Review and selection of unsaturated flow models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reeves, M.; Baker, N.A.; Duguid, J.O. [INTERA, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)
1994-04-04
Since the 1960`s, ground-water flow models have been used for analysis of water resources problems. In the 1970`s, emphasis began to shift to analysis of waste management problems. This shift in emphasis was largely brought about by site selection activities for geologic repositories for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Model development during the 1970`s and well into the 1980`s focused primarily on saturated ground-water flow because geologic repositories in salt, basalt, granite, shale, and tuff were envisioned to be below the water table. Selection of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for potential disposal of waste began to shift model development toward unsaturated flow models. Under the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor (CRWMS M&O) has the responsibility to review, evaluate, and document existing computer models; to conduct performance assessments; and to develop performance assessment models, where necessary. This document describes the CRWMS M&O approach to model review and evaluation (Chapter 2), and the requirements for unsaturated flow models which are the bases for selection from among the current models (Chapter 3). Chapter 4 identifies existing models, and their characteristics. Through a detailed examination of characteristics, Chapter 5 presents the selection of models for testing. Chapter 6 discusses the testing and verification of selected models. Chapters 7 and 8 give conclusions and make recommendations, respectively. Chapter 9 records the major references for each of the models reviewed. Appendix A, a collection of technical reviews for each model, contains a more complete list of references. Finally, Appendix B characterizes the problems used for model testing.
Review and selection of unsaturated flow models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reeves, M.; Baker, N.A.; Duguid, J.O.
1994-01-01
Since the 1960's, ground-water flow models have been used for analysis of water resources problems. In the 1970's, emphasis began to shift to analysis of waste management problems. This shift in emphasis was largely brought about by site selection activities for geologic repositories for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Model development during the 1970's and well into the 1980's focused primarily on saturated ground-water flow because geologic repositories in salt, basalt, granite, shale, and tuff were envisioned to be below the water table. Selection of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for potential disposal of waste began to shift model development toward unsaturated flow models. Under the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor (CRWMS M ampersand O) has the responsibility to review, evaluate, and document existing computer models; to conduct performance assessments; and to develop performance assessment models, where necessary. This document describes the CRWMS M ampersand O approach to model review and evaluation (Chapter 2), and the requirements for unsaturated flow models which are the bases for selection from among the current models (Chapter 3). Chapter 4 identifies existing models, and their characteristics. Through a detailed examination of characteristics, Chapter 5 presents the selection of models for testing. Chapter 6 discusses the testing and verification of selected models. Chapters 7 and 8 give conclusions and make recommendations, respectively. Chapter 9 records the major references for each of the models reviewed. Appendix A, a collection of technical reviews for each model, contains a more complete list of references. Finally, Appendix B characterizes the problems used for model testing
Unsaturated zone flow modeling for GWTT-95
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ho, C.K.; Altman, S.J.; McKenna, S.A.; Arnold, B.W.
1995-01-01
In accordance with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulation regarding groundwater travel times at geologic repositories, various models of unsaturated flow in fractured tuff have been developed and implemented to assess groundwater travel times at the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Kaplan used one-dimensional models to describe the uncertainty and sensitivity of travel times to various processes at Yucca Mountain. Robey and Arnold et al. used a two-dimensional equivalent continuum model (ECM) with inter- and intra-unit heterogeneity in an attempt to assess fast-flow paths through the unsaturated, fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain (GWTT-94). However, significant flow through the fractures in previous models was not simulated due to the characteristics of the ECM, which requires the matrix to be nearly saturated before flow through the fractures is initiated. In the current study (GWTT-95), four two-dimensional cross-sections at Yucca Mountain are simulated using both the ECM and dual-permeability (DK) models. The properties of both the fracture and matrix domains are geostatistically simulated, yielding completely heterogeneous continua. Then, simulations of flow through the four cross-sections are performed using spatially nonuniform infiltration boundary conditions. Steady-state groundwater travel times from the potential repository to the water table are calculated
Modelling flow through unsaturated zones: Sensitivity to unsaturated ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
soil properties are studied by varying the unsaturated parameters α and n over a wide range. ... Keywords. Unsaturated zone; capillary fringe; finite element method. ... and radioactive wastes. Several .... The length (L) of the soil sample is 1 m.
Abstracts of the symposium on unsaturated flow and transport modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1982-03-01
Abstract titles are: Recent developments in modeling variably saturated flow and transport; Unsaturated flow modeling as applied to field problems; Coupled heat and moisture transport in unsaturated soils; Influence of climatic parameters on movement of radionuclides in a multilayered saturated-unsaturated media; Modeling water and solute transport in soil containing roots; Simulation of consolidation in partially saturated soil materials; modeling of water and solute transport in unsaturated heterogeneous fields; Fluid dynamics and mass transfer in variably-saturated porous media; Solute transport through soils; One-dimensional analytical transport modeling; Convective transport of ideal tracers in unsaturated soils; Chemical transport in macropore-mesopore media under partially saturated conditions; Influence of the tension-saturated zone on contaminant migration in shallow water regimes; Influence of the spatial distribution of velocities in porous media on the form of solute transport; Stochastic vs deterministic models for solute movement in the field; and Stochastic analysis of flow and solute transport
Symposium on unsaturated flow and transport modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnold, E.M.; Gee, G.W.; Nelson, R.W.
1982-09-01
This document records the proceedings of a symposium on flow and transport processes in partially saturated groundwater systems, conducted at the Battelle Seattle Research Center on March 22-24, 1982. The symposium was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of assessing the state-of-the-art of flow and transport modeling for use in licensing low-level nuclear waste repositories in partially saturated zones. The first day of the symposium centered around research in flow through partially saturated systems. Papers were presented with the opportunity for questions following each presentation. In addition, after all the talks, a formal panel discussion was held during which written questions were addressed to the panel of the days speakers. The second day of the Symposium was devoted to solute and contaminant transport in partially saturated media in an identical format. Individual papers are abstracted
Symposium on unsaturated flow and transport modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arnold, E.M.; Gee, G.W.; Nelson, R.W. (eds.)
1982-09-01
This document records the proceedings of a symposium on flow and transport processes in partially saturated groundwater systems, conducted at the Battelle Seattle Research Center on March 22-24, 1982. The symposium was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of assessing the state-of-the-art of flow and transport modeling for use in licensing low-level nuclear waste repositories in partially saturated zones. The first day of the symposium centered around research in flow through partially saturated systems. Papers were presented with the opportunity for questions following each presentation. In addition, after all the talks, a formal panel discussion was held during which written questions were addressed to the panel of the days speakers. The second day of the Symposium was devoted to solute and contaminant transport in partially saturated media in an identical format. Individual papers are abstracted.
Review and selection of unsaturated flow models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1993-09-10
Under the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor (CRWMS M&O) has the responsibility to review, evaluate, and document existing computer ground-water flow models; to conduct performance assessments; and to develop performance assessment models, where necessary. In the area of scientific modeling, the M&O CRWMS has the following responsibilities: To provide overall management and integration of modeling activities. To provide a framework for focusing modeling and model development. To identify areas that require increased or decreased emphasis. To ensure that the tools necessary to conduct performance assessment are available. These responsibilities are being initiated through a three-step process. It consists of a thorough review of existing models, testing of models which best fit the established requirements, and making recommendations for future development that should be conducted. Future model enhancement will then focus on the models selected during this activity. Furthermore, in order to manage future model development, particularly in those areas requiring substantial enhancement, the three-step process will be updated and reported periodically in the future.
A quasilinear model for solute transport under unsaturated flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Houseworth, J.E.; Leem, J.
2009-01-01
We developed an analytical solution for solute transport under steady-state, two-dimensional, unsaturated flow and transport conditions for the investigation of high-level radioactive waste disposal. The two-dimensional, unsaturated flow problem is treated using the quasilinear flow method for a system with homogeneous material properties. Dispersion is modeled as isotropic and is proportional to the effective hydraulic conductivity. This leads to a quasilinear form for the transport problem in terms of a scalar potential that is analogous to the Kirchhoff potential for quasilinear flow. The solutions for both flow and transport scalar potentials take the form of Fourier series. The particular solution given here is for two sources of flow, with one source containing a dissolved solute. The solution method may easily be extended, however, for any combination of flow and solute sources under steady-state conditions. The analytical results for multidimensional solute transport problems, which previously could only be solved numerically, also offer an additional way to benchmark numerical solutions. An analytical solution for two-dimensional, steady-state solute transport under unsaturated flow conditions is presented. A specific case with two sources is solved but may be generalized to any combination of sources. The analytical results complement numerical solutions, which were previously required to solve this class of problems.
AN ACTIVE FRACTURE MODEL FOR UNSATURATED FLOW AND TRANSPORT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
HUI-HAI LIU, GUDMUNDUR S. BODVARSSON AND CHRISTINE DOUGHTY
1999-01-01
Fracture/matrix (F/M) interaction is a key factor affecting flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rocks. In classic continuum approaches (Warren and Root, 1963), it is assumed that flow occurs through all the connected fractures and is uniformly distributed over the entire fracture area, which generally gives a relatively large F/M interaction. However, fractures seem to have limited interaction with the surrounding matrix at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as suggested by geochemical nonequilibrium between the perched water (resulting mainly from fracture flow) and pore water in the rock matrix. Because of the importance of the F/M interaction and related issues, there is a critical need to develop new approaches to accurately consider the interaction reduction inferred from field data at the Yucca Mountain site. Motivated by this consideration, they have developed an active fracture model based on the hypothesis that not all connected fractures actively conduct water in unsaturated fractured rocks
Modeling field scale unsaturated flow and transport processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gelhar, L.W.; Celia, M.A.; McLaughlin, D.
1994-08-01
The scales of concern in subsurface transport of contaminants from low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities are in the range of 1 to 1,000 m. Natural geologic materials generally show very substantial spatial variability in hydraulic properties over this range of scales. Such heterogeneity can significantly influence the migration of contaminants. It is also envisioned that complex earth structures will be constructed to isolate the waste and minimize infiltration of water into the facility. The flow of water and gases through such facilities must also be a concern. A stochastic theory describing unsaturated flow and contamination transport in naturally heterogeneous soils has been enhanced by adopting a more realistic characterization of soil variability. The enhanced theory is used to predict field-scale effective properties and variances of tension and moisture content. Applications illustrate the important effects of small-scale heterogeneity on large-scale anisotropy and hysteresis and demonstrate the feasibility of simulating two-dimensional flow systems at time and space scales of interest in radioactive waste disposal investigations. Numerical algorithms for predicting field scale unsaturated flow and contaminant transport have been improved by requiring them to respect fundamental physical principles such as mass conservation. These algorithms are able to provide realistic simulations of systems with very dry initial conditions and high degrees of heterogeneity. Numerical simulation of the movement of water and air in unsaturated soils has demonstrated the importance of air pathways for contaminant transport. The stochastic flow and transport theory has been used to develop a systematic approach to performance assessment and site characterization. Hypothesis-testing techniques have been used to determine whether model predictions are consistent with observed data
Modeling heterogeneous unsaturated porous media flow at Yucca Mountain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robey, T.H.
1994-01-01
Geologic systems are inherently heterogeneous and this heterogeneity can have a significant impact on unsaturated flow through porous media. Most previous efforts to model groundwater flow through Yucca Mountain have used stratigraphic units with homogeneous properties. However, modeling heterogeneous porous and fractured tuff in a more realistic manner requires numerical methods for generating heterogeneous simulations of the media, scaling of material properties from core scale to computational scale, and flow modeling that allows channeling. The Yucca Mountain test case of the INTRAVAL project is used to test the numerical approaches. Geostatistics is used to generate more realistic representations of the stratigraphic units and heterogeneity within units is generated using sampling from property distributions. Scaling problems are reduced using an adaptive grid that minimizes heterogeneity within each flow element. A flow code based on the dual mixed-finite-element method that allows for heterogeneity and channeling is employed. In the Yucca Mountain test case, the simulated volumetric water contents matched the measured values at drill hole USW UZ-16 except in the nonwelded portion of Prow Pass
Analyzing Unsaturated Flow Patterns in Fractured Rock Using an Integrated Modeling Approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Y.S. Wu; G. Lu; K. Zhang; L. Pan; G.S. Bodvarsson
2006-01-01
Characterizing percolation patterns in unsaturated fractured rock has posed a greater challenge to modeling investigations than comparable saturated zone studies, because of the heterogeneous nature of unsaturated media and the great number of variables impacting unsaturated flow. This paper presents an integrated modeling methodology for quantitatively characterizing percolation patterns in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a proposed underground repository site for storing high-level radioactive waste. The modeling approach integrates a wide variety of moisture, pneumatic, thermal, and isotopic geochemical field data into a comprehensive three-dimensional numerical model for modeling analyses. It takes into account the coupled processes of fluid and heat flow and chemical isotopic transport in Yucca Mountain's highly heterogeneous, unsaturated fractured tuffs. Modeling results are examined against different types of field-measured data and then used to evaluate different hydrogeological conceptualizations and their results of flow patterns in the unsaturated zone. In particular, this model provides a much clearer understanding of percolation patterns and flow behavior through the unsaturated zone, both crucial issues in assessing repository performance. The integrated approach for quantifying Yucca Mountain's flow system is demonstrated to provide a practical modeling tool for characterizing flow and transport processes in complex subsurface systems
Unsaturated water flow and tracer transport modeling with Alliances
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Constantin, Alina, E-mail: alina.constantin@nuclear.ro [Institute for Nuclear Research, Campului Str, No. 1, PO Box 78, Postal Code 115400 Mioveni, Arges County (Romania); Genty, Alain, E-mail: alain.genty@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DM2S/SFME/LSE, Gif-sur-Yvette 91191 cedex (France); Diaconu, Daniela; Bucur, Crina [Institute for Nuclear Research, Campului Str, No. 1, PO Box 78, Postal Code 115400 Mioveni, Arges County (Romania)
2013-12-15
Highlights: • Simulation of water flow and solute transport at Saligny site, Romania was done. • Computation was based on the available experimental data with Alliances platform. • Very good results were obtained for the saturation profile in steady state. • Close fit to experimental data for saturation profile at 3 m in transient state. • Large dispersivity coefficients were fitted to match tracer experiment. - Abstract: Understanding water flow and solute transport in porous media is of central importance in predicting the radionuclide fate in the geological environment, a topic of interest for the performance and safety assessment studies for nuclear waste disposal. However, it is not easy to predict transport properties in real systems because they are geologically heterogeneous from the pore scale upwards. This paper addresses the simulation of water flow and solute transport in the unsaturated zone of the Saligny site, the potential location for the Romanian low and intermediate level waste (LILW) disposal. Computation was based on the current available experimental data for this zone and was performed within Alliances, a software platform initially jointly developed by French organizations CEA, ANDRA and EDF. The output of the model developed was compared with the measured values in terms of saturation profile of the soil for water movement, in both steady and transient state. Very good results were obtained for the saturation profile in steady state and a close fit of the simulation over experimental data for the water saturation profile at a depth of 3 m in transient state. In order to obtain information regarding the solute migration in depth and the solute lateral dispersion, a tracer test was launched on site and dispersivity coefficients of the solute were fitted in order to match the experimental concentration determined on samples from different locations of the site. Results much close to the experiment were obtained for a longitudinal
Numerical modeling of isothermal and nonisothermal flow in unsaturated fractured rock: A review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pruess, K.; Wang, J.S.Y.
1986-01-01
The tuff formations at and near the Nevada Test Site are comprised of fractured-porous material, with hydrologic properties quite different from those encountered in most previous unsaturated flow studies dealing with soils. In the vicinity of the waste packages, flow is driven by high temperatures (exceeding 100 0 C) and large temperature gradients. The approximations developed in soil science for weakly nonisothermal flow are not applicable to this situation, and a multiphase description of flow is required, similar to approaches used in modeling of geothermal reservoirs and thermally enhance oil recovery. The conventional approach to unsaturated flow is applicable, however, to a variety of problems relating to natural (undisturbed) and far-field flow conditions. This paper reviews recent work on numerical modeling of unsaturated flow undertaken in the context of nuclear waste isolation studies. Concepts and applications of broader interest are summarized, and important issues are identified that have not been adequately explored. 84 refs, 8 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glass, R.J.; Tidwell, V.C.
1991-09-01
As part of the Yucca Mountain Project, our research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated fractured rock integrates fundamental physical experimentation with conceptual model formulation and mathematical modeling. Our research is directed toward developing and validating macroscopic, continuum-based models and supporting effective property models because of their widespread utility within the context of this project. Success relative to the development and validation of effective property models is predicted on a firm understanding of the basic physics governing flow through fractured media, specifically in the areas of unsaturated flow and transport in a single fracture and fracture-matrix interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glass, R.J.; Tidwell, V.C.
1991-01-01
As part of the Yucca Mountain Project, our research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated fractured rock integrates fundamental physical experimentation with conceptual model formulation and mathematical modeling. Our research is directed toward developing and validating macroscopic, continuum-based models and supporting effective property models because of their widespread utility within the context of this project. Success relative to the development and validation of effective property models is predicated on a firm understanding of the basic physics governing flow through fractured media, specifically in the areas of unsaturated flow and transport in a single fracture and fracture-matrix interaction. 43 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glass, R.J.; Tidwell, V.C.
1991-01-01
As part of the Yucca Mountain Project, our research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated fractured rock integrates fundamental physical experimentation with conceptual model formulation and mathematical modeling. Our research is directed toward developing and validating macroscopic, continuum-based models and supporting effective property models because of their widespread utility within the context of this project. Success relative to the development and validation of effective property models is predicted on a firm understanding of the basic physics governing flow through fractured media, specifically in the areas of unsaturated flow and transport in a single fracture and fracture-matrix interaction
Drift Scale Modeling: Study of Unsaturated Flow into a Drift Using a Stochastic Continuum Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Birkholzer, J.T.; Tsang, C.F.; Tsang, Y.W.; Wang, J.S
1996-01-01
Unsaturated flow in heterogeneous fractured porous rock was simulated using a stochastic continuum model (SCM). In this model, both the more conductive fractures and the less permeable matrix are generated within the framework of a single continuum stochastic approach, based on non-parametric indicator statistics. High-permeable fracture zones are distinguished from low-permeable matrix zones in that they have assigned a long range correlation structure in prescribed directions. The SCM was applied to study small-scale flow in the vicinity of an access tunnel, which is currently being drilled in the unsaturated fractured tuff formations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Extensive underground testing is underway in this tunnel to investigate the suitability of Yucca Mountain as an underground nuclear waste repository. Different flow scenarios were studied in the present paper, considering the flow conditions before and after the tunnel emplacement, and assuming steady-state net infiltration as well as episodic pulse infiltration. Although the capability of the stochastic continuum model has not yet been fully explored, it has been demonstrated that the SCM is a good alternative model feasible of describing heterogeneous flow processes in unsaturated fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain
Conceptual Model and Numerical Approaches for Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
H.H. Liu
2004-01-01
The purpose of this model report is to document the conceptual and numerical models used for modeling unsaturated zone (UZ) fluid (water and air) flow and solute transport processes. This work was planned in ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Model and Analysis Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Sections 1.2.5, 2.1.1, 2.1.2 and 2.2.1). The conceptual and numerical modeling approaches described in this report are mainly used for models of UZ flow and transport in fractured, unsaturated rock under ambient conditions. Developments of these models are documented in the following model reports: (1) UZ Flow Model and Submodels; (2) Radionuclide Transport Models under Ambient Conditions. Conceptual models for flow and transport in unsaturated, fractured media are discussed in terms of their applicability to the UZ at Yucca Mountain. The rationale for selecting the conceptual models used for modeling of UZ flow and transport is documented. Numerical approaches for incorporating these conceptual models are evaluated in terms of their representation of the selected conceptual models and computational efficiency; and the rationales for selecting the numerical approaches used for modeling of UZ flow and transport are discussed. This report also documents activities to validate the active fracture model (AFM) based on experimental observations and theoretical developments. The AFM is a conceptual model that describes the fracture-matrix interaction in the UZ of Yucca Mountain. These validation activities are documented in Section 7 of this report regarding use of an independent line of evidence to provide additional confidence in the use of the AFM in the UZ models. The AFM has been used in UZ flow and transport models under both ambient and thermally disturbed conditions. Developments of these models are documented
MODELING COUPLED PROCESSES OF MULTIPHASE FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER IN UNSATURATED FRACTURED ROCK
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Y. Wu; S. Mukhopadhyay; K. Zhang; G.S. Bodvarsson
2006-01-01
A mountain-scale, thermal-hydrologic (TH) numerical model is developed for investigating unsaturated flow behavior in response to decay heat from the radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA. The TH model, consisting of three-dimensional (3-D) representations of the unsaturated zone, is based on the current repository design, drift layout, and thermal loading scenario under estimated current and future climate conditions. More specifically, the TH model implements the current geological framework and hydrogeological conceptual models, and incorporates the most updated, best-estimated input parameters. This mountain-scale TH model simulates the coupled TH processes related to mountain-scale multiphase fluid flow, and evaluates the impact of radioactive waste heat on the hydrogeological system, including thermally perturbed liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature elevations, as well as the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes and drainage between drifts. For a better description of the ambient geothermal condition of the unsaturated zone system, the TH model is first calibrated against measured borehole temperature data. The ambient temperature calibration provides the necessary surface and water table boundary as well as initial conditions. Then, the TH model is used to obtain scientific understanding of TH processes in the Yucca Mountain unsaturated zone under the designed schedule of repository thermal load
Conceptual hydrologic model of flow in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montazer, P.; Wilson, W.E.
1984-01-01
The purpose of this report is to propose a conceptual hydrologic model that reasonably describes the flow of fluids through the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, for use as a basis for preliminary site-performance assessment and as a guide to further investigations. Scott and others (1983) presented an initial conceptual hydrogeologic model for the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, based on detailed geologic, but very limited hydrologic, information. In this report, some of their concepts are examined and either supported or modified, and new concepts are developed. The model describes the manner in which flow probably occurs at Yucca Mountain and is based on: (1) current understanding of the hydrogeologic framework; (2) application of the principles of unsaturated flow; and (3) interpretation of some preliminary data from ongoing field and laboratory investigations. Included are extensive geologic information but relatively few hydrologic data that currently exist from the unsaturated zone in the Yucca Mountain area. Many uncertainties remain to be resolved concerning hydrologic conditions and processes. As a result, most of the concepts presented are intentionally descriptive and conjectural, with little quantitative basis provided. However, for the sake of directness and simplicity of expression, the model is presented as if it were a true expression of the facts. The authors recognize, and the reader should be aware, that the proposed model probably is not the only reasonable description that could be made at this point, and it certainly is subject to revision and quantification as more data become available. Although various alternative models probably could be developed, the one described in this report seems to fit current understanding of the unsaturated flow through a section of layered, fractured-rock formations with contrasting hydrologic properties, such as occurs at Yucca Mountain. 41 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab
TOUGH - a numerical model for nonisothermal unsaturated flow to study waste canister heating effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pruess, K.; Wang, J.S.Y.
1984-01-01
The physical processes modeled and the mathematical and numerical methods employed in a simulator for non-isothermal flow of water, vapor, and air in permeable media are briefly summarized. The simulator has been applied to study thermohydrological conditions in the near vicinity of high-level nuclear waste packages emplaced in unsaturated rocks. The studies reported here specifically address the question whether or not the waste canister environment will dry up in the thermal phase. 13 references, 8 figures, 2 tables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Yu-Shu; Lu, Guoping; Zhang, Keni; Bodvarsson, G.S.
2003-01-01
This paper presents a large-scale modeling study characterizing fluid flow and tracer transport in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the proposed underground repository site for storing high-level radioactive waste. The modeling study is conducted using a three-dimensional numerical model, which incorporates a wide variety of field data and takes into account the coupled processes of flow and transport in Yucca Mountain's highly heterogeneous, unsaturated, fractured porous rock. The modeling approach is based on a dual-continuum formulation. Using different conceptual models of unsaturated flow, various scenarios of current and future climate conditions and their effects on the unsaturated zone are evaluated to aid in the assessment of the repository's system performance. These models are calibrated against field-measured data. Model-predicted flow and transport processes under current and future climates are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thompson, J.S.; Zeiler, R.M.
1995-01-01
A field investigation characterizing contamination at the Rocky Flats Plant (Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site) near Golden, Colorado revealed unexpectedly high moisture contents in the unsaturated soil column (vadose zone) beneath several of the Plant's Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) sludge drying beds. Because these beds were seldom in use, researchers had hypothesized that the water required to maintain the saturated conditions observed beneath several of the sludge drying beds was coming from sources other than the beds themselves. In an effort to substantiate this hypothesis, a one-dimensional physically-based unsaturated flow model was utilized to simulate the vertical movement of moisture from the sludge drying beds into the unsaturated soil column below. The model was run to simulate vertical flow over a two-year period and results indicated that no significant changes from initial conditions were apparent. This evidence supports the hypothesis that the high moisture contents found beneath the sludge drying beds are being fed by sources other than infiltration of sludge applied to the beds themselves. This paper presents the details of the simulation and provides further evidence of the hypothesized flow regime
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stanko Ružičić
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Conceptual model of flow and solute transport in unsaturated zone at Kosnica site, which is the basis for modeling pollution migration through the unsaturated zone to groundwater, is set up. The main characteristics of the unsaturated zone of the Kosnica site are described. Detailed description of investigated profile of unsaturated zone, with all necessary analytical results performed and used in building of conceptual models, is presented. Experiments that are in progress and processes which are modeled are stated. Monitoring of parameters necessary for calibration of models is presented. The ultimate goal of research is risk assessment of groundwater contamination at Kosnica site that has its source in or on unsaturated zone.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prindle, R.W.; Hopkins, P.L.
1990-10-01
The Hydrologic Code Intercomparison Project (HYDROCOIN) was formed to evaluate hydrogeologic models and computer codes and their use in performance assessment for high-level radioactive-waste repositories. This report describes the results of a study for HYDROCOIN of model sensitivity for isothermal, unsaturated flow through layered, fractured tuffs. We investigated both the types of flow behavior that dominate the performance measures and the conditions and model parameters that control flow behavior. We also examined the effect of different conceptual models and modeling approaches on our understanding of system behavior. The analyses included single- and multiple-parameter variations about base cases in one-dimensional steady and transient flow and in two-dimensional steady flow. The flow behavior is complex even for the highly simplified and constrained system modeled here. The response of the performance measures is both nonlinear and nonmonotonic. System behavior is dominated by abrupt transitions from matrix to fracture flow and by lateral diversion of flow. The observed behaviors are strongly influenced by the imposed boundary conditions and model constraints. Applied flux plays a critical role in determining the flow type but interacts strongly with the composite-conductivity curves of individual hydrologic units and with the stratigraphy. One-dimensional modeling yields conservative estimates of distributions of groundwater travel time only under very limited conditions. This study demonstrates that it is wrong to equate the shortest possible water-travel path with the fastest path from the repository to the water table. 20 refs., 234 figs., 10 tabs
Modeling studies of unsaturated flow with long-term permeability change at Yucca Mountain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Chengyuan; Liu Xiaoyan; Liu Quansheng
2008-01-01
The amount of water seeping into the waste emplacement drifts is crucial for the performance of underground nuclear waste repository, since it controls the corrosion rates of waste packages and the mobilization rate of radionuclides. It is limited by water flow through drift vicinity. In the present work we study the potential rates of water flow around drifts as a function of predicted long-term change of permeability at Yucca Mountain, based on a dual-continuum model of the unsaturated flow in fractured rock mass. For stage of DECOVALEX Ⅳ, we used a simplified practical model on unsaturated flow in Yucca Mountain case simulation. These models contain main physical processes that should be considered, including thermal expansion, thermal radiation, water-rock coupling and stress-induced change of permeability. Comparative study with other DECOVALEX team's results shows that they are both good enough and flexible enough to include more physical processes. We can draw the conclusion that it is necessary to model stress-induced changes in permeability and relative processes in future studies, because there are obvious differences (in water saturation and water flux) between simulation cases with and without variable permeability, especially in areas very close to the drift. (authors)
Theory for source-responsive and free-surface film modeling of unsaturated flow
Nimmo, J.R.
2010-01-01
A new model explicitly incorporates the possibility of rapid response, across significant distance, to substantial water input. It is useful for unsaturated flow processes that are not inherently diffusive, or that do not progress through a series of equilibrium states. The term source-responsive is used to mean that flow responds sensitively to changing conditions at the source of water input (e.g., rainfall, irrigation, or ponded infiltration). The domain of preferential flow can be conceptualized as laminar flow in free-surface films along the walls of pores. These films may be considered to have uniform thickness, as suggested by field evidence that preferential flow moves at an approximately uniform rate when generated by a continuous and ample water supply. An effective facial area per unit volume quantitatively characterizes the medium with respect to source-responsive flow. A flow-intensity factor dependent on conditions within the medium represents the amount of source-responsive flow at a given time and position. Laminar flow theory provides relations for the velocity and thickness of flowing source-responsive films. Combination with the Darcy-Buckingham law and the continuity equation leads to expressions for both fluxes and dynamic water contents. Where preferential flow is sometimes or always significant, the interactive combination of source-responsive and diffuse flow has the potential to improve prediction of unsaturated-zone fluxes in response to hydraulic inputs and the evolving distribution of soil moisture. Examples for which this approach is efficient and physically plausible include (i) rainstorm-generated rapid fluctuations of a deep water table and (ii) space- and time-dependent soil water content response to infiltration in a macroporous soil. ?? Soil Science Society of America.
TOUGH: a numerical model for nonisothermal unsaturated flow to study waste canister heating effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pruess, K.; Wang, J.S.Y.
1983-12-01
The physical processes modeled and the mathematical and numerical methods employed in a simulator for non-isothermal flow of water, vapor, and air in permeable media are briefly summarized. The simulator has been applied to study thermo-hydrological conditions in the near vicinity of high-level nuclear waste packages emplaced in unsaturated rocks. The studies reported here specifically address the question whether or not the waste canister environment will dry up in the thermal phase. 13 references, 8 figures, 2 tables
Modeling water flow and solute transport in unsaturated zone inside NSRAWD project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Constantin, A.; Diaconu, D.; Bucur, C.; Genty, A.
2015-01-01
The NSRAWD project (2010-2013) - Numerical Simulations for Radioactive Waste Disposal was initiated under a collaboration agreement between the Institute for Nuclear Research and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). The context of the project was favorable to combine the modeling activities with an experimental part in order to improve and validate the numerical models used so far to simulate water flow and solute transport at Saligny site, Romania. The numerical models developed in the project were refined and validated on new hydrological data gathered between 2010-2012 by a monitoring station existent on site which performs automatic determination of soil water content and matrix potential, as well as several climate parameters (wind, temperature and precipitations). Water flow and solute transport was modeled in transient conditions, by taking into consideration, as well as neglecting the evapotranspiration phenomenon, on the basis of a tracer test launched on site. The determination of dispersivities for solute transport was targeted from the solute plume. The paper presents the main results achieved in the NSRAWD project related to water flow and solute transport in the unsaturated area of the Saligny site. The results indicated satisfactory predictions for the simulation of water flow in the unsaturated area, in steady state and transient conditions. In the case of tracer transport modeling, dispersivity coefficients could not be finally well fitted for the data measured on site and in order to obtain a realistic preview over the values of these parameters, further investigations are recommended. The article is followed by the slides of the presentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carvalho Filho, Carlos Alberto de; Branco, Otavio Eurico de Aquino; Loureiro, Celso de Oliveira
1996-01-01
The Engenho Nogueira Hydrogeological Project, PROHBEN, was idealized with the goal of implementing an Experimental Hydrogeological basin within its limits, in order to permit the development of hydrogeological studies and techniques, mainly in the modeling of flow and transport of contaminants (radionuclides) in the saturated and unsaturated porous media. The PROHBEN is located in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, amounting a 5 km 2 area. The local porous-granular, heterogeneous and anisotropic, water-table aquifer reaches 40 meters of thickness, and is compound mainly by alluvial deposits and alteration rocks products, with a sandy texture. The flow and transport modeling are being done using the Modflow and MT3D codes. Three master degree researches are being done in the PROHBEN area and one expects is that more researchers come to use this experimental site. (author)
A Modeling Study of Flow Diversion and Focusing in unsaturated Fractured Rocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pan, Lehua; Wu, Yu-Shu; Zhang, Keni
2002-01-01
This study presents a systematic approach to analyze the flow diversion and flow focusing caused by the natural flow-barrier system in the unsaturated zone (UZ) of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, under ambient steady-state flow conditions. An existing analytical solution for analyzing capillary barrier in porous media has been extended to apply to the fractured porous rock. The new analytical solutions are used to identify the critical layers and to provide the guidance for generation of a proper three-dimensional (3-D), site-scale numerical grid. A large-scale 3-D numerical model (with more than a million grid blocks) has been developed with site-specific data to analyze the major flow patterns in the mountain. Our analyses show that large-scale lateral flow could take place in the UZ under ambient conditions, as a result of capillary barriers formed at the contacts of heterogeneous rock layers. This lateral flow runs generally toward the east (in the southern part) or southeast (in the northern part), which is consistent with the dip of the layer contacts. About 90 percent of the total lateral flow is found to be conducted by only a few critical rock layers. Faults that penetrate these rock layers act as vertical capillary barriers that stop the lateral flow. The combined effect of horizontal and vertical capillary barriers resulted in reduced percolation flow through repository horizon in general but focused downward flow along those penetrating faults. The model results were found to be consistent with the field water saturation. The findings of this study are consistent with a previously published two-dimensional (2-D) analysis and recent published modeling results using field-observed Cl-data
Unsaturated flow dynamics during irrigation with wastewater: field and modelling study
Martinez-Hernandez, V.; de Miguel, A.; Meffe, R.; Leal, M.; González-Naranjo, V.; de Bustamante, I.
2012-04-01
To deal with water scarcity combined with a growing water demand, the reuse of wastewater effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) for industrial and agricultural purposes is considered as a technically and economically feasible solution. In agriculture, irrigation with wastewater emerges as a sustainable practice that should be considered in such scenarios. Water infiltration, soil moisture storage and evapotranspiration occurring in the unsaturated zone are fundamental processes that play an important role in soil water balance. An accurate estimation of unsaturated flow dynamics (during and after irrigation) is essential to improve wastewater management (i.e. estimating groundwater recharge or maximizing irrigation efficiency) and to avoid possible soil and groundwater affections (i.e. predicting contaminant transport). The study site is located in the Experimental Plant of Carrión de los Céspedes (Seville, Spain). Here, treated wastewater is irrigated over the soil to enhance plants growth. To obtain physical characteristics of the soil (granulometry, bulk density and water retention curve), soil samples were collected at different depths. A drain gauge passive capillary lysimeter was installed to determine the volume of water draining from the vadose zone. Volumetric water content of the soil was monitored by measuring the dielectric constant using capacitance/frequency domain technology. Three soil moisture probes were located at different depths (20, 50 and 70 cm below the ground surface) to control the variation of the volumetric water content during infiltration. The main aim of this study is to understand water flow dynamics through the unsaturated zone during irrigation by using the finite element model Hydrus-1D. The experimental conditions were simulated by a 90 cm long, one dimensional solution domain. Specific climatic conditions, wastewater irrigation rates and physical properties of the soil were introduced in the model as input parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Altman, S.J.; Ho, C.K.; Arnold, B.W.; McKenna, S.A.
1995-01-01
Unsaturated flow has been modeled through four cross-sections at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the purpose of determining groundwater particle travel times from the potential repository to the water table. This work will be combined with the results of flow modeling in the saturated zone for the purpose of evaluating the suitability of the potential repository under the criteria of 10CFR960. One criterion states, in part, that the groundwater travel time (GWTT) from the repository to the accessible environment must exceed 1,000 years along the fastest path of likely and significant radionuclide travel. Sensitivity analyses have been conducted for one geostatistical realization of one cross-section for the purpose of (1) evaluating the importance of hydrological parameters having some uncertainty and (2) examining conceptual models of flow by altering the numerical implementation of the conceptual model (dual permeability (DK) and the equivalent continuum model (ECM). Results of comparisons of the ECM and DK model are also presented in Ho et al
Review of ground-water flow and transport models in the unsaturated zone
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oster, C.A.
1982-11-01
Models of partially saturated flow and transport in porous media have application in the analysis of existing as well as future low-level radioactive waste facilities located above the water table. An extensive literature search along with telephone and mail correspondence with recognized leading experts in the field, was conducted to identify computer models suitable for studies of low-level radioactive waste facilities located in the unsaturated zone. Fifty-five existing models were identified as potentially useful. Ten of these models were selected for further examination. This report contains a statement of the ground-water flow-contaminant transport problem, a discussion of those methods used to reduce the physical problem to a computer model, a brief discussion about the data requirements of these models. The procedure used to select the ten codes for further discussion is given, along with a list of these models. Finally, the Appendices contain the data about the fifty-five codes examined. Specifically Appendix D contains the detailed discussion of each of the ten selected codes. Included in each discussion are such items which a potential user requires in determining whether the code is suitable for his applications. Appendix E contains brief summary information about each of the fifty-five codes. Included in the summaries are identification data, authors, pertinent references, and model type.
Review of ground-water flow and transport models in the unsaturated zone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oster, C.A.
1982-11-01
Models of partially saturated flow and transport in porous media have application in the analysis of existing as well as future low-level radioactive waste facilities located above the water table. An extensive literature search along with telephone and mail correspondence with recognized leading experts in the field, was conducted to identify computer models suitable for studies of low-level radioactive waste facilities located in the unsaturated zone. Fifty-five existing models were identified as potentially useful. Ten of these models were selected for further examination. This report contains a statement of the ground-water flow-contaminant transport problem, a discussion of those methods used to reduce the physical problem to a computer model, a brief discussion about the data requirements of these models. The procedure used to select the ten codes for further discussion is given, along with a list of these models. Finally, the Appendices contain the data about the fifty-five codes examined. Specifically Appendix D contains the detailed discussion of each of the ten selected codes. Included in each discussion are such items which a potential user requires in determining whether the code is suitable for his applications. Appendix E contains brief summary information about each of the fifty-five codes. Included in the summaries are identification data, authors, pertinent references, and model type
FEMWATER: a finite-element model of water flow through saturated-unsaturated porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeh, G.T.; Ward, D.S.
1980-10-01
Upon examining the Water Movement Through Saturated-Unsaturated Porous Media: A Finite-Element Galerkin Model, it was felt that the model should be modified and expanded. The modification is made in calculating the flow field in a manner consistent with the finite element approach, in evaluating the moisture-content increasing rate within the region of interest, and in numerically computing the nonlinear terms. With these modifications, the flow field is continuous everywhere in the flow regime, including element boundaries and nodal points, and the mass loss through boundaries is much reduced. Expansion is made to include four additional numerical schemes which would be more appropriate for many situations. Also, to save computer storage, all arrays pertaining to the boundary condition information are compressed to smaller dimension, and to ease the treatment of different problems, all arrays are variably dimensioned in all subroutines. This report is intended to document these efforts. In addition, in the derivation of finite-element equations, matrix component representation is used, which is believed more readable than the matrix representation in its entirety. Two identical sample problems are simulated to show the difference between the original and revised models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Jianchun; Sonnenthal, Eric L.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.
2002-01-01
In this study, porewater chloride data from Yucca Mountain, Nevada, are analyzed and modeled by 3-D chemical transport simulations and analytical methods. The simulation modeling approach is based on a continuum formulation of coupled multiphase fluid flow and tracer transport processes through fractured porous rock, using a dual-continuum concept. Infiltration-rate calibrations were using the pore water chloride data. Model results of chloride distributions were improved in matching the observed data with the calibrated infiltration rates. Statistical analyses of the frequency distribution for overall percolation fluxes and chloride concentration in the unsaturated zone system demonstrate that the use of the calibrated infiltration rates had insignificant effect on the distribution of simulated percolation fluxes but significantly changed the predicated distribution of simulated chloride concentrations. An analytical method was also applied to model transient chloride transport. The method was verified by 3-D simulation results as able to capture major chemical transient behavior and trends. Effects of lateral flow in the Paintbrush nonwelded unit on percolation fluxes and chloride distribution were studied by 3-D simulations with increased horizontal permeability. The combined results from these model calibrations furnish important information for the UZ model studies, contributing to performance assessment of the potential repository
Modeling unsaturated-zone flow at Rainier Mesa as a possible analog for a future Yucca Mountain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gauthier, J.H.
1998-01-01
Rainier Mesa is structurally similar to Yucca Mountain, and receives precipitation similar to the estimated long-term average for Yucca Mountain. Tunnels through the unsaturated zone at Rainier Mesa have encountered perched water and, after the perched water was drained, flow in fractures and faults. Although flow observations have been primarily qualitative, Rainier Mesa hydrology is a potential analog for Yucca Mountain hydrology in a wetter climate. In this paper, a groundwater flow model that has been used in the performance assessment of Yucca Mountain--the weeps model--is applied to Rainier Mesa. The intent is to gain insight in both Rainier Mesa and the weeps flow model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasan, Issa
2014-01-01
The modelling of complex systems such as the underground is a means to describe the processes occurring in the reality. The conducting of experiments on a model to obtain qualitative evidence about a real system is referred to as a simulation. Thereby, various models (e.g. physical and mathematical models) can be used. The unsaturated zone (vadose zone) is the region between the land surface and the water table, in which the water content is less than full saturation, and the pressure is lower than the atmospheric pressure. The unsaturated zone is very significant for agriculture, geobiology, aerobic degradation processes and groundwater recharge. The processes of water flow and solute transport in the unsaturated zone can be described by means of numerical simulation programs. The aim of the present work is a comprehensive validation of the simulation program PCSiWaPro registered (developed at the TU-Dresden, Institute of Waste Management and Contaminated Site Treatment) for different applications. Another aim of this work is to investigate the applicability of the current version of PCSiWaPro registered for different cases of a combination between the unsaturated zone and technical facilities. Four application cases with different objectives were investigated within the present work, which are: the simulation of decentralized wastewater infiltration with corresponding column and field experiments, the computation of groundwater recharge by means of lysimeters, the water balance of earth dams and the modelling of landfill covering systems. The application cases differ from each other by the objective of the simulation, the geometry, the size, the specified initial and boundary conditions, the simulation time, the applied materials, the coordinate system, the input and output data. The simulation results clearly showed that PCSiWaPro registered is applicable for all investigated cases under consideration of different flow and solute transport regimes, parameters
Modeling erosion of unsaturated compacted bentonite by groundwater flow; pinhole erosion test case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laurila, T.; Sane, P.; Olin, M.; Koskinen, K.
2012-01-01
Document available in extended abstract form only. Erosion of compacted clay material by water flow is a critical factor affecting the performance of radioactive waste confinement. Our emphasis in this work is the buffer of KBS-3V concept, proposed to be compacted MX-80 bentonite. Unsaturated erosion occurs during the saturation phase of the EBS, and the main quantity of interest is the total buffer mass carried away by a groundwater flow that induces erosion by forming piping channels near the buffer/rock interface. The purpose of this work is to provide modeling tools to support erosion experiments. Role of modeling is first to interpret experimental observations in terms of processes, and to estimate robustness of experimental results. Secondly, we seek to scale up results from the laboratory scale, particularly to time scales longer than those experimentally accessible. We have performed modeling and data analysis pertaining to tests of unsaturated clay erosion. Pinhole experiments were used to study this erosion case. The main differences to well-understood pinhole erosion tests are that the material is strongly swelling and that the water flow is not determined by the pressure head but by the total flux. Groundwater flow in the buffer is determined by the flux because pressure losses occur overwhelmingly in the surrounding rock, not in the piping channel. We formulate a simple model that links an effective solid diffusivity -based swelling model to erosion by flow on the solid/liquid interface. The swelling model is similar in concept to that developed at KTH, but simpler. Erosion in the model is caused by laminar flow in the pinhole, and happens in a narrow region at the solid/liquid interface where velocity and solid volume fraction overlap. The erosion model can be mapped to erosion by wall shear, and can thus be considered as extension of that classic erosion model. The main quantity defining the behavior of clay erosion in the model is the ratio of
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Shephard, L.E.; Glass, R.J.; Siegel, M.D.; Tidwell, V.C.
1990-01-01
Groundwater flow and contaminant transport through the unsaturated zone are receiving increased attention as options for waste disposal in saturated media continue to be considered as a potential means for resolving the nation's waste management concerns. An experimental program is being developed to test the validity of conceptual flow and transport models that are being formulated to predict the long-term performance at Yucca Mountain. This program is in the developmental stage and will continue to evolve as information is acquired and knowledge is improved with reference to flow and transport in unsaturated fractured media. The general approach for directing the validation effort entails identifying those processes which may cause the site to fail relative to imposed regulatory requirements, evaluating the key assumptions underlying the conceptual models used or developed to describe these processes, and developing new conceptual models as needed. Emphasis is currently being placed in four general areas: flow and transport in unsaturated fractures; fracture-matrix interactions; infiltration flow instability; and evaluation of scale effects in heterogeneous fractured media. Preliminary results and plans or each of these areas for both the laboratory and field investigation components will be presented in the manuscript. 1 ref
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Zhu
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Due to the high nonlinearity of the three-dimensional (3-D unsaturated-saturated water flow equation, using a fully 3-D numerical model is computationally expensive for large scale applications. A new unsaturated-saturated water flow model is developed in this paper based on the vertical/horizontal splitting (VHS concept to split the 3-D unsaturated-saturated Richards’ equation into a two-dimensional (2-D horizontal equation and a one-dimensional (1-D vertical equation. The horizontal plane of average head gradient in the triangular prism element is derived to split the 3-D equation into the 2-D equation. The lateral flow in the horizontal plane of average head gradient represented by the 2-D equation is then calculated by the water balance method. The 1-D vertical equation is discretized by the finite difference method. The two equations are solved simultaneously by coupling them into a unified nonlinear system with a single matrix. Three synthetic cases are used to evaluate the developed model code by comparing the modeling results with those of Hydrus1D, SWMS2D and FEFLOW. We further apply the model to regional-scale modeling to simulate groundwater table fluctuations for assessing the model applicability in complex conditions. The proposed modeling method is found to be accurate with respect to measurements.
A site-scale model for fluid and heat flow in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada
Wu, Yu-Shu; Haukwa, Charles; Bodvarsson, G. S.
1999-05-01
A three-dimensional unsaturated-zone numerical model has been developed to simulate flow and distribution of moisture, gas and heat at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a potential repository site for high-level radioactive waste. The model takes into account the simultaneous flow dynamics of liquid water, vapor, air and heat in the highly heterogeneous, fractured porous rock in the unsaturated zone (UZ). This model is intended for use in the prediction of the current and future conditions in the UZ so as to aid in the assessment of the system performance of the proposed repository. The modeling approach is based on a mathematical formulation of coupled multiphase, multicomponent fluid and heat flow through porous and fractured rock. Fracture and matrix flow is treated using both dual-permeability and effective-continuum modeling approaches. The model domain covers a total area of approximately 43 km 2, and uses the land surface and the water table as its top and bottom boundaries. In addition, site-specific data, representative surface infiltration, and geothermal conditions are incorporated into the model. The reliability and accuracy of the model have been the subject of a comprehensive model calibration study, in which the model was calibrated against measured data, including liquid saturation, water potential and temperature. It has been found that the model is generally able to reproduce the overall system behavior at Yucca Mountain with respect to moisture profiles, pneumatic pressure variations in different geological units, and ambient geothermal conditions.
Preferential flow occurs in unsaturated conditions
Nimmo, John R.
2012-01-01
Because it commonly generates high-speed, high-volume flow with minimal exposure to solid earth materials, preferential flow in the unsaturated zone is a dominant influence in many problems of infiltration, recharge, contaminant transport, and ecohydrology. By definition, preferential flow occurs in a portion of a medium – that is, a preferred part, whether a pathway, pore, or macroscopic subvolume. There are many possible classification schemes, but usual consideration of preferential flow includes macropore or fracture flow, funneled flow determined by macroscale heterogeneities, and fingered flow determined by hydraulic instability rather than intrinsic heterogeneity. That preferential flow is spatially concentrated associates it with other characteristics that are typical, although not defining: it tends to be unusually fast, to transport high fluxes, and to occur with hydraulic disequilibrium within the medium. It also has a tendency to occur in association with large conduits and high water content, although these are less universal than is commonly assumed. Predictive unsaturated-zone flow models in common use employ several different criteria for when and where preferential flow occurs, almost always requiring a nearly saturated medium. A threshold to be exceeded may be specified in terms of the following (i) water content; (ii) matric potential, typically a value high enough to cause capillary filling in a macropore of minimum size; (iii) infiltration capacity or other indication of incipient surface ponding; or (iv) other conditions related to total filling of certain pores. Yet preferential flow does occur without meeting these criteria. My purpose in this commentary is to point out important exceptions and implications of ignoring them. Some of these pertain mainly to macropore flow, others to fingered or funneled flow, and others to combined or undifferentiated flow modes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glass, R.J.; Nicholl, M.J.; Tidwell, V.C.
1996-01-01
Over the past several years, the authors have performed experimental studies focused on understanding small-scale flow processes within discrete fractures and individual matrix blocks; much of the understanding gained in that time differs from that underlying the basic assumptions used in effective media representations. Here they synthesize the process level understanding gained from their laboratory studies to explore how such small-scale processes may influence the behavior of fluid flow in fracture networks and ensembles of matrix blocks at levels sufficient to impact the formulation of intermediate-scale effective media properties. They also explore, by means of a thought experiment, how these same small-scale processes could couple to produce a large-scale system response inconsistent with current conceptual models based on continuum representations of flow through unsaturated, fractured rock. Based on their findings, a number of modifications to existing dual permeability models are suggested that should allow them improved applicability; however, even with these modifications, it is likely that continuum representations of flow through unsaturated fractured rock will have limited validity and must therefore be applied with caution
A geostatistical methodology to assess the accuracy of unsaturated flow models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smoot, J.L.; Williams, R.E.
1996-04-01
The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory spatiotemporal movement of water injected into (PNNL) has developed a Hydrologic unsaturated sediments at the Hanford Site in Evaluation Methodology (HEM) to assist the Washington State was used to develop a new U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in method for evaluating mathematical model evaluating the potential that infiltrating meteoric predictions. Measured water content data were water will produce leachate at commercial low- interpolated geostatistically to a 16 x 16 x 36 level radioactive waste disposal sites. Two key grid at several time intervals. Then a issues are raised in the HEM: (1) evaluation of mathematical model was used to predict water mathematical models that predict facility content at the same grid locations at the selected performance, and (2) estimation of the times. Node-by-node comparison of the uncertainty associated with these mathematical mathematical model predictions with the model predictions. The technical objective of geostatistically interpolated values was this research is to adapt geostatistical tools conducted. The method facilitates a complete commonly used for model parameter estimation accounting and categorization of model error at to the problem of estimating the spatial every node. The comparison suggests that distribution of the dependent variable to be model results generally are within measurement calculated by the model. To fulfill this error. The worst model error occurs in silt objective, a database describing the lenses and is in excess of measurement error
A geostatistical methodology to assess the accuracy of unsaturated flow models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smoot, J.L.; Williams, R.E.
1996-04-01
The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory spatiotemporal movement of water injected into (PNNL) has developed a Hydrologic unsaturated sediments at the Hanford Site in Evaluation Methodology (HEM) to assist the Washington State was used to develop a new U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in method for evaluating mathematical model evaluating the potential that infiltrating meteoric predictions. Measured water content data were water will produce leachate at commercial low- interpolated geostatistically to a 16 x 16 x 36 level radioactive waste disposal sites. Two key grid at several time intervals. Then a issues are raised in the HEM: (1) evaluation of mathematical model was used to predict water mathematical models that predict facility content at the same grid locations at the selected performance, and (2) estimation of the times. Node-by-node comparison of the uncertainty associated with these mathematical mathematical model predictions with the model predictions. The technical objective of geostatistically interpolated values was this research is to adapt geostatistical tools conducted. The method facilitates a complete commonly used for model parameter estimation accounting and categorization of model error at to the problem of estimating the spatial every node. The comparison suggests that distribution of the dependent variable to be model results generally are within measurement calculated by the model. To fulfill this error. The worst model error occurs in silt objective, a database describing the lenses and is in excess of measurement error.
Lin, Ye-Chen; Li, Ming-Hsu; Yeh, Hund-Der
2017-09-01
A new mathematical model is developed to describe the flow in response to a constant-head pumping (or constant-head test, CHT) in a leaky unconfined aquifer system of infinite lateral extent with considering unsaturated flow. The model consists of an unsaturated zone on the top, an unconfined aquifer in the middle, and a second aquifer (aquitard) at the bottom. The unsaturated flow is described by Richard's equation, and the flows in unconfined aquifer and second layer are governed by the groundwater flow equation. The well partially penetrates the unconfined aquifer with a constant head in the well due to CHT. The governing equations of the model are linearized by the perturbation method and Gardner's exponential model is adopted to describe the soil retention curves. The solution of the model for drawdown distribution is obtained by applying the methods of Laplace transform and Weber transform. Then the solution for the wellbore flowrate is derived from the drawdown solution with Darcy's law. The issue of the equivalence of normalized drawdown predicted by the present solution for constant-head pumping and Tartakovsky and Neuman's (2007) solution for constant-rate pumping is discussed. On the basis of the wellbore flowrate solution, the results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that the wellbore flowrate is very sensitive to the changes in the radial hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the saturated zone. Moreover, the results predicted from the present wellbore flowrate solution indicate that this new solution can reduce to Chang's et al. (2010a) solution for homogenous aquifers when the dimensionless unsaturated exponent approaches 100. The unsaturated zone can be considered as infinite extent in the vertical direction if the thickness ratio of the unsaturated zone to the unconfined aquifer is equal to or greater than one. As for the leakage effect, it can be ignored when the vertical hydraulic conductivity ratio (i.e., the vertical hydraulic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
SUSAN J. ALTMAN, MICHAEL L. WILSON, GUMUNDUR S. BODVARSSON
1998-01-01
Preliminary calculations show that the two different conceptual models of fracture-matrix interaction presented here yield different results pertinent to the performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. Namely, each model produces different ranges of flow in the fractures, where radionuclide transport is thought to be most important. This method of using different flow models to capture both conceptual model and parameter uncertainty ensures that flow fields used in TSPA calculations will be reasonably calibrated to the available data while still capturing this uncertainty. This method also allows for the use of three-dimensional flow fields for the TSPA-VA calculations
Virus movement in soil during saturated and unsaturated flow.
Lance, J C; Gerba, C P
1984-02-01
Virus movement in soil during saturated and unsaturated flow was compared by adding poliovirus to sewage water and applying the water at different rates to a 250-cm-long soil column equipped with ceramic samplers at different depths. Movement of viruses during unsaturated flow of sewage through soil columns was much less than during saturated flow. Viruses did not move below the 40-cm level when sewage water was applied at less than the maximum infiltration rate; virus penetration in columns flooded with sewage was at least 160 cm. Therefore, virus movement in soils irrigated with sewage should be less than in flooded groundwater recharge basins or in saturated soil columns. Management of land treatment systems to provide unsaturated flow through the soil should minimize the depth of virus penetration. Differences in virus movement during saturated and unsaturated flow must be considered in the development of any model used to simulate virus movement in soils.
On the use of unsaturated flow and transport models in nutrient and pesticide management
Vanclooster, M.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.; Tiktak, A.; Jarvis, N.; Kroes, J.G.; Muñoz-Carpena, R.; Clothier, B.E.; Green, S.R.
2004-01-01
In this paper, we show how flow and transport models are introduced in the nutrient and pesticide management decision-making process. Examples are given of the use of flow and transport models in (i) field-scale nutrient and pesticide management; (ii) the identification and evaluation of
Klammler, G.; Rock, G.; Kupfersberger, H.; Fank, J.
2012-04-01
For many European countries nitrate leaching from the soil zone into the aquifer due to surplus application of mineral fertilizer and animal manure by farmers constitutes the most important threat to groundwater quality. Since this is a diffuse pollution situation measures to change agricultural production have to be investigated at the aquifer scale. In principal, the problem could be solved by the 3 dimensional equation describing variable saturated groundwater flow and solute transport. However, this is computationally prohibitive due to the temporal and spatial scope of the task, particularly in the framework of running numerous simulations to compromise between conflicting interests (i.e. good groundwater status and high agricultural yield). For the aquifer 'Westliches Leibnitzer Feld' we break down this task into 1d vertical movement of water and nitrate mass in the unsaturated zone and 2d horizontal flow of water and solutes in the saturated compartment. The aquifer is located within the Mur Valley about 20 km south of Graz and consists of early Holocene gravel with varying amounts of sand and some silt. The unsaturated flow and nitrate leaching package SIMWASER/STOTRASIM (Stenitzer, 1988; Feichtinger, 1998) is calibrated to the lysimeter data sets and further on applied to so called hydrotopes which are unique combinations of soil type and agricultural management. To account for the unknown regional distribution of crops grown and amount, timing and kind of fertilizers used a stochastic tool (Klammler et al, 2011) is developed that generates sequences of crop rotations derived from municipal statistical data. To match the observed nitrate concentrations in groundwater with a saturated nitrate transport model it is of utmost importance to apply a realistic input distribution of nitrate mass in terms of spatial and temporal characteristics. A table is generated by running SIMWASER/STOTRASIM that consists of unsaturated water and nitrate fluxes for each 10 cm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ho, C.K.; Altman, S.J.; Arnold, B.W.
1995-09-01
Groundwater travel time (GWTT) calculations will play an important role in addressing site-suitability criteria for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain,Nevada. In support of these calculations, Preliminary assessments of the candidate codes and models are presented in this report. A series of benchmark studies have been designed to address important aspects of modeling flow through fractured media representative of flow at Yucca Mountain. Three codes (DUAL, FEHMN, and TOUGH 2) are compared in these benchmark studies. DUAL is a single-phase, isothermal, two-dimensional flow simulator based on the dual mixed finite element method. FEHMN is a nonisothermal, multiphase, multidimensional simulator based primarily on the finite element method. TOUGH2 is anon isothermal, multiphase, multidimensional simulator based on the integral finite difference method. Alternative conceptual models of fracture flow consisting of the equivalent continuum model (ECM) and the dual permeability (DK) model are used in the different codes
Modeling of water flow and solute transport in unsaturated heterogeneous fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bresler, E.; Dagan, G.
1982-01-01
A comprehensive model which considers dispersive solute transport, nonsteady moisture flow regimes and complex boundary conditions is described. The main assumptions are: vertical flow; spatial variability which is associated with the saturated hydraulic conductivity K/sub s/ occurs in the horizontal plane, but is constant in the profile, and has a lognormal probability distribution function (PDF); deterministic recharge and solute concentration are applied during infiltration; the soil is at uniform water content and salt concentration prior to infiltration. The problem is to solve, for arbitrary K/sub s/, the Richards' equation of flow simultaneously with the diffusion-convection equation for salt transport, with the boundary and initial conditions appropriate to infiltration-redistribution. Once this is achieved, the expectation and variance of various quantities of interest (solute concentration, moisture content) are obtained by using the statistical averaging procedure and the given PDF of K/sub s/. Since the solution of Richards' equation for the infiltration-redistribution cycle is extremely difficult (for a given K/sub s/), an approxiate solution is derived by using the concept of piston flow type wetting fronts. Similarly, accurate numerical solutions are used as input for the same statistical averaging procedure. The stochastic model is applied to two spatially variable soils by using both accurate numerical solutions and the simplified water and salt transport models. A comparison between the results shows that the approximate simplified models lead to quite accurate values of the expectations and variances of the flow variables for the entire field. It is suggested that in spatially variable fields, stochastic modeling represents the actual flow phenomena realistically, and provides the main statistical moments by using simplified flow models which can be used with confidence in applications
A stratified percolation model for saturated and unsaturated flow through natural fractures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pyrak-Nolte, L.J.
