Efficiency of a statistical transport model for turbulent particle dispersion
Litchford, Ron J.; Jeng, San-Mou
1992-01-01
In developing its theory for turbulent dispersion transport, the Litchford and Jeng (1991) statistical transport model for turbulent particle dispersion took a generalized approach in which the perturbing influence of each turbulent eddy on consequent interactions was transported through all subsequent eddies. Nevertheless, examinations of this transport relation shows it to be able to decay rapidly: this implies that additional computational efficiency may be obtained via truncation of unneccessary transport terms. Attention is here given to the criterion for truncation, as well as to expected efficiency gains.
Simulations and Transport Models for Imbalanced Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
Ng, Chung-Sang; Dennis, T.
2016-10-01
We present results from a series of three-dimensional simulations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence based on reduced MHD equations. Alfven waves are launched from both ends of a long tube along the background uniform magnetic field so that turbulence develops due to collision between counter propagating Alfven waves in the interior region. Waves are launched randomly with specified correlation time Tc such that the length of the tube, L, is greater than (but of the same order of) VA *Tc such that turbulence can fill most of the tube. While waves at both ends are launched with equal power, turbulence generated is imbalanced in general, with normalized cross-helicity gets close to -1 at one end and 1 at the other end. This simulation setup allows easier comparison of turbulence properties with one-dimensional turbulence transport models, which have been applied rather successfully in modeling solar wind turbulence. However, direct comparison of such models with full simulations of solar wind turbulence is difficult due to much higher level of complexity involved. We will present our latest simulations at different resolutions with decreasing dissipation (resistivity and viscosity) levels and compare with model outputs from turbulence transport models. This work is supported by a NASA Grant NNX15AU61G.
A new turbulence-based model for sand transport
Mayaud, Jerome; Wiggs, Giles; Bailey, Richard
2016-04-01
Knowledge of the changing rate of sediment flux in space and time is essential for quantifying surface erosion and deposition in desert landscapes. While many aeolian studies have relied on time-averaged parameters such as wind velocity (U) and wind shear velocity (u*) to determine sediment flux, there is increasing evidence that high-frequency turbulence is an important driving force behind the entrainment and transport of sand. However, turbulence has yet to be incorporated into a functional sand transport model that can be used for predictive purposes. In this study we present a new transport model (the 'turbulence model') that accounts for high-frequency variations in the horizontal (u) and vertical (w) components of wind flow. The turbulence model is fitted to wind velocity and sediment transport data from a field experiment undertaken in Namibia's Skeleton Coast National Park, and its performance at three temporal resolutions (10 Hz, 1 Hz, 1 min) is compared to two existing models that rely on time-averaged wind velocity data (Radok, 1977; Dong et al., 2003). The validity of the three models is analysed under a variety of saltation conditions, using a 2-hour (1 Hz measurement resolution) dataset from the Skeleton Coast and a 5-hour (1 min measurement resolution) dataset from the southwestern Kalahari Desert. The turbulence model is shown to outperform the Radok and Dong models when predicting total saltation count over the three experimental periods. For all temporal resolutions presented in this study (10 Hz-10 min), the turbulence model predicted total saltation count to within at least 0.34%, whereas the Radok and Dong models over- or underestimated total count by up to 5.50% and 20.53% respectively. The strong performance of the turbulence model can be attributed to a lag in mass flux response built into its formulation, which can be adapted depending on the temporal resolution of investigation. This accounts for the inherent lag within the physical
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Besnard, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States) CEA Centre d' Etudes de Limeil, 94 - Villeneuve-Saint-Georges (France)); Harlow, F.H.; Rauenzahn, R.M.; Zemach, C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))
1992-06-01
This study gives an updated account of our current ability to describe multimaterial compressible turbulent flows by means of a one-point transport model. Evolution equations are developed for a number of second-order correlations of turbulent data, and approximations of the gradient type are applied to additional correlations to close the system of equations. The principal fields of interest are the one- point Reynolds tensor for variable-density flow, the turbulent energy dissipation rate, and correlations for density-velocity and density- density fluctuations. This single-field description of turbulent flows is compared in some detail to two-field flow equations for nonturbulent, highly dispersed flow with separate variables for each field. This comparison suggests means for improved modeling of some correlations not subjected to evolution equations.
Realtime capable first principle based modelling of tokamak turbulent transport
Citrin, Jonathan; Breton, Sarah; Felici, Federico; Imbeaux, Frederic; Redondo, Juan; Aniel, Thierry; Artaud, Jean-Francois; Baiocchi, Benedetta; Bourdelle, Clarisse; Camenen, Yann; Garcia, Jeronimo
2015-11-01
Transport in the tokamak core is dominated by turbulence driven by plasma microinstabilities. When calculating turbulent fluxes, maintaining both a first-principle-based model and computational tractability is a strong constraint. We present a pathway to circumvent this constraint by emulating quasilinear gyrokinetic transport code output through a nonlinear regression using multilayer perceptron neural networks. This recovers the original code output, while accelerating the computing time by five orders of magnitude, allowing realtime applications. A proof-of-principle is presented based on the QuaLiKiz quasilinear transport model, using a training set of five input dimensions, relevant for ITG turbulence. The model is implemented in the RAPTOR real-time capable tokamak simulator, and simulates a 300s ITER discharge in 10s. Progress in generalizing the emulation to include 12 input dimensions is presented. This opens up new possibilities for interpretation of present-day experiments, scenario preparation and open-loop optimization, realtime controller design, realtime discharge supervision, and closed-loop trajectory optimization.
Towards CFD modeling of turbulent pipeline material transportation
Shahirpour, Amir; Herzog, Nicoleta; Egbers, Cristoph
2013-04-01
Safe and financially efficient pipeline transportation of carbon dioxide is a critical issue in the developing field of the CCS Technology. In this part of the process, carbon dioxide is transported via pipes with diameter of 1.5 m and entry pressure of 150 bar, with Reynolds number of 107 and viscosity of 8×10(-5) Pa.s as dense fluid [1]. Presence of large and small scale structures in the pipeline, high Reynolds numbers at which CO2 should be transferred, and 3 dimensional turbulence caused by local geometrical modifications, increase the importance of simulation of turbulent material transport through the individual components of the CO2 chain process. In this study, incompressible turbulent channel flow and pipe flow have been modeled using OpenFoam, an open source CFD software. In the first step, simulation of a turbulent channel flow has been considered using LES for shear Reynolds number of 395. A simple geometry has been chosen with cyclic fluid inlet and outlet boundary conditions to simulate a fully developed flow. The mesh is gradually refined towards the wall to provide values close enough to the wall for the wall coordinate (y+). Grid resolution study has been conducted for One-Equation model. The accuracy of the results is analyzed with respect to the grid smoothness in order to reach an optimized resolution for carrying out the next simulations. Furthermore, three LES models, One-Equation, Smagorinsky and Dynamic Smagorinsky are applied for the grid resolution of (60 × 100 × 80) in (x, y, z) directions. The results are then validated with reference to the DNS carried out by Moser et al.[2] for the similar geometry using logarithmic velocity profile (U+) and Reynolds stress tensor components. In the second step the similar flow is modeled using Reynolds averaged method. Several RANS models, like K-epsilon and Launder-Reece-Rodi are applied and validated against DNS and LES results in a similar fashion. In the most recent step, it has been intended
Honda, Mitsuru
2005-10-01
In order to predict the performance of ITER plasma, it is important to validate the existing theory-based turbulent transport models by systematicallycomparing them with the experimental observations. Taking experimental data from the ITPA profile database, we have carried out transport simulations with the CDBM, GLF23 and Weiland models by the one-dimensional diffusive transport code TASK/TR. The results are evaluated by the six figures of merit as specified in ITER Physics Basis^1. From the simulation on 55 discharges, it is found that each model has unique dependence on devices and operation modes and the CDBM model gives the most satisfactory results. We have incorporated the dependence on the elongation on the CDBM model^2 and confirmed that the accuracy of the prediction is improved for H-mode discharges. Single-particle-species heat transport simulations have indicated that the CDBM model reproduces Ti profiles more accurately than Te profiles. We will also show the results of the predictive simulations coupling TASK/TR and TASK/EQ, two-dimensional equilibrium code, for high performance plasmas with internal transport barriers like the high βp and reversed shear plasmas. [1] ITER Physics Basis Expert Groups, Nucl. Fusion, 39, 2175 (1999) [2] M. Yagi et al., J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 66, 379 (1997)
Percolation models of turbulent transport and scaling estimates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bakunin, O.G. [FOM Instituut voor Plasmafysica ' Rijnhuizen' , Associate Euroatom-FOM, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands) and Kurchatov Institute, Nuclear Fusion Institute, Kurchatov sq. 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: oleg_bakunin@yahoo.com
2005-03-01
The variety of forms of turbulent transport requires not only special description methods, but also an analysis of general mechanisms. One such mechanism is the percolation transport. The percolation approach is based on fractality and scaling ideas. It is possible to explain the anomalous transport in two-dimensional random flow in terms of the percolation threshold. The percolation approach looks very attractive because it gives simple and, at same time, universal model of the behavior related to the strong correlation effects. In the present paper we concentrate our attention on scaling arguments that play the very important role in estimation of transport effects. We discuss the united approach to obtain the renormalization condition of the small parameter, which is responsible for the analytical description of the system near the percolation threshold. Both monoscale and multiscale models are treated. We consider the steady case, time-dependent perturbations, the influence of drift effects, the percolation transport in a stochastic magnetic field, and compressibility effects.
Parallel Lagrangian models for turbulent transport and chemistry
Crone, Gilia Cornelia
1997-01-01
In this thesis we give an overview of recent stochastic Lagrangian models and present a new particle model for turbulent dispersion and chemical reactions. Our purpose is to investigate and assess the feasibility of the Lagrangian approach for modelling the turbulent dispersion and chemistry
Turbulence in edge and core transport barriers: new experimental results and modeling
Tokuzawa, T.
2017-02-01
In this paper, recent progressive studies on experimental analysis and theoretical models for turbulence phenomena around the transport barriers in high-performance magnetic confined fusion plasma are reviewed. The linkage of radial electric fields and turbulence, the importance of radial electric field curvature, and observations of spatiotemporal turbulence structures are described with related theoretical models.
Turbulent Scalar Transport Model Validation for High Speed Propulsive Flows Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort entails the validation of a RANS turbulent scalar transport model (SFM) for high speed propulsive flows, using new experimental data sets and...
Applications of Turbulence Models for Transport of Dissolved Pollutants and Particles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Ole
a substantial role in the mixing. In the first part of the report the theoretical bask for the partial differential equations which govern turbulent flows and the transport of matter is derived. The background for one- and two-equation turbulence models is reviewed and formulated both in a general way...
Applications of Turbulence Models for Transport of Dissolved Pollutants and Particles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Ole
The present report concerns itself with numerical models of turbulent transport and mixing, with emphasis on the description of the mixing processes which occur in recipients and tanks. Consequently a part of the report is dedicated to a discussion of flows where differences in density play...... a substantial role in the mixing. In the first part of the report the theoretical bask for the partial differential equations which govern turbulent flows and the transport of matter is derived. The background for one- and two-equation turbulence models is reviewed and formulated both in a general way...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jayaraju, S.T., E-mail: jayaraju@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands); Sathiah, P.; Roelofs, F. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands); Dehbi, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)
2015-08-15
Highlights: • Near-wall modeling uncertainties in the RANS particle transport and deposition are addressed in a turbulent duct flow. • Discrete Random Walk (DRW) model and Continuous Random Walk (CRW) model performances are tested. • Several near-wall anisotropic model accuracy is assessed. • Numerous sensitivity studies are performed to recommend a robust, well-validated near-wall model for accurate particle deposition predictions. - Abstract: Dust accumulation in the primary system of a (V)HTR is identified as one of the foremost concerns during a potential accident. Several numerical efforts have focused on the use of RANS methodology to better understand the complex phenomena of fluid–particle interaction at various flow conditions. In the present work, several uncertainties relating to the near-wall modeling of particle transport and deposition are addressed for the RANS approach. The validation analyses are performed in a fully developed turbulent duct flow setup. A standard k − ε turbulence model with enhanced wall treatment is used for modeling the turbulence. For the Lagrangian phase, the performance of a continuous random walk (CRW) model and a discrete random walk (DRW) model for the particle transport and deposition are assessed. For wall bounded flows, it is generally seen that accounting for near wall anisotropy is important to accurately predict particle deposition. The various near-wall correlations available in the literature are either derived from the DNS data or from the experimental data. A thorough investigation into various near-wall correlations and their applicability for accurate particle deposition predictions are assessed. The main outcome of the present work is a well validated turbulence model with optimal near-wall modeling which provides realistic particle deposition predictions.
Transport of cosmic-ray protons in intermittent heliospheric turbulence: Model and simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alouani-Bibi, Fathallah; Le Roux, Jakobus A., E-mail: fb0006@uah.edu [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)
2014-02-01
The transport of charged energetic particles in the presence of strong intermittent heliospheric turbulence is computationally analyzed based on known properties of the interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind plasma at 1 astronomical unit. The turbulence is assumed to be static, composite, and quasi-three-dimensional with a varying energy distribution between a one-dimensional Alfvénic (slab) and a structured two-dimensional component. The spatial fluctuations of the turbulent magnetic field are modeled either as homogeneous with a Gaussian probability distribution function (PDF), or as intermittent on large and small scales with a q-Gaussian PDF. Simulations showed that energetic particle diffusion coefficients both parallel and perpendicular to the background magnetic field are significantly affected by intermittency in the turbulence. This effect is especially strong for parallel transport where for large-scale intermittency results show an extended phase of subdiffusive parallel transport during which cross-field transport diffusion dominates. The effects of intermittency are found to depend on particle rigidity and the fraction of slab energy in the turbulence, yielding a perpendicular to parallel mean free path ratio close to 1 for large-scale intermittency. Investigation of higher order transport moments (kurtosis) indicates that non-Gaussian statistical properties of the intermittent turbulent magnetic field are present in the parallel transport, especially for low rigidity particles at all times.
Transport of cosmic-ray protons in intermittent heliospheric turbulence: model and simulations
Alouani-Bibi, Fathallah
2014-01-01
The transport of charged energetic particles in the presence of strong intermittent heliospheric turbulence is computationally analyzed based on known properties of the interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind plasma at 1 Astronomical Unit (AU). The turbulence is assumed to be static, composite, and quasi-three-dimensional with a varying energy distribution between a one-dimensional Alfv\\'enic (slab) and a structured two-dimensional component. The spatial fluctuations of the turbulent magnetic field are modeled either as homogeneous with a Gaussian probability distribution function (PDF), or as intermittent on large and small scales with a q-Gaussian PDF. Simulations showed that energetic particle diffusion coefficients both parallel and perpendicular to the background magnetic field are significantly affected by intermittency in the turbulence. This effect is especially strong for parallel transport where for large-scale intermittency results show an extended phase of subdiffusive parallel transport duri...
Turbulent transport measurements in a model of GT-combustor
Chikishev, L. M.; Gobyzov, O. A.; Sharaborin, D. K.; Lobasov, A. S.; Dulin, V. M.; Markovich, D. M.; Tsatiashvili, V. V.
2016-10-01
To reduce NOx formation modern industrial power gas-turbines utilizes lean premixed combustion of natural gas. The uniform distribution of local fuel/air ratio in the combustion chamber plays one of the key roles in the field of lean combustion to prevent thermo-acoustic pulsations. Present paper reports on simultaneous Particle Image Velocimetry and acetone Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence measurements in a cold model of GT-combustor to investigate mixing processes which are relevant to the organization of lean premixed combustion. Velocity and passive admixture pulsations correlations were measured to verify gradient closer model, which is often used in Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation of turbulent mixing.
Turbulent transport, emissions and the role of compensating errors in chemical transport models
Makar, P. A.; Nissen, R.; Teakles, A.; Zhang, J.; Zheng, Q.; Moran, M. D.; Yau, H.; diCenzo, C.
2014-05-01
The balance between turbulent transport and emissions is a key issue in understanding the formation of O3 and particulate matter with diameters less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5). Discrepancies between observed and simulated concentrations for these species have, in the past, been ascribed to insufficient turbulent mixing, particularly for atmospherically stable environments. This assumption may be simplistic - turbulent mixing deficiencies may explain only part of these discrepancies, and as turbulence parameterizations are improved, the timing of primary PM2.5 emissions may play a much more significant role in the further reduction of model error. In a study of these issues, two regional air-quality models, the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model (CMAQ, version 4.6) and A Unified Regional Air-quality Modelling System (AURAMS, version 1.4.2), were compared to observations for a domain in north-western North America. The air-quality models made use of the same emissions inventory, emissions processing system, meteorological driving model, and model domain, map projection and horizontal grid, eliminating these factors as potential sources of discrepancies between model predictions. The initial statistical comparison between the models and monitoring network data showed that AURAMS' O3 simulations outperformed those of this version of CMAQ4.6, while CMAQ4.6 outperformed AURAMS for most PM2.5 statistical measures. A process analysis of the models revealed that many of the differences between the models' results could be attributed to the strength of turbulent diffusion, via the choice of an a priori lower limit in the magnitude of vertical diffusion coefficients, with AURAMS using 0.1 m2 s-1 and CMAQ4.6 using 1.0 m2 s-1. The use of the larger CMAQ4.6 value for the lower limit of vertical diffusivity within AURAMS resulted in a similar performance for the two models (with AURAMS also showing improved PM2.5, yet degraded O3, and a similar time series as CMAQ4.6). The
2012-09-30
1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Flocculation , Optics and Turbulence in the Community...www.phys.ocean.dal.ca/~phill LONG-TERM GOALS The goal of this research is to develop greater understanding of how the flocculation of fine-grained sediment...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Flocculation , Optics and Turbulence in the Community Sediment Transport Model System: Application of Oasis
2011-09-30
1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Flocculation , Optics and Turbulence in the Community...www.phys.ocean.dal.ca/~phill LONG-TERM GOALS The goal of this research is to develop greater understanding of how the flocculation of fine-grained...DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Flocculation , Optics and Turbulence in the Community Sediment Transport Model System
Usmanov, Arcadi V.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Matthaeus, William H.
2012-01-01
To study the effects of interstellar pickup protons and turbulence on the structure and dynamics of the solar wind, we have developed a fully three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic solar wind model that treats interstellar pickup protons as a separate fluid and incorporates the transport of turbulence and turbulent heating. The governing system of equations combines the mean-field equations for the solar wind plasma, magnetic field, and pickup protons and the turbulence transport equations for the turbulent energy, normalized cross-helicity, and correlation length. The model equations account for photoionization of interstellar hydrogen atoms and their charge exchange with solar wind protons, energy transfer from pickup protons to solar wind protons, and plasma heating by turbulent dissipation. Separate mass and energy equations are used for the solar wind and pickup protons, though a single momentum equation is employed under the assumption that the pickup protons are comoving with the solar wind protons.We compute the global structure of the solar wind plasma, magnetic field, and turbulence in the region from 0.3 to 100 AU for a source magnetic dipole on the Sun tilted by 0 deg - .90 deg and compare our results with Voyager 2 observations. The results computed with and without pickup protons are superposed to evaluate quantitatively the deceleration and heating effects of pickup protons, the overall compression of the magnetic field in the outer heliosphere caused by deceleration, and the weakening of corotating interaction regions by the thermal pressure of pickup protons.
Fast Propagation in Fluid Transport Models with Evolution of Turbulence Saturation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez-Bruna, D.
2012-07-01
This report compiles and extends two works on models that reproduce the experimental facts of non local transport and pulse propagation in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The works are based on fluid transport models, originally designed to explain the formation of edge or internal transport barriers, that include fast evolution equations for the particle and heat fluxes. The heating of the plasma core in response to a sudden edge cooling or the propagation of turbulent fronts around transport barriers are a consequence of the competing roles of linear drive and non-linear reduction of the turbulent fluxes. Possibilities to use the models to interpret TJ-II plasmas are discussed. (Author) 62 refs.
Real-time capable first principle based modelling of tokamak turbulent transport
Breton, S; Felici, F; Imbeaux, F; Aniel, T; Artaud, J F; Baiocchi, B; Bourdelle, C; Camenen, Y; Garcia, J
2015-01-01
A real-time capable core turbulence tokamak transport model is developed. This model is constructed from the regularized nonlinear regression of quasilinear gyrokinetic transport code output. The regression is performed with a multilayer perceptron neural network. The transport code input for the neural network training set consists of five dimensions, and is limited to adiabatic electrons. The neural network model successfully reproduces transport fluxes predicted by the original quasilinear model, while gaining five orders of magnitude in computation time. The model is implemented in a real-time capable tokamak simulator, and simulates a 300s ITER discharge in 10s. This proof-of-principle for regression based transport models anticipates a significant widening of input space dimensionality and physics realism for future training sets. This aims to provide unprecedented computational speed coupled with first-principle based physics for real-time control and integrated modelling applications.
Kendl, Alexander
2014-01-01
Turbulent transport of trace impurities impurities in the edge and scrape-off-layer of tokamak fusion plasmas is modelled by three dimensional electromagnetic gyrofluid computations including evolution of plasma profile gradients. The source function of impurity ions is dynamically computed from pre-determined measured and calculated electron impact ionization cross section data. The simulations describe the generation and further passive turbulent E-cross-B advection of the impurities by intermittent fluctuations and coherent filamentary structures (blobs) across the scrape-off-layer.
A turbulent transport network model in MULTIFLUX coupled with TOUGH2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Danko, G.; Bahrami, D.; Birkholzer, J.T.
2011-02-15
A new numerical method is described for the fully iterated, conjugate solution of two discrete submodels, involving (a) a transport network model for heat, moisture, and airflows in a high-permeability, air-filled cavity; and (b) a variably saturated fractured porous medium. The transport network submodel is an integrated-parameter, computational fluid dynamics solver, describing the thermal-hydrologic transport processes in the flow channel system of the cavity with laminar or turbulent flow and convective heat and mass transport, using MULTIFLUX. The porous medium submodel, using TOUGH2, is a solver for the heat and mass transport in the fractured rock mass. The new model solution extends the application fields of TOUGH2 by integrating it with turbulent flow and transport in a discrete flow network system. We present demonstrational results for a nuclear waste repository application at Yucca Mountain with the most realistic model assumptions and input parameters including the geometrical layout of the nuclear spent fuel and waste with variable heat load for the individual containers. The MULTIFLUX and TOUGH2 model elements are fully iterated, applying a programmed reprocessing of the Numerical Transport Code Functionalization model-element in an automated Outside Balance Iteration loop. The natural, convective airflow field and the heat and mass transport in a representative emplacement drift during postclosure are explicitly solved in the new model. The results demonstrate that the direction and magnitude of the air circulation patterns and all transport modes are strongly affected by the heat and moisture transport processes in the surrounding rock, justifying the need for a coupled, fully iterated model solution such as the one presented in the paper.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Mogens Peter; Shui, Wan; Johansson, Jens
2011-01-01
In this report a new turbulence model is presented.In contrast to the bulk of modern work, the model is a classical continuum model with a relatively simple constitutive equation. The constitutive equation is, as usual in continuum mechanics, entirely empirical. It has the usual Newton or Stokes...... term with stresses depending linearly on the strain rates. This term takes into account the transfer of linear momentum from one part of the fluid to another. Besides there is another term, which takes into account the transfer of angular momentum. Thus the model implies a new definition of turbulence....... The model is in a virgin state, but a number of numerical tests have been carried out with good results. It is published to encourage other researchers to study the model in order to find its merits and possible limitations....
Cosmic Ray transport in turbulent magnetic field
Yan, Huirong
2013-01-01
Cosmic ray (CR) transport and acceleration is determined by the properties of magnetic turbulence. Recent advances in MHD turbulence call for revisions in the paradigm of cosmic ray transport. We use the models of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that were tested in numerical simulation, in which turbulence is injected at large scale and cascades to to small scales. We shall address the issue of the transport of CRs, both parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. We shall demonstrate compressible fast modes are dominant cosmic ray scatterer from both quasilinear and nonlinear theories. We shall also show that the self-generated wave growth by CRs are constrained by preexisting turbulence and discuss the process in detail in the context of shock acceleration at supernova remnants and their implications. In addition, we shall dwell on the nonlinear growth of kinetic gyroresonance instability of cosmic rays induced by large scale compressible turbulence. This gyroresonance of cosmic rays on turbulence is d...
Memory effects in turbulent transport
Hubbard, Alexander
2008-01-01
In mean-field theory of magnetic fields or passive scalars, for example, turbulent transport is usually assumed to be proportional to the corresponding mean fields and their spatial derivatives. However, this is an approximation that is valid only if the mean fields vary slowly in time. Examples are presented where turbulent transport possesses memory, i.e. it depends crucially on the past history of the mean fields at earlier times. Such effects are captured by replacing turbulent transport coefficients with time integral kernels, resulting in transport coefficients that depend effectively on the frequency or the growth rate of the mean fields themselves. In this paper we perform numerical experiments to find the characteristic timescale of this effect as well as simple analytical models of the integral kernels in the case of passive scalar concentrations and kinetic dynamos. The integral kernels can then be used to find self-consistent growth or decay rates of the mean fields. In mean-field dynamos the grow...
3D mathematical model for suspended load transport by turbulent flows and its applications
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LU; Yongjun; DOU; Guoren; HAN; Longxi; SHAO; Xuejun; YANG
2004-01-01
This paper presents a 3D mathematical model for suspended load transport in turbulent flows. Based on Dou's stochastic theory of turbulent flow, numerical schemes of Reynolds stresses for anisotropic turbulent flows were obtained. A refined wall function was employed to treat solid wall boundaries. The equations for 2D suspended load motion and sorting of bed material have been expanded into 3D cases. Numerical results are validated by the measured data of the Gezhouba Project, and proved to be in good agreement with the experimental. The present method has been employed to simulate sediment erosion and deposition in the dam area of Three Gorges Project, and for the operation of the project, siltation process and deposition pattern in the near-dam area of the reservoir, size distribution of the deposits and bed material, and flow fields and sediment concentration fields at different time and elevations are predicted. The predicted results are close to the experimental observations in physical model studies. Thus, a new method is established for 3D simulation of sediment motion in dam areas of multi-purpose water projects.
Jalal, Sahar; van de Moortele, Tristan; Nemes, Andras; Eslam Panah, Azar; Coletti, Filippo
2015-11-01
The presence and intensity of secondary flows formed by the inhaled air during respiration has important consequences for gas exchange and particle transport in the lungs. Here we focus on the formation and persistence of such secondary flows by experimentally studying the steady inspiration in an idealized airway model. The geometry consists of a symmetric planar double bifurcation that respects the geometrical proportions of the human bronchial tree. Physiologically relevant Reynolds numbers from 100 to 5000 are investigated, ranging from laminar to turbulent regimes. The time-averaged, three-dimensional velocity fields are obtained from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), providing detailed distributions of vorticity, circulation, and secondary flow strength. Information on the velocity fluctuations are obtained by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The measurements highlight the effect of the Reynolds number on the momentum transport, flow partitioning at the bifurcations, strength and sense of rotation of the longitudinal vortices. A marked change in topology is found at a specific Reynolds number, above which the influence of the upstream flow prevails over the effect of the local geometry. Finally, turbulence and its role in the mean vorticity transport are also discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jin, C.; Potts, I.; Reeks, M. W., E-mail: mike.reeks@ncl.ac.uk [School of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, Newcastle University, Stephenson Building, Claremont Road, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)
2015-05-15
We present a simple stochastic quadrant model for calculating the transport and deposition of heavy particles in a fully developed turbulent boundary layer based on the statistics of wall-normal fluid velocity fluctuations obtained from a fully developed channel flow. Individual particles are tracked through the boundary layer via their interactions with a succession of random eddies found in each of the quadrants of the fluid Reynolds shear stress domain in a homogeneous Markov chain process. In this way, we are able to account directly for the influence of ejection and sweeping events as others have done but without resorting to the use of adjustable parameters. Deposition rate predictions for a wide range of heavy particles predicted by the model compare well with benchmark experimental measurements. In addition, deposition rates are compared with those obtained from continuous random walk models and Langevin equation based ejection and sweep models which noticeably give significantly lower deposition rates. Various statistics related to the particle near wall behavior are also presented. Finally, we consider the model limitations in using the model to calculate deposition in more complex flows where the near wall turbulence may be significantly different.
Impact of planetary boundary layer turbulence on model climate and tracer transport
McGrath-Spangler, E. L.; Molod, A.; Ott, L. E.; Pawson, S.
2015-07-01
Planetary boundary layer (PBL) processes are important for weather, climate, and tracer transport and concentration. One measure of the strength of these processes is the PBL depth. However, no single PBL depth definition exists and several studies have found that the estimated depth can vary substantially based on the definition used. In the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) atmospheric general circulation model, the PBL depth is particularly important because it is used to calculate the turbulent length scale that is used in the estimation of turbulent mixing. This study analyzes the impact of using three different PBL depth definitions in this calculation. Two definitions are based on the scalar eddy diffusion coefficient and the third is based on the bulk Richardson number. Over land, the bulk Richardson number definition estimates shallower nocturnal PBLs than the other estimates while over water this definition generally produces deeper PBLs. The near-surface wind velocity, temperature, and specific humidity responses to the change in turbulence are spatially and temporally heterogeneous, resulting in changes to tracer transport and concentrations. Near-surface wind speed increases in the bulk Richardson number experiment cause Saharan dust increases on the order of 1 × 10-4 kg m-2 downwind over the Atlantic Ocean. Carbon monoxide (CO) surface concentrations are modified over Africa during boreal summer, producing differences on the order of 20 ppb, due to the model's treatment of emissions from biomass burning. While differences in carbon dioxide (CO2) are small in the time mean, instantaneous differences are on the order of 10 ppm and these are especially prevalent at high latitude during boreal winter. Understanding the sensitivity of trace gas and aerosol concentration estimates to PBL depth is important for studies seeking to calculate surface fluxes based on near-surface concentrations and for studies projecting future concentrations.
Turbulence modelling; Modelisation de la turbulence isotherme
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laurence, D. [Electricite de France (EDF), Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 92 - Clamart (France)
1997-12-31
This paper is an introduction course in modelling turbulent thermohydraulics, aimed at computational fluid dynamics users. No specific knowledge other than the Navier Stokes equations is required beforehand. Chapter I (which those who are not beginners can skip) provides basic ideas on turbulence physics and is taken up in a textbook prepared by the teaching team of the ENPC (Benque, Viollet). Chapter II describes turbulent viscosity type modelling and the 2k-{epsilon} two equations model. It provides details of the channel flow case and the boundary conditions. Chapter III describes the `standard` (R{sub ij}-{epsilon}) Reynolds tensions transport model and introduces more recent models called `feasible`. A second paper deals with heat transfer and the effects of gravity, and returns to the Reynolds stress transport model. (author). 37 refs.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
R.E. Waltz
2007-01-01
@@ There has been remarkable progress during the past decade in understanding and modeling turbulent transport in tokamaks. With some exceptions the progress is derived from the huge increases in computational power and the ability to simulate tokamak turbulence with ever more fundamental and physically realistic dynamical equations, e.g.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ma Li
2014-04-01
Full Text Available It is of great significance to improve the accuracy of turbulence models in shock-wave/boundary layer interaction flow. The relationship between the pressure gradient, as well as the shear layer, and the development of turbulent kinetic energy in impinging shock-wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction flow at Mach 2.25 is analyzed based on the data of direct numerical simulation (DNS. It is found that the turbulent kinetic energy is amplified by strong shear in the separation zone and the adverse pressure gradient near the separation point. The pressure gradient was non-dimensionalised with local density, velocity, and viscosity. Spalart–Allmaras (S–A model is modified by introducing the non-dimensional pressure gradient into the production term of the eddy viscosity transportation equation. Simulation results show that the production and dissipation of eddy viscosity are strongly enhanced by the modification of S–A model. Compared with DNS and experimental data, the wall pressure and the wall skin friction coefficient as well as the velocity profile of the modified S–A model are obviously improved. Thus it can be concluded that the modification of S–A model with the pressure gradient can improve the predictive accuracy for simulating the shock-wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction.
Pan, C.; Staebler, G. M.; Lao, L. L.; Garofalo, A. M.; Gong, X.; Ren, Q.; McClenaghan, J.; Li, G.; Ding, S.; Qian, J.; Wan, B.; Xu, G. S.; Solomon, W.; Meneghini, O.; Smith, S. P.
2017-03-01
Energy transport analyses of the DIII-D high-{β\\text{P}} EAST-demonstration discharges have been performed using the TGYRO transport package with the TGLF turbulent and NEO neoclassical transport models under the OMFIT integrated modeling framework. Ion energy transport is shown to be dominated by neoclassical transport and ion temperature profiles predicted by TGYRO agree closely with the experimental measured profiles for these high-{β\\text{P}} discharges. Ion energy transport is largely insensitive to reductions in the E× B flow shear stabilization. The Shafranov shift is shown to play a role in the suppression of the ion turbulent energy transport below the neoclassical level. Electron turbulent energy transport is under-predicted by TGLF and a significant shortfall in the electron energy transport over the whole core plasma is found with TGLF predictions for these high-{β\\text{P}} discharges. TGYRO can successfully predict the experimental ion and electron temperature profiles by artificially increasing the saturated turbulence level for ETG driven modes used in TGLF.
Numerical Model of Turbulence, Sediment Transport, and Sediment Cover in a Large Canyon-Bound River
Alvarez, L. V.; Schmeeckle, M. W.
2013-12-01
The Colorado River in Grand Canyon is confined by bedrock and coarse-grained sediments. Finer grain sizes are supply limited, and sandbars primarily occur in lateral separation eddies downstream of coarse-grained tributary debris fans. These sandbars are important resources for native fish, recreational boaters, and as a source of aeolian transport preventing the erosion of archaeological resources by gully extension. Relatively accurate prediction of deposition and, especially, erosion of these sandbar beaches has proven difficult using two- and three-dimensional, time-averaged morphodynamic models. We present a parallelized, three-dimensional, turbulence-resolving model using the Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES) technique. DES is a hybrid large eddy simulation (LES) and Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS). RANS is applied to the near-bed grid cells, where grid resolution is not sufficient to fully resolve wall turbulence. LES is applied further from the bed and banks. We utilize the Spalart-Allmaras one equation turbulence closure with a rough wall extension. The model resolves large-scale turbulence using DES and simultaneously integrates the suspended sediment advection-diffusion equation. The Smith and McLean suspended sediment boundary condition is used to calculate the upward and downward settling of sediment fluxes in the grid cells attached to the bed. The model calculates the entrainment of five grain sizes at every time step using a mixing layer model. Where the mixing layer depth becomes zero, the net entrainment is zero or negative. As such, the model is able to predict the exposure and burial of bedrock and coarse-grained surfaces by fine-grained sediments. A separate program was written to automatically construct the computational domain between the water surface and a triangulated surface of a digital elevation model of the given river reach. Model results compare favorably with ADCP measurements of flow taken on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon
1991-10-01
and complexity of thermochemistry . Accordingly a practical viewpoint is required to meet near-term work required for use in advanced CFD codes...teachers the opportunity to learn/explore/ teach turbulence issues. While such a product could be an invaluable eductaional tool (university), it also
Turbulent transport in hydromagnetic flows
Brandenburg, A; Del Sordo, F; Hubbard, A; Käpylä, P J; Rheinhardt, M
2010-01-01
The predictive power of mean-field theory is emphasized by comparing theory with simulations under controlled conditions. The recently developed test-field method is used to extract turbulent transport coefficients both in kinematic as well as nonlinear and quasi-kinematic cases. A striking example of the quasi-kinematic method is provided by magnetic buoyancy-driven flows that produce an alpha effect and turbulent diffusion.
Modeling the turbulent kinetic energy equation for compressible, homogeneous turbulence
Aupoix, B.; Blaisdell, G. A.; Reynolds, William C.; Zeman, Otto
1990-01-01
The turbulent kinetic energy transport equation, which is the basis of turbulence models, is investigated for homogeneous, compressible turbulence using direct numerical simulations performed at CTR. It is shown that the partition between dilatational and solenoidal modes is very sensitive to initial conditions for isotropic decaying turbulence but not for sheared flows. The importance of the dilatational dissipation and of the pressure-dilatation term is evidenced from simulations and a transport equation is proposed to evaluate the pressure-dilatation term evolution. This transport equation seems to work well for sheared flows but does not account for initial condition sensitivity in isotropic decay. An improved model is proposed.
Momentum transport in gyrokinetic turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buchholz, Rico
2016-07-01
In this thesis, the gyrokinetic-Vlasov code GKW is used to study turbulent transport, with a focus on radial transport of toroidal momentum. To support the studies on turbulent transport an eigenvalue solver has been implemented into GKW. This allows to find, not only the most unstable mode, but also subdominant modes. Furthermore it is possible to follow the modes in parameter scans. Furthermore, two fundamental mechanisms that can generate an intrinsic rotation have been investigated: profile shearing and the velocity nonlinearity. The study of toroidal momentum transport in a tokamak due to profile shearing reveals that the momentum flux can not be accurately described by the gradient in the turbulent intensity. Consequently, a description using the profile variation is used. A linear model has been developed that is able to reproduce the variations in the momentum flux as the profiles of density and temperature vary, reasonably well. It uses, not only the gradient length of density and temperature profile, but also their derivative, i.e. the second derivative of the logarithm of the temperature and the density profile. It is shown that both first as well as second derivatives contribute to the generation of a momentum flux. A difference between the linear and nonlinear simulations has been found with respect to the behaviour of the momentum flux. In linear simulations the momentum flux is independent of the normalized Larmor radius ρ{sub *}, whereas it is linear in ρ{sub *} for nonlinear simulations, provided ρ{sub *} is small enough (≤4.10{sup -3}). Nonlinear simulations reveal that the profile shearing can generate an intrinsic rotation comparable to that of current experiments. Under reactor conditions, however, the intrinsic rotation from the profile shearing is expected to be small due to the small normalized Larmor radius ρ{sub *}
Turbulent heat transport and its anisotropy in an impinging jet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petera Karel
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The turbulent heat transport is anisotropic in many cases as reported by several researchers. RANS-based turbulence models use the turbulent viscosity when expressing the turbulent heat flux in the energy balance (analogy of the Reynolds stresses in the momentum balance. The turbulent (eddy viscosity calculation comes from the Boussinesq analogy mainly and it represents just a scalar value, hence a possible anisotropy in the turbulent flow field cannot be simply transferred to the temperature field. The computational cost of a LES-based approach can be too prohibitive in complex cases, therefore simpler explicit algebraic heat flux models describing the turbulent heat flux in the time-averaged energy equation could be used to get more accurate CFD results. This paper compares several turbulence models for the case of a turbulent impinging jet and deals with a methodology of implementing a user-defined function describing the anisotropic turbulent heat flux in a CFD code.
Turbulent transport in magnetized plasmas
Horton, Wendell
2012-01-01
This book explains how magnetized plasmas self-organize in states of electromagnetic turbulence that transports particles and energy out of the core plasma faster than anticipated by the fusion scientists designing magnetic confinement systems in the 20th century. It describes theory, experiments and simulations in a unified and up-to-date presentation of the issues of achieving nuclear fusion power.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaan Hui Pu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The Three Gorges Dam (TGD constructed at the Yangtze River, China represents a revolutionary project to battle against the mage-scale flooding problems while improving the local economy at the same time. However, the large-scale fine-size sediment and pollutant material transport caused by the TGD operation are found to be inevitable and long-lasting. In this paper, a multi-fluid Incompressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (ISPH model is used to simulate the multi-fluid flows similar to the fine sediment materials transport (in muddy flows and water flow mixing process. The SPH method is a mesh-free particle modeling approach that can treat the free surfaces and multi-interfaces in a straightforward manner. The proposed model is based on the universal multi-fluid flow equations and a unified pressure equation is used to account for the interaction arising from the different fluid components. A Sub-Particle-Scale (SPS turbulence model is included to address the turbulence effect generated during the flow process. The proposed model is used to investigate two cases of multi-fluid flows generated from the polluted flow intrusions into another fluid. The computations are found in good agreement with the practical situations. Sensitivity studies have also been carried out to evaluate the particle spatial resolution and turbulence modeling on the flow simulations. The proposed ISPH model could provide a promising tool to study the practical multi-fluid flows in the TGD operation environment.
Yu, Hesheng; Thé, Jesse
2017-05-01
The dispersion of gaseous pollutant around buildings is complex due to complex turbulence features such as flow detachment and zones of high shear. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are one of the most promising tools to describe the pollutant distribution in the near field of buildings. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models are the most commonly used CFD techniques to address turbulence transport of the pollutant. This research work studies the use of [Formula: see text] closure model for the gas dispersion around a building by fully resolving the viscous sublayer for the first time. The performance of standard [Formula: see text] model is also included for comparison, along with results of an extensively validated Gaussian dispersion model, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) AERMOD (American Meteorological Society/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model). This study's CFD models apply the standard [Formula: see text] and the [Formula: see text] turbulence models to obtain wind flow field. A passive concentration transport equation is then calculated based on the resolved flow field to simulate the distribution of pollutant concentrations. The resultant simulation of both wind flow and concentration fields are validated rigorously by extensive data using multiple validation metrics. The wind flow field can be acceptably modeled by the [Formula: see text] model. However, the [Formula: see text] model fails to simulate the gas dispersion. The [Formula: see text] model outperforms [Formula: see text] in both flow and dispersion simulations, with higher hit rates for dimensionless velocity components and higher "factor of 2" of observations (FAC2) for normalized concentration. All these validation metrics of [Formula: see text] model pass the quality assurance criteria recommended by The Association of German Engineers (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure, VDI) guideline. Furthermore, these metrics are better than or the same as those
Cartier-Michaud, T.; Ghendrih, P.; Sarazin, Y.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Drouot, T.; Estève, D.; Garbet, X.; Grandgirard, V.; Latu, G.; Norscini, C.; Passeron, C.
2014-11-01
A minimum model of plasma turbulence in a kinetic framework is presented. It is based on trapped ion turbulence, gyro and bounce averaged, and implemented in the versatile and efficient code TERESA. Zonal flow - streamer interplay are readily shown to be key players that govern the confinement properties of the model. The parameter space of the model is explored with brute force numerics. A generic result is either a streamer dominated pattern with large transport, or a staircase temperature profile with very marked corrugations and quenched transport. A case with off-axis heating is found to exhibit quasiperiodic relaxation events relevant to investigate dynamical turbulence self-organisation.
Amano, R. S.
1982-01-01
Progress in implementing and refining two near-wall turbulence models in which the near-wall region is divided into either two or three zones is outlined. These models were successfully applied to the computation of recirculating flows. The research was further extended to obtaining experimental results of two different recirculating flow conditions in order to check the validity of the present models. Two different experimental apparatuses were set up: axisymmetric turbulent impinging jets on a flat plate, and turbulent flows in a circular pipe with a abrupt pipe expansion. It is shown that generally better results are obtained by using the present near-wall models, and among the models the three-zone model is superior to the two-zone model.
