rican community located on Chicago's near-northwest side. In particular, we examine the ways in which two adult women engaged in learning processes and…

  6. Interinstitutional Collaboration Practices between Virginia Community Colleges and High Schools Involved in Dual Enrollment Articulation Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caradona, Sally Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to build on the previous work of articulation practices of Virginia's public school divisions and community colleges participating in dual enrollment partnerships, and to understand the role of the community college in initiating, developing, and implementing dual enrollment programs. The primary focus involved…

  7. Learning How to Teach Poverty: A Case for Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Laurie P.; Roll, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    Recreation students today need to be prepared to engage in the topic of poverty as a social justice issue affecting our communities, yet many instructors do not have the tools to effectively teach this complex topic. One way instructors might learn how to engage students with poverty is through an interdisciplinary community of practice (CoP).…

  8. Exploring Links between Empowerment and Community-Based Arts and Cultural Practices: Perspectives from Barcelona Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Ruben David Fernández; Monferrer, Moisés Carmona; Tarditi, Andrés Di Masso

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we reflect on the development of community-based arts and cultural (CBAC) practices to promote psychosocial, group/organisational and community changes from the perspective of empowerment. We draw on findings from an initial exploratory phase of an ongoing action-research project in Spain about creative tools that empower artists…

  9. Creating and Sharing: Teens' Information Practices in Digital Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, Mary Ann; Bruce, Christine; Lupton, Mandy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In a connected world youth are participating in digital content creating communities. This paper introduces a description of teens' information practices in digital content creating and sharing communities. Method: The research design was a constructivist grounded theory methodology. Seventeen interviews with eleven teens were…

  10. Learning How to Teach Poverty: A Case for Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Laurie P.; Roll, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    Recreation students today need to be prepared to engage in the topic of poverty as a social justice issue affecting our communities, yet many instructors do not have the tools to effectively teach this complex topic. One way instructors might learn how to engage students with poverty is through an interdisciplinary community of practice (CoP).…

  11. A Community-Engaged Approach to Translating Research into Practice: A Physical Education Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutforth, Nick; Belansky, Elaine S

    2015-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health's Clinical and Translational Sciences Award program emphasizes the need to speed up the process of putting evidence-based practices into place. One strategy they promote is community engagement; however, few studies describe a process for meaningfully engaging communities in the translation process. This article describes steps taken by a university- community partnership to create a plan for implementing evidence-based physical education (PE) practices in rural schools. This partnership's efforts resulted in the acquisition of a $1.86 million grant to implement the plan. Qualitative data collected during the planning process were analyzed using content analysis. Key steps included undertaking a baseline assessment of community needs, reviewing and selecting evidence-based practices, developing a multilevel, community-driven action plan and establishing its feasibility with community stakeholders. These steps could be applied to other health topics across a variety of settings. Several strategies that made the process successful are described. Recommendations are made for expanding the roles of Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs) and local health foundations in supporting community-engaged translational research. University-community partnerships have the potential to create plans and obtain large-scale funding for translating evidence-based research into practice.

  12. Effects of Leadership Practices on Professional Learning Communities: The Mediating Role of Trust in Colleagues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; Yin, Hongbiao; Liu, Yuan; Ke, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The building of professional learning communities has been widely recognized as an effective strategy for schools wanting to improve student performance and enhance teachers' professional capacity. This study explored the relationship between leadership practices and professional learning communities, with a particular focus on the mediating role…

  13. "Turning the Sugar": Adult Learning and Cultural Repertoires of Practice in a Puerto Rican Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laura Ruth; Stribling, Colleen; Almburg, Anne; Vitale, Gail

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the processes of knowledge acquisition and transmission among adults within two "communities of practice" in Humboldt Park/"Paseo Boricua," a Puerto Rican community located on Chicago's near-northwest side. In particular, we examine the ways in which two adult women engaged in learning processes and…

  14. A Leap of Trust: Qualitative Research in a Musical Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Louise

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the process of determining an approach to the analysis of qualitative data collected as part of a case study research project involving children and teenagers from a community of musical practice--an all ages community-based fiddle group in central Scotland. The researcher's overarching goal is to find ways to increase…

  15. Physician-assisted death: attitudes and practices of community pharmacists in East Flanders, Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilsen, J.J.; Bauwens, M.; Bernheim, J.L.; Stichele, R.V.; Deliens, L.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates attitudes and practices of community pharmacists with respect to physician-assisted death. Between 15 February and 15 April 2002, we sent anonymous mail questionnaires to 660 community pharmacists in the eastern province of Flanders, Belgium. The response rate was 54% (n = 35

  16. Community of assessment practice or interests: The case of EAP writing assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Al-Maamari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting, disseminating and applying assessment standards are part of university academic programmes of study. Nowadays, assessment is increasingly viewed from a social practice perspective, and so doing entails exploring how the quality of assessment is shaped by interaction and co-participation with different communities of practice. Therefore, based on this perspective, the study reported here aimed to examine the assessment policies and practices of laboratory report writing of first year students in credit-bearing, English for Special Purposes programmes at a university in the Sultanate of Oman. Interviews of programme administrators and the instructors plus institutional and programme documents were examined to investigate these assessment policies and practices. The programme administrators were asked about how they planned the written assessment in their programmes, and the instructors were asked about their experiences of these assessments. The data were then analysed thematically using community of practice framework, namely in relation to (1 a shared repertoire of communal resources, (2 mutual engagement, and (3 a sense of joint enterprise. It was found that instead of community of practice, there were (subcommunities of practices wherein interaction, negotiation and communication amongst members and non-members were punctuated by control, power and autonomy, all working with the aim of narrowing the range between the personal goals of the academic and the communal goals of the institution. The overarching conclusion is that in their assessment practices, the two instructional programmes exhibited varying degrees of community of practice based on the above three attributes.

  17. Community Participation, Dengue Fever Prevention and Control Practices in Swat, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahir, Abdul; Ullah, Asad; Shah, Mussawar; Mussawar, Arsalan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of community participation in prevention of dengue fever in The Swat district located in the Northern area of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, which experienced a dengue fever outbreak in August, 2013. A total number of 8,963 dengue cases with 0.4% case fatality ratio were registered during the outbreak. A sample size of 354 respondents were proportionally allocated to each residential colony and then randomly selected. The association of independent variable (Community participation) and dependent variable (practices for control) were tested by using Chi Square test. Results regarding perception of practices for dengue control with community participation showed that: practices for control had significant association with organization of people to eradicate dengue mosquitoes (p=0.00), community leaders (p=0.04), community efforts (p≤0.01), use of insecticides by community people (p=0.00) and involvement of community people in awareness campaign (p=0.00). Similarly, significant associations were found between practices for control and community shared information during dengue outbreak (p=0.00), community link with health department, NGO, Other agencies (p=0.02). We conclude that the spread of dengue epidemic was aided by the ignorance, laziness of the community people and government agencies. However, the people, religious scholars, leaders and government agencies were not organized to participate in dengue prevention and eradication, hence, the chances of dengue infection increased in community. The study recommends mobilizing local communities and activating local leadership with active participation of Government and non-government organizations for initiation of preventive strategies.

  18. The Validation of Climate Models: The Development of Essential Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, R. B.

    2011-12-01

    It is possible from both a scientific and philosophical perspective to state that climate models cannot be validated. However, with the realization that the scientific investigation of climate change is as much a subject of politics as of science, maintaining this formal notion of "validation" has significant consequences. For example, it relegates the bulk of work of many climate scientists to an exercise of model evaluation that can be construed as ill-posed. Even within the science community this motivates criticism of climate modeling as an exercise of weak scientific practice. Stepping outside of the science community, statements that validation is impossible are used in political arguments to discredit the scientific investigation of climate, to maintain doubt about projections of climate change, and hence, to prohibit the development of public policy to regulate the emissions of greenhouse gases. With the acceptance of the impossibility of validation, scientists often state that the credibility of models can be established through an evaluation process. A robust evaluation process leads to the quantitative description of the modeling system against a standard set of measures. If this process is standardized as institutional practice, then this provides a measure of model performance from one modeling release to the next. It is argued, here, that such a robust and standardized evaluation of climate models can be structured and quantified as "validation." Arguments about the nuanced meaning of validation and evaluation are a subject about which the climate modeling community needs to develop a standard. It does injustice to a body of science-based knowledge to maintain that validation is "impossible." Rather than following such a premise, which immediately devalues the knowledge base, it is more useful to develop a systematic, standardized approach to robust, appropriate validation. This stands to represent the complexity of the Earth's climate and its