1990-01-01
The geometry of the asperities of contact between the two surfaces of a fracture and of the adjacent void spaces determines fluid flow through a fracture and the mechanical deformation across a fracture. Heuristically we have developed a stratified continuum percolation model to describe this geometry based on a fractal construction that includes scale invariance and correlation of void apertures. Deformation under stress is analyzed using conservation of rock volume to correct for asperity interpenetration. Single phase flow is analyzed using a critical path along which the principal resistance is a result of laminar flow across the critical neck in this path. Results show that flow decreases with apparent aperture raised to a variable power greater than cubic, as is observed in flow experiments on natural fractures. For two phases, flow of the non-wetting phase is likewise governed by the critical neck along the critical path of largest aperture but flow of the wetting phase is governed by tortuosity. 17 refs., 10 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rockhold, M.L.; Sagar, B.; Connelly, M.P.
1992-04-01
This report describes the results of a study to investigate the influence of proposed exploratory shafts on the moisture distribution within unsaturated, fractured rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The long-term effects of exploratory shafts at Yucca Mountain are important in the estimation of potential waste migration and fate, while short-term effects may be important in the planning and interpretation of tests performed at the site. The PORFLO-3 computer code was used for simulation of moisture flow through the geologic units adjacent to the ESF. Rather than represent fractures as discrete elements, an equivalent continuum was stipulated, in which the fractured units were assigned equivalent or composite hydrologic properties. Explicit treatment of fractures is not feasible because of the extremely large number of fractures contained in the site-scale problem and the difficulties in characterizing and modeling the fracture geometries
A Non-local Model for Transient Moisture Flow in Unsaturated Soils Based on the Peridynamic Theory
Jabakhanji, R.; Mohtar, R. H.
2012-12-01
A non-local, gradient free, formulation of the porous media flow problem in unsaturated soils was derived. It parallels the peridynamic theory, a non-local reformulation of solid mechanics presented by Silling. In the proposed model, the evolution of the state of a material point is driven by pairwise interactions with other points across finite distances. Flow and changes in moisture are the result of these interactions. Instead of featuring local gradients, the proposed model expresses the flow as a functional integral of the hydraulic potential field. The absence of spatial gradients, undefined at or on discontinuities, makes the model a good candidate for flow simulations in fractured soils. It also lends itself to coupling with peridynamic mechanical models for simulating crack formation triggered by shrinkage and swelling, and assessing their potential impact on a wide range of processes, such as infiltration, contaminant transport, slope stability and integrity of clay barriers. A description of the concept and an outline of the derivation and numerical implementation are presented. Simulation results of infiltration and drainage for 1D, single and two-layers soil columns, for three different soil types are also presented. The same simulations are repeated using HYDRUS-1D, a computer model using the classic local flow equation. We show that the proposed non-local formulation successfully reproduces the results from HYDRUS-1D. S.A. Silling, "Reformulation of Elasticity Theory for Discontinuities and Long-range Forces," Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 48, no. 1 (January 2000): 175-209. J. Simunek, M. Sejna, and M.T. Van Genuchten, "The HYDRUS-1D Software Package for Simulating the One-dimensional Movement of Water, Heat, and Multiple Solutes in Variably-saturated Media," University of California, Riverside, Research Reports 240 (2005).
Unsaturated Zone Flow Patterns and Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
C. Ahlers
2001-10-17
This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) documents the development of an expected-case model for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport that will be described in terms of the representativeness of models of the natural system. The expected-case model will provide an evaluation of the effectiveness of the natural barriers, assess the impact of conservatism in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), and support the development of further models and analyses for public confidence building. The present models used in ''Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation'' (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor (CRWMS M&O) 2000 [1532461]) underestimate the natural-barrier performance because of conservative assumptions and parameters and do not adequately address uncertainty and alternative models. The development of an expected case model for the UZ natural barrier addresses issues regarding flow-pattern analysis and modeling that had previously been treated conservatively. This is in line with the Repository Safety Strategy (RSS) philosophy of treating conservatively those aspects of the UZ flow and transport system that are not important for achieving regulatory dose (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153246], Section 1.1.1). The development of an expected case model for the UZ also provides defense-in-depth in areas requiring further analysis of uncertainty and alternative models. In general, the value of the conservative case is to provide a more easily defensible TSPA for behavior of UZ flow and transport processes at Yucca Mountain. This AMR has been prepared in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (Bechtel SAIC Company (BSC) 2001 [155051], Section 1.3 - Work Package 4301213UMG). The work scope is to examine the data and current models of flow and transport in the Yucca Mountain UZ to identify models and analyses
Unsaturated Zone Flow Patterns and Analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahlers, C.
2001-01-01
This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) documents the development of an expected-case model for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport that will be described in terms of the representativeness of models of the natural system. The expected-case model will provide an evaluation of the effectiveness of the natural barriers, assess the impact of conservatism in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), and support the development of further models and analyses for public confidence building. The present models used in ''Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation'' (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor (CRWMS M and O) 2000 [1532461]) underestimate the natural-barrier performance because of conservative assumptions and parameters and do not adequately address uncertainty and alternative models. The development of an expected case model for the UZ natural barrier addresses issues regarding flow-pattern analysis and modeling that had previously been treated conservatively. This is in line with the Repository Safety Strategy (RSS) philosophy of treating conservatively those aspects of the UZ flow and transport system that are not important for achieving regulatory dose (CRWMS M and O 2000 [153246], Section 1.1.1). The development of an expected case model for the UZ also provides defense-in-depth in areas requiring further analysis of uncertainty and alternative models. In general, the value of the conservative case is to provide a more easily defensible TSPA for behavior of UZ flow and transport processes at Yucca Mountain. This AMR has been prepared in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (Bechtel SAIC Company (BSC) 2001 [155051], Section 1.3 - Work Package 4301213UMG). The work scope is to examine the data and current models of flow and transport in the Yucca Mountain UZ to identify models and analyses where conservatism may be
Thiéry, Dominique; Amraoui, Nadia; Noyer, Marie-Luce
2018-01-01
During the winter and spring of 2000-2001, large floods occurred in northern France (Somme River Basin) and southern England (Patcham area of Brighton) in valleys that are developed on Chalk outcrops. The floods durations were particularly long (more than 3 months in the Somme Basin) and caused significant damage in both countries. To improve the understanding of groundwater flooding in Chalk catchments, an experimental site was set up in the Hallue basin, which is located in the Somme River Basin (France). Unsaturated fractured chalk formation overlying the Chalk aquifer was monitored to understand its reaction to long and heavy rainfall events when it reaches a near saturation state. The water content and soil temperature were monitored to a depth of 8 m, and the matrix pressure was monitored down to the water table, 26.5 m below ground level. The monitoring extended over a 2.5-year period (2006-2008) under natural conditions and during two periods when heavy, artificial infiltration was induced. The objective of the paper is to describe a vertical numerical flow model based on Richards' equation using these data that was developed to simulate infiltrating rainwater flow from the ground surface to the saturated aquifer. The MARTHE computer code, which models the unsaturated-saturated continuum, was adapted to reproduce the monitored high saturation periods. Composite constitutive functions (hydraulic conductivity-saturation and pressure-saturation) that integrate the increase in hydraulic conductivity near saturation and extra available porosity resulting from fractures were introduced into the code. Using these composite constitutive functions, the model was able to accurately simulate the water contents and pressures at all depths over the entire monitored period, including the infiltration tests. The soil temperature was also accurately simulated at all depths, except during the infiltrations tests, which contributes to the model validation. The model was used
1DFEMWATER: A one-dimensional finite element model of WATER flow through saturated-unsaturated media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeh, G.T.
1988-08-01
This report presents the development and verification of a one- dimensional finite element model of water flow through saturated- unsaturated media. 1DFEMWATER is very flexible and capable of modeling a wide range of real-world problems. The model is designed to (1) treat heterogeneous media consisting of many geologic formations; (2) consider distributed and point sources/sinks that are spatially and temporally variable; (3) accept prescribed initial conditions or obtain them from steady state simulations; (4) deal with transient heads distributed over the Dirichlet boundary; (5) handle time-dependent fluxes caused by pressure gradient on the Neumann boundary; (6) treat time-dependent total fluxes (i.e., the sum of gravitational fluxes and pressure-gradient fluxes) on the Cauchy boundary; (7) automatically determine variable boundary conditions of evaporation, infiltration, or seepage on the soil-air interface; (8) provide two options for treating the mass matrix (consistent and lumping); (9) provide three alternatives for approximating the time derivative term (Crank-Nicolson central difference, backward difference, and mid-difference); (10) give three options (exact relaxation, underrelaxation, and overrelaxation) for estimating the nonlinear matrix; (11) automatically reset the time step size when boundary conditions or source/sinks change abruptly; and (12) check mass balance over the entire region for every time step. The model is verified with analytical solutions and other numerical models for three examples
Review of Upscaling Methods for Describing Unsaturated Flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wood, Brian D.
2000-09-26
Representing samll-scale features can be a challenge when one wants to model unsaturated flow in large domains. In this report, the various upscaling techniques are reviewed. The following upscaling methods have been identified from the literature: stochastic methods, renormalization methods, volume averaging and homogenization methods. In addition, a final technique, full resolution numerical modeling, is also discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brian A. Ebel; John R. Nimmo
2009-09-11
Traveltimes for contaminant transport by water from a point in the unsaturated zone to the saturated zone are a concern at Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain in the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Where nuclear tests were conducted in the unsaturated zone, contaminants must traverse hundreds of meters of variably saturated rock before they enter the saturated zone in the carbonate rock, where the regional groundwater system has the potential to carry them substantial distances to a location of concern. The unsaturated-zone portion of the contaminant transport path may cause a significant delay, in addition to the time required to travel within the saturated zone, and thus may be important in the overall evaluation of the potential hazard from contamination. Downward contaminant transport through the unsaturated zone occurs through various processes and pathways; this can lead to a broad distribution of contaminant traveltimes, including exceedingly slow and unexpectedly fast extremes. Though the bulk of mobile contaminant arrives between the time-scale end members, the fastest contaminant transport speed, in other words the speed determined by the combination of possible processes and pathways that would bring a measureable quantity of contaminant to the aquifer in the shortest time, carries particular regulatory significance because of its relevance in formulating the most conservative hazard-prevention scenarios. Unsaturated-zone flow is usually modeled as a diffusive process responding to gravity and pressure gradients as mediated by the unsaturated hydraulic properties of the materials traversed. The mathematical formulation of the diffuse-flow concept is known as Richards' equation, which when coupled to a solute transport equation, such as the advection-dispersion equation, provides a framework to simulate contaminant migration in the unsaturated zone. In recent decades awareness has increased that much fluid flow and contaminant transport within the
Ebel, Brian A.; Nimmo, John R.
2009-01-01
Traveltimes for contaminant transport by water from a point in the unsaturated zone to the saturated zone are a concern at Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain in the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Where nuclear tests were conducted in the unsaturated zone, contaminants must traverse hundreds of meters of variably saturated rock before they enter the saturated zone in the carbonate rock, where the regional groundwater system has the potential to carry them substantial distances to a location of concern. The unsaturated-zone portion of the contaminant transport path may cause a significant delay, in addition to the time required to travel within the saturated zone, and thus may be important in the overall evaluation of the potential hazard from contamination. Downward contaminant transport through the unsaturated zone occurs through various processes and pathways; this can lead to a broad distribution of contaminant traveltimes, including exceedingly slow and unexpectedly fast extremes. Though the bulk of mobile contaminant arrives between the time-scale end members, the fastest contaminant transport speed, in other words the speed determined by the combination of possible processes and pathways that would bring a measureable quantity of contaminant to the aquifer in the shortest time, carries particular regulatory significance because of its relevance in formulating the most conservative hazard-prevention scenarios. Unsaturated-zone flow is usually modeled as a diffusive process responding to gravity and pressure gradients as mediated by the unsaturated hydraulic properties of the materials traversed. The mathematical formulation of the diffuse-flow concept is known as Richards' equation, which when coupled to a solute transport equation, such as the advection-dispersion equation, provides a framework to simulate contaminant migration in the unsaturated zone. In recent decades awareness has increased that much fluid flow and contaminant transport within the unsaturated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glass, R.J.
1991-01-01
As part of the Yucca Mountain Project, a laboratory research program is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories that will integrate fundamental physical experimentation with conceptual model formulation and mathematical modeling and aid in subsequent model validation for unsaturated zone water and contaminant transport. Experimental systems are being developed to explore flow and transport processes and assumptions of fundamental importance to various conceptual models. Experimentation will run concurrently in two types of systems: fractured and nonfractured tuffaceous systems; and analogue systems having specific characteristics of the tuff systems but designed to maximize experimental control and resolution of data measurement. Areas in which experimentation currently is directed include infiltration flow instability, water and solute movement in unsaturated fractures, fracture-matrix interaction, and scaling laws to define effective large-scale properties for heterogeneous, fractured media. 16 refs
Numerical convergence improvements for porflow unsaturated flow simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Flach, Greg [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2017-08-14
Section 3.6 of SRNL (2016) discusses various PORFLOW code improvements to increase modeling efficiency, in preparation for the next E-Area Performance Assessment (WSRC 2008) revision. This memorandum documents interaction with Analytic & Computational Research, Inc. (http://www.acricfd.com/default.htm) to improve numerical convergence efficiency using PORFLOW version 6.42 for unsaturated flow simulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glass, R.J.
1990-01-01
As part of the Yucca Mountain Project, a laboratory research program is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories that will integrate fundamental physical experimentation with conceptual formulation and mathematical modeling and aid in subsequent model validation for unsaturated zone water and contaminant transport. Experimental systems are being developed to explore flow and transport processes and assumptions of fundamental importance to various conceptual models. Experimentation will run concurrently in two types of systems: fractured and nonfractured tuffaceous systems; and analogue systems having specific characteristics of the tuff systems but designed to maximize experimental control and resolution of data measurement. Questions to which experimentation currently is directed include infiltration flow instability, water and solute movement in unsaturated fractures, fracture-matrix interaction, and the definition of effective large-scale properties for heterogeneous, fractured media. 16 refs
Waste migration in shallow burial sites under unsaturated flow conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eicholz, G.G.; Whang, J.
1987-01-01
Unsaturated conditions prevail in many shallow-land burial sites, both in arid and humid regions. Unless a burial site is allowed to flood and possibly overflow, a realistic assessment of any migration scenario must take into account the conditions of unsaturated flow. These are more difficult to observe and to model, but introduce significant changes into projected rates of waste leaching and waste migration. Column tests have been performed using soils from the Southeastern coastal plain to observe the effects of varying degrees of ''unsaturation'' on the movement of radioactive tracers. The moisture content in the columns was controlled by maintaining various levels of hydrostatic suction on soil columns whose hydrodynamic characteristics had been determined carefully. Tracer tests, employing Cs-137, I-131 and Ba-133 were used to determine migration profiles and to follow their movement down the column for different suction values. A calculational model has been developed for unsaturated flow and seems to match the observations fairly well. It is evident that a full description of migration processes must take into account the reduced migration rates under unsaturated conditions and the hysteresis effects associated with wetting-drying cycles
Boundary integral methods for unsaturated flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinez, M.J.; McTigue, D.F.
1990-01-01
Many large simulations may be required to assess the performance of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for the nations first high level nuclear waste repository. A boundary integral equation method (BIEM) is described for numerical analysis of quasilinear steady unsaturated flow in homogeneous material. The applicability of the exponential model for the dependence of hydraulic conductivity on pressure head is discussed briefly. This constitutive assumption is at the heart of the quasilinear transformation. Materials which display a wide distribution in pore-size are described reasonably well by the exponential. For materials with a narrow range in pore-size, the exponential is suitable over more limited ranges in pressure head. The numerical implementation of the BIEM is used to investigate the infiltration from a strip source to a water table. The net infiltration of moisture into a finite-depth layer is well-described by results for a semi-infinite layer if αD > 4, where α is the sorptive number and D is the depth to the water table. the distribution of moisture exhibits a similar dependence on αD. 11 refs., 4 figs.,
Simulation of groundwater flows in unsaturated porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Musy, A.
1976-01-01
Groundwater flow in unsaturated porous media is caused by a potential gradient where the total potential consists of the sum of a gravitational and a suction component. The partial differential equations which result from the general analysis of groundwater flow in unsaturated soil are solved by succesive approximations with the finite-element method. General boundary and initial conditions, linear or curvilinear shaped elements (isoparametric elements) and steady-state or transient flow can be introduced into the numerical computer program. The results of this mathematical model are compared with experimental data established in the laboratory with a physical groundwater model. This is a rectangular testing tank of dimension 3 x 1.5 x 0.15 m and contains a silty clay loam. The variation of the bulk density and the volumetric moisture of the soil as a function of time and space are measured by gamma absorption from a 137 Cs source with 300 mCi intensity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seol, Yongkoo; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Ito, Kazumasa
2003-01-01
Numerical simulation is an effective and economical tool for optimally designing laboratory experiments and deriving practical experimental conditions. We executed a detailed numerical simulation study to examine the active fracture concept (AFC, Liu et al., 1998) using a cubic meter-sized block model. The numerical simulations for this study were performed by applying various experimental conditions, including different bottom flow boundaries, varying injection rates, and different fracture-matrix interaction (by increasing absolute matrix permeability at the fracture matrix boundary) for a larger fracture interaction under transient or balanced-state flow regimes. Two conceptual block models were developed based on different numerical approaches: a two-dimensional discrete-fracture-network model (DFNM) and a one-dimensional dual continuum model (DCM). The DFNM was used as a surrogate for a natural block to produce synthetic breakthrough curves of water and tracer concentration under transient or balanced-state conditions. The DCM is the approach typically used for the Yucca Mountain Project because of its computational efficiency. The AFC was incorporated into the DCM to capture heterogeneous flow patterns that occur in unsaturated fractured rocks. The simulation results from the DCM were compared with the results from the DFNM to determine whether the DCM could predict the water flow and tracer transport observed in the DFNM at the scale of the experiment. It was found that implementing the AFC in the DCM improved the prediction of unsaturated flow and that the flow and transport experiments with low injection rates in the DFNM were compared better with the AFC implemented DCM at the meter scale. However, the estimated AFC parameter varied from 0.38 to 1.0 with different flow conditions, suggesting that the AFC parameter was not a sufficient to fully capture the complexity of the flow processes in a one meter sized discrete fracture network
Method of coupling 1-D unsaturated flow with 3-D saturated flow on large scale
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Zhu
2011-12-01
Full Text Available A coupled unsaturated-saturated water flow numerical model was developed. The water flow in the unsaturated zone is considered the one-dimensional vertical flow, which changes in the horizontal direction according to the groundwater table and the atmospheric boundary conditions. The groundwater flow is treated as the three-dimensional water flow. The recharge flux to groundwater from soil water is considered the bottom flux for the numerical simulation in the unsaturated zone, and the upper flux for the groundwater simulation. It connects and unites the two separated water flow systems. The soil water equation is solved based on the assumed groundwater table and the subsequent predicted recharge flux. Then, the groundwater equation is solved with the predicted recharge flux as the upper boundary condition. Iteration continues until the discrepancy between the assumed and calculated groundwater nodal heads have a certain accuracy. Illustrative examples with different water flow scenarios regarding the Dirichlet boundary condition, the Neumann boundary condition, the atmospheric boundary condition, and the source or sink term were calculated by the coupled model. The results are compared with those of other models, including Hydrus-1D, SWMS-2D, and FEFLOW, which demonstrate that the coupled model is effective and accurate and can significantly reduce the computational time for the large number of nodes in saturated-unsaturated water flow simulation.
Field research program for unsaturated flow and transport experimentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tidwell, V.C.; Rautman, C.A.; Glass, R.J.
1992-01-01
As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, a field research program has been developed to refine and validate models for flow and transport through unsaturated fractured rock. Validation of these models within the range of their application for performance assessment requires a more sophisticated understanding of the processes that govern flow and transport within fractured porous media than currently exists. In particular, our research is prioritized according to understanding and modeling processes that, if not accurately incorporated into performance assessment models, would adversely impact the project's ability to evaluate repository performance. For this reason, we have oriented our field program toward enhancing our understanding of scaling processes as they relate to effective media property modeling, as well as to the conceptual modeling of complex flow and transport phenomena
Effects from Unsaturated Zone Flow during Oscillatory Hydraulic Testing
Lim, D.; Zhou, Y.; Cardiff, M. A.; Barrash, W.
2014-12-01
In analyzing pumping tests on unconfined aquifers, the impact of the unsaturated zone is often neglected. Instead, desaturation at the water table is often treated as a free-surface boundary, which is simple and allows for relatively fast computation. Richards' equation models, which account for unsaturated flow, can be compared with saturated flow models to validate the use of Darcy's Law. In this presentation, we examine the appropriateness of using fast linear steady-periodic models based on linearized water table conditions in order to simulate oscillatory pumping tests in phreatic aquifers. We compare oscillatory pumping test models including: 1) a 2-D radially-symmetric phreatic aquifer model with a partially penetrating well, simulated using both Darcy's Law and Richards' Equation in COMSOL; and 2) a linear phase-domain numerical model developed in MATLAB. Both COMSOL and MATLAB models are calibrated to match oscillatory pumping test data collected in the summer of 2013 at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site (BHRS), and we examine the effect of model type on the associated parameter estimates. The results of this research will aid unconfined aquifer characterization efforts and help to constrain the impact of the simplifying physical assumptions often employed during test analysis.
Natural Length Scales Shape Liquid Phase Continuity in Unsaturated Flows
Assouline, S.; Lehmann, P. G.; Or, D.
2015-12-01
Unsaturated flows supporting soil evaporation and internal drainage play an important role in various hydrologic and climatic processes manifested at a wide range of scales. We study inherent natural length scales that govern these flow processes and constrain the spatial range of their representation by continuum models. These inherent length scales reflect interactions between intrinsic porous medium properties that affect liquid phase continuity, and the interplay among forces that drive and resist unsaturated flow. We have defined an intrinsic length scale for hydraulic continuity based on pore size distribution that controls soil evaporation dynamics (i.e., stage 1 to stage 2 transition). This simple metric may be used to delineate upper bounds for regional evaporative losses or the depth of soil-atmosphere interactions (in the absence of plants). A similar length scale governs the dynamics of internal redistribution towards attainment of field capacity, again through its effect on hydraulic continuity in the draining porous medium. The study provides a framework for guiding numerical and mathematical models for capillary flows across different scales considering the necessary conditions for coexistence of stationarity (REV), hydraulic continuity and intrinsic capillary gradients.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Mantoglou, Aristotelis
1992-01-01
unsaturated flow equation representing the mean system behavior is solved using a finite difference numerical solution technique. The effective parameters are evaluated from the stochastic theory formulas before entering them into the numerical solution for each iteration. The stochastic model is applied...... seems to offer a rational framework for modeling large-scale unsaturated flow and estimating areal averages of soil-hydrological processes in spatially variable soils....
Principles of Physical Modelling of Unsaturated Soils
CAICEDO, Bernardo; THOREL, Luc
2014-01-01
Centrifuge modelling has been widely used to simulate the performance of a variety of geotechnical works, most of them focusing on saturated clays or dry sands. On the other hand, the performance of some geotechnical works depends on the behaviour of shallow layers in the soil deposit where it is frequently unsaturated. Centrifuge modelling could be a powerful tool to study the performance of shallow geotechnical works. However all the experimental complexities related to unsaturated soils, w...
Review of Upscaling Methods for Describing Unsaturated Flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
BD Wood
2000-09-26
The representation of small-scale features can be a challenge when attempting to model unsaturated flow in large domains. Upscaling methods offer the possibility of reducing the amount of resolution required to adequately simulate such a problem. In this report, the various upscaling techniques that are discussed in the literature are reviewed. The following upscaling methods have been identified from the literature: (1) stochastic methods, (2) renormalization methods, and (3) volume averaging and homogenization methods; in addition, a final technique, full resolution numerical modeling, is also discussed. Each of these techniques has its advantages and disadvantages. The trade-off is a reduction in accuracy in favor of a method that is easier to employ. For practical applications, the most reasonable approach appears to be one in which any of the upscaling methods identified above maybe suitable for upscaling in regions where the variations in the parameter fields are small. For regions where the subsurface structure is more complex, only the homogenization and volume averaging methods are probably suitable. With the continual increases in computational capacity, fill-resolution numerical modeling may in many instances provide a tractable means of solving the flow problem in unsaturated systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sagar, B.; Bagtzoglou, A.C.; Green, R.T.; Stothoff, S.A.
1995-01-01
Deep geologic disposal of high-level and transuranic waste is currently being pursued vigorously. Assessing long-term performance of such repositories involves laboratory and field measurements, and numerical modeling. There exist two primary characteristics, associated with assessing repository performance, that define problems of modeling and measurement of non-isothermal flow through geologic media exposed to variable boundary conditions (e.g., climatic changes). These are: (1) the large time scale (tens of thousands of years) and highly variable space scale (from one meter to 10 5 meters); and (2) the hierarchy of heterogeneities and discontinuities characterizing the medium. This paper provides an overview of recent work, conducted at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), related to laboratory experiments, consideration of similitude, and numerical modeling of flow through heterogeneous media under non-homogeneous boundary conditions. As discussed, there exist neither good methods of measuring flows at these scales nor are there adequate similitude analyses that would allow reasonable scaling up of laboratory-scale experiments. Reliable assessment of long-term geologic repositories will require sophisticated geostatistical models capable of addressing variables scales of heterogeneities conditioned with observed results from adequately sized field-scale experiments conducted for sufficiently long durations
Adaptive probabilistic collocation based Kalman filter for unsaturated flow problem
Man, J.; Li, W.; Zeng, L.; Wu, L.
2015-12-01
The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) has gained popularity in hydrological data assimilation problems. As a Monte Carlo based method, a relatively large ensemble size is usually required to guarantee the accuracy. As an alternative approach, the probabilistic collocation based Kalman filter (PCKF) employs the Polynomial Chaos to approximate the original system. In this way, the sampling error can be reduced. However, PCKF suffers from the so called "cure of dimensionality". When the system nonlinearity is strong and number of parameters is large, PCKF is even more computationally expensive than EnKF. Motivated by recent developments in uncertainty quantification, we propose a restart adaptive probabilistic collocation based Kalman filter (RAPCKF) for data assimilation in unsaturated flow problem. During the implementation of RAPCKF, the important parameters are identified and active PCE basis functions are adaptively selected. The "restart" technology is used to alleviate the inconsistency between model parameters and states. The performance of RAPCKF is tested by unsaturated flow numerical cases. It is shown that RAPCKF is more efficient than EnKF with the same computational cost. Compared with the traditional PCKF, the RAPCKF is more applicable in strongly nonlinear and high dimensional problems.
UNSAT-H Version 3.0: Unsaturated Soil Water and Heat Flow Model Theory, User Manual, and Examples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fayer, M.J.
2000-01-01
The UNSAT-H model was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assess the water dynamics of arid sites and, in particular, estimate recharge fluxes for scenarios pertinent to waste disposal facilities. During the last 4 years, the UNSAT-H model received support from the Immobilized Waste Program (IWP) of the Hanford Site's River Protection Project. This program is designing and assessing the performance of on-site disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are currently stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site (LMHC 1999). The IWP is interested in estimates of recharge rates for current conditions and long-term scenarios involving the vadose zone disposal of tank wastes. Simulation modeling with UNSAT-H is one of the methods being used to provide those estimates (e.g., Rockhold et al. 1995; Fayer et al. 1999). To achieve the above goals for assessing water dynamics and estimating recharge rates, the UNSAT-H model addresses soil water infiltration, redistribution, evaporation, plant transpiration, deep drainage, and soil heat flow as one-dimensional processes. The UNSAT-H model simulates liquid water flow using Richards' equation (Richards 1931), water vapor diffusion using Fick's law, and sensible heat flow using the Fourier equation. This report documents UNSAT-H .Version 3.0. The report includes the bases for the conceptual model and its numerical implementation, benchmark test cases, example simulations involving layered soils and plants, and the code manual. Version 3.0 is an, enhanced-capability update of UNSAT-H Version 2.0 (Fayer and Jones 1990). New features include hysteresis, an iterative solution of head and temperature, an energy balance check, the modified Picard solution technique, additional hydraulic functions, multiple-year simulation capability, and general enhancements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hasan, Issa
2014-07-01
The modelling of complex systems such as the underground is a means to describe the processes occurring in the reality. The conducting of experiments on a model to obtain qualitative evidence about a real system is referred to as a simulation. Thereby, various models (e.g. physical and mathematical models) can be used. The unsaturated zone (vadose zone) is the region between the land surface and the water table, in which the water content is less than full saturation, and the pressure is lower than the atmospheric pressure. The unsaturated zone is very significant for agriculture, geobiology, aerobic degradation processes and groundwater recharge. The processes of water flow and solute transport in the unsaturated zone can be described by means of numerical simulation programs. The aim of the present work is a comprehensive validation of the simulation program PCSiWaPro {sup registered} (developed at the TU-Dresden, Institute of Waste Management and Contaminated Site Treatment) for different applications. Another aim of this work is to investigate the applicability of the current version of PCSiWaPro {sup registered} for different cases of a combination between the unsaturated zone and technical facilities. Four application cases with different objectives were investigated within the present work, which are: the simulation of decentralized wastewater infiltration with corresponding column and field experiments, the computation of groundwater recharge by means of lysimeters, the water balance of earth dams and the modelling of landfill covering systems. The application cases differ from each other by the objective of the simulation, the geometry, the size, the specified initial and boundary conditions, the simulation time, the applied materials, the coordinate system, the input and output data. The simulation results clearly showed that PCSiWaPro {sup registered} is applicable for all investigated cases under consideration of different flow and solute transport
Saturated-unsaturated flow to a partially penetrating well with storage in a compressible aquifer
Mishra, P. K.; Neuman, S. P.
2010-12-01
Mishra and Neuman [2010] developed an analytical solution for flow to a partially penetrating well of zero radius in a compressible unconfined aquifer that allows inferring its saturated and unsaturated hydraulic properties from responses recorded in the saturated and/or the unsaturated zone. We extend their solution to the case of a finite diameter pumping well with storage. Both solutions account for horizontal as well as vertical flows throughout the system. We investigate the effects of storage in the pumping well and delayed piezometer response on drawdowns in the saturated and unsaturated zones as functions of position and time; validate our solution against numerical simulations of drawdown in a synthetic aquifer having unsaturated properties described by the van Genuchten - Mualem constitutive model; and use our solution to analyze drawdown data from a pumping test conducted at the Borden site in Ontario, Canada.
Quantifying Preferential Flow and Seasonal Storage in an Unsaturated Fracture-Facial Domain
Nimmo, J. R.; Malek-Mohammadi, S.
2012-12-01
Preferential flow through deep unsaturated zones of fractured rock is hydrologically important to a variety of contaminant transport and water-resource issues. The unsaturated zone of the English Chalk Aquifer provides an important opportunity for a case study of unsaturated preferential flow in isolation from other flow modes. The chalk matrix has low hydraulic conductivity and stays saturated, owing to its fine uniform pores and the wet climate of the region. Therefore the substantial fluxes observed in the unsaturated chalk must be within fractures and interact minimally with matrix material. Price et al. [2000] showed that irregularities on fracture surfaces provide a significant storage capacity in the chalk unsaturated zone, likely accounting for volumes of water required to explain unexpected dry-season water-table stability during substantial continuing streamflow observed by Lewis et al. [1993] In this presentation we discuss and quantify the dynamics of replenishment and drainage of this unsaturated zone fracture-face storage domain using a modification of the source-responsive model of Nimmo [2010]. This model explains the processes in terms of two interacting flow regimes: a film or rivulet preferential flow regime on rough fracture faces, active on an individual-storm timescale, and a regime of adsorptive and surface-tension influences, resembling traditional diffuse formulations of unsaturated flow, effective mainly on a seasonal timescale. The modified model identifies hydraulic parameters for an unsaturated fracture-facial domain lining the fractures. Besides helping to quantify the unsaturated zone storage described by Price et al., these results highlight the importance of research on the topic of unsaturated-flow relations within a near-fracture-surface domain. This model can also facilitate understanding of mechanisms for reinitiation of preferential flow after temporary cessation, which is important in multi-year preferential flow through deep
Saturated-unsaturated flow in a compressible leaky-unconfined aquifer
Mishra, Phoolendra K.; Vesselinov, Velimir V.; Kuhlman, Kristopher L.
2012-06-01
An analytical solution is developed for three-dimensional flow towards a partially penetrating large-diameter well in an unconfined aquifer bounded below by a leaky aquitard of finite or semi-infinite extent. The analytical solution is derived using Laplace and Hankel transforms, then inverted numerically. Existing solutions for flow in leaky unconfined aquifers neglect the unsaturated zone following an assumption of instantaneous drainage due to Neuman. We extend the theory of leakage in unconfined aquifers by (1) including water flow and storage in the unsaturated zone above the water table, and (2) allowing the finite-diameter pumping well to partially penetrate the aquifer. The investigation of model-predicted results shows that aquitard leakage leads to significant departure from the unconfined solution without leakage. The investigation of dimensionless time-drawdown relationships shows that the aquitard drawdown also depends on unsaturated zone properties and the pumping-well wellbore storage effects.
Stoppelenburg FJ; Kovar K; Pastoors MJH; Tiktak A; LDL
2005-01-01
Het Landelijk Grondwatermodel (LGM) en een een-dimensionaal model van de hydrologie van de onverzadigde zone (SWAP) zijn gekoppeld. Met dit gecombineerde model kunnen de waterstromen in het bodem- en grondwatersysteem, alsmede de stromingen vanuit het grondwater naar het oppervlaktewater, berekend worden. Het model kan zodoende de hydrologische invoer leveren voor studies naar de belasting van grond- en oppervlaktewater met nutrienten en gewasbeschermingsmiddelen. Een andere mogelijke toepass...
Unsaturated porous media flow with thermomechanical interaction
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Albers, B.; Krejčí, Pavel
2016-01-01
Roč. 39, č. 9 (2016), s. 2220-2238 ISSN 0170-4214 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-12227S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : flows in porous media * problems involving hysteresis Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mma.3635/abstract
Evaluation of probabilistic flow in two unsaturated soils
Boateng, Samuel
2001-11-01
A variably saturated flow model is coupled to a first-order reliability algorithm to simulate unsaturated flow in two soils. The unsaturated soil properties are considered as uncertain variables with means, standard deviations, and marginal probability distributions. Thus, each simulation constitutes an unsaturated probability flow event. Sensitivities of the uncertain variables are estimated for each event. The unsaturated hydraulic properties of a fine-textured soil and a coarse-textured soil are used. The properties are based on the van Genuchten model. The flow domain has a recharge surface, a seepage boundary along the bottom, and a no-flow boundary along the sides. The uncertain variables are saturated water content, residual water content, van Genuchten model parameters alpha (α) and n, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. The objective is to evaluate the significance of each uncertain variable to the probabilistic flow. Under wet conditions, saturated water content and residual water content are the most significant uncertain variables in the sand. For dry conditions in the sand, however, the van Genuchten model parameters α and n are the most significant. Model parameter n and saturated hydraulic conductivity are the most significant for the wet clay loam. Saturated water content is most significant for the dry clay loam. Résumé. Un modèle d'écoulement variable en milieu saturé est couplé à un algorithme d'exactitude de premier ordre pour simuler les écoulements en milieu non saturé dans deux sols. Les propriétés des sols non saturés sont considérés comme des variables incertaines avec des moyennes, des écarts-types et des distributions de probabilité marginale. Ainsi chaque simulation constitue un événement d'écoulement non saturé probable. La sensibilité des variables incertaines est estimée pour chaque événement. Les propriétés hydrauliques non saturées d'un sol à texture fine et d'un sol à texture grossière sont utilis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeh, G.T.
1987-08-01
The 3DFEMWATER model is designed to treat heterogeneous and anisotropic media consisting of as many geologic formations as desired, consider both distributed and point sources/sinks that are spatially and temporally dependent, accept the prescribed initial conditions or obtain them by simulating a steady state version of the system under consideration, deal with a transient head distributed over the Dirichlet boundary, handle time-dependent fluxes due to pressure gradient varying along the Neumann boundary, treat time-dependent total fluxes distributed over the Cauchy boundary, automatically determine variable boundary conditions of evaporation, infiltration, or seepage on the soil-air interface, include the off-diagonal hydraulic conductivity components in the modified Richards equation for dealing with cases when the coordinate system does not coincide with the principal directions of the hydraulic conductivity tensor, give three options for estimating the nonlinear matrix, include two options (successive subregion block iterations and successive point interactions) for solving the linearized matrix equations, automatically reset time step size when boundary conditions or source/sinks change abruptly, and check the mass balance computation over the entire region for every time step. The model is verified with analytical solutions or other numerical models for three examples
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yeh, G.T.
1987-08-01
The 3DFEMWATER model is designed to treat heterogeneous and anisotropic media consisting of as many geologic formations as desired, consider both distributed and point sources/sinks that are spatially and temporally dependent, accept the prescribed initial conditions or obtain them by simulating a steady state version of the system under consideration, deal with a transient head distributed over the Dirichlet boundary, handle time-dependent fluxes due to pressure gradient varying along the Neumann boundary, treat time-dependent total fluxes distributed over the Cauchy boundary, automatically determine variable boundary conditions of evaporation, infiltration, or seepage on the soil-air interface, include the off-diagonal hydraulic conductivity components in the modified Richards equation for dealing with cases when the coordinate system does not coincide with the principal directions of the hydraulic conductivity tensor, give three options for estimating the nonlinear matrix, include two options (successive subregion block iterations and successive point interactions) for solving the linearized matrix equations, automatically reset time step size when boundary conditions or source/sinks change abruptly, and check the mass balance computation over the entire region for every time step. The model is verified with analytical solutions or other numerical models for three examples.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rockhold, M.L.
1993-02-01
A field-scale, unsaturated flow and solute transport experiment at the Las Cruces trench site in New Mexico was simulated as part of a ''blind'' modeling exercise to demonstrate the ability or inability of uncalibrated models to predict unsaturated flow and solute transport in spatially variable porous media. Simulations were conducted using a recently developed multiphase flow and transport simulator. Uniform and heterogeneous soil models were tested, and data from a previous experiment at the site were used with an inverse procedure to estimate water retention parameters. A spatial moment analysis was used to provide a quantitative basis for comparing the mean observed and simulated flow and transport behavior. The results of this study suggest that defensible predictions of waste migration and fate at low-level waste sites will ultimately require site-specific data for model calibration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, Annette Pia; Glass, R.J.; Hollenbeck, K.J.
2001-01-01
-scale heterogeneities. Because the mixture of these microscale processes yields macroscale effective behavior, measured unsaturated flow properties are also a function of these controls. Such results suggest limitations on the current definitions and uniqueness of unsaturated hydraulic properties....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rechard, Rob P.; Birkholzer, Jens T.; Wu, Yu-Shu; Stein, Joshua S.; Houseworth, James E.
2014-01-01
This paper summarizes the progression of modeling efforts of infiltration, percolation, and seepage conducted between 1984 and 2008 to evaluate feasibility, viability, and assess compliance of a repository in the unsaturated zone for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Scientific understanding of infiltration in a desert environment, unsaturated percolation flux in fractures and matrix of the volcanic tuff, and seepage into an open drift in a thermally perturbed environment was initially lacking in 1984. As understanding of the Yucca Mountain disposal system increased through site characterization and in situ testing, modeling of infiltration, percolation, and seepage evolved from simple assumptions in a single model in 1984 to three modeling modules each based on several detailed process models in 2008. Uncertainty in percolation flux through Yucca Mountain was usually important in explaining the observed uncertainty in performance measures:cumulative release in assessments prior to 1995 and individual dose, thereafter. - Highlights: • Progression of modeling of infiltration, percolation, and seepage conducted is described for a geological repository at Yucca Mountain. • Progression from 1-D in single equivalent to 3-D model of percolation in dual permeability continuum is described. • Introduction of an infiltration boundary condition in 1998 and the refinement for evaluating uncertainty for the license application is described. • Introduction of a seepage module that included calibration to in-site measurements and separating uncertainty and variability is described
Mishra, Phoolendra Kumar; Neuman, Shlomo P.
2010-07-01
We present an analytical solution for flow to a partially penetrating well in a compressible unconfined aquifer that allows inferring its saturated and unsaturated hydraulic properties from drawdowns recorded in the saturated and/or unsaturated zone. We improve upon a previous such solution due to Tartakovsky and Neuman (2007) by (1) adopting a more flexible representation of unsaturated zone constitutive properties and (2) allowing the unsaturated zone to have finite thickness. Both solutions account for horizontal as well as vertical flows throughout the system. We investigate the effects of unsaturated zone constitutive parameters and thickness on drawdowns in the saturated and unsaturated zones as functions of position and time; demonstrate the development of significant horizontal hydraulic gradients in the unsaturated zone in response to pumping; validate our solution against numerical simulations of drawdown in a synthetic aquifer having unsaturated properties described by the van Genuchten-Mualem constitutive model; use our solution to analyze drawdown data from a pumping test conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey at Cape Cod, Massachusetts; and compare our estimates of van Genuchten-Mualem parameters with laboratory values obtained for similar materials in the area.
A semi-analytical solution for slug tests in an unconfined aquifer considering unsaturated flow
Sun, Hongbing
2016-01-01
A semi-analytical solution considering the vertical unsaturated flow is developed for groundwater flow in response to a slug test in an unconfined aquifer in Laplace space. The new solution incorporates the effects of partial penetrating, anisotropy, vertical unsaturated flow, and a moving water table boundary. Compared to the Kansas Geological Survey (KGS) model, the new solution can significantly improve the fittings of the modeled to the measured hydraulic heads at the late stage of slug tests in an unconfined aquifer, particularly when the slug well has a partially submerged screen and moisture drainage above the water table is significant. The radial hydraulic conductivities estimated with the new solution are comparable to those from the KGS, Bouwer and Rice, and Hvorslev methods. In addition, the new solution also can be used to examine the vertical conductivity, specific storage, specific yield, and the moisture retention parameters in an unconfined aquifer based on slug test data.
Polluted soil leaching: unsaturated conditions and flow rate effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chourouk Mathlouthi
2017-04-01
Full Text Available In this study, soil samples are extracted from a polluted site at different depths. Soils texture and pollutant presence are different with depth. Preliminary analyzes showed pollution by heavy metals. To simulate soil leaching operation in static condition, a series of leaching tests are conducted in laboratory column under conditions of upflow unsaturated soil. Electrical conductivity and pH measurements on the recovered leachate are performed. Different flow rates are tested. Comparison of different profiles shows that the dissolved pollutants are concentrated in the upper soil levels and disperse weakly in the lower parts which confirm the nature of anthropogenic pollution of heavy metals. Water mobilizes a high amount of dissolved ionic substances up to 80% of the initial concentration. The increase in flow rate requires more pore volume injected to achieve the maximum clearance rate. The down flow condition extracts a small amount of dissolved substances.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, Quanlin; Liu, Hui-Hai; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.
2002-01-01
The heterogeneity of hydrogeologic properties at different scales may have different effects on flow and transport processes in a subsurface system. A model for the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is developed to represent complex heterogeneity at two different scales: (1) layer scale corresponding to geologic layering and (2) local scale. The layer-scale hydrogeologic properties are obtained using inverse modeling, based on the available measurements collected from the Yucca Mountain site. Calibration results show a significant lateral and vertical variability in matrix and fracture properties. Hydrogeologic property distributions in a two-dimensional, vertical cross section of the site are generated by combining the average layer-scale matrix and fracture properties with local-scale perturbations generated using a stochastic simulation method. The unsaturated water flow and conservative (nonsorbing) tracer transport through the cross section are simulated for different sets of matrix and fracture property fields. Comparison of simulation results indicates that the local-scale heterogeneity of matrix and fracture properties has a considerable effect on unsaturated flow processes, leading to fast flow paths in fractures and the matrix. These paths shorten the travel time of a conservative tracer from the source (repository) horizon in the unsaturated zone to the water table for small fractions of total released tracer mass. As a result, the local-scale heterogeneity also has a noticeable effect on global tracer transport processes, characterized by an average breakthrough curve at the water table, especially at the early arrival time of tracer mass. However, the effect is not significant at the later time after 20 percent tracer mass reaches the water table. The simulation results also verify that matrix diffusion plays an important role in overall solute transport processes in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ababou, R.
1991-08-01
This report develops a broad review and assessment of quantitative modeling approaches and data requirements for large-scale subsurface flow in radioactive waste geologic repository. The data review includes discussions of controlled field experiments, existing contamination sites, and site-specific hydrogeologic conditions at Yucca Mountain. Local-scale constitutive models for the unsaturated hydrodynamic properties of geologic media are analyzed, with particular emphasis on the effect of structural characteristics of the medium. The report further reviews and analyzes large-scale hydrogeologic spatial variability from aquifer data, unsaturated soil data, and fracture network data gathered from the literature. Finally, various modeling strategies toward large-scale flow simulations are assessed, including direct high-resolution simulation, and coarse-scale simulation based on auxiliary hydrodynamic models such as single equivalent continuum and dual-porosity continuum. The roles of anisotropy, fracturing, and broad-band spatial variability are emphasized. 252 refs
Prediction of unsaturated flow and water backfill during infiltration in layered soils
Cui, Guotao; Zhu, Jianting
2018-02-01
We develop a new analytical infiltration model to determine water flow dynamics around layer interfaces during infiltration process in layered soils. The model mainly involves the analytical solutions to quadratic equations to determine the flux rates around the interfaces. Active water content profile behind the wetting front is developed based on the solution of steady state flow to dynamically update active parameters in sharp wetting front infiltration equations and to predict unsaturated flow in coarse layers before the front reaches an impeding fine layer. The effect of water backfill to saturate the coarse layers after the wetting front encounters the impeding fine layer is analytically expressed based on the active water content profiles. Comparison to the numerical solutions of the Richards equation shows that the new model can well capture water dynamics in relation to the arrangement of soil layers. The steady state active water content profile can be used to predict the saturation state of all layers when the wetting front first passes through these layers during the unsteady infiltration process. Water backfill effect may occur when the unsaturated wetting front encounters a fine layer underlying a coarse layer. Sensitivity analysis shows that saturated hydraulic conductivity is the parameter dictating the occurrence of unsaturated flow and water backfill and can be used to represent the coarseness of soil layers. Water backfill effect occurs in coarse layers between upper and lower fine layers when the lower layer is not significantly coarser than the upper layer.
Nonlinear dynamics in flow through unsaturated fractured-porous media: Status and perspectives
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faybishenko, Boris
2002-11-27
The need has long been recognized to improve predictions of flow and transport in partially saturated heterogeneous soils and fractured rock of the vadose zone for many practical applications, such as remediation of contaminated sites, nuclear waste disposal in geological formations, and climate predictions. Until recently, flow and transport processes in heterogeneous subsurface media with oscillating irregularities were assumed to be random and were not analyzed using methods of nonlinear dynamics. The goals of this paper are to review the theoretical concepts, present the results, and provide perspectives on investigations of flow and transport in unsaturated heterogeneous soils and fractured rock, using the methods of nonlinear dynamics and deterministic chaos. The results of laboratory and field investigations indicate that the nonlinear dynamics of flow and transport processes in unsaturated soils and fractured rocks arise from the dynamic feedback and competition between various nonlinear physical processes along with complex geometry of flow paths. Although direct measurements of variables characterizing the individual flow processes are not technically feasible, their cumulative effect can be characterized by analyzing time series data using the models and methods of nonlinear dynamics and chaos. Identifying flow through soil or rock as a nonlinear dynamical system is important for developing appropriate short- and long-time predictive models, evaluating prediction uncertainty, assessing the spatial distribution of flow characteristics from time series data, and improving chemical transport simulations. Inferring the nature of flow processes through the methods of nonlinear dynamics could become widely used in different areas of the earth sciences.
Nonlinear dynamics in flow through unsaturated fractured porous media: Status and perspectives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faybishenko, Boris
2002-01-01
The need has long been recognized to improve predictions of flow and transport in partially saturated heterogeneous soils and fractured rock of the vadose zone for many practical applications, such as remediation of contaminated sites, nuclear waste disposal in geological formations, and climate predictions. Until recently, flow and transport processes in heterogeneous subsurface media with oscillating irregularities were assumed to be random and were not analyzed using methods of nonlinear dynamics. The goals of this paper are to review the theoretical concepts, present the results, and provide perspectives on investigations of flow and transport in unsaturated heterogeneous soils and fractured rock, using the methods of nonlinear dynamics and deterministic chaos. The results of laboratory and field investigations indicate that the nonlinear dynamics of flow and transport processes in unsaturated soils and fractured rocks arise from the dynamic feedback and competition between various nonlinear physical processes along with complex geometry of flow paths. Although direct measurements of variables characterizing the individual flow processes are not technically feasible, their cumulative effect can be characterized by analyzing time series data using the models and methods of nonlinear dynamics and chaos. Identifying flow through soil or rock as a nonlinear dynamical system is important for developing appropriate short- and long-time predictive models, evaluating prediction uncertainty, assessing the spatial distribution of flow characteristics from time series data, and improving chemical transport simulations. Inferring the nature of flow processes through the methods of nonlinear dynamics could become widely used in different areas of the earth sciences
The unsaturated flow in porous media with dynamic capillary pressure
Milišić, Josipa-Pina
2018-05-01
In this paper we consider a degenerate pseudoparabolic equation for the wetting saturation of an unsaturated two-phase flow in porous media with dynamic capillary pressure-saturation relationship where the relaxation parameter depends on the saturation. Following the approach given in [13] the existence of a weak solution is proved using Galerkin approximation and regularization techniques. A priori estimates needed for passing to the limit when the regularization parameter goes to zero are obtained by using appropriate test-functions, motivated by the fact that considered PDE allows a natural generalization of the classical Kullback entropy. Finally, a special care was given in obtaining an estimate of the mixed-derivative term by combining the information from the capillary pressure with the obtained a priori estimates on the saturation.
Unsaturated flow and transport research questions and priorities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chery, D.L.
1993-01-01
A little over two years ago, a similar meeting (Workshop IV - Flow and Transport through Unsaturated Fractured Rock; Related to High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal) was held her in Tucson, Arizona, to discuss the same issues discussed here the past 4 days. This presentation revisits what was said 2 years ago, reviews research needs that have been articulated by the licensing staff of the Division of High-Level Waste Management, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and presents some of the thoughts on research needs resulting from the deliberations of a special committee of the National Research Council. After considering these aspects the questions of what has been accomplished in the past 2 years and where attention and energies should be focused in the coming few years, can be asked. 3 refs
Two-dimensional steady unsaturated flow through embedded elliptical layers
Bakker, Mark; Nieber, John L.
2004-12-01
New analytic element solutions are presented for unsaturated, two-dimensional steady flow in vertical planes that include nonoverlapping impermeable elliptical layers and elliptical inhomogeneities. The hydraulic conductivity, which is represented by an exponential function of the pressure head, differs between the inside and outside of an elliptical inhomogeneity; both the saturated hydraulic conductivity and water retention parameters are allowed to differ between the inside and outside. The Richards equation is transformed, through the Kirchhoff transformation and a second standard transformation, into the modified Helmholtz equation. Analytic element solutions are obtained through separation of variables in elliptical coordinates. The resulting equations for the Kirchhoff potential consist of infinite sums of products of exponentials and modified Mathieu functions. In practical applications the series are truncated but still fulfill the differential equation exactly; boundary conditions are met approximately but up to machine accuracy, provided that enough terms are used. The pressure head, saturation, and flow may be computed analytically at any point in the vadose zone. Examples are given of the shadowing effect of an impermeable elliptical layer in a uniform flow field and funnel-type flow between two elliptical inhomogeneities. The presented solutions may be applied to study transport processes in vadose zones containing many impermeable elliptical layers or elliptical inhomogeneities.
Sensitivity Analysis of Unsaturated Flow and Contaminant Transport with Correlated Parameters
Relative contributions from uncertainties in input parameters to the predictive uncertainties in unsaturated flow and contaminant transport are investigated in this study. The objectives are to: (1) examine the effects of input parameter correlations on the sensitivity of unsaturated flow and conta...
Unsaturated Zone Effects in Predicting Landslide and Debris-Flow Initiation
Baum, R. L.; Godt, J. W.; Savage, W. Z.
2006-12-01
Many destructive debris flows begin as shallow landslides induced by direct infiltration of intense rainfall and storm runoff into hillside materials. Predicting the timing and location of debris-flow initiation is needed to assess the debris-flow hazard of an area. Theoretical models and real-time monitoring of rainfall infiltration into unsaturated hillside materials provide useful insights into the mechanisms and timing of rainfall-induced landslides. We modeled the infiltration process using a two-layer system that consists of an unsaturated zone above a saturated zone, and then implemented this model in a GIS framework. The model couples analytical solutions for transient, unsaturated, vertical infiltration above the water table to pressure-diffusion solutions for pressure changes below the water table. The solutions are coupled through a transient water table that rises as water accumulates at the base of the unsaturated zone. This scheme, though limited to simplified soil- water characteristics and moist initial conditions, greatly improves computational efficiency over numerical models in spatially distributed modeling applications. Pore pressures computed by these coupled models are subsequently used in slope-stability computations to estimate the timing and locations of slope failures. Preliminary model results indicate that the unsaturated layer attenuates and delays the rainfall-induced pore- pressure response at depth, consistent with observations at an instrumented hillside near Edmonds, Washington. This attenuation reduces the area of false-positive predictions (when compared with results of linear models for suction-saturated initial conditions) in distributed application of the model over an area. Modeling indicates that initial wetness of the hillside materials affects the intensity and duration of rainfall required to trigger shallow landslides and consequently the timing of their occurrence, a result that is also consistent with observations of
A free boundary problem describing the saturated-unsaturated flow in a porous medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriela Marinoschi
2004-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a functional approach to a nonlinear model describing the complete physical process of water infiltration into an unsaturated soil, including the saturation occurrence and the advance of the wetting front. The model introduced in this paper involves a multivalued operator covering the simultaneous saturated and unsaturated flow behaviors and enhances the study of the displacement of the free boundary between these two flow regimes. The model resides in Richards' equation written in pressure form with an initial condition and boundary conditions which in this work express the inflow due to the rain on the soil surface on the one hand, and characterize a certain permeability corresponding to the underground boundary, on the other hand. Existence, uniqueness, and regularity results for the transformed model in diffusive form, that is, for the moisture of the soil, and the existence of the weak solution for the pressure form are proved in the 3D case. The main part of the paper focuses on the existence of the free boundary between the saturated and unsaturated parts of the soil, and this is proved, in the 1D case, for certain stronger assumptions on the initial data and boundary conditions.
Parallel computing simulation of fluid flow in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Keni; Wu, Yu-Shu; Bodvarsson, G.S.
2001-01-01
This paper presents the application of parallel computing techniques to large-scale modeling of fluid flow in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this study, parallel computing techniques, as implemented into the TOUGH2 code, are applied in large-scale numerical simulations on a distributed-memory parallel computer. The modeling study has been conducted using an over-one-million-cell three-dimensional numerical model, which incorporates a wide variety of field data for the highly heterogeneous fractured formation at Yucca Mountain. The objective of this study is to analyze the impact of various surface infiltration scenarios (under current and possible future climates) on flow through the UZ system, using various hydrogeological conceptual models with refined grids. The results indicate that the one-million-cell models produce better resolution results and reveal some flow patterns that cannot be obtained using coarse-grid modeling models
Numerical simulation of gas flow through unsaturated fractured rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooper, C.A.
1990-01-01
Numerical analysis is used to identify the physical phenomena associated with barometrically driven gas (air and water vapor) flow through unsaturated fractured rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Results from simple finite difference simulations indicate that for a fractured rock scenario, the maximum velocity of air out of an uncased 10 cm borehole is 0.002 m s -1 . An equivalent porous medium (EPM) model was incorporated into a multiphase, multicomponent simulator to test more complex conceptual models. Results indicate that for a typical June day, a diurnal pressure wave propagates about 160 m into the surrounding Tiva Canyon hydrogeologic unit. Dry air that enters the formation evaporates water around the borehole which reduces capillary pressure. Multiphase countercurrent flow develops in the vicinity of the hole; the gas phase flows into the formation while the liquid phase flows toward the borehole. The effect occurs within 0.5 m of the borehole. The amount of water vapor leaving the formation during 1 day is 900 cm 3 . This is less than 0.1% of the total recharge into the formation, suggesting that the barometric effect may be insignificant in drying the unsaturated zone. However, gas phase velocities out of the borehole (3 m s -1 ), indicating that observed flow rates from wells along the east flank of Yucca Mountain were able to be simulated with a barometric model
Effective media models for unsaturated fractured rock: A field experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicholl, M.J.; Glass, R.J.
1995-01-01
A thick unsaturated rock mass at Yucca Mountain is currently under consideration as a potential repository site for disposal of high level radioactive waste. In accordance with standard industry and scientific practices, abstract numerical models will be used to evaluate the potential for radionuclide release through the groundwater system. At this time, currently available conceptual models used to develop effective media properties are based primarily on simplistic considerations. The work presented here is part of an integrated effort to develop effective media models at the intermediate block scale (approximately 8-125m) through a combination of physical observations, numerical simulations and theoretical considerations. A multi-purpose field experiment designed and conducted as part of this integrated effort is described. Specific goals of this experimental investigation were to: (1) obtain fracture network data from Topopah Spring Tuff for use in block scale simulations; (2) identity positions of the network conducting flow under three different boundary conditions; (3) visualize preferential flow paths and small-scale flow structures; (4) collect samples for subsequent hydraulic testing and use in block-scale simulations; and (5) demonstrate the ability of Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) to delineate fluid distribution within fractured rock
Quantifying water flow and retention in an unsaturated fracture-facial domain
Nimmo, John R.; Malek-Mohammadi, Siamak
2015-01-01
Hydrologically significant flow and storage of water occur in macropores and fractures that are only partially filled. To accommodate such processes in flow models, we propose a three-domain framework. Two of the domains correspond to water flow and water storage in a fracture-facial region, in addition to the third domain of matrix water. The fracture-facial region, typically within a fraction of a millimeter of the fracture wall, includes a flowing phase whose fullness is determined by the availability and flux of preferentially flowing water, and a static storage portion whose fullness is determined by the local matric potential. The flow domain can be modeled with the source-responsive preferential flow model, and the roughness-storage domain can be modeled with capillary relations applied on the fracture-facial area. The matrix domain is treated using traditional unsaturated flow theory. We tested the model with application to the hydrology of the Chalk formation in southern England, coherently linking hydrologic information including recharge estimates, streamflow, water table fluctuation, imaging by electron microscopy, and surface roughness. The quantitative consistency of the three-domain matrix-microcavity-film model with this body of diverse data supports the hypothesized distinctions and active mechanisms of the three domains and establishes the usefulness of this framework.
Tartakovsky, Guzel D.; Neuman, Shlomo P.
2007-01-01
A new analytical solution is presented for the delayed response process characterizing flow to a partially penetrating well in an unconfined aquifer. The new solution generalizes that of Neuman (1972, 1974) by accounting for unsaturated flow above the water table. Three-dimensional, axially symmetric flow in the unsaturated zone is described by a linearized version of Richards' equation in which hydraulic conductivity and water content vary exponentially with incremental capillary pressure head relative to its air entry value (defining the interface between the saturated and unsaturated zones). Unsaturated soil properties are characterized by an exponent κ having the dimension of inverse length or, equivalently, a dimensionless exponent κD = κb, where b is initial saturated thickness. Our treatment of the unsaturated zone is similar to that of Kroszynski and Dagan (1975), who, however, have ignored internal (artesian) aquifer storage. According to Kroszynski and Dagan, aquifers that are not excessively shallow have values of κD (their parameter a) much greater than 10. We find that in such typical cases, unsaturated flow has little impact on early and late dimensionless time drawdown a short distance below the water table. Unsaturated flow causes drawdown to increase slightly at intermediate dimensionless time values that represent transition from an early artesian-dominated to a late water-table-dominated flow regime. Delayed drainage from the unsaturated zone becomes less and less important as κD increases; as κD → ∞, this effect dies out, and drawdown is controlled entirely by delayed decline in the water table as in the model of Neuman. The unsaturated zone has a major impact on drawdown at intermediate time and a significant impact at early and late times, in the atypical case of κD ≤ 1, becoming the dominant factor as κD approaches zero (the soil water retention capacity becomes very large and/or saturated thickness becomes insignificant). Our
Mirus, Benjamin B.; Nimmo, J.R.