Turbulent transport in the atmospheric surface layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tagesson, Torbern [Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)
2012-04-15
In the modelling of transport and accumulation of the radioactive isotope carbon-14 (C-14) in the case of a potential release from a future repository of radioactive waste, it is important to describe the transport of the isotope in the atmosphere. This report aims to describe the turbulent transport within the lower part of the atmosphere; the inertial surface layer and the roughness sublayer. Transport in the inertial surface layer is dependent on several factors, whereof some can be neglected under certain circumstances. Under steady state conditions, fully developed turbulent conditions, in flat and horizontal homogeneous areas, it is possible to apply an eddy diffusivity approach for estimating vertical transport of C. The eddy diffusivity model assumes that there is proportionality between the vertical gradient and the transport of C. The eddy diffusivity is depending on the atmospheric turbulence, which is affected by the interaction between mean wind and friction of the ground surface and of the sensible heat flux in the atmosphere. In this report, it is described how eddy diffusivity of the inertial surface layer can be estimated from 3-d wind measurements and measurements of sensible heat fluxes. It is also described how to estimate the eddy diffusivity in the inertial surface layer from profile measurements of temperature and wind speed. Close to the canopy, wind and C profiles are influenced by effects of the surface roughness; this section of the atmosphere is called the roughness sublayer. Its height is up to {approx}3 times the height of the plant canopy. When the mean wind interacts with the canopy, turbulence is not only produced by shear stress and buoyancy, it is additionally created by wakes, which are formed behind the plants. Turbulence is higher than it would be over a flat surface, and the turbulent transport is hereby more efficient. Above the plant canopy, but still within the roughness sublayer, a function that compensates for the effect
Turbulent transport in the atmospheric surface layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tagesson, Torbern [Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)
2012-04-15
In the modelling of transport and accumulation of the radioactive isotope carbon-14 (C-14) in the case of a potential release from a future repository of radioactive waste, it is important to describe the transport of the isotope in the atmosphere. This report aims to describe the turbulent transport within the lower part of the atmosphere; the inertial surface layer and the roughness sublayer. Transport in the inertial surface layer is dependent on several factors, whereof some can be neglected under certain circumstances. Under steady state conditions, fully developed turbulent conditions, in flat and horizontal homogeneous areas, it is possible to apply an eddy diffusivity approach for estimating vertical transport of C. The eddy diffusivity model assumes that there is proportionality between the vertical gradient and the transport of C. The eddy diffusivity is depending on the atmospheric turbulence, which is affected by the interaction between mean wind and friction of the ground surface and of the sensible heat flux in the atmosphere. In this report, it is described how eddy diffusivity of the inertial surface layer can be estimated from 3-d wind measurements and measurements of sensible heat fluxes. It is also described how to estimate the eddy diffusivity in the inertial surface layer from profile measurements of temperature and wind speed. Close to the canopy, wind and C profiles are influenced by effects of the surface roughness; this section of the atmosphere is called the roughness sublayer. Its height is up to {approx}3 times the height of the plant canopy. When the mean wind interacts with the canopy, turbulence is not only produced by shear stress and buoyancy, it is additionally created by wakes, which are formed behind the plants. Turbulence is higher than it would be over a flat surface, and the turbulent transport is hereby more efficient. Above the plant canopy, but still within the roughness sublayer, a function that compensates for the effect
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陆耀军; 周力行; 沈熊
2000-01-01
The Reynolds stress transport equation model (DSM) is used to predict the strongly swirling turbulent flows in a liquid-liquid hydrocyclone, and the predictions are compared with LDV measurements . Predictions properly give the flow behavior observed in experiments, such as the Rankine-vortex structure and double peaks near the inlet region in tangential velocity profile, the downward flow near the wall and upward flow near the core in axial velocity profiles. In the inlet or upstream region of the hydrocyclone, the reverse flow near the axis is well predicted, but in the region with smaller cone angle and cylindrical section, there are some discrepancies between the model predictions and the LDV measurements. Predictions show that the pressure is small in the near-axis region and increases to the maximum near the wall. Both predictions and measurements indicate that the turbulence in hydrocy-clones is inhomogeneous and anisotropic.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
The Reynolds stress transport equation model (DSM) is used to predict the strongly swirling turbulent flows in a liquid-liquid hydrocyclone, and the predictions are compared with LDV measurements. Predictions properly give the flow behavior observed in experiments, such as the Rankine-vortex structure and double peaks near the inlet region in tangential velocity profile, the downward flow near the wall and upward flow near the core in axial velocity profiles. In the inlet or upstream region of the hydrocyclone, the reverse flow near the axis is well predicted, but in the region with smaller cone angle and cylindrical section, there are some discrepancies between the model predictions and the LDV measurements. Predictions show that the pressure is small in the near-axis region and increases to the maximum near the wall. Both predictions and measurements indicate that the turbulence in hydrocyclones is inhomogeneous and anisotropic.
A mixed SOC-turbulence model for nonlocal transport and Lévy-fractional Fokker–Planck equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Milovanov, Alexander V. [ENEA National Laboratory, Centro Ricerche Frascati, I-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Department of Space Plasma Physics, Space Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Juul Rasmussen, Jens [Physics Department, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)
2014-04-01
The phenomena of nonlocal transport in magnetically confined plasma are theoretically analyzed. A hybrid model is proposed, which brings together the notion of inverse energy cascade, typical of drift-wave- and two-dimensional fluid turbulence, and the ideas of avalanching behavior, associable with self-organized critical (SOC) behavior. Using statistical arguments, it is shown that an amplification mechanism is needed to introduce nonlocality into dynamics. We obtain a consistent derivation of nonlocal Fokker–Planck equation with space-fractional derivatives from a stochastic Markov process with the transition probabilities defined in reciprocal space. The hybrid model observes the Sparre Andersen universality and defines a new universality class of SOC.
Oscillating grids turbulence generator for turbulent transport studies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Eidelman
2002-01-01
Full Text Available An oscillating grids turbulence generator was constructed for studies of two new effects associated with turbulent transport of particles, turbulent thermal diffusion and clustering instability. These effects result in formation of large-scale and small-scale inhomogeneities in the spatial distribution of particles. The advantage of this experimental set-up is the feasibility to study turbulent transport in mixtures with controllable composition and unlimited observation time. For flow measurements we used Particle Image Velocimetry with the adaptive multi-pass algorithm to determine a turbulent velocity field and its statistical characteristics. Instantaneous velocity vector maps, flow streamlines and probability density function of velocity field demonstrate properties of turbulence generated in the device.
Turbulent Transport in a Three-dimensional Solar Wind
Shiota, D.; Zank, G. P.; Adhikari, L.; Hunana, P.; Telloni, D.; Bruno, R.
2017-03-01
Turbulence in the solar wind can play essential roles in the heating of coronal and solar wind plasma and the acceleration of the solar wind and energetic particles. Turbulence sources are not well understood and thought to be partly enhanced by interaction with the large-scale inhomogeneity of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field and/or transported from the solar corona. To investigate the interaction with background inhomogeneity and the turbulence sources, we have developed a new 3D MHD model that includes the transport and dissipation of turbulence using the theoretical model of Zank et al. We solve for the temporal and spatial evolution of three moments or variables, the energy in the forward and backward fluctuating modes and the residual energy and their three corresponding correlation lengths. The transport model is coupled to our 3D model of the inhomogeneous solar wind. We present results of the coupled solar wind-turbulence model assuming a simple tilted dipole magnetic configuration that mimics solar minimum conditions, together with several comparative intermediate cases. By considering eight possible solar wind and turbulence source configurations, we show that the large-scale solar wind and IMF inhomogeneity and the strength of the turbulence sources significantly affect the distribution of turbulence in the heliosphere within 6 au. We compare the predicted turbulence distribution results from a complete solar minimum model with in situ measurements made by the Helios and Ulysses spacecraft, finding that the synthetic profiles of the turbulence intensities show reasonable agreement with observations.
A mixed SOC-turbulence model for nonlocal transport and space-fractional Fokker-Planck equation
Milovanov, Alexander V
2013-01-01
The phenomena of nonlocal transport in magnetically confined plasma are theoretically analyzed. A hybrid model is proposed, which brings together the notion of inverse energy cascade, typical of drift-wave- and two-dimensional fluid turbulence, and the ideas of avalanching behavior, associable with self-organized critical (SOC) behavior. Using statistical arguments, it is shown that an amplification mechanism is needed to introduce nonlocality into dynamics. We obtain a consistent derivation of nonlocal Fokker-Planck equation with space-fractional derivatives from a stochastic Markovian process with the transition probabilities defined in reciprocal space.
Validation metrics for turbulent plasma transport
Holland, C.
2016-06-01
Developing accurate models of plasma dynamics is essential for confident predictive modeling of current and future fusion devices. In modern computer science and engineering, formal verification and validation processes are used to assess model accuracy and establish confidence in the predictive capabilities of a given model. This paper provides an overview of the key guiding principles and best practices for the development of validation metrics, illustrated using examples from investigations of turbulent transport in magnetically confined plasmas. Particular emphasis is given to the importance of uncertainty quantification and its inclusion within the metrics, and the need for utilizing synthetic diagnostics to enable quantitatively meaningful comparisons between simulation and experiment. As a starting point, the structure of commonly used global transport model metrics and their limitations is reviewed. An alternate approach is then presented, which focuses upon comparisons of predicted local fluxes, fluctuations, and equilibrium gradients against observation. The utility of metrics based upon these comparisons is demonstrated by applying them to gyrokinetic predictions of turbulent transport in a variety of discharges performed on the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)], as part of a multi-year transport model validation activity.
Validation metrics for turbulent plasma transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holland, C., E-mail: chholland@ucsd.edu [Center for Energy Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)
2016-06-15
Developing accurate models of plasma dynamics is essential for confident predictive modeling of current and future fusion devices. In modern computer science and engineering, formal verification and validation processes are used to assess model accuracy and establish confidence in the predictive capabilities of a given model. This paper provides an overview of the key guiding principles and best practices for the development of validation metrics, illustrated using examples from investigations of turbulent transport in magnetically confined plasmas. Particular emphasis is given to the importance of uncertainty quantification and its inclusion within the metrics, and the need for utilizing synthetic diagnostics to enable quantitatively meaningful comparisons between simulation and experiment. As a starting point, the structure of commonly used global transport model metrics and their limitations is reviewed. An alternate approach is then presented, which focuses upon comparisons of predicted local fluxes, fluctuations, and equilibrium gradients against observation. The utility of metrics based upon these comparisons is demonstrated by applying them to gyrokinetic predictions of turbulent transport in a variety of discharges performed on the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)], as part of a multi-year transport model validation activity.
Turbulent transport measurements in a cold model of GT-burner at realistic flow rates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gobyzov Oleg
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In the present work simultaneous velocity field and passive admixture concentration field measurements at realistic flow-rates conditions in a non-reacting flow in a model of combustion chamber with an industrial mixing device are reported. In the experiments for safety reasons the real fuel (natural gas was replaced with neon gas to simulate stratification in a strongly swirling flow. Measurements were performed by means of planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF and particle image velocimetry technique (PIV at Reynolds number, based on the mean flow rate and nozzle diameter, ≈300 000. Details on experimental technique, features of the experimental setup, images and data preprocessing procedures and results of performed measurements are given in the paper. In addition to the raw velocity and admixture concentration data in-depth evaluation approaches aimed for estimation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE components, assessment of turbulent Schmidt number and analysis of the gradient closure hypothesis from experimental data are presented in the paper.
A minimum dissipation scalar transport model for large-eddy simulation of turbulent flows
Abkar, Mahdi; Bae, Hyun J.; Moin, Parviz
2016-11-01
Minimum-dissipation models are a simple alternative to the Smagorinsky-type approaches to parameterize the sub-filter scale turbulent fluxes in large-eddy simulation. A recently derived minimum-dissipation model for sub-filter stress tensor is the AMD model and has many desirable properties. It is more cost effective than the dynamic Smagorinsky model, it appropriately switches off in laminar and transitional flows, and it is consistent with the theoretic sub-filter stress tensor on both isotropic and anisotropic grids. In this study, an extension of this approach to modeling the sub-filter scalar flux is proposed. The performance of the AMD model is tested in the simulation of a high Reynolds number, rough wall, boundary layer flow with a constant and uniform surface scalar flux. The simulation results obtained from the AMD model show good agreement with well-established empirical correlations and theoretical predictions of the resolved flow statistics. In particular, the AMD model is capable to accurately predict the expected surface-layer similarity profiles and power spectra for both velocity and scalar concentration.
Compressible turbulence transport equations for generalized second order closure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cloutman, L D
1999-05-01
Progress on the theory of second order closure in turbulence models of various types requires knowledge of the transport equations for various turbulence correlations. This report documents a procedure that provides such equations for a wide variety of turbulence averages for compressible flows of a multicomponent fluid. Generalizing some work by Germano for incompressible flows, we introduce an appropriate extension of his generalized second order correlations and use a generalized mass-weighted averaging procedure to derive transport equations for the correlations. The averaging procedure includes all of the commonly used averages as special cases. The resulting equations provide an internally consistent starting point for future work in developing single-point statistical turbulence transport models for fluid flows. The form invariance of the in-compressible equations also holds for the compressible case, and we discuss some of the closure issues and frequently ignored complications of statistical turbulence models of compressible flows.
Transport Bifurcation in Plasma Interchange Turbulence
Li, Bo
2016-10-01
Transport bifurcation and mean shear flow generation in plasma interchange turbulence are explored with self-consistent two-fluid simulations in a flux-driven system with both closed and open field line regions. The nonlinear evolution of interchange modes shows the presence of two confinement regimes characterized by the low and high mean flow shear. By increasing the input heat flux above a certain threshold, large-amplitude oscillations in the turbulent and mean flow energy are induced. Both clockwise and counter-clockwise types of oscillations are found before the transition to the second regime. The fluctuation energy is decisively transferred to the mean flows by large-amplitude Reynolds power as turbulent intensity increases. Consequently, a transition to the second regime occurs, in which strong mean shear flows are generated in the plasma edge. The peak of the spectrum shifts to higher wavenumbers as the large-scale turbulent eddies are suppressed by the mean shear flow. The transition back to the first regime is then triggered by decreasing the input heat flux to a level much lower than the threshold for the forward transition, showing strong hysteresis. During the back transition, the mean flow decreases as the energy transfer process is reversed. This transport bifurcation, based on a field-line-averaged 2D model, has also been reproduced in our recent 3D simulations of resistive interchange turbulence, in which the ion and electron temperatures are separated and the parallel current is involved. Supported by the MOST of China Grant No. 2013GB112006, US DOE Contract No. DE-FC02-08ER54966, US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA2734.
Experimental validation of a filament transport model in turbulent magnetized plasmas
Carralero, D; Aho-Mantila, L; Birkenmeier, G; Brix, M; Groth, M; Müller, H W; Stroth, U; Vianello, N; Wolfrum, E; Contributors, JET
2015-01-01
In a wide variety of natural and laboratory magnetized plasmas, filaments appear as a result of interchange instability. These convective structures substantially enhance transport in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. According to filament models, their propagation may follow different regimes depending on the parallel closure of charge conservation. This is of paramount importance in magnetic fusion plasmas, as high collisionality in the scrape-off layer may trigger a regime transition leading to strongly enhanced perpendicular particle fluxes. This work reports for the first time on an experimental verification of this process, linking enhanced transport with a regime transition as predicted by models. Based on these results, a novel scaling for global perpendicular particle transport in reactor relevant tokamaks such as ASDEX-Upgrade and JET is found, leading to important implications for next generation fusion devices.
Stochastic modelling of turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Emil Hedevang Lohse
This thesis addresses stochastic modelling of turbulence with applications to wind energy in mind. The primary tool is ambit processes, a recently developed class of computationally tractable stochastic processes based on integration with respect to Lévy bases. The subject of ambit processes...... stochastic turbulence model based on ambit processes is proposed. It is shown how a prescribed isotropic covariance structure can be reproduced. Non-Gaussian turbulence models are obtained through non-Gaussian Lévy bases or through volatility modulation of Lévy bases. As opposed to spectral models operating...... is dissipated into heat due to the internal friction caused by viscosity. An existing stochastic model, also expressed in terms of ambit processes, is extended and shown to give a universal and parsimonious description of the turbulent energy dissipation. The volatility modulation, referred to above, has...
Intense sediment transport: Collisional to turbulent suspension
Berzi, Diego; Fraccarollo, Luigi
2016-02-01
A recent simple analytical approach to the problem of steady, uniform transport of sediment by a turbulent shearing fluid dominated by interparticle collisions is extended to the case in which the mean turbulent lift may partially or totally support the weight of the sediment. We treat the granular-fluid mixture as a continuum and make use of constitutive relations of kinetic theory of granular gases to model the particle phase and a simple mixing-length approach for the fluid. We focus on pressure-driven flows over horizontal, erodible beds and divide the flow itself into layers, each dominated by different physical mechanisms. This permits a crude analytical integration of the governing equations and to obtain analytical expressions for the distribution of particle concentration and velocity. The predictions of the theory are compared with existing laboratory measurements on the flow of glass spheres and sand particles in water. We also show how to build a regime map to distinguish between collisional, turbulent-collisional, and fully turbulent suspensions.
Cosmic ray transport in MHD turbulence
Yan, Huirong
2007-01-01
Numerical simulations shed light onto earlier not trackable problem of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. They allowed to test the predictions of different models and choose the correct ones. Inevitably, this progress calls for revisions in the picture of cosmic ray (CR) transport. It also shed light on the problems with the present day numerical modeling of CR. In this paper we focus on the analytical way of describing CR propagation and scattering, which should be used in synergy with the numerical studies. In particular, we use recently established scaling laws for MHD modes to obtain the transport properties for CRs. We include nonlinear effects arising from large scale trapping, to remove the 90 degree divergence. We determine how the efficiency of the scattering and CR mean free path depend on the characteristics of ionized media, e.g. plasma $\\beta$, Coulomb collisional mean free path. Implications for particle transport in interstellar medium and solar corona are discussed. We also examine the perp...
A mixed SOC-turbulence model for nonlocal transport and Lévy-fractional Fokker–Planck equation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Milovanov, Alexander V.
2014-01-01
The phenomena of nonlocal transport in magnetically confined plasma are theoretically analyzed. A hybrid model is proposed, which brings together the notion of inverse energy cascade, typical of drift-wave- and two-dimensional fluid turbulence, and the ideas of avalanching behavior, associable...... with self-organized critical (SOC) behavior. Using statistical arguments, it is shown that an amplification mechanism is needed to introduce nonlocality into dynamics. We obtain a consistent derivation of nonlocal Fokker-Planck equation with space-fractional derivatives from a stochastic Markov process...... with the transition probabilities defined in reciprocal space. The hybrid model observes the Sparre Andersen universality and defines a new universality class of SOC. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....
Transport and coherent structures in wall turbulence
Tardu, Sedat
2014-01-01
Wall bounded turbulent flows are of major importance in industrial and environmental fluid mechanics. The structure of the wall turbulence is intrinsically related to the coherent structures that play a fundamental role in the transport process. The comprehension of their regeneration mechanism is indispensable for the development of efficient strategies in terms of drag control and near wall turbulence management. This book provides an up-to-date overview on the progress made in this specific area in recent years.
Modeling of turbulent chemical reaction
Chen, J.-Y.
1995-01-01
Viewgraphs are presented on modeling turbulent reacting flows, regimes of turbulent combustion, regimes of premixed and regimes of non-premixed turbulent combustion, chemical closure models, flamelet model, conditional moment closure (CMC), NO(x) emissions from turbulent H2 jet flames, probability density function (PDF), departures from chemical equilibrium, mixing models for PDF methods, comparison of predicted and measured H2O mass fractions in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames, experimental evidence of preferential diffusion in turbulent jet flames, and computation of turbulent reacting flows.
Recent developments in plasma turbulence and turbulent transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Terry, P.W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
1997-09-22
This report contains viewgraphs of recent developments in plasma turbulence and turbulent transport. Localized nonlinear structures occur under a variety of circumstances in turbulent, magnetically confined plasmas, arising in both kinetic and fluid descriptions, i.e., in either wave-particle or three-wave coupling interactions. These structures are non wavelike. They cannot be incorporated in the collective wave response, but interact with collective modes through their shielding by the plasma dielectric. These structures are predicted to modify turbulence-driven transport in a way that in consistent with, or in some cases are confirmed by recent experimental observations. In kinetic theory, non wavelike structures are localized perturbations of phase space density. There are two types of structures. Holes are self-trapped, while clumps have a self-potential that is too weak to resist deformation and mixing by ambient potential fluctuations. Clumps remain correlated in turbulence if their spatial extent is smaller than the correlation length of the scattering fields. In magnetic turbulence, clumps travel along stochastic magnetic fields, shielded by the plasma dielectric. A drag on the clump macro-particle is exerted by the shielding, inducing emission into the collective response. The emission in turn damps back on the particle distribution via Landau dampling. The exchange of energy between clumps and particles, as mediated by the collective mode, imposes constraints on transport. For a turbulent spectrum whose mean wavenumber along the equilibrium magnetic field is nonzero, the electron thermal flux is proportional to the ion thermal velocity. Conventional predictions (which account only for collective modes) are larger by the square root of the ion to electron mass ratio. Recent measurements are consistent with the small flux. In fluid plasma,s localized coherent structures can occur as intense vortices.
Impact of large scale flows on turbulent transport
Sarazin, Y.; Grandgirard, V.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Fleurence, E.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, Ph; Bertrand, P.; Besse, N.; Crouseilles, N.; Sonnendrücker, E.; Latu, G.; Violard, E.
2006-12-01
The impact of large scale flows on turbulent transport in magnetized plasmas is explored by means of various kinetic models. Zonal flows are found to lead to a non-linear upshift of turbulent transport in a 3D kinetic model for interchange turbulence. Such a transition is absent from fluid simulations, performed with the same numerical tool, which also predict a much larger transport. The discrepancy cannot be explained by zonal flows only, despite they being overdamped in fluids. Indeed, some difference remains, although reduced, when they are artificially suppressed. Zonal flows are also reported to trigger transport barriers in a 4D drift-kinetic model for slab ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence. The density gradient acts as a source drive for zonal flows, while their curvature back stabilizes the turbulence. Finally, 5D simulations of toroidal ITG modes with the global and full-f GYSELA code require the equilibrium density function to depend on the motion invariants only. If not, the generated strong mean flows can completely quench turbulent transport.
Impact of large scale flows on turbulent transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sarazin, Y [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC centre de Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Grandgirard, V [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC centre de Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Dif-Pradalier, G [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC centre de Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Fleurence, E [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC centre de Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Garbet, X [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC centre de Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Ghendrih, Ph [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC centre de Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Bertrand, P [LPMIA-Universite Henri Poincare Nancy I, Boulevard des Aiguillettes BP239, 54506 Vandoe uvre-les-Nancy (France); Besse, N [LPMIA-Universite Henri Poincare Nancy I, Boulevard des Aiguillettes BP239, 54506 Vandoe uvre-les-Nancy (France); Crouseilles, N [IRMA, UMR 7501 CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur, 7 rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Sonnendruecker, E [IRMA, UMR 7501 CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur, 7 rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Latu, G [LSIIT, UMR 7005 CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur, Bd Sebastien Brant BP10413, 67412 Illkirch (France); Violard, E [LSIIT, UMR 7005 CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur, Bd Sebastien Brant BP10413, 67412 Illkirch (France)
2006-12-15
The impact of large scale flows on turbulent transport in magnetized plasmas is explored by means of various kinetic models. Zonal flows are found to lead to a non-linear upshift of turbulent transport in a 3D kinetic model for interchange turbulence. Such a transition is absent from fluid simulations, performed with the same numerical tool, which also predict a much larger transport. The discrepancy cannot be explained by zonal flows only, despite they being overdamped in fluids. Indeed, some difference remains, although reduced, when they are artificially suppressed. Zonal flows are also reported to trigger transport barriers in a 4D drift-kinetic model for slab ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence. The density gradient acts as a source drive for zonal flows, while their curvature back stabilizes the turbulence. Finally, 5D simulations of toroidal ITG modes with the global and full-f GYSELA code require the equilibrium density function to depend on the motion invariants only. If not, the generated strong mean flows can completely quench turbulent transport.
Statistical properties of transport in plasma turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Naulin, V.; Garcia, O.E.; Nielsen, A.H.;
2004-01-01
The statistical properties of the particle flux in different types of plasma turbulence models are numerically investigated using probability distribution functions (PDFs). The physics included in the models range from two-dimensional drift wave turbulence to three-dimensional MHD dynamics...
Lyra, W; Klahr, H; Piskunov, N
2007-01-01
We present global 3D MHD simulations of disks of gas and solids, aiming at developing models that can be used to study various scenarios of planet formation and planet-disk interaction in turbulent accretion disks. A second goal is to show that Cartesian codes are comparable to cylindrical and spherical ones in handling the magnetohydrodynamics of the disk simulations, as the disk-in-a-box models presented here develop and sustain MHD turbulence. We investigate the dependence of the magnetorotational instability on disk scale height, finding evidence that the turbulence generated by the magnetorotational instability grows with thermal pressure. The turbulent stresses depend on the thermal pressure obeying a power law of 0.24+/-0.03, compatible with the value of 0.25 found in shearing box calculations. The ratio of stresses decreased with increasing temperature. We also study the dynamics of boulders in the hydromagnetic turbulence. The vertical turbulent diffusion of the embedded boulders is comparable to the...
Line Transport in Turbulent Atmospheres
Nikoghossian, A. G.
2017-07-01
The spectral line transfer in turbulent atmospheres with a spatially correlated velocity field is examined. Both the finite and semi-infinite media are treated. In finding the observed intensities we first deal with the problem for determining the mean intensity of radiation emerging from the medium for a fixed value of turbulent velocity at its boundary. A new approach proposed for solving this problem is based on the invariant imbedding technique which yields the solution of the proper problems for a family of media of different optical thicknesses and allows tackling different kinds of inhomogeneous problems. The dependence of the line profile, integral intensity, and the line width on the mean correlation length and the average value of the hydrodynamic velocity is studied. It is shown that the transition from a micro-turbulent regime to a macro-turbulence occurs within a comparatively narrow range of variation in the correlation length . Ambartsumian's principle of invariance is used to solve the problem of diffuse reflection of the line radiation from a one-dimensional semi-infinite turbulent atmosphere. In addition to the observed spectral line profile, statistical averages describing the diffusion process in the atmosphere (mean number of scattering events, average time spent by a diffusing photon in the medium) are determined. The dependence of these quantities on the average hydrodynamic velocity and correlation coefficient is studied.
Turbulent transport of alpha particles in tokamak plasmas
Croitoru, A.; Palade, D. I.; Vlad, M.; Spineanu, F.
2017-03-01
We investigate the \\boldsymbol{E}× \\boldsymbol{B} diffusion of fusion born α particles in tokamak plasmas. We determine the transport regimes for a realistic model that has the characteristics of the ion temperature gradient (ITG) or of the trapped electron mode (TEM) driven turbulence. It includes a spectrum of potential fluctuations that is modeled using the results of the numerical simulations, the drift of the potential with the effective diamagnetic velocity and the parallel motion. Our semi-analytical statistical approach is based on the decorrelation trajectory method (DTM), which is adapted to the gyrokinetic approximation. We obtain the transport coefficients as a function of the parameters of the turbulence and of the energy of the α particles. According to our results, significant turbulent transport of the α particles can appear only at energies of the order of 100 KeV. We determine the corresponding conditions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Sarazin, Y. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee, DRFC, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Grandgirard, V.; Agullo, O.; Benkadda, S. [CNRS-Universite de Provence, Equipe de Dynamique des Systemes Complexes, Aix-Marseille 1, 13 (France)
2000-09-01
Numerous experimental data show the existence of non-diffusive transport in tokamak plasmas. This article deals with the trajectories of test particles going through edge turbulence in scrape off layer (that is in the region where magnetic field lines are open). The interchange mechanism of the turbulence tends to generate convective cells by electrical shift, the radial extension is comparable to the size of the system. The resulting transport is mainly a ballistic-type transport whose time features are very short. Whenever the transport is directed towards outside, it appears profitable because it produces a broadening of the scrape off layer. On the contrary, the existence of ballistic trajectories directed towards the inside of the discharge implies an important contamination of the plasma by impurities coming from the wall. (A.C.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garbet, X
2001-06-01
The purpose of this work is to introduce the main processes that occur in a magnetized plasma. During the last 2 decades, the understanding of turbulence has made great progress but analytical formulas and simulations are far to produce reliable predictions. The values of transport coefficients in a tokamak plasma exceed by far those predicted by the theory of collisional transport. This phenomenon is called abnormal transport and might be due to plasma fluctuations. An estimation of turbulent fluxes derived from the levels of fluctuations, is proposed. A flow description of plasma allows the understanding of most micro-instabilities. The ballooning representation deals with instabilities in a toric geometry. 3 factors play an important role to stabilize plasmas: density pinch, magnetic shear and speed shear. The flow model of plasma gives an erroneous value for the stability threshold, this is due to a bad description of the resonant interaction between wave and particle. As for dynamics, flow models can be improved by adding dissipative terms so that the linear response nears the kinetic response. The kinetic approach is more accurate but is complex because of the great number of dimensions involved. (A.C.)
On turbulent transport in burning plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.-I. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Fukuyama, A. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering
2000-03-01
The change of the transport coefficient due to the fusion energy source is studied. The scale invariance property of the reduced set of equations is investigated in the presence of the self-heating term due to the fusion reaction. The pressure gradient as well as the fusion power are the free energy sources that dictate the turbulent transport. It is shown that the burning transport coefficient can have a form with much wider variety, and that the transport property could be different owing to the self-heating by the fusion reactions. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weiland, J., E-mail: elfjw@chalmers.se [Chalmers University of Technology and EURATOM-VR Association (Sweden)
2016-05-15
Basic aspects of turbulent transport in toroidal magnetized plasmas are discussed. In particular the fluid closure has strong effects on zonal flows which are needed to create an absorbing boundary for long wave lengths and also to obtain the Dimits nonlinear upshift. The fluid resonance in the energy equation is found to be instrumental for generating the L–H transition, the spin-up of poloidal rotation in internal transport barriers, as well as the nonlinear Dimits upshift. The difference between the linearly fastest growing mode number and the corresponding longer nonlinear correlation length is also addressed. It is found that the Kadomtsev mixing length result is consistent with the non-Markovian diagonal limit of the transport at the nonlinearly obtained correlation length.
Electromagnetic Transport From Microtearing Mode Turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guttenfelder, W; Kaye, S M; Nevins, W M; Wang, E; Bell, R E; Hammett, G W; LeBlanc, B P; Mikkelsen, D R
2011-03-23
This Letter presents non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of microtearing mode turbulence. The simulations include collisional and electromagnetic effects and use experimental parameters from a high beta discharge in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The predicted electron thermal transport is comparable to that given by experimental analysis, and it is dominated by the electromagnetic contribution of electrons free streaming along the resulting stochastic magnetic field line trajectories. Experimental values of flow shear can significantly reduce the predicted transport.
Particle transport in density gradient driven TE mode turbulence
Skyman, Andreas; Strand, P I
2011-01-01
The turbulent transport of main ion and trace impurities in a tokamak device in the presence of steep electron density gradients has been studied. The parameters are chosen for trapped electron (TE) mode turbulence, driven primarily by steep electron density gradients relevant to H-mode physics, but with a transition to temperature gradient driven turbulence as the density gradient flattens. Results obtained through non-linear (NL) and quasilinear (QL) gyrokinetic simulations using the GENE code are compared with results obtained from a fluid model. Main ion and impurity transport is studied by examining the balance of convective and diffusive transport, as quantified by the density gradient corresponding to zero particle flux (peaking factor). Scalings are obtained for the impurity peaking with the background electron density gradient and the impurity charge number. It is shown that the impurity peaking factor is weakly dependent on impurity charge and significantly smaller than the driving electron density ...
Coherent structures and transport in drift wave plasma turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Korsholm, Søren Bang
for optimization. The present work is a part of the puzzle to understand the basic physics of transport induced by drift wave turbulence in the edge region of a plasma. The basis for the study is the Hasegawa- Wakatani model. Simulation results for 3D periodic and nonperiodic geometries are presented. The Hasegawa......-Wakatani model is further expanded to include ion temperature effects. Another expansion of the model is derived from the Braginskii electron temperature equation. The result is a self-consistent set of equations describing the dynamical evolution of the drift wave fluctuations of the electron density, electron......Fusion energy research aims at developing fusion power plants providing safe and clean energy with abundant fuels. Plasma turbulence induced transport of energy and particles is a performance limiting factor for fusion devices. Hence the understanding of plasma turbulence is important...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li-ren YU
2009-09-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a numerical simulation of thermal discharge in the cooling pool of an electrical power station, aiming to develop general-purpose computational programs for grid generation and flow/pollutant transport in the complex domains of natural and artificial waterways. Three depth-averaged two-equation closure turbulence models, κ- ε, κ-w , and κ-ω, were used to close the quasi three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The κ-ω model was recently established by the authors and is still in the testing process. The general-purpose computational programs and turbulence models will be involved in a software that is under development. The SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equation algorithm and multi-grid iterative method are used to solve the hydrodynamic fundamental governing equations, which are discretized on non-orthogonal boundary-fitted grids with a variable collocated arrangement. The results calculated with the three turbulence models were compared with one another. In addition to the steady flow and thermal transport simulation, the unsteady process of waste heat inpouring and development in the cooling pool was also investigated.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li-ren YU; Jun YU
2009-01-01
This paper describes a numerical simulation of thermal discharge in the cooling pool of an electrical power station,aiming to develop general-purpose computational programs for grid generation and flow/pollutant transport in the complex domains of natural and artificial waterways.Three depth-averaged two-equation closure turbulence models,(k)-(ε),(k)-(w),and (k)-(ω),were used to close the quasi three-dimensional hydrodynamic model.The (k)-(ω) model was recently established by the authors and is still in the testing process.The general-purpose computational programs and turbulence models will be involved in a software that is under development.The SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equation) algorithm and multi-grid iterative method are used to solve the hydrodynamic fundamental governing equations,which are discretized on non-orthogonal boundary-fitted grids with a variable collocated arrangement.The results calculated with the three turbulence models were compared with one another.In addition to the steady flow and thermal transport simulation,the unsteady process of waste heat inpouring and development in the cooling pool was also investigated.
Turbulence modelling of thermal plasma flows
Shigeta, Masaya
2016-12-01
This article presents a discussion of the ideas for modelling turbulent thermal plasma flows, reviewing the challenges, efforts, and state-of-the-art simulations. Demonstrative simulations are also performed to present the importance of numerical methods as well as physical models to express turbulent features. A large eddy simulation has been applied to turbulent thermal plasma flows to treat time-dependent and 3D motions of multi-scale eddies. Sub-grid scale models to be used should be able to express not only turbulent but also laminar states because both states co-exist in and around thermal plasmas which have large variations of density as well as transport properties under low Mach-number conditions. Suitable solution algorithms and differencing schemes must be chosen and combined appropriately to capture multi-scale eddies and steep gradients of temperature and chemical species, which are turbulent features of thermal plasma flows with locally variable Reynolds and Mach numbers. Several simulations using different methods under different conditions show commonly that high-temperature plasma regions exhibit less turbulent structures, with only large eddies, whereas low-temperature regions tend to be more turbulent, with numerous small eddies. These numerical results agree with both theoretical insight and photographs that show the characteristics of eddies. Results also show that a turbulence transition of a thermal plasma jet through a generation-breakup process of eddies in a torch is dominated by fluid dynamic instability after ejection rather than non-uniform or unsteady phenomena.
Equipartition and transport in two-dimensional electrostatic turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Naulin, V.; Nycander, J.; Juul Rasmussen, J.
1998-01-01
of the magnetic field. Numerical solutions of the model equations on a bounded domain with sources and sinks show that the flux-driven turbulent fluctuations give rise to up-gradient transport, a “pinch flux,” of heat or particles. The averaged equilibrium density and temperature profiles approach n∼B and T∼B2...
Transport of magnetic turbulence in supernova remnants
Brose, R.; Telezhinsky, I.; Pohl, M.
2016-08-01
Context. Supernova remnants are known as sources of Galactic cosmic rays for their nonthermal emission of radio waves, X-rays, and gamma rays. However, the observed soft broken power-law spectra are hard to reproduce within standard acceleration theory based on the assumption of Bohm diffusion and steady-state calculations. Aims: We point out that a time-dependent treatment of the acceleration process together with a self-consistent treatment of the scattering turbulence amplification is necessary. Methods: We numerically solve the coupled system of transport equations for cosmic rays and isotropic Alfvénic turbulence. The equations are coupled through the growth rate of turbulence determined by the cosmic-ray gradient and the spatial diffusion coefficient of cosmic rays determined by the energy density of the turbulence. The system is solved on a comoving expanding grid extending upstream for dozens of shock radii, allowing for the self-consistent study of cosmic-ray diffusion in the vicinity of their acceleration site. The transport equation for cosmic rays is solved in a test-particle approach. Results: We demonstrate that the system is typically not in a steady state. In fact, even after several thousand years of evolution, no equilibrium situation is reached. The resulting time-dependent particle spectra strongly differ from those derived assuming a steady state and Bohm diffusion. Our results indicate that proper accounting for the evolution of the scattering turbulence and hence the particle diffusion coefficient is crucial for the formation of the observed soft spectra. In any case, the need to continuously develop magnetic turbulence upstream of the shock introduces nonlinearity in addition to that imposed by cosmic-ray feedback.
A stability condition for turbulence model: From EMMS model to EMMS-based turbulence model
Zhang, Lin; Wang, Limin; Li, Jinghai
2013-01-01
The closure problem of turbulence is still a challenging issue in turbulence modeling. In this work, a stability condition is used to close turbulence. Specifically, we regard single-phase flow as a mixture of turbulent and non-turbulent fluids, separating the structure of turbulence. Subsequently, according to the picture of the turbulent eddy cascade, the energy contained in turbulent flow is decomposed into different parts and then quantified. A turbulence stability condition, similar to the principle of the energy-minimization multi-scale (EMMS) model for gas-solid systems, is formulated to close the dynamic constraint equations of turbulence, allowing the heterogeneous structural parameters of turbulence to be optimized. We call this model the `EMMS-based turbulence model', and use it to construct the corresponding turbulent viscosity coefficient. To validate the EMMS-based turbulence model, it is used to simulate two classical benchmark problems, lid-driven cavity flow and turbulent flow with forced con...
Thermodynamics of neoclassical and turbulent transport
Garbet, X.; Abiteboul, J.; Strugarek, A.; Sarazin, Y.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, P.; Grandgirard, V.; Bourdelle, C.; Latu, G.; Smolyakov, A.
2012-05-01
A variational principle based on the calculation of the entropy production rate is derived, which covers particle, momentum and heat transport. This principle is used to define proper thermodynamical forces and fluxes. When turbulent parallel wavenumbers are small, and fluctuations are ballooned, it is found that the forces are the gradients of density, velocity and temperature normalized to canonical profiles, which are power laws of the magnetic field. The transport matrix is symmetrical for a given background of fluctuations, i.e. if the dependence of the turbulence intensity on gradients is ignored. Minimization of the entropy production rate implies that the profiles tend to relax towards their canonical values, though these values are never reached simultaneously since they are linearly stable. Also it turns out that parallel and perpendicular canonical temperatures are not the same, so that the equilibrium distribution function relaxes towards a two-temperature Maxwellian. When finite turbulence parallel wavenumbers are accounted for, residual fluxes appear. Forces can be redefined to preserve Onsager symmetry but residual heat and momentum sources remain, which correspond to turbulent heating and momentum transfer.
Turbulence driven particle transport in Texas Helimak
Toufen, Dennis L; Caldas, Iberê L; Marcus, Francisco A; Gentle, Kenneth W
2011-01-01
We analyze the turbulence driven particle transport in Texas Helimak (K. W. Gentle and Huang He, Plasma Sci. and Technology, 10, 284 (2008)), a toroidal plasma device with one-dimensional equilibrium with magnetic curvature and shear. Alterations on the radial electric field, through an external voltage bias, change spectral plasma characteristics inducing a dominant frequency for negative bias values and a broad band frequency spectrum for positive bias values. For negative biased plasma discharges, the transport is high where the waves propagate with phase velocities near the plasma flow velocity, an indication that the transport is strongly affected by a wave particle resonant interaction. On the other hand, for positive bias the plasma has a reversed shear flow and we observe that the transport is almost zero in the shearless radial region, an evidence of a transport barrier in this region.
Leprovost, Nicolas; Kim, Eun-Jin
2009-08-01
We investigate three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics turbulence in the presence of velocity and magnetic shear (i.e., with both a large-scale shear flow and a nonuniform magnetic field). By assuming a turbulence driven by an external forcing with both helical and nonhelical spectra, we investigate the combined effect of these two shears on turbulence intensity and turbulent transport represented by turbulent diffusivities (turbulent viscosity, alpha and beta effect) in Reynolds-averaged equations. We show that turbulent transport (turbulent viscosity and diffusivity) is quenched by a strong flow shear and a strong magnetic field. For a weak flow shear, we further show that the magnetic shear increases the turbulence intensity while decreasing the turbulent transport. In the presence of a strong flow shear, the effect of the magnetic shear is found to oppose the effect of flow shear (which reduces turbulence due to shear stabilization) by enhancing turbulence and transport, thereby weakening the strong quenching by flow shear stabilization. In the case of a strong magnetic field (compared to flow shear), magnetic shear increases turbulence intensity and quenches turbulent transport.
Transport of solar electrons in the turbulent interplanetary magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ablaßmayer, J.; Tautz, R. C., E-mail: robert.c.tautz@gmail.com [Zentrum für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Dresing, N., E-mail: dresing@physik.uni-kiel.de [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Leibnizstraße 11, D-24118 Kiel (Germany)
2016-01-15
The turbulent transport of solar energetic electrons in the interplanetary magnetic field is investigated by means of a test-particle Monte-Carlo simulation. The magnetic fields are modeled as a combination of the Parker field and a turbulent component. In combination with the direct calculation of diffusion coefficients via the mean-square displacements, this approach allows one to analyze the effect of the initial ballistic transport phase. In that sense, the model complements the main other approach in which a transport equation is solved. The major advancement is that, by recording the flux of particles arriving at virtual detectors, intensity and anisotropy-time profiles can be obtained. Observational indications for a longitudinal asymmetry can thus be explained by tracing the diffusive spread of the particle distribution. The approach may be of future help for the systematic interpretation of observations for instance by the solar terrestrial relations observatory (STEREO) and advanced composition explorer (ACE) spacecrafts.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIU Xiang
2006-01-01
Turbulence structures and turbulent Counter-Gradient Transport(CGT) properties in the stratified flows with a sharp temperature interface are investigated by experimental measurements using LIF and PIV, by LES and by correlation analysis.
Transport of magnetic turbulence in Supernova remnants
Brose, Robert; Pohl, Martin
2016-01-01
Context. Supernova remnants are known as sources of galactic cosmic rays for their non-thermal emission of radio waves, X-rays, and gamma-rays. However, the observed soft broken power-law spectra are hard to reproduce within standard acceleration theory based on the assumption of Bohm diffusion and steady-state calculations. Aims. We point out that a time-dependent treatment of the acceleration process together with a self-consistent treatment of the scattering turbulence amplification is necessary. Methods. We numerically solve the coupled system of transport equations for cosmic rays and isotropic Alfvenic turbulence. The equations are coupled through the growth rate of turbulence determined by the cosmic-ray gradient and the spatial diffusion coefficient of cosmic rays determined by the energy density of the turbulence. The system is solved on a co-moving expanding grid extending upstream for dozens of shock radii, allowing for the self-consistent study of cosmic-ray diffusion in the vicinity of their acce...
Modeling Rotating Turbulent Flows with the Body Force Potential Model.
Bhattacharya, Amitabh; Perot, Blair
2000-11-01
Like a Reynolds Stress Transport equation model, the turbulent potential model has an explicit Coriolis acceleration term that appears in the model that accounts for rotation effects. In this work the additional secondary effects that system rotation has on the dissipation rate, return-to-isotropy, and fast pressure strain terms are also included in the model. The resulting model is tested in the context of rotating isotropic turbulence, rotating homogeneous shear flow, rotating channel flow, and swirling pipe flow. Many of the model changes are applicable to Reynolds stress transport equation models. All model modifications are frame indifferent.