  19. Sustained benefits of a community dietetics intervention designed to improve oral nutritional supplement prescribing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennelly, S; Kennedy, N P; Corish, C A; Flanagan-Rughoobur, G; Glennon-Slattery, C; Sugrue, S

    2011-10-01

    Healthcare professionals working in the community do not always prescribe oral nutritional supplements (ONS) according to best practice guidelines for the management of malnutrition. The present study aimed to determine the impact of a community dietetics intervention on ONS prescribing practices and expenditure 1 year later. The intervention involved general practitioners (GPs), practice nurses, nurses in local nursing homes and community nurses. It comprised an education programme together with the provision of a new community dietetics service. Changes in health care professionals' nutrition care practices were determined by examining community dietetics records. ONS prescribing volume and expenditure on ONS were assessed using data from the Primary Care Reimbursement Service of the Irish Health Service Executive. Seven out of 10 principal GPs participated in the nutrition education programme. One year later, screening for malnutrition risk was better, dietary advice was provided more often, referral to the community dietetics service improved and ONS were prescribed for a greater proportion of patients at 'high risk' of malnutrition than before (88% versus 37%; P dietetics intervention improved ONS prescribing practices by GPs and nurses, in accordance with best practice guidelines, without increasing expenditure on ONS during the year after intervention. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  20. Community health workers support community-based participatory research ethics: lessons learned along the research-to-practice-to-community continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Selina A; Blumenthal, Daniel S

    2012-11-01

    Ethical principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR)--specifically, community engagement, mutual learning, action-reflection, and commitment to sustainability--stem from the work of Kurt Lewin and Paulo Freire. These are particularly relevant in cancer disparities research because vulnerable populations are often construed to be powerless, supposedly benefiting from programs over which they have no control. The long history of exploiting minority individuals and communities for research purposes (the U.S. Public Health Service Tuskegee Syphilis Study being the most notorious) has left a legacy of mistrust of research and researchers. The purpose of this article is to examine experiences and lessons learned from community health workers (CHWs) in the 10-year translation of an educational intervention in the research-to-practice-to-community continuum. We conclude that the central role played by CHWs enabled the community to gain some degree of control over the intervention and its delivery, thus operationalizing the ethical principles of CBPR.

  1. Mentoring novice researchers in higher education: a 'communities of practice' perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schulze

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the mentoring of novice researchers, in particular of women and black academics, at a South African higher education institution. The model used for mentoring was informed by a “communities of practice” perspective which used situated and constructivist learning theories as a conceptual framework. One mentor and eleven protégés were involved. The protégés were divided into three groups of two, four and five participants each. Each group functioned as a community of practice (CoP and embarked on a research project of its own choice. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the mentoring model, and therefore it explains the participants’ views of their learning and development from a CoP per-spective. Data were collected by means of interviews and observation. The findings indicate how the development of the protégés from legitimate peripheral to more central participation was influenced by the university context, activities and rela-tionships in each CoP, and participants’ individual dispositions. Recommendations to improve the model and for further study are made.

  2. Community of Practice Applications from WaterNet: The NASA Water Cycle Solutions Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, D.; Brilly, M.; Gregoric, G.; Polajnar, J.; Houser, P.; Rodell, M.; Lehning, M.

    2009-04-01

    WaterNet is a new international network of researchers, stakeholders, and end-users of remote sensing tools that will benefit the water resources management community. It addresses a means for enhancing the social and economic developments of nations by increased use of practical research products from the terrestrial water cycle for making informed decisions. This paper provides a summary of the Water Cycle Community of Practice (CoP) plans and examples of Land Surface Model (LSM) applications for extreme events - floods, droughts, and heavy snowstorms in Europe. It discusses the concept of NASA's solutions networks focusing on the WaterNet. It invites EGU teams to join our WaterNet network. The NASA Water cycle Solutions Network's goal is to improve and optimize the sustained ability of water cycle researchers, stakeholders, organizations and networks to interact, identify, harness, and extend NASA research results to augment decision support tools and meet national needs. Our team is developing WaterNet by engaging relevant NASA water cycle research and community-of-practice organizations, to develop what we term an "actionable database" that can be used to communicate and connect NASA Water cycle research Results (NWRs) towards the improvement of water-related Decision Support Tools (DSTs). Recognizing that the European Commission and European Space Agency have also developed many related research products (EWRs), we seek to learn about these and network with the EU teams to include their information in the WaterNet actionable data base. Recognizing the many existing highly valuable water-related science and application networks in the US and EU, we focus the balance of our efforts on enabling their interoperability - facilitating access and communications among decision-makers and scientists. We present results of our initial focus on identification, collection, and analysis of the two end points, these being the NWRs and EWRs and water related DSTs. We

  3. The Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boville, B. A.; Garcia, R. R.; Sassi, F.; Kinnison, D.; Roble, R. G.

    The Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) is an upward exten- sion of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model. WACCM simulates the atmosphere from the surface to the lower thermosphere (140 km) and includes both dynamical and chemical components. The salient points of the model formulation will be summarized and several aspects of its performance will be discussed. Comparison with observations indicates that WACCM produces re- alistic temperature and zonal wind distributions. Both the mean state and interannual variability will be summarized. Temperature inversions in the midlatitude mesosphere have been reported by several authors and are also found in WACCM. These inver- sions are formed primarily by planetary wave forcing, but the background state on which they form also requires gravity wave forcing. The response to sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies will be examined by com- paring simulations with observed SSTs for 1950-1998 to a simulation with clima- tological annual cycle of SSTs. The response to ENSO events is found to extend though the winter stratosphere and mesosphere and a signal is also found at the sum- mer mesopause. The experimental framework allows the ENSO signal to be isolated, because no other forcings are included (e.g. solar variability and volcanic eruptions) which complicate the observational record. The temperature and wind variations asso- ciated with ENSO are large enough to generate significant perturbations in the chem- ical composition of the middle atmosphere, which will also be discussed.

  4. Inclusion Community Model: Learning from Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Samiyono

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKonflik sering muncul ketika manusia bertindak secara ekslusif dengan hanya melihat diri sendiri dan kelompoknya. Beberapa tokoh pluralisme membuat konsep mengenai masyarakat inklusif dengan tujuan mengurangi terjadinya konflik. Nagara Indonesia memiliki potensi besar terjadinya konflik, hal ini disebabkan karena negara Indonesia terdiri dari berbagai suku, budaya dan agama. Apabila konflik tidak dikelola, maka potensi terjadinya dis-integrasi bangsa sangat besar. Meskipun hal ini dapat juga dilihat sebagai kekayaan bangsa, model masyarakat inklusif diperlukan bagi bangsa Indonesiasebagai alat pemersatu yang harus dipahami dan diajarkan dari generasi satu kepada generasi berikutnya.Dalam penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan diskriptif-kualitatif yang sesuai dengan kondisi lokasi penelitian yaitu Bali dan Lampung. Analisis dilakukan melalui narasi dengan menggunakan informasi yang diperoleh dari informan atau partisipan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya nilai-nilai inklusif dalam budaya masyarakat Bali yang tinggal di Pulau Bali. Masyarakat Bali yang sudah bergaul dengan berbagaibudaya, agama, politik dan ekonomi. Oleh karena itu model masyarakat inklusif dari kasus masyarakat Bali perlu dilakukan dalam usaha untuk bisa diuji-cobakan pada masyarakat yang berbeda, terutama pada wailayah negara Indonesia yang majemuk.Kata kunci: Bali, Inclussion community, menyama braya. AbstractConflict often occurs when people behave closed and exclusive by looking at himself and his group. Some authors propose the concept of inclusion community to reduce the conflict and towards a harmonious society. Indonesia has a huge potential for conflict to happendue to the number of tribe, religion, race and class, but on the other hand it has had a noble wealth in society, which needs to be exposed and arranged to become a teaching material  for future generations. That is why this research is done. This research uses descriptive qualitative

  5. Towards a community Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Community Climate System Model, version 2 (CCSM2), was released in June 2002. CCSM2 has several new components and features, which I will discuss briefly. I will also show a few results from a multi-century equilibrium run with this model, emphasizing the improvements over the earlier simulation using the original CSM. A few flaws and inadequacies in CCSM2 have been identified. I will also discuss briefly work underway to improve the model and present results, if available. CCSM2, with improvements, will be the basis for the development of a Community Earth System Model (CESM). The highest priority for expansion of the model involves incorporation of biogeosciences into the coupled model system, with emphasis given to the carbon, nitrogen and iron cycles. The overall goal of the biogeosciences project within CESM is to understand the regulation of planetary energetics, planetary ecology, and planetary metabolism through exchanges of energy, momentum, and materials among atmosphere, land, and ocean, and the response of the climate system through these processes to changes in land cover and land use. In particular, this research addresses how biogeochemical coupling of carbon, nitrogen, and iron cycles affects climate and how human perturbations of these cycles alter climate. To accomplish these goals, the Community Land Model, the land component of CCSM2, is being developed to include river routing, carbon and nitrogen cycles, emissions of mineral aerosols and biogenic volatile organic compounds, dry deposition of various gases, and vegetation dynamics. The carbon and nitrogen cycles are being implemented using parameterizations developed as part of a state-of-the-art ecosystem biogeochemistry model. The primary goal of this research is to provide an accurate net flux of CO2 between the land and the atmosphere so that CESM can be used to study the dynamics of the coupled climate-carbon system. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds are also based on a

  6. Inside a school-university partnership: Participation in a community of practice as a professional growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, Sueann I.