2013-01-01
The impact of preferential flow on recharge and contaminant transport poses a considerable challenge to water-resources management. Typical hydrologic models require extensive site characterization, but can underestimate fluxes when preferential flow is significant. A recently developed source-responsive model incorporates film-flow theory with conservation of mass to estimate unsaturated-zone preferential fluxes with readily available data. The term source-responsive describes the sensitivity of preferential flow in response to water availability at the source of input. We present the first rigorous tests of a parsimonious formulation for simulating water table fluctuations using two case studies, both in arid regions with thick unsaturated zones of fractured volcanic rock. Diffuse flow theory cannot adequately capture the observed water table responses at both sites; the source-responsive model is a viable alternative. We treat the active area fraction of preferential flow paths as a scaled function of water inputs at the land surface then calibrate the macropore density to fit observed water table rises. Unlike previous applications, we allow the characteristic film-flow velocity to vary, reflecting the lag time between source and deep water table responses. Analysis of model performance and parameter sensitivity for the two case studies underscores the importance of identifying thresholds for initiation of film flow in unsaturated rocks, and suggests that this parsimonious approach is potentially of great practical value.
TSPA Model for the Yucca Mountain Unsaturated Zone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
M.L. Wilson; C.K. Ho
2001-01-01
Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being considered as a potential site for a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Total-system performance-assessment (TSPA) calculations are performed to evaluate the safety of the site. Such calculations require submodels for all important engineered and natural components of the disposal system. There are five submodels related to the unsaturated zone: climate, infiltration, mountain-scale flow of water, seepage into emplacement drifts, and radionuclide transport. For each of these areas, models have been developed and implemented for use in TSPA. The climate model is very simple (a set of climate states have been deduced from paleoclimate data, and the times when climate changes occur in the future have been estimated), but the other four models make use of complex process models involving time-consuming computer runs. An important goal is to evaluate the impact of uncertainties (e.g., incomplete knowledge of the site) on the estimates of potential repository performance, so particular attention is given to the key uncertainties for each area. Uncertainties in climate, infiltration, and mountain-scale flow are represented in TSPA simulations by means of discrete high, medium, and low cases, Uncertainties in seepage and radionuclide transport are represented by means of continuous probability distributions for several key parameters
Two-phase unsaturated flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Report on Current Understanding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pruess, K.
1998-01-01
The U.S. civilian nuclear waste program is unique in its focus on disposal of high-level wastes in the unsaturated zone (UZ), above the water table. The potential repository site currently under investigation is located in a semi-arid region of the southwestern U.S. at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The geology of the site consists of layered sequences of faulted, fractured, and bedded tuffs. The groundwater table is approximately 600 m beneath the land surface, while the proposed repository horizon is at a nominal depth of approximately 375 m. In this kind of environment, two-phase flow is not just a localized perturbation to natural conditions, as in the saturated zone, but is the predominant mode of water and gas flow. The purpose of this report is to review the current understanding of gas and water flow, and mass transport, in the unique hydrogeologic environment of Yucca Mountain. Characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site are examined, and concepts and mathematical modeling approaches are described for variably saturated flow in thick unsaturated zones of fractured rock. The paper includes a brief summary of the disposal concept and repository design, as developed by a team of engineering contractors to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), with strong participation from the DOE National Laboratories
Influence of transient flow on the mobility of strontium in unsaturated sand column
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazet, P.
2008-10-01
The reactive transport of 85 Sr was studied on laboratory columns, focusing on the influence of transient unsaturated flow (cycles of infiltration and redistribution) associated with controlled geochemistry (constant concentrations of major elements and stable strontium in water). An original experimental tool (gamma attenuation system) allows us to follow at the same time the variations of humidity of the soil and the migration of radionuclide, in a non-destroying and definite way. First stage of this study concerned the implementation of the experimental tool to measure transient hydraulic events within the columns of sand. Several experiments of transport of 85 Sr were then performed with different water condition (saturated, unsaturated, permanent and transient flow). Experimental results were simulated using the computer codes HYDRUS-1D (phenomenological approach with partition coefficient K d ) and HYTEC (mechanistic geochemical/transport approach). Confrontation between experience and modelling shows that, for our operating conditions, transfer of 85 Sr can be predicted with an 'operational' approach using: 1) simplified geochemical model with partition coefficient K d concerning interactive reaction with the soil (K d value determined independently on saturated column, with the same water geochemistry), 2) permanent saturated (or unsaturated) flow, taking into account the cumulated infiltrated water during unsaturated transient hydraulic events concerning hydrodynamic. Generalization of these results (area of validity) suggests that the 'cumulated infiltrated water + K d ' approach can be use, for controlled water geochemistry, when the numerical value of K d is fairly strong (K d ≥≥1), and that it is insensitive to the value of the water content. Moreover, the presence of immobile water (∼10%) recorded with tritium transport, is undetectable with strontium. Explanation of this result is allocated to the different characteristic time residence
Effect of Unsaturated Flow on Delayed Response of Unconfined Aquifiers to Pumping
Tartakovsky, G.; Neuman, S. P.
2005-12-01
A new analytical solution is presented for the delayed response process characterizing flow to a partially penetrating well in an unconfined aquifer. The new solution generalizes that of Neuman [1972, 1974] by accounting for unsaturated flow above the water table. Axially symmetric three-dimensional flow in the unsaturated zone is described by a linearized version of Richards' equation in which hydraulic conductivity and water content vary exponentially with incremental capillary pressure head relative to its air entry value (defining the interface between the saturated and unsaturated zones). Unsaturated soil properties are characterized by an exponent κ having the dimension of inverse length and a dimensionless exponent κD = κb where b is initial saturated thickness. Our treatment of the unsaturated zone is similar to that of Kroszynski and Dagan [1975] who however have ignored internal (artesian) aquifer storage. It has been suggested by Boulton [1954, 1963, 1970] and Neuman [1972, 1974], and is confirmed by our solution, that internal storage is required to reproduce the early increase in drawdown characterizing delayed response to pumping in typical aquifers. According to our new solution such aquifers are characterized by relatively large κ_ D values, typically 10 or larger; in the limit as κD tends to infinity (the soil unsaturated water retention capacity becomes insignificant and/or aquifer thickness become large), unsaturated flow becomes unimportant and our solution reduces to that of Neuman. In typical cases corresponding to κD larger than or equal to 10, unsaturated flow is found to have little impact on early and late dimensionless time behaviors of drawdown measured wholly or in part at some distance below the water table; unsaturated flow causes drawdown to increase slightly at intermediate dimensionless time values that represent transition from an early artesian dominated to a late water-table dominated flow regime. The increase in drawdown
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szenknect, St.
2003-10-01
This work is devoted to the quantification and the identification of the predominant processes involved in strontium and caesium transport in unsaturated soil from Chernobyl Pilot Site under steady flow conditions. The transport and fate of radionuclides in the subsurface is affected by various physical and chemical processes including advective and diffusive transport as well as chemical and biological transformations. Laboratory experiments and the use of a multiple tracer approach allow to isolate the contributions of each elementary process and to control the physico-chemical conditions in the system. To be more representative of the field conditions, we decided to perform column miscible displacement experiments. We perform batch and flow-through reactor experiments to characterize the radionuclides sorption mechanisms. Miscible displacement experiments within homogeneous columns and modeling allow to characterize the hydrodynamic properties of the soil and to describe the radionuclides behaviour under dynamic conditions at different water contents. We show that the water content of porous media affect the transport behaviour of inert and strongly sorbing radionuclides. Our results demonstrate that a parametrized transport model that was calibrated under completely saturated conditions was not able to describe the advective-dispersive transport of reactive solutes under unsaturated steady state conditions. Under our experimental conditions, there is no effect of a decrease of the mean water content on the sorption model parameters, but the transport parameters are modified. We established for the studied soil the relation between hydrodynamic dispersion and water content and the relation between pore water velocity and water content. (author)
Validation studies for assessing unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bassett, R.L.; Neuman, S.P.; Rasmussen, T.C.; Guzman, A.; Davidson, G.R.; Lohrstorfer, C.F.
1994-08-01
*The objectives of this contract are to examine hypotheses and conceptual models concerning unsaturated flow and transport through heterogeneous fractured rock and to design and execute confirmatory field and laboratory experiments to test these hypotheses and conceptual models. Important new information is presented such as the application and evaluation of procedures for estimating hydraulic, pneumatic, and solute transport coefficients for a range of thermal regimes. A field heater experiment was designed that focused on identifying the suitability of existing monitoring equipment to obtain required data. A reliable method was developed for conducting and interpreting tests for air permeability using a straddle-packer arrangement. Detailed studies of fracture flow from Queen Creek into the Magina Copper Company ore haulage tunnel have been initiated. These studies will provide data on travel time for transport of water and solute in unsaturated tuff. The collection of rainfall runoff, and infiltration data at two small watersheds at the Apache Leap Tuff Site enabled us to evaluate the quantity and rate of water infiltrating into the subsurface via either fractures or matrix. Characterization methods for hydraulic parameters relevant to Weigh-level waste transport, including fracture apertures, transmissivity, matrix porosity, and fracture wetting front propagation velocities, were developed
Validation studies for assessing unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bassett, R.L.; Neuman, S.P.; Rasmussen, T.C.; Guzman, A.; Davidson, G.R.; Lohrstorfer, C.F. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Hydrology and Water Resources
1994-08-01
*The objectives of this contract are to examine hypotheses and conceptual models concerning unsaturated flow and transport through heterogeneous fractured rock and to design and execute confirmatory field and laboratory experiments to test these hypotheses and conceptual models. Important new information is presented such as the application and evaluation of procedures for estimating hydraulic, pneumatic, and solute transport coefficients for a range of thermal regimes. A field heater experiment was designed that focused on identifying the suitability of existing monitoring equipment to obtain required data. A reliable method was developed for conducting and interpreting tests for air permeability using a straddle-packer arrangement. Detailed studies of fracture flow from Queen Creek into the Magina Copper Company ore haulage tunnel have been initiated. These studies will provide data on travel time for transport of water and solute in unsaturated tuff. The collection of rainfall runoff, and infiltration data at two small watersheds at the Apache Leap Tuff Site enabled us to evaluate the quantity and rate of water infiltrating into the subsurface via either fractures or matrix. Characterization methods for hydraulic parameters relevant to Weigh-level waste transport, including fracture apertures, transmissivity, matrix porosity, and fracture wetting front propagation velocities, were developed.
Kordilla, J.; Noffz, T.; Dentz, M.; Sauter, M.
2017-12-01
To assess the vulnerability of an aquifer system it is of utmost importance to recognize the high potential for a rapid mass transport offered by ow through unsaturated fracture networks. Numerical models have to reproduce complex effects of gravity-driven flow dynamics to generate accurate predictions of flow and transport. However, the non-linear characteristics of free surface flow dynamics and partitioning behaviour at unsaturated fracture intersections often exceed the capacity of classical volume-effective modelling approaches. Laboratory experiments that manage to isolate single aspects of the mass partitioning process can enhance the understanding of underlying dynamics, which ultimately influence travel time distributions on multiple scales. Our analogue fracture network consists of synthetic cubes with dimensions of 20 x 20 x 20 cm creating simple geometries of a single or a cascade of consecutive horizontal fractures. Gravity-driven free surface flow (droplets; rivulets) is established via a high precision multichannel dispenser at flow rates ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 ml/min. Single-inlet experiments show the influence of variable flow rate, atmospheric pressure and temperature on the stability of flow modes and allow to delineate a droplet and rivulet regime. The transition between these regimes exhibits mixed flow characteristics. In addition, multi-inlet setups with constant total infow rates decrease the variance induced by erratic free-surface flow dynamics. We investigate the impacts of variable aperture widths, horizontal offsets of vertical fracture surfaces, and alternating injection methods for both flow regimes. Normalized fracture inflow rates allow to demonstrate and compare the effects of variable geometric features. Firstly, the fracture filling can be described by plug flow. At later stages it transitions into a Washburn-type flow, which we compare to an analytical solution for the case of rivulet flow. Observations show a considerably
Unsaturated Groundwater Flow Beneath Upper Mortandad Canyon, Los Alamos, New Mexico
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dander, David Carl [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
1998-10-15
Mortandad Canyon is a discharge site for treated industrial effluents containing radionuclides and other chemicals at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. This study was conducted to develop an understanding of the unsaturated hydrologic behavior below the canyon floor. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the hypothetical performance of the vadose zone above the water table. Numerical simulations of unsaturated groundwater flow at the site were conducted using the Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer (FEHM) code. A two-dimensional cross-section along the canyon's axis was used to model flow between an alluvial groundwater system and the regional aquifer approximately 300 m below. Using recharge estimated from a water budget developed in 1967, the simulations showed waters from the perched water table reaching the regional aquifer in 13.8 years, much faster than previously thought. Additionally, simulations indicate that saturation is occurring in the Guaje pumice bed an d that the Tshirege Unit 1B is near saturation. Lithologic boundaries between the eight materials play an important role in flow and solute transport within the system. Horizontal flow is shown to occur in three thin zones above capillary barriers; however, vertical flow dominates the system. Other simulations were conducted to examine the effects of changing system parameters such as varying recharge inputs, varying the distribution of recharge, and bypassing fast-path fractured basalt of uncertain extent and properties. System sensitivity was also explored by changing model parameters with respect to size and types of grids and domains, and the presence of dipping stratigraphy.
Sinai, G.; Dirksen, C.
2006-01-01
This paper describes laboratory experimental evidence for lateral flow in the top layer of unsaturated sloping soil due to rainfall. Water was applied uniformly on horizontal and V-shaped surfaces of fine sand, at rates about 100 times smaller than the saturated hydraulic conductivity. Flow regimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prédélus, Dieuseul; Lassabatere, Laurent; Louis, Cédric; Gehan, Hélène; Brichart, Thomas; Winiarski, Thierry; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael
2017-01-01
This paper presents the influence of ionic strength and flow on nanoparticle (NP) retention rate in an unsaturated calcareous medium, originating from a heterogeneous glaciofluvial deposit of the region of Lyon (France). Laboratory columns 10 cm in diameter and 30 cm in length were used. Silica nanoparticles (Au-SiO 2 -FluoNPs), with hydrodynamic diameter ranging from 50 to 60 nm and labeled with fluorescein derivatives, were used to simulate particle transport, and bromide was used to characterize flow. Three flow rates and five different ionic strengths were tested. The transfer model based on fractionation of water into mobile and immobile fractions was coupled with the attachment/detachment model to fit NPs breakthrough curves. The results show that increasing flow velocity induces a decrease in nanoparticle retention, probably as the result of several physical but also geochemical factors. The results show that NPs retention increases with ionic strength. However, an inversion of retention occurs for ionic strength >5.10 −2 M, which has been scarcely observed in previous studies. The measure of zeta potential and DLVO calculations show that NPs may sorb on both solid-water and air-water interfaces. NPs size distribution shows the potential for nanoparticle agglomeration mostly at low pH, leading to entrapment in the soil pores. These mechanisms are highly sensitive to both hydrodynamic and geochemical conditions, which explains their high sensitivity to flow rates and ionic strength.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prédélus, Dieuseul; Lassabatere, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.lassabatere@entpe.fr [Université de Lyon, Laboratoire d’Ecologie des Hydrosystèmes Naturels et Anthropisés, LEHNA (France); Louis, Cédric; Gehan, Hélène [Nano-H S.A.S., 2 place de l’Europe, Bâtiment A, Parc d’activité VALAD (France); Brichart, Thomas [Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Institut Lumière Matière, UMR 5306 CNRS (France); Winiarski, Thierry; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael [Université de Lyon, Laboratoire d’Ecologie des Hydrosystèmes Naturels et Anthropisés, LEHNA (France)
2017-03-15
This paper presents the influence of ionic strength and flow on nanoparticle (NP) retention rate in an unsaturated calcareous medium, originating from a heterogeneous glaciofluvial deposit of the region of Lyon (France). Laboratory columns 10 cm in diameter and 30 cm in length were used. Silica nanoparticles (Au-SiO{sub 2}-FluoNPs), with hydrodynamic diameter ranging from 50 to 60 nm and labeled with fluorescein derivatives, were used to simulate particle transport, and bromide was used to characterize flow. Three flow rates and five different ionic strengths were tested. The transfer model based on fractionation of water into mobile and immobile fractions was coupled with the attachment/detachment model to fit NPs breakthrough curves. The results show that increasing flow velocity induces a decrease in nanoparticle retention, probably as the result of several physical but also geochemical factors. The results show that NPs retention increases with ionic strength. However, an inversion of retention occurs for ionic strength >5.10{sup −2} M, which has been scarcely observed in previous studies. The measure of zeta potential and DLVO calculations show that NPs may sorb on both solid-water and air-water interfaces. NPs size distribution shows the potential for nanoparticle agglomeration mostly at low pH, leading to entrapment in the soil pores. These mechanisms are highly sensitive to both hydrodynamic and geochemical conditions, which explains their high sensitivity to flow rates and ionic strength.
Benchmarking variable-density flow in saturated and unsaturated porous media
Guevara Morel, Carlos Roberto; Cremer, Clemens; Graf, Thomas
2015-04-01
In natural environments, fluid density and viscosity can be affected by spatial and temporal variations of solute concentration and/or temperature. These variations can occur, for example, due to salt water intrusion in coastal aquifers, leachate infiltration from waste disposal sites and upconing of saline water from deep aquifers. As a consequence, potentially unstable situations may exist in which a dense fluid overlies a less dense fluid. This situation can produce instabilities that manifest as dense plume fingers that move vertically downwards counterbalanced by vertical upwards flow of the less dense fluid. Resulting free convection increases solute transport rates over large distances and times relative to constant-density flow. Therefore, the understanding of free convection is relevant for the protection of freshwater aquifer systems. The results from a laboratory experiment of saturated and unsaturated variable-density flow and solute transport (Simmons et al., Transp. Porous Medium, 2002) are used as the physical basis to define a mathematical benchmark. The HydroGeoSphere code coupled with PEST are used to estimate the optimal parameter set capable of reproducing the physical model. A grid convergency analysis (in space and time) is also undertaken in order to obtain the adequate spatial and temporal discretizations. The new mathematical benchmark is useful for model comparison and testing of variable-density variably saturated flow in porous media.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evans, D.D.; Nicholson, T.J.
1993-06-01
The ''Workshop on Flow and Transport Through Unsaturated Fractured Rock Related to High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal'' was cosponsored by the NRC, the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, and the University of Arizona (UAZ) and was held in Tucson, Arizona, on January 7--10, 1991. The focus of this workshop, similar to the earlier four (the first being in 1982), related to hydrogeologic technical issues associated with possible disposal of commercial high-level nuclear waste (HLW) in a geologic repository within an unsaturated fractured rock system which coincides with the UAZ field studies on HLW disposal. The presentations and discussions centered on flow and transport processes and conditions, relevant parameters, as well as state-of-the-art measurement techniques, and modeling capabilities. The workshop consisted of: four half-day technical meetings, a one day field visit to the Apache Leap test site to review ongoing field studies that are examining site characterization techniques and developing data sets for model validation studies, and a final half-day session devoted to examining research needs related to modeling groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in unsaturated, fractured rock. These proceedings provide extended abstracts of the technical presentations and short summaries of the research group reports
Effects of sorption and temperature on solute transport in unsaturated steady flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuentes, H.R.; Polzer, W.L.; Essington, E.H.
1986-01-01
It is known that temperature affects physical and chemical processes and that these processes may alter the transport of solutes in the environment. Laboratory column studies were performed in unsaturated flow conditions with a composite pulse containing iodide, cobalt, cesium and strontium each at 10 -3 M. The experiments were performed with Bandelier Tuff and produced breakthrough curves that indicate significant changes in transport due to a temperature change from 25 0 C to 5 0 C for nonconservative solutes. Also, the interpretation of the temperature and sorption data suggest that the differences in transport between 5 0 C and 25 0 C for nonconservative solutes may be predicted in a qualitative manner from batch equilibrium and nonequilibrium sorption data and the theory of sorption used in deriving the modified Freundlich isotherm equation. These effects should be of concern in modeling and management of spills and waste disposal within this range of environmental temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Tsang, Yvonne W.
2008-01-01
Flowing fluid temperature logging (FFTL) has been recently proposed as a method to locate flowing fractures. We argue that FFTL, backed up by data from high-precision distributed temperature sensors, can be a useful tool in locating flowing fractures and in estimating the transport properties of unsaturated fractured rocks. We have developed the theoretical background needed to analyze data from FFTL. In this paper, we present a simplified conceptualization of FFTL in unsaturated fractured rock, and develop a semianalytical solution for spatial and temporal variations of pressure and temperature inside a borehole in response to an applied perturbation (pumping of air from the borehole). We compare the semi-analytical solution with predictions from the TOUGH2 numerical simulator. Based on the semi-analytical solution, we propose a method to estimate the permeability of the fracture continuum surrounding the borehole. Using this proposed method, we estimated the effective fracture continuum permeability of the unsaturated rock hosting the Drift Scale Test (DST) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Our estimate compares well with previous independent estimates for fracture permeability of the DST host rock. The conceptual model of FFTL presented in this paper is based on the assumptions of single-phase flow, convection-only heat transfer, and negligible change in system state of the rock formation. In a sequel paper (Mukhopadhyay et al., 2008), we extend the conceptual model to evaluate some of these assumptions. We also perform inverse modeling of FFTL data to estimate, in addition to permeability, other transport parameters (such as porosity and thermal conductivity) of unsaturated fractured rocks
Unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock related to high-level waste repositories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evans, D.D.; Rasmussen, T.C.
1991-01-01
Research results are summarized for a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission contract with the University of Arizona focusing on field and laboratory methods for characterizing unsaturated fluid flow and solute transport related to high-level radioactive waste repositories. Characterization activities are presented for the Apache Leap Tuff field site. The field site is located in unsaturated, fractured tuff in central Arizona. Hydraulic, pneumatic, and thermal characteristics of the tuff are summarized, along with methodologies employed to monitor and sample hydrologic and geochemical processes at the field site. Thermohydrologic experiments are reported which provide laboratory and field data related to the effects conditions and flow and transport in unsaturated, fractured rock. 29 refs., 17 figs., 21 tabs
Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Ferre, Ty P.A.; Creutzfeldt, Benjamin
2016-01-01
Groundwater-level measurements in monitoring wells or piezometers are the most common, and often the only, hydrologic measurements made at artificial recharge facilities. Measurements of gravity change over time provide an additional source of information about changes in groundwater storage, infiltration, and for model calibration. We demonstrate that for an artificial recharge facility with a deep groundwater table, gravity data are more sensitive to movement of water through the unsaturated zone than are groundwater levels. Groundwater levels have a delayed response to infiltration, change in a similar manner at many potential monitoring locations, and are heavily influenced by high-frequency noise induced by pumping; in contrast, gravity changes start immediately at the onset of infiltration and are sensitive to water in the unsaturated zone. Continuous gravity data can determine infiltration rate, and the estimate is only minimally affected by uncertainty in water-content change. Gravity data are also useful for constraining parameters in a coupled groundwater-unsaturated zone model (Modflow-NWT model with the Unsaturated Zone Flow (UZF) package).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tran Ngoc, T.D.
2008-07-01
This Ph.D thesis presents the development of the solute transport models in unsaturated double-porosity medium, by using the asymptotic homogenization method. The obtained macroscopic models concern diffusion, diffusion-convection and dispersion-convection, according to the transport regime which is characterized by the non-dimensional numbers. The models consist of two coupled equations that show the local non-equilibrium of concentrations. The double-porosity transport models were numerically implemented using the code COMSOL Multiphysics (finite elements method), and compared with the solution of the same problem at the fine scale. The implementation allows solving the coupled equations in the macro- and micro-porosity domains (two-scale computations). The calculations of the dispersion tensor as a solution of the local boundary value problems, were also conducted. It was shown that the dispersivity depends on the saturation, the physical properties of the macro-porosity domain and the internal structure of the double-porosity medium. Finally, two series of experiments were performed on a physical model of double-porosity that is composed of a periodic assemblage of sintered clay spheres in Hostun sand HN38. The first experiment was a drainage experiment, which was conducted in order to validate the unsaturated flow model. The second series was a dispersion experiment in permanent unsaturated water flow condition (water content measured by gamma ray attenuation technique). A good agreement between the numerical simulations and the experimental observations allows the validation of the developed models. (author)
Saturated-unsaturated flow to a well with storage in a compressible unconfined aquifer
Mishra, Phoolendra Kumar; Neuman, Shlomo P.
2011-05-01
Mishra and Neuman (2010) developed an analytical solution for flow to a partially penetrating well of zero radius in a compressible unconfined aquifer that allows inferring its saturated and unsaturated hydraulic properties from responses recorded in the saturated and/or unsaturated zones. Their solution accounts for horizontal as well as vertical flows in each zone. It represents unsaturated zone constitutive properties in a manner that is at once mathematically tractable and sufficiently flexible to provide much improved fits to standard constitutive models. In this paper we extend the solution of [2010] to the case of a finite diameter pumping well with storage; investigate the effects of storage in the pumping well and delayed piezometer response on drawdowns in the saturated and unsaturated zones as functions of position and time; validate our solution against numerical simulations of drawdown in a synthetic aquifer having unsaturated properties described by the [1980]- [1976] model; use our solution to analyze 11 transducer-measured drawdown records from a seven-day pumping test conducted by University of Waterloo researchers at the Canadian Forces Base Borden in Ontario, Canada; validate our parameter estimates against manually-measured drawdown records in 14 other piezometers at Borden; and compare (a) our estimates of aquifer parameters with those obtained on the basis of all these records by [2008], (b) on the basis of 11 transducer-measured drawdown records by [2007], (c) our estimates of van Genuchten-Mualem parameters with those obtained on the basis of laboratory drainage data from the site by [1992], and (d) our corresponding prediction of how effective saturation varies with elevation above the initial water table under static conditions with a profile based on water contents measured in a neutron access tube at a radial distance of about 5 m from the center of the pumping well. We also use our solution to analyze 11 transducer-measured drawdown
Pollutant transport in clayey sands: reactive flows in saturated porous media and unsaturated flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cadalen, Sebastien
2008-01-01
In the context of nuclear risk control associated to nuclear waste storage, the french nuclear agency plays an increasing role in terms of research and development in the area of subsurface contamination. This study focuses on an homogeneous porous media constituted of Fontainebleau sand and clay grains (illite) presenting sorption capacities. The modeling of the complex geometry and physical phenomena at different scales enables us to describe the average transport at Darcy's scale. The two main axes developed are the impact of an heterogeneous sorption on transport phenomena and the dispersivity of an unsaturated porous media. (author) [fr
Zeng, Yijian; Su, Zhongbo; Wan, Li; Wen, Jun
2011-01-01
From a subsurface physical point of view, this paper discusses the necessity of considering the two‐phase heat and mass transfer process in land surface models (LSMs). The potential‐based equations of coupled mass and heat transport under constant air pressure form the basis of the proposed model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xianshan Liu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Water flow and hydromechanical coupling process in fractured rocks is more different from that in general porous media because of heterogeneous spatial fractures and possible fracture-dominated flow; a saturated-unsaturated hydromechanical coupling model using a discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA similar to FEM and DEM was employed to analyze water movement in saturated-unsaturated deformed rocks, in which the Van-Genuchten model differently treated the rock and fractures permeable properties to describe the constitutive relationships. The calibrating results for the dam foundation indicated the validation and feasibility of the proposed model and are also in good agreement with the calculations based on DEM still demonstrating its superiority. And then, the rainfall infiltration in a reservoir rock slope was detailedly investigated to describe the water pressure on the fault surface and inside the rocks, displacement, and stress distribution under hydromechanical coupling conditions and uncoupling conditions. It was observed that greater rainfall intensity and longer rainfall time resulted in lower stability of the rock slope, and larger difference was very obvious between the hydromechanical coupling condition and uncoupling condition, demonstrating that rainfall intensity, rainfall time, and hydromechanical coupling effect had great influence on the saturated-unsaturated water flow behavior and mechanical response of the fractured rock slopes.
Film thinning in unsaturated superfluid 4He films during persistent flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ekholm, D.T.; Hallock, R.B.
1979-01-01
We report measurements of the thickness of unsaturated superfluid 4 He films in persistent flow as a function of persistent current velocity. Our results are in quantitative agreement with the predictions of Kontorovich, and thus disagree with the conclusion of Rudnick and coworkers that rho/sub s//rho has an enhanced velocity dependence in these films
Experimental Investigation of Hysteretic Dynamic Capillarity Effect in Unsaturated Flow
Zhuang, Luwen; Hassanizadeh, S. Majid; Qin, Chao-Zhong; de Waal, Arjen
2017-11-01
The difference between average pressures of two immiscible fluids is commonly assumed to be the same as macroscopic capillary pressure, which is considered to be a function of saturation only. However, under transient conditions, a dependence of this pressure difference on the time rate of saturation change has been observed by many researchers. This is commonly referred to as dynamic capillarity effect. As a first-order approximation, the dynamic term is assumed to be linearly dependent on the time rate of change of saturation, through a material coefficient denoted by τ. In this study, a series of laboratory experiments were carried out to quantify the dynamic capillarity effect in an unsaturated sandy soil. Primary, main, and scanning drainage experiments, under both static and dynamic conditions, were performed on a sandy soil in a small cell. The value of the dynamic capillarity coefficient τ was calculated from the air-water pressure differences and average saturation values during static and dynamic drainage experiments. We found a dependence of τ on saturation, which showed a similar trend for all drainage conditions. However, at any given saturation, the value of τ for primary drainage was larger than the value for main drainage and that was in turn larger than the value for scanning drainage. Each data set was fit a simple log-linear equation, with different values of fitting parameters. This nonuniqueness of the relationship between τ and saturation and possible causes is discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moody, T.E.; Conca, J.
1996-09-01
Selected materials were tested to emulate a permeable barrier and to examine the (1) capture efficiency of these materials relating to the immobilization of strontium-90 and hexavalent chromium (Cr 6+ ) in Hanford Site groundwater; and (2) hydraulic conductivity of the barrier material relative to the surrounding area. The emplacement method investigated was a permeable reactive barrier to treat contaminated groundwater as it passes through the barrier. The hydraulic conductivity function was measured for each material, and retardation column experiments were performed for each material. Measurements determining the hydraulic conductivity at unsaturated through saturated water content were executed using the Unsaturated Flow Apparatus
Stochastic analysis of unsaturated steady flows above the water table
Severino, Gerardo; Scarfato, Maddalena; Comegna, Alessandro
2017-08-01
Steady flow takes place into a three-dimensional partially saturated porous medium where, due to their spatial variability, the saturated conductivity Ks, and the relative conductivity Kr are modeled as random space functions (RSF)s. As a consequence, the flow variables (FVs), i.e., pressure-head and specific flux, are also RSFs. The focus of the present paper consists into quantifying the uncertainty of the FVs above the water table. The simple expressions (most of which in closed form) of the second-order moments pertaining to the FVs allow one to follow the transitional behavior from the zone close to the water table (where the FVs are nonstationary), till to their far-field limit (where the FVs become stationary RSFs). In particular, it is shown how the stationary limits (and the distance from the water table at which stationarity is attained) depend upon the statistical structure of the RSFs Ks, Kr, and the infiltrating rate. The mean pressure head >> has been also computed, and it is expressed as =Ψ0>(1+ψ>), being ψ a characteristic heterogeneity function which modifies the zero-order approximation Ψ0 of the pressure head (valid for a vadose zone of uniform soil properties) to account for the spatial variability of Ks and Kr. Two asymptotic limits, i.e., close (near field) and away (far field) from the water table, are derived into a very general manner, whereas the transitional behavior of ψ between the near/far field can be determined after specifying the shape of the various input soil properties. Besides the theoretical interest, results of the present paper are useful for practical purposes, as well. Indeed, the model is tested against to real data, and in particular it is shown how it is possible for the specific case study to grasp the behavior of the FVs within an environment (i.e., the vadose zone close to the water table) which is generally very difficult to access by direct inspection.
Unsaturated flow characterization utilizing water content data collected within the capillary fringe
Baehr, Arthur; Reilly, Timothy J.
2014-01-01
An analysis is presented to determine unsaturated zone hydraulic parameters based on detailed water content profiles, which can be readily acquired during hydrological investigations. Core samples taken through the unsaturated zone allow for the acquisition of gravimetrically determined water content data as a function of elevation at 3 inch intervals. This dense spacing of data provides several measurements of the water content within the capillary fringe, which are utilized to determine capillary pressure function parameters via least-squares calibration. The water content data collected above the capillary fringe are used to calculate dimensionless flow as a function of elevation providing a snapshot characterization of flow through the unsaturated zone. The water content at a flow stagnation point provides an in situ estimate of specific yield. In situ determinations of capillary pressure function parameters utilizing this method, together with particle-size distributions, can provide a valuable supplement to data libraries of unsaturated zone hydraulic parameters. The method is illustrated using data collected from plots within an agricultural research facility in Wisconsin.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Y. Wu
2004-01-01
The purpose of this report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) flow models and submodels, as well as the flow fields that have been generated using the UZ flow model(s) of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this report, the term ''UZ model'' refers to the UZ flow model and the several submodels, which include tracer transport, temperature or ambient geothermal, pneumatic or gas flow, and geochemistry (chloride, calcite, and strontium) submodels. The term UZ flow model refers to the three-dimensional models used for calibration and simulation of UZ flow fields. This work was planned in the ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.7). The table of included Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs), Table 6.2-11, is different from the list of included FEPs assigned to this report in the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Table 2.1.5-1), as discussed in Section 6.2.6. The UZ model has revised, updated, and enhanced the previous UZ model (BSC 2001 [DIRS 158726]) by incorporating the repository design with new grids, recalibration of property sets, and more comprehensive validation effort. The flow fields describe fracture-fracture, matrix-matrix, and fracture-matrix liquid flow rates, and their spatial distributions as well as moisture conditions in the UZ system. These three-dimensional UZ flow fields are used directly by Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The model and submodels evaluate important hydrogeologic processes in the UZ as well as geochemistry and geothermal conditions. These provide the necessary framework to test hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales, and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic conditions. In addition, the limitations of the UZ model are discussed in Section 8.11
Continuum model for water movement in an unsaturated fractured rock mass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peters, R.R.; Klavetter, E.A.
1988-01-01
The movement of fluids in a fractured, porous medium has been the subject of considerable study. This paper presents a continuum model that may be used to evaluate the isothermal movement of water in an unsaturated, fractured, porous medium under slowly changing conditions. This continuum model was developed for use in evaluating the unsaturated zone at the Yucca Mountain site as a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. Thus its development has been influenced by the conditions thought to be present at Yucca Mountain. A macroscopic approach and a microscopic approach are used to develop a continuum model to evaluate water movement in a fractured rock mass. Both approaches assume that the pressure head in the fractures and the matrix are identical in a plane perpendicular to flow. Both approaches lead to a single-flow equation for a fractured rock mass. The two approaches are used to calculate unsaturated hydrologic properties, i.e., relative permeability and saturation as a function of pressure head, for several types of tuff underlying Yucca Mountain, using the best available hydrologic data for the matrix and the fractures. Rock mass properties calculated by both approaches are similar
Optimality and Conductivity for Water Flow: From Landscapes, to Unsaturated Soils, to Plant Leaves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, H.H.
2012-02-23
Optimality principles have been widely used in many areas. Based on an optimality principle that any flow field will tend toward a minimum in the energy dissipation rate, this work shows that there exists a unified form of conductivity relationship for three different flow systems: landscapes, unsaturated soils and plant leaves. The conductivity, the ratio of water flux to energy gradient, is a power function of water flux although the power value is system dependent. This relationship indicates that to minimize energy dissipation rate for a whole system, water flow has a small resistance (or a large conductivity) at a location of large water flux. Empirical evidence supports validity of the relationship for landscape and unsaturated soils (under gravity dominated conditions). Numerical simulation results also show that the relationship can capture the key features of hydraulic structure for a plant leaf, although more studies are needed to further confirm its validity. Especially, it is of interest that according to this relationship, hydraulic conductivity for gravity-dominated unsaturated flow, unlike that defined in the classic theories, depends on not only capillary pressure (or saturation), but also the water flux. Use of the optimality principle allows for determining useful results that are applicable to a broad range of areas involving highly non-linear processes and may not be possible to obtain from classic theories describing water flow processes.
Comparison of strongly heat-driven flow codes for unsaturated media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Updegraff, C.D.
1989-08-01
Under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing a performance assessment methodology for the analysis of long-term disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in unsaturated welded tuff. As part of this effort, SNL evaluated existing strongly heat-driven flow computer codes for simulating ground-water flow in unsaturated media. The three codes tested, NORIA, PETROS, and TOUGH, were compared against a suite of problems for which analytical and numerical solutions or experimental results exist. The problems were selected to test the abilities of the codes to simulate situations ranging from simple, uncoupled processes, such as two-phase flow or heat transfer, to fully coupled processes, such as vaporization caused by high temperatures. In general, all three codes were found to be difficult to use because of (1) built-in time stepping criteria, (2) the treatment of boundary conditions, and (3) handling of evaporation/condensation problems. A drawback of the study was that adequate problems related to expected repository conditions were not available in the literature. Nevertheless, the results of this study suggest the need for thorough investigations of the impact of heat on the flow field in the vicinity of an unsaturated HLW repository. Recommendations are to develop a new flow code combining the best features of these three codes and eliminating the worst ones. 19 refs., 49 figs
Perkins, Kimberlie; Johnson, Brittany D.; Mirus, Benjamin B.
2014-01-01
Operations at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have the potential to contaminate the underlying Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer. Methods to quantitatively characterize unsaturated flow and recharge to the ESRP aquifer are needed to inform water-resources management decisions at INL. In particular, hydraulic properties are needed to parameterize distributed hydrologic models of unsaturated flow and transport at INL, but these properties are often difficult and costly to obtain for large areas. The unsaturated zone overlying the ESRP aquifer consists of alternating sequences of thick fractured volcanic rocks that can rapidly transmit water flow and thinner sedimentary interbeds that transmit water much more slowly. Consequently, the sedimentary interbeds are of considerable interest because they primarily restrict the vertical movement of water through the unsaturated zone. Previous efforts by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have included extensive laboratory characterization of the sedimentary interbeds and regression analyses to develop property-transfer models, which relate readily available physical properties of the sedimentary interbeds (bulk density, median particle diameter, and uniformity coefficient) to water retention and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity curves.
The movement of groundwater flow in unsaturated fractured porous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Jinxuan
1995-01-01
The author analyses the fundamental processes governing infiltration in fractured porous rock. Asymptotic solutions for the front movement are given for each flow period and comparisons with numerical solutions are made. The result of the study is relevant to nuclear waste storage, hazardous waste disposal and petroleum recovery
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Celia, Michael A.; Binning, Philip John
1992-01-01
that the algorithm produces solutions that are essentially mass conservative and oscillation free, even in the presence of steep infiltrating fronts. When the algorithm is applied to the case of air and water flow in unsaturated soils, numerical results confirm the conditions under which Richards's equation is valid....... Numerical results also demonstrate the potential importance of air phase advection when considering contaminant transport in unsaturated soils. Comparison to several other numerical algorithms shows that the modified Picard approach offers robust, mass conservative solutions to the general equations...
Liang, Xiuyu; Zhan, Hongbin; Zhang, You-Kuan; Schilling, Keith
2018-04-01
Roques et al. (https://doi.org/10.1002/2017WR022085) claims that they have proposed an exponential time step (ETS) method to improve the computing method of Liang et al. (https://doi.org/10.1002/2017WR020938) which used a constant time step (CTS) method on the derivative for dQ/dt in field data, where Q is the base flow discharge and t is the time since the start of base flow recession. This reply emphasizes that the main objective of Liang et al. (https://doi.org/10.1002/2017WR020938) was to develop an analytical model to investigate the effects of the unsaturated flow on base flow recession, not on the data interpretation methods. The analytical model indicates that the base flow recession hydrograph behaves as dQ/dt ˜aQb with the exponent b close to 1 at late times, which is consistent with previous theoretical models. The model of Liang et al. (https://doi.org/10.1002/2017WR020938) was applied to field data where the derivative of dQ/dt was computed using the CTS method, a method that has been widely adopted in previous studies. The ETS method proposed by Roques et al. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.07.013) appears to be a good alternative but its accuracy needs further validation. Using slopes to fit field data as proposed by Roques et al. (https://doi.org/10.1002/2017WR022085) appears to match data satisfactorily at early times whereas it performs less satisfactorily at late times and leads to the exponent b being obviously larger than 1.
Parametric analysis of a TOUGH2 model for the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiang, Y.; Mishra, S.; Dunlap, B. [CRWMS M& O/INTERA, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)
1995-03-01
Yucca Mountain in Nevada is currently being investigated for suitability as a potential site for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. As the most important natural barrier against radionuclide migration to the accessible environment, the unsaturated zone at Yucca mountain is a key constituent in assessing the ambient geohydrology. A three-dimensional site-scale TOUGH2 model of the unsaturated zone is currently under development by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) consists of six hydrogeologic units - TCw (Tiva Canyon welded), PTn (Paintbrush nonwelded), TSw (Topopah Spring welded), TSv (Topopah Spring welded-vitrophyre), CHnz (Calico Hills nonwelded-vitric), and CHnz (Calico Hills nonwelded-zeolitic), which are further subdivided into seventeen layers to represent additional lithologic detail. Based on the work of Klavetter and Peters, the fractured units TCw and TSw are treated as equivalent continua with specified threshold saturation for triggering fracture flow.
Sinai, G.; Dirksen, C.
2006-12-01
This paper describes laboratory experimental evidence for lateral flow in the top layer of unsaturated sloping soil due to rainfall. Water was applied uniformly on horizontal and V-shaped surfaces of fine sand, at rates about 100 times smaller than the saturated hydraulic conductivity. Flow regimes near the surface and in the soil bulk were studied by using dyes. Streamlines and streak lines and wetting fronts were visually studied and photographed through a vertical glass wall. Near wetting fronts the flow direction was always perpendicular to the fronts owing to dominant matrix potential gradients. Thus, during early wetting of dry sloping sand, the flow direction is directed upslope. Far above a wetting front the flow was vertical due to the dominance of gravity. Downslope flow was observed during decreasing rainfall and dry periods. The lateral movement was largest near the soil surface and decayed with soil depth. Unstable downslope lateral flow close to the soil surface was attributed to non-Darcian flow due to variable temporal and spatial raindrop distributions. The experiments verify the theory that predicts unsaturated downslope lateral flow in sloping soil due to rainfall dynamics only, without apparent soil texture difference or anisotropy. This phenomenon could have significant implications for hillside hydrology, desert agriculture, irrigation management, etc., as well as for the basic mechanisms of surface runoff and erosion.
Focused Flow During Infiltration Into Ethanol-Contaminated Unsaturated Porous Media
Jazwiec, A.; Smith, J. E.
2017-12-01
The increasing commercial and industrial use of ethanol, e.g. in biofuels, has generated increased incidents of vadose zone contamination by way of ethanol spills and releases. This has increased the interest in better understanding behaviors of ethanol in unsaturated porous media and it's multiphase interactions in the vadose zone. This study uses highly controlled laboratory experiments in a 2-D (0.6mx0.6mx0.01m) flow cell to investigate water infiltration behaviors into ethanol-contaminated porous media. Ethanol and water were applied by either constant head or constant flux methods onto the surface of sands homogenously packed into the flow cell. The constant flux experiments at both low and high application rates were conducted using a rainulator with a row of hypodermic needles connected to a peristaltic pump. The constant head experiments were conducted using an 8cm diameter tension disk infiltrometer set to both low and high tensions. The presence of ethanol contamination generated solute-dependent capillarity induced focused flow (SCIFF) of water infiltration, which was primarily due to decreases in interfacial tensions at the air-liquid interfaces in the unsaturated sands as a function of ethanol concentration. SCIFF was clearly expressed as an unsaturated water flow phenomenon comprised of narrowly focused vertical flow fingers of water within the initially ethanol contaminated porous media. Using analyses of photos and video, comparisons were made between constant flux and constant head application methods. Further comparisons were made between low and high infiltration rates and the two sand textures used. A high degree of sensitivity to minor heterogeneity in relatively homogeneous sands was also observed. The results of this research have implications for rainfall infiltration into ethanol contaminated vadose zones expressing SCIFF, including implications for associated mass fluxes and the nature of flushing of ethanol from the unsaturated zone to
Slow and preferential flow in the unsaturated zone and its impact on stable isotope composition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seiler, K.P.
2001-01-01
Stable isotope methods (δ 18 O and δ 2 H) have been used investigate the importance of bypass flow in the unsaturated zone which leads to unproductive water loss during flood irrigation. Field experiments have been carried out in Jordan and Pakistan in order to determine the occurrence of bypass flow, its amount and its velocity compared to piston flow. Results show that there is not only an advective component of flow (bypass flow) but a diffusive tracer exchange between piston and bypass flow. Infiltration calculations and analysis of tracer distributions are used to show that at the research sites, bypass flow amounts to about 25% of water recharged during winter. This estimate is important as it provides an assessment of the amount of water that passes the root zone and directly recharges groundwater. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ye, Ming; Pan, Feng; Hu, Xiaolong; Zhu, Jianting
2007-01-01
Yucca Mountain has been proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy as the nation's long-term, permanent geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive waste. The potential repository would be located in Yucca Mountain's unsaturated zone (UZ), which acts as a critical natural barrier delaying arrival of radionuclides to the water table. Since radionuclide transport in groundwater can pose serious threats to human health and the environment, it is important to understand how much and how fast water and radionuclides travel through the UZ to groundwater. The UZ system consists of multiple hydrogeologic units whose hydraulic and geochemical properties exhibit systematic and random spatial variation, or heterogeneity, at multiple scales. Predictions of radionuclide transport under such complicated conditions are uncertain, and the uncertainty complicates decision making and risk analysis. This project aims at using geostatistical and stochastic methods to assess uncertainty of unsaturated flow and radionuclide transport in the UZ at Yucca Mountain. Focus of this study is parameter uncertainty of hydraulic and transport properties of the UZ. The parametric uncertainty arises since limited parameter measurements are unable to deterministically describe spatial variability of the parameters. In this project, matrix porosity, permeability and sorption coefficient of the reactive tracer (neptunium) of the UZ are treated as random variables. Corresponding propagation of parametric uncertainty is quantitatively measured using mean, variance, 5th and 95th percentiles of simulated state variables (e.g., saturation, capillary pressure, percolation flux, and travel time). These statistics are evaluated using a Monte Carlo method, in which a three-dimensional flow and transport model implemented using the TOUGH2 code is executed with multiple parameter realizations of the random model parameters. The project specifically studies uncertainty of unsaturated flow
Comparison of Three Model Concepts for Streaming Potential in Unsaturated Porous Media
Huisman, J. A.; Satenahalli, P.; Zimmermann, E.; Vereecken, H.
2017-12-01
Streaming potential is the electric potential generated by fluid flow in a charged porous medium. Although streaming potential in saturated conditions is well understood, there still is considerable debate about the adequate modelling of streaming potential signals in unsaturated soil because different concepts are available to estimate the effective excess charge in unsaturated conditions. In particular, some studies have relied on the volumetric excess charge, whereas others proposed to use the flux-averaged excess charge derived from the water retention or relative permeability function. The aim of this study is to compare measured and modelled streaming potential signals for two different flow experiments with sand. The first experiment is a primary gravity drainage of a long column equipped with non-polarizing electrodes and tensiometers, as presented in several previous studies. Expected differences between the three concepts for the effective excess charge are only moderate for this set-up. The second experiment is a primary drainage of a short soil column equipped with non-polarizing electrodes and tensiometers using applied pressure, where differences between the three concepts are expected to be larger. A comparison of the experimental results with a coupled model of streaming potential for 1D flow problems will provide insights in the ability of the three model concepts for effective excess charge to describe observed streaming potentials.
Fores, B.; Champollion, C.; Mainsant, G.; Fort, A.; Albaric, J.
2016-12-01
Karstic hydrosystems represent one of the main water resources in the Mediterranean area but are challenging for geophysical methods. The GEK (Geodesy in Karstic Environment) observatory has been setup in 2011 to study the unsaturated zone of a karstic system in the south of France. The unsaturated zone (the epikarst) is thick and up to 100m on the site. Since 2011, gravity, rainfall and evapotranspiration are monitored. Together, they allow precise estimation of the global water storage changes but lack depth resolution. Surface waves velocity variations, obtained from ambient seismic noise monitoring are used here to overcome this lack. Indeed, velocities depend on saturation and the depths where changes occur can be defined as surface waves are dispersive. From October 2014 to November 2015, two seismometers have been recording noise. Velocity changes at a narrow frequency band (6-8 Hz) have shown a clear annual cycle. Minimum velocity is several months late on precipitations, which is coherent with a slow infiltration and a maximum sensitivity at -40m for these frequencies and this site. Models have been made with the Hydrus-1D software which allows modeling 1D-flow in variably saturated media. With a stochastic sampling, we have researched the underground parameters that reproduce the most the different observations (gravity, evapotranspiration and rainfall, and velocity changes). We show that velocity changes clearly constrain the hydraulic conductivity of the medium. Ambient seismic noise is therefore a promising method to study unsaturated zone which are too deep or too heterogeneous for classic methods.
Analysis of unsaturated clayey materials hydration incorporating the effect of thermo-osmotic flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez, M.; Arson, C.
2012-01-01
past, for example Soler (2001) studied the impact of coupled phenomena on the long-term behavior of radioactive waste repositories in saturated argillaceous rock. Bing (2006) proposed an analytical solution in the half-space for the thermal consolidation of layered saturated soils, including the influences of thermo-osmosis and thermal filtration. Chen et al. (2009) recently proposed a coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) formulation which accounts for the flow of water and air driven by temperature gradients. The aim of this work is to explore the impact of thermo-osmosis on the hydration of clayey soils and rocks generally used in the design of nuclear waste disposals. Both small scale experiments and large scale problems are analyzed. A coupled THM formulation has been extended to deal with thermal osmosis in porous media. Special emphasis is put on the study of thermo-osmotic flow in unsaturated low permeability clays. A simple model was implemented in Theta-Stock program to study thermo-osmotic effects in the performance of a nuclear waste repository. The thermo-osmotic conductivity K fT is assumed to be a scalar (k T ). The permeability of the liquid phase in the initial state is around 5*10-13 m.s -1 . The thermo-osmotic coefficient k T is taken 100 times higher than the typical permeability of the massif: k T = 5*10 -11 m.s -1 . Containers are assumed to be stored in a 100- meter depth horizontal gallery. The ground water is located at 500 meters depth. The initial saturation degree of the ground mass was 0.15. The response of the unsaturated tuff is studied over 1000 years. The material parameters, related to fluid and temperature effects, are taken from the data given by Pollock (1986). Up to 200 years of heating, the trends of the saturation degree are the same in both models. But the magnitudes are different around the heating source, between 80 meters and 140 meters deep. With the model accounting for thermo-osmotic effects, the saturation degree is
UNSAT-H, an unsaturated soil water flow code for use at the Hanford site: code documentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fayer, M.J.; Gee, G.W.
1985-10-01
The unsaturated soil moisture flow code, UNSAT-H, which was developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for assessing water movement at waste sites on the Hanford site, is documented in this report. This code is used in simulating the water dynamics of arid sites under consideration for waste disposal. The results of an example simulation of constant infiltration show excellent agreement with an analytical solution and another numerical solution, thus providing some verification of the UNSAT-H code. Areas of the code are identified for future work and include runoff, snowmelt, long-term climate and plant models, and parameter measurement. 29 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs
Development of models for fast fluid pathways through unsaturated heterogeneous porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robey, T.H.
1994-11-01
The pre-waste-emplacement ground water travel time requirement is a regulatory criterion that specifies ground water travel time to the accessible environment shall be greater than 1,000 years. Satisfying the ground water travel time criterion for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain requires the study of fast travel path formation in the unsaturated zone and development of models that simulate the formation of fast paths. Conceptual models for unsaturated flow that have been used for total-systems performance assessment generally fall into the categories of composite-porosity or fracture models. The actual hydrologic conditions at Yucca Mountain are thought to lie somewhere between the extremes of these two types of models. The current study considers the effects of heterogeneities on composite-porosity models and seeks to develop numerical methods (and models) that can produce locally saturated zones where fracture flow can occur. The credibility of the model and numerical methods is investigated by using test data from the INTRAVAL project (Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate, 1992) to attempt to predict in-situ volumetric water content at specific locations in Yucca Mountain. Work based on the numerical methods presented in this study is eventually intended to allow the calculation of ground water travel times in heterogeneous media. 60 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dixon, P.
2004-01-01
The purpose of this Model Report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) fluid flow and tracer transport models and submodels as well as the flow fields generated utilizing the UZ Flow and Transport Model of Yucca Mountain (UZ Model), Nevada. This work was planned in ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2002 [160819], Section 1.10, Work Package AUZM06). The UZ Model has revised, updated, and enhanced the previous UZ Flow Model REV 00 ICN 01 (BSC 2001 [158726]) by incorporation of the conceptual repository design with new grids, recalibration of property sets, and more comprehensive validation effort. The flow fields describe fracture-fracture, matrix-matrix, and fracture-matrix liquid flow rates and their spatial distributions as well as moisture conditions in the UZ system. These 3-D UZ flow fields are used directly by Performance Assessment (PA). The model and submodels evaluate important hydrogeologic processes in the UZ as well as geochemistry and geothermal conditions. These provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic conditions. In addition, this Model Report supports several PA activities, including abstractions, particle-tracking transport simulations, and the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
P. Dixon
2004-02-11
The purpose of this Model Report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) fluid flow and tracer transport models and submodels as well as the flow fields generated utilizing the UZ Flow and Transport Model of Yucca Mountain (UZ Model), Nevada. This work was planned in ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2002 [160819], Section 1.10, Work Package AUZM06). The UZ Model has revised, updated, and enhanced the previous UZ Flow Model REV 00 ICN 01 (BSC 2001 [158726]) by incorporation of the conceptual repository design with new grids, recalibration of property sets, and more comprehensive validation effort. The flow fields describe fracture-fracture, matrix-matrix, and fracture-matrix liquid flow rates and their spatial distributions as well as moisture conditions in the UZ system. These 3-D UZ flow fields are used directly by Performance Assessment (PA). The model and submodels evaluate important hydrogeologic processes in the UZ as well as geochemistry and geothermal conditions. These provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic conditions. In addition, this Model Report supports several PA activities, including abstractions, particle-tracking transport simulations, and the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, Quanlin; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Liu, Hui-Hai; Oldenburg, Curtis M.
2002-01-01
The spatial variability of layer-scale hydrogeologic properties of the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is investigated using inverse modeling. The thick UZ is grouped into five hydrostratigraphic units and further into 35 hydrogeologic layers. For each layer, lateral variability is represented by the variations in calibrated values of layer-scale properties at different individual deep boreholes. In the calibration model, matrix and fracture properties are calibrated for the one-dimensional vertical column at each individual borehole using the ITOUGH2 code. The objective function is the summation of the weighted misfits between the ambient unsaturated flow (represented by measured state variables: water saturation, water potential, and pneumatic pressure) and the simulated one in the one-dimensional flow system. The objective function also includes the weighted misfits between the calibrated properties and their prior information. Layer-scale state variables and prior rock properties are obtained from their core-scale measurements. Because of limited data, the lateral variability of three most sensitive properties (matrix permeability, matrix of the van Genuchten characterization, and fracture permeability) is calibrated, while all other properties are fixed at their calibrated layer-averaged values. Considerable lateral variability of hydrogeologic properties is obtained. For example, the lateral variability of is two to three orders of magnitude and that of and is one order of magnitude. The effect of lateral variability on site-scale flow and transport will be investigated in a future study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnold, B.W.; Altman, S.J.; Robey, T.H.
1995-08-01
Evaluation of groundwater travel time (GWTT) is required as part of the investigation of the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential high-level nuclear-waste repository site. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's GWTT regulation is considered to be a measure of the intrinsic ability of the site to contain radionuclide releases from the repository. The work reported here is the first step in a program to provide an estimate of GWTT at the Yucca Mountain site in support of the DOE's Technical Site Suitability and as a component of a license application. Preliminary estimation of the GWTT distribution in the unsaturated zone was accomplished using a numerical model of the physical processes of groundwater flow in the fractured, porous medium of the bedrock. Based on prior investigations of groundwater flow at the site, fractures are thought to provide the fastest paths for groundwater flow; conditions that lead to flow in fractures were investigated and simulated. Uncertainty in the geologic interpretation of Yucca Mountain was incorporated through the use of geostatistical simulations, while variability of hydrogeologic parameters within each unit was accounted for by the random sampling of parameter probability density functions. The composite-porosity formulation of groundwater flow was employed to simulate flow in both the matrix and fracture domains. In this conceptualization, the occurrence of locally saturated conditions within the unsaturated zone is responsible for the initiation of fast-path flow through fractures. The results of the GWTT-94 study show that heterogeneity in the hydraulic properties of the model domain is an important factor in simulating local regions of high groundwater saturation. Capillary-pressure conditions at the surface boundary influence the extent of the local saturation simulated
Comparison of two conceptual models of flow using the TSA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, M.L.
1992-01-01
Several new capabilities have been added to the Total-System Analyzer (TSA), including a new model of unsaturated flow and transport, two new models of source releases, a different computational method for saturated transport, and gas-release capability. In this paper these new capabilities are described, and a comparison is made of results from the two different conceptual models of unsaturated flow that are now part of the TSA, a composite-porosity model and a simple fracture-flow model
Measurement of unsaturated flow below the root zone at an arid site
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirkham, R.R.; Gee, G.W.
1983-12-01
We measured moisture content changes below the root zone of a grass-covered area at the Hanford Site in Washington State and determined that drainage exceeded 5 cm or 20% of the total precipitation for November 1982 through October 1983. Although the average annual rainfall at the Hanford Site is 16 cm, the test year precipitation exceeded 24 cm with nearly 75% of the precipitation occurring during November through April. The moisture content at all depths in the soil reached a maximum and the monthly average potential evapotranspiration reached a minimum during this period of time. Moisture content profiles were measured at depth on biweekly intervals from January through October; these data were used to estimate drainage from the profile. Grass roots were not found below 1 m, hence moisture changes below 1 m were assumed to be entirely due to drainage. Upward capillary flow was considered to be negligible since the soil was a coars sand and the water table was below 10 m. The large amount of drainage from this arid site is attributed to rainfall distribution pattern, shallow root-zone, and soil drainage characteristics. Unsaturated flow model simulations predicted about 5-cm drainage from the grass site using daily climatic data, estimated soil hydraulic properties, and estimated transpiration parameters for cheatgrass at the Hanford Site. Improvements in the comparisons between measured and predicted drainage are anticipated with field-measured hydraulic properties and more realistic estimates of grass cover transpiration. However, both measurements and model predictions support the conclusion that under conditions where the majority of the rainfall occurs during periods of low potential evaporation and where soils are coarse textured, significant drainage can occur from the root zone of vegetated areas at Hanford or similar arid zone sites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zimmerman, R.W.; Bodvarsson, G.S.