Shell Models of Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
Plunian, Franck; Frick, Peter
2012-01-01
Shell models of hydrodynamic turbulence originated in the seventies. Their main aim was to describe the statistics of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in spectral space, using a simple set of ordinary differential equations. In the eighties, shell models of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence emerged based on the same principles as their hydrodynamic counter-part but also incorporating interactions between magnetic and velocity fields. In recent years, significant improvements have been made such as the inclusion of non-local interactions and appropriate definitions for helicities. Though shell models cannot account for the spatial complexity of MHD turbulence, their dynamics are not over simplified and do reflect those of real MHD turbulence including intermittency or chaotic reversals of large-scale modes. Furthermore, these models use realistic values for dimensionless parameters (high kinetic and magnetic Reynolds numbers, low or high magnetic Prandtl number) allowing extended inertial range and accu...
Stochastic Subspace Modelling of Turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Pedersen, B. J.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.
2009-01-01
Turbulence of the incoming wind field is of paramount importance to the dynamic response of civil engineering structures. Hence reliable stochastic models of the turbulence should be available from which time series can be generated for dynamic response and structural safety analysis. In the paper...
Transport of particles in an atmospheric turbulent boundary layer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiongping Luo; Shiyi Chen
2005-01-01
A program incorporating the parallel code of large eddy simulation (LES) and particle transportation model is developed to simulate the motion of particles in an atmospheric turbulent boundary layer (ATBL). A model of particles of 100-micrometer order coupling with large scale ATBL is proposed. Two typical cases are studied, one focuses on the evolution of particle profile in the ATBL and the landing displacement of particles, whereas the other on the motion of particle stream.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Usmanov, Arcadi V.; Matthaeus, William H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Goldstein, Melvyn L., E-mail: arcadi.usmanov@nasa.gov [Code 672, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
2016-03-20
We have developed a four-fluid, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model of the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium. The unique features of the model are: (a) a three-fluid description for the charged components of the solar wind and interstellar plasmas (thermal protons, electrons, and pickup protons), (b) the built-in turbulence transport equations based on Reynolds decomposition and coupled with the mean-flow Reynolds-averaged equations, and (c) a solar corona/solar wind model that supplies inner boundary conditions at 40 au by computing solar wind and magnetic field parameters outward from the coronal base. The three charged species are described by separate energy equations and are assumed to move with the same velocity. The fourth fluid in the model is the interstellar hydrogen which is treated by separate continuity, momentum, and energy equations and is coupled with the charged components through photoionization and charge exchange. We evaluate the effects of turbulence transport and pickup protons on the global heliospheric structure and compute the distribution of plasma, magnetic field, and turbulence parameters throughout the heliosphere for representative solar minimum and maximum conditions. We compare our results with Voyager 1 observations in the outer heliosheath and show that the relative amplitude of magnetic fluctuations just outside the heliopause is in close agreement with the value inferred from Voyager 1 measurements by Burlaga et al. The simulated profiles of magnetic field parameters in the outer heliosheath are in qualitative agreement with the Voyager 1 observations and with the analytical model of magnetic field draping around the heliopause of Isenberg et al.
Momentum Transport and Stable Modes in Kelvin-Helmholtz Turbulence
Fraser, A E; Zweibel, E G
2016-01-01
The Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability, which arises in astrophysical and fusion systems where turbulent momentum transport is important, has an unstable and a stable mode at the same scales. We show that in KH turbulence, as in other types of turbulence, the stable mode affects transport, nonlinearly removing energy from the inertial-range cascade to small scales. We quantify energy transfer to stable modes and its associated impact on turbulent amplitudes and transport, demonstrating that stable modes regulate transfer in KH systems. A quasilinear momentum transport calculation is performed to quantify the reduction in momentum transport due to stable modes.
Regularization of turbulence - a comprehensive modeling approach
Geurts, B. J.
2011-12-01
Turbulence readily arises in numerous flows in nature and technology. The large number of degrees of freedom of turbulence poses serious challenges to numerical approaches aimed at simulating and controlling such flows. While the Navier-Stokes equations are commonly accepted to precisely describe fluid turbulence, alternative coarsened descriptions need to be developed to cope with the wide range of length and time scales. These coarsened descriptions are known as large-eddy simulations in which one aims to capture only the primary features of a flow, at considerably reduced computational effort. Such coarsening introduces a closure problem that requires additional phenomenological modeling. A systematic approach to the closure problem, know as regularization modeling, will be reviewed. Its application to multiphase turbulent will be illustrated in which a basic regularization principle is enforced to physically consistently approximate momentum and scalar transport. Examples of Leray and LANS-alpha regularization are discussed in some detail, as are compatible numerical strategies. We illustrate regularization modeling to turbulence under the influence of rotation and buoyancy and investigate the accuracy with which particle-laden flow can be represented. A discussion of the numerical and modeling errors incurred will be given on the basis of homogeneous isotropic turbulence.
Heavy Particle Transport in the Turbulent Boundary Layer
Richter, D. H.
2016-12-01
To describe the emission and transport of dust in the atmosphere, assumptions must typically be made in order to connect the micro-scale emission and saltation process with the larger-scale atmospheric uptake and turbulent flux. In the context of numerical models, this can be thought of as the transport process which occurs between the domain bottom and the first vertical grid point. For example, in the limit of small particles (both low inertia and low settling velocity), theory built upon Monin-Obukhov similarity has proven effective in relating mean dust concentration profiles to surface emission fluxes. For increasing particle mass, however, it becomes more difficult to represent dust transport as a simple extension of the transport of a passive scalar due to issues such as the crossing trajectories effect. This study focuses specifically on the problem of large particle transport and dispersion in the turbulent boundary layer by utilizing direct numerical simulations with Lagrangian point-particle tracking to determine under what, if any, conditions the large particles can be described in a simplified Eulerian framework such as Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. In particular, results will be presented detailing the independent contributions of both particle inertia and particle settling velocity relative to the strength of the surrounding turbulent flow.
Fractional Transport in Strongly Turbulent Plasmas
Isliker, Heinz; Vlahos, Loukas; Constantinescu, Dana
2017-07-01
We analyze statistically the energization of particles in a large scale environment of strong turbulence that is fragmented into a large number of distributed current filaments. The turbulent environment is generated through strongly perturbed, 3D, resistive magnetohydrodynamics simulations, and it emerges naturally from the nonlinear evolution, without a specific reconnection geometry being set up. Based on test-particle simulations, we estimate the transport coefficients in energy space for use in the classical Fokker-Planck (FP) equation, and we show that the latter fails to reproduce the simulation results. The reason is that transport in energy space is highly anomalous (strange), the particles perform Levy flights, and the energy distributions show extended power-law tails. Newly then, we motivate the use and derive the specific form of a fractional transport equation (FTE), we determine its parameters and the order of the fractional derivatives from the simulation data, and we show that the FTE is able to reproduce the high energy part of the simulation data very well. The procedure for determining the FTE parameters also makes clear that it is the analysis of the simulation data that allows us to make the decision whether a classical FP equation or a FTE is appropriate.
Evolving magnetic equilibria in anomalous turbulent transport simulations
Lee, Jungpyo; Cerfon, Antoine; Highcock, Edmund; Barnes, Michael
2014-10-01
The evolution of poloidal and toroidal magnetic fluxes in a tokamak are determined by Faraday's law in which electric field needs to be consistent with 1-D radial transports of density, temperature, and toroidal angular momentum. Consistency is required because the transport of the thermodynamic variables depends on the 2-D magnetic equilibrium that changes depending on the radial pressure profile. For neoclassical transport, consistency is achieved through a proper treatment of the parallel electric field and Ohm's law [Hinton and Hazeltine (1976), Hirshman and Jardin (1979)]. Recently, consistency for the anomalous turbulent transport has been studied analytically using a Lagrangian formulation of gyrokinetics [Sugama et al. (2014)]. In this poster, we propose a simple numerical model to evolve both the magnetic equilibrium and the radial profile of density, temperature, and toroidal angular frequency due to turbulent transport with a fixed q (safety factor) profile. The constraint of fixed q profile makes the evolution self-consistent only if the transport time scale is much smaller than the resistive current diffusion time scale. In this model, we use the transport code TRINITY coupled with the local gyrokinetic code GS2 and the q-solver version of the Grad-Shafranov code ECOM.
ASDEX Upgrade Edge Transport Studies by Turbulence and Braginskii Divertor Transport Codes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nishimura, Y.; Coster, D.P.; Kim, J.W.; Scott, B.D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany)
2001-07-01
The equilibration time for diverter transport simulations is in the range of milliseconds to seconds. There, perpendicular transport is given empirically and usually assumed to be constant in time and space. In this work, we aim at describing edge plasma profiles in both the H-mode and the L-mode confinement regimes using a model that couples the transport scale to the underlying turbulence scale. There are 2d and 3d variants of DALF, which is a turbulence code that describes short time scale nonlinear phenomena based on first principles of plasma physics. B2 employs an implicit method which is suitable for describing long time scale, quasi-steady state behavior, while fluctuation/intermittency is inherent in turbulence and typically gives rise to short time scale variations of the radial flux. We coarse rained the information from the 2d version of DALF within the order of turbulence auto correlation time and iterated over the divertor simulation (and thus passed plasma parameters to the turbulence code). Numerical algorithm and criteria for convergence in bridging the physics of two different scales is discussed. The generation mechanism of radial electric field in steep gradient regimes is revisited in the ASDEX Upgrade divertor geometry with realistic parameters. Inclusion of turbulent suppression effects by E x B shear flow is considered. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gilmore, Mark Allen [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-02-05
Turbulence, and turbulence-driven transport are ubiquitous in magnetically confined plasmas, where there is an intimate relationship between turbulence, transport, instability driving mechanisms (such as gradients), plasma flows, and flow shear. Though many of the detailed physics of the interrelationship between turbulence, transport, drive mechanisms, and flow remain unclear, there have been many demonstrations that transport and/or turbulence can be suppressed or reduced via manipulations of plasma flow profiles. This is well known in magnetic fusion plasmas [e.g., high confinement mode (H-mode) and internal transport barriers (ITB’s)], and has also been demonstrated in laboratory plasmas. However, it may be that the levels of particle transport obtained in such cases [e.g. H-mode, ITB’s] are actually lower than is desirable for a practical fusion device. Ideally, one would be able to actively feedback control the turbulent transport, via manipulation of the flow profiles. The purpose of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using both advanced model-based control algorithms, as well as non-model-based algorithms, to control cross-field turbulence-driven particle transport through appropriate manipulation of radial plasma flow profiles. The University of New Mexico was responsible for the experimental portion of the project, while our collaborators at the University of Montana provided plasma transport modeling, and collaborators at Lehigh University developed and explored control methods.
Morgan, Harry L., Jr.
2002-01-01
This report presents the results of a test conducted in the Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel to measure the flow field properties of a flap-edge vortex. The model was the EET (Energy Efficient Transport) Flap-Edge Vortex Model, which consists of a main element and a part-span, single-slotted trailing-edge flap. The model surface was instrumented with several chordwise and spanwise rows of pressure taps on each element. The off-body flow field velocities were to be measured in several planes perpendicular to the flap edge with a laser velocimetry system capable of measuring all three components in coincidence. However, due to seeding difficulties, the preliminary laser data did not have sufficient accuracy to be suitable for presentation; therefore, this report presents only the tabulated and plotted surface pressure data. In addition, the report contains a detail description of the model which can be used to generate accurate CFD grid structures.
Stochastic Simulation of Lagrangian Particle Transport in Turbulent Flows
Sun, Guangyuan
This dissertation presents the development and validation of the One Dimensional Turbulence (ODT) multiphase model in the Lagrangian reference frame. ODT is a stochastic model that captures the full range of length and time scales and provides statistical information on fine-scale turbulent-particle mixing and transport at low computational cost. The flow evolution is governed by a deterministic solution of the viscous processes and a stochastic representation of advection through stochastic domain mapping processes. The three algorithms for Lagrangian particle transport are presented within the context of the ODT approach. The Type-I and -C models consider the particle-eddy interaction as instantaneous and continuous change of the particle position and velocity, respectively. The Type-IC model combines the features of the Type-I and -C models. The models are applied to the multi-phase flows in the homogeneous decaying turbulence and turbulent round jet. Particle dispersion, dispersion coefficients, and velocity statistics are predicted and compared with experimental data. The models accurately reproduces the experimental data sets and capture particle inertial effects and trajectory crossing effect. A new adjustable particle parameter is introduced into the ODT model, and sensitivity analysis is performed to facilitate parameter estimation and selection. A novel algorithm of the two-way momentum coupling between the particle and carrier phases is developed in the ODT multiphase model. Momentum exchange between the phases is accounted for through particle source terms in the viscous diffusion. The source term is implemented in eddy events through a new kernel transformation and an iterative procedure is required for eddy selection. This model is applied to a particle-laden turbulent jet flow, and simulation results are compared with experimental measurements. The effect of particle addition on the velocities of the gas phase is investigated. The development of
Structure and modeling of turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Novikov, E.A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)
1995-12-31
The {open_quotes}vortex strings{close_quotes} scale l{sub s} {approximately} LRe{sup -3/10} (L-external scale, Re - Reynolds number) is suggested as a grid scale for the large-eddy simulation. Various aspects of the structure of turbulence and subgrid modeling are described in terms of conditional averaging, Markov processes with dependent increments and infinitely divisible distributions. The major request from the energy, naval, aerospace and environmental engineering communities to the theory of turbulence is to reduce the enormous number of degrees of freedom in turbulent flows to a level manageable by computer simulations. The vast majority of these degrees of freedom is in the small-scale motion. The study of the structure of turbulence provides a basis for subgrid-scale (SGS) models, which are necessary for the large-eddy simulations (LES).
Coherent structures and transport in drift wave plasma turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bang Korsholm, S.
2011-12-15
Fusion energy research aims at developing fusion power plants providing safe and clean energy with abundant fuels. Plasma turbulence induced transport of energy and particles is a performance limiting factor for fusion devices. Hence the understanding of plasma turbulence is important for optimization. The present work is a part of the puzzle to understand the basic physics of transport induced by drift wave turbulence in the edge region of a plasma. The basis for the study is the Hasegawa-Wakatani model. Simulation results for 3D periodic and nonperiodic geometries are presented. The Hasegawa-Wakatani model is further expanded to include ion temperature effects. Another expansion of the model is derived from the Braginskii electron temperature equation. The result is a self-consistent set of equations describing the dynamical evolution of the drift wave fluctuations of the electron density, electron temperature and the potential in the presence of density and temperature gradients. 3D simulation results of the models are presented. Finally, the construction and first results from the MAST fluctuation reflectometer is described. The results demonstrate how L- to H-mode transitions as well as edge-localized-modes can be detected by the relatively simple diagnostic system. The present Risoe report is a slightly updated version of my original PhD report which was submitted in April 2002 and defended in August 2002. (Author)
Arolla, Sunil K
2014-01-01
A volume-filtered Euler-Lagrange large eddy simulation methodology is used to predict the physics of turbulent liquid-solid slurry flow through a horizontal pipe. A dynamic Smagorinsky model based on Lagrangian averaging is employed to account for the sub-filter scale effects in the liquid phase. A fully conservative immersed boundary method is used to account for the pipe geometry on a uniform cartesian grid. The liquid and solid phases are coupled through volume fraction and momentum exchange terms. Particle-particle and particle-wall collisions are modeled using a soft-sphere approach. A series of simulations have been performed by varying the superficial liquid velocity to be consistent with the experimental data by Dahl et al. (2003). Depending on the liquid flow rate, a particle bed can form and develop different patterns, which are discussed in the light of various regime diagrams proposed in the literature. The fluctuation in the height of the liquid-bed interface is characterized to understand the sp...
Modelling the dynamics of turbulent floods
Mei, Z; Li, Z; Li, Zhenquan
1999-01-01
Consider the dynamics of turbulent flow in rivers, estuaries and floods. Based on the widely used k-epsilon model for turbulence, we use the techniques of centre manifold theory to derive dynamical models for the evolution of the water depth and of vertically averaged flow velocity and turbulent parameters. This new model for the shallow water dynamics of turbulent flow: resolves the vertical structure of the flow and the turbulence; includes interaction between turbulence and long waves; and gives a rational alternative to classical models for turbulent environmental flows.
Relationships between energy balance closure and turbulent transport of energy
Banerjee, Tirtha; Zeeman, Matthias; Brugger, Peter; De Roo, Frederik; Mauder, Matthias
2017-04-01
The energy balance residual (EBR), defined as the difference between the available energy (sum of net radiation and ground heat flux) and the turbulent fluxes of latent and sensible heat, is often found to have a large positive value. Several land surface experiments and flux networks report an average energy balance closure of approximately 80%. Although different factors can influence the energy balance closure across measurement campaigns, a significant EBR even when sites are horizontally with short canopies indicates of a systematic bias resulting from the general underestimation of the aerodynamic transport of energy, especially horizontal divergence of the mean advective fluxes and transport by low-frequency motions generally called 'secondary circulations'. These low frequency local transports can occur from various processes such as coherent large scale organized motions, convective cells and even significant transient changes. Thus, we decided to study the budget of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in conjunction with the energy balance closure and the turbulent fluxes associated with nonlocal motions, advection and flux divergence. In the current work, this interdependency has been investigated using surface flux (Eddy Covariance) at the TERENO sites Fendt, Graswang and Rottenbuch in Southern Germany (with gentle topography. Statistical methods for dimensional reduction techniques has been used to extract the effects and significance of aforementioned processes towards explaining the observed annual average EBR of about 50 Wm-2. Initial results indicate a high correlation between EBR and the TKE dissipation rate, as well as the skewness of vertical velocity and the turbulent fluxes associated with flux divergence, confirming the role of secondary circulations. Overall, improved understanding of such connections between the fundamental mechanisms of TKE transport and the energy balance likely advances the knowledge towards constraining the modeling
Fractal ideas and percolation scalings for turbulent transport
Bakunin, Oleg
2005-10-01
The essential deviation of transport processes in turbulent fluids and plasma from the classical behavior leads to the necessity of search for new approaches and scaling laws [1]. A variety of turbulence forms requires not only special description methods, but also an analysis of general mechanisms for different turbulence types. One such mechanism is the percolation transport [1,2]. Its description is based on the idea of long-range correlations, borrowed from theory of phase transitions and critical phenomena. The present paper considers the influence of zonal flow and time-dependence effects on the passive scalar behavior in the framework of the percolation approach. It is suggested to modify the renormalization condition of the small parameter of percolation model in accordance with the additional external influences superimposed on the system [3-4]. This approach makes it possible to consider simultaneously both parameters: the characteristic drift velocity Ud and the characteristic perturbation frequency w. The effective diffusion coefficient Deff˜ w^7/10 satisfactory describes the low-frequency region w in which the long-range correlation effects play a significant role. This scaling agrees well with the analogous expressions that describe low frequency regimes of transport [1,2]. [1] Isichenko M B 1992 Rev. Mod. Phys. 64 961 [2] Bakunin O G 2004 Reports on Progress in Physics 67 965 [3] Bakunin O G 2005 Physica A 345 1 [4] Bakunin O G 2005 J. Plasma Physics 71 756.
PDF turbulence modeling and DNS
Hsu, A. T.
1992-01-01
The problem of time discontinuity (or jump condition) in the coalescence/dispersion (C/D) mixing model is addressed in probability density function (pdf). A C/D mixing model continuous in time is introduced. With the continuous mixing model, the process of chemical reaction can be fully coupled with mixing. In the case of homogeneous turbulence decay, the new model predicts a pdf very close to a Gaussian distribution, with finite higher moments also close to that of a Gaussian distribution. Results from the continuous mixing model are compared with both experimental data and numerical results from conventional C/D models. The effect of Coriolis forces on compressible homogeneous turbulence is studied using direct numerical simulation (DNS). The numerical method used in this study is an eight order compact difference scheme. Contrary to the conclusions reached by previous DNS studies on incompressible isotropic turbulence, the present results show that the Coriolis force increases the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, and that anisotropy develops as the Coriolis force increases. The Taylor-Proudman theory does apply since the derivatives in the direction of the rotation axis vanishes rapidly. A closer analysis reveals that the dissipation rate of the incompressible component of the turbulent kinetic energy indeed decreases with a higher rotation rate, consistent with incompressible flow simulations (Bardina), while the dissipation rate of the compressible part increases; the net gain is positive. Inertial waves are observed in the simulation results.
Turbulence Models of Hydrodynamic Lubrication
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张直明; 王小静; 孙美丽
2003-01-01
The main theoretical turbulence models for application to hydrodynamic lubrication problems were briefly reviewed, and the course of their development and their fundamentals were explained. Predictions by these models on flow fields in turbulent Couette flows and shear-induced countercurrent flows were compared to existing measurements, and Zhang & Zhang' s combined k-ε model was shown to have surpassingly satisfactory results. The method of application of this combined k-ε model to high speed journal bearings and annular seals was summarized, and the predicted results were shown to be satisfactory by comparisons with existing experiments of journal bearings and annular seals.
Nonlinear parallel momentum transport in strong turbulence
Wang, Lu; Diamond, P H
2015-01-01
Most existing theoretical studies of momentum transport focus on calculating the Reynolds stress based on quasilinear theory, without considering the \\emph{nonlinear} momentum flux-$$. However, a recent experiment on TORPEX found that the nonlinear toroidal momentum flux induced by blobs makes a significant contribution as compared to the Reynolds stress [Labit et al., Phys. Plasmas {\\bf 18}, 032308 (2011)]. In this work, the nonlinear parallel momentum flux in strong turbulence is calculated by using three dimensional Hasegawa-Mima equation. It is shown that nonlinear diffusivity is smaller than quasilinear diffusivity from Reynolds stress. However, the leading order nonlinear residual stress can be comparable to the quasilinear residual stress, and so could be important to intrinsic rotation in tokamak edge plasmas. A key difference from the quasilinear residual stress is that parallel fluctuation spectrum asymmetry is not required for nonlinear residual stress.
Influence of turbulence on bed load sediment transport
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sumer, B. Mutlu; Chua, L.; Cheng, N. S.;
2003-01-01
This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study on the influence of an external turbulence field on the bedload sediment transport in an open channel. The external turbulence was generated by: (1) with a horizontal pipe placed halfway through the depth, h; (2) with a series of grids...... correlated with the sediment transport rate. The sediment transport increases markedly with increasing turbulence level.......-bed experiments and the ripple-covered-bed experiments. In the former case, the flow in the presence of the turbulence generator was adjusted so that the mean bed shear stress was the same as in the case without the turbulence generator in order to single out the effect of the external turbulence on the sediment...
Verification of Gyrokinetic Particle of Turbulent Simulation of Device Size Scaling Transport
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIN Zhihong; S. ETHIER; T. S. HAHM; W. M. TANG
2012-01-01
Verification and historical perspective are presented on the gyrokinetic particle simulations that discovered the device size scaling of turbulent transport and indentified the geometry model as the source of the long-standing disagreement between gyrokinetic particle and continuum simulations.
Ion and impurity transport in turbulent, anisotropic magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Negrea, M; Petrisor, I [Department of Physics, Association Euratom-MEdC, Romania, University of Craiova, A.I. Cuza str. 13, Craiova (Romania); Isliker, H; Vogiannou, A; Vlahos, L [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, University of Thessaloniki, Association Euratom-Hellenic Republic, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Weyssow, B [Physique Statistique-Plasmas, Association Euratom-Etat Belge, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, Bd. du Triomphe, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)
2011-08-15
We investigate ion and impurity transport in turbulent, possibly anisotropic, magnetic fields. The turbulent magnetic field is modeled as a correlated stochastic field, with Gaussian distribution function and prescribed spatial auto-correlation function, superimposed onto a strong background field. The (running) diffusion coefficients of ions are determined in the three-dimensional environment, using two alternative methods, the semi-analytical decorrelation trajectory (DCT) method, and test-particle simulations. In a first step, the results of the test-particle simulations are compared with and used to validate the results obtained from the DCT method. For this purpose, a drift approximation was made in slab geometry, and relatively good qualitative agreement between the DCT method and the test-particle simulations was found. In a second step, the ion species He, Be, Ne and W, all assumed to be fully ionized, are considered under ITER-like conditions, and the scaling of their diffusivities is determined with respect to varying levels of turbulence (varying Kubo number), varying degrees of anisotropy of the turbulent structures and atomic number. In a third step, the test-particle simulations are repeated without drift approximation, directly using the Lorentz force, first in slab geometry, in order to assess the finite Larmor radius effects, and second in toroidal geometry, to account for the geometric effects. It is found that both effects are important, most prominently the effects due to toroidal geometry and the diffusivities are overestimated in slab geometry by an order of magnitude.
Model for Simulation Atmospheric Turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lundtang Petersen, Erik
1976-01-01
A method that produces realistic simulations of atmospheric turbulence is developed and analyzed. The procedure makes use of a generalized spectral analysis, often called a proper orthogonal decomposition or the Karhunen-Loève expansion. A set of criteria, emphasizing a realistic appearance, a co....... The method is unique in modeling the three velocity components simultaneously, and it is found that important cross-statistical features are reasonably well-behaved. It is concluded that the model provides a practical, operational simulator of atmospheric turbulence.......A method that produces realistic simulations of atmospheric turbulence is developed and analyzed. The procedure makes use of a generalized spectral analysis, often called a proper orthogonal decomposition or the Karhunen-Loève expansion. A set of criteria, emphasizing a realistic appearance......, a correct spectral shape, and non-Gaussian statistics, is selected in order to evaluate the model turbulence. An actual turbulence record is analyzed in detail providing both a standard for comparison and input statistics for the generalized spectral analysis, which in turn produces a set of orthonormal...
Interchange turbulence model for the edge plasma in SOLEDGE2D-EIRENE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bufferand, H.; Marandet, Y. [Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS, PIIM, Marseille (France); Ciraolo, G.; Ghendrih, P.; Bucalossi, J.; Fedorczak, N.; Gunn, J.; Tamain, P. [CEA, IRFM, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Colin, C.; Galassi, D.; Leybros, R.; Serre, E. [Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS, M2P2, Marseille (France)
2016-08-15
Cross-field transport in edge tokamak plasmas is known to be dominated by turbulent transport. A dedicated effort has been made to simulate this turbulent transport from first principle models but the numerical cost to run these simulations on the ITER scale remains prohibitive. Edge plasma transport study relies mostly nowadays on so-called transport codes where the turbulent transport is taken into account using effective ad-hoc diffusion coefficients. In this contribution, we propose to introduce a transport equation for the turbulence intensity in SOLEDGE2D-EIRENE to describe the interchange turbulence properties. Going beyond the empirical diffusive model, this system automatically generates profiles for the turbulent transport and hence reduces the number of degrees of freedom for edge plasma transport codes. We draw inspiration from the k-epsilon model widely used in the neutral fluid community. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Turbulence elasticity—A new mechanism for transport barrier dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, Z. B., E-mail: guozhipku@gmail.com [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, NFRI, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Diamond, P. H. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, NFRI, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); CMTFO and CASS, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Kosuga, Y. [IAS and RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Gürcan, Ö. D. [LPP, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, Palaiseau Cedex 91128 (France)
2014-09-15
We present a new, unified model of transport barrier formation in “elastic” drift wave-zonal flow (DW-ZF) turbulence. A new physical quantity—the delay time (i.e., the mixing time for the DW turbulence)—is demonstrated to parameterize each stage of the transport barrier formation. Quantitative predictions for the onset of limit-cycle-oscillation (LCO) among DW and ZF intensities (also denoted as I-mode) and I-mode to high-confinement mode (H-mode) transition are also given. The LCO occurs when the ZF shearing rate (|〈v〉{sub ZF}{sup ′}|) enters the regime Δω{sub k}<|〈V〉{sub ZF}{sup ′}|<τ{sub cr}{sup −1}, where Δω{sub k} is the local turbulence decorrelation rate and τ{sub cr} is the threshold delay time. In the basic predator-prey feedback system, τ{sub cr} is also derived. The I-H transition occurs when |〈V〉{sub E×B}{sup ′}|>τ{sub cr}{sup −1}, where the mean E × B shear flow driven by ion pressure “locks” the DW-ZF system to the H-mode by reducing the delay time below the threshold value.
Consistent theory of turbulent transport in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics.
Kim, Eun-jin
2006-03-03
A theory of turbulent transport is presented in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics with background shear and magnetic fields. We provide theoretical predictions for the transport of magnetic flux, momentum, and particles and turbulent intensities, which show stronger reduction compared with the hydrodynamic case, with different dependences on shearing rate, magnetic field, and values of viscosity, Ohmic diffusion, and particle diffusivity. In particular, particle transport is more severely suppressed than momentum transport, effectively leading to a more efficient momentum transport. The role of magnetic fields in quenching transport without altering the amplitude of flow velocity and in inhibiting the generation of shear flows is elucidated. Implications of the results are discussed.
On the dynamics of turbulent transport near marginal stability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diamond, P.H. [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Hahm, T.S. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.
1995-03-01
A general methodology for describing the dynamics of transport near marginal stability is formulated. Marginal stability is a special case of the more general phenomenon of self-organized criticality. Simple, one field models of the dynamics of tokamak plasma self-organized criticality have been constructed, and include relevant features such as sheared mean flow and transport bifurcations. In such models, slow mode (i.e. large scale, low frequency transport events) correlation times determine the behavior of transport dynamics near marginal stability. To illustrate this, impulse response scaling exponents (z) and turbulent diffusivities (D) have been calculated for the minimal (Burgers) and sheared flow models. For the minimal model, z = 1 (indicating ballastic propagation) and D {approximately}(S{sub 0}{sup 2}){sup 1/3}, where S{sub 0}{sup 2} is the noise strength. With an identically structured noise spectrum and flow with shearing rate exceeding the ambient decorrelation rate for the largest scale transport events, diffusion is recovered with z = 2 and D {approximately} (S{sub 0}{sup 2}){sup 3/5}. This indicates a qualitative change in the dynamics, as well as a reduction in losses. These results are consistent with recent findings from {rho} scaling scans. Several tokamak transport experiments are suggested.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Z. Lin; R.E. Waltz
2007-01-01
@@ Turbulent transport driven by plasma pressure gradients [Tangl978] is one of the most important scientific challenges in burning plasma experiments since the balance between turbulent transport and the self-heating by the fusion products (a-particles) determines the performance of a fusion reactor like ITER.
Garaud, Pascale; Gagnier, Damien; Verhoeven, Jan
2017-03-01
Shear-induced turbulence could play a significant role in mixing momentum and chemical species in stellar radiation zones, as discussed by Zahn. In this paper we analyze the results of direct numerical simulations of stratified plane Couette flows, in the limit of rapid thermal diffusion, to measure the turbulent viscosity and the turbulent diffusivity of a passive tracer as a function of the local shear and the local stratification. We find that the stability criterion proposed by Zahn, namely that the product of the gradient Richardson number and the Prandtl number must be smaller than a critical values {(J\\Pr )}c for instability, adequately accounts for the transition to turbulence in the flow, with {(J\\Pr )}c≃ 0.007. This result recovers and confirms the prior findings of Prat et al. Zahn’s model for the turbulent diffusivity and viscosity, namely that the mixing coefficient should be proportional to the ratio of the thermal diffusivity to the gradient Richardson number, does not satisfactorily match our numerical data. It fails (as expected) in the limit of large stratification where the Richardson number exceeds the aforementioned threshold for instability, but it also fails in the limit of low stratification where the turbulent eddy scale becomes limited by the computational domain size. We propose a revised model for turbulent mixing by diffusive stratified shear instabilities that properly accounts for both limits, fits our data satisfactorily, and recovers Zahn’s model in the limit of large Reynolds numbers.
Reducing Turbulent Transport in Toroidal Configurations via Shaping
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
H.E. Mynick, N. Pomphrey and P. Xanthopoulos
2011-04-20
Recent progress in reducing turbulent transport in stellarators and tokamaks by 3D shaping using a stellarator optimization code in conjunction with a gyrokinetic code is presented. The original applications of the method focussed on ion temperature gradient transport in a quasi-axisymmetric stellarator design. Here, an examination of both other turbulence channels and other starting configurations is initiated. It is found that the designs evolved for transport from ion temperature gradient turbulence also display reduced transport from other transport channels whose modes are also stabilized by improved curvature, such as electron temperature gradient and ballooning modes. The optimizer is also applied to evolving from a tokamak, finding appreciable turbulence reduction for these devices as well. From these studies, improved understanding is obtained of why the deformations found by the optimizer are beneficial, and these deformations are related to earlier theoretical work in both stellarators and tokamaks.
Turbulence characteristics in grassland canopies and implications for tracer transport
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Nemitz
2009-01-01
Full Text Available In-canopy turbulence is a required input to study pollutant cycling and chemistry within plant canopies and to link concentrations and sources. Despite the importance of grasslands worldwide, most previous work has focused on forests and crops. Here, turbulence parameters in a mature agricultural grassland canopy were measured with a combination of a small ultrasonic anemometer, hotwire anemometry and a radon (Rn tracer technique, as part of a measurement to study ammonia (NH_{3} exchange with grassland. The measurements are used to derive vertical profiles of basic turbulent parameters, for quadrant-hole analysis of the two-parametric frequency distributions of u'−w' and to derive in-canopy eddy diffusivities as input for models of in-canopy tracer transport. The results are in line with previous measurements on taller canopies, but shows increased decoupling between in-canopy flow and above-canopy turbulence. The comparison of sonic anemometry and Rn measurements implies that Lagrangian time-scales must decrease sharply at the ground, with important implications for estimating the magnitude of ground-level and soil emissions from concentration measurements. Atmospheric stability above and within the canopy has little influence on the standard deviation of vertical wind component inside the canopy. Use of the turbulence parameters in an analytical Lagrangian framework, which is here validated for heat transfer, suggests that measured in-canopy profiles of NH_{3} are consistent with a ground-level source, presumably from senescent plant parts, which is recaptured by the overlying canopy.
Turbulence characteristics in grassland canopies and implications for tracer transport
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Nemitz
2009-08-01
Full Text Available In-canopy turbulence is a required input to study pollutant cycling and chemistry within plant canopies and to link concentrations and sources. Despite the importance of grasslands worldwide, most previous work has focused on forests and crops. Here, turbulence parameters in a mature agricultural grassland canopy were measured with a combination of a small ultrasonic anemometer, hotwire anemometry and a radon (Rn tracer technique, as part of a measurement to study ammonia (NH_{3} exchange with grassland. The measurements are used to derive vertical profiles of basic turbulent parameters, for quadrant-hole analysis of the two-parametric frequency distributions of u'−w' and to derive in-canopy eddy diffusivities as input for models of in-canopy tracer transport. The results are in line with previous measurements on taller canopies, but shows increased decoupling between in-canopy flow and above-canopy turbulence. The comparison of sonic anemometry and Rn measurements implies that Lagrangian time-scales must decrease sharply at the ground, with important implications for estimating the magnitude of ground-level and soil emissions from concentration measurements. Atmospheric stability above and within the canopy has little influence on the standard deviation of vertical wind component inside the canopy. Use of the turbulence parameters in an analytical Lagrangian framework, which is here validated for heat transfer, suggests that measured in-canopy profiles of NH_{3} are consistent with a ground-level source, presumably from senescent plant parts, which is recaptured by the overlying canopy.
Turbulent Flow and Sand Dune Dynamics: Identifying Controls on Aeolian Sediment Transport
Weaver, C. M.; Wiggs, G.
2007-12-01
Sediment transport models are founded on cubic power relationships between the transport rate and time averaged flow parameters. These models have achieved limited success and recent aeolian and fluvial research has focused on the modelling and measurement of sediment transport by temporally varying flow conditions. Studies have recognised turbulence as a driving force in sediment transport and have highlighted the importance of coherent flow structures in sediment transport systems. However, the exact mechanisms are still unclear. Furthermore, research in the fluvial environment has identified the significance of turbulent structures for bedform morphology and spacing. However, equivalent research in the aeolian domain is absent. This paper reports the findings of research carried out to characterise the importance of turbulent flow parameters in aeolian sediment transport and determine how turbulent energy and turbulent structures change in response to dune morphology. The relative importance of mean and turbulent wind parameters on aeolian sediment flux was examined in the Skeleton Coast, Namibia. Measurements of wind velocity (using sonic anemometers) and sand transport (using grain impact sensors) at a sampling frequency of 10 Hz were made across a flat surface and along transects on a 9 m high barchan dune. Mean wind parameters and mass sand flux were measured using cup anemometers and wedge-shaped sand traps respectively. Vertical profile data from the sonic anemometers were used to compute turbulence and turbulent stress (Reynolds stress; instantaneous horizontal and vertical fluctuations; coherent flow structures) and their relationship with respect to sand transport and evolving dune morphology. On the flat surface time-averaged parameters generally fail to characterise sand transport dynamics, particularly as the averaging interval is reduced. However, horizontal wind speed correlates well with sand transport even with short averaging times. Quadrant
Transport and turbulence in Tore Supra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garbet, X.; Capes, H.; Clairet, F.; Colas, L.; Dubois, M.A.; Haas, J.C.M. de; Devynck, P.; Gil, C.; Ghendrih, P.; Grosman, A.; Guiziou, L.; Hoang, G.T.; Hutter, T.; Laporte, P.; Laviron, C.; Paume, M.; Payan, J.; Sabot, R.; Zou, X.L.; Truc, A. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises; Hennequin, P. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises; Gervais, F. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 -Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises; Quemeneur, A. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises; Gresillon, D. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises
1995-05-01
Several discharges have been analysed in Tore Supra in order to improve the understanding of anomalous transport. In ohmic discharges, it has been shown that both particle and heat diffusion coefficients improve with increasing density, then saturate. The level of edge density fluctuations behave in the same way. In the presence of additional heating, the bulk and the edge turbulences behave differently. The level of edge density fluctuations remains constant in most discharges with additional heating (up to 8 MW). In practice, it only depends on edge conditions. On the contrary, the level of core magnetic fluctuations increases systematically with any additional power. Finally, a lowering of the level of the edge density fluctuations has been observed when using the Tore Supra ergodic divertor. This improvement is accompanied by the onset of a temperature pedestal between the plasma bulk and the ergodic layer. This explains why the global confinement remains unchanged in presence of the ergodic divertor in spite of the reduced radius of the last closed magnetic surface. (orig.).
SIMULATION OF NOx FORMATION IN TURBULENT SWIRLING COMBUSTION USING A USM TURBULENCE-CHEMISTRY MODEL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周力行; 乔丽; 张健
2003-01-01
A unified second-order moment (USM) turbulence-chemistry model for simulating NOx formation in turbulent combustion is proposed.All of correlations,including the correlation of the reaction-rate coefficient fluctuation with the concentration fluctuation,are closed by the transport equations in the same form.This model discards the approximation of series expansion of the exponential function or the approximation of using the product of several 1-D PDF's instead of a joint PDF.It is much simpler than other refined models,such as the PDF transport equation model and the conditional moment closure model.The proposed model is used to simulate methane-air swirling turbulent combustion and NOx formation.The prediction results are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Numerical experiments modelling turbulent flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trefilík Jiří
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The work aims at investigation of the possibilities of modelling transonic flows mainly in external aerodynamics. New results are presented and compared with reference data and previously achieved results. For the turbulent flow simulations two modifications of the basic k – ω model are employed: SST and TNT. The numerical solution was achieved by using the MacCormack scheme on structured non-ortogonal grids. Artificial dissipation was added to improve the numerical stability.
Pucci, F.; Malara, F.; Perri, S.; Zimbardo, G.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.; Valentini, F.
2016-07-01
The transport of energetic particles in the presence of magnetic turbulence is an important but unsolved problem of space physics and astrophysics. Here, we aim at advancing the understanding of energetic particle transport by means of a new numerical model of synthetic magnetic turbulence. The model builds up a turbulent magnetic field as a superposition of space-localized fluctuations at different spatial scales. The resulting spectrum is isotropic with an adjustable spectral index. The model allows us to reproduce a spectrum broader than four decades, and to regulate the level of intermittency through a technique based on the p-model. Adjusting the simulation parameters close to solar wind conditions at 1 au, we inject ˜1 MeV protons in the turbulence realization and compute the parallel and perpendicular diffusion coefficients as a function of spectral extension, turbulence level, and intermittency. While a number of previous results are recovered in the appropriate limits, including anomalous transport regimes for low turbulence levels, we find that long spectral extensions tend to reduce the diffusion coefficients. Furthermore, we find for the first time that intermittency has an influence on parallel transport but not on perpendicular transport, with the parallel diffusion coefficient increasing with the level of intermittency. We also obtain the distribution of particle inversion times for parallel velocity, a power law for more than one decade, and compare it with the pitch angle scattering times observed in the solar wind. This parametric study can be useful to interpret particle propagation properties in astrophysical systems.
Kolmogorov Behavior of Near-Wall Turbulence and Its Application in Turbulence Modeling
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Lumley, John L.
1992-01-01
The near-wall behavior of turbulence is re-examined in a way different from that proposed by Hanjalic and Launder and followers. It is shown that at a certain distance from the wall, all energetic large eddies will reduce to Kolmogorov eddies (the smallest eddies in turbulence). All the important wall parameters, such as friction velocity, viscous length scale, and mean strain rate at the wall, are characterized by Kolmogorov microscales. According to this Kolmogorov behavior of near-wall turbulence, the turbulence quantities, such as turbulent kinetic energy, dissipation rate, etc. at the location where the large eddies become Kolmogorov eddies, can be estimated by using both direct numerical simulation (DNS) data and asymptotic analysis of near-wall turbulence. This information will provide useful boundary conditions for the turbulent transport equations. As an example, the concept is incorporated in the standard k-epsilon model which is then applied to channel and boundary flows. Using appropriate boundary conditions (based on Kolmogorov behavior of near-wall turbulence), there is no need for any wall-modification to the k-epsilon equations (including model constants). Results compare very well with the DNS and experimental data.
Particle acceleration, transport and turbulence in cosmic and heliospheric physics
Matthaeus, W.
1992-01-01
In this progress report, the long term goals, recent scientific progress, and organizational activities are described. The scientific focus of this annual report is in three areas: first, the physics of particle acceleration and transport, including heliospheric modulation and transport, shock acceleration and galactic propagation and reacceleration of cosmic rays; second, the development of theories of the interaction of turbulence and large scale plasma and magnetic field structures, as in winds and shocks; third, the elucidation of the nature of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence processes and the role such turbulence processes might play in heliospheric, galactic, cosmic ray physics, and other space physics applications.
Second order closure modeling of turbulent buoyant wall plumes
Zhu, Gang; Lai, Ming-Chia; Shih, Tsan-Hsing
1992-01-01
Non-intrusive measurements of scalar and momentum transport in turbulent wall plumes, using a combined technique of laser Doppler anemometry and laser-induced fluorescence, has shown some interesting features not present in the free jet or plumes. First, buoyancy-generation of turbulence is shown to be important throughout the flow field. Combined with low-Reynolds-number turbulence and near-wall effect, this may raise the anisotropic turbulence structure beyond the prediction of eddy-viscosity models. Second, the transverse scalar fluxes do not correspond only to the mean scalar gradients, as would be expected from gradient-diffusion modeling. Third, higher-order velocity-scalar correlations which describe turbulent transport phenomena could not be predicted using simple turbulence models. A second-order closure simulation of turbulent adiabatic wall plumes, taking into account the recent progress in scalar transport, near-wall effect and buoyancy, is reported in the current study to compare with the non-intrusive measurements. In spite of the small velocity scale of the wall plumes, the results showed that low-Reynolds-number correction is not critically important to predict the adiabatic cases tested and cannot be applied beyond the maximum velocity location. The mean and turbulent velocity profiles are very closely predicted by the second-order closure models. but the scalar field is less satisfactory, with the scalar fluctuation level underpredicted. Strong intermittency of the low-Reynolds-number flow field is suspected of these discrepancies. The trends in second- and third-order velocity-scalar correlations, which describe turbulent transport phenomena, are also predicted in general, with the cross-streamwise correlations better than the streamwise one. Buoyancy terms modeling the pressure-correlation are shown to improve the prediction slightly. The effects of equilibrium time-scale ratio and boundary condition are also discussed.