    Research suggests that long-term participation in professional development is critical in helping teachers meet the increasing demands of reform efforts and changing practice (Gallucci, 2003; Darling-Hammond, 1995; Little, 1993). Understanding the influence that participation in a community of teachers as a community of practice may have on teachers professional growth requires a deeper understanding of those aspects of teacher community that encourage or discourage participation. This research examines teachers perceptions as to why they participate in a community of practice. It also addresses what these perceptions suggest about the potential resources that participation in a community of practice provide in support of professional growth. This study utilizes community of practice as theoretical framework because it encourages thought about learning as participation rather than simply the acquisition of knowledge or skills (Wenger, 1999). This mid-level analysis focuses on the actions, artifacts, tools, stories, events, and discourse of the participants in a given context. It is a critical case study using a phenomenological perspective (Patton, 2005) to understand the essence of the experience of participation from the perspective of the participants themselves. Analysis of participants responses indicates that from their perspective, participation in a community of teachers as community of practice through a school-university partnership constitutes a resource for professional growth. Teachers in this study describe their participation in terms of leadership, disengagement, student-centeredness, pedagogy and pedagogical content knowledge, financial and material resources, professional development, collegial interactions and relationships, and shared personal practice. Analysis of participation is characterized by reason(s) for initial participation, for continuing or discontinuing participation, in terms of collegial interactions and relationships, and by

  7. Empowering Teachers and their Practices of Inclusion through Digital Dialogic Negotiation of Meaning in Learning Communities of Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldborg, Hanne; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    2016-01-01

    by digital dialogic negotiation of meaning in learning communities of practice (CoPs). The study is a continuation of an earlier study on establishing a digital dialogic architecture to fostering shared understanding and sustainable competence development in teacher practices of inclusion. A theoretical......The purpose of this paper is to develop and further refine a digital dialogic concept for the establishment of an including educational practice for teachers. The concept is inherently based on the view of teachers as co-researchers and with a view on inclusion as an endeavour best supported...

  8. Educational Communities of Inquiry: Theoretical Framework, Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Zehra; Garrison, D. Randy

    2013-01-01

    Communications technologies have been continuously integrated into learning and training environments which has revealed the need for a clear understanding of the process. The Community of Inquiry (COI) Theoretical Framework has a philosophical foundation which provides planned guidelines and principles to development useful learning environments…

  9. Developing Communities of Practice within and outside Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson-Williams, Cheryl; Slay, Hannah; Sieborger, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) are largely built on the assumption that learning is an individual process best encouraged by explicit teaching that is, on the whole, separated from social engagement with those outside the university community. This perspective has been theoretically challenged by those who argue for a social constructivist…

  10. Community College Academic Integrity Lessons That Put Research into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bealle, Penny

    2017-01-01

    Academic integrity is an educational issue requiring an educational response from all stakeholders, including faculty, students, librarians, learning support staff, and administrators. This article posits that an educational response at Suffolk County Community College (SCCC) advances progress toward an integrated academic integrity strategy at…

  11. Community gardens as learning spaces for sustainable food practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vercauteren, C.; Quist, J.N.; Van Bueren, E.M.; Veen, E.

    2013-01-01

    Urban agriculture is an emerging topic and it is widely argued that it has considerable potential for sustainable consumption and production. Community gardening is a promising type of urban agriculture and questions have been raised like whether it has additional benefits for sustainable lifestyles

  12. Three Initiatives for Community-Based Art Education Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Maria; Chang, EunJung; Song, Borim

    2013-01-01

    Art educators should be concerned with teaching their students to make critical connections between the classroom and the outside world. One effective way to make these critical connections is to provide students with the opportunity to engage in community-based art endeavors. In this article, three university art educators discuss engaging…

  13. "La Orquesta": Symbolic Performance in a Multilingual Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Researchers in second language socialization (SLS) often examine those interactions relating to a learner's integration within a target community. Kramsch and Whiteside (2008) noted the importance of "symbolic competence" in this integration. Symbolic competence, defined as the ability to access contextually relevant social and political…

  14. Community beliefs and practices about dengue in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    In spite of long-term endemicity and repeated government and private efforts, effective, sustained community participation for dengue prevention is still a challenge in Puerto Rico. This study explored differences found in interviews conducted in 2001 in attitudes toward dengue and its prevention by...

  15. Community Radio in Political Theory and Development Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zeleza

    development problems, as part of development projects communication strategy, and ... community radio stations citizens and non-citizens can develop their political ..... Radio has the power to reach people in rural settings, people who may not ... Sandip Das notes that in India, radio reaches 90 percent of India's population.

  16. Policies for promoting university-community engagement in practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneworth, P.; Jongbloed, B.W.A.; Benneworth, P.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores policies by which governments have attempted to shift their higher education systems to situations where their universities are more structurally engaged with excluded communities. The central argument to this chapter is that there has been a tendency by governments to fund act

  17. Cooperative Learning for Faculty: Building Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loertscher, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The science teaching community is currently in the midst of a major shift from traditional, lecture-based teaching approaches to student-centered approaches that emphasize inquiry, cooperative learning, and development of a broad range of transferrable skills. These changes demand substantial curricular reform. One way to support the collective…

  18. Community Cohesion in Post-16 Education: Principles and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background: This paper is the product of a two year investigation into the contribution of post-16 education to community cohesion. The investigation took place between 2010 and 2012 and was funded by the University Centre at Blackburn College in England. Fieldwork was undertaken in three East Lancashire colleges and focused on students aged…

  19. Empowerment and Health: The Theory and Practice of Community Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Nina

    1993-01-01

    Empowerment as social action addresses lack of control by enhancing participation in community action. An alcohol and substance abuse prevention program for New Mexico adolescents used Freire's problem posing and critical thinking philosophy and methods to empower young people to change their health behavior. (SK)

  20. Standards of Practice for Psychological Services in California Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    This paper, taken directly from the Accreditation Standards for University and College Counseling Centers published in the "Journal of Counseling and Development" (1994), delineates the standards that providers of psychological services in California community colleges must adhere to. Five pertinent areas are discussed: (1) the…

  1. Professional Learning Communities: Keeping the Focus on Instructional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of professional learning community (PLC) groups is now a common initiative in many districts across the country. While this step supports the professional development of teachers, an effective PLC program must go beyond just bringing colleagues together during a common time. The author recommends organizational structures for schools…

  2. Educational Communities of Inquiry: Theoretical Framework, Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Zehra; Garrison, D. Randy

    2013-01-01

    Communications technologies have been continuously integrated into learning and training environments which has revealed the need for a clear understanding of the process. The Community of Inquiry (COI) Theoretical Framework has a philosophical foundation which provides planned guidelines and principles to development useful learning environments…

  3. Connecting to Community: Best Practices for Designing a Digital Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Nora J.; Pampaloni, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article the authors provide an overview of the concept of a digital branch library and the manner in which it can be used to enhance academic library community engagement. As the front door to the branch, the library's Website is key to going beyond service provision toward sustaining relationships with faculty, students, staff, and…

  4. Empowering European communities to improve natural resource management for human well-being: the OPPLA web portal & communities of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, M.; Brown, C.; Pérez-Soba, M.; Rounsevell, M.; Verweij, P.; Delbaere, B.; Cojocaru, G.; Saarikoski, H.; Harrison, P.; Zellmer, K.