1992-04-01
A semi-analytical dual-porosity simulator for unsaturated flow in fractured rock masses has been developed. Fluid flow between the fracture network and the matrix blocks is described by analytical expressions that have been derived from approximate solutions to the imbibition equation. These expressions have been programmed into the unsaturated flow simulator, TOUGH, as a source/sink term. Flow processes are then simulated using only fracture elements in the computational grid. The modified code is used to simulate flow along single fractures, and infiltration into pervasively fractured formations
Determination of hydraulic properties of unsaturated soil via inverse modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kodesova, R.
2004-01-01
The method for determining the hydraulic properties of unsaturated soil with inverse modeling is presented. A modified cone penetrometer has been designed to inject water into the soil through a screen, and measure the progress of the wetting front with two tensiometer rings positioned above the screen. Cumulative inflow and pressure head readings are analyzed to obtain estimates of the hydraulic parameters describing K(h) and θ(h). Optimization results for tests at one side are used to demonstrate the possibility to evaluate either the wetting branches of the soil hydraulic properties, or the wetting and drying curves simultaneously, via analysis of different parts of the experiment. The optimization results are compared to the results of standard laboratory and field methods. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu-Shu Wu; Sumit Mukhopadhyay; Keni Zhang; G.S. Bodvarsson
2006-01-01
This paper investigates the impact of proposed repository thermal-loading on mountain-scale flow and heat transfer in the unsaturated fractured rock of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this context, a model has been developed to study the coupled thermal-hydrological (TH) processes at the scale of the entire Yucca Mountain. This mountain-scale TH model implements the current geological framework and hydrogeological conceptual models, and incorporates the latest rock thermal and hydrological properties. The TH model consists of a two-dimensional north-south vertical cross section across the entire unsaturated zone model domain and uses refined meshes near and around the proposed repository block, based on the current repository design, drift layout, thermal loading scenario, and estimated current and future climatic conditions. The model simulations provide insights into thermally affected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and elevated water and rock temperature, which in turn allow modelers to predict the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes, and drainage between drifts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Y.-S.; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Zhang, Keni; Bodvarsson, G.S.
2006-01-01
This paper investigates the impact of proposed repository thermal-loading on mountain-scale flow and heat transfer in the unsaturated fractured rock of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this context, a model has been developed to study the coupled thermal-hydrological (TH)processes at the scale of the entire Yucca Mountain. This mountain-scale TH model implements the current geological framework and hydrogeological conceptual models, and incorporates the latest rock thermal and hydrological properties. The TH model consists of a two-dimensional north-south vertical cross section across the entire unsaturated zone model domain and uses refined meshes near and around the proposed repository block, based on the current repository design, drift layout, thermal loading scenario, and estimated current and future climatic conditions. The model simulations provide insights into thermally affected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and elevated water and rock temperature, which in turn allow modelers to predict the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes, and drainage between drifts
A mathematical model in charactering chloride diffusivity in unsaturated cementitious material
Zhang, Y.; Ye, G.; Pecur, I.B.; Baricevic, A.; Stirmer, N; Bjegovic, D.
2017-01-01
In this paper, a new analytic model for predicting chloride diffusivity in unsaturated cementitious materials is developed based on conductivity theory and Nernst-Einstein equation. The model specifies that chloride diffusivity in unsaturated cementitious materials can be mathematically described as
Network modelling of fluid retention behaviour in unsaturated soils
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Athanasiadis Ignatios
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The paper describes discrete modelling of the retention behaviour of unsaturated porous materials. A network approach is used within a statistical volume element (SVE, suitable for subsequent use in hydro-mechanical analysis and incorporation within multi-scale numerical modelling. The soil pore structure is modelled by a network of cylindrical pipes connecting spheres, with the spheres representing soil voids and the pipes representing inter-connecting throats. The locations of pipes and spheres are determined by a Voronoi tessellation of the domain. Original aspects of the modelling include a form of periodic boundary condition implementation applied for the first time to this type of network, a new pore volume scaling technique to provide more realistic modelling and a new procedure for initiating drying or wetting paths in a network model employing periodic boundary conditions. Model simulations, employing two linear cumulative probability distributions to represent the distributions of sphere and pipe radii, are presented for the retention behaviour reported from a mercury porosimetry test on a sandstone.
Measurement of water flow rate in unsaturated soil by thermistor type sensor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takebe, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Wadachi, Yoshiki
1981-09-01
As a part of radiological safety studies for ground disposal of radioactive wastes, a measuring apparatus of water flow rate with thermistor type sensor was made as preliminary one and the measurement of water flow rate in the soil was carried out, in order to evalute by comparison of the migration rate of water with that of radionuclide in an unsaturated soil. The water flow rate can be determined by measuring the change of the thermal conductivity (temperature) of soil around the several thermistor type sensors set in a soil. Particularly at the region of low water content in the soil, the water flow rate was able to measure successfully by this apparatus. (author)
Introduction of damage in an elasto-plastic model for unsaturated geo-materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Pense, S.; Pouya, A.; Gatmiri, B.
2012-01-01
Document available in extended abstract form only. During the excavation of nuclear waste repository galleries, the surrounding soil is suspected to undergo structural changes as well as modification of its stress state. The desaturation due to ventilation of galleries during this stage makes it necessary to consider the unsaturated state of the host geo-material. The decompression occurring after the excavation leads to a modification of the stress state. The purpose of our work is to develop a mechanical model to simulate the non-linear stress-strain behaviour of geo-materials which will have to contain radioactivity of nuclear waste for a very long time. Two irreversible phenomena can explain the non-linear behaviour of geo-materials. Plasticity leads to irrecoverable strains. Damage, linked to the appearance and extension of microcracks, results in a deterioration of elastic and hydraulic properties. We will present here the bases of a new model coupling damage and plasticity for the stress-strain behaviour of unsaturated geo-materials. This model should be thermodynamically consistent and use only a reasonable number of parameters. Based on the work of Houlsby, (Houlsby 1997), we choose to use as constitutive variables for unsaturated soils Bishop's stress and suction. This choice as the advantage to allow for continuity at the transition between saturated and unsaturated states. Damage is taken into account by defining a damaged constitutive stress, which is similar to the effective stress principle defined by Kachanov (Kachanov 1958). A simple damage criterion is proposed and an associative flow rule is assumed. We choose to follow the principle of strain equivalence defined by Lemaitre (Lemaitre 1996). This leads to the following elasticity law giving the damaged constitutive stress as a function of elastic strain. If non-linear elasticity is considered, a pressure-dependent bulk modulus and a constant shear modulus can be chosen in order to fit
Mace, Andy; Rudolph, David L.; Kachanoski , R. Gary
1998-01-01
The performance of parametric models used to describe soil water retention (SWR) properties and predict unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K) as a function of volumetric water content (θ) is examined using SWR and K(θ) data for coarse sand and gravel sediments. Six 70 cm long, 10 cm diameter cores of glacial outwash were instrumented at eight depths with porous cup ten-siometers and time domain reflectometry probes to measure soil water pressure head (h) and θ, respectively, for seven unsaturated and one saturated steady-state flow conditions. Forty-two θ(h) and K(θ) relationships were measured from the infiltration tests on the cores. Of the four SWR models compared in the analysis, the van Genuchten (1980) equation with parameters m and n restricted according to the Mualem (m = 1 - 1/n) criterion is best suited to describe the θ(h) relationships. The accuracy of two models that predict K(θ) using parameter values derived from the SWR models was also evaluated. The model developed by van Genuchten (1980) based on the theoretical expression of Mualem (1976) predicted K(θ) more accurately than the van Genuchten (1980) model based on the theory of Burdine (1953). A sensitivity analysis shows that more accurate predictions of K(θ) are achieved using SWR model parameters derived with residual water content (θr) specified according to independent measurements of θ at values of h where θ/h ∼ 0 rather than model-fit θr values. The accuracy of the model K(θ) function improves markedly when at least one value of unsaturated K is used to scale the K(θ) function predicted using the saturated K. The results of this investigation indicate that the hydraulic properties of coarse-grained sediments can be accurately described using the parametric models. In addition, data collection efforts should focus on measuring at least one value of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and as complete a set of SWR data as possible, particularly in the dry range.
Mishra, P. K.; Neuman, S. P.
2009-12-01
Tartakovsky and Neuman [2007] developed an analytical solution for flow to a partially penetrating well pumping at a constant rate from a compressible unconfined aquifer considering an unsaturated zone of infinite thickness. In their solution three-dimensional, axially symmetric unsaturated flow was described by a linearized version of Richards’ equation in which both relative hydraulic conductivity and water content vary exponentially with incremental capillary pressure head relative to its air entry value. Both exponential functions were characterized by a common exponent. We present an improved solution in which relative hydraulic conductivity and water content are characterized by separate parameters and the unsaturated zone has finite thickness. Our four-parameter representation of these functions is more flexible than the three-parameter version of Mathias and Butler [2006], who consider flow in the unsaturated zone to be strictly vertical and the pumping well to be fully penetrating. We investigate the effects of unsaturated zone thickness and constitutive parameters on drawdown in the unsaturated and saturated zones as functions of position and time. We then use our new solution to analyze data from synthetic and real pumping tests.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rockhold, M.L.; Wurstner, S.K.
1991-03-01
The objective of this work was to test the ability of the PORFLO-3 computer code to simulate water infiltration and solute transport in dry soils. Data from a field-scale unsaturated zone flow and transport experiment, conducted near Las Cruces, New Mexico, were used for model validation. A spatial moment analysis was used to provide a quantitative basis for comparing the mean simulated and observed flow behavior. The scope of this work was limited to two-dimensional simulations of the second experiment at the Las Cruces trench site. Three simulation cases are presented. The first case represents a uniform soil profile, with homogeneous, isotropic hydraulic and transport properties. The second and third cases represent single stochastic realizations of randomly heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields, generated from the cumulative probability distribution of the measured data. Two-dimensional simulations produced water content changes that matched the observed data reasonably well. Models that explicitly incorporated heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields reproduced the characteristics of the observed data somewhat better than a uniform, homogeneous model. Improved predictions of water content changes at specific spatial locations were obtained by adjusting the soil hydraulic properties. The results of this study should only be considered a qualitative validation of the PORFLO-3 code. However, the results of this study demonstrate the importance of site-specific data for model calibration. Applications of the code for waste management and remediation activities will require site-specific data for model calibration before defensible predictions of unsaturated flow and containment transport can be made. 23 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Y. Wu
2004-11-01
The purpose of this report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) flow models and submodels, as well as the flow fields that have been generated using the UZ flow model(s) of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this report, the term ''UZ model'' refers to the UZ flow model and the several submodels, which include tracer transport, temperature or ambient geothermal, pneumatic or gas flow, and geochemistry (chloride, calcite, and strontium) submodels. The term UZ flow model refers to the three-dimensional models used for calibration and simulation of UZ flow fields. This work was planned in the ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.7). The table of included Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs), Table 6.2-11, is different from the list of included FEPs assigned to this report in the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Table 2.1.5-1), as discussed in Section 6.2.6. The UZ model has revised, updated, and enhanced the previous UZ model (BSC 2001 [DIRS 158726]) by incorporating the repository design with new grids, recalibration of property sets, and more comprehensive validation effort. The flow fields describe fracture-fracture, matrix-matrix, and fracture-matrix liquid flow rates, and their spatial distributions as well as moisture conditions in the UZ system. These three-dimensional UZ flow fields are used directly by Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The model and submodels evaluate important hydrogeologic processes in the UZ as well as geochemistry and geothermal conditions. These provide the necessary framework to test hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales, and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic conditions. In addition, the limitations of the UZ model are discussed in Section 8.11.
Thermo-mechanical constitutive modeling of unsaturated clays based on the critical state concepts
Tourchi, Saeed; Hamidi, Amir
2015-01-01
A thermo-mechanical constitutive model for unsaturated clays is constructed based on the existing model for saturated clays originally proposed by the authors. The saturated clays model was formulated in the framework of critical state soil mechanics and modified Cam-clay model. The existing model has been generalized to simulate the experimentally observed behavior of unsaturated clays by introducing Bishop's stress and suction as independent stress parameters and modifying the hardening rul...
Elastoplastic model for unsaturated, quasi-saturated and fully saturated fine soils
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lai Ba Tien
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In unsaturated soils, the gaseous phase is commonly assumed to be continuous. This assumption is no more valid at high saturation ratio. In that case, air bubbles and pockets can be trapped in the porous network by the liquid phase and the gas phase becomes discontinuous. This trapped air reduces the apparent compressibility of the pore fluid and affect the mechanical behavior of the soil. Although it is trapped in the pores, its dissolution can take place. Dissolved air can migrate through the pore space, either by following the flow of the fluid or by diffusion. In this context, this paper present a hydro mechanical model that separately considers the kinematics and the mechanical behavior of each fluid species (eg liquid water, dissolved air, gaseous air and the solid matrix. This new model was implemented in a C++ code. Some numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the ability of this model to reproduce a continuous transition of unsaturated to saturated states.
A new lumped-parameter approach to simulating flow processes in unsaturated dual-porosity media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zimmerman, R.W.; Hadgu, T.; Bodvarsson, G.S. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)
1995-03-01
We have developed a new lumped-parameter dual-porosity approach to simulating unsaturated flow processes in fractured rocks. Fluid flow between the fracture network and the matrix blocks is described by a nonlinear equation that relates the imbibition rate to the local difference in liquid-phase pressure between the fractures and the matrix blocks. This equation is a generalization of the Warren-Root equation, but unlike the Warren-Root equation, is accurate in both the early and late time regimes. The fracture/matrix interflow equation has been incorporated into a computational module, compatible with the TOUGH simulator, to serve as a source/sink term for fracture elements. The new approach achieves accuracy comparable to simulations in which the matrix blocks are discretized, but typically requires an order of magnitude less computational time.
Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, H.
2000-01-01
The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the conceptual and numerical models used for modeling of unsaturated zone (UZ) fluid (water and air) flow and solute transport processes. This is in accordance with ''AMR Development Plan for U0030 Conceptual and Numerical Models for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Processes, Rev 00''. The conceptual and numerical modeling approaches described in this AMR are used for models of UZ flow and transport in fractured, unsaturated rock under ambient and thermal conditions, which are documented in separate AMRs. This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR), the Near Field Environment PMR, and the following models: Calibrated Properties Model; UZ Flow Models and Submodels; Mountain-Scale Coupled Processes Model; Thermal-Hydrologic-Chemical (THC) Seepage Model; Drift Scale Test (DST) THC Model; Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA); and UZ Radionuclide Transport Models
Appels, Willemijn M.; Ireson, Andrew M.; Barbour, S. Lee
2018-02-01
Mine waste rock dumps have highly variable flowpaths caused by contrasting textures and geometry of materials laid down during the 'plug dumping' process. Numerical experiments were conducted to investigate how these characteristics control unsaturated zone flow and transport. Hypothetical profiles of inner-lift structure were generated with multiple point statistics and populated with hydraulic parameters of a finer and coarser material. Early arrival of water and solutes at the bottom of the lifts was observed after spring snowmelt. The leaching efficiency, a measure of the proportion of a resident solute that is flushed out of the rock via infiltrating snowmelt or rainfall, was consistently high, but modified by the structure and texture of the lift. Under high rates of net percolation during snowmelt, preferential flow was generated in coarse textured part of the rock, and solutes in the fine textured parts of the rock remained stagnant. Under lower rates of net percolation during the summer and fall, finer materialswere flushed too, and the spatial variability of solute concentration in the lift was reduced. Layering of lifts leads to lower flow rates at depth, minimizing preferential flow and increased leaching of resident solutes. These findings highlight the limited role of large scale connected geometries on focusing flow and transport under dynamic surface net percolation conditions. As such, our findings agree with recent numerical results from soil studies with Gaussian connected geometries as well as recent experimental findings, emphasizing the dominant role of matrix flow and high leaching efficiency in large waste rock dumps.
Noffz, Torsten; Kordilla, Jannes; Dentz, Marco; Sauter, Martin
2017-04-01
Flow in unsaturated fracture networks constitutes a high potential for rapid mass transport and can therefore possibly contributes to the vulnerability of aquifer systems. Numerical models are generally used to predict flow and transport and have to reproduce various complex effects of gravity-driven flow dynamics. However, many classical volume-effective modelling approaches often do not grasp the non-linear free surface flow dynamics and partitioning behaviour at fracture intersections in unsaturated fracture networks. Better process understanding can be obtained by laboratory experiments, that isolate single aspects of the mass partitioning process, which influence travel time distributions and allow possible cross-scale applications. We present a series of percolation experiments investigating partitioning dynamics of unsaturated multiphase flow at an individual horizontal fracture intersection. A high precision multichannel dispenser is used to establish gravity-driven free surface flow on a smooth and vertical PMMA (poly(methyl methacrylate)) surface at rates ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 mL/min to obtain various flow modes (droplets; rivulets). Cubes with dimensions 20 x 20 x 20 cm are used to create a set of simple geometries. A digital balance provides continuous real-time cumulative mass bypassing the network. The influence of variable flow rate, atmospheric pressure and temperature on the stability of flow modes is shown in single-inlet experiments. Droplet and rivulet flow are delineated and a transition zone exhibiting mixed flow modes can be determined. Furthermore, multi-inlet setups with constant total inflow rates are used to reduce variance and the effect of erratic free-surface flow dynamics. Investigated parameters include: variable aperture widths df, horizontal offsets dv of the vertical fracture surface and alternating injection methods for both droplet and rivulet flow. Repetitive structures with several horizontal fractures extend arrival times
Yakirevich, A.; Kuznetsov, M.; Livshitz, Y.; Gasser, G.; Pankratov, I.; Lev, O.; Adar, E.; Dvory, N. Z.
2016-12-01
Fast contamination of groundwater in karstic aquifers can be caused due to leaky sewers, for example, or overflow from sewer networks. When flowing through a karst system, wastewater has the potential to reach the aquifer in a relatively short time. The Western Mountain Aquifer (Yarkon-Taninim) of Israel is one of the country's major water resources. During late winter 2013, maintenance actions were performed on a central sewage pipe that caused raw sewage to leak into the creek located in the study area. The subsequent infiltration of sewage through the thick ( 100 m) fractured/karst unsaturated zone led to a sharp increase in contaminant concentrations in the groundwater, which was monitored in a well located 29 meters from the center of the creek. Carbamazepine (CBZ) was used as an indicator for the presence of untreated raw sewage and its quantification in groundwater. The ultimate research goal was to develop a mathematical model for quantifying flow and contaminant transport processes in the fractured-porous unsaturated zone and karstified groundwater system. A quasi-3D dual permeability numerical model, representing the 'vadose zone - aquifer' system, was developed by a series of 1D equations solved in variably-saturated zone and by 3D-saturated flow and transport equation in groundwater. The 1D and 3D equations were coupled at the moving phreatic surface. The model was calibrated and applied to a simulated water flow scenario and CBZ transport during and after the observed sewage leakage event. The results of simulation showed that after the leakage stopped, significant amounts of CBZ were retained in the porous matrix of the unsaturated zone below the creek. Water redistribution and slow recharge during the dry summer season contributed to elevated CBZ concentrations in the groundwater in the vicinity of the creek and tens of meters downstream. The resumption of autumn rains enhanced flushing of CBZ from the unsaturated zone and led to an increase in
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smyl, Danny; Rashetnia, Reza; Seppänen, Aku; Pour-Ghaz, Mohammad
2017-01-01
Previously, it has been shown that Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) can be used for monitoring moisture flow in undamaged cement-based materials. In this work, we investigate whether ERT could be used for imaging three-dimensional (3D) unsaturated moisture flow in cement-based materials that contain discrete cracks. Novel computational methods based on the so-called absolute imaging framework are developed and used in ERT image reconstructions, aiming at a better tolerance of the reconstructed images with respect to the complexity of the conductivity distribution in cracked material. ERT is first tested using specimens with physically simulated cracks of known geometries, and corroborated with numerical simulations of unsaturated moisture flow. Next, specimens with loading-induced cracks are imaged; here, ERT reconstructions are evaluated qualitatively based on visual observations and known properties of unsaturated moisture flow. Results indicate that ERT is a viable method of visualizing 3D unsaturated moisture flow in cement-based materials with discrete cracks. - Highlights: • 3D EIT is developed to visualize water ingress in cracked mortar. • Mortar with different size discrete cracks are used. • The EIT results are corroborated with numerical simulations. • EIT results accurately show the temporal and spatial variation of water content. • EIT is shown to be a viable method to monitor flow in cracks and matrix.
Biological hydrogen production by Clostridium acetobutylicum in an unsaturated flow reactor.
Zhang, Husen; Bruns, Mary Ann; Logan, Bruce E
2006-02-01
A mesophilic unsaturated flow (trickle bed) reactor was designed and tested for H2 production via fermentation of glucose. The reactor consisted of a column packed with glass beads and inoculated with a pure culture (Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824). A defined medium containing glucose was fed at a flow rate of 1.6 mL/min (0.096 L/h) into the capped reactor, producing a hydraulic retention time of 2.1 min. Gas-phase H2 concentrations were constant, averaging 74 +/- 3% for all conditions tested. H2 production rates increased from 89 to 220 mL/hL of reactor when influent glucose concentrations were varied from 1.0 to 10.5 g/L. Specific H2 production rate ranged from 680 to 1270 mL/g glucose per liter of reactor (total volume). The H2 yield was 15-27%, based on a theoretical limit by fermentation of 4 moles of H2 from 1 mole of glucose. The major fermentation by-products in the liquid effluent were acetate and butyrate. The reactor rapidly (within 60-72 h) became clogged with biomass, requiring manual cleaning of the system. In order to make long-term operation of the reactor feasible, biofilm accumulation in the reactor will need to be controlled through some process such as backwashing. These tests using an unsaturated flow reactor demonstrate the feasibility of the process to produce high H2 gas concentrations in a trickle-bed type of reactor. A likely application of this reactor technology could be H2 gas recovery from pre-treatment of high carbohydrate-containing wastewaters.
Perkins, K.S.; Nimmo, J.R.; Rose, C.E.; Coupe, R.H.
2011-01-01
In many farmed areas, intensive application of agricultural chemicals and withdrawal of groundwater for irrigation have led to water quality and supply issues. Unsaturated-zone processes, including preferential flow, play a major role in these effects but are not well understood. In the Bogue Phalia basin, an intensely agricultural area in the Delta region of northwestern Mississippi, the fine-textured soils often exhibit surface ponding and runoff after irrigation and rainfall as well as extensive surface cracking during prolonged dry periods. Fields are typically land-formed to promote surface flow into drainage ditches and streams that feed into larger river ecosystems. Downward flow of water below the root zone is considered minimal; regional groundwater models predict only 5% or less of precipitation recharges the heavily used alluvial aquifer. In this study transport mechanisms within and below the root zone of a fallow soybean field were assessed by performing a 2-m ring infiltration test with tracers and subsurface monitoring instruments. Seven months after tracer application, 48 continuous cores were collected for tracer extraction to define the extent of water movement and quantify preferential flow using a mass-balance approach. Vertical water movement was rapid below the pond indicating the importance of vertical preferential flow paths in the shallow unsaturated zone, especially to depths where agricultural disturbance occurs. Lateral flow of water at shallow depths was extensive and spatially non-uniform, reaching up to 10. m from the pond within 2. months. Within 1. month, the wetting front reached a textural boundary at 4-5. m between the fine-textured soil and sandy alluvium, now a potential capillary barrier which, prior to extensive irrigation withdrawals, was below the water table. Within 10. weeks, tracer was detectable at the water table which is presently about 12. m below land surface. Results indicate that 43% of percolation may be through
Leaching of radioactive waste forms under saturated and unsaturated flow conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petelka, M.F.
1987-01-01
To predict the environmental impact of shallow land burial sites for radioactive waste, the mobilization and migration of waste nuclides must be estimated. The theoretical understanding that in potential leaching mechanisms leach-rate variations may arise from changes in both moisture content and volumetric flow rate was tested in column flow leach experiments using labeled vermiculite particles as a simulated waste form. As far as possible, conditions of flow rate and solution ion concentration were chosen to roughly approximate expected field conditions. A modified pressure-plate apparatus was developed, tested, and found suitable for the production of steady-state unsaturated conditions with leachate flow. Water content was determined using the gamma-ray attenuation method. The effects of several parameters on leaching were studied, including moisture content and pore velocity. Pore velocity effects were found to be negligible. It was found that the leach rate depends on the fraction of the exposed waste surface that is wetted and varies with the mobile water content in a non-linear fashion. The experimental results indicate that the release rate of radionuclides placed within a properly sited low-level waste disposal site may be two to three times smaller than that predicted assuming saturated conditions. This study was performed using a homogeneous fine-grained synthetic waste form, at room temperature, with a near neutral pH leachant and oxidizing conditions
Cremer, Clemens; Neuweiler, Insa; Bechtold, Michel; Vanderborght, Jan
2014-05-01
To acquire knowledge of solute transport through the unsaturated zone in the shallow subsurface is decisive to assess groundwater quality, nutrient cycling or to plan remediation strategies. The shallow subsurface is characterized by structural heterogeneity and strongly influenced by atmospheric conditions. This leads to changing flow directions, strong temporal changes in saturation and heterogeneous water fluxes during infiltration and evaporation events. Recent studies (e.g. Lehmann and Or, 2009; Bechtold et al.,2011) demonstrated the importance of lateral flow and solute transport during evaporation conditions (upward flux). The heterogeneous structure in these studies was constructed using two types of sand with strong material contrasts and arranged in parallel with a vertical orientation. Lateral transport and redistribution of solute from coarse to fine media was observed deeper in the soil column and from fine to coarse close to the soil surface. However, if boundary conditions are reversed due to precipitation, the flow field is not necessarily reversed in the same manner, resulting in entirely different transport patterns for downward and upward flow. Therefore, considering net-flow rates alone is misleading when describing transport under those conditions. In this contribution we analyze transport of a solute in the shallow subsurface to assess effects resulting from the temporal change of heterogeneous soil structures due to dynamic flow conditions. Two-dimensional numerical simulations of unsaturated flow and transport are conducted using a coupled finite volume and random walk particle tracking algorithm to quantify solute transport and leaching rates. Following previous studies (Lehmann and Or, 2009; Bechtold et al., 2011), the chosen domain is composed of two materials, coarse and fine sand, arranged in parallel with a vertical orientation. Hence, one sharp interface of strong material heterogeneity is induced. During evaporation both sands are
Modelling the effects of pore-water chemistry on the behaviour of unsaturated clays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lei Xiaoqin
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Due to their various applications in geo-environmental engineering, such as in landfill and nuclear waste disposals, the coupled chemo-hydro-mechanical analysis of expansive soils has gained more and more attention recently. These expansive soils are usually unsaturated under field conditions; therefore the capillary effects need to be taken into account appropriately. For this purpose, based on a rigorous thermodynamic framework (Lei et al., 2014, the authors have extended the chemo-mechanical model of Loret el al. (2002 for saturated homoionic expansive soils to the unsaturated case (Lei, 2015. In this paper, this chemo-mechanical unsaturated model is adopted to simulate the chemo-elastic-plastic consolidation process of an unsaturated expansive soil layer. Logical tendencies of changes in the chemical, mechanical and hydraulic field quantities are obtained.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perkins, B.; Travis, B.; DePoorter, G.
1985-01-01
Validation of the TRACR3D code in a one-dimensional form was obtained for flow of soil water in three experiments. In the first experiment, a pulse of water entered a crushed-tuff soil and initially moved under conditions of saturated flow, quickly followed by unsaturated flow. In the second experiment, steady-state unsaturated flow took place. In the final experiment, two slugs of water entered crushed tuff under field conditions. In all three experiments, experimentally measured data for volumetric water content agreed, within experimental errors, with the volumetric water content predicted by the code simulations. The experiments and simulations indicated the need for accurate knowledge of boundary and initial conditions, amount and duration of moisture input, and relevant material properties as input into the computer code. During the validation experiments, limitations on monitoring of water movement in waste burial sites were also noted. 5 references, 34 figures, 9 tables
Cremer, Clemens; Neuweiler, Insa; Bechtold, Michel
2013-04-01
Understanding transport of solutes/contaminants through unsaturated soil in the shallow subsurface is vital to assess groundwater quality, nutrient cycling or to plan remediation projects. Alternating precipitation and evaporation conditions causing upward and downward flux with differing flow paths, changes in saturation and related structural heterogeneity make the description of transport in the unsaturated zone near the soil-surface a complex problem. Preferential flow paths strongly depend, among other things, on the saturation of a medium. Recent studies (e.g. Bechtold et al., 2011) showed lateral flow and solute transport during evaporation conditions (upward flux) in vertically layered sand columns. Results revealed that during evaporation water and solute are redistributed laterally from coarse to fine media deeper in the soil, and towards zones of lowest hydraulic head near to the soil surface. These zones at the surface can be coarse or fine grained depending on saturation status and evaporation flux. However, if boundary conditions are reversed and precipitation is applied, the flow field is not reversed in the same manner, resulting in entirely different transport patterns for downward and upward flow. Therefore, considering net-flow rates alone is misleading when describing transport in the shallow unsaturated zone. In this contribution, we analyze transport of a solute in the shallow subsurface to assess effects resulting from the superposition of heterogeneous soil structures and dynamic flow conditions on various spatial scales. Two-dimensional numerical simulations of unsaturated flow and transport in heterogeneous porous media under changing boundary conditions are carried out using a finite-volume code coupled to a particle tracking algorithm to quantify solute transport and leaching rates. In order to validate numerical simulations, results are qualitatively compared to those of a physical experiment (Bechtold et al., 2011). Numerical
Biophysical studies of cholesterol in unsaturated phospholipid model membranes
Williams, Justin Adam
PUFAs can incorporate into lipid rafts, which are domains enriched in SM and chol in the plasma membrane, and potentially disrupt the activity of signaling proteins that reside therein. DHA, furthermore, may be the more potent component of fish oil. PUFA-chol interactions were also examined through affinity measurements. A novel method utilizing electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was developed, to monitor the partitioning of a spin-labeled analog of chol, 3beta-doxyl-5alpha-cholestane (chlstn), between large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (mbetaCD). The EPR spectra for chlstn in the two environments are distinguishable due to the substantial differences in tumbling rates, allowing the population distribution ratio to be determined by spectral simulation. Advantages of this approach include speed of implementation and avoidance of potential artifacts associated with physical separation of LUV and mbetaCD. Additionally, in a check of the method, the relative partition coefficients between lipids measured for the spin label analog agree with values obtained for chol by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Results from LUV with different composition confirmed a hierarchy of decreased sterol affinity for phospholipids with increasing acyl chain unsaturation, PDPC possessing half the affinity of the corresponding monounsaturated phospholipid. Taken together, the results of these studies on model membranes demonstrate the potential for PUFA-driven alteration of the architecture of biomembranes, a mechanism through which human health may be impacted.
Design of a three-dimensional site-scale model for the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wittwer, C.S.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Chornack, M.P.; Flint, A.L.; Lewis, B.D.; Spengler, R.W.; Flint, L.E.; Rautman, C.A.
1992-01-01
A three-dimensional model of moisture flow within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being developed. This site-scale model covers an area of about 30 km 2 and is bounded by major faults to the east and west. A detailed numerical grid has been developed based on location of boreholes, different infiltration zones, hydrogeological units and their outcrops, major faults, and water level data. Different maps, such as contour maps and isopachs maps, are presented for the different infiltration zones, and for the base of the Tiva Canyon, the Paintbrush, and the Topopah Spring hydrogeological units
Field studies and modeling of chemical processes in the unsaturated zone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polzer, W.L.; Fuentes, H.R.
1985-01-01
Technical assistance is being provided to Nuclear Materials Safety and Safeguards of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to evaluate the validity of several guidelines listed in 10 CFR Part 61 for the future burial of low-level radioactive waste. Those guidelines include the requirement that the burial site shall be capable of being modeled. Both laboratory- and field-scale studies are being conducted under unsaturated moisture conditions and under steady-state and unsteady-state flow conditions. This paper reviews the kinds of present experiments in low-level radioactive waste disposal in development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Major emphasis is on some of the initial analyses of data for laboratory sorption experiments and for field transport tests. Brief reference is made to leaching and transport studies. Laboratory batch equilibrium sorption studies suggest that adsorption of nonconservative tracers can be described in terms of two empirical constants; one gives an indication of the average K/sub d/ for all adsorption sites and the other gives an indication of the spread of individual K/sub d/'s about the average K/sub d/. This information can be translated into a ''chemical dispersion'' under dynamic flow and equilibrium sorption conditions that is in addition to the traditionally accepted physical dispersion. Laboratory nonequilibrium sorption studies suggest that nonequilibrium models may be needed to model the transport of the nonconservative tracers cobalt and cesium; equilibrium models should be suitable to model strontium transport. Analyses from field-scale studies indicate that conservative tracers can reasonably be modeled with a one-dimensional advective-dispersive equation for steady flow. 12 figs., 1 tab
Evaluating sensitivity of unsaturated soil properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdel-Rahman, R.O.; El-Kamash, A.M.; Nagy, M.E.; Khalill, M.Y.
2005-01-01
The assessment of near surface disposal performance relay on numerical models of groundwater flow and contaminant transport. These models use the unsaturated soil properties as input parameters, which are subject to uncertainty due to measurements errors and the spatial variability in the subsurface environment. To ascertain how much the output of the model will depend on the unsaturated soil properties the parametric sensitivity analysis is used. In this paper, a parametric sensitivity analysis of the Van Genuchten moisture retention characteristic (VGMRC) model will be presented and conducted to evaluate the relative importance of the unsaturated soil properties under different pressure head values that represent various dry and wet conditions. (author)
Design of an intermediate-scale experiment to validate unsaturated- zone transport models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siegel, M.D.; Hopkins, P.L.; Glass, R.J.; Ward, D.B.
1991-01-01
An intermediate-scale experiment is being carried out to evaluate instrumentation and models that might be used for transport-model validation for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The experimental test bed is a 6-m high x 3-m diameter caisson filled with quartz sand with a sorbing layer at an intermediate depth. The experiment involves the detection and prediction of the migration of fluid and tracers through an unsaturated porous medium. Pre-test design requires estimation of physical properties of the porous medium such as the relative permeability, saturation/pressure relations, porosity, and saturated hydraulic conductivity as well as geochemical properties such as surface complexation constants and empircial K d 'S. The pre-test characterization data will be used as input to several computer codes to predict the fluid flow and tracer migration. These include a coupled chemical-reaction/transport model, a stochastic model, and a deterministic model using retardation factors. The calculations will be completed prior to elution of the tracers, providing a basis for validation by comparing the predictions to observed moisture and tracer behavior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicholson, T.J.; Guzman-Guzman, A.; Hills, R.; Rasmussen, T.C.
1997-01-01
The Working Group 1 final report summaries two test case studies, the Las Cruces Trench (LCT), and Apache Leap Tuff Site (ALTS) experiments. The objectives of these two field studies were to evaluate models for water flow and contaminant transport in unsaturated, heterogeneous soils and fractured tuff. The LCT experiments were specifically designed to test various deterministic and stochastic models of water flow and solute transport in heterogeneous, unsaturated soils. Experimental data from the first tow LCT experiments, and detailed field characterisation studies provided information for developing and calibrating the models. Experimental results from the third experiment were held confidential from the modellers, and were used for model comparison. Comparative analyses included: point comparisons of water content; predicted mean behavior for water flow; point comparisons of solute concentrations; and predicted mean behavior for tritium transport. These analyses indicated that no model, whether uniform or heterogeneous, proved superior. Since the INTRAVAL study, however, a new method has been developed for conditioning the hydraulic properties used for flow and transport modelling based on the initial field-measured water content distributions and a set of scale-mean hydraulic parameters. Very good matches between the observed and simulated flow and transport behavior were obtained using the conditioning procedure, without model calibration. The ALTS experiments were designed to evaluate characterisation methods and their associated conceptual models for coupled matrix-fracture continua over a range of scales (i.e., 2.5 centimeter rock samples; 10 centimeter cores; 1 meter block; and 30 meter boreholes). Within these spatial scales, laboratory and field tests were conducted for estimating pneumatic, thermal, hydraulic, and transport property values for different conceptual models. The analyses included testing of current conceptual, mathematical and physical
Creep model of unsaturated sliding zone soils and long-term deformation analysis of landslides
Zou, Liangchao; Wang, Shimei; Zhang, Yeming
2015-04-01
Sliding zone soil is a special soil layer formed in the development of a landslide. Its creep behavior plays a significant role in long-term deformation of landslides. Due to rainfall infiltration and reservoir water level fluctuation, the soils in the slide zone are often in unsaturated state. Therefore, the investigation of creep behaviors of the unsaturated sliding zone soils is of great importance for understanding the mechanism of the long-term deformation of a landslide in reservoir areas. In this study, the full-process creep curves of the unsaturated soils in the sliding zone in different net confining pressure, matric suctions and stress levels were obtained from a large number of laboratory triaxial creep tests. A nonlinear creep model for unsaturated soils and its three-dimensional form was then deduced based on the component model theory and unsaturated soil mechanics. This creep model was validated with laboratory creep data. The results show that this creep model can effectively and accurately describe the nonlinear creep behaviors of the unsaturated sliding zone soils. In order to apply this creep model to predict the long-term deformation process of landslides, a numerical model for simulating the coupled seepage and creep deformation of unsaturated sliding zone soils was developed based on this creep model through the finite element method (FEM). By using this numerical model, we simulated the deformation process of the Shuping landslide located in the Three Gorges reservoir area, under the cycling reservoir water level fluctuation during one year. The simulation results of creep displacement were then compared with the field deformation monitoring data, showing a good agreement in trend. The results show that the creeping deformations of landslides have strong connections with the changes of reservoir water level. The creep model of unsaturated sliding zone soils and the findings obtained by numerical simulations in this study are conducive to
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Hyun-Shik; Um, Wooyong; Rod, Kenton A.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Thompson, Aaron; Perdrial, Nicolas; Steefel, Carl I.; Chorover, Jon
2011-01-01
Leaching behavior of Sr and Cs in the vadose zone of Hanford site (WA, USA) was studied with laboratory-weathered sediments mimicking realistic conditions beneath the leaking radioactive waste storage tanks. Unsaturated column leaching experiments were conducted using background Hanford pore water focused on first 200 pore volumes. The weathered sediments were prepared by 6 months reaction with a synthetic Hanford tank waste leachate containing Sr and Cs (10-5 and 10-3 molal representative of LO- and HI-sediment, respectively) as surrogates for 90Sr and 137Cs. The mineral composition of the weathered sediments showed that zeolite (chabazite-type) and feldspathoid (sodalite-type) were the major byproducts but different contents depending on the weathering conditions. Reactive transport modeling indicated that Cs leaching was controlled by ion-exchange, while Sr release was affected primarily by dissolution of the secondary minerals. The later release of K, Al, and Si from the HI-column indicated the additional dissolution of a more crystalline mineral (cancrinite-type). A two-site ion-exchange model successfully simulated the Cs release from the LO-column. However, a three-site ion-exchange model was needed for the HI-column. The study implied that the weathering conditions greatly impact the speciation of the secondary minerals and leaching behavior of sequestrated Sr and Cs.
Thermo-hydro mechanical modeling in unsaturated hard clay: application to nuclear waste storage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jia, Y.
2006-07-01
This work presents an elastoplastic damage model for argillite in unsaturated conditions. A short resume of experimental investigations is presented in the first part. The results obtained show an important plastic deformation coupled with damage induced by initiation and growth of microcracks. Influences of water content on the mechanical behaviour are also investigated. Based on experimental data and micro-mechanical considerations, a general constitutive model is proposed for the poro-mechanical behavior of argillite in unsaturated conditions. The time dependent creep has also been incorporated in they model. The performance of the model is examined by comparing numerical simulation with experimental data in various load paths under saturated and unsaturated conditions. Finally, the model is applied to hydro-mechanical coupling study of the REP experiment and thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling study of the HE-D experiment. A good agreement is obtained between experimental data and numerical predictions. It has been shown that the proposed model describe correctly the main features of the mechanical behaviour of unsaturated rocks. (author)
Discrete Element Method for Modeling the Mechanical Behavior of Unsaturated Granular Material
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K. Tourani
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Although a significant portion of conditions encountered in geotechnical engineering, for investigating engineering behavior of soil, involves unsaturated soils; the traditional analysis and design approach has been to assume the limiting conditions of soils being either completely dry or completely saturated. In unsaturated soils the capillary force produce attractive forces between particles. Discrete Element Method (DEM is an appropriate tool to consider the capillary effects. The calculations performed in DEM is based on iterative application of Newton’s second law to the particles and force-displacement law at the contacts. In the present study, the behavior of unsaturated soils in pendular regime is simulated utilizing DEM. Triaxial compression tests were modeled as two-dimensional, considering capillary force effects. Finally, capillary effects on Macro parameters of a simulated granular soil (stress, axial strain, volumetric strain and void ratio and Mohr Coulomb failure criteria parameters were studied.
Yousfi, Ammar; Mechergui, Mohammed
2016-04-01
The seepage face is an important feature of the drainage process when recharge occurs to a permeable region with lateral outlets. Examples of the formation of a seepage face above the downstream water level include agricultural land drained by ditches. Flow problem to these drains has been investigated extensively by many researchers (e.g. Rubin, 1968; Hornberger et al. 1969; Verma and Brutsaert, 1970; Gureghian and Youngs, 1975; Vauclin et al., 1975; Skaggs and Tang, 1976; Youngs, 1990; Gureghian, 1981; Dere, 2000; Rushton and Youngs, 2010; Youngs, 2012; Castro-Orgaz et al., 2012) and may be tackled either using variably saturated flow models, or the complete 2-D solution of Laplace equation, or using the Dupuit-Forchheimer approximation; the most widely accepted methods to obtain analytical solutions for unconfined drainage problems. However, the investigation reported by Clement et al. (1996) suggest that accounting for the seepage face alone, as in the fully saturated flow model, does not improve the discharge estimate because of disregarding flow the unsaturated zone flow contribution. This assumption can induce errors in the location of the water table surface and results in an underestimation of the seepage face and the net discharge (e.g. Skaggs and Tang, 1976; Vauclin et al., 1979; Clement et al., 1996). The importance of the flow in the unsaturated zone has been highlighted by many authors on the basis of laboratory experiments and/or numerical experimentations (e.g. Rubin, 1968; Verma and Brutsaert, 1970; Todsen, 1973; Vauclin et al., 1979; Ahmad et al., 1993; Anguela, 2004; Luthin and Day, 1955; Shamsai and Narasimhan, 1991; Wise et al., 1994; Clement et al., 1996; Boufadel et al., 1999; Romano et al., 1999; Kao et al., 2001; Kao, 2002). These studies demonstrate the failure of fully saturated flow models and suggested that the error made when using these models not only depends on soil properties but also on the infiltration rate as reported by Kao et
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.; Fernandez, A.M.
2010-05-01
Unsaturated compacted bentonite is foreseen by several countries as a backfill and sealing material in high-level radioactive waste repositories. The strong interplays between thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes during the hydration stage of a repository call for fully coupled THMC models. Validation of such THMC models is prevented by the lack of comprehensive THMC experiments and the difficulties of experimental methods to measure accurately the chemical composition of bentonite porewater. We present here a non-isothermal multiphase flow and multicomponent reactive solute transport model for a deformable medium of a heating and hydration experiment performed on a sample of compacted FEBEX bentonite. Besides standard solute transport and geochemical processes, the model accounts for solute cross diffusion and thermal and chemical osmosis. Bentonite swelling is solved with a state-surface approach. The THM model is calibrated with transient temperature, water content and porosity data measured at the end of the experiment. The reactive transport model is calibrated with porewater chemical data derived from aqueous extract data. Model results confirm that thermal osmosis is relevant for the hydration of FEBEX bentonite while chemical osmosis can be safely neglected. Dilution and evaporation are the main processes controlling the concentration of conservative species. Dissolved cations are mostly affected by calcite dissolution-precipitation and cation exchange reactions. Dissolved sulphate is controlled by gypsum/anhydrite dissolution-precipitation. pH is mostly buffered by protonation/deprotonation via surface complexation. Computed concentrations agree well with inferred aqueous extract data at all sections except near the hydration boundary where cation data are affected by a sampling artifact. The fit of Cl{sup -} data is excellent except for the data near the heater. The largest deviations of the model from inferred aqueous
Voortman, B.R.; Bartholomeus, R.P.; Bodegom, van P.M.; Gooren, H.P.A.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Witte, J.P.M.
2014-01-01
Evaporation from mosses and lichens can form a major component of the water balance, especially in ecosystems where mosses and lichens often grow abundantly, such as tundra, deserts and bogs. To facilitate moss representation in hydrological models, we parameterized the unsaturated hydraulic
Geochemical modelling of hydrogen gas migration in an unsaturated bentonite buffer
Sedighi, M.; Thomas, H.R.; Al Masum, S.; Vardon, P.J.; Nicholson, D.; Chen, Q.
2014-01-01
This paper presents an investigation of the transport and fate of hydrogen gas through compacted bentonite buffer. Various geochemical reactions that may occur in the multiphase and multicomponent system of the unsaturated bentonite buffer are considered. A reactive gas transport model, developed
Morales-Casique, E.; Neuman, S.P.; Vesselinov, V.V.
2010-01-01
We use log permeability and porosity data obtained from single-hole pneumatic packer tests in six boreholes drilled into unsaturated fractured tuff near Superior, Arizona, to postulate, calibrate and compare five alternative variogram models (exponential, exponential with linear drift, power,
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ken Okamoto
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We examined the influence of input soil hydraulic parameters on HYDRUS-1D simulations of evapotranspiration and volumetric water contents (VWCs in the unsaturated zone of a sugarcane field on the island of Miyakojima, Japan. We first optimized the parameters for root water uptake and examined the influence of soil hydraulic parameters (water retention curve and hydraulic conductivity on simulations of evapotranspiration. We then compared VWCs simulated using measured soil hydraulic parameters with those using pedotransfer estimates obtained with the ROSETTA software package. Our results confirm that it is important to always use soil hydraulic parameters based on measured data, if available, when simulating evapotranspiration and unsaturated water flow processes, rather than pedotransfer functions.
An analysis of river bank slope and unsaturated flow effects on bank storage.
Doble, Rebecca; Brunner, Philip; McCallum, James; Cook, Peter G
2012-01-01
Recognizing the underlying mechanisms of bank storage and return flow is important for understanding streamflow hydrographs. Analytical models have been widely used to estimate the impacts of bank storage, but are often based on assumptions of conditions that are rarely found in the field, such as vertical river banks and saturated flow. Numerical simulations of bank storage and return flow in river-aquifer cross sections with vertical and sloping banks were undertaken using a fully-coupled, surface-subsurface flow model. Sloping river banks were found to increase the bank infiltration rates by 98% and storage volume by 40% for a bank slope of 3.4° from horizontal, and for a slope of 8.5°, delay bank return flow by more than four times compared with vertical river banks and saturated flow. The results suggested that conventional analytical approximations cannot adequately be used to quantify bank storage when bank slope is less than 60° from horizontal. Additionally, in the unconfined aquifers modeled, the analytical solutions did not accurately model bank storage and return flow even in rivers with vertical banks due to a violation of the dupuit assumption. Bank storage and return flow were also modeled for more realistic cross sections and river hydrograph from the Fitzroy River, Western Australia, to indicate the importance of accurately modeling sloping river banks at a field scale. Following a single wet season flood event of 12 m, results showed that it may take over 3.5 years for 50% of the bank storage volume to return to the river. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten
2001-01-01
Understanding movement of saline sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) waste solutions is important for assessing the contaminant migration near leaking waste storage tanks in the unsaturated zone at the Hanford site (Washington, USA). The purpose of this study is to contribute a basic understanding of effects of the thermophysical behavior of NaNO 3 solutions on fluid flow in unsaturated media. We first present mathematical expressions for the dependence of density, viscosity, solubility and vapor pressure of NaNO 3 solutions on both salt concentration and temperature, which were determined by fitting from published measured data. Because the previous studies of thermophysical behavior of sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions can provide a basis for those of NaNO 3 solutions, we also present a comparison of thermophysical properties of both salt solutions. We have implemented the functional thermophysical properties of NaNO 3 solutions into a new TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG-NaNO 3 , which is modified from a previous TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG for NaCl. Using the simulation tool, we have investigated effects of the thermophysical properties on fluid flow in unsaturated media. The effect of density and viscosity of saline solutions has been long recognized. Here we focus our attention on the effect of vapor pressure lowering due to salinity. We present simulations of a one-dimensional problem to study this salinity-driven fluid flow. A number of simulations were performed using different values of thermal conductivity, permeability, and temperature, to illustrate conditions and parameters controlling these processes. Results indicate that heat conduction plays a very important role in this salinity-driven vapor diffusion by maintaining a nearly constant temperature. The smaller the permeability, the more water is transferred into the saline environment. Effects of permeability on water flow are also complicated by effects of capillary pressure and tortuosity. The
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lim, S.C.; Lee, K.J.
1993-01-01
The Galerkin finite element method is used to solve the problem of one-dimensional, vertical flow of water and mass transport of conservative-nonconservative solutes in unsaturated porous media. Numerical approximations based on different forms of the governing equation, although they are equivalent in continuous forms, can result in remarkably different solutions in an unsaturated flow problem. Solutions given by a simple Galerkin method based on the h-based Richards equation yield a large mass balance error and an underestimation of the infiltration depth. With the employment of the ROMV (restoration of main variable) concept in the discretization step, the mass conservative numerical solution algorithm for water flow has been derived. The resulting computational schemes for water flow and mass transport are applied to sandy soil. The ROMV method shows good mass conservation in water flow analysis, whereas it seems to have a minor effect on mass transport. However, it may relax the time-step size restriction and so ensure an improved calculation output. (author)
UNSAT-H Version 1.0: unsaturated flow code documentation and applications for the Hanford Site
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fayer, M.J.; Gee, G.W.; Jones, T.L.
1986-08-01
Waste mangement practices at the Hanford Site have relied havily on near-surface burial. Predicting the future performance of any burial site in terms of the migration of buried contaminants requires a model capable of simulating water flow in the unsaturated soils above the buried waste. The model currently being developed to meet this need is UNSAT-H, which was developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for assessing the water dynamics of near-surface waste-disposal sites at the Hanfrod Site. The code will primarily be used to predict deep drainage (i.e., recharge) as a function of environmental conditions such as climate, soil type, and vegetation. UNSAT-H will also simulate various waste-management practices such as placing surface barriers over waste sites. UNSAT-H is a one-dimensional model that simulates the dynamics processes of infiltration, drainage, redistribution, surface evaporation, and uptake of water from soil by plants. UNSAT-H is designed to utilize two auxiliary codes. These codes are DATAINH, which is used to process the input data, and DATAOUT, which is used to process the UNSAT-H output. Operation of the code requires three separate steps. First, the problem to be simulated must be conceptualized in terms of boundary conditions, available data, and soil properties. Next, the data must be correctly formatted for input. Finally, the unput data must be processed, UNSAT-H run, and the output data processed for analysis. This report includes three examples of code use. In the first example, a benchmark test case is run in which the results of UNSAT-H simulations of infiltration are compared with an analytical solution and a numerical solution. The comparisons show excellent agreement for the specific test case, and this agreement provides vertification of the infiltration portion of the UNSAT-H code. The other two examples of code use are a simulation of a layered soil and one of plant transpiration
Zhang, Yaning; Xu, Fei; Li, Bingxi; Kim, Yong-Song; Zhao, Wenke; Xie, Gongnan; Fu, Zhongbin
2018-04-01
This study aims to validate the three-phase heat and mass transfer model developed in the first part (Three phase heat and mass transfer model for unsaturated soil freezing process: Part 1 - model development). Experimental results from studies and experiments were used for the validation. The results showed that the correlation coefficients for the simulated and experimental water contents at different soil depths were between 0.83 and 0.92. The correlation coefficients for the simulated and experimental liquid water contents at different soil temperatures were between 0.95 and 0.99. With these high accuracies, the developed model can be well used to predict the water contents at different soil depths and temperatures.
Thermo-mechanical constitutive modeling of unsaturated clays based on the critical state concepts
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Saeed Tourchi
2015-04-01
Full Text Available A thermo-mechanical constitutive model for unsaturated clays is constructed based on the existing model for saturated clays originally proposed by the authors. The saturated clays model was formulated in the framework of critical state soil mechanics and modified Cam-clay model. The existing model has been generalized to simulate the experimentally observed behavior of unsaturated clays by introducing Bishop's stress and suction as independent stress parameters and modifying the hardening rule and yield criterion to take into account the role of suction. Also, according to previous studies, an increase in temperature causes a reduction in specific volume. A reduction in suction (wetting for a given confining stress may induce an irreversible volumetric compression (collapse. Thus an increase in suction (drying raises a specific volume i.e. the movement of normal consolidation line (NCL to higher values of void ratio. However, some experimental data confirm the assumption that this reduction is dependent on the stress level of soil element. A generalized approach considering the effect of stress level on the magnitude of clays thermal dependency in compression plane is proposed in this study. The number of modeling parameters is kept to a minimum, and they all have clear physical interpretations, to facilitate the usefulness of model for practical applications. A step-by-step procedure used for parameter calibration is also described. The model is finally evaluated using a comprehensive set of experimental data for the thermo-mechanical behavior of unsaturated soils.
Transient Flow through an Unsaturated Levee Embankment during the 2011 Mississippi River Flood
Jafari, N.; Stark, T.; Vahedifard, F.; Cadigan, J.
2017-12-01
The Mississippi River and corresponding tributaries drain approximately 3.23 million km2 (1.25 million mi2) or the equivalent of 41% of the contiguous United States. Approximately 2,600 km ( 1,600 miles) of earthen levees presently protect major urban cities and agricultural land against the periodic Mississippi River floods within the Lower Mississippi River Valley. The 2011 flood also severely stressed the levees and highlighted the need to evaluate the behavior of levee embankments during high water levels. The performance of earthen levees is complex because of the uncertainties in construction materials, antecedent moisture contents, hydraulic properties, and lack of field monitoring. In particular, calibration of unsaturated and saturated soil properties of levee embankment and foundation layers along with the evaluation of phreatic surface during high river stage is lacking. Due to the formation of sand boils at the Duncan Point Levee in Baton Rouge, LA during the 2011 flood event, a reconnaissance survey was conducted to collect pore-water pressures in the sand foundation using piezometers and identifying the phreatic surface at the peak river level. Transient seepage analyses were performed to calibrate the foundation and levee embankment material properties using field data collected. With this calibrated levee model, numerical experiments were conducted to characterize the effects of rainfall intensity and duration, progression of phreatic surface, and seasonal climate variability prior to floods on the performance of the levee embankment. For example, elevated phreatic surface from river floods are maintained for several months and can be compounded with rainfall to lead to slope instability.
Development and validation of mechanical model for saturated/unsaturated bentonite buffer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamamoto, S.; Komine, H.; Kato, S.
2010-01-01
Document available in extended abstract form only. Development and validation of mechanical models for bentonite buffer and backfill materials are one of important subjects to appropriately evaluate long term behaviour or condition of the EBS in radioactive waste disposal. The Barcelona Basic Model (BBM), which is one of extensions of the modified Cam-Clay model for unsaturated and expansive soil, has been developed and widely applied to several problems by using the coupled THM code, Code B right. Advantage of the model is that mechanical characteristics of buffer and backfill materials under not only saturated condition but also unsaturated one are taken account as well as swelling characteristics due to wetting. In this study the BBM is compared with already existing experimental data and already developed another model in terms of swelling characteristics of Japanese bentonite Kunigel-V1, and is validated in terms of consolidation characteristics based on newly performed controlled-suction oedometer tests for the Kunigel-V1 bentonite. Komine et al. (2003) have proposed a model (set of equations) for predicting swelling characteristics based on the diffuse double layer concept and the van der Waals force concept etc. They performed a lot of swelling deformation tests of bentonite and sand-bentonite mixture to confirm the applicability of the model. The BBM well agrees with the model proposed by Komine et al. and the experimental data in terms of swelling characteristics. Compression index and swelling index depending on suction are introduced in the BBM. Controlled-suction consolidation tests (oedometer tests) were performed to confirm the applicability of the suction dependent indexes to unsaturated bentonite. Compacted bentonite with initial dry density of 1.0 Mg/m 3 was tested. Constant suction, 80 kPa, 280 kPa and 480 kPa was applied and kept during the consolidation tests. Applicability of the BBM to consolidation and swelling behaviour of saturated and
Morvannou, Ania; Troesch, Stéphane; Esser, Dirk; Forquet, Nicolas; Petitjean, Alain; Molle, Pascal
2017-07-01
French vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCW) treating raw wastewater have been developed successfully over the last 30 years. Nevertheless, the two-stage VFCWs require a total filtration area of 2-2.5 m 2 /P.E. Therefore, implementing a one-stage system in which treatment performances reach standard requirements is of interest. Biho-Filter ® is one of the solutions developed in France by Epur Nature. Biho-Filter ® is a vertical flow system with an unsaturated layer at the top and a saturated layer at the bottom. The aim of this study was to assess this new configuration and to optimize its design and operating conditions. The hydraulic functioning and pollutant removal efficiency of three different Biho-Filter ® plants commissioned between 2011 and 2012 were studied. Outlet concentrations of the most efficient Biho-Filter ® configuration are 70 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 15 mg/L and 25 mg/L for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ), total suspended solids (TSS) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), respectively. Up to 60% of total nitrogen is removed. Nitrification efficiency is mainly influenced by the height of the unsaturated zone and the recirculation rate. The optimum recirculation rate was found to be 100%. Denitrification in the saturated zone works at best with an influent COD/NO 3 -N ratio at the inflet of this zone larger than 2 and a hydraulic retention time longer than 0.75 days.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Magnus Rueping
2011-12-01
Full Text Available A simple, practical and efficient continuous-flow hydration–condensation protocol was developed for the synthesis of α,β-unsaturated ketones starting from alkynes and aldehydes by employing a heterogeneous catalyst in a flow microwave. The procedure presents a straightforward and convenient access to valuable differently substituted chalcones and can be applied on multigram scale.
Modelling bioaugmentation in unsaturated porous media: The linuron herbicide example
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Dechesne, Arnaud; Binning, Philip John
2010-01-01
To protect groundwater resources against pesticides, bioaugmentation with microorganisms immobilized in solid carriers has been considered as a soil remediation strategy. We have developed a mathematical model to assess this bioremediation approach to remove the pesticide linuron from soils...... advection, a bead spacing distance of 5 mm at saturated conditions is required to achieve a bioremediation goal of 90% linuron mineralization in 1 year. The gas phase is an important parameter affecting the transport of linuron, however, linuron biodegradation is growth kinetics limited within a broad water...
Quasi-linear analysis of water flow in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ross, B.
1990-01-01
Philip's method of quasi-linear approximation, applied to the fractured welded tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA, yields simple relations describing groundwater movement in the unsaturated zone. These relations suggest that water flux through the Topopah Spring welded tuff unit, in which a proposed high-level radioactive waste repository would be built, may be fixed at a value close to the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the unit's porous matrix by a capillary barrier at the unit's upper contact. Quasi-linear methods may also be useful for predicting whether free water will enter tunnels excavated in the tuff
Methane hydrate induced permeability modification for multiphase flow in unsaturated porous media
Seol, Yongkoo; Kneafsey, Timothy J.