Dense granular flow rheology in turbulent bedload transport
Maurin, Raphael; Frey, Philippe
2016-01-01
The local granular rheology is investigated numerically in idealised turbulent bedload transport configurations. Using a coupled fluid-discrete element model, the stress tensor is computed as a function of the depth for a series of simulations varying the Shields number, the specific density and the particle diameter. The results are analyzed in the framework of the $\\mu(I)$ rheology and exhibit a collapse of both the shear to normal stress ratio and the solid volume fraction over a wide range of inertial numbers. The effect of the interstitial fluid on the granular rheology is shown to be negligible, supporting recent work suggesting the absence of a clear transition between the free-fall and the turbulent regime. In addition, the data collapse is observed up to unexpectedly high inertial numbers $I\\sim2$, challenging the existing conceptions and parametrization of the $\\mu(I)$ rheology. Focusing upon bedload transport modelling, the results are pragmatically analyzed in the $\\mu(I)$ framework in order to pr...
Variable Density Effects in Stochastic Lagrangian Models for Turbulent Combustion
2016-07-20
PDF methods have proven useful in modelling turbulent combustion, primarily because convection and complex reactions can be treated without the need...modelled transport equation fir the joint PDF of velocity, turbulent frequency and composition (species mass fractions and enthalpy ). The advantages of...PDF methods in dealing with chemical reaction and convection are preserved irrespective of density variation. Since the density variation in a typical
Helicity Transfer in Turbulent Models
Biferale, L; Toschi, F
1998-01-01
Helicity transfer in a shell model of turbulence is investigated. We show that a Reynolds-independent helicity flux is present in the model when the large scale forcing breaks inversion symmetry. The equivalent in Shell Models of the ``2/15 law'', obtained from helicity conservation in Navier-Stokes eqs., is derived and tested. The odd part of helicity flux statistic is found to be dominated by a few very intense events. In a particular model, we calculate analytically leading and sub-leading contribution to the scaling of triple velocity correlation.
Turbulent flow and scalar transport in a large wind farm
Porte-Agel, F.; Markfort, C. D.; Zhang, W.
2012-12-01
Wind energy is one of the fastest growing sources of renewable energy world-wide, and it is expected that many more large-scale wind farms will be built and cover a significant portion of land and ocean surfaces. By extracting kinetic energy from the atmospheric boundary layer and converting it to electricity, wind farms may affect the transport of momentum, heat, moisture and trace gases (e.g. CO_2) between the atmosphere and the land surface locally and globally. Understanding wind farm-atmosphere interaction is complicated by the effects of turbine array configuration, wind farm size, land-surface characteristics, and atmospheric thermal stability. A wind farm of finite length may be modeled as an added roughness or as a canopy in large-scale weather and climate models. However, it is not clear which analogy is physically more appropriate. Also, surface scalar flux is affected by wind farms and needs to be properly parameterized in meso-scale and/or high-resolution numerical models. Experiments involving model wind farms, with perfectly aligned and staggered configurations, having the same turbine distribution density, were conducted in a thermally-controlled boundary-layer wind tunnel. A neutrally stratified turbulent boundary layer was developed with a surface heat source. Measurements of the turbulent flow and fluxes over and through the wind farm were made using a custom x-wire/cold-wire anemometer; and surface scalar flux was measured with an array of surface-mounted heat flux sensors far within the quasi-developed region of the wind-farm. The turbulence statistics exhibit similar properties to those of canopy-type flows, but retain some characteristics of surface-layer flows in a limited region above the wind farms as well. The flow equilibrates faster and the overall momentum absorption is higher for the staggered compared to the aligned farm, which is consistent with canopy scaling and leads to a larger effective roughness. Although the overall surface
Turbulent transport and structural transition in confined plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae; Fukuyama, Atsushi; Yagi, Masatoshi
1996-10-01
Theory of the far-nonequilibrium transport of plasmas is described. Analytic as well as simulation studies are developed. The subcritical nature of turbulence and the mechanism for self-sustaining are discussed. The transport coefficient is obtained. The pressure gradient is introduced as an order parameter, and the bifurcation from the collisional transport to the turbulent one is shown. The generation of the electric field and its influence on the turbulent transport are analyzed. The bifurcation of the radial electric field structure is addressed. The hysteresis appears in the flux-gradient relation. This bifurcation causes the multifold states in the plasma structure, driving the transition in transport coefficient or the self-generating oscillations in the flux. Structural formation and dynamics of plasma profiles are explained. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yi, S.; Kwon, J. M.; Rhee, T. [National Fusion Research Institute, Eoeun-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Diamond, P. H. [National Fusion Research Institute, Eoeun-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences and Department of Physics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0429 (United States)
2012-11-15
This paper reports the results of gyrokinetic simulation studies of ion temperature gradient driven turbulence which investigate the role of non-resonant modes in turbulence spreading, turbulence regulation, and self-generated plasma rotation. Non-resonant modes, which are those without a rational surface within the simulation domain, are identified as nonlinearly driven, radially extended convective cells. Even though the amplitudes of such convective cells are much smaller than that of the resonant, localized turbulence eddies, we find from bicoherence analysis that the mode-mode interactions in the presence of such convective cells increase the efficiency of turbulence spreading associated with nonlocality phenomena. Artificial suppression of the convective cells shows that turbulence spreading is reduced, and that the turbulence intensity profile is more localized. The more localized turbulence intensity profile produces stronger Reynolds stress and E Multiplication-Sign B shear flows, which in turn results in more effective turbulence self-regulation. This suggests that models without non-resonant modes may significantly underestimate turbulent fluctuation levels and transport.
Model of non-stationary, inhomogeneous turbulence
Bragg, Andrew D.; Kurien, Susan; Clark, Timothy T.
2017-02-01
We compare results from a spectral model for non-stationary, inhomogeneous turbulence (Besnard et al. in Theor Comp Fluid Dyn 8:1-35, 1996) with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of a shear-free mixing layer (SFML) (Tordella et al. in Phys Rev E 77:016309, 2008). The SFML is used as a test case in which the efficacy of the model closure for the physical-space transport of the fluid velocity field can be tested in a flow with inhomogeneity, without the additional complexity of mean-flow coupling. The model is able to capture certain features of the SFML quite well for intermediate to long times, including the evolution of the mixing-layer width and turbulent kinetic energy. At short-times, and for more sensitive statistics such as the generation of the velocity field anisotropy, the model is less accurate. We propose two possible causes for the discrepancies. The first is the local approximation to the pressure-transport and the second is the a priori spherical averaging used to reduce the dimensionality of the solution space of the model, from wavevector to wavenumber space. DNS data are then used to gauge the relative importance of both possible deficiencies in the model.
Simulation and modeling of turbulent flows
Gatski, Thomas B; Lumley, John L
1996-01-01
This book provides students and researchers in fluid engineering with an up-to-date overview of turbulent flow research in the areas of simulation and modeling. A key element of the book is the systematic, rational development of turbulence closure models and related aspects of modern turbulent flow theory and prediction. Starting with a review of the spectral dynamics of homogenous and inhomogeneous turbulent flows, succeeding chapters deal with numerical simulation techniques, renormalization group methods and turbulent closure modeling. Each chapter is authored by recognized leaders in their respective fields, and each provides a thorough and cohesive treatment of the subject.
A dual-scale turbulence model for gas-liquid bubbly flows☆
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiaoping Guan; Zhaoqi Li; Lijun Wang⁎; Xi Li; Youwei Cheng
2015-01-01
A dual-scale turbulence model is applied to simulate cocurrent upward gas–liquid bubbly flows and validated with available experimental data. In the model, liquid phase turbulence is split into shear-induced and bubble-induced turbulence. Single-phase standard k-εmodel is used to compute shear-induced turbulence and another transport equation is added to model bubble-induced turbulence. In the latter transport equation, energy loss due to interface drag is the production term, and the characteristic length of bubble-induced turbulence, simply the bubble diameter in this work, is introduced to model the dissipation term. The simulated results agree well with experimental data of the test cases and it is demonstrated that the proposed dual-scale turbulence model outperforms other models. Analysis of the predicted turbulence shows that the main part of turbulent kinetic en-ergy is the bubble-induced one while the shear-induced turbulent viscosity predominates within turbulent vis-cosity, especially at the pipe center. The underlying reason is the apparently different scales for the two kinds of turbulence production mechanisms:the shear-induced turbulence is on the scale of the whole pipe while the bubble-induced turbulence is on the scale of bubble diameter. Therefore, the model reflects the multi-scale phe-nomenon involved in gas–liquid bubbly flows.
Turbulence and mass-transports in stratocumulus clouds
Ghate, Virendra P.
.3 and positive during periods with CBR greater than 0.3. A 14 hour period of stratocumulus cloud on March 25, 2005 was analyzed to study the diurnal changes in the turbulence structure and mass transports. The variance near cloud base during the day time when the BL turbulence is primarily due to surface buoyancy production was higher than during the nighttime when the BL turbulence is driven by radiative cooling near the cloud top. Output from a one dimensional radiative transfer model was analyzed to study the vertical structure of the radiative fluxes. A radiative velocity scale analogous to the surface convective velocity scale is proposed to assess the relative importance of radiative cooling near cloud top in generating turbulence compared with the surface buoyancy production. An attempt was also made to calculate the hourly liquid water flux by combining the high temporal resolution (20 sec) liquid water content estimates from the radar reflectivity and a microwave radiometer with the radar observed vertical velocity. The liquid water flux was found to peak at a level below the cloud top and show a divergence with height that was similar to that from model simulations.
On Runaway Transport under Magnetic Turbulence in Tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castejon, F.; Equilior, S.; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, L. [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain)
2001-07-01
The influence of magnetic turbulence on runaway transport has been studied. The evolution of runaway distribution function has been calculated using Electra a 2D code in momentum space and 1D in radius coordinate. The code considers the effect of averaging the turbulence by runaway orbits. Then Hard X-Ray emission spectrum is estimated and compared with experimental results of TJ-1 tokamak, obtaining a remarkable agreement. (Author) 15 refs.
Garaud, P; Verhoeven, J
2016-01-01
Shear-induced turbulence could play a significant role in mixing momentum and chemical species in stellar radiation zones, as discussed by Zahn (1974). In this paper we analyze the results of direct numerical simulations of stratified plane Couette flows, in the limit of rapid thermal diffusion, to measure the turbulent diffusivity and turbulent viscosity as a function of the local shear and the local stratification. We find that the stability criterion proposed by Zahn (1974), namely that the product of the gradient Richardson number and the Prandtl number must be smaller than a critical values $(J\\Pr)_c$ for instability, adequately accounts for the transition to turbulence in the flow, with $(J\\Pr)_c \\simeq 0.007$. This result recovers and confirms the prior findings of Prat et al. (2016). Zahn's model for the turbulent diffusivity and viscosity (Zahn 1992), namely that the mixing coefficient should be proportional to the ratio of the thermal diffusivity to the gradient Richardson number, does not satisfact...
Sogachev, Andrey; Kelly, Mark
2016-03-01
Displacement height ( d) is an important parameter in the simple modelling of wind speed and vertical fluxes above vegetative canopies, such as forests. Here we show that, aside from implicit definition through a (displaced) logarithmic profile, accepted formulations for d do not consistently predict flow properties above a forest. Turbulent transport can affect the displacement height, and is an integral part of what is called the roughness sublayer. We develop a more general approach for estimation of d, through production of turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent transport, and show how previous stress-based formulations for displacement height can be seen as simplified cases of a more general definition including turbulent transport. Further, we also give a simplified and practical form for d that is in agreement with the general approach, exploiting the concept of vortex thickness scale from mixing-layer theory. We assess the new and previous displacement height formulations by using flow statistics derived from the atmospheric boundary-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes model SCADIS as well as from wind-tunnel observations, for different vegetation types and flow regimes in neutral conditions. The new formulations tend to produce smaller d than stress-based forms, falling closer to the classic logarithmically-defined displacement height. The new, more generally defined, displacement height appears to be more compatible with profiles of components of the turbulent kinetic energy budget, accounting for the combined effects of turbulent transport and shear production. The Coriolis force also plays a role, introducing wind-speed dependence into the behaviour of the roughness sublayer; this affects the turbulent transport, shear production, stress, and wind speed, as well as the displacement height, depending on the character of the forest. We further show how our practical (`mixing-layer') form for d matches the new turbulence-based relation, as well as
Charge transport scaling in turbulent electroconvection
Tsai, Peichun; Daya, Zahir A.; Morris, Stephen W.
2005-01-01
We describe a local-power-law scaling theory for the mean dimensionless electric current Nu in turbulent electroconvection. The experimental system consists of a weakly conducting, submicron-thick liquid-crystal film supported in the annulus between concentric circular electrodes. It is driven into
Bailly, Christophe
2015-01-01
This book covers the major problems of turbulence and turbulent processes, including physical phenomena, their modeling and their simulation. After a general introduction in Chapter 1 illustrating many aspects dealing with turbulent flows, averaged equations and kinetic energy budgets are provided in Chapter 2. The concept of turbulent viscosity as a closure of the Reynolds stress is also introduced. Wall-bounded flows are presented in Chapter 3, and aspects specific to boundary layers and channel or pipe flows are also pointed out. Free shear flows, namely free jets and wakes, are considered in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 deals with vortex dynamics. Homogeneous turbulence, isotropy, and dynamics of isotropic turbulence are presented in Chapters 6 and 7. Turbulence is then described both in the physical space and in the wave number space. Time dependent numerical simulations are presented in Chapter 8, where an introduction to large eddy simulation is offered. The last three chapters of the book summarize remarka...
Turbulent transport in 2D collisionless guide field reconnection
Muñoz, P A; Kilian, P
2016-01-01
Transport in collisionless plasmas is usually called anomalous, being due to the interaction between the particles and the self-generated turbulence by their collective interactions. Because of its relevance for astrophysical and space plasmas, we explore the excitation of turbulence in current sheets prone to component- or guide-field reconnection, a process not well understood, yet. We analyze the anomalous transport properties by using 2.5D Particle-in-Cell (PiC) code simulations. We split off the mean, slow variation (in contrast to the fast turbulent fluctuations) of the macroscopic observables and determine the main transport terms of the generalized Ohm's law. We verify our findings by comparing with the independently determined slowing-down rate of the macroscopic currents and with the transport terms obtained by the first order correlations of the turbulent fluctuations. We find that the turbulence is most intense in the "low density" separatrix region of guide-field reconnection. It is excited by st...
Environmental forecasting and turbulence modeling
Hunt, J. C. R.
This review describes the fundamental assumptions and current methodologies of the two main kinds of environmental forecast; the first is valid for a limited period of time into the future and over a limited space-time ‘target’, and is largely determined by the initial and preceding state of the environment, such as the weather or pollution levels, up to the time when the forecast is issued and by its state at the edges of the region being considered; the second kind provides statistical information over long periods of time and/or over large space-time targets, so that they only depend on the statistical averages of the initial and ‘edge’ conditions. Environmental forecasts depend on the various ways that models are constructed. These range from those based on the ‘reductionist’ methodology (i.e., the combination of separate, scientifically based, models for the relevant processes) to those based on statistical methodologies, using a mixture of data and scientifically based empirical modeling. These are, as a rule, focused on specific quantities required for the forecast. The persistence and predictability of events associated with environmental and turbulent flows and the reasons for variation in the accuracy of their forecasts (of the first and second kinds) are now better understood and better modeled. This has partly resulted from using analogous results of disordered chaotic systems, and using the techniques of calculating ensembles of realizations, ideally involving several different models, so as to incorporate in the probabilistic forecasts a wider range of possible events. The rationale for such an approach needs to be developed. However, other insights have resulted from the recognition of the ordered, though randomly occurring, nature of the persistent motions in these flows, whose scales range from those of synoptic weather patterns (whether storms or ‘blocked’ anticyclones) to small scale vortices. These eigen states can be predicted
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Li-bing; Liu Yu-lu; Qiu Xiang
2003-01-01
In this paper, the turbulence characteristics were numerically investigated in an asymmetric turbulent channel flow and the computational results were compared with the relevant experimental data. It shows that the results are consistent with the experiments and there exist Counter-Gradient Momentum Transport(CGMT) phenomena in the central region near the smooth wall, and this region is as large as 6 percent of the channel width. In addition, a region, in which Counter-Gradient-Transport (CGT) phenomena occur more evidently, is found close to the rough wall. These results can help to gain a deeper insight into the mechanism of CGT phenomena.
Meheut, H; Lesur, G; Joos, M; Longaretti, P -Y
2015-01-01
Angular momentum transport in accretion discs is often believed to be due to magnetohydrodynamic turbulence mediated by the magnetorotational instability. Despite an abundant literature on the MRI, the parameters governing the saturation amplitude of the turbulence are poorly understood and the existence of an asymptotic behavior in the Ohmic diffusion regime is not clearly established. We investigate the properties of the turbulent state in the small magnetic Prandtl number limit. Since this is extremely computationally expensive, we also study the relevance and range of applicability of the most common subgrid scale models for this problem. Unstratified shearing boxes simulations are performed both in the compressible and incompressible limits, with a resolution up to 800 cells per disc scale height. The latter constitutes the largest resolution ever attained for a simulation of MRI turbulence. In the presence of a mean magnetic field threading the domain, angular momentum transport converges to a finite va...
Turbulent transport in 2D collisionless guide field reconnection
Muñoz, P. A.; Büchner, J.; Kilian, P.
2017-02-01
Transport in hot and dilute, i.e., collisionless, astrophysical and space, plasmas is called "anomalous." This transport is due to the interaction between the particles and the self-generated turbulence by their collective interactions. The anomalous transport has very different and not well known properties compared to the transport due to binary collisions, dominant in colder and denser plasmas. Because of its relevance for astrophysical and space plasmas, we explore the excitation of turbulence in current sheets prone to component- or guide-field reconnection, a process not well understood yet. This configuration is typical for stellar coronae, and it is created in the laboratory for which a 2.5D geometry applies. In our analysis, in addition to the immediate vicinity of the X-line, we also include regions outside and near the separatrices. We analyze the anomalous transport properties by using 2.5D Particle-in-Cell code simulations. We split off the mean slow variation (in contrast to the fast turbulent fluctuations) of the macroscopic observables and determine the main transport terms of the generalized Ohm's law. We verify our findings by comparing with the independently determined slowing-down rate of the macroscopic currents (due to a net momentum transfer from particles to waves) and with the transport terms obtained by the first order correlations of the turbulent fluctuations. We find that the turbulence is most intense in the "low density" separatrix region of guide-field reconnection. It is excited by streaming instabilities, is mainly electrostatic and "patchy" in space, and so is the associated anomalous transport. Parts of the energy exchange between turbulence and particles are reversible and quasi-periodic. The remaining irreversible anomalous resistivity can be parametrized by an effective collision rate ranging from the local ion-cyclotron to the lower-hybrid frequency. The contributions to the parallel and the perpendicular (to the magnetic
Kim, S.-W.; Chen, C.-P.
1988-01-01
The paper presents a multiple-time-scale turbulence model of a single point closure and a simplified split-spectrum method. Consideration is given to a class of turbulent boundary layer flows and of separated and/or swirling elliptic turbulent flows. For the separated and/or swirling turbulent flows, the present turbulence model yielded significantly improved computational results over those obtained with the standard k-epsilon turbulence model.
Momentum and scalar transport at the turbulent/non-turbulent interface of a jet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Westerweel, J.; Fukushima, C.; Pedersen, Jakob Martin
2009-01-01
Conditionally sampled measurements with particle image velocimetry (PIV) of a turbulent round submerged liquid jet in a laboratory have been taken at Re = 2 x 10(3) between 60 and 100 nozzle diameters from the nozzle in order to investigate the dynamics and transport processes at the continuous...... and well-defined bounding interface between the turbulent and non-turbulent regions of flow. The jet carries a fluorescent dye measured with planar laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), and the surface discontinuity in the scalar concentration is identified as the fluctuating turbulent jet interface. Thence...... the mean outward 'boundary entrainment' velocity is derived and shown to be a constant fraction (about 0.07) of the the mean jet velocity on the centreline. Profiles of the conditional mean velocity, mean scalar and momentum flux show that at the interface there are clear discontinuities in the mean axial...
Electron turbulence and transport in large magnetic islands
Morton, Lucas
2016-10-01
Magnetic islands, observed in both reversed-field pinches (RFPs) and tokamaks, often display unexpected turbulence and transport characteristics. For the first time in an RFP, the high repetition rate Thomson scattering diagnostic on MST has captured a 2D image of the rotating electron temperature structure of a magnetic island in a single discharge. MHD modeling using edge magnetic signals implies a 16 cm wide m,n =1,6 tearing mode island which completely overlaps a 5.5 cm n =7 island (12 cm between island centers). The 3D field is partially chaotic, but still reflective of the n =6 island structure. The measured temperature structure matches the shape and location of the n =6 partially chaotic (or `remnant') island. Contrary to the usual assumption that islands have flat internal temperature, the electron temperature is peaked inside the remnant magnetic island due to ohmic heating. The temperature peaking implies a local effective perpendicular conductivity 10-40 m2/s inside the remnant island. This agrees quantitatively with an effective perpendicular conductivity of 16 m2/s estimated using the magnetic diffusion coefficient (evaluated at the electron mean free path) calculated from the modeled chaotic field. Statistical analysis of measurement ensembles with lower time resolution implies that remnant island heating is common in MST discharges. To investigate the role of turbulence near a magnetic island, the 2D structure of long-wavelength density turbulence has been mapped around a large applied static m,n =2,1 L-mode island in the DIII-D tokamak. The turbulence exhibits intriguing spatial structure. Fluctuations are enhanced several-fold (compared to the no-island case) on the inboard side of the X-point, but not on the outboard side of the X-point and are also reduced near the O-point. This work is supported by the NSF and US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698, and DE-FG02-89ER53296.
Cross-field transport in Goldreich-Sridhar magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.
Fraschetti, F
2016-01-01
I derive analytically the temporal dependence of the perpendicular transport coefficient of a charged particle in the three-dimensional anisotropic turbulence conjectured by Goldreich-Sridhar by implementing multispacecraft constraints on the turbulence power spectrum. The particle motion away from the turbulent local field line is assessed as gradient-curvature drift of the guiding center and compared with the magnetic field line random walk. At inertial scales much smaller than the turbulence outer scale, particles decorrelate from field lines in a free-streaming motion, with no diffusion. In the solar wind at 1 AU, for energy sufficiently small (<1 keV protons), the perpendicular average displacement due to field line tangling generally dominates over two decades of turbulent scales. However, for higher energies (≃25 MeV protons) within the range of multispacecraft measurements, the longitudinal spread originating from transport due to gradient-curvature drift reaches up to ≃10^{∘}-20^{∘}. This result highlights the role of perpendicular transport in the interpretation of interplanetary and interstellar data.
Approximate Model for Turbulent Stagnation Point Flow.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dechant, Lawrence [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2016-01-01
Here we derive an approximate turbulent self-similar model for a class of favorable pressure gradient wedge-like flows, focusing on the stagnation point limit. While the self-similar model provides a useful gross flow field estimate this approach must be combined with a near wall model is to determine skin friction and by Reynolds analogy the heat transfer coefficient. The combined approach is developed in detail for the stagnation point flow problem where turbulent skin friction and Nusselt number results are obtained. Comparison to the classical Van Driest (1958) result suggests overall reasonable agreement. Though the model is only valid near the stagnation region of cylinders and spheres it nonetheless provides a reasonable model for overall cylinder and sphere heat transfer. The enhancement effect of free stream turbulence upon the laminar flow is used to derive a similar expression which is valid for turbulent flow. Examination of free stream enhanced laminar flow suggests that the rather than enhancement of a laminar flow behavior free stream disturbance results in early transition to turbulent stagnation point behavior. Excellent agreement is shown between enhanced laminar flow and turbulent flow behavior for high levels, e.g. 5% of free stream turbulence. Finally the blunt body turbulent stagnation results are shown to provide realistic heat transfer results for turbulent jet impingement problems.
Gyrokinetic Simulation of Global Turbulent Transport Properties in Tokamak Experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, W.X.; Lin, Z.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.; Ethier, S.; Lewandowski, J.L.V.; Rewoldt, G.; Hahm, T.S.; Manickam, J.
2006-01-01
A general geometry gyro-kinetic model for particle simulation of plasma turbulence in tokamak experiments is described. It incorporates the comprehensive influence of noncircular cross section, realistic plasma profiles, plasma rotation, neoclassical (equilibrium) electric fields, and Coulomb collisions. An interesting result of global turbulence development in a shaped tokamak plasma is presented with regard to nonlinear turbulence spreading into the linearly stable region. The mutual interaction between turbulence and zonal flows in collisionless plasmas is studied with a focus on identifying possible nonlinear saturation mechanisms for zonal flows. A bursting temporal behavior with a period longer than the geodesic acoustic oscillation period is observed even in a collisionless system. Our simulation results suggest that the zonal flows can drive turbulence. However, this process is too weak to be an effective zonal flow saturation mechanism.
Stochastic models for turbulent reacting flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kerstein, A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)
1993-12-01
The goal of this program is to develop and apply stochastic models of various processes occurring within turbulent reacting flows in order to identify the fundamental mechanisms governing these flows, to support experimental studies of these flows, and to further the development of comprehensive turbulent reacting flow models.
Magnetic Flux Transport by turbulent reconnection in astrophysical flows
Pino, Elisabete M de Gouveia Dal; Santos-Lima, Reinaldo; Guerrero, Gustavo; Kowal, Grzegorz; Lazarian, Alex
2011-01-01
The role of MHD turbulence in astrophysical environments is still highly debated. An important question that permeates this debate is the transport of magnetic flux. This is particularly important, for instance, in the context of star formation. When clouds collapse gravitationally to form stars, there must be some magnetic flux transport. otherwise the new born stars would have magnetic fields several orders of magnitude larger than the observed ones. Also, the magnetic flux that is dragged in the late stages of the formation of a star can remove all the rotational support from the accretion disk that grows around the protostar. The efficiency of the mechanism which is often invoked to allow the transport of magnetic fields in the different stages of star formation, namely, the ambipolar diffusion, has been lately put in check. We here discuss an alternative mechanism for magnetic flux transport which is based on turbulent fast magnetic reconnection. We review recent results obtained from 3D MHD numerical si...
Turbulent transport and structural transition in confined plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I; Yagi, Masatoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Fukuyama, Atsushi [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Engineering
1997-05-01
The theory of far-nonequilibrium transport of plasmas is described. Analytic as well as simulation studies are developed. The subcritical nature coefficient is obtained. The pressure gradient is introduced as an order parameter, and the bifurcation from collisional to turbulent transport is shown. The generation of the electric field and its influence on the turbulent transport are analysed. The bifurcation of the radial electric field structure is addressed. Hysteresis appears in the flux-gradient relation. This bifurcation causes the multifold states in the plasma structure, driving the transition in the transport coefficient or the self-generating oscillations in the flux. The structural formation and dynamics of plasma profiles are explained. (Author).
Transport of parallel momentum by collisionless drift wave turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Diamond, P.H.; McDevitt, C.J.; Gurcan, O.E.
2008-01-01
This paper presents a novel, unified approach to the theory of turbulent transport of parallel momentum by collisionless drift waves. The physics of resonant and non‐resonant off‐diagonal contributions to the momentum flux is emphasized, and collisionless momentum exchange between waves and parti...
Transport of parallel momentum by collisionless drift wave turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Diamond, P.H.; McDevitt, C.J.; Gürcan, O.D.
2008-01-01
This paper presents a novel, unified approach to the theory of turbulent transport of parallel momentum by collisionless drift waves. The physics of resonant and nonresonant off-diagonal contributions to the momentum flux is emphasized, and collisionless momentum exchange between waves and partic...
Turbulent heat transport in two- and three-dimensional temperature fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Samaraweera, Don Sarath Abesiri [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1978-03-01
A fundamental numerical study of turbulent heat and mass transport processes in two- and three-dimensional convective flows is presented. The model of turbulence employed is the type referred to as a second-order closure. In this scheme transport equations for all nonzero components of the Reynolds stress tensor, for the isotropic dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, for all nonzero scalar flux tensor components and for the mean square scalar fluctuations are solved by a finite difference method along with the mean momentum and mean enthalpy (or concentration) equations. The model used for the stresses was developed earlier. Parallel ideas were utilised in obtaining a model for turbulent heat and mass transfer processes. The study has focused especially on the problem of nonaxisymmetric convective heat and mass transport in pipes, which arises when the boundary conditions are not axisymmetric. The few available experimental data on such situations have indicated anisotropy in effective diffusivities. To expand the available data base an experiment was conducted to obtain heat transfer measurements in strong three-dimensional heating conditions. Numerical procedures especially suitable for incorporation of second-order turbulent closure models have been developed. The effect of circumferential conduction in the tube material, which is influential in the asymmetric heating data currently available, was accounted for directly by extending the finite difference calculations into the pipe wall. The principal goal of predicting three-dimensional scalar transfer has been achieved.
Gyrokinetic simulations of turbulent transport: size scaling and chaotic behaviour
Villard, L.; Bottino, A.; Brunner, S.; Casati, A.; Chowdhury, J.; Dannert, T.; Ganesh, R.; Garbet, X.; Görler, T.; Grandgirard, V.; Hatzky, R.; Idomura, Y.; Jenko, F.; Jolliet, S.; Khosh Aghdam, S.; Lapillonne, X.; Latu, G.; McMillan, B. F.; Merz, F.; Sarazin, Y.; Tran, T. M.; Vernay, T.
2010-12-01
Important steps towards the understanding of turbulent transport have been made with the development of the gyrokinetic framework for describing turbulence and with the emergence of numerical codes able to solve the set of gyrokinetic equations. This paper presents some of the main recent advances in gyrokinetic theory and computing of turbulence. Solving 5D gyrokinetic equations for each species requires state-of-the-art high performance computing techniques involving massively parallel computers and parallel scalable algorithms. The various numerical schemes that have been explored until now, Lagrangian, Eulerian and semi-Lagrangian, each have their advantages and drawbacks. A past controversy regarding the finite size effect (finite ρ*) in ITG turbulence has now been resolved. It has triggered an intensive benchmarking effort and careful examination of the convergence properties of the different numerical approaches. Now, both Eulerian and Lagrangian global codes are shown to agree and to converge to the flux-tube result in the ρ* → 0 limit. It is found, however, that an appropriate treatment of geometrical terms is necessary: inconsistent approximations that are sometimes used can lead to important discrepancies. Turbulent processes are characterized by a chaotic behaviour, often accompanied by bursts and avalanches. Performing ensemble averages of statistically independent simulations, starting from different initial conditions, is presented as a way to assess the intrinsic variability of turbulent fluxes and obtain reliable estimates of the standard deviation. Further developments concerning non-adiabatic electron dynamics around mode-rational surfaces and electromagnetic effects are discussed.
Theory and Transport of Nearly Incompressible Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
Zank, G. P.; Adhikari, L.; Hunana, P.; Shiota, D.; Bruno, R.; Telloni, D.
2017-02-01
The theory of nearly incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (NI MHD) was developed largely in the early 1990s, together with an important extension to inhomogeneous flows in 2010. Much of the focus in the earlier work was to understand the apparent incompressibility of the solar wind and other plasma environments, and the relationship of density fluctuations to apparently incompressible manifestations of turbulence in the solar wind and interstellar medium. Further important predictions about the “dimensionality” of solar wind turbulence and its relationship to the plasma beta were made and subsequently confirmed observationally. However, despite the initial success of NI MHD in describing fluctuations in the solar wind, a detailed application to solar wind turbulence has not been undertaken. Here, we use the equations of NI MHD to describe solar wind turbulence, rewriting the NI MHD system in terms of Elsässer variables. Distinct descriptions of 2D and slab turbulence emerge naturally from the Elsässer formulation, as do the nonlinear couplings between 2D and slab components. For plasma beta order 1 or less regions, predictions for 2D and slab spectra result from the NI MHD description, and predictions for the spectral characteristics of density fluctuations can be made. We conclude by presenting a NI MHD formulation describing the transport of majority 2D and minority slab turbulence throughout the solar wind. A preliminary comparison of theory and observations is presented.
Estimation of Wind Turbulence Using Spectral Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Soltani, Mohsen; Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas
2011-01-01
The production and loading of wind farms are significantly influenced by the turbulence of the flowing wind field. Estimation of turbulence allows us to optimize the performance of the wind farm. Turbulence estimation is; however, highly challenging due to the chaotic behavior of the wind....... In this paper, a method is presented for estimation of the turbulence. The spectral model of the wind is used in order to provide the estimations. The suggested estimation approach is applied to a case study in which the objective is to estimate wind turbulence at desired points using the measurements of wind...... speed outside the wind field. The results show that the method is able to provide estimations which explain more than 50% of the wind turbulence from the distance of about 300 meters....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Usmanov, Arcadi V.; Matthaeus, William H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Goldstein, Melvyn L., E-mail: arcadi.usmanov@nasa.gov [Code 672, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
2014-06-10
We have developed a three-fluid, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic solar wind model that incorporates turbulence transport, eddy viscosity, turbulent resistivity, and turbulent heating. The solar wind plasma is described as a system of co-moving solar wind protons, electrons, and interstellar pickup protons, with separate energy equations for each species. Numerical steady-state solutions of Reynolds-averaged solar wind equations coupled with turbulence transport equations for turbulence energy, cross helicity, and correlation length are obtained by the time relaxation method in the corotating with the Sun frame of reference in the region from 0.3 to 100 AU (but still inside the termination shock). The model equations include the effects of electron heat conduction, Coulomb collisions, photoionization of interstellar hydrogen atoms and their charge exchange with the solar wind protons, turbulence energy generation by pickup protons, and turbulent heating of solar wind protons and electrons. The turbulence transport model is based on the Reynolds decomposition and turbulence phenomenologies that describe the conversion of fluctuation energy into heat due to a turbulent cascade. In addition to using separate energy equations for the solar wind protons and electrons, a significant improvement over our previous work is that the turbulence model now uses an eddy viscosity approximation for the Reynolds stress tensor and the mean turbulent electric field. The approximation allows the turbulence model to account for driving of turbulence by large-scale velocity gradients. Using either a dipole approximation for the solar magnetic field or synoptic solar magnetograms from the Wilcox Solar Observatory for assigning boundary conditions at the coronal base, we apply the model to study the global structure of the solar wind and its three-dimensional properties, including embedded turbulence, heating, and acceleration throughout the heliosphere. The model results are
The role of coherent vorticity in turbulent transport in resistive drift-wave turbulence
Bos, Wouter J T; Benkadda, Sadruddin; Farge, Marie; Schneider, Kai; 10.1063/1.2956640
2011-01-01
The coherent vortex extraction method, a wavelet technique for extracting coherent vortices out of turbulent flows, is applied to simulations of resistive drift-wave turbulence in magnetized plasma (Hasegawa-Wakatani system). The aim is to retain only the essential degrees of freedom, responsible for the transport. It is shown that the radial density flux is carried by these coherent modes. In the quasi-hydrodynamic regime, coherent vortices exhibit depletion of the polarization-drift nonlinearity and vorticity strongly dominates strain, in contrast to the quasiadiabatic regime.
Comparison of turbulent particle dispersion models in turbulent shear flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Laín
2007-09-01
Full Text Available This work compares the performance of two Lagrangian turbulent particle dispersion models: the standard model (e.g., that presented in Sommerfeld et al. (1993, in which the fluctuating fluid velocity experienced by the particle is composed of two components, one correlated with the previous time step and a second one randomly sampled from a Wiener process, and the model proposed by Minier and Peirano (2001, which is based on the PDF approach and performs closure at the level of acceleration of the fluid experienced by the particle. Formulation of a Langevin equation model for the increments of fluid velocity seen by the particle allows capturing some underlying physics of particle dispersion in general turbulent flows while keeping the mathematical manipulation of the stochastic model simple, thereby avoiding some pitfalls and simplifying the derivation of macroscopic relations. The performance of both dispersion models is tested in the configurations of grid-generated turbulence (Wells and Stock (1983 experiments, simple shear flow (Hyland et al., 1999 and confined axisymmetric jet flow laden with solids (Hishida and Maeda (1987 experiments.
Large-eddy simulation of suspended sediment transport in turbulent channel flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU Hai; WANG Ling-ling; TANG Hong-wu
2013-01-01
The numerical simulation of the non-cohesive sediment transport in a turbulent channel flow with a high concentration is a challenging but practical task.A modified coherent dynamic eddy model of the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with a pick-up function is used in the present study to simulate the sediment erosion and the deposition in a turbulent channel flow.The rough wall model is used instead of the LES with the near-wall resolution to obtain the reasonable turbulent flow characteristics while avoiding the high costs in the computation.Good results are obtained,and are used to analyze the sediment transport properties.The results show that the streamwise vortices play an important role in the riverbed erosion and the sediment pick-up,which may serve as guidelines for the sediment management and the water environment protection engineering.
The onset of sediment transport in vegetated channels predicted by turbulent kinetic energy
Yang, J. Q.; Chung, H.; Nepf, H. M.
2016-11-01
This laboratory study advances our understanding of sediment transport in vegetated regions, by describing the impact of stem density on the critical velocity, Ucrit, at which sediment motion is initiated. Sparse emergent vegetation was modeled with rigid cylinders arranged in staggered arrays of different stem densities. The sediment transport rate, Qs, was measured over a range of current speeds using digital imaging, and the critical velocity was selected as the condition at which the magnitude of Qs crossed the noise threshold. For both grain sizes considered here (0.6-0.85 mm and 1.7-2 mm), Ucrit decreased with increasing stem density. This dependence can be explained by a threshold condition based on turbulent kinetic energy, kt, suggesting that near-bed turbulence intensity may be a more important control than bed shear stress on the initiation of sediment motion. The turbulent kinetic energy model unified the bare bed and vegetated channel measurements.
Self-organized criticality revisited: non-local transport by turbulent amplification
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Milovanov, Alexander V.; Rasmussen, Jens Juul
2015-01-01
We revise the applications of self-organized criticality (SOC) as a paradigmatic model for tokamak plasma turbulence. The work, presented here, is built around the idea that some systems do not develop a pure critical state associable with SOC, since their dynamical evolution involves as a compet......We revise the applications of self-organized criticality (SOC) as a paradigmatic model for tokamak plasma turbulence. The work, presented here, is built around the idea that some systems do not develop a pure critical state associable with SOC, since their dynamical evolution involves...... with the causes and origins of non-local transport in magnetized plasma, and show that this type of transport occurs naturally in self-consistent strong turbulence via a complexity coupling to the inverse cascade. We expect these coupling phenomena to occur in the parameter range of strong nonlinearity and time...
Long-range transport of terrain-induced turbulence from high-resolution numerical simulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Katurji
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Over complex terrain, an important question is how various topographic features may generate or alter wind turbulence and how far the influence can be extended downstream. Current measurement technology limits the capability in providing a long-range snapshot of turbulence as atmospheric eddies travel over terrain, interact with each other, change their productive and dissipative properties, and are then observed tens of kilometers downstream of their source.In this study, we investigate through high-resolutionnumerical simulations the atmospheric transport of terrain-generated turbulence in an atmosphere that is neutrally stratified. The simulations are two-dimensional with an isotropic spatial resolution of 15 m and run to a quasi-steady state. They are designed in such a way to allow an examination of the effects of a bell-shaped experimental hill with varying height and aspect ratio on turbulence properties generated by another hill 20 km upstream. Averaged fields of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE implythat terrain could have a large influence on velocity perturbations at least 30 H (H is the terrain height upstream and downstream of the terrain, with the largest effect happening in the area of the largest pressure perturbations. The results also show that downstream of the terrain the TKE fields are sensitive to the terrain's aspect ratio with larger enhancement in turbulence by higher aspect ratio, while upstream there is a suppression of turbulence that does not appear to be sensitive to the terrain aspect ratio. Instantaneous vorticity fields shows very detailed flow structures that resemble a multitude of eddy scales dynamically interacting while shearing oppositely paired vortices. The knowledge of the turbulence production and modifications by topography from these high-resolutionsimulationscan be helpful in understanding long-range terrain-induced turbulence and improving turbulence parameterizations used in lower
Long-range transport of terrain-induced turbulence from high-resolution numerical simulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Katurji
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Over complex terrain, an important question is how various topographic features may generate or alter wind turbulence and how far the influence can be extended downstream. Current measurement technology limits the capability in providing a long-range snapshot of turbulence as atmospheric eddies travel over terrain, interact with each other, change their productive and dissipative properties, and are then observed tens of kilometers downstream of their source. In this study, we investigate through high-resolution numerical simulations the atmospheric transport of terrain-generated turbulence in an atmosphere that is neutrally stratified. The simulations are two-dimensional with an isotropic spatial resolution of 15 m and run to a quasi-steady state. They are designed in such a way to allow an examination of the effects of a bell-shaped experimental hill with varying height and aspect ratio on turbulence properties generated by another hill 20 km upstream. Averaged fields of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE imply that terrain could have a large influence on velocity perturbations at least 30H (H is the terrain height upstream and downstream of the terrain, with the largest effect happening in the area of the largest pressure perturbations. The results also show that downstream of the terrain the TKE fields are sensitive to the terrain's aspect ratio with larger enhancement in turbulence by higher aspect ratio, while upstream there is a suppression of turbulence that does not appear to be sensitive to the terrain aspect ratio. Instantaneous vorticity fields shows very detailed flow structures that resemble a multitude of eddy scales dynamically interacting while shearing oppositely paired vortices. The knowledge of the turbulence production and modifications by topography from these high-resolution simulations can be helpful in understanding long-range terrain-induced turbulence and improving turbulence parameterizations used in
Schmeeckle, M. W.; Leary, K. P.
2016-12-01
We investigate the spatiotemporal coupling of sediment transport over dunes using a turbulence- and particle-resolving numerical model and high-speed video in a laboratory flume. The model utilizes the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) for the fluid turbulence and a Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulation for the sediment. Previous experiments assessing the effects of flow separation on downstream fluid turbulent structures and bedload transport suggest that localized, intermittent, high-magnitude transport events, called permeable splat events, play an important role in both downstream and cross-stream transport near flow reattachment. The flume was lined with 17 concrete ripples that had a 2 cm high crest and were 30 cm long. A high-speed camera observed sediment transport along the entirety of the bedform at 250 Hz. Downstream and vertical fluid velocity was observed at 1mm and 3 mm above the bed using Laser Doppler Velocitmetry (LDV) at 15 distances along bedform profile. As observed in our previous backward-facing step experiments and simulations, mean downstream fluid velocity increases nonlinearly with increasing distance along the ripple. Observed sediment transport, however, increases linearly with increasing distance along the ripple with an exception at the crest of the bedform, where both mean downstream fluid velocity and sediment transport decrease significantly. Previous experiments assessing only the effect of flow separation showed that calculating sediment transport as a function of boundary shear stress using a Meyer-Peter Müller type equation, produced a zone of underestimated transport near flow reattachment. Results reported here show that calculating sediment transport in this way underestimates observed sediment transport along the entire profile of the bedform, not just near flow reattachment. Preliminary sediment transport time-series data show a zone of high-magnitude cross-stream transport near flow reattachment, suggesting that permeable
NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF TURBULENT COUNTER-GRADIENT-TRANSPORT IN ASYMMETRIC FLOW WITH A JET
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIU Xiang; GUO Hui-fen; LIU Yu-lu
2004-01-01
By using the Reynolds Stress Closure Model(RSM), turbulent Counter-Gradient-Transport (CGT) phenomenon was numerically investigated in asymmetric flow with a jet, and the computational results were compared with experimental data. The computational results show that the negative turbulent energy production only appears at some certain stations in CGT region, this fact indicates that the CGT phenomenon exists more widely than the negative turbulent energy production; while the CGT region exists all along,it gradually shrinks in the favorable pressure gradient zone until the position of the wing central part is reached, where it vanishes, but it appears in the adverse pressure gradient region; in addition, the location in the flow where uv = 0 switched sides, relative to where ()U/()y = 0, from favorable pressure gradient to adverse pressure gradient. The pressure gradient takes an important effect on the region of negative turbulent energy production and CGT.