    2014-12-01

    The ecosystem services concept is seen by many as a useful paradigm to support decision-making at the complex interface between science, policy and practice. However, to be successful, it requires a strong willingness for collaboration and joint understanding. In support of this aspiration, OPPLA is being developed as a web portal to enable European communities to better manage ecosystems for human well-being and livelihoods. OPPLA will provide access to a variety of online resources such as tools, case studies, lessons learned, videos, manuals and training and educational materials. It will also provide expert forums and spaces for discussions between researchers, practitioners and decision makers. Hence a critical aspect of the success of OPPLA is the co-evolution of communities of practice. An example of a community of practice is the recently launched Ecosystem Services Community - Scotland (ESCom-Scotland; escomscotland.wordpress.com). ESCom-Scotland aims to support better management of Scotland's natural resources by helping to establish a community of practice between individuals and groups involved in the science, policy and practice behind sustainable ecosystem management. It aspires to encourage the sharing of ideas, increase collaboration and to initiate a support network for those engaging with the ecosystem services concept and it will use the OPPLA resources to support these activities. OPPLA is currently at the developmental stage and was instigated by two large European Commission funded research projects: OPERAs (www.operas-project.eu) and OpenNESS (www.openness-project.eu), with a combined budget of ca. €24m. These projects aim to improve understanding of how ecosystem services contribute to human well-being in different social-ecological systems. Research will establish whether, how and under what conditions the ecosystem services concept can move beyond the academic domain towards practical implementation in support of sustainable ecosystem

  5. Managing a new collaborative entity in business organizations: understanding organizational communities of practice effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Bradley L; Mathieu, John E; Cordery, John L; Rosen, Benson; Kukenberger, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Companies worldwide are turning to organizational communities of practice (OCoPs) as vehicles to generate learning and enhance organizational performance. OCoPs are defined as groups of employees who share a concern, a set of problems, or a passion about a topic and who strengthen their knowledge and expertise by interacting on a consistent basis. To date, OCoP research has drawn almost exclusively from the community of practice (CoP) literature, even though the organizational form of CoPs shares attributes of traditional CoPs and of organizational teams. Drawing on Lave and Wenger's (1991) original theory of legitimate peripheral participation, we integrate theory and research from CoPs and organizational teams to develop and empirically examine a model of OCoP effectiveness that includes constructs such as leadership, empowerment, the structure of tasks, and OCoP relevance to organizational effectiveness. Using data from 32 OCoPs in a U.S.-based multinational mining and minerals processing firm, we found that external community leaders play an important role in enhancing OCoP empowerment, particularly to the extent that task interdependence is high. Empowerment, in turn, was positively related to OCoP effectiveness. We also found that OCoPs designated as "core" by the organization (e.g., working on critical issues) were more effective than those that were noncore. Task interdependence also was positively related to OCoP effectiveness. We provide scholars and practitioners with insights on how to effectively manage OCoPs in today's organizations.

  6. The Community Climate System Model: CCSM3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, W D; Blackmon, M; Bitz, C; Bonan, G; Bretherton, C S; Carton, J A; Chang, P; Doney, S; Hack, J J; Kiehl, J T; Henderson, T; Large, W G; McKenna, D; Santer, B D; Smith, R D

    2004-12-27

    A new version of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) has been developed and released to the climate community. CCSM3 is a coupled climate model with components representing the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land surface connected by a flux coupler. CCSM3 is designed to produce realistic simulations over a wide range of spatial resolutions, enabling inexpensive simulations lasting several millennia or detailed studies of continental-scale climate change. This paper will show results from the configuration used for climate-change simulations with a T85 grid for atmosphere and land and a 1-degree grid for ocean and sea-ice. The new system incorporates several significant improvements in the scientific formulation. The enhancements in the model physics are designed to reduce or eliminate several systematic biases in the mean climate produced by previous editions of CCSM. These include new treatments of cloud processes, aerosol radiative forcing, land-atmosphere fluxes, ocean mixed-layer processes, and sea-ice dynamics. There are significant improvements in the sea-ice thickness, polar radiation budgets, equatorial sea-surface temperatures, ocean currents, cloud radiative effects, and ENSO teleconnections. CCSM3 can produce stable climate simulations of millenial duration without ad hoc adjustments to the fluxes exchanged among the component models. Nonetheless, there are still systematic biases in the ocean-atmosphere fluxes in western coastal regions, the spectrum of ENSO variability, the spatial distribution of precipitation in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and the continental precipitation and surface air temperatures. We conclude with the prospects for extending CCSM to a more comprehensive model of the Earth's climate system.

  7. Tackling climate change through community: the politics and practice of the low carbon communities challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Hauxwell-Baldwin, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Despite claims by academics and policymakers that community may offer a potentially useful context through which to tackle climate change, there is limited empirical evidence to support such an assertion. This thesis sets out to address that gap. Drawing on theories of the governance of environmental change, community, social interaction, and governmentality, it presents a qualitative case-study of the Low Carbon Communities Challenge (LCCC). The LCCC was a United Kingdom governme...

  8. Mental Health Perceptions and Practices of a Cree Community in Northern Ontario: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danto, David; Walsh, Russ

    2017-01-01

    This project is a qualitative study of the mental health perceptions and practices of one Aboriginal community in the northern Ontario James and Hudson Bay region. Despite a shared history of trauma and oppression with the other five Cree communities in this area, as well as an added trauma of natural disaster and subsequent relocation, this community has been reported to have markedly lower rates of mental health services utilization and suicide. Interviews with eight community leaders and mental health services providers were conducted and analyzed in order to identify the features that distinguish this community. In line with recent recommendations for culturally sensitive and community-compatible research methods, participants' narratives were organized in terms of the "medicine wheel" of traditional healing. Results showed strong connection to the land and traditions, openness to both traditional and Christian spirituality, community engagement, and shared parenting as strengths valued by a majority of participants.

  9. 76 FR 37119 - Development of Best Practices for Community Health Needs Assessment and Implementation Strategy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... health needs assessment (CHNA) and implementation strategy/plan development and execution. HHS/CDC is... strategy development and execution for improved community health outcomes. These best practices are... accreditation standards, current practices in CHNA, implementation strategy/plan development and execution, and...

  10. Survey of Personnel Practices at Single-Campus Community College Districts in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Jack

    In May 1985, a survey was conducted by Napa Valley College (NVC) to determine the salary and personnel practices of the 48 single-campus community college districts in California and compare them with personnel practices at NVC. The survey focused on salary and benefit allocations in school budgets, estimated reserves or ending balance in 1984-85,…

  11. The Film in Language Teaching Association (FILTA): A Multilingual Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the Film in Language Teaching Association (FILTA) project, a community of practice (CoP) whose main goals are first to engage language teachers in practical uses of film and audio-visual media in the second language classroom; second, to value the artistic features of cinema; and third, to encourage a dialogue between…

  12. Learning & Knowledge Production in North Carolina Sea Turtle Conservation Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kathleen Carol

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation focused upon non-formal and informal learning practices and knowledge production amongst [adult] participants involved in local sea turtle conservation practices along the US Atlantic coast. In the United States, adult learning and adult education has historically occurred within non-formal settings (e.g., through community-based…

  13. Effective Developmental Math Instructional Practices That Facilitate Learning and Academic Success of Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Pamela Hilson

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative study was to discover instructional practices used by developmental math instructors that facilitate learning and academic success of students in developmental math courses at select community colleges in Alabama in order to generate improved instructional practices in the developmental education field. Emergent data…

  14. A Study of Professional Learning Communities and the Effect on Teacher Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Shelley Hayes

    2014-01-01

    In Professional Learning Communities, educators collaborated and focused on ways to improve student learning. Teacher practice was one key component for improving student learning and was the focus of this study. Through the use of a collective case study, the researcher examined how teacher practice was affected through the implementation of…

  15. The Effectiveness of Mutual Aid Learning Communities in Online MSW Practice Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douville, M. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Online social work education has grown rapidly in recent years, and practice courses now are frequently taught online. The present study contributes to the growing body of knowledge regarding best practices in online social work education by examining the effects of small-group learning communities on student learning and on student satisfaction…

  16. The Film in Language Teaching Association (FILTA): A Multilingual Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the Film in Language Teaching Association (FILTA) project, a community of practice (CoP) whose main goals are first to engage language teachers in practical uses of film and audio-visual media in the second language classroom; second, to value the artistic features of cinema; and third, to encourage a dialogue between…

  17. Interprofessional collaboration: three best practice models of interprofessional education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Diane R; Davidson, Richard A; Odegard, Peggy Soule; Maki, Ian V; Tomkowiak, John