2011-08-01
An experimental study was performed using X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning to capture three-dimensional (3-D) methane hydrate distributions and potential discrete flow pathways in a sand pack sample. A numerical study was also performed to develop and analyze empirical relations that describe the impacts of hydrate accumulation habits within pore space (e.g., pore filling or grain cementing) on multiphase fluid migration. In the experimental study, water was injected into a hydrate-bearing sand sample that was monitored using an X-ray CT scanner. The CT images were converted into numerical grid elements, providing intrinsic sample data including porosity and phase saturations. The impacts of hydrate accumulation were examined by adapting empirical relations into the flow simulations as additional relations governing the evolution of absolute permeability of hydrate bearing sediment with hydrate deposition. The impacts of pore space hydrate accumulation habits on fluid migration were examined by comparing numerical predictions with experimentally measured water saturation distributions and breakthrough curves. A model case with 3-D heterogeneous initial conditions (hydrate saturation, porosity, and water saturation) and pore body-preferred hydrate accumulations best captured water migration behavior through the hydrate-bearing sample observed in the experiment. In the best matching model, absolute permeability in the hydrate bearing sample does not decrease significantly with increasing hydrate saturation until hydrate saturation reaches about 40%, after which it drops rapidly, and complete blockage of flow through the sample can occur as hydrate accumulations approach 70%. The result highlights the importance of permeability modification due to hydrate accumulation habits when predicting multiphase flow through high-saturation, reservoir quality hydrate-bearing sediments.
Unsaturated zone leaching models for assessing risk to groundwater of contaminated sites
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Troldborg, Mads; Binning, Philip John; Nielsen, Signe
2009-01-01
and aqueous phase contaminant transport equation. The equation has the same general form as the standard advection-diffusion equation for which many analytical solutions have been derived. Four new analytical solutions are developed using this approach: a three-dimensional solution accounting for infiltration......, lateral gas diffusion, sorption and degradation; a simple one-dimensional screening model, and two one-dimensional radial gas diffusion models for use in simulating volatile organic contaminant diffusion in unsaturated soils with an impermeable cover. The models show that both degradation and diffusion...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dong-mei Sun
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Generally, most soil slope failures are induced by rainfall infiltration, a process that involves interactions between the liquid phase, gas phase, and solid skeleton in an unsaturated soil slope. In this study, a loosely coupled liquid-gas-solid three-phase model, linking two numerical codes, TOUGH2/EOS3, which is used for water-air two-phase flow analysis, and FLAC3D, which is used for mechanical analysis, was established. The model was validated through a documented water drainage experiment over a sandy column and a comparison of the results with measured data and simulated results from other researchers. The proposed model was used to investigate the features of water-air two-phase flow and stress fields in an unsaturated soil slope during rainfall infiltration. The slope stability analysis was then performed based on the simulated water-air two-phase seepage and stress fields on a given slip surface. The results show that the safety factor for the given slip surface decreases first, then increases, and later decreases until the rainfall stops. Subsequently, a sudden rise occurs. After that, the safety factor decreases continually and reaches its lowest value, and then increases slowly to a steady value. The lowest value does not occur when the rainfall stops, indicating a delayed effect of the safety factor. The variations of the safety factor for the given slip surface are therefore caused by a combination of pore-air pressure, matric suction, normal stress, and net normal stress.
Xu, Fei; Zhang, Yaning; Jin, Guangri; Li, Bingxi; Kim, Yong-Song; Xie, Gongnan; Fu, Zhongbin
2018-04-01
A three-phase model capable of predicting the heat transfer and moisture migration for soil freezing process was developed based on the Shen-Chen model and the mechanisms of heat and mass transfer in unsaturated soil freezing. The pre-melted film was taken into consideration, and the relationship between film thickness and soil temperature was used to calculate the liquid water fraction in both frozen zone and freezing fringe. The force that causes the moisture migration was calculated by the sum of several interactive forces and the suction in the pre-melted film was regarded as an interactive force between ice and water. Two kinds of resistance were regarded as a kind of body force related to the water films between the ice grains and soil grains, and a block force instead of gravity was introduced to keep balance with gravity before soil freezing. Lattice Boltzmann method was used in the simulation, and the input variables for the simulation included the size of computational domain, obstacle fraction, liquid water fraction, air fraction and soil porosity. The model is capable of predicting the water content distribution along soil depth and variations in water content and temperature during soil freezing process.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oostrom, Mart; Lenhard, Robert J.
2003-01-01
To obtain data that can be used to study the development of a residual NAPL saturation and to test corresponding models, a detailed transient experiment was conducted in a 170-cm long by 90-cm high by 5.5-cm wide flow cell. Fluid saturation measurements were obtained with a dual-energy gamma radiation system. The experimental conditions reflected those at the Hanford Site in Washington State, where an estimated 363-580 m3 of carbon tetrachloride was disposed to the subsurface. A key subsurface feature at the Hanford Site is a sloped Plio-Pleistocene caliche layer, which was reproduced in the experiment as a sloped lens in a medium-grained, uniform, sand matrix. The caliche contains considerable amounts of calcium carbonate and may have fluid wettability properties other than strongly water wet. A total of 800 ml of carbon tetrachloride was injected in the experimental domain at a rate of 0.5 ml min-1 from a small source area located at the surface. After apparent steady-state conditions were obtained with respect to carbon tetrachloride redistribution (i.e., the formation of residual DNAPL), saturation measurements indicate that all of the DNAPL that initially moved into the caliche, remained in this layer. This experimental result could not be reproduced with numerical multifluid flow simulations based on conventional constitutive relations between relative permeability, saturation, and fluid pressures. Water was subsequently applied to the surface at a constant rate over the full length of the caliche layer to study carbon tetrachloride displacement as a result of changing water saturations. Results show that as a result of this action, 29% of the DNAPL was removed from the caliche. However, the majority of the fluid remained in the caliche entrapped by water. Simulations with the multifluid flow simulator show that the current constitutive theory for relative permeability, saturation and capillary pressure does not describe displacement physics properly
Assessing alternative conceptual models of fracture flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ho, C.K.
1995-01-01
The numerical code TOUGH2 was used to assess alternative conceptual models of fracture flow. The models that were considered included the equivalent continuum model (ECM) and the dual permeability (DK) model. A one-dimensional, layered, unsaturated domain was studied with a saturated bottom boundary and a constant infiltration at the top boundary. Two different infiltration rates were used in the studies. In addition, the connection areas between the fracture and matrix elements in the dual permeability model were varied. Results showed that the two conceptual models of fracture flow produced different saturation and velocity profiles-even under steady-state conditions. The magnitudes of the discrepancies were sensitive to two parameters that affected the flux between the fractures and matrix in the dual permeability model: (1) the fracture-matrix connection areas and (2) the capillary pressure gradients between the fracture and matrix elements
Movement of radionuclides through unsaturated soils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
de Sousa, F.N.C.
1985-01-01
The advantages of the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes in the unsaturated zone above the fluctuations of the water table have been recognized for some time. However, most the numerical models used to simulate the environmental impact of a shallow land burial site assume that the soils surrounding the waste forms are saturated; this assumption may lead, in many cases, to unrealistic large leach and water flow rates. The main purpose of this study was the development of a procedure which could give a reliable prediction on the movement of radionuclides from shallow land burial sites located in the unsaturated zone. In order to accomplish this objective three different soils having different sand, silt, and clay fractions were selected and characterized. These soils were then used to fill a number of flow columns that were used in tests designed to provide input data for the flow and transport models. A one-dimensional finite element model was developed in order to simulate the water flow and radionuclide transport through unsaturated soils. The results obtained showed that the model accurately described the transport of radionuclides through saturated-unsaturated soils. Simulations were done, for all three soils, involving different degrees of soil saturation, and the results showed that assuming the soils are always saturated may lead to nuclide transport times which are orders of magnitude larger than the real ones, depending on the clay percentage present in the soil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hami K.
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In the present research, simulations have been conducted to determine numerically the dynamic behaviour of the flow of underground water fed by a river. The basic equations governing the problem studied are those of Navier–Stokes equations of conservation of momentum (flows between pores, coupled by the Darcy–Forchheimer equations (flows within these pores. To understand the phenomena involved, we first study the impact of flow rate on the pressure and the filtration velocity in the underground medium, the second part is devoted to the calculation of the elevation effect of the river water on the flow behaviour in the saturated and unsaturated zone of the aquifer.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Sililo, OTN
2000-11-01
Full Text Available of flow will be greatest where the fine-grained layer is thinnest; (5) surface depressions in an upper fine-grained layer will concentrate flow, with fingers forming below such areas; and (6) in systems where an upper fine-grained layer has macro pores...
Centrifuge modeling of one-step outflow tests for unsaturated parameter estimations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Nakajima
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Centrifuge modeling of one-step outflow tests were carried out using a 2-m radius geotechnical centrifuge, and the cumulative outflow and transient pore water pressure were measured during the tests at multiple gravity levels. Based on the scaling laws of centrifuge modeling, the measurements generally showed reasonable agreement with prototype data calculated from forward simulations with input parameters determined from standard laboratory tests. The parameter optimizations were examined for three different combinations of input data sets using the test measurements. Within the gravity level examined in this study up to 40g, the optimized unsaturated parameters compared well when accurate pore water pressure measurements were included along with cumulative outflow as input data. With its capability to implement variety of instrumentations under well controlled initial and boundary conditions and to shorten testing time, the centrifuge modeling technique is attractive as an alternative experimental method that provides more freedom to set inverse problem conditions for the parameter estimation.
Centrifuge modeling of one-step outflow tests for unsaturated parameter estimations
Nakajima, H.; Stadler, A. T.
2006-10-01
Centrifuge modeling of one-step outflow tests were carried out using a 2-m radius geotechnical centrifuge, and the cumulative outflow and transient pore water pressure were measured during the tests at multiple gravity levels. Based on the scaling laws of centrifuge modeling, the measurements generally showed reasonable agreement with prototype data calculated from forward simulations with input parameters determined from standard laboratory tests. The parameter optimizations were examined for three different combinations of input data sets using the test measurements. Within the gravity level examined in this study up to 40g, the optimized unsaturated parameters compared well when accurate pore water pressure measurements were included along with cumulative outflow as input data. With its capability to implement variety of instrumentations under well controlled initial and boundary conditions and to shorten testing time, the centrifuge modeling technique is attractive as an alternative experimental method that provides more freedom to set inverse problem conditions for the parameter estimation.
Loheide, Steven P.; Butler, James J.; Gorelick, Steven M.
2005-01-01
Groundwater consumption by phreatophytes is a difficult‐to‐measure but important component of the water budget in many arid and semiarid environments. Over the past 70 years the consumptive use of groundwater by phreatophytes has been estimated using a method that analyzes diurnal trends in hydrographs from wells that are screened across the water table (White, 1932). The reliability of estimates obtained with this approach has never been rigorously evaluated using saturated‐unsaturated flow simulation. We present such an evaluation for common flow geometries and a range of hydraulic properties. Results indicate that the major source of error in the White method is the uncertainty in the estimate of specific yield. Evapotranspirative consumption of groundwater will often be significantly overpredicted with the White method if the effects of drainage time and the depth to the water table on specific yield are ignored. We utilize the concept of readily available specific yield as the basis for estimation of the specific yield value appropriate for use with the White method. Guidelines are defined for estimating readily available specific yield based on sediment texture. Use of these guidelines with the White method should enable the evapotranspirative consumption of groundwater to be more accurately quantified.
Development of numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
P. Dobson
2004-01-01
This report describes the methods used to develop numerical grids of the unsaturated hydrogeologic system beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Numerical grid generation is an integral part of the development of the unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport model, a complex, three-dimensional (3-D) model of Yucca Mountain. This revision contains changes made to improve the clarity of the description of grid generation. The numerical grids, developed using current geologic, hydrogeologic, and mineralogic data, provide the necessary framework to: (1) develop calibrated hydrogeologic property sets and flow fields, (2) test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport, and (3) predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions. The technical scope, content, and management for the current revision of this report are described in the planning document ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 2). Grids generated and documented in this report supersede those documented in Revision 00 of this report, ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 159356]). The grids presented in this report are the same as those developed in Revision 01 (BSC 2003 [DIRS 160109]); however, the documentation of the development of the grids in Revision 02 has been updated to address technical inconsistencies and achieve greater transparency, readability, and traceability. The constraints, assumptions, and limitations associated with this report are discussed in the appropriate sections that follow
A model to predict element redistribution in unsaturated soil: Its simplification and validation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheppard, M.I.; Stephens, M.E.; Davis, P.A.; Wojciechowski, L.
1991-01-01
A research model has been developed to predict the long-term fate of contaminants entering unsaturated soil at the surface through irrigation or atmospheric deposition, and/or at the water table through groundwater. The model, called SCEMR1 (Soil Chemical Exchange and Migration of Radionuclides, Version 1), uses Darcy's law to model water movement, and the soil solid/liquid partition coefficient, K d , to model chemical exchange. SCEMR1 has been validated extensively on controlled field experiments with several soils, aeration statuses and the effects of plants. These validation results show that the model is robust and performs well. Sensitivity analyses identified soil K d , annual effective precipitation, soil type and soil depth to be the four most important model parameters. SCEMR1 consumes too much computer time for incorporation into a probabilistic assessment code. Therefore, we have used SCEMR1 output to derive a simple assessment model. The assessment model reflects the complexity of its parent code, and provides a more realistic description of containment transport in soils than would a compartment model. Comparison of the performance of the SCEMR1 research model, the simple SCEMR1 assessment model and the TERRA compartment model on a four-year soil-core experiment shows that the SCEMR1 assessment model generally provides conservative soil concentrations. (15 refs., 3 figs.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gureghian, A.B.
1979-01-01
A mathematical model of ground water transport through an aquifer is presented. The solute of interest is a metal tracer or radioactive material which may undergo decay through a sorbing unconfined aquifer. The subject is developed under the following headings: flow equation, solute equation, boundary conditions, finite element formulation, element formulation, solution scheme (flow equation, solute equation), results and discussions, water movement in a ditch drained aquifer under transient state, water and solute movement in a homogeneous and unsaturated soil, transport of 226 Ra in nonhomogeneous aquifer, tailings pond lined, and tailings pond unlined. It is concluded that this mathematical model may have a wide variety of applications. The uranium milling industry may find it useful to evaluate the hydrogeological suitability of their disposal sites. It may prove suited for the design of clay disposal ponds destined to hold hazardous liquids. It may also provide a means of estimating the long-term impact of radionuclides or other pollutants on the quality of ground water. 31 references, 9 figures, 3 tables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boehnke, H.; Petzoldt, J.C.; Stein, B.; Weimer, C.; Gaube, J.W. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemische Technologie
1998-12-31
A kinetic model based on the Mars-van Krevelen mechanism that allows to describe the microkinetics of the heterogeneously catalysed partial oxidation of {alpha}, {beta}-unsaturated aldehydes is presented. This conversion is represented by a network, composed of the oxidation of the {alpha}, {beta}-unsaturated aldehyde towards the {alpha}, {beta}-unsaturated carboxylic acid and the consecutive oxidation of the acid as well as the parallel reaction of the aldehyde to products of deeper oxidation. The reaction steps of aldehyde respectively acid oxidation and catalyst reoxidation have been investigated separately in transient experiments. The combination of steady state and transient experiments has led to an improved understanding of the interaction of the catalyst with the aldehyde and the carboxylic acids as well as to a support of the kinetic model assumptions. (orig.)
Leskovjan, Andreana C; Kretlow, Ariane; Miller, Lisa M
2010-04-01
Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential to brain functions such as membrane fluidity, signal transduction, and cell survival. It is also thought that low levels of unsaturated lipid in the brain may contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk or severity. However, it is not known how accumulation of unsaturated lipids is affected in different regions of the hippocampus, which is a central target of AD plaque pathology, during aging. In this study, we used Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) to visualize the unsaturated lipid content in specific regions of the hippocampus in the PSAPP mouse model of AD as a function of plaque formation. Specifically, the unsaturated lipid content was imaged using the olefinic =CH stretching mode at 3012 cm(-1). The axonal, dendritic, and somatic layers of the hippocampus were examined in the mice at 13, 24, 40, and 56 weeks old. Results showed that lipid unsaturation in the axonal layer was significantly increased with normal aging in control (CNT) mice (p avoiding progression of the disease.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dechesne, Arnaud; Or, D.; Gulez, Gamze
2008-01-01
Water is arguably the most important constituent of microbial microhabitats due to its control of physical and physiological processes critical to microbial activity. In natural environments, bacteria often live on unsaturated surfaces, in thin (micrometric) liquid films. Nevertheless, no experim....... The PSM constitutes a tool uniquely adapted to study the influence of liquid film geometry on microbial processes. It should therefore contribute to uncovering mechanisms of microbial adaptation to unsaturated environments.......Water is arguably the most important constituent of microbial microhabitats due to its control of physical and physiological processes critical to microbial activity. In natural environments, bacteria often live on unsaturated surfaces, in thin (micrometric) liquid films. Nevertheless......, no experimental systems are available that allow real-time observation of bacterial processes in liquid films of controlled thickness. We propose a novel, inexpensive, easily operated experimental platform, termed the porous surface model (PSM) that enables quantitative real-time microscopic observations...
Mathematical Model For Autoclave Curing Of Unsaturated Polyester Based Composite Materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adnan A. Abdul Razak
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Heat transfer process involved in the autoclave curing of fiber-reinforced thermosetting composites is investigated numerically. A model for the prediction of the temperature and the extent of the reaction across the laminate thickness during curing process in the autoclave of unsaturated polyester based composite has been developed. The governing equation for one dimensional heat transfer, and accounting for the heat generation due to the exothermic cure reaction in the composites had been used. It was found that the temperature at the central of the laminate increases up to the external imposed temperature, because of the thermal conductivity of the resin and fiber. The heat generated by the exothermic reaction of the resin is not adequately removed; the increase in the temperature at the center increases the resins rate reaction, which in turn generates more heat.
Baum, Rex L.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Savage, William Z.
2010-01-01
Shallow rainfall-induced landslides commonly occur under conditions of transient infiltration into initially unsaturated soils. In an effort to predict the timing and location of such landslides, we developed a model of the infiltration process using a two-layer system that consists of an unsaturated zone above a saturated zone and implemented this model in a geographic information system (GIS) framework. The model links analytical solutions for transient, unsaturated, vertical infiltration above the water table to pressure-diffusion solutions for pressure changes below the water table. The solutions are coupled through a transient water table that rises as water accumulates at the base of the unsaturated zone. This scheme, though limited to simplified soil-water characteristics and moist initial conditions, greatly improves computational efficiency over numerical models in spatially distributed modeling applications. Pore pressures computed by these coupled models are subsequently used in one-dimensional slope-stability computations to estimate the timing and locations of slope failures. Applied over a digital landscape near Seattle, Washington, for an hourly rainfall history known to trigger shallow landslides, the model computes a factor of safety for each grid cell at any time during a rainstorm. The unsaturated layer attenuates and delays the rainfall-induced pore-pressure response of the model at depth, consistent with observations at an instrumented hillside near Edmonds, Washington. This attenuation results in realistic estimates of timing for the onset of slope instability (7 h earlier than observed landslides, on average). By considering the spatial distribution of physical properties, the model predicts the primary source areas of landslides.
Modeling tritium transport through a deep unsaturated zone in an arid environment
Mayers, C.J.; Andraski, Brian J.; Cooper, C.A.; Wheatcraft, S.W.; Stonestrom, David A.; Michel, R.L.
2005-01-01
Understanding transport of tritium (3H) in unsaturated zones is critical to evaluating options for waste isolation. Tritium typically is a large component of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Studies at the U.S. Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in Nevada investigate 3H transport from a closed LLRW facility. Two boreholes are 100 and 160 m from the nearest waste trench and extend to the water table at 110 m. Soil-water vapor samples from the deep boreholes show elevated levels of 3H at all depths. The objectives of this study were to (i) test source thermal and gas-advection mechanisms driving 3H transport and (ii) evaluate model sensitivity to these mechanisms and to selected physical and hydraulic properties including porosity, tortuosity, and anisotropy. A two-dimensional numerical model incorporated a non-isothermal, heterogeneous domain of the unsaturated zone and instantaneous isotopic equilibrium. The TOUGH2 code was used; however, it required modification to account for temperature dependence of both the Henry's law equilibrium constant and isotopic fractionation with respect to tritiated water. Increases in source temperature, pressure, and porosity enhanced 3H migration, but failed to match measured 3H distributions. All anisotropic simulations with a source pressure component resembled, in shape, the upper portion of the 3H distribution of the nearest borehole. Isotopic equilibrium limited migration of 3H, while effects of radioactive decay were negligible. A 500 Pa pressure increase above ambient pressure in conjunction with a high degree of anisotropy (1:100) was necessary for simulated 3H transport to reach the nearest borehole.
Pales, A. R.; Li, B.; Clifford, H.; Edayilam, N.; Montgomery, D.; Dogan, M.; Tharayil, N.; Martinez, N. E.; Moysey, S. M.; Darnault, C. J. G.
2016-12-01
This research aims to build upon past two-dimension (2D) tank light transmission methods to quantify real-time flow in unsaturated porous media (ASTM silica sand; US Silica, Ottawa, IL, USA) and how exudates effect unstable flow patterns. A 2D tank light transmission method was created using a transparent flow through tank coupled with a random rainfall simulator; a commercial LED light and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor digital single lens reflex (CMOS DSLR) Nikon D5500 camera were used to capture the real-time flow images. The images were broken down from red-green-blue (RGB) into hue-saturation-intensity (HVI) and analyzed in Matlab to produce quantifiable data about finger formation and water saturation distribution. Contact angle and surface tension of the chemical plant exudate solutions was measured using a Kruss EasyDrop FM40Mk2 (Kruss GmbH Germany). The exudates (oxalate, citrate, tannic acid, and Suwannee River Natural Organic Matter) had an increased wettability effect compared to control rain water (0.01M NaCl). This resulted in variable finger formation and speed of finger propagation; dependent on exudate type and concentration. Water saturation along the vertical and horizontal profile (Matlab) was used to quantify the finger more objectively than by eye assessment alone. The changes in finger formation and speed of propagation between the control rain water (0.01M NaCl) and the solutions containing plant exudates illustrates that the plant exudates increased the wettability (mobility) of water moving through unsaturated porous media. This understanding of plant exudates effect on unsaturated flow is important for future works in this study to analyze how plants, their roots and exudates, may affect the mobility of radionuclides in unsaturated porous media.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arson, Chloe; Gatmiri, Behrouz
2010-01-01
Document available in extended abstract form only. The design of deep nuclear waste repositories requires the modelling of the effects of thermal loadings in the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ). The containers are to be stored in bentonite buffers surrounded by a geological massif. These two barriers are multi-phase porous media, in which coupled mechanical, capillary and thermal phenomena occur. The aim of this study is to develop a new damage model dedicated to non-isothermal unsaturated porous media, the 'THHMD' model. Contrary to almost all of the existing damage models dedicated to non dry media, it is formulated in independent stress state variables (net stress, suction and thermal stress). The damage variable is a second-order tensor, which gives a good approximation for the representation of anisotropic cracking in three dimensions. The behaviour laws stem from the combination of phenomenological and micromechanical principles. The total strain tensor is split into three components, each of which being conjugated to a stress state variable. The Helmholtz free energy is written as the sum of damaged elastic energies and residual-strain-potentials. The concept of effective stress, frequently used in Continuum Damaged Mechanics, is extended to the three stress state variables, by using the operator of Cordebois and Sidoroff. The damaged rigidities are computed by application of the Principle of Equivalent Elastic Energy (PEEE). The non-elastic strain components depend on the increment of damage, which is determined by an associative flow rule. Fracturing is also modelled in the transfer equations. The Representative Elementary Volume (REV) is assumed to be damaged by a microcrack network, among which liquid water and vapour flows are homogenized. A damaged intrinsic conductivity, which plays the role of an internal length parameter, is introduced. The influence of damage on air and heat flows is taken into account by means of porosity, which is also
Evaluation of unsaturated-zone solute-transport models for studies of agricultural chemicals
Nolan, Bernard T.; Bayless, E. Randall; Green, Christopher T.; Garg, Sheena; Voss, Frank D.; Lampe, David C.; Barbash, Jack E.; Capel, Paul D.; Bekins, Barbara A.
2005-01-01
Seven unsaturated-zone solute-transport models were tested with two data sets to select models for use by the Agricultural Chemical Team of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The data sets were from a bromide tracer test near Merced, California, and an atrazine study in the White River Basin, Indiana. In this study the models are designated either as complex or simple based on the water flux algorithm. The complex models, HYDRUS2D, LEACHP, RZWQM, and VS2DT, use Richards' equation to simulate water flux and are well suited to process understanding. The simple models, CALF, GLEAMS, and PRZM, use a tipping-bucket algorithm and are more amenable to extrapolation because they require fewer input parameters. The purpose of this report is not to endorse a particular model, but to describe useful features, potential capabilities, and possible limitations that emerged from working with the model input data sets. More rigorous assessment of model applicability involves proper calibration, which was beyond the scope of this study.
Kordilla, J.; Bresinsky, L. T.; Shigorina, E.; Noffz, T.; Dentz, M.; Sauter, M.; Tartakovsky, A. M.
2017-12-01
Preferential flow dynamics in unsaturated fractures remain a challenging topic on various scales. On pore- and fracture-scales the highly erratic gravity-driven flow dynamics often provoke a strong deviation from classical volume-effective approaches. Against the common notion that flow in fractures (or macropores) can only occur under equilibrium conditions, i.e., if the surrounding porous matrix is fully saturated and capillary pressures are high enough to allow filling of the fracture void space, arrival times suggest the existence of rapid preferential flow along fractures, fracture networks, and fault zones, even if the matrix is not fully saturated. Modeling such flows requires efficient numerical techniques to cover various flow-relevant physics, such as surface tension, static and dynamic contact angles, free-surface (multi-phase) interface dynamics, and formation of singularities. Here we demonstrate the importance of such flow modes on the partitioning dynamics at simple fracture intersections, with a combination of laboratory experiments, analytical solutions and numerical simulations using our newly developed massively parallel smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code. Flow modes heavily influence the "bypass" behavior of water flowing along a fracture junction. Flows favoring the formation of droplets exhibit a much stronger bypass capacity compared to rivulet flows, where nearly the whole fluid mass is initially stored within the horizontal fracture. This behavior is demonstrated for a multi-inlet laboratory setup where the inlet-specific flow rate is chosen so that either a droplet or rivulet flow persists. The effect of fluid buffering within the horizontal fracture is presented in terms of dimensionless fracture inflow so that characteristic scaling regimes can be recovered. For both cases (rivulets and droplets), flow within the horizontal fracture transitions into a Washburn regime until a critical threshold is reached and the bypass efficiency
Infiltration in Unsaturated Soils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ghotbi, Abdoul R.; Omidvar, M.; Barari, Amin
2011-01-01
An approximate analytical solution has been established for the well known Richards’ equation for unsaturated flow of transports in soils. Despite the importance of Richards’ equation in geotechnical and geoenvironmental applications, most solutions to the problem are generally based on numerical...
Soil and Waste Matrix Affects Spatial Heterogeneity of Bacteria Filtration during Unsaturated Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adrian Unc
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Discontinuous flows resulting from discrete natural rain events induce temporal and spatial variability in the transport of bacteria from organic waste through soils in which the degree of saturation varies. Transport and continuity of associated pathways are dependent on structure and stability of the soil under conditions of variable moisture and ionic strength of the soil solution. Lysimeters containing undisturbed monoliths of clay, clay loam or sandy loam soils were used to investigate transport and pathway continuity for bacteria and hydrophobic fluorescent microspheres. Biosolids, to which the microspheres were added, were surface applied and followed by serial irrigation events. Microspheres, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Salmonella spp. and Clostridium perfringens were enumerated in drainage collected from 64 distinct collection areas through funnels installed in a grid pattern at the lower boundary of the monoliths. Bacteria-dependent filtration coefficients along pathways of increasing water flux were independent of flow volume, suggesting: (1 tracer or colloid dependent retention; and (2 transport depended on the total volume of contiguous pores accessible for bacteria transport. Management decisions, in this case resulting from the form of organic waste, induced changes in tortuosity and continuity of pores and modified the effective capacity of soil to retain bacteria. Surface application of liquid municipal biosolids had a negative impact on transport pathway continuity, relative to the solid municipal biosolids, enhancing retention under less favourable electrostatic conditions consistent with an initial increase in straining within inactive pores and subsequent by limited re-suspension from reactivated pores.
NaturAnalogs for the Unsaturated Zone
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
A. Simmons; A. Unger; M. Murrell
2000-03-08
The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) analog sites and processes that are applicable to flow and transport processes expected to occur at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in order to build increased confidence in modeling processes of Unsaturated Zone (UZ) flow and transport. This AMR was prepared in accordance with ''AMR Development Plan for U0135, Natural Analogs for the UZ'' (CRWMS 1999a). Knowledge from analog sites and processes is used as corroborating information to test and build confidence in flow and transport models of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This AMR supports the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR) and the Yucca Mountain Site Description. The objectives of this AMR are to test and build confidence in the representation of UZ processes in numerical models utilized in the UZ Flow and Transport Model. This is accomplished by: (1) applying data from Boxy Canyon, Idaho in simulations of UZ flow using the same methodologies incorporated in the Yucca Mountain UZ Flow and Transport Model to assess the fracture-matrix interaction conceptual model; (2) Providing a preliminary basis for analysis of radionuclide transport at Pena Blanca, Mexico as an analog of radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain; and (3) Synthesizing existing information from natural analog studies to provide corroborating evidence for representation of ambient and thermally coupled UZ flow and transport processes in the UZ Model.
Natural Analogs for the Unsaturated Zone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simmons, A.; Unger, A.; Murrell, M.
2000-01-01
The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) analog sites and processes that are applicable to flow and transport processes expected to occur at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in order to build increased confidence in modeling processes of Unsaturated Zone (UZ) flow and transport. This AMR was prepared in accordance with ''AMR Development Plan for U0135, Natural Analogs for the UZ'' (CRWMS 1999a). Knowledge from analog sites and processes is used as corroborating information to test and build confidence in flow and transport models of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This AMR supports the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR) and the Yucca Mountain Site Description. The objectives of this AMR are to test and build confidence in the representation of UZ processes in numerical models utilized in the UZ Flow and Transport Model. This is accomplished by: (1) applying data from Boxy Canyon, Idaho in simulations of UZ flow using the same methodologies incorporated in the Yucca Mountain UZ Flow and Transport Model to assess the fracture-matrix interaction conceptual model; (2) Providing a preliminary basis for analysis of radionuclide transport at Pena Blanca, Mexico as an analog of radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain; and (3) Synthesizing existing information from natural analog studies to provide corroborating evidence for representation of ambient and thermally coupled UZ flow and transport processes in the UZ Model
Sitarenios Panagiotis; Kavvadas Michael
2016-01-01
The Modified Cam Clay model is extended to account for the behaviour of unsaturated soils using Bishop’s stress. To describe the Loading – Collapse behaviour, the model incorporates a compressibility framework with suction and degree of saturation dependent compression lines. For simplicity, the present paper describes the model in the triaxial stress space with characteristic simulations of constant suction compression and triaxial tests, as well as wetting tests. The model reproduces an evo...
Numerical modeling of solute transport in deformable unsaturated layered soil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sheng Wu
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The effect of soil stratification was studied through numerical investigation based on the coupled model of solute transport in deformable unsaturated soil. The theoretical model implied two-way coupled excess pore pressure and soil deformation based on Biot's consolidation theory as well as a one-way coupled volatile pollutant concentration field developed from the advection-diffusion theory. Embedded in the model, the degree of saturation, fluid compressibility, self-weight of the soil matrix, porosity variance, longitudinal dispersion, and linear sorption were computed. Based on simulation results of a proposed three-layer landfill model using the finite element method, the multi-layer effects are discussed with regard to the hydraulic conductivity, shear modulus, degree of saturation, molecular diffusion coefficient, and thickness of each layer. Generally speaking, contaminants spread faster in a stratified field with a soft and highly permeable top layer; soil parameters of the top layer are more critical than the lower layers but controlling soil thicknesses will alter the results. This numerical investigation showed noticeable impacts of stratified soil properties on solute migration results, demonstrating the importance of correctly modeling layered soil instead of simply assuming the averaged properties across the soil profile.
A study on in-situ measuring method and modeling technique of an unsaturated zone
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Imai, Hisashi [Hazama Corp., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Technical Research Inst.; Amemiya, Kiyoshi; Nishida, Kaoru; Lin, Weiren; Lei, Xinglin
1997-03-01
It is generally considered that an unsaturated zone is generated in the vicinity of a drift after excavation. In such a zone, invasion of air containing oxygen possibly changes geochemical environment (redox condition) of the rock mass. However, no measurement technique for quantitative understanding of this unsaturated zone is currently available. This study has been started to develop the measuring method in the several years. This year, fundamental information has been obtained through analysis, laboratory experiments using homogeneous rock samples and field measurement described below. (1) experiments on the mechanism of undersaturation in rock. (2) experiments on the measuring method of the extend of unsaturated zone. (author)
Simulation of flow in the unsaturated zone beneath Pagany Wash, Yucca Mountain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwicklis, E.M.; Healy, R.W.; Flint, A.L.
1994-01-01
A one-dimensional numerical model was created to simulate water movement beneath Pagany Wash, Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Model stratigraphy and properties were based on data obtained from boreholes UE-25 UZ No. 4 and UE-25 UZ No. 5, which was drilled in the alluvial channel and bedrock sideslope of Pagany Wash. Although unable to account for multidimensional or preferential flowpaths beneath the wash, the model proved a useful conceptual tool with which to develop hypotheses and, in some cases, provide bounding calculations. The model indicated that liquid flux decreases with depth in the upper 120 m beneath the wash, with fluxes of several tens mm/yr in the nonwelded base of the Tiva Canyon Member and fluxes on the order of a tenth mm/yr in the upper Topopah Spring Member. Capillary barrier effects were indicated by the model to significantly delay the entry of large fluxes into the potential repository horizon during periods of increasing net infiltration, and to inhibit rapid drainage of water from the nonwelded and bedded intervals into the potential repository horizon during periods of moisture redistribution. Lateral moisture redistribution can be expected to be promoted by these effects
Turco, Michele; Kodešová, Radka; Brunetti, Giuseppe; Nikodem, Antonín; Fér, Miroslav; Piro, Patrizia
2017-11-01
An adequate hydrological description of water flow in permeable pavement systems relies heavily on the knowledge of the unsaturated hydraulic properties of the construction materials. Although several modeling tools and many laboratory methods already exist in the literature to determine the hydraulic properties of soils, the importance of an accurate materials hydraulic description of the permeable pavement system, is increasingly recognized in the fields of urban hydrology. Thus, the aim of this study is to propose techniques/procedures on how to interpret water flow through the construction system using the HYDRUS model. The overall analysis includes experimental and mathematical procedures for model calibration and validation to assess the suitability of the HYDRUS-2D model to interpret the hydraulic behaviour of a lab-scale permeable pavement system. The system consists of three porous materials: a wear layer of porous concrete blocks, a bedding layers of fine gravel, and a sub-base layer of coarse gravel. The water regime in this system, i.e. outflow at the bottom and water contents in the middle of the bedding layer, was monitored during ten irrigation events of various durations and intensities. The hydraulic properties of porous concrete blocks and fine gravel described by the van Genuchten functions were measured using the clay tank and the multistep outflow experiments, respectively. Coarse gravel properties were set at literature values. In addition, some of the parameters (Ks of the concrete blocks layer, and α, n and Ks of the bedding layer) were optimized with the HYDRUS-2D model from water fluxes and soil water contents measured during irrigation events. The measured and modeled hydrographs were compared using the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) index (varied between 0.95 and 0.99) while the coefficient of determination R2 was used to assess the measured water content versus the modelled water content in the bedding layer (R2 = 0.81 ÷ 0.87) . The
Measurements and modeling of gas fluxes in unsaturated mine waste materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kabwe, L.K.
2008-07-01
A technique known as dynamic closed chamber (DDC) was recently developed to measure carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) fluxes from the soil surface to the atmosphere. The field application of the DCC was investigated in this thesis with a particular focus on quantifying reaction rates in 2 waste-rock piles at the Key Lake uranium mine in northern Saskatchewan. The dominant geochemical reactions in both waste-rock piles were not typical of acid rock drainage (ARD) waste-rock piles. The CO{sub 2} fluxes measured in this study occur in the organic material underlying the waste rocks. The study provided a complete suite of measurements needed to characterize spatial distribution of CO{sub 2} fluxes on larger-scale studies of waste-rock piles. In comparison to other CO{sub 2} flux measuring techniques, the DCC method accurately quantified field soil respiration and had an added advantage in terms of speed and repeatability. The DCC was also used to investigate CO{sub 2} fluxes under the climatic variables that affect soil water content in waste-rock piles. A simple model for predicting the effects of soil water content on CO{sub 2} diffusion coefficient and concentration profiles was developed and verified. It was concluded that the DCC method is suitable for field applications to quantify CO{sub 2} fluxes and to characterize the spatial and temporal dynamics of CO{sub 2} fluxes from unsaturated C-horizon soils and waste-rock piles.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Szenknect, St
2003-10-15
This work is devoted to the quantification and the identification of the predominant processes involved in strontium and caesium transport in unsaturated soil from Chernobyl Pilot Site under steady flow conditions. The transport and fate of radionuclides in the subsurface is affected by various physical and chemical processes including advective and diffusive transport as well as chemical and biological transformations. Laboratory experiments and the use of a multiple tracer approach allow to isolate the contributions of each elementary process and to control the physico-chemical conditions in the system. To be more representative of the field conditions, we decided to perform column miscible displacement experiments. We perform batch and flow-through reactor experiments to characterize the radionuclides sorption mechanisms. Miscible displacement experiments within homogeneous columns and modeling allow to characterize the hydrodynamic properties of the soil and to describe the radionuclides behaviour under dynamic conditions at different water contents. We show that the water content of porous media affect the transport behaviour of inert and strongly sorbing radionuclides. Our results demonstrate that a parametrized transport model that was calibrated under completely saturated conditions was not able to describe the advective-dispersive transport of reactive solutes under unsaturated steady state conditions. Under our experimental conditions, there is no effect of a decrease of the mean water content on the sorption model parameters, but the transport parameters are modified. We established for the studied soil the relation between hydrodynamic dispersion and water content and the relation between pore water velocity and water content. (author)
Pollock, David W.
1986-01-01
Many parts of the Great Basin have thick zones of unsaturated alluvium which might be suitable for disposing of high-level radioactive wastes. A mathematical model accounting for the coupled transport of energy, water (vapor and liquid), and dry air was used to analyze one-dimensional, vertical transport above and below an areally extensive repository. Numerical simulations were conducted for a hypothetical repository containing spent nuclear fuel and located 100 m below land surface. Initial steady state downward water fluxes of zero (hydrostatic) and 0.0003 m yr−1were considered in an attempt to bracket the likely range in natural water flux. Predicted temperatures within the repository peaked after approximately 50 years and declined slowly thereafter in response to the decreasing intensity of the radioactive heat source. The alluvium near the repository experienced a cycle of drying and rewetting in both cases. The extent of the dry zone was strongly controlled by the mobility of liquid water near the repository under natural conditions. In the case of initial hydrostatic conditions, the dry zone extended approximately 10 m above and 15 m below the repository. For the case of a natural flux of 0.0003 m yr−1 the relative permeability of water near the repository was initially more than 30 times the value under hydrostatic conditions, consequently the dry zone extended only about 2 m above and 5 m below the repository. In both cases a significant perturbation in liquid saturation levels persisted for several hundred years. This analysis illustrates the extreme sensitivity of model predictions to initial conditions and parameters, such as relative permeability and moisture characteristic curves, that are often poorly known.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, H.H.
1980-01-01
Radionuclide transport by groundwater flow is an important pathway in the assessment of the environmental impact of radioactive waste disposal to the biosphere. A numerical model was developed to simulate radionuclide transport by groundwater flow and predict the radionuclide discharge rate to the biosphere. A sensitivity analysis methodology was developed to address the sensitivity of the input parameters of the radionuclide transport equation to the specified response of interest
Gehrels, J. C.; van Geer, F. C.; de Vries, J. J.
1994-05-01
Time series analysis of the fluctuations in shallow groundwater levels in the Netherlands lowlands have revealed a large-scale decline in head during recent decades as a result of an increase in land drainage and groundwater withdrawal. The situation is more ambiguous in large groundwater bodies located in the eastern part of the country, where the unsaturated zone increases from near zero along the edges to about 40 m in the centre of the area. As depth of the unsaturated zone increases, groundwater level reacts with an increasing delay to fluctuations in climate and influences of human activities. The aim of the present paper is to model groundwater level fluctuations in these areas using a linear stochastic transfer function model, relating groundwater levels to estimated precipitation excess, and to separate artificial components from the natural groundwater regime. In this way, the impact of groundwater withdrawal and the reclamation of a 1000 km 2 polder area on the groundwater levels in the adjoining higher ground could be assessed. It became evident that the linearity assumption of the transfer functions becomes a serious drawback in areas with the deepest groundwater levels, because of non-linear processes in the deep unsaturated zone and the non-synchronous arrival of recharge in the saturated zone. Comparison of the results from modelling the influence of reclamation with an analytical solution showed that the lowering of groundwater level is partly compensated by reduced discharge and therefore is less than expected.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sitarenios Panagiotis
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The Modified Cam Clay model is extended to account for the behaviour of unsaturated soils using Bishop’s stress. To describe the Loading – Collapse behaviour, the model incorporates a compressibility framework with suction and degree of saturation dependent compression lines. For simplicity, the present paper describes the model in the triaxial stress space with characteristic simulations of constant suction compression and triaxial tests, as well as wetting tests. The model reproduces an evolving post yield compressibility under constant suction compression, and thus, can adequately describe a maximum of collapse.
Thermosyphon analysis of a repository: A simplified model for vapor flow and heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manteufel, R.D.; Powell, M.W.
1994-01-01
A simplified model is developed for thermally-driven buoyant gas flow in an unsaturated repository such as that anticipated at Yucca Mountain. Based on a simplified thermosyphon model, the strength of buoyant gas flow is related to key thermal-hydraulic parameters (e.g., bulk permeability and maximum repository temperature). The effects of buoyant gas flow on vapor flow and heat transport near the repository horizon are assessed, namely: (i) the strength of buoyant flow through the repository, (ii) the effect of buoyant flow on vapor transfer, and (iii) the effect of buoyant flow on heat transfer
Modeling flow and transport pathways to the potential repository horizon at Yucca Mountain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolfsberg, A.V.; Roemer, G.J.C.; Fabryka-Martin, J.T.; Robinson, B.A.
1998-01-01
The isotopic ratios of 36 Cl/Cl are used in conjunction with geologic interpretation and numerical modeling to evaluate flow and transport pathways, processes, and model parameters in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. By synthesizing geochemical and geologic data, the numerical model results provide insight into the validity of alternative hydrologic parameter sets, flow and transport processes in and away from fault zones, and the applicability of 36 Cl/Cl ratios for evaluating alternative conceptual models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
BP McGrail; HT Schaef; JP Icenhower; PF Martin; RD Orr; VL Legore
1999-01-01
This report summarizes our findings from pressurized unsaturated flow (PUF) and single-pass flow-through (SPFT) experiments to date. Results from the PUF test of a Pu-bearing ceramic with enclosing surrogate high-level waste glass show that the glass reacts rapidly to alteration products. Glass reaction causes variations in the solution pH in contact with the ceramic materials. We also document variable concentrations of Pu in solution, primarily in colloidal form, which appear to be related to secular variations in solution composition. The apparent dissolution rate of the ceramic waste form, based on Ba concentrations in the effluent, is estimated at le 10 -5 g/(m 2 · d). Pu-bearing colloids were recovered in the size range of 0.2 to 2 microm, but it is not clear that such entities would be transported in a system that is not advective-flow dominated. Results from SPFT experiments give information on the corrosion resistance of two surrogate Pu-ceramics (Ce-pyrochlore and Ce-zirconolite) at 90 C over a pH range of 2 to 12. The two ceramics were doped with minor quantities (approximately0.1 mass%) of MoO 3 , so that concentrations of Mo in the effluent solution could be used to monitor the reaction behavior of the materials. The data obtained thus far from experiments with durations up to 150 d do not conclusively prove that the solid-aqueous solution systems have reached steady-state conditions. Therefore, the dissolution mechanism cannot be determined. Apparent dissolution rates of the two ceramic materials based on Ce, Gd, and Mo concentrations in the effluent solutions from the SPFT are nearly identical and vary between 1.1 to 8.5 x 10 -4 g/(m 2 · d). In addition, the data reveal a slightly amphoteric dissolution behavior, with a minimum apparent rate at pH = 7 to 8, over the pH range examined. Results from two related ceramic samples suggest that radiation damage can have a measurable effect on the dissolution of titanium-based ceramics. The rare earth
Measuring and Modeling Flow in Welded Fractured Tuffs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
R. Salve; C. Doughty; J.S. Wang
2001-01-01
We have carried out a series of in situ liquid-release experiments in conjunction with a numerical modeling study to examine the effect of the rock matrix on liquid flow and transport occurring primarily through the fracture network. Field experiments were conducted in the highly fractured Topopah Spring welded tuff at a site accessed from the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESFS), an underground laboratory in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. During the experiment, wetting-front movement, flow-field evolution, and drainage of fracture flow paths were evaluated. Modeling was used to aid in experimental design, predict experimental results, and study the physical processes accompanying liquid flow through unsaturated fractured welded tuff. Field experiments and modeling suggest that it may not be sufficient to conceptualize the fractured tuff as consisting of a single network of high-permeability fractures embedded in a low-permeability matrix. The need to include a secondary fracture network is demonstrated by comparison to the liquid flow observed in the field
Role of Unsaturated Lipid and Ergosterol in Ethanol Tolerance of Model Yeast Biomembranes
Vanegas, Juan M.
2012-02-07
We present a combined atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy study of the behavior of a ternary supported lipid bilayer system containing a saturated lipid (DPPC), an unsaturated lipid (DOPC), and ergosterol in the presence of high ethanol (20 vol %). We find that the fluorescent probe Texas Red DHPE preferentially partitions into the ethanol-induced interdigitated phase, which allows the use of fluorescence imaging to investigate the phase behavior of the system. Atomic force microscopy and fluorescence images of samples with the same lipid mixture show good agreement in sample morphology and area fractions of the observed phases. Using area fractions obtained from fluorescence images over a broad range of compositions, we constructed a phase diagram of the DPPC/DOPC/ergosterol system at 20 vol % ethanol. The phase diagram clearly shows that increasing unsaturated lipid and/or ergosterol protects the membrane by preventing the formation of the interdigitated phase. This result supports the hypothesis that yeast cells increase ergosterol and unsaturated lipid content to prevent interdigitation and maintain an optimal membrane thickness as ethanol concentration increases during anaerobic fermentations. Changes in plasma membrane composition provide an important survival factor for yeast cells to deter ethanol toxicity.
Dsc cure kinetics of an unsaturated polyester resin using empirical kinetic model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdullah, I.
2015-01-01
In this paper, the kinetics of curing of unsaturated polyester resin initiated with benzoyl peroxide was studied. In case of unsaturated polyester (UP) resin, isothermal test alone could not predict correctly the curing time of UP resin. Therefore, isothermal kinetic analysis through isoconventional adjustment was used to correctly predict the curing time and temperature of UP resin. Isothermal kinetic analysis through isoconversional adjustment indicated that 97% of UP resin cures in 33 min at 120 degree C. Curing of UP resin through microwaves was also studied and found that 67% of UP resin cures in 1 min at 120 degree C. The crosslinking reaction of UP resin is so fast at 120 degree C that it becomes impossible to predict correctly the curing time of UP resin using isothermal test and the burial of C=C bonds in microgels makes it impossible to be fully cured by microwaves at 120 degree C. The rheological behaviour of unsaturated polyester resin was also studied to observe the change in viscosity with respect to time and temperature. (author)
Role of Unsaturated Lipid and Ergosterol in Ethanol Tolerance of Model Yeast Biomembranes
Vanegas, Juan M.; Contreras, Maria F.; Faller, Roland; Longo, Marjorie L.
2012-01-01
We present a combined atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy study of the behavior of a ternary supported lipid bilayer system containing a saturated lipid (DPPC), an unsaturated lipid (DOPC), and ergosterol in the presence of high ethanol (20 vol %). We find that the fluorescent probe Texas Red DHPE preferentially partitions into the ethanol-induced interdigitated phase, which allows the use of fluorescence imaging to investigate the phase behavior of the system. Atomic force microscopy and fluorescence images of samples with the same lipid mixture show good agreement in sample morphology and area fractions of the observed phases. Using area fractions obtained from fluorescence images over a broad range of compositions, we constructed a phase diagram of the DPPC/DOPC/ergosterol system at 20 vol % ethanol. The phase diagram clearly shows that increasing unsaturated lipid and/or ergosterol protects the membrane by preventing the formation of the interdigitated phase. This result supports the hypothesis that yeast cells increase ergosterol and unsaturated lipid content to prevent interdigitation and maintain an optimal membrane thickness as ethanol concentration increases during anaerobic fermentations. Changes in plasma membrane composition provide an important survival factor for yeast cells to deter ethanol toxicity.
Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (BV) are proven strategies for remediation of unsaturated zone soils. Mathematical models are powerful tools that can be used to integrate and quantify the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring in field sc...
Ronen, Daniel; Lev-Wiener, Hagit; Graber, Ellen R; Dahan, Ofer; Weisbrod, Noam
2010-04-01
Concentrations of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (Cl-VOCs) at the saturated-unsaturated interface region (SUIR; depth of approximately 18m) of a sandy phreatic aquifer were measured in two monitoring wells located 25m apart. The concentrations of the Cl-VOCs obtained above and below the water table along a 413-day period are interpreted to depict variable, simultaneous and independent movement of trichlorothene, tetrachloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, chloroform and 1,1-dichloroethane vapors in opposite directions across the SUIR. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moreo, Michael T.; Andraski, Brian J.; Garcia, C. Amanda
2017-08-29
This report documents methodology and results of a study to evaluate groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration (GWET) in sparsely vegetated areas of Amargosa Desert and improve understanding of hydrologic-continuum processes controlling groundwater discharge. Evapotranspiration and GWET rates were computed and characterized at three sites over 2 years using a combination of micrometeorological, unsaturated zone, and stable-isotope measurements. One site (Amargosa Flat Shallow [AFS]) was in a sparse and isolated area of saltgrass (Distichlis spicata) where the depth to groundwater was 3.8 meters (m). The second site (Amargosa Flat Deep [AFD]) was in a sparse cover of predominantly shadscale (Atriplex confertifolia) where the depth to groundwater was 5.3 m. The third site (Amargosa Desert Research Site [ADRS]), selected as a control site where GWET is assumed to be zero, was located in sparse vegetation dominated by creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) where the depth to groundwater was 110 m.Results indicated that capillary rise brought groundwater to within 0.9 m (at AFS) and 3 m (at AFD) of land surface, and that GWET rates were largely controlled by the slow but relatively persistent upward flow of water through the unsaturated zone in response to atmospheric-evaporative demands. Greater GWET at AFS (50 ± 20 millimeters per year [mm/yr]) than at AFD (16 ± 15 mm/yr) corresponded with its shallower depth to the capillary fringe and constantly higher soil-water content. The stable-isotope dataset for hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) illustrated a broad range of plant-water-uptake scenarios. The AFS saltgrass and AFD shadscale responded to changing environmental conditions and their opportunistic water use included the time- and depth-variable uptake of unsaturated-zone water derived from a combination of groundwater and precipitation. These results can be used to estimate GWET in other areas of Amargosa Desert where hydrologic conditions are similar.
Pumping Test Determination of Unsaturated Aquifer Properties
Mishra, P. K.; Neuman, S. P.
2008-12-01
Tartakovsky and Neuman [2007] presented a new analytical solution for flow to a partially penetrating well pumping at a constant rate from a compressible unconfined aquifer considering the unsaturated zone. In their solution three-dimensional, axially symmetric unsaturated flow is described by a linearized version of Richards' equation in which both hydraulic conductivity and water content vary exponentially with incremental capillary pressure head relative to its air entry value, the latter defining the interface between the saturated and unsaturated zones. Both exponential functions are characterized by a common exponent k having the dimension of inverse length, or equivalently a dimensionless exponent kd=kb where b is initial saturated thickness. The authors used their solution to analyze drawdown data from a pumping test conducted by Moench et al. [2001] in a Glacial Outwash Deposit at Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Their analysis yielded estimates of horizontal and vertical saturated hydraulic conductivities, specific storage, specific yield and k . Recognizing that hydraulic conductivity and water content seldom vary identically with incremental capillary pressure head, as assumed by Tartakovsky and Neuman [2007], we note that k is at best an effective rather than a directly measurable soil parameter. We therefore ask to what extent does interpretation of a pumping test based on the Tartakovsky-Neuman solution allow estimating aquifer unsaturated parameters as described by more common constitutive water retention and relative hydraulic conductivity models such as those of Brooks and Corey [1964] or van Genuchten [1980] and Mualem [1976a]? We address this question by showing how may be used to estimate the capillary air entry pressure head k and the parameters of such constitutive models directly, without a need for inverse unsaturated numerical simulations of the kind described by Moench [2003]. To assess the validity of such direct estimates we use maximum
Modeling study of solute transport in the unsaturated zone: Workshop proceedings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Springer, E.P.; Fuentes, H.R.
1987-04-01
Issues addressed were the adequacy of the data for the various models, effectiveness of the models to represent the data, particular information provided by the models, the role of caisson experiments in providing fundamental knowledge of porous-media water flow and solute transport, and the importance of geochemistry to the transport of nonconservative tracers. These proceedings include the presentations made by each of the modelers; the summary document written by the panel; and a transcript of the discussions, both the discussions that followed individual presentations and the general discussion held on the second day. This publication completes the series on the workshop. Volume I in the series (NUREG/CR-4615, Vol. I) contains background information and the data sets provided each modeler
FEMWASTE: a Finite-Element Model of Waste transport through porous saturated-unsaturated media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeh, G.T.; Ward, D.S.
1981-04-01
A two-dimensional transient model for the transport of dissolved constituents through porous media originally developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been expanded and modified. Transport mechanisms include: convection, hydrodynamic dispersion, chemical sorption, and first-order decay. Implementation of quadrilateral iso-parametric finite elements, bilinear spatial interpolation, asymmetric weighting functions, several time-marching techniques, and Gaussian elimination are employed in the numerical formulation. A comparative example is included to demonstrate the difference between the new and original models. Results from 12 alternative numerical schemes of the new model are compared. The waste transport model is compatible with the water flow model developed at ORNL for predicting convective Darcy velocities in porous media which may be partially saturated
Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hinds, J.
2001-01-01
This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes the methods used to develop numerical grids of the unsaturated hydrogeologic system beneath Yucca Mountain. Numerical grid generation is an integral part of the development of a complex, three-dimensional (3-D) model, such as the Unsaturated-Zone Flow and Transport Model (UZ Model) of Yucca Mountain. The resulting numerical grids, developed using current geologic, hydrogeologic, and mineralogic data, provide the necessary framework to: (1) develop calibrated hydrogeologic property sets and flow fields, (2) test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport, and (3) predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal loading conditions. Revision 00 of the work described herein follows the planning and work direction outlined in the ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling'' (CRWMS M and O 1999c). The technical scope, content, and management of ICN 01 of this AMR is currently controlled by the planning document, ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (BSC 2001a). The scope for the TBV resolution actions in this ICN is described in the ''Technical Work Plan for: Integrated Management of Technical Product Input Department'' (BSC 2001 b, Addendum B, Section 4.1). The steps involved in numerical grid development include: (1) defining the location of important calibration features, (2) determining model grid layers and fault geometry based on the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), the Integrated Site Model (ISM), and definition of hydrogeologic units (HGUs), (3) analyzing and extracting GFM and ISM data pertaining to layer contacts and property distributions, (4) discretizing and refining the two-dimensional (2-D), plan-view numerical grid, (5) generating the 3-D grid with finer resolution at the repository horizon and within the Calico Hills nonwelded (CHn) hydrogeologic unit, and (6) formulating the dual-permeability mesh. The
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nichols, W.E.; Freshley, M.D.
1991-10-01
This report documents the results of sensitivity and uncertainty analyses conducted to improve understanding of unsaturated zone ground-water travel time distribution at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is currently performing detailed studies at Yucca Mountain to determine its suitability as a host for a geologic repository for the containment of high-level nuclear wastes. As part of these studies, DOE is conducting a series of Performance Assessment Calculational Exercises, referred to as the PACE problems. The work documented in this report represents a part of the PACE-90 problems that addresses the effects of natural barriers of the site that will stop or impede the long-term movement of radionuclides from the potential repository to the accessible environment. In particular, analyses described in this report were designed to investigate the sensitivity of the ground-water travel time distribution to different input parameters and the impact of uncertainty associated with those input parameters. Five input parameters were investigated in this study: recharge rate, saturated hydraulic conductivity, matrix porosity, and two curve-fitting parameters used for the van Genuchten relations to quantify the unsaturated moisture-retention and hydraulic characteristics of the matrix. 23 refs., 20 figs., 10 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Binning, P.; Celia, M.A.; Johnson, J.C.
1995-05-01
A numerical model of multiphase air-water flow and contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone is presented. The multiphase flow equations are solved using the two-pressure, mixed form of the equations with a modified Picard linearization of the equations and a finite element spatial approximation. A volatile contaminant is assumed to be transported in either phase, or in both phases simultaneously. The contaminant partitions between phases with an equilibrium distribution given by Henry's Law or via kinetic mass transfer. The transport equations are solved using a Galerkin finite element method with reduced integration to lump the resultant matrices. The numerical model is applied to published experimental studies to examine the behavior of the air phase and associated contaminant movement under water infiltration. The model is also used to evaluate a hypothetical design for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The model has been developed in both one and two dimensions; documentation and computer codes are available for the one-dimensional flow and transport model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mrad, M
2005-10-15
The use of compacted swelling soils in engineering practice is very widely spread, especially in geotechnical and environmental engineering. After their setup, these materials are likely to be subject to complex suction/stress paths involving significant variations of their hydro-mechanical properties which can affect their initial behaviour. It is important to be able to predict the hydro-mechanical behaviour of these materials taking into account the significant applications for which they are intended. Barcelona team developed a finite-element code (Code-Bright) for the thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling (THM) integrating the BBM elastoplastic model for unsaturated soils based on the independent variables approach. This model is recognized to correctly describe the hydro-mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils but fails to take into account some particular observed aspects on swelling soils. A second model BExM was then proposed to address these aspects. The objective of this study is: (i) to implement the elastoplastic model BExM for the unsaturated swelling soils in the finite-element code (Code-Bright); (ii) to check the numerical model validity through the numerical simulation of laboratory tests made on swelling soils; and (iii) to apply this model to some practical problems. For this purpose, a new family of numerical procedures adapted to the BExM model was introduced into the code. The equation of the yield surface of this model for a given deviatoric stress states was given in a manner to facilitate calculations of its derivatives. The model was checked by the numerical simulation of suction-controlled odometric tests made on three different swelling soils. The simulation results showed that the numerical model is able to correctly reproduce the experimental data. Lastly, the model was applied to two practical problems: radioactive waste repository in deep geological layers and a shallow footing under the action of a swelling soil. The results obtained
Stochastic Modeling Of Field-Scale Water And Solute Transport Through The Unsaturated Zone Of Soils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Loll, Per
were previously thought not to pose a leaching threat. Thus, a reevaluation of our understanding of the mechanisms governing chemical fate in the unsaturated zone of soils has been necessary, in order for us to make better decisions regarding widely different issues such as agricultural management...... of pesticides and nutrients, and risk identification and assessment at polluted (industrial) sites. One of the key factors requiring our attention when we are trying to predict field-scale chemical leaching is spatial variability of the soil and the influence it exerts on both water and chemical transport...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Song Wenyu
2017-06-01
Full Text Available In the current study, a macroscopic lattice Boltzmann model for simulating the heat and moisture transport phenomenon in unsaturated porous media during the freezing process was proposed. The proposed model adopted percolation threshold to reproduce the extra resistance in frozen fringe during the freezing process. The freezing process in Kanagawa sandy loam soil was demonstrated by the proposed model. The numerical result showed good agreement with the experimental result. The proposed model also offered higher computational efficiency and better agreement with the experimental result than the existing numerical models. Lattice Boltzmann method is suitable for simulating complex heat and mass transfer process in porous media at macroscopic scale under proper dimensionless criterion, which makes it a potentially powerful tool for engineering application.