Helicity statistics in homogeneous and isotropic turbulence and turbulence models
Sahoo, Ganapati; Biferale, Luca
2016-01-01
We study the statistical properties of helicity in direct numerical simulations of fully developed homogeneous and isotropic turbulence and in a class of turbulence shell models. We consider correlation functions based on combinations of vorticity and velocity increments that are not invariant under mirror symmetry. We also study the scaling properties of high-order structure functions based on the moments of the velocity increments projected on a subset of modes with either positive or negative helicity (chirality). We show that mirror symmetry is recovered at small-scales, i.e. chiral terms are always subleading and they are well captured by a dimensional argument plus a small anomalous correction. We confirm these findings with numerical study of helical shell models at high Reynolds numbers.
Helicity statistics in homogeneous and isotropic turbulence and turbulence models
Sahoo, Ganapati; De Pietro, Massimo; Biferale, Luca
2017-02-01
We study the statistical properties of helicity in direct numerical simulations of fully developed homogeneous and isotropic turbulence and in a class of turbulence shell models. We consider correlation functions based on combinations of vorticity and velocity increments that are not invariant under mirror symmetry. We also study the scaling properties of high-order structure functions based on the moments of the velocity increments projected on a subset of modes with either positive or negative helicity (chirality). We show that mirror symmetry is recovered at small scales, i.e., chiral terms are subleading and they are well captured by a dimensional argument plus anomalous corrections. These findings are also supported by a high Reynolds numbers study of helical shell models with the same chiral symmetry of Navier-Stokes equations.
Model of strong stationary vortex turbulence in space plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. D. Aburjania
2009-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the macroscopic consequences of nonlinear solitary vortex structures in magnetized space plasmas by developing theoretical model of plasma turbulence. Strongly localized vortex patterns contain trapped particles and, propagating in a medium, excite substantial density fluctuations and thus, intensify the energy, heat and mass transport processes, i.e., such vortices can form strong vortex turbulence. Turbulence is represented as an ensemble of strongly localized (and therefore weakly interacting vortices. Vortices with various amplitudes are randomly distributed in space (due to collisions. For their description, a statistical approach is applied. It is supposed that a stationary turbulent state is formed by balancing competing effects: spontaneous development of vortices due to nonlinear twisting of the perturbations' fronts, cascading of perturbations into short scales (direct spectral cascade and collisional or collisionless damping of the perturbations in the short-wave domain. In the inertial range, direct spectral cascade occurs through merging structures via collisions. It is shown that in the magneto-active plasmas, strong turbulence is generally anisotropic Turbulent modes mainly develop in the direction perpendicular to the local magnetic field. It is found that it is the compressibility of the local medium which primarily determines the character of the turbulent spectra: the strong vortex turbulence forms a power spectrum in wave number space. For example, a new spectrum of turbulent fluctuations in k^{−8/3} is derived which agrees with available experimental data. Within the framework of the developed model particle diffusion processes are also investigated. It is found that the interaction of structures with each other and particles causes anomalous diffusion in the medium. The effective coefficient of diffusion has a square root dependence on the stationary level of noise.
On Lean Turbulent Combustion Modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Constantin LEVENTIU
2014-06-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates a lean methane-air flame with different chemical reaction mechanisms, for laminar and turbulent combustion, approached as one and bi-dimensional problem. The numerical results obtained with Cantera and Ansys Fluent software are compared with experimental data obtained at CORIA Institute, France. First, for laminar combustion, the burn temperature is very well approximated for all chemical mechanisms, however major differences appear in the evaluation of the flame front thickness. Next, the analysis of turbulence-combustion interaction shows that the numerical predictions are suficiently accurate for small and moderate turbulence intensity.
PARAMETER ESTIMATION OF ENGINEERING TURBULENCE MODEL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
钱炜祺; 蔡金狮
2001-01-01
A parameter estimation algorithm is introduced and used to determine the parameters in the standard k-ε two equation turbulence model (SKE). It can be found from the estimation results that although the parameter estimation method is an effective method to determine model parameters, it is difficult to obtain a set of parameters for SKE to suit all kinds of separated flow and a modification of the turbulence model structure should be considered. So, a new nonlinear k-ε two-equation model (NNKE) is put forward in this paper and the corresponding parameter estimation technique is applied to determine the model parameters. By implementing the NNKE to solve some engineering turbulent flows, it is shown that NNKE is more accurate and versatile than SKE. Thus, the success of NNKE implies that the parameter estimation technique may have a bright prospect in engineering turbulence model research.
Turbulence radiation interaction modeling in hydrocarbon pool fire simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
BURNS,SHAWN P.
1999-12-01
The importance of turbulent fluctuations in temperature and species concentration in thermal radiation transport modeling for combustion applications is well accepted by the radiation transport and combustion communities. A number of experimental and theoretical studies over the last twenty years have shown that fluctuations in the temperature and species concentrations may increase the effective emittance of a turbulent flame by as much as 50% to 300% over the value that would be expected from the mean temperatures and concentrations. With the possibility of such a large effect on the principal mode of heat transfer from a fire, it is extremely important for fire modeling efforts that turbulence radiation interaction be well characterized and possible modeling approaches understood. Toward this end, this report seeks to accomplish three goals. First, the principal turbulence radiation interaction closure terms are defined. Second, an order of magnitude analysis is performed to understand the relative importance of the various closure terms. Finally, the state of the art in turbulence radiation interaction closure modeling is reviewed. Hydrocarbon pool fire applications are of particular interest in this report and this is the perspective from which this review proceeds. Experimental and theoretical analysis suggests that, for this type of heavily sooting flame, the turbulent radiation interaction effect is dominated by the nonlinear dependence of the Planck function on the temperature. Additional effects due to the correlation between turbulent fluctuations in the absorptivity and temperature may be small relative to the Planck function effect for heavily sooting flames. This observation is drawn from a number of experimental and theoretical discussions. Nevertheless, additional analysis and data is needed to validate this observation for heavily sooting buoyancy dominated plumes.
Hierarchic Models of Turbulence, Superfluidity and Superconductivity
Kaivarainen, A
2000-01-01
New models of Turbulence, Superfluidity and Superconductivity, based on new Hierarchic theory, general for liquids and solids (physics/0102086), have been proposed. CONTENTS: 1 Turbulence. General description; 2 Mesoscopic mechanism of turbulence; 3 Superfluidity. General description; 4 Mesoscopic scenario of fluidity; 5 Superfluidity as a hierarchic self-organization process; 6 Superfluidity in 3He; 7 Superconductivity: General properties of metals and semiconductors; Plasma oscillations; Cyclotron resonance; Electroconductivity; 8. Microscopic theory of superconductivity (BCS); 9. Mesoscopic scenario of superconductivity: Interpretation of experimental data in the framework of mesoscopic model of superconductivity.
Turbulent MHD transport coefficients - An attempt at self-consistency
Chen, H.; Montgomery, D.
1987-01-01
In this paper, some multiple scale perturbation calculations of turbulent MHD transport coefficients begun in earlier papers are first completed. These generalize 'alpha effect' calculations by treating the velocity field and magnetic field on the same footing. Then the problem of rendering such calculations self-consistent is addressed, generalizing an eddy-viscosity hypothesis similar to that of Heisenberg for the Navier-Stokes case. The method also borrows from Kraichnan's direct interaction approximation. The output is a set of integral equations relating the spectra and the turbulent transport coefficients. Previous 'alpha effect' and 'beta effect' coefficients emerge as limiting cases. A treatment of the inertial range can also be given, consistent with a -5/3 energy spectrum power law. In the Navier-Stokes limit, a value of 1.72 is extracted for the Kolmogorov constant. Further applications to MHD are possible.
Modelling turbulence in the outer heliosphere
Macek, Wieslaw
2016-07-01
Turbulence is complex behaviour that is ubiquitous both in laboratory and astrophysical magnetized plasmas. Notwithstanding the progress in simulation of turbulence in various continuous media, its mechanism is still not sufficiently clear. Therefore, following the basic idea of Kolmogorov, some phenomenological models of scaling behaviour have been proposed, including fractal and multifractal modelling, that can reveal the intermittent character of turbulence. Based on wealth of data provided by deep spacecraft missions including Voyager 1 and 2, these models show that the turbulence in the entire heliosphere is intermittent and multifractal. Moreover, the degree of multifractality decreases with the heliocentric distance and is modulated by the phases of the solar cycles, also beyond the heliospheric termination shock, i. e. in the heliosheath. However, in the very local interstellar medium beyond the heliopause turbulence becomes rather weak and less intermittent, as shown by recent measurements from Voyager 1. This suggests that the heliosphere is immersed in a relatively quiet environment. Hence these studies of turbulence, especially at the heliospheric boundaries, demonstrate that the outer heliosphere provides an interesting possibility to look into turbulence in various media.
Direction of scalar transport in turbulent channel flow
Srinivasan, Chiranth; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V.
2011-11-01
The concept of reverse diffusion, introduced by Corrsin to describe the motion of particles as they move towards a location in the flow field, is fundamental to the understanding of mixing. In this work, direct numerical simulations in conjunction with the tracking of scalar markers are utilized in infinitely long channels to study the principal direction of transport of heat (or mass) for both forwards and backwards single particle dispersion. The viscous sub-layer, the transition region (between the viscous sub-layer and the logarithmic region), and the logarithmic region of a Poiseuille flow and a plane Couette flow channel are studied. Fluctuating velocities of scalar markers captured in these regions are used to obtain the full autocorrelation coefficient tensor forwards and backwards with time. The highest eigenvalue of the velocity correlation coefficient tensor quantifies the highest amount of turbulent heat transport, while the corresponding eigenvector points to the main direction of transport. Different Prandtl number, Pr, fluids are simulated for the two types of flow. It is found that the highest eigenvalues are higher in the case of backwards dispersion compared to the case of forwards dispersion for any Pr, in both flow cases. The principal direction for backwards and forwards dispersion is different than for forwards dispersion, for all Pr, and in all flow regions for both flows. Fluids with lower Pr behave different than the higher Pr fluids because of increased molecular diffusion effects. The current study also establishes an interesting analogy of turbulent dispersion to optics defining the turbulent dispersive ratio, a parameter that can be used to identify the differences in the direction of turbulent heat transport between forwards and backwards dispersion. A spectral analysis of the auto-correlation coefficient for both forwards and backwards dispersion shows a universal behavior with slope of -1 at intermediate frequencies.
Self-organized criticality revisited: non-local transport by turbulent amplification
Milovanov, A. V.; Rasmussen, J. J.
2015-12-01
> We revise the applications of self-organized criticality (SOC) as a paradigmatic model for tokamak plasma turbulence. The work, presented here, is built around the idea that some systems do not develop a pure critical state associable with SOC, since their dynamical evolution involves as a competing key factor an inverse cascade of the energy in reciprocal space. Then relaxation of slowly increasing stresses will give rise to intermittent bursts of transport in real space and outstanding transport events beyond the range of applicability of the `conventional' SOC. Also, we are concerned with the causes and origins of non-local transport in magnetized plasma, and show that this type of transport occurs naturally in self-consistent strong turbulence via a complexity coupling to the inverse cascade. We expect these coupling phenomena to occur in the parameter range of strong nonlinearity and time scale separation when the Rhines time in the system is small compared with the instability growth time.
Modeling turbulence structure. Chemical kinetics interaction in turbulent reactive flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Magnussen, B.F. [The Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway)
1997-12-31
The challenge of the mathematical modelling is to transfer basic physical knowledge into a mathematical formulation such that this knowledge can be utilized in computational simulation of practical problems. The combustion phenomena can be subdivided into a large set of interconnected phenomena like flow, turbulence, thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, radiation, extinction, ignition etc. Combustion in one application differs from combustion in another area by the relative importance of the various phenomena. The difference in fuel, geometry and operational conditions often causes the differences. The computer offers the opportunity to treat the individual phenomena and their interactions by models with wide operational domains. The relative magnitude of the various phenomena therefore becomes the consequence of operational conditions and geometry and need not to be specified on the basis of experience for the given problem. In mathematical modelling of turbulent combustion, one of the big challenges is how to treat the interaction between the chemical reactions and the fluid flow i.e. the turbulence. Different scientists adhere to different concepts like the laminar flamelet approach, the pdf approach of the Eddy Dissipation Concept. Each of these approaches offers different opportunities and problems. All these models are based on a sound physical basis, however none of these have general validity in taking into consideration all detail of the physical chemical interaction. The merits of the models can only be judged by their ability to reproduce physical reality and consequences of operational and geometric conditions in a combustion system. The presentation demonstrates and discusses the development of a coherent combustion technology for energy conversion and safety based on the Eddy Dissipation Concept by Magnussen. (author) 30 refs.
Comparison between 2D turbulence model ESEL and experimental data from AUG and COMPASS tokamaks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ondac, Peter; Horacek, Jan; Seidl, Jakub;
2015-01-01
In this article we have used the 2D fluid turbulence numerical model, ESEL, to simulate turbulent transport in edge tokamak plasma. Basic plasma parameters from the ASDEX Upgrade and COMPASS tokamaks are used as input for the model, and the output is compared with experimental observations obtained...
Turbulence, Transport and Waves in Ohmic Dead Zones
Gole, Daniel; Lubow, Stephen H; Armitage, Philip J
2016-01-01
We use local numerical simulations to study a vertically stratified accretion disk with a resistive mid-plane that damps magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. This is an idealized model for the dead zones that may be present at some radii in protoplanetary and dwarf novae disks. We vary the relative thickness of the dead and active zones to quantify how forced fluid motions in the dead zone change. We find that the residual Reynolds stress near the mid-plane decreases with increasing dead zone thickness, becoming negligible in cases where the active to dead mass ratio is less than a few percent. This implies that purely Ohmic dead zones would be vulnerable to episodic accretion outbursts via the mechanism of Martin & Lubow (2011). We show that even thick dead zones support a large amount of kinetic energy, but this energy is largely in fluid motions that are inefficient at angular momentum transport. Confirming results from Oishi & Mac Low (2009), the perturbed velocity field in the dead zone is domin...
Heat transport measurements in turbulent rotating Rayleigh-Benard convection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liu, Yuanming [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
We present experimental heat transport measurements of turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection with rotation about a vertical axis. The fluid, water with Prandtl number ({sigma}) about 6, was confined in a cell which had a square cross section of 7.3 cm x 7.3 cm and a height of 9.4 cm. Heat transport was measured for Rayleigh numbers 2 x 10{sup 5} < Ra < 5 x 10{sup 8} and Taylor numbers 0 < Ta < 5 x 10{sup 9}. We show the variation of normalized heat transport, the Nusselt number, at fixed dimensional rotation rate {Omega}{sub D}, at fixed Ra varying Ta, at fixed Ta varying Ra, and at fixed Rossby number Ro. The scaling of heat transport in the range 10{sup 7} to about 10{sup 9} is roughly 0.29 with a Ro dependent coefficient or equivalently is also well fit by a combination of power laws of the form a Ra{sup 1/5} + b Ra{sup 1/3} . The range of Ra is not sufficient to differentiate single power law or combined power law scaling. The overall impact of rotation on heat transport in turbulent convection is assessed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boughanem, H.
1998-03-24
The assumption of gradient transport for the mean reaction progress variable has a limited domain of validity in premixed turbulent combustion. The existence of two turbulent transport regimes, gradient and counter-gradient, is demonstrated in the present work using Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of plane flame configurations. The DNS data base describes the influence of the heat release factor, of the turbulence-to-flame velocity ratio, and of an external pressure gradient. The simulations reveal a strong correlation between the regime of turbulent transport and the turbulent flame speed and turbulent flame thickness. These effects re not well described by current turbulent combustion models. A conditional approach `fresh gases / burnt gases` is proposed to overcome these difficulties. Furthermore, he development of flame instabilities in turbulent configurations is also observed in the simulations. A criterion is derived that determines the domain of occurrence of these instabilities (Darrieus- Landau instabilities, Rayleigh- Taylor instabilities, thermo-diffusive instabilities). This criterion suggests that the domain of occurrence of flame instabilities is not limited to small Reynolds numbers. (author) 98 refs.
A Model for the Saturation of the Turbulent Dynamo
Schober, Jennifer; Federrath, Christoph; Bovino, Stefano; Klessen, Ralf S
2015-01-01
The origin of strong magnetic fields in the Universe can be explained by amplifying weak seed fields via turbulent motions on small spatial scales and subsequently transporting the magnetic energy to larger scales. This process is known as the turbulent dynamo and depends on the properties of turbulence, i.e. on the hydrodynamical Reynolds number and the compressibility of the gas, and on the magnetic diffusivity. While we know the growth rate the magnetic energy in the linear regime, the saturation level, i.e. the ratio of magnetic energy to turbulent kinetic energy that can be reached, is not known from analytical calculations. In this paper we present the first scale-dependent saturation model based on an effective turbulent resistivity which is determined by the turnover timescale of turbulent eddies and the magnetic energy density. The magnetic resistivity increases compared to the Spitzer value and the effective scale on which the magnetic energy spectrum is at its maximum moves to larger spatial scales...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dubuit, N
2006-10-15
This work deals with the transport of impurities in magnetically confined thermonuclear plasmas. The accumulation of impurities in the core of the plasma would imply dramatic losses of energy that may lead to the extinction of the plasma. On the opposite, the injection of impurities in the plasma edge is considered as an efficient means to extract heat without damaging the first wall. The balance between these 2 contradictory constraints requires an accurate knowledge of the impurity transport inside the plasma. The effect of turbulence, the main transport mechanism for impurities is therefore a major issue. In this work, the complete formula of a turbulent flow of impurities for a given fluctuation spectrum has been inferred. The origin and features of the main accumulation processes have been identified. The main effect comes from the compressibility of the electrical shift speed in a plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. This compressibility appears to be linked to the curvature of the magnetic field. A less important effect is a thermal-diffusion process that is inversely proportional to the number of charges and then disappears for most type of impurities except the lightest. This effect implies an impurity flux proportional to the temperature gradient and its direction can change according to the average speed of fluctuations. A new version of the turbulence code TRB has been developed. This new version allows the constraints of the turbulence not by the gradients but by the flux which is more realistic. The importance of the processes described above has been confirmed by a comparison between calculation and experimental data from Tore-supra and the Jet tokamak. The prevailing role of the curvature of the magnetic field in the transport impurity is highlighted. (A.C.)
MEASUREMENTS AND COMPUTATIONS OF FUEL DROPLET TRANSPORT IN TURBULENT FLOWS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joseph Katz and Omar Knio
2007-01-10
The objective of this project is to study the dynamics of fuel droplets in turbulent water flows. The results are essential for development of models capable of predicting the dispersion of slightly light/heavy droplets in isotropic turbulence. Since we presently do not have any experimental data on turbulent diffusion of droplets, existing mixing models have no physical foundations. Such fundamental knowledge is essential for understanding/modeling the environmental problems associated with water-fuel mixing, and/or industrial processes involving mixing of immiscible fluids. The project has had experimental and numerical components: 1. The experimental part of the project has had two components. The first involves measurements of the lift and drag forces acting on a droplet being entrained by a vortex. The experiments and data analysis associated with this phase are still in progress, and the facility, constructed specifically for this project is described in Section 3. In the second and main part, measurements of fuel droplet dispersion rates have been performed in a special facility with controlled isotropic turbulence. As discussed in detail in Section 2, quantifying and modeling the of droplet dispersion rate requires measurements of their three dimensional trajectories in turbulent flows. To obtain the required data, we have introduced a new technique - high-speed, digital Holographic Particle Image Velocimetry (HPIV). The technique, experimental setup and results are presented in Section 2. Further information is available in Gopalan et al. (2005, 2006). 2. The objectives of the numerical part are: (1) to develop a computational code that combines DNS of isotropic turbulence with Lagrangian tracking of particles based on integration of a dynamical equation of motion that accounts for pressure, added mass, lift and drag forces, (2) to perform extensive computations of both buoyant (bubbles) and slightly buoyant (droplets) particles in turbulence conditions
Reynolds number influences on turbulent boundary layer momentum transport
Priyadarshana, Paththage A.
There are many engineering applications at Reynolds numbers orders of magnitude higher than existing turbulent boundary layer studies. Currently, the mechanisms for turbulent transport and the Reynolds number dependence of these mechanisms are not well understood. This dissertation presents Reynolds number influences on velocity and vorticity statistics, Reynolds shear stress, and velocity-vorticity correlations for turbulent boundary layers. Well resolved hot-wire data for this study were acquired in the atmospheric surface layer at the SLTEST facility in western Utah. It is shown that during near neutral thermal stability, the flow behaves as a canonical zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer, in which the Reynolds number based on momentum thickness, Rtheta, is approximately 2 x 106. The present study also provides information regarding the effects of wall roughness over a limited range of roughness. It is observed that with increasing Rtheta, the inner normalized streamwise intensity increases. This statistic is less sensitive to wall roughness away from the roughness sublayer. In contrast, the inner normalized wall normal intensity is less sensitive to the variation of Rtheta, and it is significantly sensitive to wall roughness. Outside the viscous sublayer, the inner normalized vorticity intensity is less sensitive to both Rtheta and roughness. A primary observation of the Reynolds stress study is that the predominant motions underlying the Reynolds shear stress undergo a significant shift from large to intermediate scales as Rtheta becomes large, irrespective of surface roughness. Quadrant analysis shows that types of motions contributing to the Reynolds stress change significantly at comparable wall normal locations with increasing Rtheta. The mean wall normal gradients of the Reynolds shear stress and the turbulent kinetic energy have direct connections to the transport mechanisms of the turbulent boundary layer. These gradients can be expressed in
Vertical structure of aeolian turbulence in a boundary layer with sand transport
Lee, Zoe S.; Baas, Andreas C. W.
2016-04-01
Recently we have found that Reynolds shear stress shows a significant variability with measurement height (Lee and Baas, 2016), and so an alternative parameter for boundary layer turbulence may help to explain the relationship between wind forcing and sediment transport. We present data that were collected during a field study of boundary layer turbulence conducted on a North Atlantic beach. High-frequency (50 Hz) 3D wind velocity measurements were collected using ultrasonic anemometry at thirteen different measurement heights in a tight vertical array between 0.11 and 1.62 metres above the surface. Thanks to the high density installation of sensors a detailed analysis of the boundary layer flow can be conducted using methods more typically used in studies where data is only available from one or just a few measurement heights. We use quadrant analysis to explore the vertical structure of turbulence and track the changes in quadrant signatures with measurement elevation and over time. Results of quadrant analysis, at the 'raw' 50 Hz timescale, demonstrates the tendency for event clustering across all four quadrants, which implies that at-a-point quadrant events are part of larger-scale turbulent structures. Using an HSV colour model, applied to the quadrant analysis data and plotted in series, we create colour maps of turbulence, which can provide a clear visualisation of the clustering of event activity at each height and illustrate the shape of the larger coherent flow structures that are present within the boundary layer. By including a saturation component to the colour model, the most significant stress producing sections of the data are emphasised. This results in a 'banded' colour map, which relates to clustering of quadrant I (Outward Interaction) and quadrant IV (Sweep) activity, separate from clustering of quadrant II (Burst) and quadrant III (Inward Interaction). Both 'sweep-type' and 'burst-type' sequences are shown to have a diagonal structure
Aerodynamic Noise Prediction Using stochastic Turbulence Modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arash Ahmadzadegan
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Amongst many approaches to determine the sound propagated from turbulent flows, hybrid methods, in which the turbulent noise source field is computed or modeled separately from the far field calculation, are frequently used. For basic estimation of sound propagation, less computationally intensive methods can be developed using stochastic models of the turbulent fluctuations (turbulent noise source field. A simple and easy to use stochastic model for generating turbulent velocity fluctuations called continuous filter white noise (CFWN model was used. This method based on the use of classical Langevian-equation to model the details of fluctuating field superimposed on averaged computed quantities. The resulting sound field due to the generated unsteady flow field was evaluated using Lighthill's acoustic analogy. Volume integral method used for evaluating the acoustic analogy. This formulation presents an advantage, as it confers the possibility to determine separately the contribution of the different integral terms and also integration regions to the radiated acoustic pressure. Our results validated by comparing the directivity and the overall sound pressure level (OSPL magnitudes with the available experimental results. Numerical results showed reasonable agreement with the experiments, both in maximum directivity and magnitude of the OSPL. This method presents a very suitable tool for the noise calculation of different engineering problems in early stages of the design process where rough estimates using cheaper methods are needed for different geometries.
Litchford, Ron J.; Jeng, San-Mou
1992-01-01
The performance of a recently introduced statistical transport model for turbulent particle dispersion is studied here for rigid particles injected into a round turbulent jet. Both uniform and isosceles triangle pdfs are used. The statistical sensitivity to parcel pdf shape is demonstrated.
Turbulent Spot Pressure Fluctuation Wave Packet Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dechant, Lawrence J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-05-01
Wave packet analysis provides a connection between linear small disturbance theory and subsequent nonlinear turbulent spot flow behavior. The traditional association between linear stability analysis and nonlinear wave form is developed via the method of stationary phase whereby asymptotic (simplified) mean flow solutions are used to estimate dispersion behavior and stationary phase approximation are used to invert the associated Fourier transform. The resulting process typically requires nonlinear algebraic equations inversions that can be best performed numerically, which partially mitigates the value of the approximation as compared to a more complete, e.g. DNS or linear/nonlinear adjoint methods. To obtain a simpler, closed-form analytical result, the complete packet solution is modeled via approximate amplitude (linear convected kinematic wave initial value problem) and local sinusoidal (wave equation) expressions. Significantly, the initial value for the kinematic wave transport expression follows from a separable variable coefficient approximation to the linearized pressure fluctuation Poisson expression. The resulting amplitude solution, while approximate in nature, nonetheless, appears to mimic many of the global features, e.g. transitional flow intermittency and pressure fluctuation magnitude behavior. A low wave number wave packet models also recover meaningful auto-correlation and low frequency spectral behaviors.
Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diamond, P.H.; Lin, Z.; Wang, W.; Horton, W.; Klasky, S.; Decyk, V.; Ma, K.-L.; Chames, J.; Adams, M.
2011-09-21
The three-year project GPS-TTBP resulted in over 152 publications and 135 presentations. This summary focuses on the scientific progress made by the project team. A major focus of the project was on the physics intrinsic rotation in tokamaks. Progress included the first ever flux driven study of net intrinsic spin-up, mediated by boundary effects (in collaboration with CPES), detailed studies of the microphysics origins of the Rice scaling, comparative studies of symmetry breaking mechanisms, a pioneering study of intrinsic torque driven by trapped electron modes, and studies of intrinsic rotation generation as a thermodynamic engine. Validation studies were performed with C-Mod, DIII-D and CSDX. This work resulted in very successful completion of the FY2010 Theory Milestone Activity for OFES, and several prominent papers of the 2008 and 2010 IAEA Conferences. A second major focus was on the relation between zonal flow formation and transport non-locality. This culminated in the discovery of the ExB staircase - a conceptually new phenomenon. This also makes useful interdisciplinary contact with the physics of the PV staircase, well-known in oceans and atmospheres. A third topic where progress was made was in the simulation and theory of turbulence spreading. This work, now well cited, is important for understanding the dynamics of non-locality in turbulent transport. Progress was made in studies of conjectured non-diffusive transport in trapped electron turbulence. Pioneering studies of ITB formation, coupling to intrinsic rotation and hysteresis were completed. These results may be especially significant for future ITER operation. All told, the physics per dollar performance of this project was quite good. The intense focus was beneficial and SciDAC resources were essential to its success.
Numerical modeling of turbulent combustion and flame spread
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yan Zhenghua
1999-01-01
Theoretical models have been developed to address several important aspects of numerical modeling of turbulent combustion and flame spread. The developed models include a pyrolysis model for charring and non-charring solid materials, a fast narrow band radiation property evaluation model (FASTNB) and a turbulence model for buoyant flow and flame. In the pyrolysis model, a completely new algorithm has been proposed, where a moving dual mesh concept was developed and implemented. With this new concept, it provides proper spatial resolution for both temperature and density and automatically considers the regression of the surface of the non-charring solid material during its pyrolysis. It is simple, very efficient and applicable to both charring and non-charring materials. FASTNB speeds up significantly the evaluation of narrow band spectral radiation properties and thus provides a potential of applying narrow band model in numerical simulations of practical turbulent combustion. The turbulence model was developed to improve the consideration of buoyancy effect on turbulence and turbulent transport. It was found to be simple, promising and numerically stable. It has been tested against both plane and axisymmetric thermal plumes and an axisymmetric buoyant diffusion flame. When compared with the widely used standard buoyancy-modified {kappa} - {epsilon} model, it gives significant improvement on numerical results. These developed models have been fully incorporated into CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code and coupled with other CFD sub-models, including the DT (Discrete Transfer) radiation model, EDC (Eddy Dissipation Concept) combustion model, flamelet combustion model, various soot models and transpired wall function. Comprehensive numerical simulations have been carried out to study soot formation and oxidation in turbulent buoyant diffusion flames, flame heat transfer and flame spread in fires. The gas temperature and velocity, soot volume fraction, wall
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey; Moder, Jeffrey P.
2015-01-01
This paper presents the numerical simulations of confined three-dimensional coaxial water jets. The objectives are to validate the newly proposed nonlinear turbulence models of momentum and scalar transport, and to evaluate the newly introduced scalar APDF and DWFDF equation along with its Eulerian implementation in the National Combustion Code (NCC). Simulations conducted include the steady RANS, the unsteady RANS (URANS), and the time-filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS); both without and with invoking the APDF or DWFDF equation. When the APDF (ensemble averaged probability density function) or DWFDF (density weighted filtered density function) equation is invoked, the simulations are of a hybrid nature, i.e., the transport equations of energy and species are replaced by the APDF or DWFDF equation. Results of simulations are compared with the available experimental data. Some positive impacts of the nonlinear turbulence models and the Eulerian scalar APDF and DWFDF approach are observed.
Transport and turbulence in TORE SUPRA ohmic discharges
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garbet, X.; Payan, J.; Laviron, C. (Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee) (and others)
1992-01-01
The mechanisms underlying the energy confinement behaviour in ohmic tokamak discharges are not yet understood. It is well known that the confinement time increases with the average density and saturates above a critical value of the density, but several explanations exist for this saturation: the onset of ionic turbulence, an impurity content effect on Drift Trapped Electron Modes, or [eta][sub e] modes stabilization by the increase of [beta]. The present study is an analysis of a set of ohmic discharges in TORE SUPRA with I[sub p]=1.6 MA, B=4T, R=2.35 m and a=0.78 m, where the average density was increased from 0.9 to 4.2 10[sup 19] m[sup -3]. For these plasma parameters, the energy confinement time given by magnetic measurements saturates for
Unraveling the Mysteries of Turbulence Transport in a Wind Farm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pankaj K. Jha
2015-06-01
Full Text Available A true physical understanding of the mysteries involved in the recovery process of the wake momentum deficit, downstream of utility-scale wind turbines in the atmosphere, has not been obtained to date. Field data are not acquired at sufficient spatial and temporal resolutions to dissect some of the mysteries of wake turbulence. It is here that the actuator line method has evolved to become the technology standard in the wind energy community. This work presents the actuator line method embedded into an Open source Field Operation and Manipulation (OpenFOAM large-eddy simulation solver and applies it to two small wind farms, the first one consisting of an array of two National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5 Megawatt (NREL 5-MW turbines separated by seven rotor diameters in neutral and unstable atmospheric boundary-layer flow and the second one consisting of five NREL 5-MW wind turbines in unstable atmospheric conditions arranged in two staggered arrays of two and three turbines, respectively. Detailed statistics involving power spectral density (PSD of turbine power along with standard deviations reveal the effects of atmospheric turbulence and its space and time scales. High-resolution surface data extracts provide new insight into the complex recovery process of the wake momentum deficit governed by turbulence transport phenomena.
TURBULENCE TRANSPORT OF SURFACTANT SOLUTION FLOW DURING DRAG REDUCTION DEGENERATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GU Wei-guo; WANG De-zhong
2012-01-01
Turbulence transport of surfactant solution flow during drag reduction degeneration is investigated experimentally in a two-dimensional channel.Particle Image Velocimetry (P1V) system is used to take two-dimensional velocity frames in the streamwise and wall-normal plane.The additive of surfactant is cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC) with the mass concentration of 25 ppm.Drag reduction degeneration happens in the CTAC solution flow,exhibiting the maximal drag reduction at Re =25000and losing drag reduction completely at Re =40 000.The velocity frames are statistically analyzed in four quadrants which are divided by the u -axis and v-axis.It is found that the phenomenon of“Zero Reynolds shear stress” is caused by the decrease of wallnormal fluctuations and its symmetrical distribution in quadrants.The increase of Reynolds number leads to the enhancement of turbulence burst phenomenon.During thc drag reduction degeneration,the CTAC solution flow contains both high turbulence intensity and drag reduction states.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bauer, Georg; Gamnitzer, Peter [Institute for Computational Mechanics, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85747 Garching (Germany); Gravemeier, Volker, E-mail: vgravem@lnm.mw.tum.de [Institute for Computational Mechanics, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85747 Garching (Germany); Emmy Noether Research Group “Computational Multiscale Methods for Turbulent Combustion”, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85747 Garching (Germany); Wall, Wolfgang A. [Institute for Computational Mechanics, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85747 Garching (Germany)
2013-10-15
Highlights: •We present a computational method for coupled multi-ion transport in turbulent flow. •The underlying formulation is a variational multiscale finite element method. •It is combined with the isogeometric concept for electrochemical systems. •Coupled multi-ion transport in fully turbulent Taylor–Couette flow is simulated. •This example is an important model problem for rotating cylinder electrodes. -- Abstract: Electrochemical processes, such as electroplating of large items in galvanic baths, are often coupled to turbulent flow. In this study, we propose an isogeometric residual-based variational multiscale finite element method for multi-ion transport in dilute electrolyte solutions under turbulent flow conditions. In other words, this means that the concepts of isogeometric discretization and variational multiscale methods are successfully combined for developing a method capable of simulating the challenging problem of coupled multi-ion transport in turbulent flow. We present a comprehensive three-dimensional computational method taking into account, among others, coupled convection–diffusion-migration equations subject to an electroneutrality constraint in combination with phenomenological electrode-kinetics modeling. The electrochemical subproblem is one-way coupled to turbulent incompressible flow via convection. Ionic mass transfer in turbulent Taylor–Couette flow is investigated, representing an important model problem for rotating-cylinder-electrode configurations. Multi-ion transport as considered here is an example for mass transport at high Schmidt number (Sc=1389). An isogeometric discretization is especially advantageous for the present problem, since (i) curved boundaries can be represented exactly, and (ii) it has been proven to provide very accurate solutions for flow quantities when being applied in combination with residual-based variational multiscale modeling. We demonstrate that the method is robust and provides
Simulations of Turbulent Momentum and Scalar Transport in Confined Swirling Coaxial Jets
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey; Moder, Jeffrey P.
2015-01-01
This paper presents the numerical simulations of confined three-dimensional coaxial water jets. The objectives are to validate the newly proposed nonlinear turbulence models of momentum and scalar transport, and to evaluate the newly introduced scalar APDF and DWFDF equation along with its Eulerian implementation in the National Combustion Code(NCC). Simulations conducted include the steady RANS, the unsteady RANS (URANS), and the time-filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS); both without and with invoking the APDF or DWFDF equation.
Scalar transport across the turbulent/non-turbulent interface in jets: Schmidt number effects
Silva, Tiago S.; B. da Silva, Carlos; Idmec Team
2016-11-01
The dynamics of a passive scalar field near a turbulent/non-turbulent interface (TNTI) is analysed through direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent planar jets, with Reynolds numbers ranging from 142 URL http://www.lca.uc.pt.
A simple model for turbulence intermittencies
Rimbert, Nicolas
2009-01-01
Whether turbulence intermittencies shall be described by a log-Poisson, a log-stable pdf or other distributions is still debated nowadays. In this paper, a bridge between polymer physics, self-avoiding walk and random vortex stretching is established which may help in getting a new insight on this topics. Actually a very simple relationship between stability index of the stable law and the well known Flory exponent stemming from polymer physics is established. Moreover the scaling of turbulence intermittencies with Reynolds number is also obtained and the overall picture is very close to Tennekes' simple model for the fine scale structure of turbulence [Phys. Fluids, 11, 3 (1968)] : vortex tubes of Kolmogorov length width are bend by bigger vortices of Taylor length scale. This thus results in both a simple and sound model with no fitting parameter needed.
Turbulent transport and entrainment in jets and plumes: a DNS study
van Reeuwijk, Maarten; Hunt, Gary R; Craske, John
2016-01-01
We present a new DNS data set for a statistically axisymmetric turbulent jet, plume and forced plume in a domain of size $40 r_0 \\times 40 r_0 \\times 60 r_0$, where $r_0$ is the source diameter. The data set provides evidence of the validity of the Priestley and Ball entrainment model in unstratified environments (excluding the region near the source), which is corroborated further by the Wang and Law and Ezzamel \\emph{et al.} experimental data sets, the latter being corrected for a small but influential co-flow that affected the statistics. We show that the turbulence in the core region of the jet and the plume are practically indistinguishable, although the invariants of the anisotropy tensor reveal a significant change in the turbulence near the plume edge. The DNS data indicates that the turbulent Prandtl number is about 0.7 for both jets and plumes. For plumes, this value is a result of the difference in the ratio of the radial turbulent transport of radial momentum and buoyancy. For jets however, the va...
Furno, I.; Fasoli, A.; Avino, F.; Bovet, A.; Gustafson, K.; Iraji, D.; Labit, B.; Loizu, J.; Ricci, P.; Theiler, C.
2012-04-01
TORPEX is a toroidal device located at the CRPP-EPFL in Lausanne. In TORPEX, a vertical magnetic field superposed on a toroidal field creates helicoidal field lines with both ends terminating on the torus vessel. The turbulence driven by magnetic curvature and plasma gradients causes plasma transport in the radial direction while at the same time plasma is progressively lost along the field lines. The relatively simple magnetic geometry and diagnostic access of the TORPEX configuration facilitate the experimental study of low frequency instabilities and related turbulent transport, and make an accurate comparison between simulations and experiments possible. We first present a detailed investigation of electrostatic interchange turbulence, associated structures and their effect on plasma using high-resolution diagnostics of plasma parameters and wave fields throughout the whole device cross-section, fluid models and numerical simulations. Interchange modes nonlinearly develop blobs, radially propagating filaments of enhanced plasma pressure. Blob velocities and sizes are obtained from probe measurements using pattern recognition and are described by an analytical expression that includes ion polarization currents, parallel sheath currents and ion-neutral collisions. Then, we describe recent advances of a non-perturbative Li 6+ miniaturized ion source and a detector for the investigation of the interaction between supra thermal ions and interchange-driven turbulence. We present first measurements of the spatial and energy space distribution of the fast ion beam in different plasma scenarios, in which the plasma turbulence is fully characterized. The experiments are interpreted using two-dimensional fluid simulations describing the low-frequency interchange turbulence, taking into account the plasma source and plasma losses at the torus vessel. By treating fast ions as test particles, we integrate their equations of motion in the simulated electromagnetic fields, and
Turbulence spectra and transport barriers in gyrokinetic simulations
Sarazin, Y.; Grandgirard, V.; Angelino, P.; Casati, A.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Gürcan, O.; Hennequin, P.; Sabot, R.
2008-11-01
The energy spectra of the Ion Temperature Gradient driven fluctuations are investigated with the global full-f gyrokinetic code GYSELA. For monotonous q profile, the poloidal spectrum can equally be fitted with two power laws or with a unique exponential. When prescribing an additional sheared radial electric field in view of triggering a transport barrier, the system is found to promptly polarize and screen this field, likely in a transient evolution towards a canonical equilibrium. For a reversed q profile, the negative shear region exhibits larger fluctuations, possibly due to the slab branch of ITG, characterized by a flatter spectrum. No clear transport barrier signature is observed in the vicinity of s = 0 when the radial extent of the gap without resonant modes is smaller than the turbulence correlation length.
Transport in nanoscale systems: hydrodynamics, turbulence, and local electron heating
di Ventra, Massimiliano
2007-03-01
Transport in nanoscale systems is usually described as an open-boundary scattering problem. This picture, however, says nothing about the dynamical onset of steady states, their microscopic nature, or their dependence on initial conditions [1]. In order to address these issues, I will first describe the dynamical many-particle state via an effective quantum hydrodynamic theory [2]. This approach allows us to predict a series of novel phenomena like turbulence of the electron liquid [2], local electron heating in nanostructures [3], and the effect of electron viscosity on resistance [4]. I will provide both analytical results and numerical examples of first-principles electron dynamics in nanostructures using the above approach. I will also discuss possible experimental tests of our predictions. Work supported in part by NSF and DOE. [1] N. Bushong, N. Sai and M. Di Ventra, ``Approach to steady-state transport in nanoscale systems'' Nano Letters, 5 2569 (2005); M. Di Ventra and T.N. Todorov, ``Transport in nanoscale systems: the microcanonical versus grand-canonical picture,'' J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 16, 8025 (2004). [2] R. D'Agosta and M. Di Ventra, ``Hydrodynamic approach to transport and turbulence in nanoscale conductors,'' cond-mat/05123326; J. Phys. Cond. Matt., in press. [3] R. D'Agosta, N. Sai and M. Di Ventra, ``Local electron heating in nanoscale conductors,'' cond-mat/0605312; Nano Letters, in press. [4] N. Sai, M. Zwolak, G. Vignale and M. Di Ventra, ``Dynamical corrections to the DFT-LDA electron conductance in nanoscale systems,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 186810 (2005).
Alpha models and boundary-layer turbulence
Cheskidov, Alexey
We study boundary-layer turbulence using the Navier-Stokes-alpha model obtaining an extension of the Prandtl equations for the averaged flow in a turbulent boundary layer. In the case of a zero pressure gradient flow along a flat plate, we derive a nonlinear fifth-order ordinary differential equation, an extension of the Blasius equation. We study it analytically and prove the existence of a two-parameter family of solutions satisfying physical boundary conditions. From this equation we obtain a theoretical prediction of the skin-friction coefficient in a wide range of Reynolds numbers based on momentum thickness, and deduce the maximal value of the skin-friction coefficient in the turbulent boundary layer. The two-parameter family of solutions to the equation matches experimental data in the transitional boundary layers with different free stream turbulence intensity. A one-parameter sub-family of solutions, obtained using our skin-friction coefficient law, matches experimental data in the turbulent boundary layer for moderately large Reynolds numbers.
TWO MODIFICATORY K-ε TURBULENCE MODELS FOR TURBULENT SWIRLING FLOWS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Ze; Liu Wei-ming
2003-01-01
Since the standard K-ε model used to predict the strongly swirling flow leads to a large deviation from experimental results, it is necessary to introduce modification to the standard K-ε model. Based on the algebraic Reynolds stress model and Bradshaw's turbulent length scale modification conception, we present two modified K-ε models. To investigate the behaviour of the modified turbulence models, they are used to predict two representative turbulent swirling flows. The computational results, after compared with the experimental data, show that the modified K-ε models substantially improve the prediction of the standard K-ε model for the turbulent swirling flows.
Thermodynamical and microscopic properties of turbulent transport in the edge plasma
Ghendrih, Ph; Norscini, C.; Hasenbeck, F.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Abiteboul, J.; Cartier-Michaud, T.; Garbet, X.; Grandgirard, V.; Marandet, Y.; Sarazin, Y.; Tamain, P.; Zarzoso, D.