    2011-04-08

    Interprofessional education is a collaborative approach to develop healthcare students as future interprofessional team members and a recommendation suggested by the Institute of Medicine. Complex medical issues can be best addressed by interprofessional teams. Training future healthcare providers to work in such teams will help facilitate this model resulting in improved healthcare outcomes for patients. In this paper, three universities, the Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, the University of Florida and the University of Washington describe their training curricula models of collaborative and interprofessional education.The models represent a didactic program, a community-based experience and an interprofessional-simulation experience. The didactic program emphasizes interprofessional team building skills, knowledge of professions, patient centered care, service learning, the impact of culture on healthcare delivery and an interprofessional clinical component. The community-based experience demonstrates how interprofessional collaborations provide service to patients and how the environment and availability of resources impact one's health status. The interprofessional-simulation experience describes clinical team skills training in both formative and summative simulations used to develop skills in communication and leadership.One common theme leading to a successful experience among these three interprofessional models included helping students to understand their own professional identity while gaining an understanding of other professional's roles on the health care team. Commitment from departments and colleges, diverse calendar agreements, curricular mapping, mentor and faculty training, a sense of community, adequate physical space, technology, and community relationships were all identified as critical resources for a successful program. Summary recommendations for best practices included the need for administrative support

  18. Interprofessional collaboration: three best practice models of interprofessional education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane R. Bridges

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Interprofessional education is a collaborative approach to develop healthcare students as future interprofessional team members and a recommendation suggested by the Institute of Medicine. Complex medical issues can be best addressed by interprofessional teams. Training future healthcare providers to work in such teams will help facilitate this model resulting in improved healthcare outcomes for patients. In this paper, three universities, the Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, the University of Florida and the University of Washington describe their training curricula models of collaborative and interprofessional education.The models represent a didactic program, a community-based experience and an interprofessional-simulation experience. The didactic program emphasizes interprofessional team building skills, knowledge of professions, patient centered care, service learning, the impact of culture on healthcare delivery and an interprofessional clinical component. The community-based experience demonstrates how interprofessional collaborations provide service to patients and how the environment and availability of resources impact one's health status. The interprofessional-simulation experience describes clinical team skills training in both formative and summative simulations used to develop skills in communication and leadership.One common theme leading to a successful experience among these three interprofessional models included helping students to understand their own professional identity while gaining an understanding of other professional's roles on the health care team. Commitment from departments and colleges, diverse calendar agreements, curricular mapping, mentor and faculty training, a sense of community, adequate physical space, technology, and community relationships were all identified as critical resources for a successful program. Summary recommendations for best practices included the need for administrative

  19. Best Practice Examples of Circular Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldmann, Eva

    , and to look for circular business opportunities in this flow of goods and value, is key in a circular economy. Establishing new or closer collaboration with stakeholders within or beyond the traditional supply chain is another important skill in creating circular business models. Many of the examined......Best practice examples of circular business models are presented in this report. The purpose is to inform and inspire interested readers, in particular companies that aspire to examine the potentials of the circular economy. Circular business models in two different sectors are examined, namely...... the textile and clothing sector as well as the durable goods sector. In order to appreciate the notion of circular business models, the basics of the circular economy are outlined along with three frameworks for categorizing the various types of circular business models. The frameworks take point of departure...

  20. An economic model of large Medicaid practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, J; Mitchell, J B

    1984-06-01

    Public attention given to Medicaid "mills" prompted this more general investigation of the origins of large Medicaid practices. A dual market demand model is proposed showing how Medicaid competes with private insurers for scarce physician time. Various program parameters--fee schedules, coverage, collection costs--are analyzed along with physician preferences, specialties, and other supply-side characteristics. Maximum likelihood techniques are used to test the model. The principal finding is that in raising Medicaid fees, as many physicians opt into the program as expand their Medicaid caseloads to exceptional levels, leaving the maldistribution of patients unaffected while notably improving access. Still, the fact that Medicaid fees are lower than those of private insurers does lead to reduced access to more qualified practitioners. Where anti-Medicaid sentiment is stronger, access is also reduced and large Medicaid practices more likely to flourish.

  1. Why Community Oriented Policing Has Failed and the Rise of Policing through Practical Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Eric S.

    2008-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Justice (www.usdoj.gov), Community Policing is defined as: "The focus on crime and social disorder through the delivery of police services that includes aspects of traditional law enforcement, as well as prevention, problem-solving, community engagement, and partnerships. The community policing model balances…

  2. Community-Based Research: From Practice to Theory and Back Again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoecker, Randy

    2003-01-01

    Explores the theoretical strands being combined in community-based research--charity service learning, social justice service learning, action research, and participatory research. Shows how different models of community-based research, based in different theories of society and different approaches to community work, may combine or conflict. (EV)

  3. Role modeling excellence in clinical nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, R N Beth

    2009-01-01

    Role modeling excellence in clinical nursing practice is the focus of this paper. The phenomenological research study reported involved a group of 8 nurses identified by their colleagues as exemplary. The major theme revealed in this study was that these exemplary nurses were also excellent role models in the clinical setting. This paper details approaches used by these nurses that made them excellent role models. Specifically, the themes of attending to the little things, making connections, maintaining a light-hearted attitude, modeling, and affirming others are presented. These themes are discussed within the framework of Watson [Watson, J., 1989. Human caring and suffering: a subjective model for health services. In: Watson, J., Taylor, R. (Eds.), They Shall Not Hurt: Human Suffering and Human Caring. Colorado University, Boulder, CO] "transpersonal caring" and [Bandura, A., 1997. Social Learning Theory. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ] "Social Learning Theory." Particular emphasis in the discussion is on how positive role modeling by exemplary practitioners can contribute to the education of clinical nurses in the practice setting.

  4. Space ecoliteracy- five informal education models for community empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramaiah, Jagannatha; Jagannath, Sahana; J, Spandana; J, Sadhana; Jagannath, Shobha

    Space ecoliteracy is a historical necessity and vital aspect of space age.Space Situational Awareness has taught lessons for mankind to look inward while stretching beyond cradle in human endeavours. Quality of life for every one on the only home of mankind-TERRA shall be a feasibility only after realizing Space ecoliteracy amongst all stakeholders in space quest. Objectives of Informal Environmental Education(UNESCO/UNEP/IEEP,1977) mandates awareness, attitude, knowledge, skill and participation at Individual and Community domains. Application of Space Technology at both Telecommunications and Remote Sensing domain have started making the fact that mankind has a challenge to learn and affirm earthmanship. Community empowerment focus after Earth Summit 1992 mandate of Sustainable Development has demonstrated a deluge of best practices in Agriculture,Urban, Industries and service sectors all over the globe. Further, deployment of Space technologies have proved the immense potential only after pre-empting the participatory approach at individual and community levels.Indian Space Programme with its 44th year of space service to national development has demonstrated self reliance in space technology for human development. Space technology for the most underdeveloped is a success story both in communication and information tools for quality of life. In this presentation Five Space Ecoliteracy models designed and validated since 1985 till date on informal environmental education namely 1) Ecological Environmental Studies by Students-EESS (1988): cited as one of the 20 best eco -education models by Earth Day Network,2)Community Eco Literacy Campaign-CEL,(2000): cited as a partner under Clean Up the World Campaign,UN, 3) Space Eco Literacy(2011)-an informa 8 week space eco literacy training reported at 39th COSPAR 12 assembly and 4) Space Eco Literacy by Practice(2014)- interface with formal education at institutions and 5) Space Ecoliteracy Mission as a space out reach in

  5. Arthritis in the family practice setting: associations with education and community poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Leigh F; Shreffler, Jack; Mielenz, Thelma; Schoster, Britta; Kaufman, Jay S; Xiao, Changfu; Randolph, Randy; Sloane, Philip D

    2008-07-15

    To examine associations of self-reported arthritis in 25 urban and rural family practice clinics with education (individual socioeconomic status) and community poverty (community socioeconomic status). A total of 7,770 patients at 25 family practice sites across North Carolina self-reported whether they had arthritis. Education was measured as less than a high school (HS) degree, a HS degree, and more than a HS degree. The US Census 2000 block group poverty rate (percentage of households in poverty in that block group) was grouped into low, middle, and high tertiles. We assumed heterogeneity by race (non-Hispanic white and African American) for the effects of these sociodemographic variables, and therefore stratified by race. Multilevel analyses were performed using a 2-level mixed logistic model to examine the independent associations and joint effects of education and poverty with self-reported arthritis as the outcome, adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index. White participants with less than a HS degree living in block groups with high poverty had 1.55 times the odds (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.10-2.17) of reporting arthritis compared with white participants with more than a HS degree and low poverty rates. African American participants with less than a HS degree and high poverty rates had 2.06 times the odds (95% CI 1.16-3.66) of reporting arthritis compared with African American participants with more than a HS degree and low poverty rates. In the family practice setting, both disadvantaged white and African American participants showed increased odds of self-reported arthritis, with stronger associations in African Americans.