CAPILLARY BARRIERS IN UNSATURATED FRACTURED ROCKS OF YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Y.S.; Zhang, W.; Pan, L.; Hinds, J.; Bodvarsson, G.
2000-01-01
This work presents modeling studies investigating the effects of capillary barriers on fluid-flow and tracer-transport processes in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a potential site for storing high-level radioactive waste. These studies are designed to identify factors controlling the formation of capillary barriers and to estimate their effects on the extent of possible large-scale lateral flow in unsaturated fracture rocks. The modeling approach is based on a continuum formulation of coupled multiphase fluid and tracer transport through fractured porous rock. Flow processes in fractured porous rock are described using a dual-continuum concept. In addition, approximate analytical solutions are developed and used for assessing capillary-barrier effects in fractured rocks. This study indicates that under the current hydrogeologic conceptualization of Yucca Mountain, strong capillary-barrier effects exist for significantly diverting moisture flow
Unsaturated zone investigation at the radioactive waste storage facility site
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skuratovic, Zana; Mazeika, Jonas; Petrosius, Rimantas; Jakimaviciute-Maseliene, Vaidote [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos St. 2, LT-08412, Vilnius (Lithuania); Klizas, Petras; Mokrik, Robert [Vilnius University, M.K. Ciurlionio St. 21/27, LT-03101 Vilnius (Lithuania)
2014-07-01
Unsaturated zone is an important part of water circulation cycle and an integral part of many hydrological and hydrogeological factors and processes. The soils of unsaturated zone are regarded as the first natural barrier to a large extent able to limit the spread of contaminants. Nuclear waste disposal site (Maisiagala radioactive waste storage facility site) was analysed in terms of the moisture movement through the unsaturated zone. Extensive data sets of the hydraulic properties, water content and isotope composition have been collected and summarized. The main experimental and observational tasks included the collection of soil samples; determination of the physical properties and the hydraulic conductivity values of soil samples, moisture extraction from the soil sample for isotopic studies; observation of the groundwater dynamics at the Maisiagala piezometer; groundwater sampling for isotopic analysis ({sup 3}H, {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O, {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H ); and monthly precipitation isotopic analysis. Distribution features of globally widespread radionuclide tritium ({sup 3}H) and the water molecule tracer isotopes in precipitation, unsaturated zone soil moisture profiles and groundwater were determined. It was used the well-known unsaturated flow and transport model of HYDRUS-1D (Simunek et al., 2008). In this study, van Genuchten equations for the retention and conductivity estimations have been used. The retention characteristics and van Genuchten model parameters were estimated internally by HYDRUS based on the empirical equations involved in the program. Basic inputs of the tritium transport simulation are the tritium input function and meteorological variables (precipitation and potential evapotranspiration). In order to validate the representativeness of the hydraulic parameters, the model has been used to estimate the tritium distribution in the unsaturated zone, which properly represents the dynamics of the unsaturated zone. The uniformity of the daily
This publication contains documentation for the PRZM-3 model. PRZM-3 is the most recent version of a modeling system that links two subordinate models, PRZM and VADOFT, in order to predict pesticide transport and transformation down through the crop root and unsaturated soil zone...
Elastoplastic constitutive models parameters for unsaturated compacted bentonite sand buffer (BSB)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Priyanto, D.; Man, A.; Dixon, D.; Blatz, J.
2010-01-01
Document available in extended abstract form only. Compacted Bentonite-Sand Buffer (BSB) material is one of the clay based sealing-system components proposed for use in a Canadian Deep Geological Repository (DGR) for used nuclear fuel. BSB is a 50:50 mixture (by dry mass) of bentonite and well-graded silica sand, compacted to a dry density of at least 1.67 Mg/m 3 . Numerical modelling of the evolution of a DGR requires defining of the Hydro-Mechanical (HM) parameters of the BSB. The objective of this paper is to determine the parameters that are needed to utilize an elastoplastic model to describe the BSB. The parameters of the Basic Barcelona Model (BBM) for BSB are determined based on the results of laboratory tests done under both water-saturated and unsaturated conditions. The BBM utilizes three key stress-state variables: net mean stress (p), deviatoric stress (q), and suction (s). Modification of the BBM to improve the prediction of the BSB behaviour is made based on these laboratory test results. Pre-consolidation stress (p o ), stiffness parameters due to changes in p in elastic (?) and plastic (λ(s)) ranges are determined from triaxial test results under isotropic loading, unloading and constant mass conditions with suctions in the range of 0-125 MPa. An increase of s results in an increase of p o and a decrease of λ(s) for s < 30 MPa, and constant po and λ(s) for s > 30 MPa. These data are used to determine the LC-Line. Blatz (2000) and Anderson (2003) concluded that the BSB has clay-dominated behaviour for s < 30 MPa and sand-dominated behaviour for s > 30 MPa. Based on this conclusion, the hardening parameter so of the suction increase yield curve is equal to 30 MPa. Using a measured s-v relationship from shrinkage tests, stiffness parameters for changes in s in the elastic range (?s) are approximately ∼ 0.065 and in the plastic range (λs) are approximately ∼ 0, which is different from the original BBM featuring λs > ?s. The tensile strength
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javier F. Rey
2009-08-01
Full Text Available The essence of a good experimental position consists on projecting an experiment so that him it is able to in fact give therefore the type of information that is looked for, by means of the development of the present work it is looked for to determine which the quality of the meat products will be elaborated with unsaturated vegetable fats, which its yield will be and for ende its cost regarding the traditional products, in and of itself the present investigation outlines an experimental design by means of the control of such variables as type of fat, use temperature and time of cutteado, keeping in mind the physiochemical and biochemical phenomena that happen beginning the control from the composition of the meat and fat during the trial, as raw materials dedicated to this end, for he/she thought about it the experimental design using a statistical model of complete factorial planning with 3 variables and 2 levels for a number of 15 rehearsals with a replica. Identified the variables to control as type of fat, temperature of use of the fats and the time of cutteado, the outlined experimental design is applied and you ends up obtaining the equation that gives solution to the identified problem that facilitates to use the unsaturated fats inside a process of elaboration of meat emulsions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moridis, George J.; Seol, Yongkoo; Wu, Yu-Shu
2003-01-01
We investigate radionuclide transport from a high-level nuclear waste repository to be situated in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. Several radioactive solutes (that cover the range of sorption behavior) and colloids of various sizes are studied. The results of the study indicate the importance of the subsurface geology and site hydrology, i.e., the presence of faults (they dominate and control transport), fractures (the main migration pathways), and the relative distribution of zeolitic and vitric tuffs. The effects of the climatic conditions, diffusion, and sorption (for solutes) or infiltration (for colloids) onto the matrix are discussed. The influence of the colloid size on transport is also investigated
Definition and implementation of a fully coupled THM model for unsaturated soils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haxaire, A.; Galavi, V.; Brinkgreve, R.B.J.
2012-01-01
Document available in extended abstract form only. The governing equations of a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) model are presented. They are an extension to the previous work of Galavi (2011) in which a coupled THM model based on Biot's consolidation theory was developed for saturated and partially saturated soils. This study is based on the assumption of local thermodynamical equilibrium, meaning that all phases have the same temperature at a point of the multiphase porous medium. The model is implemented in a research version of PLAXIS 2D. The non isothermal partially saturated flow is modeled using the water mass balance described in Rutqvist et al. (2001), in which the flux is decomposed in water advection and vapor diffusion. A limiting hypothesis lies in the gas pressure assumed to be constant in the entire domain. The air flow as a separate phase is therefore neglected. This choice results in having only one independent unknown in the fluid mass balance equation, which is water pressure. However, the vapor diffusion can still be modeled. It depends on temperature by means of a decomposition in a water pressure gradient part and a temperature gradient part. The vapor density follows the psychrometric law. The water storage is described using the ratio of saturation in the soil, the mechanical volumetric strains, and the variation of the skeleton density. To model the influence of water flow in the heat transport equation, the flux term is split in an averaged conductive term and a water advection term. The other quantities such as heat capacity and density are also averaged. This yields a simple yet accurate representation of the interactions between water flow and temperature. The non-isothermal deformation is formulated in terms of Bishop stresses. The effective saturation is taken as the Bishop coefficient. This provides a better accuracy compared to experimental results. The anisotropic thermal expansion tensor is used for the drained linear
Groundwater recharge dynamics in unsaturated fractured chalk: a case study
Cherubini, Claudia; Pastore, Nicola; Giasi, Concetta I.; Allegretti, Nicolaetta M.
2016-04-01
The heterogeneity of the unsaturated zone controls its hydraulic response to rainfall and the extent to which pollutants are delayed or attenuated before reaching groundwater. It plays therefore a very important role in the recharge of aquifers and the transfer of pollutants because of the presence of temporary storage zones and preferential flows. A better knowledge of the physical processes in the unsaturated zone would allow an improved assessment of the natural recharge in a heterogeneous aquifer and of its vulnerability to surface-applied pollution. The case study regards the role of the thick unsaturated zone of the Cretaceous chalk aquifer in Picardy (North of France) that controls the hydraulic response to rainfall. In the North Paris Basin, much of the recharge must pass through a regional chalk bed that is composed of a porous matrix with embedded fractures. Different types of conceptual models have been formulated to explain infiltration and recharge processes in the unsaturated fractured rock. The present study analyses the episodic recharge in fractured Chalk aquifer using the kinematic diffusion theory to predict water table fluctuation in response to rainfall. From an analysis of the data, there is the evidence of 1) a seasonal behavior characterized by a constant increase in the water level during the winter/spring period and a recession period, 2) a series of episodic behaviors during the summer/autumn. Kinematic diffusion models are useful for predict preferential fluxes and dynamic conditions. The presented approach conceptualizes the unsaturated flow as a combination of 1) diffusive flow refers to the idealized portion of the pore space of the medium within the flow rate is driven essentially by local gradient of potential; 2) preferential flow by which water moves across macroscopic distances through conduits of macropore length.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Xiao-Jie; Liang Qing
2017-01-01
Lateral organization and dynamics of lipids in plasma membranes are crucial for several cellular processes such as signal transduction across the membrane and still remain elusive. In this paper, using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation, we theoretically study the combined effects of headgroup charge and tail unsaturation of lipids on the lateral organization and diffusion of lipids in ternary lipid bilayers. In neutral ternary lipid bilayers composed of saturated lipids, unsaturated lipids, and cholesterols, under the conditions of given temperature and components, the main factor for the phase separation is the unsaturation of unsaturated lipids and the bilayers can be separated into liquid-ordered domains enriched in saturated lipids and cholesterols and liquid-disordered domains enriched in unsaturated lipids. Once the headgroup charge is introduced, the electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged lipid headgroups will increase the distance between the charged lipids. We find that the lateral organization and diffusion of the lipids in the (partially) charged ternary lipid bilayers are determined by the competition between the headgroup charge and the unsaturation of the unsaturated lipids. In the bilayers containing unsaturated lipids with lower unsaturation, the headgroup charge plays a crucial role in the lateral organization and diffusion of lipids. The headgroup charge may make the lipid domains unstable and even can suppress phase separation of the lipids in some systems. However, in the bilayers containing highly unsaturated lipids, the lateral organization and diffusion of lipids are mainly dominated by the unsaturation of the unsaturated lipids. This work may provide some theoretical insights into understanding the formation of nanosized domains and lateral diffusion of lipids in plasma membranes. (paper)
Saad, Ali S.; Saad, Bilal Mohammed; Saad, Mazen
2016-01-01
We study the convergence of a combined finite volume-nonconforming finite element scheme on general meshes for a partially miscible two-phase flow model in anisotropic porous media. This model includes capillary effects and exchange between the phases. The diffusion term, which can be anisotropic and heterogeneous, is discretized by piecewise linear nonconforming triangular finite elements. The other terms are discretized by means of a cell-centered finite volume scheme on a dual mesh. The relative permeability of each phase is decentered according to the sign of the velocity at the dual interface. The convergence of the scheme is proved thanks to an estimate on the two pressures which allows to show estimates on the discrete time and compactness results in the case of degenerate relative permeabilities. A key point in the scheme is to use particular averaging formula for the dissolution function arising in the diffusion term. We show also a simulation of hydrogen production in nuclear waste management. Numerical results are obtained by in-house numerical code. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Saad, Ali S.
2016-01-02
We study the convergence of a combined finite volume-nonconforming finite element scheme on general meshes for a partially miscible two-phase flow model in anisotropic porous media. This model includes capillary effects and exchange between the phases. The diffusion term, which can be anisotropic and heterogeneous, is discretized by piecewise linear nonconforming triangular finite elements. The other terms are discretized by means of a cell-centered finite volume scheme on a dual mesh. The relative permeability of each phase is decentered according to the sign of the velocity at the dual interface. The convergence of the scheme is proved thanks to an estimate on the two pressures which allows to show estimates on the discrete time and compactness results in the case of degenerate relative permeabilities. A key point in the scheme is to use particular averaging formula for the dissolution function arising in the diffusion term. We show also a simulation of hydrogen production in nuclear waste management. Numerical results are obtained by in-house numerical code. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delaje, Dzh.
1984-01-01
General hypothesis used to simplify the equations, describing two-phase flows, are considered. Two-component and one-component models of two-phase flow, as well as Zuber and Findlay model for actual volumetric steam content, and Wallis model, describing the given phase rates, are presented. The conclusion is made, that the two-component model, in which values averaged in time are included, is applicable for the solving of three-dimensional tasks for unsteady two-phase flow. At the same time, using the two-component model, including values, averaged in space only one-dimensional tasks for unsteady two-phase flow can be solved
Transport of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles in unsaturated sand
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumahor, Samuel K., E-mail: samuel.kumahor@ufz.de [Department of Soil Physics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZ, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle-Saale (Germany); Hron, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.hron@iwr.uni-heidelberg.de [Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 368, Raum 422, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Metreveli, George, E-mail: metreveli@uni-landau.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Schaumann, Gabriele E., E-mail: schaumann@uni-landau.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Vogel, Hans-Jörg, E-mail: hans-joerg.vogel@ufz.de [Department of Soil Physics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZ, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle-Saale (Germany); Institute of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Von-Seckendorff-Platz 3, 06120 Halle-Saale (Germany)
2015-12-01
Chemical factors and physical constraints lead to coupled effects during particle transport in unsaturated porous media. Studies on unsaturated transport as typical for soils are currently scarce. In unsaturated porous media, particle mobility is determined by the existence of an air–water interface in addition to a solid–water interface. To this end, we measured breakthrough curves and retention profiles of citrate-coated Ag nanoparticles in unsaturated sand at two pH values (5 and 9) and three different flow rates corresponding to different water contents with 1 mM KNO{sub 3} as background electrolyte. The classical DLVO theory suggests unfavorable deposition conditions at the air–water and solid–water interfaces. The breakthrough curves indicate modification in curve shapes and retardation of nanoparticles compared to inert solute. Retention profiles show sensitivity to flow rate and pH and this ranged from almost no retention for the highest flow rate at pH = 9 to almost complete retention for the lowest flow rate at pH = 5. Modeling of the breakthrough curves, thus, required coupling two parallel processes: a kinetically controlled attachment process far from equilibrium, responsible for the shape modification, and an equilibrium sorption, responsible for particle retardation. The non-equilibrium process and equilibrium sorption are suggested to relate to the solid–water and air–water interfaces, respectively. This is supported by the DLVO model extended for hydrophobic interactions which suggests reversible attachment, characterized by a secondary minimum (depth 3–5 kT) and a repulsive barrier at the air–water interface. In contrast, the solid–water interface is characterized by a significant repulsive barrier and the absence of a secondary minimum suggesting kinetically controlled and non-equilibrium interaction. This study provides new insights into particle transport in unsaturated porous media and offers a model concept representing the
Comparison of two conceptual models of flow using the TSA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, M.L.
1992-01-01
As part of the performance-assessment task for the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, Sandia National Laboratories is developing a set of programs called the Total-System Analyzer (TSA). The TSA is one of the tools being used in the current effort to provide a systematic preliminary estimate the total-system performance of the Yucca Mountain site. The purposes of this paper are twofold: (1) to describe capabilities that have been added to the TSA in the last year; and (2) to present a comparison of two conceptual models of unsaturated-zone flow and transport, in terms of the performance measure specified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 40 CFR Part 191. The conceptual-model comparison is intended to demonstrate the new TSA capabilities and at the same time shed some light on the performance implications of fracture flow at Yucca Mountain. Unsaturated fracture flow is not yet well understood, and it is of great importance in determining the performance of Yucca Mountain
Geza, Mengistu; Lowe, Kathryn S; Huntzinger, Deborah N; McCray, John E
2013-07-01
Onsite wastewater treatment systems are commonly used in the United States to reclaim domestic wastewater. A distinct biomat forms at the infiltrative surface, causing resistance to flow and decreasing soil moisture below the biomat. To simulate these conditions, previous modeling studies have used a two-layer approach: a thin biomat layer (1-5 cm thick) and the native soil layer below the biomat. However, the effect of wastewater application extends below the biomat layer. We used numerical modeling supported by experimental data to justify a new conceptual model that includes an intermediate zone (IZ) below the biomat. The conceptual model was set up using Hydrus 2D and calibrated against soil moisture and water flux measurements. The estimated hydraulic conductivity value for the IZ was between biomat and the native soil. The IZ has important implications for wastewater treatment. When the IZ was not considered, a loading rate of 5 cm d resulted in an 8.5-cm ponding. With the IZ, the same loading rate resulted in a 9.5-cm ponding. Without the IZ, up to 3.1 cm d of wastewater could be applied without ponding; with the IZ, only up to 2.8 cm d could be applied without ponding. The IZ also plays a significant role in soil moisture distribution. Without the IZ, near-saturation conditions were observed only within the biomat, whereas near-saturation conditions extended below the biomat with the IZ. Accurate prediction of ponding is important to prevent surfacing of wastewater. The degree of water and air saturation influences pollutant treatment efficiency through residence time, volatility, and biochemical reactions. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
B. Arnold; T. Corbet
2001-12-18
The purpose of the flow boundary conditions analysis is to provide specified-flux boundary conditions for the saturated zone (SZ) site-scale flow and transport model. This analysis is designed to use existing modeling and analysis results as the basis for estimated groundwater flow rates into the SZ site-scale model domain, both as recharge at the upper (water table) boundary and as underflow at the lateral boundaries. The objective is to provide consistency at the boundaries between the SZ site-scale flow model and other groundwater flow models. The scope of this analysis includes extraction of the volumetric groundwater flow rates simulated by the SZ regional-scale flow model to occur at the lateral boundaries of the SZ site-scale flow model and the internal qualification of the regional-scale model for use in this analysis model report (AMR). In addition, the scope includes compilation of information on the recharge boundary condition taken from three sources: (1) distributed recharge as taken from the SZ regional-scale flow model, (2) recharge below the area of the unsaturated zone (UZ) site-scale flow model, and (3) focused recharge along the Fortymile Wash channel.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yeh, G.T.; Salvage, K.M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Gwo, J.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Zachara, J.M.; Szecsody, J.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)
1998-07-01
The computer program HYDROBIOGEOCHEM is a coupled model of HYDROlogic transport and BIOGEOCHEMical kinetic and/or equilibrium reactions in saturated/unsaturated media. HYDROBIOGEOCHEM iteratively solves the two-dimensional transport equations and the ordinary differential and algebraic equations of mixed biogeochemical reactions. The transport equations are solved for all aqueous chemical components and kinetically controlled aqueous species. HYDROBIOGEOCHEM is designed for generic application to reactive transport problems affected by both microbiological and geochemical reactions in subsurface media. Input to the program includes the geometry of the system, the spatial distribution of finite elements and nodes, the properties of the media, the potential chemical and microbial reactions, and the initial and boundary conditions. Output includes the spatial distribution of chemical and microbial concentrations as a function of time and space, and the chemical speciation at user-specified nodes.
Uncertainty analyses of unsaturated zone travel time at Yucca Mountain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nichols, W.E.; Freshley, M.D.
1993-01-01
Uncertainty analysis method can be applied to numerical models of ground-water flow to estimate the relative importance of physical and hydrologic input variables with respect to ground-water travel time. Monte Carlo numerical simulations of unsaturated flow in the Calico Hills nonwelded zeolitic (CHnz) layer at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, indicate that variability in recharge, and to a lesser extent in matrix porosity, explains most of the variability in predictions of water travel time through the unsaturated zone. Variations in saturated hydraulic conductivity and unsaturated curve-fitting parameters were not statistically significant in explaining variability in water travel time through the unsaturated CHnz unit. The results of this study suggest that the large uncertainty associated with recharge rate estimates for the Yucca Mountain site is of concern because the performance of the potential repository would be more sensitive to uncertainty in recharge than to any other parameter evaluated. These results are not exhaustive because of the limited site characterization data available and because of the preliminary nature of this study, which is limited to a single stratigraphic unit, one dimension, and does not account for fracture flow or other potential fast pathways at Yucca Mountain
Seismic response of earth dams considering dynamic properties of unsaturated zone
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ariyan M.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available It is conventionally assumed in the analysis and design of earth dams that the soil located above the phreatic line, i.e. the uppermost seepage flow line, is completely dry. However, there is often an unsaturated flow of water through an unsaturated zone above this borderline and variation in moisture content in this zone results in variation of matric suction throughout this region. Variation of matric suction, in turn, results in variation of effective stresses in this zone. In this research, the seismic response of earth dams in terms of the displacement and acceleration at the crown of the dam as well as the stress distribution in the dam body is investigated. Taking into account the effect of unsaturated zone, a comparison is made to investigate the effect of conventional simplification in ignoring the dynamic characteristics of the unsaturated zone above the phreatic line and the more complicated analysis which includes the unsaturated zone. A function for the soil-water retention curve (SWRC was assigned to the soil in the unsaturated zone to determine the variation of matric suction in this zone and analyses were made using finite difference software (FLAC. Results are then compared to the conventional method for homogeneous dams. In these analyzes the soil shear modulus was assumed to vary with the mean effective stress both for saturated and unsaturated zones. Among various results, it was notable that the history of crest x-displacement, and acceleration show higher values in models accounting for the unsaturated region. It was attributed to the considerably lower values of damping ratio in the crest region in the unsaturated models.
Modeling of Turbulent Swirling Flows
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Zhu, Jiang; Liou, William; Chen, Kuo-Huey; Liu, Nan-Suey; Lumley, John L.
1997-01-01
Aircraft engine combustors generally involve turbulent swirling flows in order to enhance fuel-air mixing and flame stabilization. It has long been recognized that eddy viscosity turbulence models are unable to appropriately model swirling flows. Therefore, it has been suggested that, for the modeling of these flows, a second order closure scheme should be considered because of its ability in the modeling of rotational and curvature effects. However, this scheme will require solution of many complicated second moment transport equations (six Reynolds stresses plus other scalar fluxes and variances), which is a difficult task for any CFD implementations. Also, this scheme will require a large amount of computer resources for a general combustor swirling flow. This report is devoted to the development of a cubic Reynolds stress-strain model for turbulent swirling flows, and was inspired by the work of Launder's group at UMIST. Using this type of model, one only needs to solve two turbulence equations, one for the turbulent kinetic energy k and the other for the dissipation rate epsilon. The cubic model developed in this report is based on a general Reynolds stress-strain relationship. Two flows have been chosen for model evaluation. One is a fully developed rotating pipe flow, and the other is a more complex flow with swirl and recirculation.
Estimating the Spatial Extent of Unsaturated Zones in Heterogeneous River-Aquifer Systems
Schilling, Oliver S.; Irvine, Dylan J.; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Brunner, Philip
2017-12-01
The presence of unsaturated zones at the river-aquifer interface has large implications on numerous hydraulic and chemical processes. However, the hydrological and geological controls that influence the development of unsaturated zones have so far only been analyzed with simplified conceptualizations of flow processes, or homogeneous conceptualizations of the hydraulic conductivity in either the aquifer or the riverbed. We systematically investigated the influence of heterogeneous structures in both the riverbed and the aquifer on the development of unsaturated zones. A stochastic 1-D criterion that takes both riverbed and aquifer heterogeneity into account was developed using a Monte Carlo sampling technique. The approach allows the reliable estimation of the upper bound of the spatial extent of unsaturated areas underneath a riverbed. Through systematic numerical modeling experiments, we furthermore show that horizontal capillary forces can reduce the spatial extent of unsaturated zones under clogged areas. This analysis shows how the spatial structure of clogging layers and aquifers influence the propensity for unsaturated zones to develop: In riverbeds where clogged areas are made up of many small, spatially disconnected patches with a diameter in the order of 1 m, unsaturated areas are less likely to develop compared to riverbeds where large clogged areas exist adjacent to unclogged areas. A combination of the stochastic 1-D criterion with an analysis of the spatial structure of the clogging layers and the potential for resaturation can help develop an appropriate conceptual model and inform the choice of a suitable numerical simulator for river-aquifer systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pin, F.G.; Witten, A.J.; Sharp, R.D.; Long, E.C. Jr.
1983-08-01
A computer code (MIGRAT) is developed to quantify the migration of moisture and multiple decaying and retarded contaminants in the unsaturated zone. MIGRAT was specifically conceived to assess the impacts of open mine to allow its use in many problems related to shallow, subsurface waste disposal. The model is applied to a generic uranium-mill-tailings pit constructed with a clay-lined bottom and steep unlined sidewalls. The contaminant decays and only one contaminant is retarded. This study shows the anticipated result that moisture and contamination migrate slowly through the bottom clay liner and that, in this migration, concentrations of the retarded contaminant significantly lag the unretarded contaminant. More importantly, this study reveals that the major pathway from the pit to the groundwater is through the sidewall. The time scales for this pathway are much shorter than those associated with the clay liner, and retardation has little effect on the rate of contaminant migration
Unsaturated and Saturated Permeabilities of Fiber Reinforcement: Critics and Suggestions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chung Hae ePARK
2015-04-01
Full Text Available In general, permeability measurement results show a strong scattering according to the measurement method, the type of test fluid and the fluid injection condition, even though permeability is regarded as a unique property of porous medium. In particular, the discrepancy between the unsaturated and saturated permeabilities for the same fabric has been widely reported. In the literature, relative permeability has been adopted to model the unsaturated flow. This approach has some limits in the modeling of double-scale porosity medium. We address this issue of permeability measurement by rigorously examining the mass conservation condition. Finally, we identify that the pressure gradient is non-linear with positive curvature in the unsaturated flow and a misinterpretation of pressure gradient is the main reason for the difference between the saturated and unsaturated permeabilities of the same fiber reinforcement. We propose to use a fixed value of permeability and to modify the mass conservation equation if there are air voids which are entrapped inside the fiber tow. Finally, we also suggest some guidelines and future perspectives to obtain more consistent permeability measurement results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joseph, A.T.; Grenney, W.J.; Stevens, D.K.
1994-01-01
The VIP model, which simulates the concentration profiles of the hazardous compounds in the soil, water, and the air phases, assumes a fixed oily phase. The purpose of this study was to measure oil migration in soil systems and to determine its effect on the VIP model output. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate the mobility of an oil through the unsaturated zone of the soil. The studies were conducted in laboratory scale glass columns. A light petroleum oil and two types of soil were used. The experiments demonstrated that oil migrates down significantly through the soil columns. The extent of migration depended on the volume of oil applied and the type of soil. However, the applied oil was completely immobilized in the columns. The model was modified to incorporate oil migration. The modified model can be expected to produce more realistic contaminant concentration profiles during land treatment of oily wastes when compared to that produced by the present version of the VIP model. (Author)
Centrifuge modelling of granular flows
Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Wu, Wei
2015-04-01
A common characteristic of mass flows like debris flows, rock avalanches and mudflows is that gravity is their main driving force. Gravity defines the intensity and duration of the main interactions between particles and their surrounding media (particle-particle, particle-fluid, fluid-fluid). At the same time, gravity delimits the occurrence of phase separation, inverse segregation, and mass consolidation, among other phenomena. Therefore, in the understanding of the flow physics it is important to account for the scaling of gravity in scaled models. In this research, a centrifuge model is developed to model free surface granular flows down an incline at controlled gravity conditions. Gravity is controlled by the action of an induced inertial acceleration field resulting from the rotation of the model in a geotechnical centrifuge. The characteristics of the induced inertial acceleration field during flow are discussed and validated via experimental data. Flow heights, velocity fields, basal pressure and impact forces are measured for a range of channel inclinations and gravity conditions. Preliminary results enlighten the flow characteristics at variable gravity conditions and open a discussion on the simulation of large scale processes at a laboratory scale. Further analysis on the flow physics brings valuable information for the validation of granular flows rheology.
Transport of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles in unsaturated sand
Kumahor, Samuel; Hron, Pavel; Metreveli, George; Schaumann, Gabriele; Vogel, Hans-Jörg
2015-04-01
Chemical factors and physical constraints lead to coupled effects during particle transport in unsaturated porous media. Unlike for saturated transport, studies on unsaturated transport as typical for soil are currently scarce. We investigated the mobility of citrate-coated Ag NPs in unsaturated sand (grain diameter: 0.1-0.3 mm). For three flux rates and a given pore-water ionic strength (1 mM KNO3), the citrate-coated Ag NPs were less mobile at pH = 5 compared to pH = 9. The classic Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory suggests unfavorable deposition conditions at both, the air-water interface and solid-water interface. Breakthrough curves measured under quasi-steady state unsaturated flow showed retardation of the citrate-coated Ag NPs compared to inert solute (KBr). After flushing with nanoparticle-free 1 mM KNO3 solution (pH-adjusted), retention was much lower in deeper depths compared to the surface where the particles entered the flow field. The results show a non-linear dependence of nanoparticle (NP) mobility on flux rate and water content. Especially the observed retardation similar to equilibrium sorption is in contrast to observations under saturated flow conditions. A convection-dispersion and reaction model that combines a reversible equilibrium process and a non-equilibrium interaction process reproduced the measured breakthrough curves reasonably well. From comparison between saturated and unsaturated experiments we conclude that the air-water interface is responsible for the reversible equilibrium process while the water-solid interface accounts for irreversible soption.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zuber, A.
1983-01-01
A review and discussion is given of mathematical models used for interpretation of tracer experiments in hydrology. For dispersion model, different initial and boundary conditions are related to different injection and detection modes. Examples of applications of various models are described and commented. (author)
Turbulence models in supersonic flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirani, E.; Ahmadikia, H.; Talebi, S.
2001-05-01
The aim of this paper is to evaluate five different turbulence models when used in rather complicated two-dimensional and axisymmetric supersonic flows. They are Baldwin-Lomax, k-l, k-ε, k-ω and k-ζ turbulence models. The compressibility effects, axisymmetric correction terms and some modifications for transition region are used and tested in the models. Two computer codes based on the control volume approach and two flux-splitting methods. Roe and Van Leer, are developed. The codes are used to simulate supersonic mixing layers, flow behind axisymmetric body, under expanded jet, and flow over hollow cylinder flare. The results are compared with experimental data and behavior of the turbulence models is examined. It is shown that both k-l and k-ζ models produce very good results. It is also shown that the compressibility correction in the model is required to obtain more accurate results. (author)
Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
P. Dobson
2003-01-01
This Scientific Analysis report describes the methods used to develop numerical grids of the unsaturated hydrogeologic system beneath Yucca Mountain. Numerical grid generation is an integral part of the development of the Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Model (UZ Model), a complex, three-dimensional (3-D) model of Yucca Mountain. This revision incorporates changes made to both the geologic framework model and the proposed repository layout. The resulting numerical grids, developed using current geologic, hydrogeologic, and mineralogic data, provide the necessary framework to: (1) develop calibrated hydrogeologic property sets and flow fields, (2) test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport, and (3) predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions. The technical scope, content, and management of this Scientific Analysis report was initially controlled by the planning document, ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Unsaturated Zone Sections of License Application Chapters 8 and 12'' (BSC 2002 [159051], Section 1.6.4). This TWP was later superseded by ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2002 [160819]), which contains the Data Qualification Plan used to qualify the DTN: MO0212GWLSSPAX.000 [161271] (See Attachment IV). Grids generated and documented in this report supersede those documented in previous versions of this report (BSC 2001 [159356]). The constraints, assumptions, and limitations associated with this report are discussed in the appropriate sections that follow. There were no deviations from the TWP scope of work in this report. Two software packages not listed in Table IV-2 of the TWP (BSC 2002 [159051]), ARCINFO V7.2.1 (CRWMS M and O 2000 [157019]; USGS 2000 [148304]) and 2kgrid8.for V1.0 (LBNL 2002 [154787]), were utilized in the development of the numerical grids; the use of additional software is accounted for in the TWP (BSC 2002 [159051], Section 13). The use of
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saadi, Zakaria; Guillevic, Jerome [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PRP-DGE/SEDRAN/BRN, 31 avenue de la Division Leclerc, B.P. 17, 92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses, Cedex (France)
2014-07-01
Uncertainties on the mathematical modelling of radon transport in an unsaturated covered uranium mill tailings (UMT) soil at field scale can have a great impact on the estimation of the average measured radon flux to the atmosphere at the landfill cover, which must be less than the threshold value 0.74 Bq.m{sup -2}.s{sup -1}recommended by the federal standard (EPA 40 CFR 192). These uncertainties are usually attributed to the numerical errors from the numerical schemes dealing with soil layering and to inadequate representations of the modelling of physical processes at the soil/plant/atmosphere interface and of the soil hydraulic and transport properties, as well as their parameterization. In this work, we compare one-dimensional simulation results from two numerical models of two-phase (water-air) porous media flow and radon transport to the data of radon activity exhalation flux and depth-volumetric concentration measured during a field campaign from June to November of 1999 in a two-layered soil of 1.3 m thickness (i.e., cover material/UMT: 0.5/0.8 m) of an experimental pond located at the Lavaugrasse UMT-landfill site (France). The first numerical modelling approach is a coupled finite volume compositional (i.e., water, radon, air) transport model (TOUGH2/EOS7Rn code, Saadi et al., 2013), while the second one is a decoupled finite difference one-component (i.e., radon) transport model (TRACI code, Ferry et al., 2001). Transient simulations during six month of hourly rainfall and atmospheric pressure variations showed that calculations from the one-component transport model usually overestimate both measured radon exhalation flux and depth-concentration. However, considering the effective unsaturated pore air-component diffusivity to be different from that of the radon-component in the compositional transport model allowed to significantly enhancing the modelling of these radon experimental data. The time-averaged radon flux calculated by EOS7Rn (3.42 Bq
Modeling study of solute transport in the unsaturated zone. Information and data sets. Volume 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polzer, W.L.; Fuentes, H.R.; Springer, E.P.; Nyhan, J.W.
1986-05-01
The Environmental Science Group (HSE-12) is conducting a study to compare various approaches of modeling water and solute transport in porous media. Various groups representing different approaches will model a common set of transport data so that the state of the art in modeling and field experimentation can be discussed in a positive framework with an assessment of current capabilities and future needs in this area of research. This paper provides information and sets of data that will be useful to the modelers in meeting the objectives of the modeling study. The information and data sets include: (1) a description of the experimental design and methods used in obtaining solute transport data, (2) supporting data that may be useful in modeling the data set of interest, and (3) the data set to be modeled
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kiwamoto, R., E-mail: reiko.kiwamoto@wur.nl; Spenkelink, A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Punt, A.
2015-01-01
Acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes present in food raise a concern because the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety is considered a structural alert for genotoxicity. However, controversy remains on whether in vivo at realistic dietary exposure DNA adduct formation is significant. The aim of the present study was to develop physiologically based kinetic/dynamic (PBK/D) models to examine dose-dependent detoxification and DNA adduct formation of a group of 18 food-borne acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes without 2- or 3-alkylation, and with no more than one conjugated double bond. Parameters for the PBK/D models were obtained using quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs) defined with a training set of six selected aldehydes. Using the QSARs, PBK/D models for the other 12 aldehydes were defined. Results revealed that DNA adduct formation in the liver increases with decreasing bulkiness of the molecule especially due to less efficient detoxification. 2-Propenal (acrolein) was identified to induce the highest DNA adduct levels. At realistic dietary intake, the predicted DNA adduct levels for all aldehydes were two orders of magnitude lower than endogenous background levels observed in disease free human liver, suggesting that for all 18 aldehydes DNA adduct formation is negligible at the relevant levels of dietary intake. The present study provides a proof of principle for the use of QSAR-based PBK/D modelling to facilitate group evaluations and read-across in risk assessment. - Highlights: • Physiologically based in silico models were made for 18 α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. • Kinetic parameters were determined by in vitro incubations and a QSAR approach. • DNA adduct formation was negligible at levels relevant for dietary intake. • The use of QSAR-based PBK/D modelling facilitates group evaluations and read-across.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fedorova, Marina; Papadakis, Emmanouil; Meisler, Kresten Troelstrup
2014-01-01
In this work, a couple of applications of the template-based approach for model development are presented. The computer-aided template concept has been developed based on a model decomposition technique and has been implemented as a software tool, which provides a user-friendly interface...
Simplified semi-analytical model for mass transport simulation in unsaturated zone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sa, Bernadete L. Vieira de; Hiromoto, Goro
2001-01-01
This paper describes a simple model to determine the flux of radionuclides released from a concrete vault repository and its implementation through the development of a computer program. The radionuclide leach rate from waste is calculated using a model based on simple first order kinetics and the transport through porous media bellow the waste is determined using a semi-analytical solution of the mass transport equation. Results obtained in the IAEA intercomparison program are also related in this communication. (author)
Development of a model for the synthesis of unsaturated polyester by reactive distillation
Shah, M.R.; Zondervan, E.; Oudshoorn, M.L.; Haan, de A.B.; Haan, de A.B.; Kooijman, H.; Górak, A.
2010-01-01
Traditionally polyester production is done in a batch reactor equipped with a separation column for batch distillation. A promising alternative for the intensification of this process is reactive distillation. In this paper, a reactive distillation model is developed for the synthesis of an
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Jaisoo; Sung, Kijune; Corapcioglu, M. Yavuz; Drew, Malcolm C
2004-09-01
A contaminant transport model was developed to simulate the fate and transport of organic compounds such as TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), using the single-root system. Onions were planted for this system with 50-ml plastic tubes. Mass in the soil, soil solution, root and leaf was monitored using {sup 14}C-TNT. Model parameters were acquired from the experiments in the single-root system and were used to simulate total TNT concentration in soil, providing the average concentrations in the rhizosphere and bulk soil as well as root and leaf compartments. Because the existing RCF (root concentration factor) and TSCF (transpiration stream concentration factor) equations based on log K{sub ow} (octanol-water partition coefficient) were not correlated to TNT uptake, a new term, root uptake rate (R{sub ur}), and a new T{sub scf} equation, based on the experimental data, were introduced in the proposed model. The results from both modeling and experimental studies showed higher concentrations of TNT in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil, because mass transported from the surrounding soil into the rhizosphere was higher than that by root uptake.
Cassiani, G.; dalla, E.; Brovelli, A.; Pitea, D.; Binley, A. M.
2003-04-01
The development of reliable constitutive laws to translate geophysical properties into hydrological ones is the fundamental step for successful applications of hydrogeophysical techniques. Many such laws have been proposed and applied, particularly with regard to two types of relationships: (a) between moisture content and dielectric properties, and (b) between electrical resistivity, rock structure and water saturation. The classical Archie's law belongs to this latter category. Archie's relationship has been widely used, starting from borehole logs applications, to translate geoelectrical measurements into estimates of saturation. However, in spite of its popularity, it remains an empirical relationship, the parameters of which must be calibrated case by case, e.g. on laboratory data. Pore-scale models have been recently recognized and used as powerful tools to investigate the constitutive relations of multiphase soils from a pore-scale point of view, because they bridge the microscopic and macroscopic scales. In this project, we develop and validate a three-dimensional pore-scale method to compute electrical properties of unsaturated and saturated porous media. First we simulate a random packing of spheres [1] that obeys the grain-size distribution and porosity of an experimental porous medium system; then we simulate primary drainage with a morphological approach [2]; finally, for each state of saturation during the drainage process, we solve the electrical conduction equation within the grain structure with a new numerical model and compute the apparent electrical resistivity of the porous medium. We apply the new method to a semi-consolidated Permo-Triassic Sandstone from the UK (Sherwood Sandstone) for which both pressure-saturation (Van Genuchten) and Archie's law parameters have been measured on laboratory samples. A comparison between simulated and measured relationships has been performed.
Périard, Yann; José Gumiere, Silvio; Rousseau, Alain N.; Caron, Jean
2013-04-01
Certain contaminants may travel faster through soils when they are sorbed to subsurface colloidal particles. Indeed, subsurface colloids may act as carriers of some contaminants accelerating their translocation through the soil into the water table. This phenomenon is known as colloid-facilitated contaminant transport. It plays a significant role in contaminant transport in soils and has been recognized as a source of groundwater contamination. From a mechanistic point of view, the attachment/detachment of the colloidal particles from the soil matrix or from the air-water interface and the straining process may modify the hydraulic properties of the porous media. Šimůnek et al. (2006) developed a model that can simulate the colloid-facilitated contaminant transport in variably saturated porous media. The model is based on the solution of a modified advection-dispersion equation that accounts for several processes, namely: straining, exclusion and attachement/detachement kinetics of colloids through the soil matrix. The solutions of these governing, partial differential equations are obtained using a standard Galerkin-type, linear finite element scheme, implemented in the HYDRUS-2D/3D software (Šimůnek et al., 2012). Modeling colloid transport through the soil and the interaction of colloids with the soil matrix and other contaminants is complex and requires the characterization of many model parameters. In practice, it is very difficult to assess actual transport parameter values, so they are often calibrated. However, before calibration, one needs to know which parameters have the greatest impact on output variables. This kind of information can be obtained through a sensitivity analysis of the model. The main objective of this work is to perform local and global sensitivity analyses of the colloid-facilitated contaminant transport module of HYDRUS. Sensitivity analysis was performed in two steps: (i) we applied a screening method based on Morris' elementary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahmoud, Mohamed; Elreedy, Ahmed; Pascal, Peu; Sophie, Le Roux; Tawfik, Ahmed
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Bio-hythane production from polyester wastewater via UASG reactor was assessed. • Impacts of influent contamination by 1,4-dioxane and heavy metals were discussed. • Maximum volumetric H 2 and CH 4 productions of 0.12 and 1.06 L/L/d were achieved. • Significant drop in CH 4 production was resulted at OLR up to 1.07 ± 0.06 gCOD/L/d. • Bioenergy recovery through UASG economically achieved a net profit of 10,231 $/y. - Abstract: A long-term evaluation of hythane generation from unsaturated polyester resin wastewater contaminated by 1,4-dioxane and heavy metals was investigated in a continuous up-flow anaerobic self- separation gases (UASG) reactor inoculated with mixed culture. The reactor was operated at constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 96 h and different organic loading rates (OLRs) of 0.31 ± 0.04, 0.71 ± 0.08 and 1.07 ± 0.06 gCOD/L/d. Available data showed that volumetric hythane production rate was substantially increased from 0.093 ± 0.021 to 0.245 ± 0.016 L/L/d at increasing OLR from 0.31 ± 0.04 to 0.71 ± 0.08 gCOD/L/d. However, at OLR exceeding 1.07 ± 0.06 gCOD/L/d, it was dropped to 0.114 ± 0.016 L/L/d. The reactor achieved 1,4-dioxane removal efficiencies of 51.8 ± 2.8, 35.9 ± 1.6 and 26.3 ± 1.6% at initial 1,4-dioxane concentrations of 1.14 ± 0.28, 1.97 ± 0.41 and 4.21 ± 0.30 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, the effect and potential removal of the contaminated by heavy metals (i.e., Cu 2+ , Mn 2+ , Cr 3+ , Fe 3+ and Ni 2+ ) were highlighted. Kinetic modelling and microbial community dynamics were studied, according to each OLR, to carefully describe the UASG performance. The economic analysis showed a stable operation for the anaerobic digestion of unsaturated polyester resin wastewater using UASG, and the maximum net profit was achieved at OLR of 0.71 ± 0.08 gCOD/L/d.
Computational modeling of concrete flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Roussel, Nicolas; Geiker, Mette Rica; Dufour, Frederic
2007-01-01
particle flow, and numerical techniques allowing the modeling of particles suspended in a fluid. The general concept behind each family of techniques is described. Pros and cons for each technique are given along with examples and references to applications to fresh cementitious materials....
Modeling groundwater flow on MPPs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ashby, S.F.; Falgout, R.D.; Smith, S.G.; Tompson, A.F.B.
1993-10-01
The numerical simulation of groundwater flow in three-dimensional heterogeneous porous media is examined. To enable detailed modeling of large contaminated sites, preconditioned iterative methods and massively parallel computing power are combined in a simulator called PARFLOW. After describing this portable and modular code, some numerical results are given, including one that demonstrates the code's scalability
One-Water Hydrologic Flow Model (MODFLOW-OWHM)
Hanson, Randall T.; Boyce, Scott E.; Schmid, Wolfgang; Hughes, Joseph D.; Mehl, Steffen W.; Leake, Stanley A.; Maddock, Thomas; Niswonger, Richard G.
2014-01-01
-constrained conditions. From large- to small-scale settings, MF-OWHM has the unique set of capabilities to simulate and analyze historical, present, and future conjunctive-use conditions. MF-OWHM is especially useful for the analysis of agricultural water use where few data are available for pumpage, land use, or agricultural information. The features presented in this IHM include additional linkages with SFR, SWR, Drain-Return (DRT), Multi-Node Wells (MNW1 and MNW2), and Unsaturated-Zone Flow (UZF). Thus, MF-OWHM helps to reduce the loss of water during simulation of the hydrosphere and helps to account for “all of the water everywhere and all of the time.” In addition to groundwater, surface-water, and landscape budgets, MF-OWHM provides more options for observations of land subsidence, hydraulic properties, and evapotranspiration (ET) than previous models. Detailed landscape budgets combined with output of estimates of actual evapotranspiration facilitates linkage to remotely sensed observations as input or as additional observations for parameter estimation or water-use analysis. The features of FMP have been extended to allow for temporally variable water-accounting units (farms) that can be linked to land-use models and the specification of both surface-water and groundwater allotments to facilitate sustainability analysis and connectivity to the Groundwater Management Process (GWM). An example model described in this report demonstrates the application of MF-OWHM with the addition of land subsidence and a vertically deforming mesh, delayed recharge through an unsaturated zone, rejected infiltration in a riparian area, changes in demand caused by deficiency in supply, and changes in multi-aquifer pumpage caused by constraints imposed through the Farm Process and the MNW2 Package, and changes in surface water such as runoff, streamflow, and canal flows through SFR and SWR linkages.
Unsaturated soil moisture drying and wetting diffusion coefficient measurements in the laboratory.
2009-09-01
ABSTRACTTransient moisture flow in an unsaturated soil in response to suction changes is controlled by the unsaturated moisture diffusion coefficient. The moisture diffusion coefficient can be determined by measuring suction profiles over time. The l...
Numerical modeling of foam flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheddadi, Ibrahim
2010-01-01
Liquid foam flows are involved in numerous applications, e.g. food and cosmetics industries, oil extraction, nuclear decontamination. Moreover, their study leads to fundamental knowledge: as it is easier to manipulate and analyse, foam is used as a model material to understand the flow of emulsions, polymers, pastes, or cell aggregates, all of which display both solid and liquid behaviour. Systematic experiments performed by Francois Graner et al. provide precise data that emphasize the non Newtonian properties of the foam. Meanwhile, Pierre Saramito proposed a visco-elasto-plastic continuous tensorial model, akin to predict the behaviour of the foam. The goal of this thesis is to understand this complex behaviour, using these two elements. We have built and validated a resolution algorithm based on a bidimensional finite elements methods. The numerical solutions are in excellent agreement with the spatial distribution of all measured quantities, and confirm the predictive capabilities of the model. The dominant parameters have been identified and we evidenced the fact that the viscous, elastic, and plastic contributions to the flow have to be treated simultaneously in a tensorial formalism. We provide a substantial contribution to the understanding of foams and open the path to realistic simulations of complex VEP flows for industrial applications. (author)
Turbulence modelling for incompressible flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodi, W.
1985-12-01
EUROMECH colloquium 180 was held at Karlsruhe from 4-6 July, 1984, with the aim of bringing together specialists working in the area of turbulence modelling and of reviewing the state-of-the-art in this field. 44 scientists from 12 countries participated and 28 papers were presented. The meeting started with a review of the performance of two-equation turbulence models employing transport equations for both the velocity and the length scale of turbulence. These models are now generally well established, but it was found that their application to certain flow situations remains problematic. The modelling assumptions involved in Reynolds stress-equation models were reviewed next, and new assumptions were proposed. It was generally agreed that, as computing power increases, these more complex models will become more popular also for practical applications. The increase in computing power also allows more and more to resolve the viscous sublayer with low Reynolds numbers models, and the capabilities and problems of these models were discussed. In this connection, special aspects of boundary layer calculations were also discussed, namely those associated with 3D boundary layers, converging and diverging flow and slightly detached boundary layers. The complex physical phenomena prevalent in situations under the influence of buoyancy and rotation were reviewed, and several papers were presented on models for simulating these effects. (orig./HP) [de
Voss, Clifford I.; Boldt, David; Shapiro, Allen M.
1997-01-01
This report describes a Graphical-User Interface (GUI) for SUTRA, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) model for saturated-unsaturated variable-fluid-density ground-water flow with solute or energy transport,which combines a USGS-developed code that interfaces SUTRA with Argus ONE, a commercial software product developed by Argus Interware. This product, known as Argus Open Numerical Environments (Argus ONETM), is a programmable system with geographic-information-system-like (GIS-like) functionality that includes automated gridding and meshing capabilities for linking geospatial information with finite-difference and finite-element numerical model discretizations. The GUI for SUTRA is based on a public-domain Plug-In Extension (PIE) to Argus ONE that automates the use of ArgusONE to: automatically create the appropriate geospatial information coverages (information layers) for SUTRA, provide menus and dialogs for inputting geospatial information and simulation control parameters for SUTRA, and allow visualization of SUTRA simulation results. Following simulation control data and geospatial data input bythe user through the GUI, ArgusONE creates text files in a format required for normal input to SUTRA,and SUTRA can be executed within the Argus ONE environment. Then, hydraulic head, pressure, solute concentration, temperature, saturation and velocity results from the SUTRA simulation may be visualized. Although the GUI for SUTRA discussed in this report provides all of the graphical pre- and post-processor functions required for running SUTRA, it is also possible for advanced users to apply programmable features within Argus ONE to modify the GUI to meet the unique demands of particular ground-water modeling projects.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Meir, N.; Gaudet, J.P.; Phrommavanh, V.; Laurent, J.P.; Bugai, D.; Biron, R.
2012-01-01
This article describes an infiltration–drainage test carried out in the unsaturated zone (UZ) at the Chernobyl Pilot Site during October 2008; this is an international radioecology study site and is the subject of several papers in this special issue. The test has to be seen in the larger context of radionuclide transport from a waste trench. The conducted experiment consisted of infiltrating a layer of 9.5 cm of water in a circular area of 5.51 m 2 over 5 h. Its main objective was to create a larger range of water content values (and hence suction pressure values), not only at the top of the soil profile but also at greater depths, in this case up to 1.50 m. Observations of water content and suction pressure were carried out continuously at seven different depths during infiltration, drainage and during the return to natural conditions over a period of several months. This allowed deriving UZ parameter values with greater confidence than those derived from monitoring small natural water content changes over periods of years. The experiment also shows that a 1D model was incapable of correctly reproducing the observed water balance established on the central axis. A 2D axi-symmetric model was needed showing that lateral boundary effects have to be accounted for. This implies that small scale infiltrometer tests should be analysed in more than one dimension. It further became clear from the drainage curves that soil layering played a significant role and that in the present case hysteresis did not play a major role; i.e. the infiltration and drainage event can be reproduced with the same set of parameters and subsequent natural rain events can be reproduced well enough with two numerical models used for test interpretation, one is module oriented for reactive transfer, and the second with an automatic optimisation procedure. The robustness of the estimated parameter values, of the model discretisation and layer identification was tested over a 2-month period with
Representation of an open repository in groundwater flow models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Painter, Scott; Sun, Alexander
2005-08-01
(50% water saturation) will remain in the unsaturated zone during repository operations. 5. If unsaturated zone processes are neglected and an unconfined aquifer (free-surface) model used, tunnel inflows will be over-predicted by as much as 70% during the dewatering phase. However, the maximum inflows and the steady-state inflows can be predicted accurately with a free-surface code. 6. The turnover time for water in the unsaturated zone is estimated to be 117 years, based on a water saturation of 50%. The estimated turnover time is inversely proportional to water content, which depends in turn on infiltration rate, absolute permeability, and the relative permeability curve. 7. Far-field flows and globally averaged inflows can be accurately calculated by considering the repository to be a disk or slab without representing individual tunnels. 8. Maximum salinity at the repository is estimated to be about 0.7%. It should be noted that several idealizations and approximations were employed in this modeling study. Such simplifications are appropriate given the objectives of the study, and are not expected to affect the main conclusions about the consequences of different representations for open tunnels. However, the calculated values for inflows, salinity, saturation, and turnover time are dependent on the assumed values for some of the input parameters, and should be considered rough estimates only
Representation of an open repository in groundwater flow models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Painter, Scott; Sun, Alexander [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses
2005-08-01
amounts of water (50% water saturation) will remain in the unsaturated zone during repository operations. 5. If unsaturated zone processes are neglected and an unconfined aquifer (free-surface) model used, tunnel inflows will be over-predicted by as much as 70% during the dewatering phase. However, the maximum inflows and the steady-state inflows can be predicted accurately with a free-surface code. 6. The turnover time for water in the unsaturated zone is estimated to be 117 years, based on a water saturation of 50%. The estimated turnover time is inversely proportional to water content, which depends in turn on infiltration rate, absolute permeability, and the relative permeability curve. 7. Far-field flows and globally averaged inflows can be accurately calculated by considering the repository to be a disk or slab without representing individual tunnels. 8. Maximum salinity at the repository is estimated to be about 0.7%. It should be noted that several idealizations and approximations were employed in this modeling study. Such simplifications are appropriate given the objectives of the study, and are not expected to affect the main conclusions about the consequences of different representations for open tunnels. However, the calculated values for inflows, salinity, saturation, and turnover time are dependent on the assumed values for some of the input parameters, and should be considered rough estimates only.
Analysis of pumping-induced unsaturated regions beneath aperennial river
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Su, G.W.; Jasperse, J.; Seymour, D.; Constantz, J.; Zhou, Q.
2007-05-15
The presence of an unsaturated region beneath a streambedduring groundwater pumping near streams reduces the pumping capacity whenit reaches the well screens, changes flow paths, and alters the types ofbiological transformations in the streambed sediments. Athree-dimensional, multi-phase flow model of two horizontal collectorwells along the Russian River near Forestville, California was developedto investigate the impact of varying the ratio of the aquifer tostreambed permeability on (1) the formation of an unsaturated regionbeneath the stream, (2) the pumping capacity, (3) stream-water fluxesthrough the streambed, and (4) stream-water travel times to the collectorwells. The aquifer to streambed permeability ratio at which theunsaturated region was initially observed ranged from 10 to 100. The sizeof the unsaturated region beneath the streambed increased as the aquiferto streambed permeability ratio increased. The simulations also indicatedthat for a particular aquifer permeability, decreasing the streambedpermeability by only a factor of 2-3 from the permeability wheredesaturation initially occurred resulted in reducing the pumpingcapacity. In some cases, the stream-water fluxes increased as thestreambed permeability decreased. However, the stream water residencetimes increased and the fraction of stream water that reached that thewells decreased as the streambed permeability decreased, indicating thata higher streambed flux does not necessarily correlate to greaterrecharge of stream water around the wells.
Geologic character of tuffs in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott, R.B.; Spengler, R.W.; Diehl, S.; Lappin, A.R.; Chornack, M.P.
1982-01-01
At Yucca Mountain, a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada, evaluation of the geologic setting and rock physical properties, along with previous regional hydrologic studies, has provided background that can be used for construction of a preliminary conceptual hydrologic model of the unsaturated zone. The 500-m-thick unsaturated portion of Yucca Mountain consists of alternating layers of two contrasting types of tuff. One type consists of highly fractured, densely welded, relatively nonporous but highly transmissive ash-flow tuffs. The other type consists of relatively unfractured, nonwelded, highly porous but relatively nontransmissive, argillic and zeolitic bedded tuffs and ash-flow tuffs. The contrast between these two sets of distinctive physical properties results in a stratified sequence best described as ''physical-property stratigraphy'' as opposed to traditional petrologic stratigraphy of volcanic rocks. The vast majority of recharge through the unsaturated zone is assumed to be vertical; the dominant migration may occur in fractures of densely welded tuffs and in the matrix of nonwelded tuff, but the mode of fluid flow in these unsaturated systems is undetermined. Limited lateral flow of recharge may occur at horizons where local perched water tables may exist above relatively nontransmissive zeolitized nonwelded tuffs. The pervasive north-northwest-striking fractures may control the direction of lateral flow of recharge, if any, in the unsaturated zone, and certainly that direction coincides closely with the observed southeasterly flow direction in the saturated zone under Yucca Mountain. Empirical evaluation of this conceptual hydrologic model has begun. 41 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs
Geologic character of tuffs in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scott, R.B.; Spengler, R.W.; Diehl, S.; Lappin, A.R.; Chornack, M.P.
1982-12-31
At Yucca Mountain, a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada, evaluation of the geologic setting and rock physical properties, along with previous regional hydrologic studies, has provided background that can be used for construction of a preliminary conceptual hydrologic model of the unsaturated zone. The 500-m-thick unsaturated portion of Yucca Mountain consists of alternating layers of two contrasting types of tuff. One type consists of highly fractured, densely welded, relatively nonporous but highly transmissive ash-flow tuffs. The other type consists of relatively unfractured, nonwelded, highly porous but relatively nontransmissive, argillic and zeolitic bedded tuffs and ash-flow tuffs. The contrast between these two sets of distinctive physical properties results in a stratified sequence best described as "physical-property stratigraphy" as opposed to traditional petrologic stratigraphy of volcanic rocks. The vast majority of recharge through the unsaturated zone is assumed to be vertical; the dominant migration may occur in fractures of densely welded tuffs and in the matrix of nonwelded tuff, but the mode of fluid flow in these unsaturated systems is undetermined. Limited lateral flow of recharge may occur at horizons where local perched water tables may exist above relatively nontransmissive zeolitized nonwelded tuffs. The pervasive north-northwest-striking fractures may control the direction of lateral flow of recharge, if any, in the unsaturated zone, and certainly that direction coincides closely with the observed southeasterly flow direction in the saturated zone under Yucca Mountain. Empirical evaluation of this conceptual hydrologic model has begun. 41 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.
Stochastic models for turbulent reacting flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kerstein, A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)
1993-12-01
The goal of this program is to develop and apply stochastic models of various processes occurring within turbulent reacting flows in order to identify the fundamental mechanisms governing these flows, to support experimental studies of these flows, and to further the development of comprehensive turbulent reacting flow models.
Online traffic flow model applying dynamic flow-density relation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Y.