2012-12-01
Edge plasma turbulence modelled with 2D interchange is shown to exhibit convective transport at the microscale level. This transport property is related to avalanche like transport in such a flux-driven system. Correlation functions and source modulation are used to analyse the transport properties but do not allow one to recover the Fick law that must characterise the system at large scales. Coarse graining is then introduced to average out the small scales in order to recover the Fick law. One finds that the required space averaging is comparable to the system size while the time averaging is comparable to the confinement time. The system is then reduced to a single reservoir such that transport is characterised by a single scalar, either the diffusion coefficient of the Fick law or a characteristic evolution time constant.
Nonlinear turbulence models for predicting strong curvature effects
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Jing-lei; MA Hui-yang; HUANG Yu-ning
2008-01-01
Prediction of the characteristics of turbulent flows with strong streamline curvature, such as flows in turbomachines, curved channel flows, flows around airfoils and buildings, is of great importance in engineering applicatious and poses a very practical challenge for turbulence modeling. In this paper, we analyze qualitatively the curvature effects on the structure of turbulence and conduct numerical simulations of a turbulent U- duct flow with a number of turbulence models in order to assess their overall performance. The models evaluated in this work are some typical linear eddy viscosity turbulence models, nonlinear eddy viscosity turbulence models (NLEVM) (quadratic and cubic), a quadratic explicit algebraic stress model (EASM) and a Reynolds stress model (RSM) developed based on the second-moment closure. Our numerical results show that a cubic NLEVM that performs considerably well in other benchmark turbulent flows, such as the Craft, Launder and Suga model and the Huang and Ma model, is able to capture the major features of the highly curved turbulent U-duct flow, including the damping of turbulence near the convex wall, the enhancement of turbulence near the concave wall, and the subsequent turbulent flow separation. The predictions of the cubic models are quite close to that of the RSM, in relatively good agreement with the experimental data, which suggests that these inodels may be employed to simulate the turbulent curved flows in engineering applications.
Turbulent Transport at High Reynolds Numbers in an Inertial Confinement Fusion Context
2014-09-01
of Turbulent Mixing ,” Phys. Scr ., T142, p. 014014. Fig. 4 Turbulent transport as a fraction of total transport plotted versus Re for each of four...Diffusion in Turbulent Mixing ,” Phys. Scr ., T142, p. 014062. [9] George, E., Glimm, J., Grove, J. W., Li, X.-L., Liu, Y.-J., Xu, Z.-L., and Zhao, N., 2003...ABSTRACT Turbulent Transport at High Reynolds Numbers in an Inertial Confinement Fusion Context Report Title Mix is a critical input to hydro
The Use of DNS in Turbulence Modeling
Mansour, Nagi N.; Merriam, Marshal (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
The use of Direct numerical simulations (DNS) data in developing and testing turbulence models is reviewed. The data is used to test turbulence models at all levels: algebraic, one-equation, two-equation and full Reynolds stress models were tested. Particular examples on the development of models for the dissipation rate equation are presented. Homogeneous flows are used to test new scaling arguments for the various terms in the dissipation rate equation. The channel flow data is used to develop modifications to the equation model that take into account near-wall effects. DNS of compressible flows under mean compression are used in testing new compressible modifications to the two-equation models.
Turbulence models and Reynolds analogy for two-dimensional supersonic compression ramp flow
Wang, Chi R.; Bidek, Maleina C.
1994-01-01
Results of the application of turbulence models and the Reynolds analogy to the Navier-Stokes computations of Mach 2.9 two-dimensional compression ramp flows are presented. The Baldwin-Lomax eddy viscosity model and the kappa-epsilon turbulence transport equations for the turbulent momentum flux modeling in the Navier-Stokes equations are studied. The Reynolds analogy for the turbulent heat flux modeling in the energy equation was also studied. The Navier-Stokes equations and the energy equation were numerically solved for the flow properties. The Reynolds shear stress, the skin friction factor, and the surface heat transfer rate were calculated and compared with their measurements. It was concluded that with a hybrid kappa-epsilon turbulence model for turbulence modeling, the present computations predicted the skin friction factors of the 8 deg and 16 deg compression ramp flows and with the turbulent Prandtl number Pr(sub t) = 0.93 and the ratio of the turbulent thermal and momentum transport coefficients mu(sub q)/mu(sub t) = 2/Prt, the present computations also predicted the surface heat transfer rates beneath the boundary layer flow of the 16 compression ramp.
SciDAC Center for Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Zhihong [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)
2013-12-18
During the first year of the SciDAC gyrokinetic particle simulation (GPS) project, the GPS team (Zhihong Lin, Liu Chen, Yasutaro Nishimura, and Igor Holod) at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) studied the tokamak electron transport driven by electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence, and by trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence and ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence with kinetic electron effects, extended our studies of ITG turbulence spreading to core-edge coupling. We have developed and optimized an elliptic solver using finite element method (FEM), which enables the implementation of advanced kinetic electron models (split-weight scheme and hybrid model) in the SciDAC GPS production code GTC. The GTC code has been ported and optimized on both scalar and vector parallel computer architectures, and is being transformed into objected-oriented style to facilitate collaborative code development. During this period, the UCI team members presented 11 invited talks at major national and international conferences, published 22 papers in peer-reviewed journals and 10 papers in conference proceedings. The UCI hosted the annual SciDAC Workshop on Plasma Turbulence sponsored by the GPS Center, 2005-2007. The workshop was attended by about fifties US and foreign researchers and financially sponsored several gradual students from MIT, Princeton University, Germany, Switzerland, and Finland. A new SciDAC postdoc, Igor Holod, has arrived at UCI to initiate global particle simulation of magnetohydrodynamics turbulence driven by energetic particle modes. The PI, Z. Lin, has been promoted to the Associate Professor with tenure at UCI.
A Non-Fickian Mixing Model for Stratified Turbulent Flows
2013-09-30
Berselli et al., 2011) and in ocean models ( Marques and Özgökmen, 2012). Our approach in Özgökmen et al. (2012) is perhaps the first truly multi-scale...Transport in Star Eddies: Star eddies have been observed from MODIS SST images in both the summer 2011 and winter 2012 LatMix cruises. I have...published, refereed]. Marques , G.M. and T.M. Özgökmen: On modeling the turbulent exchange in buoyancy-driven fronts. Ocean Modelling [submitted
Turbulent cross-field transport of non-thermal electrons in coronal loops: theory and observations
Bian, N; McKinnon, A
2011-01-01
A fundamental problem in astrophysics is the interaction between magnetic turbulence and charged particles. It is now possible to use \\emph{Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI)} observations of hard X-rays (HXR) emitted by electrons to identify the presence of turbulence and to estimate the magnitude of the magnetic field line diffusion coefficient at least in dense coronal flaring loops.} {We discuss the various possible regimes of cross-field transport of non-thermal electrons resulting from broadband magnetic turbulence in coronal loops. The importance of the Kubo number $K$ as a governing parameter is emphasized and results applicable in both the large and small Kubo number limits are collected.} {Generic models, based on concepts and insights developed in the statistical theory of transport, are applied to the coronal loops and to the interpretation of hard X-ray imaging data in solar flares. The role of trapping effects, which become important in the non-linear regime of transport, is ...
Efficient Turbulence Modeling for CFD Wake Simulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
van der Laan, Paul
, that can accurately and efficiently simulate wind turbine wakes. The linear k-ε eddy viscosity model (EVM) is a popular turbulence model in RANS; however, it underpredicts the velocity wake deficit and cannot predict the anisotropic Reynolds-stresses in the wake. In the current work, nonlinear eddy...... viscosity models (NLEVM) are applied to wind turbine wakes. NLEVMs can model anisotropic turbulence through a nonlinear stress-strain relation, and they can improve the velocity deficit by the use of a variable eddy viscosity coefficient, that delays the wake recovery. Unfortunately, all tested NLEVMs show...... numerically unstable behavior for fine grids, which inhibits a grid dependency study for numerical verification. Therefore, a simpler EVM is proposed, labeled as the k-ε - fp EVM, that has a linear stress-strain relation, but still has a variable eddy viscosity coefficient. The k-ε - fp EVM is numerically...
Impurity transport in trapped electron mode driven turbulence
Mollén, A; Moradi, S; Fülöp, T
2013-01-01
Collisionless trapped electron mode turbulence is studied by gyrokinetic simulations with the GYRO code. Its impact on radial transport of high-Z trace impurities close to the core is thoroughly investigated, including the situation when a poloidally varying equilibrium electrostatic potential is present, and the dependence of the zero-flux impurity density gradient (peaking factor) on local plasma parameters is presented. Parameters such as ion-to-electron temperature ratio, electron temperature gradient and main species density gradient mainly affect the impurity peaking through their impact on mode characteristics. The poloidal asymmetry, the safety factor and magnetic shear have the strongest effect on impurity peaking, and it is shown that under certain scenarios where trapped electron modes are dominant, core accumulation of high-Z impurities can be avoided.
RANS-based simulation of turbulent wave boundary layer and sheet-flow sediment transport processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuhrman, David R.; Schløer, Signe; Sterner, Johanna
2013-01-01
suspended sediment concentrations, (2) turbulence suppression due to density gradients in the water–sand mixture, (3) boundary layer streaming due to convective terms, and (4) converging–diverging effects due to a sloping bed. The present model therefore provides a framework for simultaneous inclusion...... of a number of local factors important within cross-shore wave boundary layer and sediment transport dynamics. The hydrodynamic model is validated for both hydraulically smooth and rough conditions, based on wave friction factor diagrams and boundary layer streaming profiles, with the results in excellent...... to investigate the importance of boundary layer streaming effects on sediment transport in selected velocity-skewed conditions. For the medium sand grain conditions considered, the model results suggest that streaming effects can enhance onshore sediment transport rates by asmuch as a factor of two...
Turbulent transport and entrainment in jets and plumes: A DNS study
van Reeuwijk, Maarten; Salizzoni, Pietro; Hunt, Gary R.; Craske, John
2016-11-01
We present a direct numerical simulation (DNS) data set for a statistically axisymmetric turbulent jet, plume, and forced plume in a domain of size 40 r0×40 r0×60 r0 , where r0 is the source diameter. The data set supports the validity of the Priestley-Ball entrainment model in unstratified environments (excluding the region near the source) [Priestley and Ball, Q. J. R. Meteor. Soc. 81, 144 (1955), 10.1002/qj.49708134803], which is corroborated further by the Wang-Law and Ezzamel et al. experimental data sets [Wang and Law, J. Fluid Mech. 459, 397 (2002), 10.1017/S0022112002008157; Ezzamel et al., J. Fluid Mech. 765, 576 (2015), 10.1017/jfm.2014.694], the latter being corrected for a small but influential coflow that affected the statistics. We show that the second-order turbulence statistics in the core region of the jet and the plume are practically indistinguishable from each other, although there are significant differences near the plume edge. The DNS data indicate that the turbulent Prandtl number is about 0.7 for both jets and plumes. For plumes, this value is a result of the difference in the ratio of the radial turbulent transport of radial momentum and buoyancy. For jets, however, the value originates from a different spread of the buoyancy and velocity profiles, in spite of the fact that the ratio of radial turbulent transport terms is approximately unity. The DNS data do not show any evidence of similarity drift associated with gradual variations in the ratio of buoyancy profile to velocity profile widths.
Mathematical and Numerical Modeling of Turbulent Flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
João M. Vedovoto
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The present work is devoted to the development and implementation of a computational framework to perform numerical simulations of low Mach number turbulent flows over complex geometries. The algorithm under consideration is based on a classical predictor-corrector time integration scheme that employs a projection method for the momentum equations. The domain decomposition strategy is adopted for distributed computing, displaying very satisfactory levels of speed-up and efficiency. The Immersed Boundary Methodology is used to characterize the presence of a complex geometry. Such method demands two separate grids: An Eulerian, where the transport equations are solved with a Finite Volume, second order discretization and a Lagrangian domain, represented by a non-structured shell grid representing the immersed geometry. The in-house code developed was fully verified by the Method of Manufactured Solu- tions, in both Eulerian and Lagrangian domains. The capabilities of the resulting computational framework are illustrated on four distinct cases: a turbulent jet, the Poiseuille flow, as a matter of validation of the implemented Immersed Boundary methodology, the flow over a sphere covering a wide range of Reynolds numbers, and finally, with the intention of demonstrating the applicability of Large Eddy Simulations - LES - in an industrial problem, the turbulent flow inside an industrial fan.
ON THE EDDY VISCOSITY MODEL OF PERIODIC TURBULENT SHEAR FLOWS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王新军; 罗纪生; 周恒
2003-01-01
Physical argument shows that eddy viscosity is essentially different from molecular viscosity. By direct numerical simulation, it was shown that for periodic turbulent flows, there is phase difference between Reynolds stress and rate of strain. This finding posed great challenge to turbulence modeling, because most turbulence modeling, which use the idea of eddy viscosity, do not take this effect into account.
Leith diffusion model for homogeneous anisotropic turbulence
Rubinstein, Robert; Clark, Timothy; Kurien, Susan
2016-11-01
A new spectral closure model for homogeneous anisotropic turbulence is proposed. The systematic development begins by closing the third-order correlation describing nonlinear interactions by an anisotropic generalization of the Leith diffusion model for isotropic turbulence. The correlation tensor is then decomposed into a tensorially isotropic part, or directional anisotropy, and a trace-free remainder, or polarization anisotropy. The directional and polarization components are then decomposed using irreducible representations of the SO(3) symmetry group. Under the ansatz that the decomposition is truncated at quadratic order, evolution equations are derived for the directional and polarization pieces of the correlation tensor. Numerical simulation of the model equations for a freely decaying anisotropic flow illustrate the non-trivial effects of spectral dependencies on the different return-to-isotropy rates of the directional and polarization contributions.
Sonic eddy model of the turbulent boundary layer
Breidenthal, Robert; Dintilhac, Paul; Williams, Owen
2016-11-01
A model of the compressible turbulent boundary layer is proposed. It is based on the notion that turbulent transport by an eddy requires that information of nonsteady events propagates across the diameter of that eddy during one rotation period. The finite acoustic signaling speed then controls the turbulent fluxes. As a consequence, the fluxes are limited by the largest eddies that satisfies this requirement. Therefore "sonic eddies" with a rotational Mach number of about unity would determine the skin friction, which is predicted to vary inversely with Mach number. This sonic eddy model contrasts with conventional models that are based on the energy equation and variations in the density. The effect of density variations is known to be weak in free shear flows, and the sonic eddy model assumes the same for the boundary layer. In general, Mach number plays two simultaneous roles in compressible flow, one related to signaling and the other related to the energy equation. The predictions of the model are compared with experimental data and DNS results from the literature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vijay K. Garg
1998-01-01
reason for the discrepancy on the pressure surface could be the presence of unsteady effects due to stator-rotor interaction in the experiments which are not modeled in the present computations. Prediction using the two-equation model is in general poorer than that using the zero-equation model, while the former requires at least 40% more computational resources.
Edge turbulence and transport studies with ergodic divertor, on Tore Supra ohmic discharges
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Payan, J.; Garbet, X.; Clairet, F.; Devynck, P.; Laviron, C.; Chatenet, J.H.; Ghendrih, P.N.; Grosman, A. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Gervais, F.; Hennequin, P.; Quemeneur, A.; Truc, A. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises
1995-12-31
Edge turbulence and transport studies have been performed when the ergodic divertor is applied on Tore Supra ohmic discharges. A modification of radial electric field profiles is expected. Such a change could influence edge transport and turbulence. A CO{sub 2} laser scattering diagnostic, ALTAIR, has been used to study the turbulence changes at the plasma edge. Reflectometry (used at fixed frequency) gives also access to localized turbulence measurements. Preliminary results from reflectometry are presented and compared to ALTAIR results. (K.A.) 6 refs.; 4 figs.
Oude Nijhuis, A.C.P.; Krasnov, O.K.; Unal, C.M.H.; Russchenberg, H.W.J.; Yarovoy, A.
2015-01-01
Homogeneous isotropic turbulence (HIT) models are compared, with respect to optimization of turbulence remote sensing. HIT models have different applications such as load calculation for wind turbines (Mann, 1998) or droplet track modelling (Pinsky and Khain, 2006). Details of vortices seem of less
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
The engineering computation of turbulent flows is mainly based on turbulence modeling,however,accurate aerothermal computation of hypersonic turbulent boundary layers is still a not well-solved problem. Aerothermal computation for turbulent boundary layers on a supersonic or hypersonic blunt cone with small bluntness is done firstly by using both direct numerical simulation and BL model,and seven different cases are investigated. Then the results obtained by the two methods are compared,and the reason causing the differences is found to be the incorrect assumption in the turbulence modeling that the ratio between eddy heat conductivity and eddy viscosity is constant throughout the whole boundary layer. Based on certain theoretical arguments,a method of modifying the expression of eddy heat conductivity in the region surrounding the peak location of the turbulent kinetic energy is proposed,which is verified to be effective,at least for the seven cases investigated.
Validating modelling assumptions of alpha particles in electrostatic turbulence
Wilkie, George; Highcock, Edmund; Dorland, William
2014-01-01
To rigorously model fast ions in fusion plasmas, a non-Maxwellian equilibrium distribution must be used. In the work, the response of high-energy alpha particles to electrostatic turbulence has been analyzed for several different tokamak parameters. Our results are consistent with known scalings and experimental evidence that alpha particles are generally well-confined: on the order of several seconds. It is also confirmed that the effect of alphas on the turbulence is negligible at realistically low concentrations, consistent with linear theory. It is demonstrated that the usual practice of using a high-temperature Maxwellian gives incorrect estimates for the radial alpha particle flux, and a method of correcting it is provided. Furthermore, we see that the timescales associated with collisions and transport compete at moderate energies, calling into question the assumption that alpha particles remain confined to a flux surface that is used in the derivation of the slowing-down distribution.
Evaluation of Turbulence Models in Gas Dispersion
Moen, Alexander
2016-01-01
Several earlier model validation studies for predicting gas dispersion scenarios have been conducted for the three RANS two-equation eddy viscosity turbulence models, the standard k-ε (SKE), Re- Normalisation group k-ε (RNG) and Realizable k-ε (Realizable). However, these studies have mainly validated one or two of the models, and have mostly used one simulation case as a basis for determining which model is the best suited for predicting such scenarios. In addition, the studies have shown co...
Near-wall modelling of compressible turbulent flows
So, Ronald M. C.
1990-01-01
Work was carried out to formulate near-wall models for the equations governing the transport of the temperature-variance and its dissipation rate. With these equations properly modeled, a foundation is laid for their extension together with the heat-flux equations to compressible flows. This extension is carried out in a manner similar to that used to extend the incompressible near-wall Reynolds-stress models to compressible flows. The methodology used to accomplish the extension of the near-wall Reynolds-stress models is examined and the actual extension of the models for the Reynolds-stress equations and the near-wall dissipation-rate equation to compressible flows is given. Then the formulation of the near-wall models for the equations governing the transport of the temperature variance and its dissipation rate is discussed. Finally, a sample calculation of a flat plate compressible turbulent boundary-layer flow with adiabatic wall boundary condition and a free-stream Mach number of 2.5 using a two-equation near-wall closure is presented. The results show that the near-wall two-equation closure formulated for compressible flows is quite valid and the calculated properties are in good agreement with measurements. Furthermore, the near-wall behavior of the turbulence statistics and structure parameters is consistent with that found in incompressible flows.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
Additional equations were found based on experiments for an algebraic turbulence model to improve the prediction of the behavior of three dimensional turbulent boundary layers by taking account of the effects of pressure gradient and the historical variation of eddy viscosity, so the model is with memory. Numerical calculation by solving boundary layer equations was carried out for the five pressure driven three dimensional turbulent boundary layers developed on flat plates, swept-wing, and prolate spheroid in symmetrical plane. Comparing the computational results with the experimental data, it is obvious that the prediction will be more accurate if the proposed closure equations are used, especially for the turbulent shear stresses.
An Improved Model for the Turbulent PBL
Cheng, Y.; Canuto, V. M.; Howard, A. M.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Second order turbulence models of the Mellor and Yamada type have been widely used to simulate the PBL. It is however known that these models have several deficiencies. For example, they all predict a critical Richardson number which is about four times smaller than the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) data, they are unable to match the surface data, and they predict a boundary layer height lower than expected. In the present model, we show that these difficulties are all overcome by a single new physical input: the use of the most complete expression for both the pressure-velocity and the pressure-temperature correlations presently available. Each of the new terms represents a physical process that, was not accounted for by previous models. The new model is presented in three different levels according to Mellor and Yamada's terminology, with new, ready-to-use expressions for the turbulent, moments. We show that the new model reproduces several experimental and LES data better than previous models. As far as the PBL is concerned, we show that the model reproduces both the Kansas data as analyzed by Businger et al. in the context of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory for smaller Richardson numbers, as well as the LES and laboratory data up to Richardson numbers of order unity. We also show that the model yields a higher PBL height than the previous models.
Evaluation of a Two-Length Scale Turbulence Model with Experiments on Shock-Driven Turbulent Mixing
Carter, John; Gore, Rob; Ranjan, Devesh
2015-11-01
A new second moment turbulence model which uses separate transport and decay length scales is used to model the shock-driven instability. The ability of the model to capture the evolution of turbulence statistics and mixing is discussed. Evaluation is based on comparison to the Georgia Tech shock tube experiments. In the experiments a membraneless light-over-heavy interface is created. There is a long-wavelength perturbation which exists due to inclination of the entire shock tube. By limiting calculations to one dimension, there is not a geometric description of the incline, and the ability of the transport length scale alone to capture the effect of the long-wavelength perturbation is tested.
A computational study of turbulent kinetic energy transport in barotropic turbulence on the f-plane
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grooms, Ian, E-mail: ian.grooms@colorado.edu [Center for Atmosphere Ocean Science, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States)
2015-10-15
Energy transport by eddies is diagnosed from a series of simulations of stochastically forced, inhomogeneous two-dimensional turbulence—barotropic dynamics on the f-plane. The divergence of the energy flux is compared to diffusive models, both fractional and harmonic, and the inferred diffusivity κ is compared to a mixing-length model κ ∝ Vℓ where V and ℓ are eddy velocity and length scales, respectively. The flux-divergence is found to be well approximated by Laplacian diffusion with a mixing-length approximation. This study provides some support for diffusive modeling of mesoscale eddy energy transport in ocean model parameterizations.
Development of a One-Equation Transition/Turbulence Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
EDWARDS,JACK R.; ROY,CHRISTOPHER J.; BLOTTNER,FREDERICK G.; HASSAN,HASSAN A.
2000-09-26
This paper reports on the development of a unified one-equation model for the prediction of transitional and turbulent flows. An eddy viscosity - transport equation for non-turbulent fluctuation growth based on that proposed by Warren and Hassan (Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 35, No. 5) is combined with the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model for turbulent fluctuation growth. Blending of the two equations is accomplished through a multidimensional intermittence function based on the work of Dhawan and Narasimha (Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 3, No. 4). The model predicts both the onset and extent of transition. Low-speed test cases include transitional flow over a flat plate, a single element airfoil, and a multi-element airfoil in landing configuration. High-speed test cases include transitional Mach 3.5 flow over a 5{degree} cone and Mach 6 flow over a flared-cone configuration. Results are compared with experimental data, and the spatial accuracy of selected predictions is analyzed.
MHD Turbulent Mixing Layers: Equilibrium Cooling Models
Esquivel, A; Cho, J; Lazarian, A; Leitner, S N
2006-01-01
We present models of turbulent mixing at the boundaries between hot (T~10^{6-7} K) and warm material (T~10^4 K) in the interstellar medium, using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical code, with radiative cooling. The source of turbulence in our simulations is a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, produced by shear between the two media. We found, that because the growth rate of the large scale modes in the instability is rather slow, it takes a significant amount of time (~1 Myr) for turbulence to produce effective mixing. We find that the total column densities of the highly ionized species (C IV, N V, and O VI) per interface (assuming ionization equilibrium) are similar to previous steady-state non-equilibrium ionization models, but grow slowly from log N ~10^{11} to a few 10^{12} cm^{-2} as the interface evolves. However, the column density ratios can differ significantly from previous estimates, with an order of magnitude variation in N(C IV)/N(O VI) as the mixing develops.
Scaling law and fractality concepts in models of turbulent diffusion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bakunin, O G [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , Nuclear Fusion Institute, Kurchatova Sq., Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation); FOM Instituut voor Plasmafysica ' Rijnhuizen' , Associate Euroatom-FOM, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)
2003-10-01
A large variety of plasma instabilities lead to the development of different types of plasma turbulences. This paper discusses the Dreizin-Dykhne model of random flows, the Kadomtsev-Pogutse approach to describe 'braided' magnetic field and transport estimates in systems with convective cells. The important role of correlation effects and anisotropy is shown. The variety of forms require not only special description methods, but also an analysis of the general mechanisms for different turbulence types. One such mechanism is the percolation transport. Its description is based on the idea of long-range correlations, taken from the theory of phase transitions and the percolation theory. This approach is based on fractality ideas. This paper discusses several different models of the percolation transport. The similar characters of used approaches are pointed out. The detailed analysis of the more important results obtained in this domain is presented in this paper. The aim of this paper is to make these results clear and not only for theoreticians.
Representing Turbulence Model Uncertainty with Stochastic PDEs
Oliver, Todd; Moser, Robert
2012-11-01
Validation of and uncertainty quantification for extrapolative predictions of RANS turbulence models are necessary to ensure that the models are not used outside of their domain of applicability and to properly inform decisions based on such predictions. In previous work, we have developed and calibrated statistical models for these purposes, but it has been found that incorporating all the knowledge of a domain expert--e.g., realizability, spatial smoothness, and known scalings--in such models is difficult. Here, we explore the use of stochastic PDEs for this purpose. The goal of this formulation is to pose the uncertainty model in a setting where it is easier for physical modelers to express what is known. To explore the approach, multiple stochastic models describing the error in the Reynolds stress are coupled with multiple deterministic turbulence models to make uncertain predictions of channel flow. These predictions are compared with DNS data to assess their credibility. This work is supported by the Department of Energy [National Nuclear Security Administration] under Award Number [DE-FC52-08NA28615].
Achieving Fast Reconnection in Resistive MHD Models via Turbulent Means
Lapenta, Giovanni
2011-01-01
Astrophysical fluids are generally turbulent and this preexisting turbulence must be taken into account for the models of magnetic reconnection which are attepmted to be applied to astrophysical, solar or heliospheric environments. In addition, reconnection itself induces turbulence which provides an important feedback on the reconnection process. In this paper we discuss both theoretical model and numerical evidence that magnetic reconnection gets fast in the approximation of resistive MHD. We consider the relation between the Lazarian & Vishniac turbulent reconnection theory and Lapenta's numerical experiments testifying of the spontaneous onset of turbulent reconnection in systems which are initially laminar.
Turbulent transport in the atmospheric boundary layer with application to wind farm dynamics
Waggy, Scott B.
With the recent push for renewable energy sources, wind energy has emerged as a candidate to replace some of the power produced by traditional fossil fuels. Recent studies, however, have indicated that wind farms may have a direct effect on local meteorology by transporting water vapor away from the Earth's surface. Such turbulent transport could result in an increased drying of soil, and, in turn, negatively affect the productivity of land in the wind farm's immediate vicinity. This numerical study will analyze four scenarios with the goal of understanding turbulence transport in the wake of a turbine: the neutrally-stratified boundary layer with system rotation, the unstably-stratified atmospheric boundary layer, and wind turbine simulations of these previous two cases. For this work, the Ekman layer is used as an approximation of the atmospheric boundary layer and the governing equations are solved using a fully-parallelized direct numerical simulation (DNS). The in-depth studies of the neutrally and unstably-stratified boundary layers without introducing wind farm effects will act to provide a concrete background for the final study concerning turbulent transport due to turbine wakes. Although neutral stratification rarely occurs in the atmospheric boundary layer, it is useful to study the turbulent Ekman layer under such conditions as it provides a limiting case when unstable or stable stratification are weak. In this work, a thorough analysis was completed including turbulent statistics, velocity and pressure autocorrelations, and a calculation of the full turbulent energy budget. The unstably-stratified atmospheric boundary layer was studied under two levels of heating: moderate and vigorous. Under moderate stratification, both buoyancy and shearing contribute significantly to the turbulent dynamics. As the level of stratification increases, the role of shearing is shown to diminish and is confined to the near-wall region only. A recent, multi
Spectral Model of Non-Stationary, Inhomogeneous Turbulence
Bragg, Andrew D; Clark, Timothy T
2015-01-01
We compare results from a spectral model for non-stationary, inhomogeneous turbulence (Besnard et al., Theor. Comp. Fluid. Dyn., vol. 8, pp 1-35, 1996) with Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) data of a shear-free mixing layer (SFML) (Tordella et al., Phys. Rev. E, vol. 77, 016309, 2008). The SFML is used as a test case in which the efficacy of the model closure for the physical-space transport of the fluid velocity field can be tested in a flow with inhomogeneity, without the additional complexity of mean-flow coupling. The model is able to capture certain features of the SFML quite well for intermediate to long-times, including the evolution of the mixing-layer width and turbulent kinetic energy. At short-times, and for more sensitive statistics such as the generation of the velocity field anisotropy, the model is less accurate. We present arguments, supported by the DNS data, that a significant cause of the discrepancies is the local approximation to the intrinsically non-local pressure-transport in physical...
A kinetic model of plasma turbulence
Servidio, S.; Valentini, F.; Perrone, D.; Greco, A.; Califano, F.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Veltri, P.
2015-01-01
A Hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell (HVM) model is presented and recent results about the link between kinetic effects and turbulence are reviewed. Using five-dimensional (2D in space and 3D in the velocity space) simulations of plasma turbulence, it is found that kinetic effects (or non-fluid effects) manifest through the deformation of the proton velocity distribution function (DF), with patterns of non-Maxwellian features being concentrated near regions of strong magnetic gradients. The direction of the proper temperature anisotropy, calculated in the main reference frame of the distribution itself, has a finite probability of being along or across the ambient magnetic field, in general agreement with the classical definition of anisotropy T ⊥/T ∥ (where subscripts refer to the magnetic field direction). Adopting the latter conventional definition, by varying the global plasma beta (β) and fluctuation level, simulations explore distinct regions of the space given by T ⊥/T ∥ and β∥, recovering solar wind observations. Moreover, as in the solar wind, HVM simulations suggest that proton anisotropy is not only associated with magnetic intermittent events, but also with gradient-type structures in the flow and in the density. The role of alpha particles is reviewed using multi-ion kinetic simulations, revealing a similarity between proton and helium non-Maxwellian effects. The techniques presented here are applied to 1D spacecraft-like analysis, establishing a link between non-fluid phenomena and solar wind magnetic discontinuities. Finally, the dimensionality of turbulence is investigated, for the first time, via 6D HVM simulations (3D in both spaces). These preliminary results provide support for several previously reported studies based on 2.5D simulations, confirming several basic conclusions. This connection between kinetic features and turbulence open a new path on the study of processes such as heating, particle acceleration, and temperature
Turbulent convection model in the overshooting region: II. Theoretical analysis
Zhang, S Q
2012-01-01
Turbulent convection models are thought to be good tools to deal with the convective overshooting in the stellar interior. However, they are too complex to be applied in calculations of stellar structure and evolution. In order to understand the physical processes of the convective overshooting and to simplify the application of turbulent convection models, a semi-analytic solution is necessary. We obtain the approximate solution and asymptotic solution of the turbulent convection model in the overshooting region, and find some important properties of the convective overshooting: I. The overshooting region can be partitioned into three parts: a thin region just outside the convective boundary with high efficiency of turbulent heat transfer, a power law dissipation region of turbulent kinetic energy in the middle, and a thermal dissipation area with rapidly decreasing turbulent kinetic energy. The decaying indices of the turbulent correlations $k$, $\\bar{u_{r}'T'}$, and $\\bar{T'T'}$ are only determined by the ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
M. McGraw
2000-04-13
The UZ Colloid Transport model development plan states that the objective of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the development of a model for simulating unsaturated colloid transport. This objective includes the following: (1) use of a process level model to evaluate the potential mechanisms for colloid transport at Yucca Mountain; (2) Provide ranges of parameters for significant colloid transport processes to Performance Assessment (PA) for the unsaturated zone (UZ); (3) Provide a basis for development of an abstracted model for use in PA calculations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schuster, Eugenio
2014-05-02
The strong coupling between the different physical variables involved in the plasma transport phenomenon and the high complexity of its dynamics call for a model-based, multivariable approach to profile control where those predictive models could be exploited. The overall objective of this project has been to extend the existing body of work by investigating numerically and experimentally active control of unstable fluctuations, including fully developed turbulence and the associated cross-field particle transport, via manipulation of flow profiles in a magnetized laboratory plasma device. Fluctuations and particle transport can be monitored by an array of electrostatic probes, and Ex B flow profiles can be controlled via a set of biased concentric ring electrodes that terminate the plasma column. The goals of the proposed research have been threefold: i- to develop a predictive code to simulate plasma transport in the linear HELCAT (HELicon-CAThode) plasma device at the University of New Mexico (UNM), where the experimental component of the proposed research has been carried out; ii- to establish the feasibility of using advanced model-based control algorithms to control cross-field turbulence-driven particle transport through appropriate manipulation of radial plasma flow profiles, iii- to investigate the fundamental nonlinear dynamics of turbulence and transport physics. Lehigh University (LU), including Prof. Eugenio Schuster and one full-time graduate student, has been primarily responsible for control-oriented modeling and model-based control design. Undergraduate students have also participated in this project through the National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) program. The main goal of the LU Plasma Control Group has been to study the feasibility of controlling turbulence-driven transport by shaping the radial poloidal flow profile (i.e., by controlling flow shear) via biased concentric ring electrodes.
Axisymmetric Vortex Simulations with Various Turbulence Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brian Howard Fiedler
2010-10-01
Full Text Available The CFD code FLUENT^{TM} has been applied to a vortex within an updraft above a frictional lower boundary. The sensitivity of vortex intensity and structure to the choice of turbulent model is explored. A high Reynolds number of 10^{8} is employed to make the investigation relevant to the atmospheric vortex known as a tornado. The simulations are axisymmetric and are integrated forward in time to equilibrium. In a variety of turbulence models tested, the Reynolds Stress Model allows for the greatest intensification of the vortex, with the azimuthal wind speed near the surface being 2.4 times the speed of the updraft, consistent with the destructive nature of tornadoes. The Standard k-e Model, which is simpler than the Reynolds Stress Model but still more detailed than what is commonly available in numerical weather prediction models, produces an azimuthal wind speed near the surface of at most 0.6 times the updraft speed.
Cloud Simulations in Response to Turbulence Parameterizations in the GISS Model E GCM
Yao, Mao-Sung; Cheng, Ye
2013-01-01
The response of cloud simulations to turbulence parameterizations is studied systematically using the GISS general circulation model (GCM) E2 employed in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5).Without the turbulence parameterization, the relative humidity (RH) and the low cloud cover peak unrealistically close to the surface; with the dry convection or with only the local turbulence parameterization, these two quantities improve their vertical structures, but the vertical transport of water vapor is still weak in the planetary boundary layers (PBLs); with both local and nonlocal turbulence parameterizations, the RH and low cloud cover have better vertical structures in all latitudes due to more significant vertical transport of water vapor in the PBL. The study also compares the cloud and radiation climatologies obtained from an experiment using a newer version of turbulence parameterization being developed at GISS with those obtained from the AR5 version. This newer scheme differs from the AR5 version in computing nonlocal transports, turbulent length scale, and PBL height and shows significant improvements in cloud and radiation simulations, especially over the subtropical eastern oceans and the southern oceans. The diagnosed PBL heights appear to correlate well with the low cloud distribution over oceans. This suggests that a cloud-producing scheme needs to be constructed in a framework that also takes the turbulence into consideration.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jianbo Jiang; Xiang Qiu; Zhiming Lu; Yulu Liu
2005-01-01
In this paper four families of orthogonal wavelets are applied to analyze the turbulent counter gradient transport phenomena in fully developed asymmetric channel flows,The results show that: (1) In the instance of counter gradient transport, the principal scale of the coherent structure is responsible for the strong local counter gradient transport; (2)Counter gradient transport phenomena have a strong effect on the intermittency of turbulence; (3) Non-Gaussian part of the principal coherent structure is essential for counter gradient transport phenomena.
Multigrid solution of incompressible turbulent flows by using two-equation turbulence models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zheng, X.; Liu, C. [Front Range Scientific Computations, Inc., Denver, CO (United States); Sung, C.H. [David Taylor Model Basin, Bethesda, MD (United States)
1996-12-31
Most of practical flows are turbulent. From the interest of engineering applications, simulation of realistic flows is usually done through solution of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and turbulence model equations. It has been widely accepted that turbulence modeling plays a very important role in numerical simulation of practical flow problem, particularly when the accuracy is of great concern. Among the most used turbulence models today, two-equation models appear to be favored for the reason that they are more general than algebraic models and affordable with current available computer resources. However, investigators using two-equation models seem to have been more concerned with the solution of N-S equations. Less attention is paid to the solution method for the turbulence model equations. In most cases, the turbulence model equations are loosely coupled with N-S equations, multigrid acceleration is only applied to the solution of N-S equations due to perhaps the fact the turbulence model equations are source-term dominant and very stiff in sublayer region.
An Investigation of a Hybrid Mixing Timescale Model for PDF Simulations of Turbulent Premixed Flames
Zhou, Hua; Kuron, Mike; Ren, Zhuyin; Lu, Tianfeng; Chen, Jacqueline H.
2016-11-01
Transported probability density function (TPDF) method features the generality for all combustion regimes, which is attractive for turbulent combustion simulations. However, the modeling of micromixing due to molecular diffusion is still considered to be a primary challenge for TPDF method, especially in turbulent premixed flames. Recently, a hybrid mixing rate model for TPDF simulations of turbulent premixed flames has been proposed, which recovers the correct mixing rates in the limits of flamelet regime and broken reaction zone regime while at the same time aims to properly account for the transition in between. In this work, this model is employed in TPDF simulations of turbulent premixed methane-air slot burner flames. The model performance is assessed by comparing the results from both direct numerical simulation (DNS) and conventional constant mechanical-to-scalar mixing rate model. This work is Granted by NSFC 51476087 and 91441202.
Transport in Porous Fins From Laminar to Turbulent Regime
Coletti, Filippo; Muramatsu, Kenshiro; Furciniti, Brian; Elkins, Chris; Eaton, John
2012-11-01
Lotus type porous metal has elongated pores of random size and spatial distribution but a common orientation. Sets of so-called lotus fins are obtained by slicing the metal into thin layers and stacking them in the flow path, forcing the fluid to pass through the pores. Lotus fins represent a promising alternative to metal foam heat exchangers, because they offer higher thermal conductivity and lower pressure drop. We have experimentally analyzed the fluid flow and heat transfer in lotus fins to determine their transport properties in a range of flow regimes. The investigated Reynolds numbers based on the pore diameter and inner velocity ranged from 100 to 4000. Three-dimensional mean velocity fields were obtained by magnetic resonance velocimetry performed on magnified replicas of the fins, allowing determination of the mechanical dispersion imposed by the random structure of the fins. Thermal measurements on non-conductive fins provided the global diffusivity coefficient, which accounts for molecular, mechanical and (at high Reynolds number) turbulent diffusion. The latter contribution was isolated and its relevance assessed as a function of the flow regime.
Anisotropy and Dissipation of Turbulence and Their Effects on Solar Models
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Based on a dynamic model for turbulent convection, we investigate the effects of dissipation and anisotropy of the turbulence on the convective energy transport. We introduce two time scales to describe the dissipation of the turbulence,and approximate the anisotropy of the turbulence by Rotta's proposal of "return to isotropy". The improved turbulence model results in an equation to determine the temperature gradient in the convection zone, which is of similar form as that of the MLT. We apply the improved MLT to solar models, and find that the increases of the anisotropy and decreases of the dissipation of the turbulence reduce the value of the convection parameter α, because these processes enhance the convective energy transfer rate. Compared with the observed solar p-mode frequencies, it is plausible that the dissipation of the turbulence in the solar convection zone should be fairly strong, while the degree of anisotropy of the turbulence plays a less significant role on the structure of the solar convection zone.
Dif-Pradalier, G.; Grandgirard, V.; Sarazin, Y.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, Ph.
2009-08-01
The impact of ion-ion collisions on confinement is investigated with the full-f and global gyrokinetic Gysela code through a series of nonlinear turbulence simulations for tokamak parameters. A twofold scan in the turbulence drive and in collisionality is performed, highlighting (i) a heat transport expressed in terms of critical quantities—threshold and exponent, (ii) a first evidence of turbulent generation of poloidal momentum, and (iii) the dominance of mean flow shear, mediated through the turbulent corrugation of the mean profiles, with regard to the oft-invoked zonal flow shear.
Turner, A J; Gogoberidze, G; Chapman, S C
2012-02-24
Single point spacecraft observations of the turbulent solar wind flow exhibit a characteristic nonaxisymmetric anisotropy that depends sensitively on the perpendicular power spectral exponent. We use this nonaxisymmetric anisotropy as a function of wave vector direction to test models of MHD turbulence. Using Ulysses magnetic field observations in the fast, quiet polar solar wind we find that the Goldreich-Sridhar model of MHD turbulence is not consistent with the observed anisotropy, whereas the observations are well reproduced by the "slab+2D" model. The Goldreich-Sridhar model alone cannot account for the observations unless an additional component is also present.
Toward Better Modeling of Supercritical Turbulent Mixing
Selle, Laurent; Okongo'o, Nora; Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth
2008-01-01
study was done as part of an effort to develop computational models representing turbulent mixing under thermodynamic supercritical (here, high pressure) conditions. The question was whether the large-eddy simulation (LES) approach, developed previously for atmospheric-pressure compressible-perfect-gas and incompressible flows, can be extended to real-gas non-ideal (including supercritical) fluid mixtures. [In LES, the governing equations are approximated such that the flow field is spatially filtered and subgrid-scale (SGS) phenomena are represented by models.] The study included analyses of results from direct numerical simulation (DNS) of several such mixing layers based on the Navier-Stokes, total-energy, and conservation- of-chemical-species governing equations. Comparison of LES and DNS results revealed the need to augment the atmospheric- pressure LES equations with additional SGS momentum and energy terms. These new terms are the direct result of high-density-gradient-magnitude regions found in the DNS and observed experimentally under fully turbulent flow conditions. A model has been derived for the new term in the momentum equation and was found to perform well at small filter size but to deteriorate with increasing filter size. Several alternative models were derived for the new SGS term in the energy equation that would need further investigations to determine if they are too computationally intensive in LES.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
卢志明; 刘宇陆; 蒋剑波
2001-01-01
Turbulent features of streamwise and vertical components of velocity in the negative transport region of asymmetric plane channel flow have been studied experimentally in details. Experiments show that turbulent fluctuations in negative transport region are suppressed, and their probability distributions are far from Gaus sian. Besides, the skewness factors attain their negative maxima at the position of the maximum mean velocity, whereas the flatness factors attain their positive maxima at the same position.
The gyro-radius scaling of ion thermal transport from global numerical simulations of ITG turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ottaviani, M. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Manfredi, G. [Dublin Inst. for Advanced Studies (Ireland). School of CosmicPhysics
1998-12-01
A three-dimensional, fluid code is used to study the scaling of ion thermal transport caused by Ion-Temperature-Gradient-Driven (ITG) turbulence. The code includes toroidal effects and is capable of simulating the whole torus. It is found that both close to the ITG threshold and well above threshold, the thermal transport and the turbulence structures exhibit a gyro-Bohm scaling, at least for plasmas with moderate poloidal flow. (author) 19 refs.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
Based on the standark κ-ε turbulence model,a new compressible κ-ε model considering the pressure expansion influence due to the compressibility of fluid is developed and aplied to the simulation of 3D transonic turbulent flows in a nozzle and a cascade.The Reynolds averaged N-S equations in generalized curvilinear coordinates are solved with implementation of the new model,the high resolution TVD scheme is used to discretize the convective terms.The numerical results show that the compressible κ-ε odel behaves well in the simulation of transonic internal turbulent flows.