  6. Knowledge management through two virtual communities of practice (Endobloc and Pneumobloc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Beatriz; Cañas, Francesca; Vidal, Antonieta; Nadal, Núria; Rius, Ferran; Paredes, Eugeni; Hernández, Marta; Maravall, Francisco J; Franch-Nadal, Josep; Barbé, Ferran; Mauricio, Dídac

    2016-04-21

    We developed two virtual communities of practice (Endobloc and Pneumobloc) to increase the interaction between general practitioners and nurses in primary care and hospital endocrinologists and pulmonologists. They were designed and developed using an existing web 2.0-based virtual network belonging to the local National Health System, and we quantitatively assessed the usefulness through the participation and use during the first 24 months after the launch in 2010. A total of 26,372 visits (47% Endobloc's visits) and 2351 contributions (Endobloc's contribution 38.9%) to both virtual communities of practice were registered during the first 24 months. The most popular sections were the e-Blog and the e-Consultations section in both virtual communities of practice, but some differences in the pattern of use in other sections were observed. Activity on the virtual communities of practice occurred throughout the day including weekends and holiday periods. We showed that virtual communities of practice are feasible under real-life clinical practice.

  7. An audit of drug shortages in a community pharmacy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costelloe, E M; Guinane, M; Nugent, F; Halley, O; Parsons, C

    2015-06-01

    There are no firm data on drug shortages in Irish community pharmacy. This prospective observational study aimed to characterise the drug shortage problem in an Irish community pharmacy. The primary aim was to determine numbers and durations of drug shortages. Secondary aims included comparing these shortages with Irish Pharmacy Union (IPU) drug shortage lists and determining the frequency with which notifications were received prior to shortages. Further secondary aims were to examine relationships between causes of drug shortages and drug costs and between causes of drug shortages and shortage durations. The study took place in a community pharmacy in a Limerick City suburb between October 2012 and February 2013. Data were collected daily regarding drugs that were dispensed, but unavailable to purchase. Suppliers/manufacturers provided data on the reasons for shortages. 65/1,232 dispensed drugs (5.3%) were in short supply over the study period. Median shortage duration was 13 days (interquartile range 4-32 days) and median cost was 8.10. Numbers of unavailable drugs by month varied from 13 to 38. Monthly IPU drug shortage lists identified between six and eight of these shortages depending on the month. Two notifications were received from suppliers/manufacturers regarding shortages. Parallel exports had the highest mean costs (mean 38.05) and manufacturing problems were associated with the longest durations (mean 57.44 days). This study highlights the drug shortage problem in an Irish community pharmacy. We propose that enhanced communication between all stakeholders is the most worthwhile solution. Further studies are needed.

  8. Communities of practice: reinscribing globalised labour in workplace learning

    OpenAIRE

    Colley, Helen

    2010-01-01

    The concept of ‘communities of practice’ is widely used in workplace learning research. Whilst critiques have expanded its use in ways that claim more socially just approaches to workplace learning, a more critical analysis for change is needed. This paper draws on a case study of career guidance professionals’ work with young people, radically disturbed by new welfare-to-work policies. Their emotional and ethical labour reveals powerful processes of alienation, but also of resistance. Withou...

  9. Internet Self-Injury Forums as Communities of Social-Cognitive Literacy Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Brett, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study provides an interpretive framework and empirical evidence supporting the proposition that internet forums devoted to intentional self-injury may fruitfully be conceptualized as communities of social-cognitive literacy practice. This conceptualization may facilitate the development of theory, research, and clinical practice involving individuals for whom the practice bears psychological meaning, while also providing theoretical surplus value for research into psychology,...

  10. A network model for plant-pollinator community assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Colin; Yang, Suann; Albert, Réka; Shea, Katriona

    2011-01-04

    Community assembly models, usually constructed for food webs, are an important component of our understanding of how ecological communities are formed. However, models for mutualistic community assembly are still needed, especially because these communities are experiencing significant anthropogenic disturbances that affect their biodiversity. Here, we present a unique network model that simulates the colonization and extinction process of mutualistic community assembly. We generate regional source pools of species interaction networks on the basis of statistical properties reported in the literature. We develop a dynamic synchronous Boolean framework to simulate, with few free parameters, the dynamics of new mutualistic community formation from the regional source pool. This approach allows us to deterministically map out every possible trajectory of community formation. This level of detail is rarely observed in other analytic approaches and allows for thorough analysis of the dynamical properties of community formation. As for food web assembly, we find that the number of stable communities is quite low, and the composition of the source pool influences the abundance and nature of community outcomes. However, in contrast to food web assembly, stable mutualistic communities form rapidly. Small communities with minor fluctuations in species presence/absence (self-similar limit cycles) are the most common community outcome. The unique application of this Boolean network approach to the study of mutualistic community assembly offers a great opportunity to improve our understanding of these critical communities.

  11. Keys to the Community : A multiple case study into professional legitimation in community development practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradener, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how community development professionals obtain a sense of legitimacy in their work with local communities. In a comparative study derived from field research in Chelsea (USA), Amsterdam (The Netherlands ) and Doornkop (South Africa) the building blocks of their sense of

  12. Keys to the Community : A multiple case study into professional legitimation in community development practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradener, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how community development professionals obtain a sense of legitimacy in their work with local communities. In a comparative study derived from field research in Chelsea (USA), Amsterdam (The Netherlands ) and Doornkop (South Africa) the building blocks of their sense of legitimac

  13. Keys to the Community : A multiple case study into professional legitimation in community development practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradener, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how community development professionals obtain a sense of legitimacy in their work with local communities. In a comparative study derived from field research in Chelsea (USA), Amsterdam (The Netherlands ) and Doornkop (South Africa) the building blocks of their sense of legitimac

  14. Developing Accessible Cyberinfrastructure-Enabled Knowledge Communities in the National Disability Community: Theory, Practice, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhill, William N.; Cogburn, Derrick L.; Samant, Deepti

    2008-01-01

    Since publication of the Atkins Commission report 2003, the national scientific community has placed significant emphasis on developing cyberinfrastructure-enabled knowledge communities, which are designed to facilitate enhanced efficiency and collaboration in geographically distributed networks of researchers. This article suggests that the new…

  15. Practice-based Research Networks (PBRNs) Bridging the Gaps between Communities, Funders, and Policymakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglioti, Anne H.; Werner, James J.; Rust, George; Fagnan, Lyle J.; Neale, Anne Victoria

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, we propose that practice-based research networks (PBRNs) engage with funders and policymakers by applying the same engagement strategies they have successfully used to build relationships with community stakeholders. A community engagement approach to achieve new funding streams for PBRNs should include a strategy to engage key stakeholders from the communities of funders, thought leaders, and policymakers using collaborative principles and methods. PBRNs that implement this strategy would build a robust network of engaged partners at the community level, across networks, and would reach state and federal policymakers, academic family medicine departments, funding bodies, and national thought leaders in the redesign of health care delivery. PMID:27613796

  16. A Community Mentoring Model for STEM Undergraduate Research Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Dale, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a community mentoring model for UREs that avoids some of the common pitfalls of the traditional paradigm while harnessing the power of learning communities to provide young scholars a stimulating collaborative STEM research experience.

  17. Continuum modeling an approach through practical examples

    CERN Document Server

    Muntean, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    This book develops continuum modeling skills and approaches the topic from three sides: (1) derivation of global integral laws together with the associated local differential equations, (2) design of constitutive laws and (3) modeling boundary processes. The focus of this presentation lies on many practical examples covering aspects such as coupled flow, diffusion and reaction in porous media or microwave heating of a pizza, as well as traffic issues in bacterial colonies and energy harvesting from geothermal wells. The target audience comprises primarily graduate students in pure and applied mathematics as well as working practitioners in engineering who are faced by nonstandard rheological topics like those typically arising in the food industry.

  18. Impact of urbanization and gardening practices on common butterfly communities in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Benoît; Bergerot, Benjamin; Le Viol, Isabelle; Julliard, Romain

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the interacting impacts of urban landscape and gardening practices on the species richness and total abundance of communities of common butterfly communities across France, using data from a nationwide monitoring scheme. We show that urbanization has a strong negative impact on butterfly richness and abundance but that at a local scale, such impact could be mitigated by gardening practices favoring nectar offer. We found few interactions among these landscape and local scale effects, indicating that butterfly-friendly gardening practices are efficient whatever the level of surrounding urbanization. We further highlight that species being the most negatively affected by urbanization are the most sensitive to gardening practices: Garden management can thus partly counterbalance the deleterious effect of urbanization for butterfly communities. This holds a strong message for park managers and private gardeners, as gardens may act as potential refuge for butterflies when the overall landscape is largely unsuitable.