2002-01-01
This dissertation describes a new approach of the online traffic flow modelling based on the hydrodynamic traffic flow model and an online process to adapt the flow-density relation dynamically. The new modelling approach was tested based on the real traffic situations in various homogeneous motorway sections and a motorway section with ramps and gave encouraging simulation results. This work is composed of two parts: first the analysis of traffic flow characteristics and second the development of a new online traffic flow model applying these characteristics. For homogeneous motorway sections traffic flow is classified into six different traffic states with different characteristics. Delimitation criteria were developed to separate these states. The hysteresis phenomena were analysed during the transitions between these traffic states. The traffic states and the transitions are represented on a states diagram with the flow axis and the density axis. For motorway sections with ramps the complicated traffic flow is simplified and classified into three traffic states depending on the propagation of congestion. The traffic states are represented on a phase diagram with the upstream demand axis and the interaction strength axis which was defined in this research. The states diagram and the phase diagram provide a basis for the development of the dynamic flow-density relation. The first-order hydrodynamic traffic flow model was programmed according to the cell-transmission scheme extended by the modification of flow dependent sending/receiving functions, the classification of cells and the determination strategy for the flow-density relation in the cells. The unreasonable results of macroscopic traffic flow models, which may occur in the first and last cells in certain conditions are alleviated by applying buffer cells between the traffic data and the model. The sending/receiving functions of the cells are determined dynamically based on the classification of the
Modeling studies for multiphase fluid and heat flow processes in nuclear waste isolation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pruess, K.
1988-07-01
Multiphase fluid and heat flow plays an important role in many problems relating to the disposal of nuclear wastes in geologic media. Examples include boiling and condensation processes near heat-generating wastes, flow of water and formation gas in partially saturated formations, evolution of a free gas phase from waste package corrosion in initially water-saturated environments, and redistribution (dissolution, transport, and precipitation) of rock minerals in non-isothermal flow fields. Such processes may strongly impact upon waste package and repository design considerations and performance. This paper summarizes important physical phenomena occurring in multiphase and nonisothermal flows, as well as techniques for their mathematical modeling and numerical simulation. Illustrative applications are given for a number of specific fluid and heat flow problems, including: thermohydrologic conditions near heat-generating waste packages in the unsaturated zone; repository-wide convection effects in the unsaturated zone; effects of quartz dissolution and precipitation for disposal in the saturated zone; and gas pressurization and flow corrosion of low-level waste packages. 34 refs; 7 figs; 2 tabs
Modeling studies of multiphase fluid and heat flow processes in nuclear waste isolation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pruess, K.
1989-01-01
Multiphase fluid and heat flow plays an important role in many problems relating to the disposal of nuclear wastes in geologic media. Examples include boiling and condensation processes near heat-generating wastes, flow of water and formation gas in partially saturated formations, evolution of a free gas phase from waste package corrosion in initially water-saturated environments, and redistribution (dissolution, transport and precipitation) of rock minerals in non-isothermal flow fields. Such processes may strongly impact upon waste package and repository design considerations and performance. This paper summarizes important physical phenomena occurring in multiphase and nonisothermal flows, as well as techniques for their mathematical modeling and numerical simulation. Illustrative applications are given for a number of specific fluid and heat flow problems, including: thermohydrologic conditions near heat-generating waste packages in the unsaturated zone; repositorywide convection effects in the unsaturated zone; effects of quartz dissolution and precipitation for disposal in the saturated zone; and gas pressurization and flow effects from corrosion of low-level waste packages
The foam drainage equation for drainage dynamics in unsaturated porous media
Lehmann, P.; Hoogland, F.; Assouline, S.; Or, D.
2017-07-01
Similarity in liquid-phase configuration and drainage dynamics of wet foam and gravity drainage from unsaturated porous media expands modeling capabilities for capillary flows and supplements the standard Richards equation representation. The governing equation for draining foam (or a soil variant termed the soil foam drainage equation—SFDE) obviates the need for macroscopic unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function by an explicit account of diminishing flow pathway sizes as the medium gradually drains. The study provides new and simple analytical expressions for drainage rates and volumes from unsaturated porous media subjected to different boundary conditions. Two novel analytical solutions for saturation profile evolution were derived and tested in good agreement with a numerical solution of the SFDE. The study and the proposed solutions rectify the original formulation of foam drainage dynamics of Or and Assouline (2013). The new framework broadens the scope of methods available for quantifying unsaturated flow in porous media, where the intrinsic conductivity and geometrical representation of capillary drainage could improve understanding of colloid and pathogen transport. The explicit geometrical interpretation of flow pathways underlying the hydraulic functions used by the Richards equation offers new insights that benefit both approaches.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Moubin; Meakin, Paul; Huang Hai
2007-01-01
Multiphase fluid motion in unsaturated fractures and fracture networks involves complicated fluid dynamics, which is difficult to model using grid-based continuum methods. In this paper, the application of dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), a relatively new mesoscale method to simulate fluid motion in unsaturated fractures is described. Unlike the conventional DPD method that employs a purely repulsive conservative (non-dissipative) particle-particle interaction to simulate the behavior of gases, we used conservative particle-particle interactions that combine short-range repulsive and long-range attractive interactions. This new conservative particle-particle interaction allows the behavior of multiphase systems consisting of gases, liquids and solids to be simulated. Our simulation results demonstrate that, for a fracture with flat parallel walls, the DPD method with the new interaction potential function is able to reproduce the hydrodynamic behavior of fully saturated flow, and various unsaturated flow modes including thin film flow, wetting and non-wetting flow. During simulations of flow through a fracture junction, the fracture junction can be fully or partially saturated depending on the wetting property of the fluid, the injection rate and the geometry of the fracture junction. Flow mode switching from a fully saturated flow to a thin film flow can also be observed in the fracture junction
Global scale groundwater flow model
Sutanudjaja, Edwin; de Graaf, Inge; van Beek, Ludovicus; Bierkens, Marc
2013-04-01
As the world's largest accessible source of freshwater, groundwater plays vital role in satisfying the basic needs of human society. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and supplies water for agricultural and industrial activities. During times of drought, groundwater sustains water flows in streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands, and thus supports ecosystem habitat and biodiversity, while its large natural storage provides a buffer against water shortages. Yet, the current generation of global scale hydrological models does not include a groundwater flow component that is a crucial part of the hydrological cycle and allows the simulation of groundwater head dynamics. In this study we present a steady-state MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988) groundwater model on the global scale at 5 arc-minutes resolution. Aquifer schematization and properties of this groundwater model were developed from available global lithological model (e.g. Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2010; Hartmann and Moorsdorff, in press). We force the groundwtaer model with the output from the large-scale hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the long term net groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from routed channel discharge. We validated calculated groundwater heads and depths with available head observations, from different regions, including the North and South America and Western Europe. Our results show that it is feasible to build a relatively simple global scale groundwater model using existing information, and estimate water table depths within acceptable accuracy in many parts of the world.
Generation of dense plume fingers in saturated-unsaturated homogeneous porous media
Cremer, Clemens J. M.; Graf, Thomas
2015-02-01
Flow under variable-density conditions is widespread, occurring in geothermal reservoirs, at waste disposal sites or due to saltwater intrusion. The migration of dense plumes typically results in the formation of vertical plume fingers which are known to be triggered by material heterogeneity or by variations in source concentration that causes the density variation. Using a numerical groundwater model, six perturbation methods are tested under saturated and unsaturated flow conditions to mimic heterogeneity and concentration variations on the pore scale in order to realistically generate dense fingers. A laboratory-scale sand tank experiment is numerically simulated, and the perturbation methods are evaluated by comparing plume fingers obtained from the laboratory experiment with numerically simulated fingers. Dense plume fingering for saturated flow can best be reproduced with a spatially random, time-constant perturbation of the solute source. For unsaturated flow, a spatially and temporally random noise of solute concentration or a random conductivity field adequately simulate plume fingering.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Binning, Philip John; Postma, Diederik Jan; Russel, T.F.
2007-01-01
Pyrite oxidation in unsaturated mine waste rock dumps and soils is limited by the supply of oxygen from the atmosphere. In models, oxygen transport through the subsurface is often assumed to be driven by diffusion. However, oxygen comprises 23.2% by mass of dry air, and when oxygen is consumed at...... parameters; for example, the time to approach steady state depends exponentially on the distance between the soil surface and the subsurface reactive zone. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union....... at depth in the unsaturated zone, a pressure gradient is created between the reactive zone and the ground surface, causing a substantial advective air flow into the subsurface. To determine the balance between advective and diffusive transport, a one-dimensional multicomponent unsaturated zone gas...
Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein; Vanclooster, Marnik
2012-05-01
Solute transport in partially saturated soils is largely affected by fluid velocity distribution and pore size distribution within the solute transport domain. Hence, it is possible to describe the solute transport process in terms of the pore size distribution of the soil, and indirectly in terms of the soil hydraulic properties. In this paper, we present a conceptual approach that allows predicting the parameters of the Convective Lognormal Transfer model from knowledge of soil moisture and the Soil Moisture Characteristic (SMC), parameterized by means of the closed-form model of Kosugi (1996). It is assumed that in partially saturated conditions, the air filled pore volume act as an inert solid phase, allowing the use of the Arya et al. (1999) pragmatic approach to estimate solute travel time statistics from the saturation degree and SMC parameters. The approach is evaluated using a set of partially saturated transport experiments as presented by Mohammadi and Vanclooster (2011). Experimental results showed that the mean solute travel time, μ(t), increases proportionally with the depth (travel distance) and decreases with flow rate. The variance of solute travel time σ²(t) first decreases with flow rate up to 0.4-0.6 Ks and subsequently increases. For all tested BTCs predicted solute transport with μ(t) estimated from the conceptual model performed much better as compared to predictions with μ(t) and σ²(t) estimated from calibration of solute transport at shallow soil depths. The use of μ(t) estimated from the conceptual model therefore increases the robustness of the CLT model in predicting solute transport in heterogeneous soils at larger depths. In view of the fact that reasonable indirect estimates of the SMC can be made from basic soil properties using pedotransfer functions, the presented approach may be useful for predicting solute transport at field or watershed scales. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Characterization of unsaturated hydraulic parameters for homogeneous and heterogeneous soils
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wildenschild, Dorthe
1997-09-01
Application of numerical models for predicting future spreading of contaminants into ground water aquifers is dependent on appropriate characterization of the soil hydraulic properties controlling flow and transport in the unsaturated zone. This thesis reviews the current knowledge on two aspects of characterization of unsaturated hydraulic parameters; estimation of the basic hydraulic parameters for homogeneous soils and statistical representation of heterogeneity for spatially variable soils. The retention characteristic is traditionally measured using steady-state procedures, but new ideas based on dynamic techniques have been developed that reduce experimental efforts and that produce retention curves which compare to those measured by traditional techniques. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is difficult to establish by steady-state procedures, and extensive research efforts have been focused on alternative methods that are based on inverse estimation. The inverse methods have commonly been associated with problems of numerical instability and ill-posedness of the parameter estimates, but recent investigations have shown that the uniqueness of parameter estimates can be improved by including additional, independent information on, for instance, the retention characteristic. Also, uniqueness may be improved by careful selection of experimental conditions are parametric functions. (au) 234 refs.
Role of unsaturated soil in a waste containment system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lim, P.C.; Tay, J.H. [Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore)
1996-12-31
The role of the unsaturated properties of sand as a drainage layer in a composite liner system for landfills is investigated. The effect of the unsaturated properties of coarse-grained soil on contaminant migration was evaluated by means of a series of simulations using a one-dimensional model of a two- and a three-layer soil liner system for advection and diffusion, respectively. The results showed that under seepage conditions, the effect of an unsaturated sand layer on the advancement of the concentration front was quite insignificant. The arrival time of the C/C{sub o} = 0.5 concentration front increased from 651 days for the case with no sand layer to approximately 951 days for the case with a 1.0-m sand layer. A steady-state flow condition was ultimately established in the sand, and this fact suggests that the capillary action might not be effective. For diffusion, the arrival time of the concentration front increased nonlinearly with a decrease in the degree of saturation and linearly with increasing depths of the sand layer. At a residual degree of saturation, the arrival times of the C/C{sub o} = 0.01 and 0.5 concentration front at the base of the 1-m sand layer were 26.9 and 877.4 years as compared to 1.52 and 2.62 years by advection, respectively. 17 refs., 11 figs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parsons, A.M.; Olague, N.E.; Gallegos, D.P.
1991-01-01
Under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing a performance assessment methodology for the analysis of long-term disposal and isolation of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) in alternative geologic media. As part of this exercise, SNL created a conceptualization of ground-water flow and radionuclide transport in the far field of a hypothetical HLW repository site located in unsaturated, fractured tuff formations. This study provides a foundation for the development of conceptual mathematical, and numerical models to be used in this performance assessment methodology. This conceptualization is site specific in terms of geometry, the regional ground-water flow system, stratigraphy, and structure in that these are based on information from Yucca Mountain located on the Nevada Test Site. However, in terms of processes in unsaturated, fractured, porous media, the model is generic. This report also provides a review and evaluation of previously proposed conceptual models of unsaturated and saturated flow and solute transport. This report provides a qualitative description of a hypothetical HLW repository site in fractured tuff. However, evaluation of the current knowledge of flow and transport at Yucca Mountain does not yield a single conceptual model. Instead, multiple conceptual models are possible given the existing information
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parsons, A.M.; Olague, N.E.; Gallegos, D.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)
1991-01-01
Under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing a performance assessment methodology for the analysis of long-term disposal and isolation of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) in alternative geologic media. As part of this exercise, SNL created a conceptualization of ground-water flow and radionuclide transport in the far field of a hypothetical HLW repository site located in unsaturated, fractured tuff formations. This study provides a foundation for the development of conceptual mathematical, and numerical models to be used in this performance assessment methodology. This conceptualization is site specific in terms of geometry, the regional ground-water flow system, stratigraphy, and structure in that these are based on information from Yucca Mountain located on the Nevada Test Site. However, in terms of processes in unsaturated, fractured, porous media, the model is generic. This report also provides a review and evaluation of previously proposed conceptual models of unsaturated and saturated flow and solute transport. This report provides a qualitative description of a hypothetical HLW repository site in fractured tuff. However, evaluation of the current knowledge of flow and transport at Yucca Mountain does not yield a single conceptual model. Instead, multiple conceptual models are possible given the existing information.
Investigating Unsaturated Zone Travel Times with Tritium and Stable Isotopes
Visser, A.; Thaw, M.; Van der Velde, Y.
2017-12-01
Travel times in the unsaturated zone are notoriously difficult to assess. Travel time tracers relying on the conservative transport of dissolved (noble) gases (tritium-helium, CFCs or SF6) are not applicable. Large water volume requirements of other cosmogenic radioactive isotopes (sulfur-35, sodium-22) preclude application in the unsaturated zone. Prior investigations have relied on models, introduced tracers, profiles of stable isotopes or tritium, or a combination of these techniques. Significant unsaturated zone travel times (UZTT) complicate the interpretation of stream water travel time tracers by ranked StorAge Selection (rSAS) functions. Close examination of rSAS functions in a sloping soil lysimeter[1] show the effect of the UZTT on the shape of the rSAS cumulative distribution function. We studied the UZTT at the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (SS-CZO) using profiles of tritium and stable isotopes (18O and 2H) in the unsaturated zone, supported by soil water content data. Tritium analyses require 100-500 mL of soil water and therefore large soil samples (1-5L), and elaborate laboratory procedures (oven drying, degassing and noble gas mass spectrometry). The high seasonal and interannual variability in precipitation of the Mediterranean climate, variable snow pack and high annual ET/P ratios lead to a dynamic hydrology in the deep unsaturated soils and regolith and highly variable travel time distributions. Variability of the tritium concentration in precipitation further complicates direct age estimates. Observed tritium profiles (>3 m deep) are interpreted in terms of advective and dispersive vertical transport of the input variability and radioactive decay of tritium. Significant unsaturated zone travel times corroborate previously observed low activities of short-lived cosmogenic radioactive nuclides in stream water. Under these conditions, incorporating the UZTT is critical to adequately reconstruct stream water travel time distributions. 1
empirical modeling of oxygen modeling of oxygen uptake of flow
African Journals Online (AJOL)
eobe
structure. Keywords: stepped chute, skimming flow, aeration l. 1. INTRODUCTION ..... [3] Toombes, L. and Chanson, H., “Air-water flow and gas transfer at aeration ... of numerical model of the flow behaviour through smooth and stepped.
Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montazer, P.; Wilson, W.E.
1985-01-01
The unsaturated volcanic tuff beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being evaluated by the US Department of Energy as a host rock for a potential mined geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. Assessment of site suitability needs an efficient and focused investigative program. A conceptual hydrogeologic model that simulates the flow of fluids through the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain was developed to guide the program and to provide a basis for preliminary assessment of site suitability. The study was made as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project of the US Department of Energy. Thickness of the unsaturated zone is about 1640 to 2460 feet (500 to 750 meters). Based on physical properties, the rocks in the unsaturated zone are grouped for the purpose of this paper into five informal hydrogeologic units. From top to bottom these units are: Tiva Canyon welded unit, Paintbrush nonwelded unit. Topopah Spring welded unit, Calico Hills nonwelded unit, and Crater Flat unit. Welded units have a mean fracture density of 8 to 40 fractures per unit cubic meter, mean matrix porosities of 12 to 23%, matrix hydraulic conductivities with geometric means ranging from 6.5 x 10 -6 to 9.8 x 10 -6 foot per day (2 x 10 -6 to 3 x 10 -6 meter per day), and bulk hydraulic conductivities of 0.33 to 33 feet per day (0.1 to 10 meters per day). The nonwelded units have a mean fracture density of 1 to 3 fractures per unit cubic meter, mean matrix porosities of 31 to 46%, and saturated hydraulic conductivities with geometric means ranging from 2.6 x 10 -5 to 2.9 x 10 -2 foot per day (8 x 10 -6 to 9 x 10 -3 meter per day). 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab
The transport and behaviour of isoproturon in unsaturated chalk cores
Besien, T. J.; Williams, R. J.; Johnson, A. C.
2000-04-01
A batch sorption study, a microcosm degradation study, and two separate column leaching studies were used to investigate the transport and fate of isoproturon in unsaturated chalk. The column leaching studies used undisturbed core material obtained from the field by dry percussion drilling. Each column leaching study used 25 cm long, 10 cm wide unsaturated chalk cores through which a pulse of isoproturon and bromide was eluted. The cores were set-up to simulate conditions in the unsaturated zone of the UK Chalk aquifer by applying a suction of 1 kPa (0.1 m H 2O) to the base of each column, and eluting at a rate corresponding to an average recharge rate through the unsaturated Chalk. A dye tracer indicated that the flow was through the matrix under these conditions. The results from the first column study showed high recovery rates for both isoproturon (73-92%) and bromide (93-96%), and that isoproturon was retarded by a factor of about 1.23 relative to bromide. In the second column study, two of the four columns were eluted with non-sterile groundwater in place of the sterile groundwater used on all other columns, and this study showed high recovery rates for bromide (85-92%) and lower recovery rates for isoproturon (66-79% — sterile groundwater, 48-61% — non-sterile groundwater). The enhanced degradation in the columns eluted with non-sterile groundwater indicated that groundwater microorganisms had increased the degradation rate within these columns. Overall, the reduced isoproturon recovery in the second column study was attributed to increased microbial degradation as a result of the longer study duration (162 vs. 105 days). The breakthrough curves (BTCs) for bromide had a characteristic convection-dispersion shape and were accurately simulated with the minimum of calibration using a simple convection-dispersion model (LEACHP). However, the isoproturon BTCs had an unusual shape and could not be accurately simulated.
Jones, Brendon R; Brouwers, Luke B; Van Tonder, Warren D; Dippenaar, Matthys A
2017-05-01
The vadose zone typically comprises soil underlain by fractured rock. Often, surface water and groundwater parameters are readily available, but variably saturated flow through soil and rock are oversimplified or estimated as input for hydrological models. In this paper, a series of geotechnical centrifuge experiments are conducted to contribute to the knowledge gaps in: (i) variably saturated flow and dispersion in soil and (ii) variably saturated flow in discrete vertical and horizontal fractures. Findings from the research show that the hydraulic gradient, and not the hydraulic conductivity, is scaled for seepage flow in the geotechnical centrifuge. Furthermore, geotechnical centrifuge modelling has been proven as a viable experimental tool for the modelling of hydrodynamic dispersion as well as the replication of similar flow mechanisms for unsaturated fracture flow, as previously observed in literature. Despite the imminent challenges of modelling variable saturation in the vadose zone, the geotechnical centrifuge offers a powerful experimental tool to physically model and observe variably saturated flow. This can be used to give valuable insight into mechanisms associated with solid-fluid interaction problems under these conditions. Findings from future research can be used to validate current numerical modelling techniques and address the subsequent influence on aquifer recharge and vulnerability, contaminant transport, waste disposal, dam construction, slope stability and seepage into subsurface excavations.
Chiorean, Vasile-Florin
2017-10-01
Matric suction is a soil parameter which influences the behaviour of unsaturated soils in both terms of shear strength and permeability. It is a necessary aspect to know the variation of matric suction in unsaturated soil zone for solving geotechnical issues like unsaturated soil slopes stability or bearing capacity for unsaturated foundation ground. Mathematical expression of the dependency between soil moisture content and it’s matric suction (soil water characteristic curve) has a powerful character of nonlinearity. This paper presents two methods to determine the variation of matric suction along the depth included between groundwater level and soil level. First method is an analytical approach to emphasize one direction steady state unsaturated infiltration phenomenon that occurs between the groundwater level and the soil level. There were simulated three different situations in terms of border conditions: precipitations (inflow conditions on ground surface), evaporation (outflow conditions on ground surface), and perfect equilibrium (no flow on ground surface). Numerical method is finite element method used for steady state, two-dimensional, unsaturated infiltration calculus. Regarding boundary conditions there were simulated identical situations as in analytical approach. For both methods, was adopted the equation proposed by van Genuchten-Mualen (1980) for mathematical expression of soil water characteristic curve. Also for the unsaturated soil permeability prediction model was adopted the equation proposed by van Genuchten-Mualen. The fitting parameters of these models were adopted according to RETC 6.02 software in function of soil type. The analyses were performed in both methods for three major soil types: clay, silt and sand. For each soil type were concluded analyses for three situations in terms of border conditions applied on soil surface: inflow, outflow, and no flow. The obtained results are presented in order to highlight the differences
Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
G. Zyvoloski
2003-01-01
The purpose of this model report is to document the components of the site-scale saturated-zone flow model at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in accordance with administrative procedure (AP)-SIII.lOQ, ''Models''. This report provides validation and confidence in the flow model that was developed for site recommendation (SR) and will be used to provide flow fields in support of the Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application. The output from this report provides the flow model used in the ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'', MDL-NBS-HS-000010 Rev 01 (BSC 2003 [162419]). The Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport model then provides output to the SZ Transport Abstraction Model (BSC 2003 [164870]). In particular, the output from the SZ site-scale flow model is used to simulate the groundwater flow pathways and radionuclide transport to the accessible environment for use in the TSPA calculations. Since the development and calibration of the saturated-zone flow model, more data have been gathered for use in model validation and confidence building, including new water-level data from Nye County wells, single- and multiple-well hydraulic testing data, and new hydrochemistry data. In addition, a new hydrogeologic framework model (HFM), which incorporates Nye County wells lithology, also provides geologic data for corroboration and confidence in the flow model. The intended use of this work is to provide a flow model that generates flow fields to simulate radionuclide transport in saturated porous rock and alluvium under natural or forced gradient flow conditions. The flow model simulations are completed using the three-dimensional (3-D), finite-element, flow, heat, and transport computer code, FEHM Version (V) 2.20 (software tracking number (STN): 10086-2.20-00; LANL 2003 [161725]). Concurrently, process-level transport model and methodology for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain using FEHM V 2.20 are being
Studying shocks in model astrophysical flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chakrabarti, S.K.
1989-01-01
We briefly discuss some properties of the shocks in the existing models for quasi two-dimensional astrophysical flows. All of these models which allow the study of shock analytically have some unphysical characteristics due to inherent assumptions made. We propose a hybrid model for a thin flow which has fewer unpleasant features and is suitable for the study of shocks. (author). 5 refs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edwin García-Aristizábal
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an application for the analysis of structures formed by unsaturated layered soils subjected to rainfall and seepage flow; the results are part of a current research project on rainfall infiltration. A three-phase coupled infiltration-deformation method for unsaturated soil was used for the numerical analysis. The effects of the water permeability and horizontal drainage on the distribution of seepage flow velocities, saturation, and generation of deformations for an unsaturated layered embankment were investigated. The results show that the generation of deformation on the embankment surface highly depends on the water permeability of the soil. In addition, through horizontal drainage simulations, the advantage of this type of solution for decreasing the pore water pressures on the back of the slope embankment, thus avoiding local failure (erosion, is shown.Este artículo presenta una aplicación para el análisis de estructuras compuestas por suelos parcialmente saturados que están sometidas al efecto de la lluvia y la infiltración; los resultados hacen parte de una investigación en curso relacionada con infiltración de aguas lluvias. Para los análisis numéricos se utilizó un método trifásico acoplado de infiltración-deformación. Se investigaron los efectos que tienen la permeabilidad y el drenaje lateral en la distribución de los vectores de velocidad de infiltración, la saturación y la generación de deformaciones para un terraplén estratificado y parcialmente saturado. Los resultados muestran que la generación de deformación en el talud del terraplén depende, en gran parte, de la permeabilidad del suelo. Adicionalmente, por medio de simulación de drenes horizontales, se muestra la ventaja de este tipo de solución para disminuir las presiones de poros internas en el talud del terraplén, evitando la falla local (erosión.
Effects of Unsaturated Zones on Baseflow Recession: Analytical Solution and Application
Zhan, H.; Liang, X.; Zhang, Y. K.
2017-12-01
Unsaturated flow is an important process in baseflow recessions and its effect is rarely investigated. A mathematical model for a coupled unsaturated-saturated flow in a horizontally unconfined aquifer with time-dependent infiltrations is presented. Semi-analytical solutions for hydraulic heads and discharges are derived using Laplace transform and Cosine transform. The solutions are compared with solutions of the linearized Boussinesq equation (LB solution) and the linearized Laplace equation (LL solution), respectively. The result indicates that a larger dimensionless constitutive exponent κD of the unsaturated zone leads to a smaller discharge during the infiltration period and a larger discharge after the infiltration. The lateral discharge of the unsaturated zone is significant when κD≤1, and becomes negligible when κD≥100. For late times, the power index b of the recession curve-dQ/dt aQb, is 1 and independent of κD, where Q is the baseflow and a is a constant lumped aquifer parameter. For early times, b is approximately equal to 3 but it approaches infinity when t→1. The present solution is applied to synthetic and field cases. The present solution matched the synthetic data better than both the LL and LB solutions, with a minimum relative error of 16% for estimate of hydraulic conductivity. The present solution was applied to the observed streamflow discharge in Iowa, and the estimated values of the aquifer parameters were reasonable.
Two-phase flow model with nonequilibrium and critical flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sureau, H.; Houdayer, G.
1976-01-01
The model proposed includes the three conservation equations (mass, momentum, energy) applied to the two phase flows and a fourth partial derivative equation which takes into account the nonequilibriums and describes the mass transfer process. With this model, the two phase critical flow tests performed on the Moby-Dick loop (CENG) with several geometries, are interpreted by a unique law. Extrapolations to industrial dimension problems show that geometry and size effects are different from those obtained with earlier models (Zaloudek, Moody, Fauske) [fr
Water Drainage from Unsaturated Soils in a Centrifuge Permeameter
Ornelas, G.; McCartney, J.; Zhang, M.
2013-12-01
This study involves an analysis of water drainage from an initially saturated silt layer in a centrifuge permeameter to evaluate the hydraulic properties of the soil layer in unsaturated conditions up to the point where the water phase becomes discontinuous. These properties include the soil water retention curve (SWRC) and the hydraulic conductivity function (HCF). The hydraulic properties of unsaturated silt are used in soil-atmosphere interaction models that take into account the role of infiltration and evaporation of water from soils due to atmospheric interaction. These models are often applied in slope stability analyses, landfill cover design, aquifer recharge analyses, and agricultural engineering. The hydraulic properties are also relevant to recent research concerning geothermal heating and cooling, as they can be used to assess the insulating effects of soil around underground heat exchangers. This study employs a high-speed geotechnical centrifuge to increase the self-weight of a compacted silt specimen atop a filter plate. Under a centrifuge acceleration of N times earth's gravity, the concept of geometric similitude indicates that the water flow process in a small-scale soil layer will be similar to those in a soil layer in the field that is N times thicker. The centrifuge acceleration also results in an increase in the hydraulic gradient across the silt specimen, which causes water to flow out of the pores following Darcy's law. The drainage test was performed until the rate of liquid water flow out of the soil layer slowed to a negligible level, which corresponds to the transition point at which further water flow can only occur due to water vapor diffusion following Fick's law. The data from the drainage test in the centrifuge were used to determine the SWRC and HCF at different depths in the silt specimen, which compared well with similar properties defined using other laboratory tests. The transition point at which liquid water flow stopped (and
Kiwamoto, R.
2015-01-01
Abstract (R.Kiwamoto ISBN 978-94-6257-284-3)
Various α,β-unsaturated aldehydes are present in fruits, vegetables, spices, or processed products containing these items as natural constituents or as added food flavouring agents. Because of the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety the β carbon in
A saturated zone site-scale flow model for Yucca mountain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eddebbarh, Al Aziz [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
A saturated zone site-scale flow model (YMSZFM) was developed for licensing requirements for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository to incorporate recent data and analyses including recent stratigraphic and water-level data from Nye County wells, single-and multiple-well hydraulic testing data, and recent hydrochemistry data. Analyses include use of data from the 2004 transient Death Valley Regional (ground-water) Flow System (DVRFS) model, the 2003 unsaturated zone flow model, and the latest hydrogeologic framework model (HFM). This model includes: (1) the latest understanding of SZ flow, (2) enhanced model validation and uncertainty analyses, (3) improved locations and definitions of fault zones, (4) refined grid resolution (500-to 250-m grid spacing), and (5) use of new data. The flow model was completed using the three-dimensional, Finite-Element Heat and Mass Transfer computer code (FEHM). The SZ site-scale flow model was calibrated with the commercial parameter estimation code, PEST to achieve a minimum difference between observed water levels and predicted water levels, and also between volumetric/mass flow rates along specific boundary segments as supplied by the DVRFS. A total of 161 water level and head measurements with varied weights were used for calibration. A comparison between measured water-level data and the potentiometric surface yielded an RMSE of 20.7 m (weighted RMSE of 8.8 m). The calibrated model was used to generate flow paths and specific discharge predictions. Model confidence was built by comparing: (l) calculated to observed hydraulic heads, and (2) calibrated to measured permeabilities (and therefore specific discharge). In addition, flowpaths emanating from below the repository footprint are consistent with those inferred both from gradients of measured head and from independent water-chemistry data. Uncertainties in the SZ site-scale flow model were quantified because all uncertainty contributes to inaccuracy in system
A saturated zone site-scale flow model for Yucca Mountain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eddebbarh, Al Aziz
2008-01-01
A saturated zone site-scale flow model (YMSZFM) was developed for licensing requirements for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository to incorporate recent data and analyses including recent stratigraphic and water-level data from Nye County wells, single-and multiple-well hydraulic testing data, and recent hydrochemistry data. Analyses include use of data from the 2004 transient Death Valley Regional (ground-water) Flow System (DVRFS) model, the 2003 unsaturated zone flow model, and the latest hydrogeologic framework model (HFM). This model includes: (1) the latest understanding of SZ flow, (2) enhanced model validation and uncertainty analyses, (3) improved locations and definitions of fault zones, (4) refined grid resolution (500-to 250-m grid spacing), and (5) use of new data. The flow model was completed using the three-dimensional, Finite-Element Heat and Mass Transfer computer code (FEHM). The SZ site-scale flow model was calibrated with the commercial parameter estimation code, PEST to achieve a minimum difference between observed water levels and predicted water levels, and also between volumetric/mass flow rates along specific boundary segments as supplied by the DVRFS. A total of 161 water level and head measurements with varied weights were used for calibration. A comparison between measured water-level data and the potentiometric surface yielded an RMSE of 20.7 m (weighted RMSE of 8.8 m). The calibrated model was used to generate flow paths and specific discharge predictions. Model confidence was built by comparing: (l) calculated to observed hydraulic heads, and (2) calibrated to measured permeabilities (and therefore specific discharge). In addition, flowpaths emanating from below the repository footprint are consistent with those inferred both from gradients of measured head and from independent water-chemistry data. Uncertainties in the SZ site-scale flow model were quantified because all uncertainty contributes to inaccuracy in system
Monte Carlo simulation of nonlinear reactive contaminant transport in unsaturated porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giacobbo, F.; Patelli, E.
2007-01-01
In the current proposed solutions of radioactive waste repositories, the protective function against the radionuclide water-driven transport back to the biosphere is to be provided by an integrated system of engineered and natural geologic barriers. The occurrence of several nonlinear interactions during the radionuclide migration process may render burdensome the classical analytical-numerical approaches. Moreover, the heterogeneity of the barriers' media forces approximations to the classical analytical-numerical models, thus reducing their fidelity to reality. In an attempt to overcome these difficulties, in the present paper we adopt a Monte Carlo simulation approach, previously developed on the basis of the Kolmogorov-Dmitriev theory of branching stochastic processes. The approach is here extended for describing transport through unsaturated porous media under transient flow conditions and in presence of nonlinear interchange phenomena between the liquid and solid phases. This generalization entails the determination of the functional dependence of the parameters of the proposed transport model from the water content and from the contaminant concentration, which change in space and time during the water infiltration process. The corresponding Monte Carlo simulation approach is verified with respect to a case of nonreactive transport under transient unsaturated flow and to a case of nonlinear reactive transport under stationary saturated flow. Numerical applications regarding linear and nonlinear reactive transport under transient unsaturated flow are reported
Masand, Vijay H.; El-Sayed, Nahed N. E.; Bambole, Mukesh U.; Quazi, Syed A.
2018-04-01
Multiple discrete quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) models were constructed for the anticancer activity of α, β-unsaturated carbonyl-based compounds, oxime and oxime ether analogues with a variety of substituents like sbnd Br, sbnd OH, -OMe, etc. at different positions. A big pool of descriptors was considered for QSAR model building. Genetic algorithm (GA), available in QSARINS-Chem, was executed to choose optimum number and set of descriptors to create the multi-linear regression equations for a dataset of sixty-nine compounds. The newly developed five parametric models were subjected to exhaustive internal and external validation along with Y-scrambling using QSARINS-Chem, according to the OECD principles for QSAR model validation. The models were built using easily interpretable descriptors and accepted after confirming statistically robustness with high external predictive ability. The five parametric models were found to have R2 = 0.80 to 0.86, R2ex = 0.75 to 0.84, and CCCex = 0.85 to 0.90. The models indicate that frequency of nitrogen and oxygen atoms separated by five bonds from each other and internal electronic environment of the molecule have correlation with the anticancer activity.
Numerical study of damage in unsaturated Geological and Engineered barriers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arson, C.; Gatmiri, B.
2011-01-01
The theoretical framework of a damage model dedicated to non-isothermal unsaturated porous media is presented. The damage variable is a second-order tensor, and the model is formulated in independent state variables. The behavior laws are derived from a postulated expression of Helmholtz free energy. The damaged rigidities are computed by applying the Principle of Equivalent Elastic Energy (PEEE). Internal length parameters are introduced in the expressions of liquid water and vapor conductivities, to account for cracking effects on fluid flows. The damage model has been implemented in Θ-Stock Finite Element program. The mechanical aspect of the damage model is validated by simulating a triaxial compression test on a dry isothermal brittle material. Then, a sophisticated model of nuclear waste disposal, involving two non-isothermal unsaturated porous media, is reproduced. The results obtained in elasticity are in good agreement with the results presented in the corresponding reference article. A parametric study on initial damage is then performed to assess the influence of the Excavated Damaged Zone (EDZ) on the response of the nuclear waste repository during the heating phase. The trends meet the theoretical expectations. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burrill, K.A.; Cheluget, E.L.
1995-01-01
A general model of solubility-driven flow-accelerated corrosion of carbon steel was derived based on the assumption that the solubilities of ferric oxyhydroxide and magnetite control the rate of film dissolution. This process involves the dissolution of an oxide film due to fast-flowing coolant unsaturated in iron. The soluble iron is produced by (i) the corrosion of base metal under a porous oxide film and (ii) the dissolution of the oxide film at the fluid-oxide film interface. The iron released at the pipe wall is transferred into the bulk flow by turbulent mass transfer. The model is suitable for calculating concentrations of dissolved iron in feedtrain lines. These iron levels were used to calculate sludge transport rates around the feedtrain. The model was used to predict sludge transport rates due to flow accelerated corrosion of major feedtrain piping in a CANDU reactor. The predictions of the model compare well with plant measurements
Aeroacoustic modelling of low-speed flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wen Zhong Shen; Noerkaer Soerensen, Jens
1998-08-01
A new numerical algorithm for acoustic noise generation is developed. The approach involves two steps comprising an incompressible flow part and inviscid acoustic part. The acoustic part can be started at any time of the incompressible computation. The formulation can be applied both for isentropic flows and non-isentropic flows. The model is validated for the cases of an isentropic pulsating sphere and non-isentropic flows past a circular cylinder and a NACA 0015 airfoil. The computations show that the generated acoustic frequencies have the form 1/m of the basic frequency of incompressible flow. (au) 15 refs.
A turbulent two-phase flow model for nebula flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Champney, J.M.; Cuzzi, J.N.
1990-01-01
A new and very efficient turbulent two-phase flow numericaly model is described to analyze the environment of a protoplanetary nebula at a stage prior to the formation of planets. Focus is on settling processes of dust particles in flattened gaseous nebulae. The model employs a perturbation technique to improve the accuracy of the numerical simulations of such flows where small variations of physical quantities occur over large distance ranges. The particles are allowed to be diffused by gas turbulence in addition to settling under gravity. Their diffusion coefficients is related to the gas turbulent viscosity by the non-dimensional Schmidt number. The gas turbulent viscosity is determined by the means of the eddy viscosity hypothesis that assumes the Reynolds stress tensor proportional to the mean strain rate tensor. Zero- and two-equation turbulence models are employed. Modeling assumptions are detailed and discussed. The numerical model is shown to reproduce an existing analytical solution for the settling process of particles in an inviscid nebula. Results of nebula flows are presented taking into account turbulence effects of nebula flows. Diffusion processes are found to control the settling of particles. 24 refs
A Review on Macroscopic Pedestrian Flow Modelling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Kormanová
2013-12-01
Full Text Available This paper reviews several various approaches to macroscopic pedestrian modelling. It describes hydrodynamic models based on similarity of pedestrian flow with fluids and gases; first-order flow models that use fundamental diagrams and conservation equation; and a model similar to LWR vehicular traffic model, which allows non-classical shocks. At the end of the paper there is stated a comparison of described models, intended to find appropriate macroscopic model to eventually be a part of a hybrid model. The future work of the author is outlined.
Probabilistically modeling lava flows with MOLASSES
Richardson, J. A.; Connor, L.; Connor, C.; Gallant, E.
2017-12-01
Modeling lava flows through Cellular Automata methods enables a computationally inexpensive means to quickly forecast lava flow paths and ultimate areal extents. We have developed a lava flow simulator, MOLASSES, that forecasts lava flow inundation over an elevation model from a point source eruption. This modular code can be implemented in a deterministic fashion with given user inputs that will produce a single lava flow simulation. MOLASSES can also be implemented in a probabilistic fashion where given user inputs define parameter distributions that are randomly sampled to create many lava flow simulations. This probabilistic approach enables uncertainty in input data to be expressed in the model results and MOLASSES outputs a probability map of inundation instead of a determined lava flow extent. Since the code is comparatively fast, we use it probabilistically to investigate where potential vents are located that may impact specific sites and areas, as well as the unconditional probability of lava flow inundation of sites or areas from any vent. We have validated the MOLASSES code to community-defined benchmark tests and to the real world lava flows at Tolbachik (2012-2013) and Pico do Fogo (2014-2015). To determine the efficacy of the MOLASSES simulator at accurately and precisely mimicking the inundation area of real flows, we report goodness of fit using both model sensitivity and the Positive Predictive Value, the latter of which is a Bayesian posterior statistic. Model sensitivity is often used in evaluating lava flow simulators, as it describes how much of the lava flow was successfully modeled by the simulation. We argue that the positive predictive value is equally important in determining how good a simulator is, as it describes the percentage of the simulation space that was actually inundated by lava.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, I.C.; Rattray, G.W.; Yu, P.
1996-01-01
Analyses of pore water from boreholes at Yucca Mountain indicate that unsaturated-zone pore water has significantly larger concentrations of chloride and dissolved solids than the saturated-zone water or perched-water bodies. Chemical compositions are of the calcium sulfate or calcium chloride types in the Paintbrush Group (Tiva Canyon, Yucca Mountain, Pah Canyon, and bedded tuffs), and sodium carbonate or bicarbonate type water in the Calico Hills Formation. Tritium profiles from boreholes at Yucca Mountain indicate tritium-concentration inversions (larger tritium concentrations are located below the smaller tritium concentration in a vertical profile) occur in many places. These inversions indicate preferential flow through fractures. Rock-gas compositions are similar to that of atmospheric air except that carbon dioxide concentrations are generally larger than those in the air. The delta carbon-13 values of gas are fairly constant from surface to 365.8 meters, indicating little interaction between the gas CO 2 and caliche in the soil. Model calculations indicate that the gas transport in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain agrees well with the gas-diffusion process. Tritium-modeling results indicate that the high tritium value of about 100 tritium units in the Calico Hills Formation of UZ-16 is within limits of a piston-flow model with a water residence time of 32 to 35 years. The large variations in tritium concentrations with narrow peaks imply piston flow or preferential fracture flow rather than matrix flow. In reality, the aqueous-phase flow in the unsaturated zone is between piston and well-mixed flows but is closer to a piston flow
Preferential flow in water-repellent sandy soils : model development and lysimeter experiments
Rooij, de G.H.
1996-01-01
When water enters a water-repellent topsoil, preferential flow paths develop and the flow bypasses a large part of the unsaturated zone. Therefore, preferential flow caused by water- repellency is expected to accelerate solute leaching to the groundwater. In soils with water-repellent
Modeling and simulation of reactive flows
Bortoli, De AL; Pereira, Felipe
2015-01-01
Modelling and Simulation of Reactive Flows presents information on modeling and how to numerically solve reactive flows. The book offers a distinctive approach that combines diffusion flames and geochemical flow problems, providing users with a comprehensive resource that bridges the gap for scientists, engineers, and the industry. Specifically, the book looks at the basic concepts related to reaction rates, chemical kinetics, and the development of reduced kinetic mechanisms. It considers the most common methods used in practical situations, along with equations for reactive flows, and va
Modeling of strongly heat-driven flow in partially saturated fractured porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pruess, K.; Tsang, Y.W.; Wang, J.S.Y.
1985-01-01
The authors have performed modeling studies on the simultaneous transport of heat, liquid water, vapor, and air in partially saturated fractured porous media, with particular emphasis on strongly heat-driven flow. The presence of fractures makes the transport problem very complex, both in terms of flow geometry and physics. The numerical simulator used for their flow calculations takes into account most of the physical effects which are important in multi-phase fluid and heat flow. It has provisions to handle the extreme non-linearities which arise in phase transitions, component disappearances, and capillary discontinuities at fracture faces. They model a region around an infinite linear string of nuclear waste canisters, taking into account both the discrete fractures and the porous matrix. From an analysis of the results obtained with explicit fractures, they develop equivalent continuum models which can reproduce the temperature, saturation, and pressure variation, and gas and liquid flow rates of the discrete fracture-porous matrix calculations. The equivalent continuum approach makes use of a generalized relative permeability concept to take into account the fracture effects. This results in a substantial simplification of the flow problem which makes larger scale modeling of complicated unsaturated fractured porous systems feasible. Potential applications for regional scale simulations and limitations of the continuum approach are discussed. 27 references, 13 figures, 2 tables
Modeling of strongly heat-driven flow in partially saturated fractured porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pruess, K.; Tsang, Y.W.; Wang, J.S.Y.
1984-10-01
We have performed modeling studies on the simultaneous transport of heat, liquid water, vapor, and air in partially saturated fractured porous media, with particular emphasis on strongly heat-driven flow. The presence of fractures makes the transport problem very complex, both in terms of flow geometry and physics. The numerical simulator used for our flow calculations takes into account most of the physical effects which are important in multi-phase fluid and heat flow. It has provisions to handle the extreme non-linearities which arise in phase transitions, component disappearances, and capillary discontinuities at fracture faces. We model a region around an infinite linear string of nuclear waste canisters, taking into account both the discrete fractures and the porous matrix. From an analysis of the results obtained with explicit fractures, we develop equivalent continuum models which can reproduce the temperature, saturation, and pressure variation, and gas and liquid flow rates of the discrete fracture-porous matrix calculations. The equivalent continuum approach makes use of a generalized relative permeability concept to take into account for fracture effects. This results in a substantial simplification of the flow problem which makes larger scale modeling of complicated unsaturated fractured porous systems feasible. Potential applications for regional scale simulations and limitations of the continuum approach are discussed. 27 references, 13 figures, 2 tables
Regression modeling of ground-water flow
Cooley, R.L.; Naff, R.L.
1985-01-01
Nonlinear multiple regression methods are developed to model and analyze groundwater flow systems. Complete descriptions of regression methodology as applied to groundwater flow models allow scientists and engineers engaged in flow modeling to apply the methods to a wide range of problems. Organization of the text proceeds from an introduction that discusses the general topic of groundwater flow modeling, to a review of basic statistics necessary to properly apply regression techniques, and then to the main topic: exposition and use of linear and nonlinear regression to model groundwater flow. Statistical procedures are given to analyze and use the regression models. A number of exercises and answers are included to exercise the student on nearly all the methods that are presented for modeling and statistical analysis. Three computer programs implement the more complex methods. These three are a general two-dimensional, steady-state regression model for flow in an anisotropic, heterogeneous porous medium, a program to calculate a measure of model nonlinearity with respect to the regression parameters, and a program to analyze model errors in computed dependent variables such as hydraulic head. (USGS)
Modeling Submarine Lava Flow with ASPECT
Storvick, E. R.; Lu, H.; Choi, E.
2017-12-01
Submarine lava flow is not easily observed and experimented on due to limited accessibility and challenges posed by the fast solidification of lava and the associated drastic changes in rheology. However, recent advances in numerical modeling techniques might address some of these challenges and provide unprecedented insight into the mechanics of submarine lava flow and conditions determining its wide-ranging morphologies. In this study, we explore the applicability ASPECT, Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth's ConvecTion, to submarine lava flow. ASPECT is a parallel finite element code that solves problems of thermal convection in the Earth's mantle. We will assess ASPECT's capability to model submarine lava flow by observing models of lava flow morphology simulated with GALE, a long-term tectonics finite element analysis code, with models created using comparable settings and parameters in ASPECT. From these observations we will contrast the differing models in order to identify the benefits of each code. While doing so, we anticipate we will learn about the conditions required for end-members of lava flow morphology, for example, pillows and sheet flows. With ASPECT specifically we focus on 1) whether the lava rheology can be implemented; 2) how effective the AMR is in resolving morphologies of the solidified crust; 3) whether and under what conditions the end-members of the lava flow morphologies, pillows and sheets, can be reproduced.
Application of a 2D air flow model to soil vapor extraction and bioventing case studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohr, D.H.; Merz, P.H.
1995-01-01
Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is frequently the technology of choice to clean up hydrocarbon contamination in unsaturated soil. A two-dimensional air flow model provides a practical tool to evaluate pilot test data and estimate remediation rates for soil vapor extraction systems. The model predictions of soil vacuum versus distance are statistically compared to pilot test data for 65 SVE wells at 44 sites. For 17 of 21 sites where there was asphalt paving, the best agreement was obtained for boundary conditions with no barrier to air flow at the surface. The model predictions of air flow rates and stream lines around the well allow an estimate of the gasoline removal rates by both evaporation and bioremediation. The model can be used to quickly estimate the effective radius of influence, defined here as the maximum distance from the well where there is enough air flow to remove the contaminant present within the allowable time. The effective radius of influence is smaller than a radius of influence defined by soil vacuum only. For a case study, in situ bioremediation rates were estimated using the air flow model and compared to independent estimates based on changes in soil temperature. These estimate bioremediation rates for heavy fuel oil ranged from 2.5 to 11 mg oil degraded per kg soil per day, in agreement with values in the literature
Incorporating groundwater flow into the WEPP model
William Elliot; Erin Brooks; Tim Link; Sue Miller
2010-01-01
The water erosion prediction project (WEPP) model is a physically-based hydrology and erosion model. In recent years, the hydrology prediction within the model has been improved for forest watershed modeling by incorporating shallow lateral flow into watershed runoff prediction. This has greatly improved WEPP's hydrologic performance on small watersheds with...
Mathematical modelling of two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Komen, E.M.J.; Stoop, P.M.
1992-11-01
A gradual shift from methods based on experimental correlations to methods based on mathematical models to study 2-phase flows can be observed. The latter can be used to predict dynamical behaviour of 2-phase flows. This report discusses various mathematical models for the description of 2-phase flows. An important application of these models can be found in thermal-hydraulic computer codes used for analysis of the thermal-hydraulic behaviour of water cooled nuclear power plants. (author). 17 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs
Unsaturated medium hydrocarbons pollution evaluation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Di Luise, G.
1991-01-01
When the so called porous unsaturated medium, that's the vertical subsoil section between both the ground and water-table level, is interested by a hydrocarbons spill, the problem to evaluate the pollution becomes difficult: considering, essentially, the natural coexistence in it of two fluids, air and water, and the interactions between them. This paper reports that the problems tend to increase when a third fluid, the pollutant, immiscible with water, is introduced into the medium: a three-phases flow, which presents several analogies with the flow conditions present in an oil-reservoir, will be established. In such a situation, it would be very useful to handle the matter by the commonly used parameters in the oil reservoirs studies such as: residual saturation, relative permeability, phases mobility, to derive a first semiquantitative estimation of the pollution. The subsoil pollution form hydrocarbons agents is one of the worldwide more diffused causes of contamination: such events are generally referable to two main effects: accidental (oil pipeline breakdowns, e.g.), and continuous (underground tanks breaks, industrial plants leakages, e.g.)
Unsaturated Zone and Saturated Zone Transport Properties (U0100)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
J. Conca
2000-12-20
This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) summarizes transport properties for the lower unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units and the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain and provides a summary of data from the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT). The purpose of this report is to summarize the sorption and transport knowledge relevant to flow and transport in the units below Yucca Mountain and to provide backup documentation for the sorption parameters decided upon for each rock type. Because of the complexity of processes such as sorption, and because of the lack of direct data for many conditions that may be relevant for Yucca Mountain, data from systems outside of Yucca Mountain are also included. The data reported in this AMR will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations and as general scientific support for various Process Model Reports (PMRs) requiring knowledge of the transport properties of different materials. This report provides, but is not limited to, sorption coefficients and other relevant thermodynamic and transport properties for the radioisotopes of concern, especially neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), Uranium (U), technetium (Tc), iodine (I), and selenium (Se). The unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport properties in the vitric Calico Hills (CHv) are discussed, as are colloidal transport data based on the Busted Butte UZTT, the saturated tuff, and alluvium. These values were determined through expert elicitation, direct measurements, and data analysis. The transport parameters include information on interactions of the fractures and matrix. In addition, core matrix permeability data from the Busted Butte UZTT are summarized by both percent alteration and dispersion.
Unsaturated Zone and Saturated Zone Transport Properties (U0100)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conca, J.
2000-01-01
This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) summarizes transport properties for the lower unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units and the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain and provides a summary of data from the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT). The purpose of this report is to summarize the sorption and transport knowledge relevant to flow and transport in the units below Yucca Mountain and to provide backup documentation for the sorption parameters decided upon for each rock type. Because of the complexity of processes such as sorption, and because of the lack of direct data for many conditions that may be relevant for Yucca Mountain, data from systems outside of Yucca Mountain are also included. The data reported in this AMR will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations and as general scientific support for various Process Model Reports (PMRs) requiring knowledge of the transport properties of different materials. This report provides, but is not limited to, sorption coefficients and other relevant thermodynamic and transport properties for the radioisotopes of concern, especially neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), Uranium (U), technetium (Tc), iodine (I), and selenium (Se). The unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport properties in the vitric Calico Hills (CHv) are discussed, as are colloidal transport data based on the Busted Butte UZTT, the saturated tuff, and alluvium. These values were determined through expert elicitation, direct measurements, and data analysis. The transport parameters include information on interactions of the fractures and matrix. In addition, core matrix permeability data from the Busted Butte UZTT are summarized by both percent alteration and dispersion
Leskovjan, Andreana C.; Kretlow, Ariane; Miller, Lisa M.
2010-01-01
Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential to brain functions such as membrane fluidity, signal transduction, and cell survival. It is also thought that low levels of unsaturated lipid in the brain may contribute to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk or severity. However, it is not known how accumulation of unsaturated lipids is affected in different regions of the hippocampus, which is a central target of AD plaque pathology, during aging. In this study, we used Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging ...
Integrated soft sensor model for flow control.
Aijälä, G; Lumley, D
2006-01-01
Tighter discharge permits often require wastewater treatment plants to maximize utilization of available facilities in order to cost-effectively reach these goals. Important aspects are minimizing internal disturbances and using available information in a smart way to improve plant performance. In this study, flow control throughout a large highly automated wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was implemented in order to reduce internal disturbances and to provide a firm foundation for more advanced process control. A modular flow control system was constructed based on existing instrumentation and soft sensor flow models. Modules were constructed for every unit process in water treatment and integrated into a plant-wide model. The flow control system is used to automatically control recirculation flows and bypass flows at the plant. The system was also successful in making accurate flow estimations at points in the plant where it is not possible to have conventional flow meter instrumentation. The system provides fault detection for physical flow measuring devices. The module construction allows easy adaptation for new unit processes added to the treatment plant.
Modeling of two-phase slug flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabre, J.; Line, A.
1992-01-01
When gas and liquid flow in a pipe, over a range of flow rates, a flow pattern results in which sequences of long bubbles, almost filling the pipe cross section, are successively followed by liquid slugs that may contain small bubbles. This flow pattern, usually called slug flow, is encountered in numerous practical situations, such as in the production of hydrocarbons in wells and their transportation in pipelines; the production of steam and water in geothermal power plants; the boiling and condensation in liquid-vapor systems of thermal power plants; emergency core cooling of nuclear reactors; heat and mass transfer between gas and liquid in chemical reactors. This paper provides a review of two phase slug flow modeling
Flow model study of 'Monju' reactor vessel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyaguchi, Kimihide
1980-01-01
In the case of designing the structures in nuclear reactors, various problems to be considered regarding thermo-hydrodynamics exist, such as the distribution of flow quantity and the pressure loss in reactors and the thermal shock to inlet and outlet nozzles. In order to grasp the flow characteristics of coolant in reactors, the 1/2 scale model of the reactor structure of ''Monju'' was attached to the water flow testing facility in the Oarai Engineering Center, and the simulation experiment has been carried out. The flow characteristics in reactors clarified by experiment and analysis so far are the distribution of flow quantity between high and low pressure regions in reactors, the distribution of flow quantity among flow zones in respective regions of high and low pressure, the pressure loss in respective parts in reactors, the flow pattern and the mixing effect of coolant in upper and lower plenums, the effect of the twisting angle of inlet nozzles on the flow characteristics in lower plenums, the effect of internal cylinders on the flow characteristics in upper plenums and so on. On the basis of these test results, the improvement of the design of structures in reactors was made, and the confirmation test on the improved structures was carried out. The testing method, the calculation method, the test results and the reflection to the design of actual machines are described. (Kako, I.)
Study of reactive solutes transport and PAH migration in unsaturated soils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gujisaite, V.; Simonnot, M.O.; Gujisaite, V.; Morel, J.L.; Ouvrard, S.; Simonnot, M.O.; Gaudet, J.P.
2005-01-01
Experimental studies about solute transport in soil have most of the time been conducted under saturated conditions, whereas studies with unsaturated media are usually limited to hydrodynamic analysis. Those are mainly concerning the prediction of water flow, which is the main vector for the transport of contaminants in soil. Only a few studies have made the link between unsaturated flow and physical, chemical and biological interactions, which are controlling the availability of pollutants. However, the presence of a gaseous phase in soil can modify not only the movement of soil solution, but also chemical interactions and exchanges between soil aggregates and solution. Study of reactive solute transport in the vadose zone seems thus to be a necessary stage to predict contaminant fate in natural soils, for risk assessment as well as for the design of effective processes for the remediation of contaminated soils. This question is the main objective of the present work developed in the frame of our French Scientific Interest Group Industrial Wastelands called 'GISFI' (www.gisfi.prd.fr), based around a scientific and technological project dedicated to acquisition of knowledge for sustainable requalification of degraded sites polluted by past industrial activities. We will focus here on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), which are among the most widely discussed environmental contaminants because of their toxicity for human health and ecosystems. They are present in large quantities in soils polluted by former industrial activities, especially in relation to the coal extraction, exploitation and treatment. An experimental system has been specifically designed at the laboratory scale to carry out experiments under controlled conditions, with an unsaturated steady-state flow. The first experiments are performed on model soils, in order to investigate unsaturated steady-state flow in relation to interactions mechanisms. We have thus chosen to use a sandy
NUMERICAL SIMULATION AND MODELING OF UNSTEADY FLOW ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2014-06-30
Jun 30, 2014 ... objective of this study is to control the simulation of unsteady flows around structures. ... Aerospace, our results were in good agreement with experimental .... Two-Equation Eddy-Viscosity Turbulence Models for Engineering.
Base Flow Model Validation, Phase II
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The program focuses on turbulence modeling enhancements for predicting high-speed rocket base flows. A key component of the effort is the collection of high-fidelity...
Numerical models of groundwater flow and transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konikow, L.F.
1996-01-01
This chapter reviews the state-of-the-art in deterministic modeling of groundwater flow and transport processes, which can be used for interpretation of isotope data through groundwater flow analyses. Numerical models which are available for this purpose are described and their applications to complex field problems are discussed. The theoretical bases of deterministic modeling are summarized, and advantages and limitations of numerical models are described. The selection of models for specific applications and their calibration procedures are described, and results of a few illustrative case study type applications are provided. (author). 145 refs, 17 figs, 2 tabs
Numerical models of groundwater flow and transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Konikow, L F [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)
1996-10-01
This chapter reviews the state-of-the-art in deterministic modeling of groundwater flow and transport processes, which can be used for interpretation of isotope data through groundwater flow analyses. Numerical models which are available for this purpose are described and their applications to complex field problems are discussed. The theoretical bases of deterministic modeling are summarized, and advantages and limitations of numerical models are described. The selection of models for specific applications and their calibration procedures are described, and results of a few illustrative case study type applications are provided. (author). 145 refs, 17 figs, 2 tabs.
Improved choked flow model for MARS code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, Moon Sun; Lee, Won Jae; Ha, Kwi Seok; Hwang, Moon Kyu
2002-01-01
Choked flow calculation is improved by using a new sound speed criterion for bubbly flow that is derived by the characteristic analysis of hyperbolic two-fluid model. This model was based on the notion of surface tension for the interfacial pressure jump terms in the momentum equations. Real eigenvalues obtained as the closed-form solution of characteristic polynomial represent the sound speed in the bubbly flow regime that agrees well with the existing experimental data. The present sound speed shows more reasonable result in the extreme case than the Nguyens did. The present choked flow criterion derived by the present sound speed is employed in the MARS code and assessed by using the Marviken choked flow tests. The assessment results without any adjustment made by some discharge coefficients demonstrate more accurate predictions of choked flow rate in the bubbly flow regime than those of the earlier choked flow calculations. By calculating the Typical PWR (SBLOCA) problem, we make sure that the present model can reproduce the reasonable transients of integral reactor system
Groundwater flow modeling for near-field of a hypothetical near-surface disposal facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, H. Y.; Park, J. W.; Jang, G. M.; Kim, C. R.