Reduced-Basis Determination of Planetary Boundary-Layer Flow Statistics for a Novel Turbulence Model
Skitka, Joseph; Marston, Brad; Fox-Kemper, Baylor
2016-11-01
Uncertainty in climate modeling and weather forecasting can largely be attributed to the omission or inaccurate representation of oceanic and atmospheric subgrid processes. Existing subgrid turbulence models are built on assumptions of isotropy, homogeneity, and the locality of correlations. Direct statistical simulation (DSS) using expansion in equal-time cumulants is a novel approach to subgrid modeling that does not make these assumptions. In prior work, a second-order closure, CE2, was shown to capture important vertical turbulent transports in Langmuir turbulence and Rayleigh-Bénard convection, but to run efficiently, this approach to turbulence modeling requires a drastic reduction in dimensionality. The present work addresses how accurately these systems can be represented with a truncated principal orthogonal decomposition (POD). The representation of turbulent transports by truncated POD bases are studied by static projection of fully resolved statistics and dynamical evolution of a reduced model. Results indicate the projected truncated turbulent statistics in these flows are less sensitive to flow details, like mixed-layer depth, than the truncated basis itself. The question of whether POD is an optimal truncation technique for these purposes is considered. NSF DMR 1306806, NSF GCE 1350795, The Institute at Brown for Environment and Society Graduate Student Fellowship.
Evaluation of Eddy Viscosity Models in Predicting Free- Stream Turbulence Penetration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Kahrom
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Turbulence schemes have long been developed and examined for their accuracy and stability in a variety of environments. While many industrial flows are highly turbulent, models have rarely been tested to explore whether their accuracy withstands such augmented free-stream turbulence intensity or declines to an erroneous solution. In the present study, the turbulence intensity of an air flow stream, moving parallel to a flat plate is augmented by the means of locating a grid screen at a point at which Rex=2.5×105 and the effect on the flow and the near-wall boundary is studied. At this cross section, the turbulence intensity is augmented from 0.4% to 6.6% to flow downstream. Wind tunnel measurements provide reference bases to validate the numerical results for velocity fluctuations in the main stream and at the near-wall. Numerically, four of the most popular turbulence models are examined, namely the oneequation Spalart-Almaras, the two equation Standard k , the two equation Shear Stress Transport and the anisotropy multi equation Reynolds Stress Models (RSM. The resulting solutions for the domain are compared to experimental measurements and then the results are discussed. The conclusion is made that, despite the accuracy that these turbulence models are believed to have, even for some difficult flow field, they fail to handle high intensity turbulence flows. Turbulence models provide a better approach in experiments when the turbulence intensity is at about 2% and/or when the Reynolds number is high.
Estimation of Wind Turbulence Using Spectral Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Soltani, Mohsen; Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas
2011-01-01
The production and loading of wind farms are significantly influenced by the turbulence of the flowing wind field. Estimation of turbulence allows us to optimize the performance of the wind farm. Turbulence estimation is; however, highly challenging due to the chaotic behavior of the wind. In thi...
Puhales, Franciano Scremin; Rizza, Umberto; Degrazia, Gervásio Annes; Acevedo, Otávio Costa
2013-02-01
In this work a parametrization for the transport terms of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budget equation, valid for a convective boundary layer (CBL) is presented. This is a hard task to accomplish from experimental data, especially because of the difficulty associated to the measurements of pressure turbulent fluctuations, which are necessary to determine the pressure correlation TKE transport term. Thus, employing a large eddy simulation (LES) a full diurnal planetary boundary layer (PBL) cycle was simulated. In this simulation a forcing obtained from experimental data is used, so that the numerical experiment represents a more realistic case than a stationary PBL. For this study all terms of the TKE budget equation were determined for a CBL. From these data, polynomials that describe the TKE transport terms’ vertical profiles were adjusted. The polynomials found are a good description of the LES data, and from them it is shown that a simple formulation that directly relates the transport terms to the TKE magnitude has advantages on other parameterizations commonly used in CBL numerical models. Furthermore, the present study shows that the TKE turbulent transport term dominates over the TKE transport by pressure perturbations and that for most of the CBL these two terms have opposite signs.
Testing turbulent closure models with convection simulations
Snellman, J E; Mantere, M J; Rheinhardt, M; Dintrans, B
2012-01-01
Aims: To compare simple analytical closure models of turbulent Boussinesq convection for stellar applications with direct three-dimensional simulations both in homogeneous and inhomogeneous (bounded) setups. Methods: We use simple analytical closure models to compute the fluxes of angular momentum and heat as a function of rotation rate measured by the Taylor number. We also investigate cases with varying angles between the angular velocity and gravity vectors, corresponding to locating the computational domain at different latitudes ranging from the pole to the equator of the star. We perform three-dimensional numerical simulations in the same parameter regimes for comparison. The free parameters appearing in the closure models are calibrated by two fit methods using simulation data. Unique determination of the closure parameters is possible only in the non-rotating case and when the system is placed at the pole. In the other cases the fit procedures yield somewhat differing results. The quality of the closu...
Algebraic Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction Model
Norris, Andrew T.
2012-01-01
The results of a series of Perfectly Stirred Reactor (PSR) and Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR) simulations are compared to each other over a wide range of operating conditions. It is found that the PaSR results can be simulated by a PSR solution with just an adjusted chemical reaction rate. A simple expression has been developed that gives the required change in reaction rate for a PSR solution to simulate the PaSR results. This expression is the basis of a simple turbulence-chemistry interaction model. The interaction model that has been developed is intended for use with simple one-step global reaction mechanisms and for steady-state flow simulations. Due to the simplicity of the model there is very little additional computational cost in adding it to existing CFD codes.
Poloidal rotation driven by nonlinear momentum transport in strong electrostatic turbulence
Wang, Lu; Wen, Tiliang; Diamond, P. H.
2016-10-01
Virtually, all existing theoretical works on turbulent poloidal momentum transport are based on quasilinear theory. Nonlinear poloidal momentum flux— is universally neglected. However, in the strong turbulence regime where relative fluctuation amplitude is no longer small, quasilinear theory is invalid. This is true at the all-important plasma edge. In this work, nonlinear poloidal momentum flux in strong electrostatic turbulence is calculated using the Hasegawa-Mima equation, and is compared with quasilinear poloidal Reynolds stress. A novel property is that symmetry breaking in fluctuation spectrum is not necessary for a nonlinear poloidal momentum flux. This is fundamentally different from the quasilinear Reynold stress. Furthermore, the comparison implies that the poloidal rotation drive from the radial gradient of nonlinear momentum flux is comparable to that from the quasilinear Reynolds force. Nonlinear poloidal momentum transport in strong electrostatic turbulence is thus not negligible for poloidal rotation drive, and so may be significant to transport barrier formation.
Turbulent momentum transport in core tokamak plasmas and penetration of scrape-off layer flows
Abiteboul, J.; Ghendrih, Ph; Grandgirard, V.; Cartier-Michaud, T.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Garbet, X.; Latu, G.; Passeron, C.; Sarazin, Y.; Strugarek, A.; Thomine, O.; Zarzoso, D.
2013-07-01
The turbulent transport of toroidal angular momentum in the core of a tokamak plasma is investigated in global, full-f gyrokinetic simulations, performed with the GYSELA code in the flux-driven regime. During the initial turbulent phase, a front of positive Reynolds stress propagates radially, generating intrinsic toroidal rotation from a vanishing initial profile. This is also accompanied by a propagating front of turbulent heat flux. In the statistical steady-state regime, turbulent transport exhibits large-scale avalanche-like events which are found to transport both heat and momentum, and similar statistical properties are obtained for both fluxes. The impact of scrape-off layer flows is also investigated by modifying the boundary conditions in the simulations. The observed impact is radially localized for L-mode like poloidal profiles of parallel velocity at the edge, while a constant velocity at the edge can modify the core toroidal rotation profile in a large fraction of the radial domain.
Role of Plasma Elongation on Turbulent Transport in Magnetically Confined Plasmas
Angelino, P.; Garbet, X.; Villard, L.; Bottino, A.; Jolliet, S.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Grandgirard, V.; McMillan, B. F.; Sarazin, Y.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Tran, T. M.
2009-05-01
The theoretical study of plasma turbulence is of central importance to fusion research. Experimental evidence indicates that the confinement time results mainly from the turbulent transport of energy, the magnitude of which depends on the turbulent state resulting from nonlinear saturation mechanisms, in particular, the self-generation of coherent macroscopic structures and large scale flows. Plasma geometry has a strong impact on the structure and magnitude of these flows and also modifies the mode linear growth rates. Nonlinear global gyrokinetic simulations in realistic tokamak magnetohydrodynamic equilibria show how plasma shape can control the turbulent transport. Results are best described in terms of an effective temperature gradient. With increasing plasma elongation, the nonlinear critical effective gradient is not modified while the stiffness of transport is decreasing.
Turbulent transport of MeV range cyclotron heated minorities as compared to alpha particles
Pusztai, István; Kazakov, Yevgen O; Fülöp, Tünde
2016-01-01
We study the turbulent transport of an ion cyclotron resonance heated (ICRH), MeV range minority ion species in tokamak plasmas. Such highly energetic minorities, which can be produced in the three ion minority heating scheme [Ye. O. Kazakov et al. (2015) Nucl. Fusion 55, 032001], have been proposed to be used to experimentally study the confinement properties of fast ions without the generation of fusion alphas. We compare the turbulent transport properties of ICRH ions with that of fusion born alpha particles. Our results indicate that care must be taken when conclusions are drawn from experimental results: While the effect of turbulence on these particles is similar in terms of transport coefficients, differences in their distribution functions - ultimately their generation processes - make the resulting turbulent fluxes different.
Numerical modelling of a turbulent bluff-body flow with Reynolds stress turbulent models
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Guoxiu; Dirk ROEKAERTS
2005-01-01
Numerical modelling of a turbulent bluff-body flow has been performed using differential Reynolds stress models (DRSMs). To clarify the applicability of the existing DRSMs in this complex flow, several typical DRSMs, including LRR-IP model, JM model, SSG model, as well as a modified LRR-IP model, have been validated and evaluated. The performance difference between various DRSMs is quite significant. Most of the above mentioned DRSMs cannot provide overall satisfactory predictions for this challenging test case. Motivated by the deficiency of the existing approaches, a new modification of LRR-IP model has been proposed. A very significant improvement of the prediction of flow field is obtained.
Modelling wind flow and vehicle-induced turbulence in urban streets
Solazzo, Efisio; Cai, Xiaoming; Vardoulakis, Sotiris
Mechanically generated wind flow and turbulence in urban street canyons are the results of combined processes of atmospheric wind and vehicular traffic, both of which contribute to the transport and dilution of pollutants emitted by vehicles at street level. A good understanding of these processes is thus essential for predicting the spatial distribution of pollutants, and especially for deriving useful parameterisations to be included in urban air-quality models. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling methodology for the simulation of the flow and turbulence induced by wind and vehicle motion within an idealised street canyon is presented. Initially, a CFD methodology for analysing the contribution of vehicle's movement to the production of flow and turbulence near street level is introduced. The effects of vehicle's motion are characterised in terms of mean wind flow and turbulence. The results obtained from this analysis are then used for the modelling of the combined effects of wind and vehicular traffic in the street canyon. The CFD methodology is tested by comparing the model results against wind tunnel data of mean velocity and turbulence. Evaluation of the results shows the capability of the methodology to reproduce measured flow field and turbulence patterns. This methodology can be used to gain insights into the mechanically driven turbulence for the dispersion of pollutants within urban streets.
Bakosi, J; Boybeyi, Z; 10.1063/1.2803348
2010-01-01
Dispersion of a passive scalar from concentrated sources in fully developed turbulent channel flow is studied with the probability density function (PDF) method. The joint PDF of velocity, turbulent frequency and scalar concentration is represented by a large number of Lagrangian particles. A stochastic near-wall PDF model combines the generalized Langevin model of Haworth & Pope with Durbin's method of elliptic relaxation to provide a mathematically exact treatment of convective and viscous transport with a non-local representation of the near-wall Reynolds stress anisotropy. The presence of walls is incorporated through the imposition of no-slip and impermeability conditions on particles without the use of damping or wall-functions. Information on the turbulent timescale is supplied by the gamma-distribution model of van Slooten et al. Two different micromixing models are compared that incorporate the effect of small scale mixing on the transported scalar: the widely used interaction by exchange with th...
Nicolleau, FCGA; Redondo, J-M
2012-01-01
This book contains a collection of the main contributions from the first five workshops held by Ercoftac Special Interest Group on Synthetic Turbulence Models (SIG42. It is intended as an illustration of the sig's activities and of the latest developments in the field. This volume investigates the use of Kinematic Simulation (KS) and other synthetic turbulence models for the particular application to environmental flows. This volume offers the best syntheses on the research status in KS, which is widely used in various domains, including Lagrangian aspects in turbulence mixing/stirring, partic
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burrell, K.H.
1996-11-01
One of the scientific success stories of fusion research over the past decade is the development of the ExB shear stabilization model to explain the formation of transport barriers in magnetic confinement devices. This model was originally developed to explain the transport barrier formed at the plasma edge in tokamaks after the L (low) to H (high) transition. This concept has the universality needed to explain the edge transport barriers seen in limiter and divertor tokamaks, stellarators, and mirror machines. More recently, this model has been applied to explain the further confinement improvement from H (high)-mode to VH (very high)-mode seen in some tokamaks, where the edge transport barrier becomes wider. Most recently, this paradigm has been applied to the core transport barriers formed in plasmas with negative or low magnetic shear in the plasma core. These examples of confinement improvement are of considerable physical interest; it is not often that a system self-organizes to a higher energy state with reduced turbulence and transport when an additional source of free energy is applied to it. The transport decrease that is associated with ExB velocity shear effects also has significant practical consequences for fusion research. The fundamental physics involved in transport reduction is the effect of ExB shear on the growth, radial extent and phase correlation of turbulent eddies in the plasma. The same fundamental transport reduction process can be operational in various portions of the plasma because there are a number ways to change the radial electric field Er. An important theme in this area is the synergistic effect of ExB velocity shear and magnetic shear. Although the ExB velocity shear appears to have an effect on broader classes of microturbulence, magnetic shear can mitigate some potentially harmful effects of ExB velocity shear and facilitate turbulence stabilization.
Modelling of Turbulent Scalar Fluxes in the Broken Reaction Zones Regime
Im, Hong G.; Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Klein, Markus; Kasten, Christian; Arias, Paul
2016-11-01
The LES filtered species transport equation in turbulent reacting flow simulations contains the unclosed turbulent scalar flux that needs to be modelled. It is well known that the statistical behavior of this term and its alignment characteristics with resolved scalar gradient depend on the relative importance of heat release and turbulent velocity fluctuations. Counter-gradient transport has been reported in several earlier studies where the flames under investigation were located either in the corrugated flamelets or thin reaction zones regime of premixed turbulent combustion. Therefore it is useful to understand the statistical behavior of turbulent scalar fluxes if the flame represents the broken reaction zones regime (BRZR). The present analysis aims to provide improved understanding on this subject through an a-priori analysis of a detailed chemistry database consisting of three freely-propagating statistically planar turbulent H2-air premixed flames representing three different regimes of combustion. Results indicate that heat release effects weaken with increasing Karlovitz number, but that counter-gradient transport can still occur for large LES filter size in the BRZR. Furthermore the behaviour of the flux and in particular its sign are different for reactant and product species. KAUST, EPSRC, KAUST Supercomputing Lab, N8, Archer.
Modelling of the decay of isotropic turbulence by the LES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdibekov, U S; Zhakebaev, D B, E-mail: uali1@mail.ru, E-mail: daurjaz@mail.ru [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University (Kazakhstan)
2011-12-22
This work deals with the modelling of degeneration of isotropic turbulence. To simulate the turbulent process the filtered three-dimensional nonstationary Navier-Stokes equation is used. The basic equation is closed with the dynamic model. The problem is solved numerically, and the equation of motion is solved by a modified method of fractional steps using compact schemes, the equation for pressure is solved by the Fourier method with a combination of matrix factorization. In the process of simulation changes of the kinetic energy of turbulence in the time, micro scale of turbulence and changes of inlongitudinal-transverse correlation functions are obtained, longitudinal and transverse one-dimensional spectra are defined.
Optical Turbulence Characterization at LAMOST Site: Observations and Models
Liu, L -Y; Yao, Y -Q; Vernin, J; Chadid, M; Wang, H -S; Yin, J; Wang, Y -P
2015-01-01
Atmospheric optical turbulence seriously limits the performance of high angular resolution instruments. An 8-night campaign of measurements was carried out at the LAMOST site in 2011, to characterize the optical turbulence. Two instruments were set up during the campaign: a Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM) used to measure the total atmospheric seeing, and a Single Star Scidar (SSS) to measure the vertical profiles of the turbulence C_n^2(h) and the horizontal wind velocity V(h). The optical turbulence parameters are also calculated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the Trinquet-Vernin model, which describes optical effects of atmospheric turbulence by using the local meteorological parameters. This paper presents assessment of the optical parameters involved in high angular resolution astronomy. Its includes seeing, isoplanatic angle, coherence time, coherence etendue, vertical profiles of optical turbulence intensity _n^2(h)$ and horizontal wind speed V(h). The median...
The Quasilinear Premise for the Modeling of Plasma Turbulence
Howes, Gregory G; TenBarge, Jason M
2014-01-01
The quasilinear premise is a hypothesis for the modeling of plasma turbulence in which the turbulent fluctuations are represented by a superposition of randomly-phased linear wave modes, and energy is transferred among these wave modes via nonlinear interactions. We define specifically what constitutes the quasilinear premise, and present a range of theoretical arguments in support of the relevance of linear wave properties even in a strongly turbulent plasma. We review evidence both in support of and in conflict with the quasilinear premise from numerical simulations and measurements of plasma turbulence in the solar wind. Although the question of the validity of the quasilinear premise remains to be settled, we suggest that the evidence largely supports the value of the quasilinear premise in modeling plasma turbulence and that its usefulness may also be judged by the insights gained from such an approach, with the ultimate goal to develop the capability to predict the evolution of any turbulent plasma syst...
On specification of initial conditions in turbulence models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rollin, Bertrand [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Andrews, Malcolm J [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-12-01
Recent research has shown that initial conditions have a significant influence on the evolution of a flow towards turbulence. This important finding offers a unique opportunity for turbulence control, but also raises the question of how to properly specify initial conditions in turbulence models. We study this problem in the context of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability is an interfacial fluid instability that leads to turbulence and turbulent mixing. It occurs when a light fluid is accelerated in to a heavy fluid because of misalignment between density and pressure gradients. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability plays a key role in a wide variety of natural and man-made flows ranging from supernovae to the implosion phase of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). Our approach consists of providing the turbulence models with a predicted profile of its key variables at the appropriate time in accordance to the initial conditions of the problem.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
B. A. Kashiwa; W. B. VanderHeyden
2000-12-01
A formalism for developing multiphase turbulence models is introduced by analogy to the phenomenological method used for single-phase turbulence. A sample model developed using the formalism is given in detail. The procedure begins with ensemble averaging of the exact conservation equations, with closure accomplished by using a combination of analytical and experimental results from the literature. The resulting model is applicable to a wide range of common multiphase flows including gas-solid, liquid-solid and gas-liquid (bubbly) flows. The model is positioned for ready extension to three-phase turbulence, or for use in two-phase turbulence in which one phase is accounted for in multiple size classes, representing polydispersivity. The formalism is expected to suggest directions toward a more fundamentally based theory, similar to the way that early work in single-phase turbulence has led to the spectral theory. The approach is unique in that a portion of the total energy decay rate is ascribed to each phase, as is dictated by the exact averaged equations, and results in a transport equation for energy decay rate associated with each phase. What follows is a straightforward definition of a turbulent viscosity for each phase, and accounts for the effect of exchange of fluctuational energy among phases on the turbulent shear viscosity. The model also accounts for the effect of slip momentum transfer among the phases on the production of turbulence kinetic energy and on the tensor character of the Reynolds stress. Collisional effects, when appropriate, are included by superposition. The model reduces to a standard form in limit of a single, pure material, and is expected to do a credible job of describing multiphase turbulent flows in a wide variety of regimes using a single set of coefficients.
Goldbaum, Nathan J; Forbes, John C
2016-01-01
Self-gravity and stellar feedback are capable of driving turbulence and transporting mass and angular momentum in disk galaxies, but the balance between them is not well understood. In the previous paper in this series, we showed that gravity alone can drive turbulence in galactic disks, regulate their Toomre $Q$ parameters to $\\sim$ 1, and transport mass inwards at a rate sufficient to fuel star formation in the centers of present-day galaxies. In this paper we extend our models to include the effects of star formation feedback. We show that feedback suppresses galaxies' star formation rates by a factor of $\\sim$ 5 and leads to the formation of a multi-phase atomic and molecular ISM. Both the star formation rate and the phase balance produced in our simulations agree well with observations of nearby spirals. After our galaxies reach steady state, we find that the inclusion of feedback actually lowers the gas velocity dispersion slightly compared to the case of pure self-gravity, and also slightly reduces the...
Enhanced MHD transport in astrophysical accretion flows: turbulence, winds and jets
Dobbie, Peter B; Bicknell, Geoffrey V; Salmeron, Raquel
2009-01-01
Astrophysical accretion is arguably the most prevalent physical process in the Universe; it occurs during the birth and death of individual stars and plays a pivotal role in the evolution of entire galaxies. Accretion onto a black hole, in particular, is also the most efficient mechanism known in nature, converting up to 40% of accreting rest mass energy into spectacular forms such as high-energy (X-ray and gamma-ray) emission and relativistic jets. Whilst magnetic fields are thought to be ultimately responsible for these phenomena, our understanding of the microphysics of MHD turbulence in accretion flows as well as large-scale MHD outflows remains far from complete. We present a new theoretical model for astrophysical disk accretion which considers enhanced vertical transport of momentum and energy by MHD winds and jets, as well as transport resulting from MHD turbulence. We also describe new global, 3D simulations that we are currently developing to investigate the extent to which non-ideal MHD effects may...
Towards a general turbulent combustion model for spark ignition engines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Naji, H.; Said, R.; Borghi, R.P.
1989-01-01
The prediction of combustion within spark ignition engines needs to take into account the interaction of turbulent fluctuations. Previous attempts at this used a model in which the chemical processes were supposed infinitely fast and the combustion was controlled by turbulent mixing only. This paper describes their progress in extending such models in two directions.
Turbulence theories and modelling of fluids and plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshizawa, Akira; Yokoi, Nobumitsu [Institute of Industrial Science, Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)
2001-04-01
Theoretical and heuristic modelling methods are reviewed for studying turbulence phenomena of fluids and plasmas. Emphasis is put on understanding of effects on turbulent characteristics due to inhomogeneities of field and plasma parameters. The similarity and dissimilarity between the methods for fluids and plasmas are sought in order to shed light on the properties that are shared or not by fluid and plasma turbulence. (author)
Turbulence theories and modelling of fluids and plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshizawa, Akira; Yokio, Nobumitsu [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, 87, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Itoh, Kimitaka [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)
2001-03-01
Theoretical and heuristic modelling methods are reviewed for studying turbulence phenomena of fluids and plasmas. Emphasis is placed on understanding of effects on turbulence characteristics due to inhomogeneities of field and plasma parameters. The similarity and dissimilarity between the methods for fluids and plasmas are sought in order to shed light on the properties that are shared or not by fluid and plasma turbulence. (author)
Bakosi, J; Boybeyi, Z
2010-01-01
In probability density function (PDF) methods a transport equation is solved numerically to compute the time and space dependent probability distribution of several flow variables in a turbulent flow. The joint PDF of the velocity components contains information on all one-point one-time statistics of the turbulent velocity field, including the mean, the Reynolds stresses and higher-order statistics. We developed a series of numerical algorithms to model the joint PDF of turbulent velocity, frequency and scalar compositions for high-Reynolds-number incompressible flows in complex geometries using unstructured grids. Advection, viscous diffusion and chemical reaction appear in closed form in the PDF formulation, thus require no closure hypotheses. The generalized Langevin model (GLM) is combined with an elliptic relaxation technique to represent the non-local effect of walls on the pressure redistribution and anisotropic dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy. The governing system of equations is solved fully...
RECENT PROGRESS IN NONLINEAR EDDY-VISCOSITY TURBULENCE MODELING
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
符松; 郭阳; 钱炜祺; 王辰
2003-01-01
This article presents recent progresses in turbulence modeling in the Unit for Turbulence Simulation in the Department of Engineering Mechanics at Tsinghua University. The main contents include: compact Non-Linear Eddy-Viscosity Model (NLEVM) based on the second-moment closure, near-wall low-Re non-linear eddy-viscosity model and curvature sensitive turbulence model.The models have been validated in a wide range of complex flow test cases and the calculated results show that the present models exhibited overall good performance.
Spectral Characteristics of Atmospheric Turbulence Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GuojunXINShida; LIUShikouLIU; 等
1996-01-01
In this paper,KdV-Burgers equation can be regarded as the normal equation of atmospheric turbulence in the stable boundary layer.On the basis of the travelling wave analytic solution of KdV-Burgers equation,the turbulent spectrum is obtained.We observe that the behavior of the spectra is consistent with actual turbulent spectra of stable atmospheric boundary layer.
Spatial Transport of Magnetic Flux Surfaces in Strongly Anisotropic Turbulence
Matthaeus, W. H.; Servidio, S.; Wan, M.; Ruffolo, D. J.; Rappazzo, A. F.; Oughton, S.
2013-12-01
Magnetic flux surfaces afford familiar descriptions of spatial structure, dynamics, and connectivity of magnetic fields, with particular relevance in contexts such as solar coronal flux tubes, magnetic field connectivity in the interplanetary and interstellar medium, as well as in laboratory plasmas and dynamo problems [1-4]. Typical models assume that field-lines are orderly, and flux tubes remain identifiable over macroscopic distances; however, a previous study has shown that flux tubes shred in the presence of fluctuations, typically losing identity after several correlation scales [5]. Here, the structure of magnetic flux surfaces is numerically investigated in a reduced magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) model of homogeneous turbulence. Short and long-wavelength behavior is studied statistically by propagating magnetic surfaces along the mean field. At small scales magnetic surfaces become complex, experiencing an exponential thinning. At large scales, instead, the magnetic flux undergoes a diffusive behavior. The link between the diffusion of the coarse-grained flux and field-line random walk is established by means of a multiple scale analysis. Both large and small scales limits are controlled by the Kubo number. These results have consequences for understanding and interpreting processes such as magnetic reconnection and field-line diffusion in plasmas [6]. [1] E. N. Parker, Cosmical Magnetic Fields (Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1979). [2] J. R. Jokipii and E. N. Parker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 44 (1968). [3] R. Bruno et al., Planet. Space Sci. 49, 1201 (2001). [4] M. N. Rosenbluth et al., Nuclear Fusion 6, 297 (1966). [5] W. H. Matthaeus et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2136 (1995). [6] S. Servidio et al., submitted (2013).
Mathematical and numerical foundations of turbulence models and applications
Chacón Rebollo, Tomás
2014-01-01
With applications to climate, technology, and industry, the modeling and numerical simulation of turbulent flows are rich with history and modern relevance. The complexity of the problems that arise in the study of turbulence requires tools from various scientific disciplines, including mathematics, physics, engineering, and computer science. Authored by two experts in the area with a long history of collaboration, this monograph provides a current, detailed look at several turbulence models from both the theoretical and numerical perspectives. The k-epsilon, large-eddy simulation, and other models are rigorously derived and their performance is analyzed using benchmark simulations for real-world turbulent flows. Mathematical and Numerical Foundations of Turbulence Models and Applications is an ideal reference for students in applied mathematics and engineering, as well as researchers in mathematical and numerical fluid dynamics. It is also a valuable resource for advanced graduate students in fluid dynamics,...
Dynamics of Ion Temperature Gradient Turbulence and Transport with a Static Magnetic Island
Izacard, Olivier; James, Spencer D; Brennan, Dylan P
2015-01-01
The quantification of the interaction mechanism between large-scale magnetohydrodynamics instabilities and small-scale drift-wave microturbulence is essential for predicting and optimizing the performance of magnetic confinement based fusion energy experiments. We report progress on understanding these interactions using both analytic theory and numerical simulation, with BOUT++ [B. Dudson et al., Comput. Phys. Comm. 180, 1467 (2009)] used to evolve simple five-field fluid models in a sheared slab geometry. This work focuses upon understanding the dynamics of the ion temperature gradient instability in the presence of a background static magnetic island in a weakly electromagnetic two-dimensional five-field model as key parameters such as ion temperature gradient, magnetic gradients and static magnetic island size are varied. The simulation results are then used to calculate the effective turbulent transport coefficient (i.e. resistivity) that is compared against classical coefficient. As part of this work, t...
Turbulence, flow and transport: hints from reversed field pinch
Vianello, N.; Antoni, V.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Cavazzana, R.; Bergsåker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.
2006-04-01
The interplay between sheared E × B flows and turbulence has been experimentally investigated in the edge region of the Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment. Electrostatic fluctuations are found to rule the momentum balance equation representing the main driving term for sheared flows which counterbalances anomalous viscous damping. The driving role of electrostatic fluctuations is proved by the spatial structure of the Reynolds stress and by the time behaviour of the mean energy production term which supports the existence of an energy exchange from the small scales of turbulence to the larger scales of the mean flow.
A quasi-linear gyrokinetic transport model for tokamak plasmas
Casati, Alessandro
2012-01-01
The development of a quasi-linear gyrokinetic transport model for tokamak plasmas, ultimately designed to provide physically comprehensive predictions of the time evolution of the thermodynamic relevant quantities, is a task that requires tight links among theoretical, experimental and numerical studies. The framework of the model here proposed, which operates a reduction of complexity on the nonlinear self-organizing plasma dynamics, allows in fact multiple validations of the current understanding of the tokamak micro-turbulence. The main outcomes of this work stem from the fundamental steps involved by the formulation of such a reduced transport model, namely: (1) the verification of the quasi-linear plasma response against the nonlinearly computed solution, (2) the improvement of the turbulent saturation model through an accurate validation of the nonlinear codes against the turbulence measurements, (3) the integration of the quasi-linear model within an integrated transport solver.
A Generic Length-scale Equation For Second-order Turbulence Models of Oceanic Boundary Layers
Umlauf, L.; Burchard, H.
A generic transport equation for a generalized length-scale in second-order turbulence closure models for geophysical boundary layers is suggested. This variable consists of the products of powers of the turbulent kinetic energy, k, and the integral length-scale, l. The new approach generalizes traditional second-order models used in geophysical boundary layer modelling, e.g. the Mellor-Yamada model and the k- model, which, however, can be recovered as special cases. It is demonstrated how this new model can be calibrated with measurements in some typical geophysical boundary layer flows. As an example, the generic model is applied to the uppermost oceanic boundary layer directly influenced by the effects of breaking surface waves. Recent measurements show that in this layer the classical law of the wall is invalid, since there turbulence is dominated by turbulent transport of TKE from above, and not by shear-production. A widely accepted approach to describe the wave-affected layer with a one-equation turbulence model was suggested by Craig and Banner (1994). Here, some deficien- cies of their solutions are pointed out and a generalization of their ideas for the case of two-equation models is suggested. Direct comparison with very recently obtained measurements of the dissipation rate, , in the wave-affected boundary layer with com- puted results clearly demonstrate that only the generic two-equation model yields cor- rect predictions for the profiles of and the turbulent length scale, l. Also, the pre- dicted velocity profiles in the wave-affected layer, important e.g. for the interpretation of surface drifter experiments, are reproduced correctly only by the generic model. Implementation and computational costs of the generic model are comparable with traditonal two-equation models.
Scaling and transport analyses based on an international edge turbulence database
Simon, P.; Ramisch, M.; Beletskii, A. A.; Dinklage, A.; Endler, M.; Marsen, S.; Nold, B.; Stroth, U.; Tamain, P.; Wilcox, R.
2014-09-01
Microscopic turbulence properties in the edge of toroidally confined fusion plasmas are studied by comparative analysis of experimental data from seven devices, collected in an international edge turbulence database. The database contains Langmuir probe measurements of fluctuations in the floating potential and ion saturation current across the last closed flux surface. They are used to address statistical properties and particle transport. Universal features of plasma edge turbulence such as an increase in skewness across the scrape-off layer (SOL) as footprints of density blobs are recovered in all devices. Analysis of the correlation lengths and times reveals power law scaling relations with macroscopic drift-wave parameters, albeit weaker than would be expected for drift-wave turbulence. As a result, the turbulent diffusivity scales with the inverse of the magnetic field strength, which is closer to Bohm-like scaling than to gyro-Bohm scaling. Nearly identical scaling relations are determined in the confined plasma edge and the SOL, pointing to a strong connection between drift-wave turbulence in the edge and blobs in the SOL. The contributions of blobs and holes (negative density spikes) to the radial particle transport are analyzed qualitatively with a conditional averaging approach. Blobs are connected to outward transport in the SOL of all devices whereas holes exhibit no uniform propagation pattern.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sugama, H.; Okamoto, M.; Horton, W.; Wakatani, M.
1996-01-01
Transport processes and resultant entropy production in magnetically confined plasmas are studied in detail for toroidal systems with gyrokinetic electromagnetic turbulence. The kinetic equation including the turbulent fluctuations are double-averaged over the ensemble and the gyrophase. The entropy balance equation is derived from the double-averaged kinetic equation with the nonlinear gyrokinetic equation for the fluctuating distribution function. The result clarifies the spatial transport and local production of the entropy due to the classical, neoclassical and anomalous transport processes, respectively. For the anomalous transport process due to the electromagnetic turbulence as well as the classical and neoclassical processes, the kinetic form of the entropy production is rewritten as the thermodynamic form, from which the conjugate pairs of the thermodynamic forces and the transport fluxes are identified. The Onsager symmetry for the anomalous transport equations is shown to be valid within the quasilinear framework. The complete energy balance equation, which takes account of the anomalous transport and exchange of energy due to the fluctuations, is derived from the ensemble-averaged kinetic equation. The intrinsic ambipolarity of the anomalous particle fluxes is shown to hold for the self-consistent turbulent electromagnetic fields satisfying Poisson`s equation and Ampere`s law. (author).
Hybrid finite-volume/transported PDF method for the simulation of turbulent reactive flows
Raman, Venkatramanan
A novel computational scheme is formulated for simulating turbulent reactive flows in complex geometries with detailed chemical kinetics. A Probability Density Function (PDF) based method that handles the scalar transport equation is coupled with an existing Finite Volume (FV) Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solver. The PDF formulation leads to closed chemical source terms and facilitates the use of detailed chemical mechanisms without approximations. The particle-based PDF scheme is modified to handle complex geometries and grid structures. Grid-independent particle evolution schemes that scale linearly with the problem size are implemented in the Monte-Carlo PDF solver. A novel algorithm, in situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) is employed to ensure tractability of complex chemistry involving a multitude of species. Several non-reacting test cases are performed to ascertain the efficiency and accuracy of the method. Simulation results from a turbulent jet-diffusion flame case are compared against experimental data. The effect of micromixing model, turbulence model and reaction scheme on flame predictions are discussed extensively. Finally, the method is used to analyze the Dow Chlorination Reactor. Detailed kinetics involving 37 species and 158 reactions as well as a reduced form with 16 species and 21 reactions are used. The effect of inlet configuration on reactor behavior and product distribution is analyzed. Plant-scale reactors exhibit quenching phenomena that cannot be reproduced by conventional simulation methods. The FV-PDF method predicts quenching accurately and provides insight into the dynamics of the reactor near extinction. The accuracy of the fractional time-stepping technique in discussed in the context of apparent multiple-steady states observed in a non-premixed feed configuration of the chlorination reactor.
Stochastic differential equations and turbulent dispersion
Durbin, P. A.
1983-01-01
Aspects of the theory of continuous stochastic processes that seem to contribute to an understanding of turbulent dispersion are introduced and the theory and philosophy of modelling turbulent transport is emphasized. Examples of eddy diffusion examined include shear dispersion, the surface layer, and channel flow. Modeling dispersion with finite-time scale is considered including the Langevin model for homogeneous turbulence, dispersion in nonhomogeneous turbulence, and the asymptotic behavior of the Langevin model for nonhomogeneous turbulence.
Regularization of turbulence - a comprehensive modeling approach
Geurts, Bernard J.
2011-01-01
Turbulence readily arises in numerous flows in nature and technology. The large number of degrees of freedom of turbulence poses serious challenges to numerical approaches aimed at simulating and controlling such flows. While the Navier-Stokes equations are commonly accepted to precisely describe fl
Turbulent Combustion Modeling Advances, New Trends and Perspectives
Echekki, Tarek
2011-01-01
Turbulent combustion sits at the interface of two important nonlinear, multiscale phenomena: chemistry and turbulence. Its study is extremely timely in view of the need to develop new combustion technologies in order to address challenges associated with climate change, energy source uncertainty, and air pollution. Despite the fact that modeling of turbulent combustion is a subject that has been researched for a number of years, its complexity implies that key issues are still eluding, and a theoretical description that is accurate enough to make turbulent combustion models rigorous and quantitative for industrial use is still lacking. In this book, prominent experts review most of the available approaches in modeling turbulent combustion, with particular focus on the exploding increase in computational resources that has allowed the simulation of increasingly detailed phenomena. The relevant algorithms are presented, the theoretical methods are explained, and various application examples are given. The book ...
Soulard, Olivier; Griffond, Jérôme; Souffland, Denis
2012-02-01
In this work, a pseudocompressible approximation relevant for turbulent mixing flows encountered in shock tubes is derived. The asymptotic analysis used for this purpose puts forward the role played by four dimensionless numbers on the flow compressibility, namely, the turbulent, deformation, stratification, and buoyancy force Mach numbers. The existence of rapid distortion and diffusion-dissipation regimes is also accounted for in the analysis. Some consequences of the derived pseudocompressible approximation on statistical turbulence models are discussed. In particular, the evolutions of the density variance and flux are examined, as well as the turbulent transport of energy. The different aspects of this study are assessed by performing a direct numerical simulation of a shock tube flow configuration.
Evaluation of Industry Standard Turbulence Models on an Axisymmetric Supersonic Compression Corner
DeBonis, James R.
2015-01-01
Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computations of a shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction (SWBLI) created by a Mach 2.85 flow over an axisymmetric 30-degree compression corner were carried out. The objectives were to evaluate four turbulence models commonly used in industry, for SWBLIs, and to evaluate the suitability of this test case for use in further turbulence model benchmarking. The Spalart-Allmaras model, Menter's Baseline and Shear Stress Transport models, and a low-Reynolds number k- model were evaluated. Results indicate that the models do not accurately predict the separation location; with the SST model predicting the separation onset too early and the other models predicting the onset too late. Overall the Spalart-Allmaras model did the best job in matching the experimental data. However there is significant room for improvement, most notably in the prediction of the turbulent shear stress. Density data showed that the simulations did not accurately predict the thermal boundary layer upstream of the SWBLI. The effect of turbulent Prandtl number and wall temperature were studied in an attempt to improve this prediction and understand their effects on the interaction. The data showed that both parameters can significantly affect the separation size and location, but did not improve the agreement with the experiment. This case proved challenging to compute and should provide a good test for future turbulence modeling work.
Reynolds Stress and the Physics of Turbulent Momentum Transport
1990-07-19
64. ORSZAG, S. A. & KELLS, L.C. 1980 Transition to turbulence in plane Poiseuille and plane Couette flow. J. Fluid Mech. 96. 159 - 205. PESKIN, R. L...1097 - 1103. MARCUS, P. S. 1984 Simulation of Taylor- Couette flow, part 1. numerical methods and comparison with experiment. J. Fluid Mech. 146, 45
Multiscaling in superfluid turbulence: A shell-model study
Shukla, Vishwanath; Pandit, Rahul
2016-10-01
We examine the multiscaling behavior of the normal- and superfluid-velocity structure functions in three-dimensional superfluid turbulence by using a shell model for the three-dimensional (3D) Hall-Vinen-Bekharevich-Khalatnikov (HVBK) equations. Our 3D-HVBK shell model is based on the Gledzer-Okhitani-Yamada shell model. We examine the dependence of the multiscaling exponents on the normal-fluid fraction and the mutual-friction coefficients. Our extensive study of the 3D-HVBK shell model shows that the multiscaling behavior of the velocity structure functions in superfluid turbulence is more complicated than it is in fluid turbulence.
Progress in wall turbulence 2 understanding and modelling
Jimenez, Javier; Marusic, Ivan
2016-01-01
This is the proceedings of the ERCOFTAC Workshop on Progress in Wall Turbulence: Understanding and Modelling, that was held in Lille, France from June 18 to 20, 2014. The workshop brought together world specialists of near wall turbulence and stimulated exchanges between them around up-to-date theories, experiments, simulations and numerical models. This book contains a coherent collection of recent results on near wall turbulence including theory, new experiments, DNS, and modeling with RANS, LES.The fact that both physical understanding and modeling by different approaches are addressed by the best specialists in a single workshop is original.
Modelling of structural effects on chemical reactions in turbulent flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gammelsaeter, H.R.
1997-12-31
Turbulence-chemistry interactions are analysed using algebraic moment closure for the chemical reaction term. The coupling between turbulence and chemical length and time scales generate a complex interaction process. This interaction process is called structural effects in this work. The structural effects are shown to take place on all scales between the largest scale of turbulence and the scales of the molecular motions. The set of equations describing turbulent correlations involved in turbulent reacting flows are derived. Interactions are shown schematically using interaction charts. Algebraic equations for the turbulent correlations in the reaction rate are given using the interaction charts to include the most significant couplings. In the frame of fundamental combustion physics, the structural effects appearing on the small scales of turbulence are proposed modelled using a discrete spectrum of turbulent scales. The well-known problem of averaging the Arrhenius law, the specific reaction rate, is proposed solved using a presumed single variable probability density function and a sub scale model for the reaction volume. Although some uncertainties are expected, the principles are addressed. Fast chemistry modelling is shown to be consistent in the frame of algebraic moment closure when the turbulence-chemistry interaction is accounted for in the turbulent diffusion. The modelling proposed in this thesis is compared with experimental data for an laboratory methane flame and advanced probability density function modelling. The results show promising features. Finally it is shown a comparison with full scale measurements for an industrial burner. All features of the burner are captured with the model. 41 refs., 33 figs.
Turbulent mixing and fluid transport within Florida Bay seagrass meadows
Hansen, Jennifer C. R.; Reidenbach, Matthew A.
2017-10-01
Seagrasses serve an important function in the ecology of Florida Bay, providing critical nursery habitat and a food source for a variety of organisms. They also create significant benthic structure that induces drag, altering local hydrodynamics that can influence mixing and nutrient dynamics. Thalassia testudinum seagrass meadows were investigated to determine how shoot density and morphometrics alter local wave conditions, the generation of turbulence, and fluid exchange above and within the canopy. Sparsely vegetated and densely vegetated meadows were monitored, with shoot densities of 259 ± 26 and 484 ± 78 shoots m-2, respectively. The temporal and spatial structure of velocity and turbulence were measured using acoustic Doppler velocimeters and an in situ particle image velocimetry (PIV) system positioned both above and within the seagrass canopy. The retention of fluid within the canopy was determined by examining e-folding times calculated from the concentration curves of dye plumes released within the seagrass canopy. Results show that a shear layer with an inflection point develops at the top of the seagrass canopy, which generates instabilities that impart turbulence into the seagrass meadow. Compared to the overlying water column, turbulence was enhanced within the sparse canopy due to flow interaction with the seagrass blades, but reduced within the dense canopy. Wave generated oscillatory motion penetrated deeper into the canopy than unidirectional currents, enhancing fluid exchange. Both shoot density and the relative magnitude of wave- versus current-driven flow conditions were found to be important controls on turbulent exchange of water masses across the canopy-water interface.