  19. Participation in different fields of practice: using social theory to understand participation in community health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Christine

    2007-11-01

    'Participation' by community members in health-related programmes is an appealing concept that has not always been easy to achieve. Such programmes are often directed towards communities defined on the basis of neighbourhood or group identity. This article aims to develop an account of participation and identity by drawing on Bourdieu's theory of practice to understand participation as the practice of social identities structured by habitus, capital and field. Examples from interviews with members of one deprived neighbourhood illustrate the theory by showing that people may identify with their neighbourhood for certain social purposes, but have different identity practices in different fields of practice. Implications for community-based health programmes are briefly outlined.

  20. Virtual communities of practice in web-based second language learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The work of Lave and Wenger on learning in 'communities of practice' has evoked a considerable response in e-learning environments through-out the world including Denmark in the last few decades. Within the development of web-based second language learning, the ideas of learning...... on language interaction and case studies of e-learning language platforms within the area of teaching Danish as a second language for adult foreigners. The concepts of communities of practice are also discussed and developed....... in communities of practice and of situated and collaborative learning have deeply inspired educators and teachers and, to a certain degree, become the theoretical and practical framework for developing web-based learning platforms, while findings from this research indicate that students perceive e-learning...

  1. "Academicus Interculturalis"? Negotiating Interculturality in Academic Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Structure and agency of cultural diversity in (international) higher education have to be addressed with a critical perspective on international mobility and practices of international academic teaching. In order to overcome naive assumptions about intercultural developments on the individual and the organizational level, sociological analysis…

  2. Blogging as Community of Practice: Lessons for Academic Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Cally; Carter, Susan; Aitchison, Claire

    2015-01-01

    As practices and expectations around doctoral writing continue to change, so too do the demands on academic developers and learning advisors. Social media is increasingly playing a role in doctoral education, just as it is in higher education more generally. This paper explores a blog initiated in 2012 to inform and support doctoral writing; since…

  3. Psychiatric Nursing Faculty Practice: Care within the Community Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, Mary Fern; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Psychiatric nursing faculty practice offers the academic nurse opportunity to generate salary support and integrate students into the real world of mental health care. It promotes scholarship and knowledge-building and has a direct impact on the lives of patients. (Author/JOW)

  4. Assessing Instructor Performance: Best Practices from the Intelligence Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Megan J.

    2017-01-01

    Throughout continuing education focusing on the adult learner, standardized and sometimes even effective measures of instructor performance have remained elusive. As Smith (2012) stated, "Teaching practice cannot be measured according to lists of competencies or techniques, it cannot be safeguarded by a collection of prescriptions for good…

  5. "Students drive where I go next": Ambitious practice, beginning teacher learning, and classroom epistemic communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroupe, David

    This study examined the learning, practice, and classroom communities of five beginning secondary science teachers for one school year. To varying degrees, the participants attempted to enact ambitious practice, a framework for instruction focused on providing students with opportunities to engage in rigorous and responsive science activity. The purpose of the study was twofold. First, this study investigated the resources beginning teachers recognized, generated, and used to shape and learn from practice. Second, this study examined the epistemic classroom community and science practice negotiated between the participants and their students. By analyzing teacher and student interactions in a classroom context, this study filled important gaps in the field's understanding of teacher learning and classroom communities as spaces for students to engage in authentic science practice. This study pursued answers to two groups of guiding questions: · What resources for instruction do beginning teachers recognize, generate, and use in their school contexts? How do beginning teachers' differing use of resources shape their particular trajectories of practice and professional learning? · How and why is science framed as a "public" or "private" practice? Over time, how and why does the public or private framing of science influence actors' (teachers, students) participation in the epistemic work in classroom spaces? How do teachers and students negotiate "what counts" as a science idea in classroom spaces? How is value assigned to science ideas and by whom? How do teachers and students work on science ideas over time given the kind of epistemic community they negotiate? Using a situative framework, this study traced both beginning teacher learning and the negotiation of their classrooms as epistemic communities over time. Analysis of discourse during classroom interactions, artifacts created by participants and students, and interviews with participants afforded insights

  6. Towards science educational spaces as dynamic and coauthored communities of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Koshi

    2008-04-01

    In this essay review, four studies around the themes of identity and globalization are summarized and analyzed. The researchers' perspectives are generally grounded in Brown and Campione's ideas on situated knowledge ( Classroom lessons: Integrating cognitive theory and classroom practice (pp. 229-270). Cambridge: The MIT Press/Bradford Books, 1994) and Lave and Wenger's definition of learning as an activity fostered through participation in communities of practice ( Situated learning. Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 1991). Questions about the goals of science education spaces, the nature of globalization in relation to practices in schools, the role of identities-in-practice in relation to participation in communities of practice such as classrooms are explored. Recommendations for key design features in effective science educational spaces, based upon the findings presented in the collection of four studies, are offered. School, it is suggested here, functions best as a clearing house for the myriad science-related stories student participants generate in their various communities of practice (e.g., within popular culture, family, community, informal educational sites). In this way, school has the potential to construct bridges between multiple student experiences and identities-in-practice.

  7. Conceptual models used in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, M G; Mandle, C L

    1989-02-01

    Nurses' difficulties in articulation of conceptual models may be due to several factors--not the least of which are the existence of discrete theories for each area of nursing specialization, dissociation in curricula of theory from practice, a holistic conceptual framework that may be inadequately defined at the process level, and an impulse toward idealism on the part of the nurses themselves. These observations challenge both the theorists and the practitioners of modern nursing to describe more clearly the definition of quality for the science and art of nursing. Nurses are beginning to grasp the idea of holism. It is not the summation of parts to make a whole. Holism is the identification of life patterns, which are reflective of the whole. Nurses in practice and research are starting to create methods of inquiry that portray the wholeness of the autonomous person in continual, dynamic change and exchange with a changing universe. These initial explorations are leading to the evolution of the concepts of person, environment, and health into a distinctive theoretical base for nursing practice. In practice, research, and education, nurses must be committed to excellent, current descriptions of these human life patterns.

  8. Generic magnetohydrodynamic model at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkonen, I. J.; Rastaetter, L.; Glocer, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is a multi-agency partnership to enable, support and perform research and development for next-generation space science and space weather models. CCMC currently hosts nearly 100 numerical models and a cornerstone of this activity is the Runs on Request (RoR) system which allows anyone to request a model run and analyse/visualize the results via a web browser. CCMC is also active in the education community by organizing student research contests, heliophysics summer schools, and space weather forecaster training for students, government and industry representatives. Recently a generic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model was added to the CCMC RoR system which allows the study of a variety of fluid and plasma phenomena in one, two and three dimensions using a dynamic point-and-click web interface. For example students can experiment with the physics of fundamental wave modes of hydrodynamic and MHD theory, behavior of discontinuities and shocks as well as instabilities such as Kelvin-Helmholtz.Students can also use the model to experiments with numerical effects of models, i.e. how the process of discretizing a system of equations and solving them on a computer changes the solution. This can provide valuable background understanding e.g. for space weather forecasters on the effects of model resolution, numerical resistivity, etc. on the prediction.

  9. The development of a model of community garden benefits to wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Victoria; Oliver, Melody; Tautolo, El-Shadan

    2016-06-01

    Community gardens contribute to community wellbeing by influencing the nutritional and social environment. The aim of this research was to develop a model that communicates the many benefits of community garden participation as described in the academic literature, to a diverse audience of laypersons. This model is an example of effective knowledge translation because the information is able to be more than simply understood but also practically applied. From April to August 2015, a model depicting the many benefits of community garden participation was prepared based on a global, critical literature review. The wellbeing benefits from community garden participation have been grouped into factors influencing the nutritional health environment and factors influencing the social environment. The graphic chosen to form the basis of the model is a fractal tree of life. In October 2015, to test the models comprehension and to obtain stakeholder feedback this model was presented to a diverse group of community members, leaders and workers from the Tāmaki region of Auckland, New Zealand. The model we present here effectively and clearly translates knowledge obtained from the academic literature on the benefits to wellbeing from community garden participation into a tool that can be used, adapted and developed by community groups, government agencies and health promoters.

  10. Contraceptive Attitudes and Practices in the Roma Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Zanca

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of adopting a contraceptive behaviour is determined by a series of factors, having a slow progress in time. The use of birth control methods by the Roma women is influenced by a series of specific elements. This article wants to highlight an image containing the degree in which the Roma women are aware of the birth control methods and family planning. To this end, I have used the technique of group interview. In the first stage I applied a number of group interviews on the Roma women from the Gîrcin community. Afterwards I examined the interviews using inductive analysis. The results were grouped into thematic categories.