2000-01-01
For a hypothetical near-surface radioactive disposal facility, the behavior of groundwater flow around the near-field of disposal vault located at the unsaturated zone were analyzed. Three alternative conceptual models proposed as the hydraulic barrier layer design were simulated to assess the hydrologic performance of engineered barriers for the facility. In order to evaluate the seepage possibility of the infiltrated water passed through the final disposal cover after the facility closure, the flow path around and water flux through each disposal vault were compared. The hydrologic parameters variation that accounts for the long-term aging and degradation of the cover and engineered materials was considered in the simulations. The results showed that it is necessary to construct the hydraulic barrier at the upper and sides of the vault, and that, for this case, achieving design hydraulic properties of bentonite/sand mixture barrier in the as-built condition is crucial to limit the seepage into the waste
Modeling groundwater flow and quality
Konikow, Leonard F.; Glynn, Pierre D.; Selinus, Olle
2013-01-01
In most areas, rocks in the subsurface are saturated with water at relatively shallow depths. The top of the saturated zone—the water table—typically occurs anywhere from just below land surface to hundreds of feet below the land surface. Groundwater generally fills all pore spaces below the water table and is part of a continuous dynamic flow system, in which the fluid is moving at velocities ranging from feet per millennia to feet per day (Fig. 33.1). While the water is in close contact with the surfaces of various minerals in the rock material, geochemical interactions between the water and the rock can affect the chemical quality of the water, including pH, dissolved solids composition, and trace-elements content. Thus, flowing groundwater is a major mechanism for the transport of chemicals from buried rocks to the accessible environment, as well as a major pathway from rocks to human exposure and consumption. Because the mineral composition of rocks is highly variable, as is the solubility of various minerals, the human-health effects of groundwater consumption will be highly variable.
A New Mechanism of Canopy Effect in Unsaturated Freezing Soils
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Teng Jidong
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Canopy effect refers to the phenomenon where moisture accumulates underneath an impervious cover. Field observation reveals that canopy effect can take place in relatively dry soils where the groundwater table is deep and can lead to full saturation of the soil immediately underneath the impervious cover. On the other hand, numerical analysis based on existing theories of heat and mass transfer in unsaturated soils can only reproduce a minor amount of moisture accumulation due to an impervious cover, particularly when the groundwater table is relatively deep. In attempt to explain the observed canopy effect in field, this paper proposes a new mechanism of moisture accumulation in unsaturated freezing soils: vapour transfer in such a soil is accelerated by the process of vapour-ice desublimation. A new approach for modelling moisture and heat movements is proposed, in which the phase change of evaporation, condensation and de-sublimation of vapor flow are taken into account. The computed results show that the proposed model can indeed reproduce the unusual moisture accumulation observed in relatively dry soils. The results also demonstrate that soil freezing fed by vapour transfer can result in a water content close to full saturation. Since vapour transfer is seldom considered in geotechnical design, the canopy effect deserves more attention during construction and earth works in cold and arid regions.
Modelling of Emulsion Flow in Porous Media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abou-Kassem, J.H. [UAE University (United Arab Emirates); Farouq Ali, S.M. [UAE University (United Arab Emirates)
1995-06-01
Oil recovery methods predominantly involve emulsion formation. Oil recovery simulation requires the incorporation of emulsion characteristics and flow in porous media, in order to optimize oil recovery from petroleum reservoirs. This paper explored the nature and rheology of emulsions, and evaluated several models of flow of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids in porous media. It also summarized in situ emulsion formation in porous media. A model for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian emulsion fluid flow was proposed, with special emphasis on pore size, and tortuosity in the porous media.
Modelling and control of systems with flow
van Mourik, S.
2008-01-01
In practice, feedback control design consists of three steps: modelling, model reduction and controller design for the reduced model. Systems with flow are often complicated, and there is yet no standard algorithm that integrates these steps. In this thesis we make a modest effort by considering two
Amendment to Validated dynamic flow model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Torben
2011-01-01
The purpose of WP2 is to establish flow models relating the wind speed at turbines in a farm. Until now, active control of power reference has not been included in these models as only data with standard operation has been available. In this report the first data series with power reference excit...... turbine in undisturbed flow. For this data set both the multiplicative model and in particular the simple first order transfer function model can predict the down wind wind speed from upwind wind speed and loading.......The purpose of WP2 is to establish flow models relating the wind speed at turbines in a farm. Until now, active control of power reference has not been included in these models as only data with standard operation has been available. In this report the first data series with power reference...
Quantifying the Effects of Biofilm on the Hydraulic Properties of Unsaturated Soils
Volk, E.; Iden, S.; Furman, A.; Durner, W.; Rosenzweig, R.
2017-12-01
Quantifying the effects of biofilms on hydraulic properties of unsaturated soils is necessary for predicting water and solute flow in soil with extensive microbial presence. This can be relevant to bioremediation processes, soil aquifer treatment and effluent irrigation. Previous works showed a reduction in the hydraulic conductivity and an increase in water content due to the addition of biofilm analogue materials. The objective of this research is to quantify soil hydraulic properties of unsaturated soil (water retention and hydraulic conductivity) using real soil biofilm. In this work, Hamra soil was incubated with Luria Broth (LB) and biofilm-producing bacteria (Pseudomonas Putida F1). Hydraulic conductivity and water retention were measured by the evaporation method, Dewpoint method and a constant head permeameter. Biofilm was quantified using viable counts and the deficit of TOC. The results show that the presence of biofilms increases soil retention in the `dry' range of the curve and reduces the hydraulic conductivity (see figure). This research shows that biofilms may have a non-negligible effect on flow and transport in unsaturated soils. These findings contribute to modeling water flow in biofilm amended soil.
Tracer technology modeling the flow of fluids
Levenspiel, Octave
2012-01-01
A vessel’s behavior as a heat exchanger, absorber, reactor, or other process unit is dependent upon how fluid flows through the vessel. In early engineering, the designer would assume either plug flow or mixed flow of the fluid through the vessel. However, these assumptions were oftentimes inaccurate, sometimes being off by a volume factor of 100 or more. The result of this unreliable figure produced ineffective products in multiple reaction systems. Written by a pioneering researcher in the field of chemical engineering, the tracer method was introduced to provide more accurate flow data. First, the tracer method measured the actual flow of fluid through a vessel. Second, it developed a suitable model to represent the flow in question. Such models are used to follow the flow of fluid in chemical reactors and other process units, like in rivers and streams, or solid and porous structures. In medicine, the tracer method is used to study the flow of chemicals—harmful and harmless—in the...
Hypervapotron flow testing with rapid prototype models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Driemeyer, D.; Hellwig, T.; Kubik, D.; Langenderfer, E.; Mantz, H.; McSmith, M.; Jones, B.; Butler, J.
1995-01-01
A flow test model of the inlet section of a three channel hypervapotron plate that has been proposed as a heat sink in the ITER divertor was prepared using a rapid prototyping stereolithography process that is widely used for component development in US industry. An existing water flow loop at the University of Illinois is being used for isothermal flow tests to collect pressure drop data for comparison with proposed vapotron friction factor correlations. Differential pressure measurements are taken, across the test section inlet manifold, the vapotron channel (about a seven inch length), the outlet manifold and the inlet-to-outlet. The differential pressures are currently measured with manometers. Tests were conducted at flow velocities from 1--10 m/s to cover the full range of ITER interest. A tap was also added for a small hypodermic needle to inject dye into the flow channel at several positions to examine the nature of the developing flow field at the entrance to the vapotron section. Follow-on flow tests are planned using a model with adjustable flow channel dimensions to permit more extensive pressure drop data to be collected. This information will be used to update vapotron design correlations for ITER
An Amorphous Network Model for Capillary Flow and Dispersion in a Partially Saturated Porous Medium
Simmons, C. S.; Rockhold, M. L.
2013-12-01
Network models of capillary flow are commonly used to represent conduction of fluids at pore scales. Typically, a flow system is described by a regular geometric lattice of interconnected tubes. Tubes constitute the pore throats, while connection junctions (nodes) are pore bodies. Such conceptualization of the geometry, however, is questionable for the pore scale, where irregularity clearly prevails, although prior published models using a regular lattice have demonstrated successful descriptions of the flow in the bulk medium. Here a network is allowed to be amorphous, and is not subject to any particular lattice structure. Few network flow models have treated partially saturated or even multiphase conditions. The research trend is toward using capillary tubes with triangular or square cross sections that have corners and always retain some fluid by capillarity when drained. In contrast, this model uses only circular capillaries, whose filled state is controlled by a capillary pressure rule for the junctions. The rule determines which capillary participate in the flow under an imposed matric potential gradient during steady flow conditions. Poiseuille's Law and Laplace equation are used to describe flow and water retention in the capillary units of the model. A modified conjugate gradient solution for steady flow that tracks which capillary in an amorphous network contribute to fluid conduction was devised for partially saturated conditions. The model thus retains the features of classical capillary models for determining hydraulic flow properties under unsaturated conditions based on distribution of non-interacting tubes, but now accounts for flow exchange at junctions. Continuity of the flow balance at every junction is solved simultaneously. The effective water retention relationship and unsaturated permeability are evaluated for an extensive enough network to represent a small bulk sample of porous medium. The model is applied for both a hypothetically
Water flow and solute transport using environmental isotopes and modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussein, M.F.
2001-01-01
The deep unsaturated zone may be a useful hydrological archive in desert environments characterized by scant or sporadic rainfall and slow percolation of rainwater over decades or even centuries. This moisture archive provides a useful way to distinguish the net downward flow of recharge water, whereas the isotopic composition and concentration of the conservative solutes of the preserved moisture could be used to reconstruct the history of recharge under the prevailing deficient water balance. The major advantage of such coupled approach is to obtain independent estimates of groundwater recharge rates which are normally difficult to evaluate using the hydrological methods applied in the temperate zones. The study was conducted in the Shiekh-Zoweid/Raffa area in the northeastern coastal strip of Sinai Peninsula. Bore-holes were dry-drilled in a line perpendicular to the sea shoreline (using an 8-inch diameter hand-operated rotary rig) for the unsaturated sediment collection from successive 0.5m thick layers down to a depth of 20m. Samples were investigated for the moisture contents and the chemical and isotope composition of this moisture was determined. Physical parameters were also assessed including porosity and volumetric moisture content. Chloride mass-balance was used to calculate recharge rates through the unsaturated zone by predicting the position of the 1963-Tritium peak in the unsaturated column. Analysis of moisture, chloride and deuterium profiles showed three principle peaks (along with minor ones) in Karafin site indicating few major recharge events that have taken place during the last few decades. Adjustment of these episodes has also been attempted using two historical major rainfall events (known from nearby meteorological stations). Application of the methodology in water resources management in arid regions is discussed. (author)
Reduced order model of draft tube flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rudolf, P; Štefan, D
2014-01-01
Swirling flow with compact coherent structures is very good candidate for proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), i.e. for decomposition into eigenmodes, which are the cornerstones of the flow field. Present paper focuses on POD of steady flows, which correspond to different operating points of Francis turbine draft tube flow. Set of eigenmodes is built using a limited number of snapshots from computational simulations. Resulting reduced order model (ROM) describes whole operating range of the draft tube. ROM enables to interpolate in between the operating points exploiting the knowledge about significance of particular eigenmodes and thus reconstruct the velocity field in any operating point within the given range. Practical example, which employs axisymmetric simulations of the draft tube flow, illustrates accuracy of ROM in regions without vortex breakdown together with need for higher resolution of the snapshot database close to location of sudden flow changes (e.g. vortex breakdown). ROM based on POD interpolation is very suitable tool for insight into flow physics of the draft tube flows (especially energy transfers in between different operating points), for supply of data for subsequent stability analysis or as an initialization database for advanced flow simulations
A Hydrological Concept including Lateral Water Flow Compatible with the Biogeochemical Model ForSAFE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giuliana Zanchi
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The study presents a hydrology concept developed to include lateral water flow in the biogeochemical model ForSAFE. The hydrology concept was evaluated against data collected at Svartberget in the Vindeln Research Forest in Northern Sweden. The results show that the new concept allows simulation of a saturated and an unsaturated zone in the soil as well as water flow that reaches the stream comparable to measurements. The most relevant differences compared to streamflow measurements are that the model simulates a higher base flow in winter and lower flow peaks after snowmelt. These differences are mainly caused by the assumptions made to regulate the percolation at the bottom of the simulated soil columns. The capability for simulating lateral flows and a saturated zone in ForSAFE can greatly improve the simulation of chemical exchange in the soil and export of elements from the soil to watercourses. Such a model can help improve the understanding of how environmental changes in the forest landscape will influence chemical loads to surface waters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, T.L.; Gee, G.W.
1984-01-01
Two main topics are addressed in this report. The first topic relates to the assessment process for shallow land burial site design. This overview includes basic descriptions of water balance, transport processes and technology needs for waste management at an arid (dry) site. The second topic deals with specific results of research activities at PNL related to water and radionuclide transport under arid, shallow land burial conditions. Technology needs at arid-zone (dry) sites are summarized and unique features of radionuclide disposal at dry sites are explained. The report emphasizes the need to understand the interaction between climate, soil, plants, engineered barriers, and buried waste in order to evaluate performance of a waste disposal system at a dry site. Water balance data, collected since FY 1978 at the Buried Waste Test Facility (BWTF) at Hanford, are used to illustrate the influence of climate variables (rainfall distribution patterns and evaporative conditions) on soil water storage and drainage at an arid site. For dry site conditions, with no vegetation and coarse soil, significant deep drainage was measured. Deep drainage below the root zone was also measured at a grass-covered site on the Hanford site after early spring rains, which emphasizes the need to carefully monitor site water balances even at arid (dry) sites. The monitoring technology, water balance, and radionuclide transport at arid sites are discussed, and the use of neutron probes, electrical resistance units, tensiometers, and psychrometers are explained, and examples are given on their applications in arid-site monitoring. Measurements of water flow and radionuclide transport coefficients needed to describe movement in unsaturated soils are documented. 40 references, 21 figures, 5 tables
Scaled Experimental Modeling of VHTR Plenum Flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
ICONE 15
2007-04-01
Abstract The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is the leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Project in the U.S. which has the goal of demonstrating the production of emissions free electricity and hydrogen by 2015. Various scaled heated gas and water flow facilities were investigated for modeling VHTR upper and lower plenum flows during the decay heat portion of a pressurized conduction-cooldown scenario and for modeling thermal mixing and stratification (“thermal striping”) in the lower plenum during normal operation. It was concluded, based on phenomena scaling and instrumentation and other practical considerations, that a heated water flow scale model facility is preferable to a heated gas flow facility and to unheated facilities which use fluids with ranges of density to simulate the density effect of heating. For a heated water flow lower plenum model, both the Richardson numbers and Reynolds numbers may be approximately matched for conduction-cooldown natural circulation conditions. Thermal mixing during normal operation may be simulated but at lower, but still fully turbulent, Reynolds numbers than in the prototype. Natural circulation flows in the upper plenum may also be simulated in a separate heated water flow facility that uses the same plumbing as the lower plenum model. However, Reynolds number scaling distortions will occur at matching Richardson numbers due primarily to the necessity of using a reduced number of channels connected to the plenum than in the prototype (which has approximately 11,000 core channels connected to the upper plenum) in an otherwise geometrically scaled model. Experiments conducted in either or both facilities will meet the objectives of providing benchmark data for the validation of codes proposed for NGNP designs and safety studies, as well as providing a better understanding of the complex flow phenomena in the plenums.
Multiple Temperature Model for Near Continuum Flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
XU, Kun; Liu, Hongwei; Jiang, Jianzheng
2007-01-01
In the near continuum flow regime, the flow may have different translational temperatures in different directions. It is well known that for increasingly rarefied flow fields, the predictions from continuum formulation, such as the Navier-Stokes equations, lose accuracy. These inaccuracies may be partially due to the single temperature assumption in the Navier-Stokes equations. Here, based on the gas-kinetic Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation, a multitranslational temperature model is proposed and used in the flow calculations. In order to fix all three translational temperatures, two constraints are additionally proposed to model the energy exchange in different directions. Based on the multiple temperature assumption, the Navier-Stokes relation between the stress and strain is replaced by the temperature relaxation term, and the Navier-Stokes assumption is recovered only in the limiting case when the flow is close to the equilibrium with the same temperature in different directions. In order to validate the current model, both the Couette and Poiseuille flows are studied in the transition flow regime
Flow field mapping in data rack model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matěcha J.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to map the flow field inside the data rack model, fitted with three 1U server models. The server model is based on the common four-processor 1U server. The main dimensions of the data rack model geometry are taken fully from the real geometry. Only the model was simplified with respect to the greatest possibility in the experimental measurements. The flow field mapping was carried out both experimentally and numerically. PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry method was used for the experimental flow field mapping, when the flow field has been mapped for defined regions within the 2D/3D data rack model. Ansys CFX and OpenFOAM software were used for the numerical solution. Boundary conditions for numerical model were based on data obtained from experimental measurement of velocity profile at the output of the server mockup. This velocity profile was used as the input boundary condition in the calculation. In order to achieve greater consistency of the numerical model with experimental data, the numerical model was modified with regard to the results of experimental measurements. Results from the experimental and numerical measurements were compared and the areas of disparateness were identified. In further steps the obtained proven numerical model will be utilized for the real geometry of data racks and data.
Numerical modelling of flow pattern for high swirling flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Parra Teresa
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This work focuses on the interaction of two coaxial swirling jets. High swirl burners are suitable for lean flames and produce low emissions. Computational Fluid Dynamics has been used to study the isothermal behaviour of two confined jets whose setup and operating conditions are those of the benchmark of Roback and Johnson. Numerical model is a Total Variation Diminishing and PISO is used to pressure velocity coupling. Transient analysis let identify the non-axisymmetric region of reverse flow. The center of instantaneous azimuthal velocities is not located in the axis of the chamber. The temporal sampling evidences this center spins around the axis of the device forming the precessing vortex core (PVC whose Strouhal numbers are more than two for Swirl numbers of one. Influence of swirl number evidences strong swirl numbers are precursor of large vortex breakdown. Influence of conical diffusers evidence the reduction of secondary flows associated to boundary layer separation.
Modeling sediment concentration of rill flow
Yang, Daming; Gao, Peiling; Zhao, Yadong; Zhang, Yuhang; Liu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Qingwen
2018-06-01
Accurate estimation of sediment concentration is essential to establish physically-based erosion models. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of flow discharge (Q), slope gradient (S), flow velocity (V), shear stress (τ), stream power (ω) and unit stream power (U) on sediment concentration. Laboratory experiments were conducted using a 10 × 0.1 m rill flume under four flow discharges (2, 4, 8 and 16 L min-1), and five slope gradients (5°, 10°, 15°, 20° and 25°). The results showed that the measured sediment concentration varied from 87.08 to 620.80 kg m-3 with a mean value of 343.13 kg m-3. Sediment concentration increased as a power function with flow discharge and slope gradient, with R2 = 0.975 and NSE = 0.945. The sediment concentration was more sensitive to slope gradient than to flow discharge. The sediment concentration was well predicted by unit stream power (R2 = 0.937, NSE = 0.865), whereas less satisfactorily by flow velocity (R2 = 0.470, NSE = 0.539) and stream power (R2 = 0.773, NSE = 0.732). In addition, using the equations to simulate the measured sediment concentration of other studies, the result further indicated that slope gradient, flow discharge and unit stream power were good predictors of sediment concentration. In general, slope gradient, flow discharge and unit stream power seem to be the preferred predictors for estimating sediment concentration.
Colloid suspension stability and transport through unsaturated porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McGraw, M.A.; Kaplan, D.I.
1997-04-01
Contaminant transport is traditionally modeled in a two-phase system: a mobile aqueous phase and an immobile solid phase. Over the last 15 years, there has been an increasing awareness of a third, mobile solid phase. This mobile solid phase, or mobile colloids, are organic or inorganic submicron-sized particles that move with groundwater flow. When colloids are present, the net effect on radionuclide transport is that radionuclides can move faster through the system. It is not known whether mobile colloids exist in the subsurface environment of the Hanford Site. Furthermore, it is not known if mobile colloids would likely exist in a plume emanating from a Low Level Waste (LLW) disposal site. No attempt was made in this study to ascertain whether colloids would form. Instead, experiments and calculations were conducted to evaluate the likelihood that colloids, if formed, would remain in suspension and move through saturated and unsaturated sediments. The objectives of this study were to evaluate three aspects of colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides as they specifically relate to the LLW Performance Assessment. These objectives were: (1) determine if the chemical conditions likely to exist in the near and far field of the proposed disposal site are prone to induce flocculation (settling of colloids from suspension) or dispersion of naturally occurring Hanford colloids, (2) identify the important mechanisms likely involved in the removal of colloids from a Hanford sediment, and (3) determine if colloids can move through unsaturated porous media
Multiphase flow models for hydraulic fracturing technology
Osiptsov, Andrei A.
2017-10-01
The technology of hydraulic fracturing of a hydrocarbon-bearing formation is based on pumping a fluid with particles into a well to create fractures in porous medium. After the end of pumping, the fractures filled with closely packed proppant particles create highly conductive channels for hydrocarbon flow from far-field reservoir to the well to surface. The design of the hydraulic fracturing treatment is carried out with a simulator. Those simulators are based on mathematical models, which need to be accurate and close to physical reality. The entire process of fracture placement and flowback/cleanup can be conventionally split into the following four stages: (i) quasi-steady state effectively single-phase suspension flow down the wellbore, (ii) particle transport in an open vertical fracture, (iii) displacement of fracturing fluid by hydrocarbons from the closed fracture filled with a random close pack of proppant particles, and, finally, (iv) highly transient gas-liquid flow in a well during cleanup. The stage (i) is relatively well described by the existing hydralics models, while the models for the other three stages of the process need revisiting and considerable improvement, which was the focus of the author’s research presented in this review paper. For stage (ii), we consider the derivation of a multi-fluid model for suspension flow in a narrow vertical hydraulic fracture at moderate Re on the scale of fracture height and length and also the migration of particles across the flow on the scale of fracture width. At the stage of fracture cleanaup (iii), a novel multi-continua model for suspension filtration is developed. To provide closure relationships for permeability of proppant packings to be used in this model, a 3D direct numerical simulation of single phase flow is carried out using the lattice-Boltzmann method. For wellbore cleanup (iv), we present a combined 1D model for highly-transient gas-liquid flow based on the combination of multi-fluid and
Particle in the Brusselator Model with Flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuptsov, P.V.; Kuznetsov, S.P.; Mosekilde, Erik
2002-01-01
We consider the interaction of a small moving particle with a stationary space-periodic pattern in a chemical reaction-diffusion system with a flow. The pattern is produced by a one-dimensional Brusselator model that is perturbed by a constant displacement from the equilibrium state at the inlet....... By partially blocking the flow, the particle gives rise to a local increment of the flow rate. For certain parameter values a response with intermittent Hopf and Turing type structures is observed. In other regimes a wave of substitution of missing peaks runs across the pattern....
Electromechanical Model of Blood Flow in Vessels
Ivo Cap; Barbora Czippelova
2008-01-01
The present paper deals with some theoretical derivations connected with very efficient method of solution of hydrodynamic problems of blood flow in human cardiovascular system. The electromechanical analogy of liquid flow in a tube and electromagnetic wave propagating along an electric transmission line is discussed. We have derived a detailed circuit-like model of an elementary section of the elastic tube with viscose Newtonian liquid. The analogy harmonic current electrical cir...
Electromechanical Model of Blood Flow in Vessels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivo Cap
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The present paper deals with some theoretical derivations connected with very efficient method of solution of hydrodynamic problems of blood flow in human cardiovascular system. The electromechanical analogy of liquid flow in a tube and electromagnetic wave propagating along an electric transmission line is discussed. We have derived a detailed circuit-like model of an elementary section of the elastic tube with viscose Newtonian liquid. The analogy harmonic current electrical circuit has been designed
A simple flow-concentration modelling method for integrating water ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A simple flow-concentration modelling method for integrating water quality and ... flow requirements are assessed for maintenance low flow, drought low flow ... the instream concentrations of chemical constituents that will arise from different ...
Fimognari, Nicholas; Hollings, Ashley; Lam, Virginie; Tidy, Rebecca J; Kewish, Cameron M; Albrecht, Matthew A; Takechi, Ryu; Mamo, John C L; Hackett, Mark J
2018-06-14
Western society is facing a health epidemic due to the increasing incidence of dementia in ageing populations, and there are still few effective diagnostic methods, minimal treatment options, and no cure. Ageing is the greatest risk factor for memory loss that occurs during the natural ageing process, as well as being the greatest risk factor for neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, greater understanding of the biochemical pathways that drive a healthy ageing brain towards dementia (pathological ageing or Alzheimer's disease), is required to accelerate the development of improved diagnostics and therapies. Unfortunately, many animal models of dementia model chronic amyloid precursor protein over-expression, which although highly relevant to mechanisms of amyloidosis and familial Alzheimer's disease, does not model well dementia during the natural ageing process. A promising animal model reported to model mechanisms of accelerated natural ageing and memory impairments, is the senescence accelerated murine prone strain 8 (SAMP8), which has been adopted by many research group to study the biochemical transitions that occur during brain ageing. A limitation to traditional methods of biochemical characterisation is that many important biochemical and elemental markers (lipid saturation, lactate, transition metals) cannot be imaged at meso- or micro-spatial resolution. Therefore, in this investigation we report the first multi-modal biospectroscopic characterisation of the SAMP8 model, and have identified important biochemical and elemental alterations, and co-localisations, between 4 month old SAMP8 mice and the relevant control (SAMR1) mice. Specifically, we demonstrate direct evidence of altered metabolism and disturbed lipid homeostasis within corpus callosum white matter, in addition to localised hippocampal metal deficiencies, in the accelerated ageing phenotype. Such findings have important implication for future research aimed at
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Barthel
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Model coupling requires a thorough conceptualisation of the coupling strategy, including an exact definition of the individual model domains, the "transboundary" processes and the exchange parameters. It is shown here that in the case of coupling groundwater flow and hydrological models – in particular on the regional scale – it is very important to find a common definition and scale-appropriate process description of groundwater recharge and baseflow (or "groundwater runoff/discharge" in order to achieve a meaningful representation of the processes that link the unsaturated and saturated zones and the river network. As such, integration by means of coupling established disciplinary models is problematic given that in such models, processes are defined from a purpose-oriented, disciplinary perspective and are therefore not necessarily consistent with definitions of the same process in the model concepts of other disciplines. This article contains a general introduction to the requirements and challenges of model coupling in Integrated Water Resources Management including a definition of the most relevant technical terms, a short description of the commonly used approach of model coupling and finally a detailed consideration of the role of groundwater recharge and baseflow in coupling groundwater models with hydrological models. The conclusions summarize the most relevant problems rather than giving practical solutions. This paper aims to point out that working on a large scale in an integrated context requires rethinking traditional disciplinary workflows and encouraging communication between the different disciplines involved. It is worth noting that the aspects discussed here are mainly viewed from a groundwater perspective, which reflects the author's background.
A subchannel based annular flow dryout model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hammouda, Najmeddine; Cheng, Zhong; Rao, Yanfei F.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A modified annular flow dryout model for subchannel thermalhydraulic analysis. • Implementation of the model in Canadian subchannel code ASSERT-PV. • Assessment of the model against tube CHF experiments. • Assessment of the model against CANDU-bundle CHF experiments. - Abstract: This paper assesses a popular tube-based mechanistic critical heat flux model (Hewitt and Govan’s annular flow model (based on the model of Whalley et al.), and modifies and implements the model for bundle geometries. It describes the results of the ASSERT subchannel code predictions using the modified model, as applied to a single tube and the 28-element, 37-element and 43-element (CANFLEX) CANDU bundles. A quantitative comparison between the model predictions and experimental data indicates good agreement for a wide range of flow conditions. The comparison has resulted in an overall average error of −0.15% and an overall root-mean-square error of 5.46% with tube data representing annular film dryout type critical heat flux, and in an overall average error of −0.9% and an overall RMS error of 9.9% with Stern Laboratories’ CANDU-bundle data.
On renormalization group flow in matrix model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao, H.B.
1992-10-01
The renormalization group flow recently found by Brezin and Zinn-Justin by integrating out redundant entries of the (N+1)x(N+1) Hermitian random matrix is studied. By introducing explicitly the RG flow parameter, and adding suitable counter terms to the matrix potential of the one matrix model, we deduce some interesting properties of the RG trajectories. In particular, the string equation for the general massive model interpolating between the UV and IR fixed points turns out to be a consequence of RG flow. An ambiguity in the UV region of the RG trajectory is remarked to be related to the large order behaviour of the one matrix model. (author). 7 refs
Multiphase reacting flows modelling and simulation
Marchisio, Daniele L
2007-01-01
The papers in this book describe the most widely applicable modeling approaches and are organized in six groups covering from fundamentals to relevant applications. In the first part, some fundamentals of multiphase turbulent reacting flows are covered. In particular the introduction focuses on basic notions of turbulence theory in single-phase and multi-phase systems as well as on the interaction between turbulence and chemistry. In the second part, models for the physical and chemical processes involved are discussed. Among other things, particular emphasis is given to turbulence modeling strategies for multiphase flows based on the kinetic theory for granular flows. Next, the different numerical methods based on Lagrangian and/or Eulerian schemes are presented. In particular the most popular numerical approaches of computational fluid dynamics codes are described (i.e., Direct Numerical Simulation, Large Eddy Simulation, and Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes approach). The book will cover particle-based meth...
Simulation of heat transfer in the unsaturated zone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zyvoloski, G.
1990-01-01
Heat transfer can play an important role in fluid flow near the emplacement site of high-level nuclear waste. The effects on far- field flow can be important in understanding net moisture fluxes above the repository zone. The convection in the unsaturated zone at the Yucca Mountain site was responsible for this movement. If this is so, then the convection could provide a mechanism for drying the rock above the repository zone and thus provide a buffer for heavy rainfall events. In addition, the convection would increase the movement of gaseous radionuclides such as 14 CO 2 , tritiated water vapor, and 129 I (Weeks, 1987). Because of the complexity of the problem, numerical models were required to calculate gas flow and vapor transport at the site. Kipp previously modeled this problem using the code HST3D. This code represents the flow of a single-phase fluid with both heat- and mass-transfer effects included. Water density and partial pressure effects are accounted for by the virtual temperature method. In this paper, the problem was simulated using the code FEHMN, a finite-element heat- and mass-transfer code being developed for the Yucca Mountain Project. The work described in this paper was done in preparation of the upcoming problem to be formulated for the Performance Assessment Calculation Exercise. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab
Solution of AntiSeepage for Mengxi River Based on Numerical Simulation of Unsaturated Seepage
Ji, Youjun; Zhang, Linzhi; Yue, Jiannan
2014-01-01
Lessening the leakage of surface water can reduce the waste of water resources and ground water pollution. To solve the problem that Mengxi River could not store water enduringly, geology investigation, theoretical analysis, experiment research, and numerical simulation analysis were carried out. Firstly, the seepage mathematical model was established based on unsaturated seepage theory; secondly, the experimental equipment for testing hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soil was developed to obtain the curve of two-phase flow. The numerical simulation of leakage in natural conditions proves the previous inference and leakage mechanism of river. At last, the seepage control capacities of different impervious materials were compared by numerical simulations. According to the engineering actuality, the impervious material was selected. The impervious measure in this paper has been proved to be effectible by hydrogeological research today. PMID:24707199
Solution of AntiSeepage for Mengxi River Based on Numerical Simulation of Unsaturated Seepage
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Youjun Ji
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Lessening the leakage of surface water can reduce the waste of water resources and ground water pollution. To solve the problem that Mengxi River could not store water enduringly, geology investigation, theoretical analysis, experiment research, and numerical simulation analysis were carried out. Firstly, the seepage mathematical model was established based on unsaturated seepage theory; secondly, the experimental equipment for testing hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soil was developed to obtain the curve of two-phase flow. The numerical simulation of leakage in natural conditions proves the previous inference and leakage mechanism of river. At last, the seepage control capacities of different impervious materials were compared by numerical simulations. According to the engineering actuality, the impervious material was selected. The impervious measure in this paper has been proved to be effectible by hydrogeological research today.
Particle tracking for unsaturated-zone groundwater travel time analysis at Yucca Mountain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnold, B.W.; Skinner, L.H.; Zieman, N.B.
1995-01-01
A particle tracking code developed to link numerical modeling of groundwater flow in the unsaturated zone to the analysis of groundwater travel times was used to produce preliminary estimates of the distribution of groundwater-travel time from a potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada to the water table. Compliance with 10CFR960 requires the demonstration that pre-waste-emplacement groundwater travel time from the disturbed zone to the accessible environment is expected to exceed 1,000 years along any path of likely and significant radionuclide travel. The use of multiple particles and multiple realizations of the geology and parameter distributions in the unsaturated zone allows a probabilistic analysis of groundwater travel times that may be applied for evaluating compliance
A void distribution model-flashing flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riznic, J.; Ishii, M.; Afgan, N.
1987-01-01
A new model for flashing flow based on wall nucleations is proposed here and the model predictions are compared with some experimental data. In order to calculate the bubble number density, the bubble number transport equation with a distributed source from the wall nucleation sites was used. Thus it was possible to avoid the usual assumption of a constant bubble number density. Comparisons of the model with the data shows that the model based on the nucleation site density correlation appears to be acceptable to describe the vapor generation in the flashing flow. For the limited data examined, the comparisons show rather satisfactory agreement without using a floating parameter to adjust the model. This result indicated that, at least for the experimental conditions considered here, the mechanistic predictions of the flashing phenomenon is possible on the present wall nucleation based model
2017-01-01
The development of synthetic methodologies which provide access to both stereoisomers of α,β-disubstituted olefins is a challenging undertaking. Herein, we describe the development of an operationally simple and stereoselective synthesis of difluoromethylated styrenes via a visible-light photocatalytic decarboxylation strategy using fac-Ir(ppy)3 as the photocatalyst. Meta- and para-substituted cinnamic acids provide the expected E-isomer. In contrast, ortho-substituted cinnamic acids yield selectively the less stable Z-product, whereas the E-isomer can be obtained via continuous-flow processing through accurate control of the reaction time. Furthermore, our protocol is amenable to the decarboxylative difluoromethylation of aryl propiolic acids. PMID:29109904
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeh, Gour-Tsyh
1995-11-01
The computer program LEHGC is a Hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian Finite-Element Model of HydroGeo-Chemical (LEHGC) Transport Through Saturated-Unsaturated Media. LEHGC iteratively solves two-dimensional transport and geochemical equilibrium equations and is a descendant of HYDROGEOCHEM, a strictly Eulerian finite-element reactive transport code. The hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian scheme improves on the Eulerian scheme by allowing larger time steps to be used in the advection-dominant transport calculations. This causes less numerical dispersion and alleviates the problem of calculated negative concentrations at sharp concentration fronts. The code also is more computationally efficient than the strictly Eulerian version. LEHGC is designed for generic application to reactive transport problems associated with contaminant transport in subsurface media. Input to the program includes the geometry of the system, the spatial distribution of finite elements and nodes, the properties of the media, the potential chemical reactions, and the initial and boundary conditions. Output includes the spatial distribution of chemical element concentrations as a function of time and space and the chemical speciation at user-specified nodes. LEHGC Version 1.1 is a modification of LEHGC Version 1.0. The modification includes: (1) devising a tracking algorithm with the computational effort proportional to N where N is the number of computational grid nodes rather than N 2 as in LEHGC Version 1.0, (2) including multiple adsorbing sites and multiple ion-exchange sites, (3) using four preconditioned conjugate gradient methods for the solution of matrix equations, and (4) providing a model for some features of solute transport by colloids
A numerical model for the movement of H 2O, H 218O, and 2HHO in the unsaturated zone
Shurbaji, Abdel-Rahman M.; Phillips, Fred M.
1995-09-01
Vertical profiles of H 218O and 2HHO concentrations have yielded useful information on evaporation and infiltration processes in soils. However, in the field, quantitative interpretation of such profiles has been limited by the restrictions inherent in the quasi-steady-state and transient analytical models available to describe the physical processes. This study presents a flexible numerical model that simulates transient fluxes of heat, liquid water, water vapor, and isotopic species. The model can simulate both infiltration and evaporation under fluctuating meteorological conditions and thus should be useful in reproducing changes in field isotope profiles. A transition factor is introduced in the isotope transport equation. This factor combines hydrologic and isotopic parameters and changes slowly with depth in the soil profile but strongly in the evaporation zone, owing to the rapid change in the dominant phase of water from liquid to vapor. Using the transition factor in the isotope transport equation facilitates obtaining the typical shape of the isotope profile (bulge at the evaporation zone). This factor also facilitates producing broad isotope enrichment peaks that may be seen in very dry soils.
Numerical modeling of the debris flows runout
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Federico Francesco
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Rapid debris flows are identified among the most dangerous of all landslides. Due to their destructive potential, the runout length has to be predicted to define the hazardous areas and design safeguarding measures. To this purpose, a continuum model to predict the debris flows mobility is developed. It is based on the well known depth-integrated avalanche model proposed by Savage and Hutter (S&H model to simulate the dry granular materials flows. Conservation of mass and momentum equations, describing the evolving geometry and the depth averaged velocity distribution, are re-written taking into account the effects of the interstitial pressures and the possible variation of mass along the motion due to erosion/deposition processes. Furthermore, the mechanical behaviour of the debris flow is described by a recently developed rheological law, which allows to take into account the dissipative effects of the grain inelastic collisions and friction, simultaneously acting within a ‘shear layer’, typically at the base of the debris flows. The governing PDEs are solved by applying the finite difference method. The analysis of a documented case is finally carried out.
SATURATED ZONE FLOW AND TRANSPORT MODEL ABSTRACTION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
B.W. ARNOLD
2004-01-01
The purpose of the saturated zone (SZ) flow and transport model abstraction task is to provide radionuclide-transport simulation results for use in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) calculations. This task includes assessment of uncertainty in parameters that pertain to both groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in the models used for this purpose. This model report documents the following: (1) The SZ transport abstraction model, which consists of a set of radionuclide breakthrough curves at the accessible environment for use in the TSPA-LA simulations of radionuclide releases into the biosphere. These radionuclide breakthrough curves contain information on radionuclide-transport times through the SZ. (2) The SZ one-dimensional (I-D) transport model, which is incorporated in the TSPA-LA model to simulate the transport, decay, and ingrowth of radionuclide decay chains in the SZ. (3) The analysis of uncertainty in groundwater-flow and radionuclide-transport input parameters for the SZ transport abstraction model and the SZ 1-D transport model. (4) The analysis of the background concentration of alpha-emitting species in the groundwater of the SZ
Ghareh Mahmoodlu, Mojtaba|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357287746
2014-01-01
In this research we evaluated the potential of using solid potassium permanganate to create a horizontal permeable reactive barrier (HPRB) for oxidizing VOC vapours in the unsaturated zone. We have performed batch experiments, short column, and long column experiments, and have fully analyzed the
El-Husseiny, Walaa M; El-Sayed, Magda A-A; Abdel-Aziz, Naglaa I; El-Azab, Adel S; Ahmed, Esam R; Abdel-Aziz, Alaa A-M
2018-12-01
New α,β-unsaturated ketones 4a,b; 5a-c; and 6a,b; as well as 4-H pyran 7; pyrazoline 8a,b; isoxazoline 9; pyridine 10-11; and quinoline-4-carboxylic acid 12a,b derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro antitumour activity against HepG2, MCF-7, HeLa, and PC-3 cancer cell lines. Antioxidant activity was investigated by the ability of these compounds to scavenge the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS •+ ). Compounds 6a, 6b, 7, and 8b exhibited potent antitumour activities against all tested cell lines with [IC 50 ] ≅5.5-18.1 µΜ), in addition to significantly high ABTS •+ scavenging activities. In vitro EGFR kinase assay for 6a, 6b, 7, and 8b as the most potent antitumour compounds showed that; compounds 6b, and 7 exhibited worthy EGFR inhibition activity with IC 50 values of 0.56 and 1.6 µM, respectively, while compounds 6a and 8b showed good inhibition activity with IC 50 values of 4.66 and 2.16 µM, respectively, compared with sorafenib reference drug (IC 50 = 1.28 µM). Molecular modelling studies for compounds 6b, 7, and 8b were conducted to exhibit the binding mode towards EGFR kinase, which showed similar interaction with erlotinib.
Improved modeling techniques for turbomachinery flow fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lakshminarayana, B. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Fagan, J.R. Jr. [Allison Engine Company, Indianapolis, IN (United States)
1995-10-01
This program has the objective of developing an improved methodology for modeling turbomachinery flow fields, including the prediction of losses and efficiency. Specifically, the program addresses the treatment of the mixing stress tensor terms attributed to deterministic flow field mechanisms required in steady-state Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models for turbo-machinery flow fields. These mixing stress tensors arise due to spatial and temporal fluctuations (in an absolute frame of reference) caused by rotor-stator interaction due to various blade rows and by blade-to-blade variation of flow properties. These tasks include the acquisition of previously unavailable experimental data in a high-speed turbomachinery environment, the use of advanced techniques to analyze the data, and the development of a methodology to treat the deterministic component of the mixing stress tensor. Penn State will lead the effort to make direct measurements of the momentum and thermal mixing stress tensors in high-speed multistage compressor flow field in the turbomachinery laboratory at Penn State. They will also process the data by both conventional and conditional spectrum analysis to derive momentum and thermal mixing stress tensors due to blade-to-blade periodic and aperiodic components, revolution periodic and aperiodic components arising from various blade rows and non-deterministic (which includes random components) correlations. The modeling results from this program will be publicly available and generally applicable to steady-state Navier-Stokes solvers used for turbomachinery component (compressor or turbine) flow field predictions. These models will lead to improved methodology, including loss and efficiency prediction, for the design of high-efficiency turbomachinery and drastically reduce the time required for the design and development cycle of turbomachinery.
Modelling Nitrogen Transformation in Horizontal Subsurface Flow ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A mathematical model was developed to permit dynamic simulation of nitrogen interaction in a pilot horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland receiving effluents from primary facultative pond. The system was planted with Phragmites mauritianus, which was provided with root zone depth of 75 cm. The root zone was ...
Modelling of flow phenomena during DC casting
Zuidema, J.
2005-01-01
Modelling of Flow Phenomena during DC Casting Jan Zuidema The production of aluminium ingots, by semi-continuous casting, is a complex process. DC Casting stands for direct chill casting. During this process liquid aluminium transforms to solid aluminium while cooling down. This is not an
Multiphase flow modeling in centrifugal partition chromatography.
Adelmann, S; Schwienheer, C; Schembecker, G
2011-09-09
The separation efficiency in Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC) depends on selection of a suitable biphasic solvent system (distribution ratio, selectivity factor, sample solubility) and is influenced by hydrodynamics in the chambers. Especially the stationary phase retention, the interfacial area for mass transfer and the flow pattern (backmixing) are important parameters. Their relationship with physical properties, operating parameters and chamber geometry is not completely understood and predictions are hardly possible. Experimental flow visualization is expensive and two-dimensional only. Therefore we simulated the flow pattern using a volume-of-fluid (VOF) method, which was implemented in OpenFOAM®. For the three-dimensional simulation of a rotating FCPC®-chamber, gravitational centrifugal and Coriolis forces were added to the conservation equation. For experimental validation the flow pattern of different solvent systems was visualized with an optical measurement system. The amount of mobile phase in a chamber was calculated from gray scale values of videos recorded by an image processing routine in ImageJ®. To visualize the flow of the stationary phase polyethylene particles were used to perform a qualitative particle image velocimetry (PIV) analysis. We found a good agreement between flow patterns and velocity profiles of experiments and simulations. By using the model we found that increasing the chamber depth leads to higher specific interfacial area. Additionally a circular flow in the stationary phase was identified that lowers the interfacial area because it pushes the jet of mobile phase to the chamber wall. The Coriolis force alone gives the impulse for this behavior. As a result the model is easier to handle than experiments and allows 3D prediction of hydrodynamics in the chamber. Additionally it can be used for optimizing geometry and operating parameters for given physical properties of solvent systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B
Multiphase flow modelling of furnace tapholes
Reynolds, Quinn G.; Erwee, Markus W.
2017-01-01
Pyrometallurgical furnaces of many varieties make use of tapholes in order to facilitate the removal of molten process material from inside the vessel. Correct understanding and operation of the taphole is essential for optimal performance of such furnaces. The present work makes use of computational fluid dynamics models generated using the OpenFOAM® framework in order to study flow behaviour in the taphole system. Single-phase large-eddy simulation models are used to quantify the discharge ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Y.S.; Chen, G.; Bodvarsson, G.
1995-12-01
The US Department of Energy is performing detailed site characterization studies at Yucca Mountain to determine its suitability as a geological repository site for high level nuclear wastes. As part of these research efforts, a three-dimensional, site-scale unsaturated-zone model has been developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in collaboration with the US Geological Survey (USGS). The primary objectives of developing the 3-D site-scale model are to predict the ambient hydrogeological conditions and the movement of moisture and gas within the unsaturated zone of the mountain. In addition, the model has the capability of modeling non-isothermal flow and transport phenomena at the mountain. Applications of such a site-scale model should include evaluation of effects of thermal loading on heated gas and heat flow through the mountain for long-term performance assessment of the repository. Emplacement of heat-generating, high-level nuclear wastes at Yucca Mountain would create complex multiphase fluid flow and heat transfer processes. The physical mechanisms include conductive and convective heat transfer, phase change phenomena (vaporization and condensation), flow of liquid and gas phases under variably-saturated condition, diffusion and dispersion of vapor and gas, vapor sorption, and vapor-pressure lowering effects. The heterogeneity of complicated geological setting at Yucca Mountain, such as alternating, layers of porous-fractured rocks, will significantly affect the processes of fluid and heat flow
Documentation for the MODFLOW 6 Groundwater Flow Model
Langevin, Christian D.; Hughes, Joseph D.; Banta, Edward R.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Panday, Sorab; Provost, Alden M.
2017-08-10
This report documents the Groundwater Flow (GWF) Model for a new version of MODFLOW called MODFLOW 6. The GWF Model for MODFLOW 6 is based on a generalized control-volume ﬁnite-difference approach in which a cell can be hydraulically connected to any number of surrounding cells. Users can deﬁne the model grid using one of three discretization packages, including (1) a structured discretization package for deﬁning regular MODFLOW grids consisting of layers, rows, and columns, (2) a discretization by vertices package for deﬁning layered unstructured grids consisting of layers and cells, and (3) a general unstructured discretization package for deﬁning ﬂexible grids comprised of cells and their connection properties. For layered grids, a new capability is available for removing thin cells and vertically connecting cells overlying and underlying the thin cells. For complex problems involving water-table conditions, an optional Newton-Raphson formulation, based on the formulations in MODFLOW-NWT and MODFLOW-USG, can be activated. Use of the Newton-Raphson formulation will often improve model convergence and allow solutions to be obtained for difﬁcult problems that cannot be solved using the traditional wetting and drying approach. The GWF Model is divided into “packages,” as was done in previous MODFLOW versions. A package is the part of the model that deals with a single aspect of simulation. Packages included with the GWF Model include those related to internal calculations of groundwater ﬂow (discretization, initial conditions, hydraulic conductance, and storage), stress packages (constant heads, wells, recharge, rivers, general head boundaries, drains, and evapotranspiration), and advanced stress packages (streamﬂow routing, lakes, multi-aquifer wells, and unsaturated zone ﬂow). An additional package is also available for moving water available in one package into the individual features of the advanced stress packages. The GWF Model
Advective-diffusive transport of D2O in unsaturated media under evaporation condition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Amano, Hikaru; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Iida, Takao
2003-01-01
Advective-diffusive transport of HTO in unsaturated media was investigated empirically using deuterated water (D 2 O) and columns filled with glass beads. The tortuosity factor was evaluated by numerical model calculations corresponding to first experiment for diffusion under no-evaporation condition. Temporal variations in depth profiles of D 2 O concentrations in the columns were observed by second experiment, which considers the transferring and spreading of D 2 O by pore-water flow caused by evaporation. Measurements and model calculations indicated that diffusion was about two times more efficient than dispersion for D 2 O spreading process under this evaporation condition. (author)
Han, Dongmei; Zhou, Tiantian
2018-04-01
Agricultural irrigation with trans-basin water diversion can effectively relieve the water paucity in arid and semi-arid regions, however, this may be accompanied by eco-environmental problems (e.g., saline soils, rising groundwater levels, water quality problems). The mechanism of soil water movement under irrigation in the unsaturated zone of arid regions is a key scientific problem that should be solved in order to evaluate agricultural water management and further improve current irrigation practices. This study investigated the impact of drip irrigation on soil water movement in the unsaturated zone of a cotton field in an inland arid region (the Karamay Agricultural Development Area), northwest China. Combining in situ observational physical data with temporal variation in stable isotopic compositions of soil water, we described the soil water flow system and mechanism in severe (Plot 1) and mild (Plot 2) saline-alkali cotton fields. The infiltration depths are 0-150 cm for both plots. Drip irrigation scheduling makes no significant contribution to local groundwater recharge, however, groundwater can move into the unsaturated zone through capillary rise during cotton flowering and boll periods. Plot 2 is less prone to having secondary soil salinization than Plot 1 due to the existence of a middle layer (approximately 100 cm thick), which elongated the distance between the root zone and aquifer. Rise in the water table (approximately 60 cm for Plot 1 and 50 cm for Plot 2) could be caused by lateral groundwater flow instead of vertical infiltration. We estimated the soil water storage changes in the unsaturated zone and proposed a conceptual model for deciphering the movement process of soil water. This study provides a scientific basis for determining the rise of groundwater levels and potential development of saline soils and improving agricultural water management in arid regions.
Hydrochemical investigations in characterizing the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, I.C.; Rattray, G.W.; Ferarese, J.S.; Yu, P.; Ryan, J.N.
1998-01-01
Hydrochemical and isotopic investigations of ground water at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site of a potential permanent national nuclear-waste repository, demonstrate that younger rocks are dominated by calcium-sulfate or calcium-chloride water and that older rocks contain sodium-carbonate or sodium-bicarbonate water. Furthermore, unsaturated-zone pore water has significantly larger concentrations of major ions and dissolved solids than does the saturated-zone water. Recharge of perched or saturated-zone water, therefore, requires rapid flow through fractures or permeable regions in the unsaturated zone to avoid mixing with the chemically concentrated water in the unsaturated zone. This conceptual model is consistent with observations of rapidly moved post-bomb (post-1954) tritium and chlorine-36 in the deep unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. Presence of post-bomb tritium in matrix water away from fracture zones further indicates that parts of the fast-flow water that moves through fractures have been diverted laterally into nonwelded units. Experimental data show that different lithologic units require specific water-extraction methods for stable-isotope analyses of hydrogen and oxygen to ensure accurate characterization. Vacuum-distillation and compression-extraction methods both can yield accurate data but must be used with specific lithologies. Column experiments demonstrate that percolating water can exchange with pore water of the core as well as water held in zeolite minerals in the core. Exchange rates range from days to months. Pore-water samples from core, therefore, reflect the most recently infiltrated water but do not reflect percolating water of the distant past
Theoretical modelling of nuclear waste flows - 16377
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adams, J.F.; Biggs, S.R.; Fairweather, M.; Njobuenwu, D.; Yao, J.
2009-01-01
A large amount of nuclear waste is stored in tailings ponds as a solid-liquid slurry, and liquid flows containing suspensions of solid particles are encountered in the treatment and disposal of this waste. In processing this waste, it is important to understand the behaviour of particles within the flow in terms of their settling characteristics, their propensity to form solid beds, and the re-suspension characteristics of particles from a bed. A clearer understanding of such behaviour would allow the refinement of current approaches to waste management, potentially leading to reduced uncertainties in radiological impact assessments, smaller waste volumes and lower costs, accelerated clean-up, reduced worker doses, enhanced public confidence and diminished grounds for objection to waste disposal. Mathematical models are of significant value in nuclear waste processing since the extent of characterisation of wastes is in general low. Additionally, waste processing involves a diverse range of flows, within vessels, ponds and pipes. To investigate experimentally all waste form characteristics and potential flows of interest would be prohibitively expensive, whereas the use of mathematical models can help to focus experimental studies through the more efficient use of existing data, the identification of data requirements, and a reduction in the need for process optimisation in full-scale experimental trials. Validated models can also be used to predict waste transport behaviour to enable cost effective process design and continued operation, to provide input to process selection, and to allow the prediction of operational boundaries that account for the different types and compositions of particulate wastes. In this paper two mathematical modelling techniques, namely Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and large eddy simulation (LES), have been used to investigate particle-laden flows in a straight square duct and a duct with a bend. The flow solutions provided by
Traffic flow dynamics data, models and simulation
Treiber, Martin
2013-01-01
This textbook provides a comprehensive and instructive coverage of vehicular traffic flow dynamics and modeling. It makes this fascinating interdisciplinary topic, which to date was only documented in parts by specialized monographs, accessible to a broad readership. Numerous figures and problems with solutions help the reader to quickly understand and practice the presented concepts. This book is targeted at students of physics and traffic engineering and, more generally, also at students and professionals in computer science, mathematics, and interdisciplinary topics. It also offers material for project work in programming and simulation at college and university level. The main part, after presenting different categories of traffic data, is devoted to a mathematical description of the dynamics of traffic flow, covering macroscopic models which describe traffic in terms of density, as well as microscopic many-particle models in which each particle corresponds to a vehicle and its driver. Focus chapters on ...
Stationary spiral flow in polytropic stellar models
Pekeris, C. L.
1980-01-01
It is shown that, in addition to the static Emden solution, a self-gravitating polytropic gas has a dynamic option in which there is stationary flow along spiral trajectories wound around the surfaces of concentric tori. The motion is obtained as a solution of a partial differential equation which is satisfied by the meridional stream function, coupled with Poisson's equation and a Bernoulli-type equation for the pressure (density). The pressure is affected by the whole of the Bernoulli term rather than by the centrifugal part only, which acts for a rotating model, and it may be reduced down to zero at the center. The spiral type of flow is illustrated for an incompressible fluid (n = 0), for which an exact solution is obtained. The features of the dynamic constant-density model are discussed as a basis for future comparison with the solution for compressible models. PMID:16592825
Stochastic analysis of radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawanishi, Moto
1988-01-01
In Japan, LLRW (low level radioactive wastes) generated from nuclear power plants shall be started to store concentrically in the Shimokita site from 1990, and those could be transformed into land disposal if the positive safety is confirmed. Therefore, it is hoped that the safety assessment method shall be successed for the land disposal of LLRW. In this study, a stochastic model to analyze the radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils was constructed. The principal results are summarized as follows. 1) We presented a generalized idea for the modeling of the radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils as an advective-dispersion phenomena followed by the decay of radionuclides and those adsorption/desorption in soils. 2) Based on the radionuclide migration model mentioned above, we developed a stochastic analysis model on radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils. 3) From the comparison between the simulated results and the exact solution on a few simple one-dimensional advective-dispersion problems of radionuclides, the good validity of this model was confirmed. 4) From the comparison between the simulated results by this model and the experimental results of radionuclide migration in a one-dimensional unsaturated soil column with rainfall, the good applicability was shown. 5) As the stochastic model such as this has several advantages that it is easily able to represent the image of physical phenomena and has basically no numerical dissipation, this model should be more applicable to the analysis of the complicated radionuclide migration in saturated-unsaturated soils. (author)
Mathematical model of melt flow channel granulator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. A. Kiselev
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Granulation of carbohydrate-vitamin-mineral supplements based on molasses is performed at a high humidity (26 %, so for a stable operation of granulator it is necessary to reveal its melt flow pattern. To describe melt non-isothermal flow in the granulator a mathematical model with following initial equations: continuity equation, motion equation and rheological equation – was developed. The following assumptions were adopted: the melt flow in the granulator is a steady laminar flow; inertial and gravity forces can be ignored; melt is an incompressible fluid; velocity gradient in the flow direction is much smaller than in the transverse direction; the pressure gradient over the cross section of the channel is constant; the flow is hydrodynamically fully developed; effects impact on the channel inlet and outlet may be neglected. Due to the assumptions adopted, it can be considered that in this granulator only velocity components in the x-direction are significant and all the members of the equation with the components and their derivatives with respect to the coordinates y and z can be neglected. The resulting solutions were obtained: the equation for the mean velocity, the equation for determining the volume flow, the formula for calculating of mean time of the melt being in the granulator, the equation for determining the shear stress, the equation for determining the shear rate and the equation for determining the pressure loss. The results of calculations of the equations obtained are in complete agreement with the experimental data; deviation range is 16–19 %. The findings about the melt movement pattern in granulator allowed developing a methodology for calculating a rational design of the granulator molding unit.
(Bio-)remediation of VCHC contaminants in a Technosol under unsaturated conditions.
Baumgarten, W; Fleige, H; Peth, S; Horn, R
2013-07-01
The remediation of dense non-aqueous phase liquids has always been a concern of both public and scientific interest groups. In this research work a modified physical concept of (bio)remediation of a volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon (VCHC) contamination was elaborated under laboratory conditions and modeled with HYDRUS-2D. In field dechlorination is influenced by both physicochemical and hydraulic properties of the substrate, e.g. texture, pore size distribution, pore liquid characteristics, e.g. viscosity, pH, surface tension, and dependent on the degree of saturation of the vadose zone. Undisturbed soil cores (100 cm³) were sampled from a Spolic Technosol. Considering hydraulic properties and functions, unsaturated percolation was performed with vertically and horizontally structured samples. VCHC concentrations were calculated prior, during, and after each percolation cycle. According to laboratory findings, microemulsion showed the most efficient results with regard to flow behavior in the unsaturated porous media and its accessibility for bacteria as nutrient. The efficiency of VCHC remediation could be increased by the application of a modified pump-and-treat system: the injection of bacteria Dehalococcoides ethanogenes with microemulsion, and extraction at a constant matric potential level of -6 kPa. Achieved data was used for HYDRUS-2D simulations, modeling in situ conditions, demonstrating the practical relevance (field scale) of performed unsaturated percolation (core scale), and in order to exclude capillary barrier effects.
Viscoelastic Flow Modelling for Polymer Flooding
de, Shauvik; Padding, Johan; Peters, Frank; Kuipers, Hans; Multi-scale Modelling of Multi-phase Flows Team
2015-11-01
Polymer liquids are used in the oil industry to improve the volumetric sweep and displacement efficiency of oil from a reservoir. Surprisingly, it is not only the viscosity but also the elasticity of the displacing fluid that determine the displacement efficiency. The main aim of our work is to obtain a fundamental understanding of the effect of fluid elasticity, by developing an advanced computer simulation methodology for the flow of non-Newtonian fluids through porous media. We simulate a 3D unsteady viscoelastic flow through a converging diverging geometry of realistic pore dimension using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).The primitive variables velocity, pressure and extra stresses are used in the formulation of models. The viscoelastic stress part is formulated using a FENE-P type of constitutive equation, which can predict both shear and elongational stress properties during this flow. A Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) approach using Finite volume method (FVM) with staggered grid has been applied. A novel second order Immersed boundary method (IBM) has been incorporated to mimic porous media. The effect of rheological parameters on flow characteristics has also been studied. The simulations provide an insight into 3D flow asymmetry at higher Deborah numbers. Micro-Particle Image Velocimetry experiments are carried out to obtain further insights. These simulations present, for the first time, a detailed computational study of the effects of fluid elasticity on the imbibition of an oil phase.
Thermal history of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whelan, Joseph F.; Neymark, Leonid A.; Moscati, Richard J.; Marshall, Brian D.; Roedder, Edwin
2008-01-01
(24-26 deg. C at a depth of 250 m) by 2-4 Ma. The e