  11. The case for researching the history of community nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, D

    2001-05-01

    Despite a flurry of interest in the 1980s, the adoption of a positivist, objective, scientific paradigm for nursing research has led to a rejection of the study of nursing history as a valid pursuit in recent years. In this article, it is argued that this is a precarious situation. By not examining the history of the profession, nursing -- and in particular community nursing -- undermines its efforts to validate itself within the wider health-care arena. Nursing must learn from the mistakes of the past, as well as the successes, but do so in a critical way that does not romanticize its history.

  12. Feature Analysis and Modeling of the Network Community Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁超; 柴毅; 魏善碧

    2012-01-01

    Community structure has an important influence on the structural and dynamic characteristics of the complex systems.So it has attracted a large number of researchers.However,due to its complexity,the mechanism of action of the community structure is still not clear to this day.In this paper,some features of the community structure have been discussed.And a constraint model of the community has been deduced.This model is effective to identify the communities.And especially,it is effective to identify the overlapping nodes between the communities.Then a community detection algorithm,which has linear time complexity,is proposed based on this constraint model,a proposed node similarity model and the Modularity Q.Through some experiments on a series of real-world and synthetic networks,the high performances of the algorithm and the constraint model have been illustrated.

  13. Community Environmental Education as a Model for Effective Environmental Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Morag

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of community environmental education outlined in environmental education literature are supported by the findings and implications of a research study undertaken in New Zealand. Evidence from a two-case case study suggests that environmental programmes guided by the key principles and practices of community environmental education,…

  14. Ad hoc supervision of general practice registrars as a 'community of practice': analysis, interpretation and re-presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, T; Brown, J; Morrison, J; Nestel, D

    2016-05-01

    General practice registrars in Australia undertake most of their vocational training in accredited general practices. They typically see patients alone from the start of their community-based training and are expected to seek timely ad hoc support from their supervisor. Such ad hoc encounters are a mechanism for ensuring patient safety, but also provide an opportunity for learning and teaching. Wenger's (Communities of practice: learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge University Press, New York, 1998) social theory of learning ('communities of practice') guided a secondary analysis of audio-recordings of ad hoc encounters. Data from one encounter is re-presented as an extended sequence to maintain congruence with the theoretical perspective and enhance vicariousness. An interpretive commentary communicates key features of Wenger's theory and highlights the researchers' interpretations. We argue that one encounter can reveal universal understandings of clinical supervision and that the process of naturalistic generalisation allows readers to transfer others' experiences to their own contexts. The paper raises significant analytic, interpretive, and representational issues. We highlight that report writing is an important, but infrequently discussed, part of research design. We discuss the challenges of supporting the learning and teaching that arises from adopting a socio-cultural lens and argue that such a perspective importantly captures the complex range of issues that work-based practitioners have to grapple with. This offers a challenge to how we research and seek to influence work-based learning and teaching in health care settings.

  15. Community owned solutions: identifying local best practices for social-ecological sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayalaxshmi Mistry

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Policies and actions that come from higher scale structures, such as international bodies and national governments, are not always compatible with the realities and perspectives of smaller scale units including indigenous communities. Yet, it is at this local social-ecological scale that mechanisms and solutions for dealing with unpredictability and change can be increasingly seen emerging from across the world. Although there is a large body of knowledge specifying the conditions necessary to promote local governance of natural resources, there is a parallel need to develop practical methods for operationalizing the evaluation of local social-ecological systems. In this paper, we report on a systemic, participatory, and visual approach for engaging local communities in an exploration of their own social-ecological system. Working with indigenous communities of the North Rupununi, Guyana, this involved using participatory video and photography within a system viability framework to enable local participants to analyze their own situation by defining indicators of successful strategies that were meaningful to them. Participatory multicriteria analysis was then used to arrive at a short list of best practice strategies. We present six best practices and show how they are intimately linked through the themes of indigenous knowledge, local governance and values, and partnerships and networks. We highlight how developing shared narratives of community owned solutions can help communities to plan governance and management of land and resource systems, while reinforcing sustainable practices by discussing and showcasing them within communities, and by engendering a sense of pride in local solutions.

  16. Conditions for building a community of practice in an advanced physics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Paul W.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2014-06-01

    We use the theory of communities of practice and the concept of accountable disciplinary knowledge to describe how a learning community develops in the context of an upper-division physics laboratory course. The change in accountable disciplinary knowledge motivates students' enculturation into a community of practice. The enculturation process is facilitated by four specific structural features of the course and supported by a primary instructional choice. The four structural features are "paucity of instructor time," "all in a room together," "long and difficult experiments," and "same experiments at different times." The instructional choice is the encouragement of the sharing and development of knowledge and understanding by the instructor. The combination of the instructional choice and structural features promotes the development of the learning community in which students engage in authentic practices of a physicist. This results in a classroom community that can provide students with the opportunity to have an accelerated trajectory towards being a more central participant of the community of a practice of physicists. We support our claims with video-based observations of laboratory classroom interactions and individual, semistructured interviews with students about their laboratory experiences and physics identity.

  17. Pass the Crayons: Leadership, Art Production, and Communities of Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach Kelehear

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of an arts-based leadership (Kelehear, 2006, 2008 practice at a rural middle school in South Carolina are examined. The school principal and art teacher led a day-long staff development and followed up individually to assist teachers to create art as metaphor for individual growth plans as well as school improvement plans. Specifically, the arts-based initiative sought to invite professional conversations that focused on: 1 personal reflections, 2 multiple perspectives, and 3 art making. Findings suggest that when the art teacher and principal work in collaboration, there is real value in an arts-based leadership practice. Also, when led by the art teacher, teacher reflections suggested that as the principal worked alongside the teachers, they felt valued and supported and viewed the principal as authentic and trusting. Additionally, out of the engendered trust, the teachers were emboldened to consider innovative, arts-based approaches to their teaching. Finally, there was evidence that the art teacher was highly effective in introducing innovative leadership practices as teachers. This study is one of several implementation studies emerging from earlier research on arts-based leadership.

  18. A Deep Stochastic Model for Detecting Community in Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jingcheng; Wu, Jianliang

    2017-01-01

    Discovering community structures is an important step to understanding the structure and dynamics of real-world networks in social science, biology and technology. In this paper, we develop a deep stochastic model based on non-negative matrix factorization to identify communities, in which there are two sets of parameters. One is the community membership matrix, of which the elements in a row correspond to the probabilities of the given node belongs to each of the given number of communities in our model, another is the community-community connection matrix, of which the element in the i-th row and j-th column represents the probability of there being an edge between a randomly chosen node from the i-th community and a randomly chosen node from the j-th community. The parameters can be evaluated by an efficient updating rule, and its convergence can be guaranteed. The community-community connection matrix in our model is more precise than the community-community connection matrix in traditional non-negative matrix factorization methods. Furthermore, the method called symmetric nonnegative matrix factorization, is a special case of our model. Finally, based on the experiments on both synthetic and real-world networks data, it can be demonstrated that our algorithm is highly effective in detecting communities.

  19. TOWARD COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE OF ONLINE COMMUNITIES: A PRIMITIVE CONCEPTUAL MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuangling LUO; Haoxiang XIA; Taketoshi YOSHIDA; Zhongtuo WANG

    2009-01-01

    Inspired by the ideas of Swarm Intelligence and the "global brain", a concept of "community intelligence" is suggested in the present paper, reflecting that some "intelligent" features may emerge in a Web-mediated online community from interactions and knowledge-transmissions between the community members. This possible research field of community intelligence is then examined under the backgrounds of "community" and "intelligence" researches. Furthermore, a conceptual model of community intelligence is developed from two views. From the structural view, the community intelligent system is modeled as a knowledge supernetwork that is comprised of triple interwoven networks of the media network, the human network, and the knowledge network. Furthermore, based on a dyad of knowledge in two forms of "knowing" and "knoware", the dynamic view describes the basic mechanics of the formation and evolution of "community intelligence". A few relevant research issues are shortly discussed on the basis of the proposed conceptual model.

  20. Community care in practice: social work in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymbery, M; Millward, A

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the establishment of social work within primary health care settings in Great Britain, following the passage of the National Health Service and Community Care Act in 1990. Although the improvement of relationships between social workers and primary health care teams has been promoted for a number of years, the advent of formal policies for community care has made this a priority for both social services and health. This paper presents interim findings from the evaluation of three pilot projects in Nottinghamshire, Great Britain. These findings are analysed from three linked perspectives. The first is the extent to which structures and organisations have worked effectively together to promote the location of social workers within health care settings. The second is the impact of professional and cultural factors on the work of the social worker in these settings. The third is the effect of interpersonal relationships on the success of the project. The paper will conclude that there is significant learning from each of these perspectives which can be applied to the future location of social workers to primary health care.