Modeling of turbulent bubbly flows; Modelisation des ecoulements turbulents a bulles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bellakhal, Ghazi
2005-03-15
The two-phase flows involve interfacial interactions which modify significantly the structure of the mean and fluctuating flow fields. The design of the two-fluid models adapted to industrial flows requires the taking into account of the effect of these interactions in the closure relations adopted. The work developed in this thesis concerns the development of first order two-fluid models deduced by reduction of second order closures. The adopted reasoning, based on the principle of decomposition of the Reynolds stress tensor into two statistically independent contributions turbulent and pseudo-turbulent parts, allows to preserve the physical contents of the second order relations closure. Analysis of the turbulence structure in two basic flows: homogeneous bubbly flows uniform and with a constant shear allows to deduce a formulation of the two-phase turbulent viscosity involving the characteristic scales of bubbly turbulence, as well as an analytical description of modification of the homogeneous turbulence structure induced by the bubbles presence. The Eulerian two-fluid model was then generalized with the case of the inhomogeneous flows with low void fractions. The numerical results obtained by the application of this model integrated in the computer code MELODIF in the case of free sheared turbulent bubbly flow of wake showed a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data and made it possible to analyze the modification of the characteristic scales of such flow by the interfacial interactions. The two-fluid first order model is generalized finally with the case of high void fractions bubbly flows where the hydrodynamic interactions between the bubbles are not negligible any more. (author)
Turbulence modeling in three-dimensional stenosed arterial bifurcations.
Banks, J; Bressloff, N W
2007-02-01
Under normal healthy conditions, blood flow in the carotid artery bifurcation is laminar. However, in the presence of a stenosis, the flow can become turbulent at the higher Reynolds numbers during systole. There is growing consensus that the transitional k-omega model is the best suited Reynolds averaged turbulence model for such flows. Further confirmation of this opinion is presented here by a comparison with the RNG k-epsilon model for the flow through a straight, nonbifurcating tube. Unlike similar validation studies elsewhere, no assumptions are made about the inlet profile since the full length of the experimental tube is simulated. Additionally, variations in the inflow turbulence quantities are shown to have no noticeable affect on downstream turbulence intensity, turbulent viscosity, or velocity in the k-epsilon model, whereas the velocity profiles in the transitional k-omega model show some differences due to large variations in the downstream turbulence quantities. Following this validation study, the transitional k-omega model is applied in a three-dimensional parametrically defined computer model of the carotid artery bifurcation in which the sinus bulb is manipulated to produce mild, moderate, and severe stenosis. The parametric geometry definition facilitates a powerful means for investigating the effect of local shape variation while keeping the global shape fixed. While turbulence levels are generally low in all cases considered, the mild stenosis model produces higher levels of turbulent viscosity and this is linked to relatively high values of turbulent kinetic energy and low values of the specific dissipation rate. The severe stenosis model displays stronger recirculation in the flow field with higher values of vorticity, helicity, and negative wall shear stress. The mild and moderate stenosis configurations produce similar lower levels of vorticity and helicity.
Ogata, D.; Newman, D. E.; Sánchez, R.
2017-07-01
The reduction of turbulent transport across sheared flow regions has been known for a long time in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas. However, details of the dynamics are still unclear, in particular, in what refers to the changes caused by the flow on the nature of radial transport itself. In Paper II, we have shown in a simplified model of drift wave turbulence that, when the background profile is allowed to evolve self-consistently with fluctuations, a variety of transport regimes ranging from superdiffusive to subdiffusive open up depending on the properties of the underlying turbulence [D. Ogata et al., Phys. Plasmas 24, 052307 (2017)]. In this paper, we show that externally applied sheared flows can, under the proper conditions, cause the transport dynamics to be diffusive or subdiffusive.
Review and assessment of turbulence models for hypersonic flows
Roy, Christopher J.; Blottner, Frederick G.
2006-10-01
Accurate aerodynamic prediction is critical for the design and optimization of hypersonic vehicles. Turbulence modeling remains a major source of uncertainty in the computational prediction of aerodynamic forces and heating for these systems. The first goal of this article is to update the previous comprehensive review of hypersonic shock/turbulent boundary-layer interaction experiments published in 1991 by Settles and Dodson (Hypersonic shock/boundary-layer interaction database. NASA CR 177577, 1991). In their review, Settles and Dodson developed a methodology for assessing experiments appropriate for turbulence model validation and critically surveyed the existing hypersonic experiments. We limit the scope of our current effort by considering only two-dimensional (2D)/axisymmetric flows in the hypersonic flow regime where calorically perfect gas models are appropriate. We extend the prior database of recommended hypersonic experiments (on four 2D and two 3D shock-interaction geometries) by adding three new geometries. The first two geometries, the flat plate/cylinder and the sharp cone, are canonical, zero-pressure gradient flows which are amenable to theory-based correlations, and these correlations are discussed in detail. The third geometry added is the 2D shock impinging on a turbulent flat plate boundary layer. The current 2D hypersonic database for shock-interaction flows thus consists of nine experiments on five different geometries. The second goal of this study is to review and assess the validation usage of various turbulence models on the existing experimental database. Here we limit the scope to one- and two-equation turbulence models where integration to the wall is used (i.e., we omit studies involving wall functions). A methodology for validating turbulence models is given, followed by an extensive evaluation of the turbulence models on the current hypersonic experimental database. A total of 18 one- and two-equation turbulence models are reviewed
A streamwise constant model of turbulence in plane Couette flow
Gayme, D. F.; McKeon, B. J.; Papachristodoulou, A.; Bamieh, B; Doyle, J. C.
2010-01-01
Streamwise and quasi-streamwise elongated structures have been shown to play a significant role in turbulent shear flows. We model the mean behaviour of fully turbulent plane Couette flow using a streamwise constant projection of the Navier–Stokes equations. This results in a two-dimensional three-velocity-component (2D/3C) model. We first use a steady-state version of the model to demonstrate that its nonlinear coupling provides the mathematical mechanism that shapes the turbulent velocity p...
Two-equation modeling of turbulent rotating flows
Cazalbou, Jean-Bernard; Chassaing, Patrick; Dufour, Guillaume; CARBONNEAU, Xavier
2005-01-01
The possibility to take into account the effects of the Coriolis acceleration on turbulence is examined in the framework of two-equation eddy-viscosity models. General results on the physical consistency of such turbulence models are derived from a dynamical-system approach to situations of time-evolving homogeneous turbulence in a rotating frame. Application of this analysis to a (k,epsilon) model fitted with an existing Coriolis correction [J. H. G. Howard, S. V. Patankar, and R. M. Bordynu...
Second order kinetic theory of parallel momentum transport in collisionless drift wave turbulence
Li, Yang; Gao, Zhe; Chen, Jiale
2016-08-01
A second order kinetic model for turbulent ion parallel momentum transport is presented. A new nonresonant second order parallel momentum flux term is calculated. The resonant component of the ion parallel electrostatic force is the momentum source, while the nonresonant component of the ion parallel electrostatic force compensates for that of the nonresonant second order parallel momentum flux. The resonant component of the kinetic momentum flux can be divided into three parts, including the pinch term, the diffusive term, and the residual stress. By reassembling the pinch term and the residual stress, the residual stress can be considered as a pinch term of parallel wave-particle resonant velocity, and, therefore, may be called as "resonant velocity pinch" term. Considering the resonant component of the ion parallel electrostatic force is the transfer rate between resonant ions and waves (or, equivalently, nonresonant ions), a conservation equation of the parallel momentum of resonant ions and waves is obtained.
Aerosol dynamics within and above forest in relation to turbulent transport and dry deposition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rannik, Üllar; Zhou, Luxi; Zhou, Putian;
2016-01-01
of 10 days in May 2013 to a pine forest site in southern Finland. The period was characterized by frequent new particle formation events and simultaneous intensive aerosol transformation. The aim of the study was to analyze and quantify the role of aerosol and ABL dynamics in the vertical transport...... of aerosols. It was of particular interest to what extent the fluxes above the canopy deviate from the particle dry deposition on the canopy foliage due to the above-mentioned processes. The model simulations revealed that the particle concentration change due to aerosol dynamics frequently exceeded...... the effect of particle deposition by even an order of magnitude or more. The impact was, however, strongly dependent on particle size and time. In spite of the fact that the timescale of turbulent transfer inside the canopy is much smaller than the timescales of aerosol dynamics and dry deposition, leading...
Performance of turbulence models for transonic flows in a diffuser
Liu, Yangwei; Wu, Jianuo; Lu, Lipeng
2016-09-01
Eight turbulence models frequently used in aerodynamics have been employed in the detailed numerical investigations for transonic flows in the Sajben diffuser, to assess the predictive capabilities of the turbulence models for shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions (SWTBLI) in internal flows. The eight turbulence models include: the Spalart-Allmaras model, the standard k - 𝜀 model, the RNG k - 𝜀 model, the realizable k - 𝜀 model, the standard k - ω model, the SST k - ω model, the v2¯ - f model and the Reynolds stress model. The performance of the different turbulence models adopted has been systematically assessed by comparing the numerical results with the available experimental data. The comparisons show that the predictive performance becomes worse as the shock wave becomes stronger. The v2¯ - f model and the SST k - ω model perform much better than other models, and the SST k - ω model predicts a little better than the v2¯ - f model for pressure on walls and velocity profile, whereas the v2¯ - f model predicts a little better than the SST k - ω model for separation location, reattachment location and separation length for strong shock case.
A dynamical model of plasma turbulence in the solar wind.
Howes, G G
2015-05-13
A dynamical approach, rather than the usual statistical approach, is taken to explore the physical mechanisms underlying the nonlinear transfer of energy, the damping of the turbulent fluctuations, and the development of coherent structures in kinetic plasma turbulence. It is argued that the linear and nonlinear dynamics of Alfvén waves are responsible, at a very fundamental level, for some of the key qualitative features of plasma turbulence that distinguish it from hydrodynamic turbulence, including the anisotropic cascade of energy and the development of current sheets at small scales. The first dynamical model of kinetic turbulence in the weakly collisional solar wind plasma that combines self-consistently the physics of Alfvén waves with the development of small-scale current sheets is presented and its physical implications are discussed. This model leads to a simplified perspective on the nature of turbulence in a weakly collisional plasma: the nonlinear interactions responsible for the turbulent cascade of energy and the formation of current sheets are essentially fluid in nature, while the collisionless damping of the turbulent fluctuations and the energy injection by kinetic instabilities are essentially kinetic in nature.
Electrostatic fluctuations and turbulent plasma transport in low-β plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, A.H.; Pécseli, H.L.; Juul Rasmussen, J.
1995-01-01
Low frequency electrostatic fluctuations are studied experimentally in a low-beta plasma, with particular attention to their importance for the anomalous plasma transport across magnetic field lines. The presence of large coherent structures in a turbulent background is demonstrated by a conditio......Low frequency electrostatic fluctuations are studied experimentally in a low-beta plasma, with particular attention to their importance for the anomalous plasma transport across magnetic field lines. The presence of large coherent structures in a turbulent background is demonstrated...
Sugama, H.; Nunami, M.; Nakata, M.; Watanabe, T.-H.
2017-02-01
A novel gyrokinetic formulation is presented by including collisional effects into the Lagrangian variational principle to yield the governing equations for background and turbulent electromagnetic fields and gyrocenter distribution functions, which can simultaneously describe classical, neoclassical, and turbulent transport processes in toroidal plasmas with large toroidal flows on the order of the ion thermal velocity. Noether's theorem modified for collisional systems and the collision operator given in terms of Poisson brackets are applied to derivation of the particle, energy, and toroidal momentum balance equations in the conservative forms, which are desirable properties for long-time global transport simulation.
Turbulent transport and heating of trace heavy ions in hot, magnetized plasmas
Barnes, M; Dorland, W
2012-01-01
Scaling laws for the transport and heating of trace heavy ions in low-frequency, magnetized plasma turbulence are derived and compared with direct numerical simulations. The predicted dependences of turbulent fluxes and heating on ion charge and mass number are found to agree with numerical results for both stationary and differentially rotating plasmas. Heavy ion momentum transport is found to increase with mass, and heavy ions are found to be preferentially heated, implying a mass-dependent ion temperature for very weakly collisional plasmas and for partially-ionized heavy ions in strongly rotating plasmas.
Turbulent transport in a strongly stratified forced shear layer with thermal diffusion
Garaud, Pascale
2015-01-01
This work presents numerical results on the transport of heat and chemical species by shear-induced turbulence in strongly stratified but thermally diffusive environments. The shear instabilities driven in this regime are sometimes called "secular" shear instabilities, and can take place even when the gradient Richardson number of the flow (the square of the ratio of the buoyancy frequency to the shearing rate) is large, provided the P\\'eclet number (the ratio of the thermal diffusion timescale to the turnover timescale of the turbulent eddies) is small. We have identified a set of simple criteria to determine whether these instabilities can take place or not. Generally speaking, we find that they may be relevant whenever the thermal diffusivity of the fluid is very large (typically larger than $10^{14}$cm$^2$/s), which is the case in the outer layers of high-mass stars ($M\\ge 10 M_\\odot$) for instance. Using a simple model setup in which the shear is forced by a spatially sinusoidal, constant-amplitude body-...
Evaluation of Full Reynolds Stress Turbulence Models in FUN3D
Dudek, Julianne C.; Carlson, Jan-Renee
2017-01-01
Full seven-equation Reynolds stress turbulence models are promising tools for today’s aerospace technology challenges. This paper examines two such models for computing challenging turbulent flows including shock-wave boundary layer interactions, separation and mixing layers. The Wilcox and the SSG/LRR full second-moment Reynolds stress models have been implemented into the FUN3D (Fully Unstructured Navier-Stokes Three Dimensional) unstructured Navier-Stokes code and were evaluated for four problems: a transonic two-dimensional diffuser, a supersonic axisymmetric compression corner, a compressible planar shear layer, and a subsonic axisymmetric jet. Simulation results are compared with experimental data and results computed using the more commonly used Spalart-Allmaras (SA) one-equation and the Menter Shear Stress Transport (SST-V) two-equation turbulence models.
Near-wall variable-Prandtl-number turbulence model for compressible flows
Sommer, T. P.; So, R. M. C.; Zhang, H. S.
1993-01-01
A near-wall four-equation turbulence model is developed for the calculation of high-speed compressible turbulent boundary layers. The four equations used are the k-epsilon equations and the theta(exp 2)-epsilon (sub theta) equations. These equations are used to define the turbulent diffusivities for momentum and heat fluxes, thus allowing the assumption of dynamic similarity between momentum and heat transport to be relaxed. The Favre-averaged equations of motion are solved in conjunction with the four transport equations. Calculations are compared with measurements and with another model's predictions where the assumption of the constant turbulent Prandtl number is invoked. Compressible flat plate turbulent boundary layers with both adiabatic and constant temperature wall boundary conditions are considered. Results for the range of low Mach numbers and temperature ratios investigated are essentially the same as those obtained using an identical near-wall k-epsilon model. In general, there are significant improvements in the predictions of mean flow properties at high Mach numbers.
A near-wall four-equation turbulence model for compressible boundary layers
Sommer, T. P.; So, R. M. C.; Zhang, H. S.
1992-01-01
A near-wall four-equation turbulence model is developed for the calculation of high-speed compressible turbulent boundary layers. The four equations used are the k-epsilon equations and the theta(exp 2)-epsilon(sub theta) equations. These equations are used to define the turbulent diffusivities for momentum and heat fluxes, thus allowing the assumption of dynamic similarity between momentum and heat transport to be relaxed. The Favre-averaged equations of motion are solved in conjunction with the four transport equations. Calculations are compared with measurements and with another model's predictions where the assumption of the constant turbulent Prandtl number is invoked. Compressible flat plate turbulent boundary layers with both adiabatic and constant temperature wall boundary conditions are considered. Results for the range of low Mach numbers and temperature ratios investigated are essentially the same as those obtained using an identical near-wall k-epsilon model. In general, the numerical predictions are in very good agreement with measurements and there are significant improvements in the predictions of mean flow properties at high Mach numbers.
Two-equation turbulence modeling for 3-D hypersonic flows
Bardina, J. E.; Coakley, T. J.; Marvin, J. G.
1992-01-01
An investigation to verify, incorporate and develop two-equation turbulence models for three-dimensional high speed flows is presented. The current design effort of hypersonic vehicles has led to an intensive study of turbulence models for compressible hypersonic flows. This research complements an extensive review of experimental data and the current development of 2D turbulence models. The review of experimental data on 2D and 3D flows includes complex hypersonic flows with pressure profiles, skin friction, wall heat transfer, and turbulence statistics data. In a parallel effort, turbulence models for high speed flows have been tested against flat plate boundary layers, and are being tested against the 2D database. In the present paper, we present the results of 3D Navier-Stokes numerical simulations with an improved k-omega two-equation turbulence model against experimental data and empirical correlations of an adiabatic flat plate boundary layer, a cold wall flat plate boundary layer, and a 3D database flow, the interaction of an oblique shock wave and a thick turbulent boundary layer with a free stream Mach number = 8.18 and Reynolds number = 5 x 10 to the 6th.
Experimental studies of Reynolds number dependence of turbulent mixing & transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Warhaft, Z. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)
1996-12-31
An overview of recent experiments, in which the author generated high Reynolds number homogeneous grid turbulence, is provided. The author shows that in a small wind tunnel, Reynolds numbers that are sufficiently high (R{sub {lambda}} {approximately} 800, R{sub {ell}} {approximately} 36, 000) such that many of the aspects of turbulence that hitherto have only been observed in large scale anisotropic shear flows, are obtained. In particular the author studied the evolution of the spectrum with Reynolds number, the Kolmogorov constant and the internal intermittency, showing the way they tend to their high Reynolds number asymptotes. Thus the author links previous low Reynolds number laboratory experiments with large scale environmental measurements.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Diamond, P.H.; McDevitt, C.J.; Güran, Ö.D.
2009-01-01
Recent results in the theory of turbulent momentum transport and the origins of intrinsic rotation are summarized. Special attention is focused on aspects of momentum transport critical to intrinsic rotation, namely the residual stress and the edge toroidal flow velocity pinch. Novel results...... include a systematic decomposition of the physical processes which drive intrinsic rotation, a calculation of the critical external torque necessary to hold the plasma stationary against the intrinsic residual stress, a simple model of net velocity scaling which recovers the salient features...... of the experimental trends and the elucidation of the impact of the particle flux on the net toroidal velocity pinch. Specific suggestions for future experiments are offered....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mueller, C.; Kremer, H. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Lehrstuhl fuer Energieanlagentechnik, Bochum (Germany); Kilpinen, P.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group
1997-12-31
The detailed modelling of turbulent reactive flows with CFD-codes is a major challenge in combustion science. One method of combining highly developed turbulence models and detailed chemistry in CFD-codes is the application of reactor based turbulence chemistry interaction models. In this work the influence of different reactor concepts on methane and NO{sub x} chemistry in turbulent reactive flows was investigated. Besides the classical reactor approaches, a plug flow reactor (PFR) and a perfectly stirred reactor (PSR), the Eddy-Dissipation Combustion Model (EDX) and the Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC) were included. Based on a detailed reaction scheme and a simplified 2-step mechanism studies were performed in a simplified computational grid consisting of 5 cells. The investigations cover a temperature range from 1273 K to 1673 K and consider fuel-rich and fuel-lean gas mixtures as well as turbulent and highly turbulent flow conditions. All test cases investigated in this study showed a strong influence of the reactor residence time on the species conversion processes. Due to this characteristic strong deviations were found for the species trends resulting from the different reactor approaches. However, this influence was only concentrated on the `near burner region` and after 4-5 cells hardly any deviation and residence time dependence could be found. The importance of the residence time dependence increased when the species conversion was accelerated as it is the case for overstoichiometric combustion conditions and increased temperatures. The study focused furthermore on the fine structure in the EDC. Unlike the classical approach this part of the cell was modelled as a PFR instead of a PSR. For high temperature conditions there was hardly any difference between both reactor types. However, decreasing the temperature led to obvious deviations. Finally, the effect of the selective species transport between the cells on the conversion process was investigated
Community Sediment Transport Model
2007-01-01
are used to determine that model results are consistent across compilers, platforms, and computer architectures , and to ensure that changes in code do...Mississippi State University: Bhate During the early months of this project, the focus was on understanding ROMS-CSTM model, architecture , and...Marchesiello, J.C. McWilliams, & K.D. Stolzenbach, 2007: Sediment transport modeling on Southern Californian shelves: A ROMS case study. Continental
Diffusive dynamics and stochastic models of turbulent axisymmetric wakes
Rigas, G; Brackston, R D; Morrison, J F
2015-01-01
A modelling methodology to reproduce the experimental measurements of a turbulent flow under the presence of symmetry is presented. The flow is a three-dimensional wake generated by an axisymmetric body. We show that the dynamics of the turbulent wake- flow can be assimilated by a nonlinear two-dimensional Langevin equation, the deterministic part of which accounts for the broken symmetries which occur at the laminar and transitional regimes at low Reynolds numbers and the stochastic part of which accounts for the turbulent fluctuations. Comparison between theoretical and experimental results allows the extraction of the model parameters.
Three Dimensional Large Eddy Simulation Model of Turbulence in a Meandering Channel
Akahori, R.; Schmeeckle, M. W.
2002-12-01
Recent research has shown that intermittency caused by large-scale turbulence structures in rivers can be critical to accurate prediction of the sediment transport field. These large-scale turbulence structures are inherently three-dimensional. This is especially true in a river meander where strong secondary flows affect not only the three-dimensional, time-averaged flow structure, but also the process of large-scale turbulent eddy generation. It is very difficult to directly measure the turbulence field in a river except at the water surface or a few points in the interior of the flow. Numerical simulation of turbulence is a powerful tool, because it can provide information about the non-averaged flow at each grid point. Many previous researchers have calculated the time-averaged flow in a meandering channel, and obtained useful results. However, simulations of turbulence in meandering channels have been restricted to two dimensions. Therefore, they have a problem in accurately reproducing important features of the flow. We present a 3-dimenstional turbulent model for the numerical calculation of channel flow. The turbulence cannot be resolved at scales smaller than the channel grid, and we therefore parameterize the effects of small scale turbulence using standard Large Eddy Simulation (LES) assumptions. A Body Fitted Coordinate (BFC) system is employed to fit the irregular boundaries of natural channels. To solve the Navier-Stokes equations on the finite difference mesh, we employ the Cubic-Interpolated Propagation (CIP) method. The CIP method precisely solves the convective acceleration terms without numerical diffusion.
Steady states in Leith's model of turbulence
Grebenev, V. N.; Griffin, A.; Medvedev, S. B.; Nazarenko, S. V.
2016-09-01
We present a comprehensive study and full classification of the stationary solutions in Leith’s model of turbulence with a generalised viscosity. Three typical types of boundary value problems are considered: Problems 1 and 2 with a finite positive value of the spectrum at the left (right) and zero at the right (left) boundaries of a wave number range, and Problem 3 with finite positive values of the spectrum at both boundaries. Settings of these problems and analysis of existence of their solutions are based on a phase-space analysis of orbits of the underlying dynamical system. One of the two fixed points of the underlying dynamical system is found to correspond to a ‘sharp front’ where the energy flux and the spectrum vanish at the same wave number. The other fixed point corresponds to the only exact power-law solution—the so-called dissipative scaling solution. The roles of the Kolmogorov, dissipative and thermodynamic scaling, as well as of sharp front solutions, are discussed.
Weak turbulence theory and simulation of the gyro-water-bag model.
Besse, Nicolas; Bertrand, Pierre; Morel, Pierre; Gravier, Etienne
2008-05-01
The thermal confinement time of a magnetized fusion plasma is essentially determined by turbulent heat conduction across the equilibrium magnetic field. To achieve the study of turbulent thermal diffusivities, Vlasov gyrokinetic description of the magnetically confined plasmas is now commonly adopted, and offers the advantage over fluid models (MHD, gyrofluid) to take into account nonlinear resonant wave-particle interactions which may impact significantly the predicted turbulent transport. Nevertheless kinetic codes require a huge amount of computer resources and this constitutes the main drawback of this approach. A unifying approach is to consider the water-bag representation of the statistical distribution function because it allows us to keep the underlying kinetic features of the problem, while reducing the Vlasov kinetic model into a set of hydrodynamic equations, resulting in a numerical cost comparable to that needed for solving multifluid models. The present paper addresses the gyro-water-bag model derived as a water-bag-like weak solution of the Vlasov gyrokinetic models. We propose a quasilinear analysis of this model to retrieve transport coefficients allowing us to estimate turbulent thermal diffusivities without computing the full fluctuations. We next derive another self-consistent quasilinear model, suitable for numerical simulation, that we approximate by means of discontinuous Galerkin methods.
Moin, Parviz; Spalart, Philippe R.
1987-01-01
The use of simulation data bases for the examination of turbulent flows is an effective research tool. Studies of the structure of turbulence have been hampered by the limited number of probes and the impossibility of measuring all desired quantities. Also, flow visualization is confined to the observation of passive markers with limited field of view and contamination caused by time-history effects. Computer flow fields are a new resource for turbulence research, providing all the instantaneous flow variables in three-dimensional space. Simulation data bases also provide much-needed information for phenomenological turbulence modeling. Three dimensional velocity and pressure fields from direct simulations can be used to compute all the terms in the transport equations for the Reynolds stresses and the dissipation rate. However, only a few, geometrically simple flows have been computed by direct numerical simulation, and the inventory of simulation does not fully address the current modeling needs in complex turbulent flows. The availability of three-dimensional flow fields also poses challenges in developing new techniques for their analysis, techniques based on experimental methods, some of which are used here for the analysis of direct-simulation data bases in studies of the mechanics of turbulent flows.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mansoori, Zohreh; Saffar-Avval, Majid; Basirat-Tabrizi, Hassan; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Lain, Santiago
2002-12-01
A thermo-mechanical turbulence model is developed and used for predicting heat transfer in a gas-solid flow through a vertical pipe with constant wall heat flux. The new four-way interaction model makes use of the thermal k{sub {theta}}-{tau}{sub {theta}} equations, in addition to the hydrodynamic k-{tau} transport, and accounts for the particle-particle and particle-wall collisions through a Eulerian/Lagrangian formulation. The simulation results indicate that the level of thermal turbulence intensity and the heat transfer are strongly affected by the particle collisions. Inter-particle collisions attenuate the thermal turbulence intensity near the wall but somewhat amplify the temperature fluctuations in the pipe core region. The hydrodynamic-to-thermal times-scale ratio and the turbulent Prandtl number in the region near the wall increase due to the inter-particle collisions. The results also show that the use of a constant or the single-phase gas turbulent Prandtl number produces error in the thermal eddy diffusivity and thermal turbulent intensity fields. Simulation results also indicate that the inter-particle contact heat conduction during collision has no significant effect in the range of Reynolds number and particle diameter studied.
Advances in the simulation of toroidal gyro Landau fluid model turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Waltz, R.E. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Kerbel, G.D.; Milovich, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hammett, G.W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.
1994-12-01
The gyro-Landau fluid (GLF) model equations for toroidal geometry have been recently applied to the study ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode turbulence using the 3D nonlinear ballooning mode representation (BMR). The present paper extends this work by treating some unresolved issues conceming ITG turbulence with adiabatic electrons. Although eddies are highly elongated in the radial direction long time radial correlation lengths are short and comparable to poloidal lengths. Although transport at vanishing shear is not particularly large, transport at reverse global shear, is significantly less. Electrostatic transport at moderate shear is not much effected by inclusion of local shear and average favorable curvature. Transport is suppressed when critical E{times}B rotational shear is comparable to the maximum linear growth rate with only a weak dependence on magnetic shear. Self consistent turbulent transport of toroidal momentum can result in a transport bifurcation at suffciently large r/(Rq). However the main thrust of the new formulation in the paper deals with advances in the development of finite beta GLF models with trapped electron and BMR numerical methods for treating the fast parallel field motion of the untrapped electrons.
Turbulence Model Discovery with Data-Driven Learning and Optimization
King, Ryan; Hamlington, Peter
2016-11-01
Data-driven techniques have emerged as a useful tool for model development in applications where first-principles approaches are intractable. In this talk, data-driven multi-task learning techniques are used to discover flow-specific optimal turbulence closure models. We use the recently introduced autonomic closure technique to pose an online supervised learning problem created by test filtering turbulent flows in the self-similar inertial range. The autonomic closure is modified to solve the learning problem for all stress components simultaneously with multi-task learning techniques. The closure is further augmented with a feature extraction step that learns a set of orthogonal modes that are optimal at predicting the turbulent stresses. We demonstrate that these modes can be severely truncated to enable drastic reductions in computational costs without compromising the model accuracy. Furthermore, we discuss the potential universality of the extracted features and implications for reduced order modeling of other turbulent flows.
A new energy transfer model for turbulent free shear flow
Liou, William W.-W.
1992-01-01
A new model for the energy transfer mechanism in the large-scale turbulent kinetic energy equation is proposed. An estimate of the characteristic length scale of the energy containing large structures is obtained from the wavelength associated with the structures predicted by a weakly nonlinear analysis for turbulent free shear flows. With the inclusion of the proposed energy transfer model, the weakly nonlinear wave models for the turbulent large-scale structures are self-contained and are likely to be independent flow geometries. The model is tested against a plane mixing layer. Reasonably good agreement is achieved. Finally, it is shown by using the Liapunov function method, the balance between the production and the drainage of the kinetic energy of the turbulent large-scale structures is asymptotically stable as their amplitude saturates. The saturation of the wave amplitude provides an alternative indicator for flow self-similarity.
Numerical flow simulation and efficiency prediction for axial turbines by advanced turbulence models
Jošt, D.; Škerlavaj, A.; Lipej, A.
2012-11-01
Numerical prediction of an efficiency of a 6-blade Kaplan turbine is presented. At first, the results of steady state analysis performed by different turbulence models for different operating regimes are compared to the measurements. For small and optimal angles of runner blades the efficiency was quite accurately predicted, but for maximal blade angle the discrepancy between calculated and measured values was quite large. By transient analysis, especially when the Scale Adaptive Simulation Shear Stress Transport (SAS SST) model with zonal Large Eddy Simulation (ZLES) in the draft tube was used, the efficiency was significantly improved. The improvement was at all operating points, but it was the largest for maximal discharge. The reason was better flow simulation in the draft tube. Details about turbulent structure in the draft tube obtained by SST, SAS SST and SAS SST with ZLES are illustrated in order to explain the reasons for differences in flow energy losses obtained by different turbulence models.
A consistent transported PDF model for treating differential molecular diffusion
Wang, Haifeng; Zhang, Pei
2016-11-01
Differential molecular diffusion is a fundamentally significant phenomenon in all multi-component turbulent reacting or non-reacting flows caused by the different rates of molecular diffusion of energy and species concentrations. In the transported probability density function (PDF) method, the differential molecular diffusion can be treated by using a mean drift model developed by McDermott and Pope. This model correctly accounts for the differential molecular diffusion in the scalar mean transport and yields a correct DNS limit of the scalar variance production. The model, however, misses the molecular diffusion term in the scalar variance transport equation, which yields an inconsistent prediction of the scalar variance in the transported PDF method. In this work, a new model is introduced to remedy this problem that can yield a consistent scalar variance prediction. The model formulation along with its numerical implementation is discussed, and the model validation is conducted in a turbulent mixing layer problem.
Sun, Guangyuan; Lignell, David; Hewson, John; Gin, Craig
2013-11-01
We present three algorithms (type-I, type-C and type-IC) for Lagrangian particle transport within the context of the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) approach. ODT is a stochastic model that captures the full range of length and time scales and provides statistical information on fine-scale turbulent-particle mixing and transport at low computational cost. Two of the particle transport algorithms are new as is an algorithm to provide two-way momentum and energy coupling between the particle and carrier phases. Using these methods we investigate particle-laden turbulent jet flow. In contrast to other previous particle implementation in ODT, the two new methods allow the particles to interact with multiple eddies simultaneously and evolve the particle phase continuously, and therefore are able to accurately capture turbulent mixing and fluctuation seen by inertial particles in ODT. Simulation results are compared with experimental data including the effect of two particle Stokes numbers (St = 3.6 and 10.8). Turbulence modification, particle number density PDFs and particle velocity evolution are presented.
Evolution of a turbulent pycnocline within the framework of a modified model of turbulent closure
Soustova, Irina; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Ezhova, Ekaterina; Rybushkina, Galina; Zilitinkevich, Sergej
2015-04-01
The formation and evolution of a turbulent pycnocline generated by internal wave breaking were investigated within the framework of a modified model of turbulent closure. Numerical computation based on closed Reynolds equations using closure hypotheses obtained in the framework of the kinetic approach showed a strong dependence of vertical distributions corresponding to hydrodynamic parameters on the anisotropy of turbulence and speed of pycnocline motion. Strongly anisotropic motion is characterized by the presence of stepwise variations in the vertical profiles of buoyancy frequency, turbulence scale, and kinetic and potential energy as compared to the known analytical solution obtained earlier without allowance for a non-steady-state term in the kinetic energy balance equation. In the case of a weaker anisotropy, no sharp changes are observed in spatial and energy characteristics of turbulence and the qualitative shape of their profiles in the pycnolcline region coincides with the known analytical dependences. The obtained result is important for development of numerical climatic models of the interaction between the atmosphere and the ocean. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation of Basic Research (13-05-00865, 14-05-91767, 15-45-02580).
Flux-driven gyrokinetic simulations of ion turbulent transport at low magnetic shear
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sarazin, Y; Strugarek, A; Dif-Pradalier, G; Abiteboul, J; Allfrey, S; Garbet, X; Ghendrih, Ph; Grandgirard, V; Latu, G, E-mail: yanick.sarazin@cea.fr
2010-11-01
Ion Temperature Gradient driven turbulence is investigated with the global full-f gyrokinetic code GYSELA for different magnetic equilibria. Reversed shear and monotonous q profile cases do not exhibit dramatic changes nor in the dynamics nor in the level of turbulence, leading to similar mean profiles. Especially, no transport barrier is observed in the vicinity of s = 0 in the general case, although the radial extent of the gap without resonant modes is larger than the typical turbulence correlation length. Conversely, a transport barrier is found to develop in the gap region if non resonant modes are artificially suppressed from the simulation. Such simulations tend to reconcile previously published contradictory results, while extending the analysis to more realistic flux-driven gyrokinetic regimes.
Elastic turbulence in a shell model of polymer solution
Ray, Samriddhi Sankar
2016-01-01
We show that, at low inertia and large elasticity, shell models of viscoelastic fluids develop a chaotic behaviour with properties similar to those of elastic turbulence. The low dimensionality of shell models allows us to explore a wide range both in polymer concentration and in Weissenberg number. Our results demonstrate that the physical mechanisms at the origin of elastic turbulence do not rely on the boundary conditions or on the geometry of the mean flow.
Biophysical Modeling of Cross-Shore Plankton Transport
Fujimura, A.; Reniers, A.; Paris, C. B.; Shanks, A.; MacMahan, J.; Morgan, S.
2016-02-01
Coastal ecosystems are influenced by cross-shore flows. Processes that create coastal plankton distributions are not well understood, even though possible mechanisms of plankton transport in the surf zone have been investigated. Our data from a rip-channeled beach show that concentrations of zooplankton and phytoplankton are higher in the surf zone than offshore. To examine how plankton are transported toward the shore, we used a coupled biophysical model, comprised of Delft3D wave/flow simulations and an individual-based model for tracking plankton. Model results indicate that onshore delivery of zooplankton is enhanced by Stokes drift, wave-driven bottom boundary streaming, alongshore topographic variability, and turbulence-dependent sinking behavior of zooplankton. Phytoplankton sinking may also be accelerated by turbulence, but the mechanism differs from that which affects zooplankton. Turbulence has the potential to increase phytoplankton growth rates. Therefore, the phytoplankton transport model includes turbulence-induced sinking velocity and growth rate, although the latter appears to have little influence on phytoplankton distributions. Modeled phytoplankton concentrations in the surf zone are much lower than expected, although the zooplankton transport model qualitatively reproduced our observations. Thus, there must be other possible factors influencing phytoplankton transport, some of which will be discussed.
Turbulence and intermittent transport at the boundary of magnetized plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A.H.
2005-01-01
a forcing region with spatially localized sources of particles and heat outside which losses due to the motion along open magnetic-field lines dominate, corresponding to the edge region and the scrape-off layer, respectively. Turbulent states reveal intermittent eruptions of hot plasma from the edge region......, propagating radially far into the scrape-off layer in the form of field-aligned filaments, or blobs. This results in positively skewed and flattened single-point probability distribution functions of particle density and temperature, reflecting the frequent appearance of large fluctuations. The conditional...
Wang, W. X.; Ethier, S.; Ren, Y.; Kaye, S.; Chen, J.; Startsev, E.; Lu, Z.; Li, Z. Q.
2015-10-01
Highly distinct features of spherical tokamaks (ST), such as National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) and NSTX-U, result in a different fusion plasma regime with unique physics properties compared to conventional tokamaks. Nonlinear global gyrokinetic simulations critical for addressing turbulence and transport physics in the ST regime have led to new insights. The drift wave Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability characterized by intrinsic mode asymmetry is identified in strongly rotating NSTX L-mode plasmas. While the strong E ×B shear associated with the rotation leads to a reduction in KH/ion temperature gradient turbulence, the remaining fluctuations can produce a significant ion thermal transport that is comparable to the experimental level in the outer core region (with no "transport shortfall"). The other new, important turbulence source identified in NSTX is the dissipative trapped electron mode (DTEM), which is believed to play little role in conventional tokamak regime. Due to the high fraction of trapped electrons, long wavelength DTEMs peaking around kθρs˜0.1 are destabilized in NSTX collisionality regime by electron density and temperature gradients achieved there. Surprisingly, the E ×B shear stabilization effect on DTEM is remarkably weak, which makes it a major turbulence source in the ST regime dominant over collisionless TEM (CTEM). The latter, on the other hand, is subject to strong collisional and E ×B shear suppression in NSTX. DTEM is shown to produce significant particle, energy and toroidal momentum transport, in agreement with experimental levels in NSTX H-modes. Moreover, DTEM-driven transport in NSTX parametric regime is found to increase with electron collision frequency, providing one possible source for the scaling of confinement time observed in NSTX H-modes. Most interestingly, the existence of a turbulence-free regime in the collision-induced CTEM to DTEM transition, corresponding to a minimum plasma transport in advanced ST
Gravity Wave and Turbulence Transport of Heat and Na in the Mesopause Region over the Andes
Guo, Yafang; Liu, Alan Z.
2016-07-01
The vertical heat and Na fluxes induced by gravity waves and turbulence are derived based on over 600 hours of observations from the Na wind/temperature lidar located at Andes lidar Observatory (ALO), Cerro Pachón, Chile. In the 85-100 km region, the annual mean vertical fluxes by gravity waves show downward heat transport with a maximum of 0.78K m/s at 90 km, and downward Na transport with a maximum of 210 m/s/cm3 at 94km. The maximum cooing rate reaches -24 K/d at 94km. The vertical fluxes have strong seasonal variations, with large differences in magnitudes and altitudes of maximum fluxes between winter and summer. The vertical fluxes due to turbulence eddies are also derived with a novel method that relates turbulence fluctuations of temperature and vertical wind with photon count fluctuations at very high resolution (25 m, 6 s). The results show that the vertical transports are comparable to those by gravity waves and they both play significant roles in the atmospheric thermal structure and constituent distribution. This direct measure of turbulence transport also enables estimate of the eddy diffusivity for heat and constituent in the mesopause region.
Kontar, E P; Emslie, A G; Vilmer, N
2013-01-01
Recent observations from {\\em RHESSI} have revealed that the number of non-thermal electrons in the coronal part of a flaring loop can exceed the number of electrons required to explain the hard X-ray-emitting footpoints of the same flaring loop. Such sources cannot, therefore, be interpreted on the basis of the standard collisional transport model, in which electrons stream along the loop while losing their energy through collisions with the ambient plasma; additional physical processes, to either trap or scatter the energetic electrons, are required. Motivated by this and other observations that suggest that high energy electrons are confined to the coronal region of the source, we consider turbulent pitch angle scattering of fast electrons off low frequency magnetic fluctuations as a confinement mechanism, modeled as a spatial diffusion parallel to the mean magnetic field. In general, turbulent scattering leads to a reduction of the collisional stopping distance of non-thermal electrons along the loop and ...
Dust Transport in Protostellar Disks Through Turbulence and Settling
Turner, N J; Sano, T
2009-01-01
We apply ionization balance and MHD calculations to investigate whether magnetic activity moderated by recombination on dust can account for the mass accretion rates and the mid-infrared spectra and variability of protostellar disks. The MHD calculations use the stratified shearing-box approach and include grain settling and the feedback from the changing dust abundance on the resistivity of the gas. The two-decade spread in accretion rates among T Tauri stars is too large to result solely from variety in the grain size and stellar X-ray luminosity, but can be produced by varying these together with the disk magnetic flux. The diversity in the silicate bands can come from the coupling of grain settling to the distribution of the magneto-rotational turbulence, through three effects: (1) Recombination on grains yields a magnetically inactive dead zone extending above two scale heights, while turbulence in the magnetically active disk atmosphere overshoots the dead zone boundary by only about one scale height. (...
Turbulence-induced pressure fluctuations in snow and their effect on heat and moisture transport
Huwald, H.; Higgins, C. W.; Drake, S.; Nolin, A. W.; Parlange, M. B.
2010-12-01
Accurate measurement of the heat and moisture flux components of the energy budget of a snow pack is difficult, and to date no generally satisfying solutions exist. In particular, little quantitative knowledge exists on heat and water vapor exchange associated to dynamically driven air movement in the snow pack as a consequence of atmospheric turbulence. This so-called wind-pumping constitutes a mechanism for forced release of saturated air form the snow pack and thus determines evaporation or sublimation rates from the snow and consequently affects the turbulent latent heat flux. A unique experiment and measurement system has been developed and deployed in the field to investigate and quantify the influence of atmospheric turbulence on heat and moisture transport across the snow-air interface. To this end, high-frequency measurements of 3-dimensional wind components, air temperature, and water vapor fluctuations above the snow surface were taken simultaneously together with differential air pressure fluctuations at several depths in the snow pack. The analysis addresses changes in frequency, amplitude, and penetration depth of the pressure fluctuations with depth, and the relationship of turbulence intensity to attenuation characteristics of the pressure within the snow pack. Finally, the study aims at understanding how turbulence-induced air pressure dynamics within the snow pack impacts on the heat budget of the snow pack and the turbulent sensible and latent heat flux above the snow surface.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Modelling the turbulent flows in non-inertial frames of reference has long been a challenging task. Recently we introduced the notion of the "extended intrinsic mean spin tensor" for turbulence modelling and pointed out that, when applying the Reynolds stress models developed in the inertial frame of reference to model-ling the turbulence in a non-inertial frame of reference, the mean spin tensor should be replaced by the extended intrinsic mean spin tensor to correctly account for the rotation effects induced by the non-inertial frame of reference, to conform in phys-ics with the Reynolds stress transport equation. To exemplify the approach, we conducted numerical simulations of the fully developed turbulent channel flow in a rotating frame of reference by employing four non-linear K-ε models. Our numerical results based on this approach at a wide range of Reynolds and Rossby numbers evince that, among the models tested, the non-linear K-ε model of Huang and Ma and the non-linear K-ε model of Craft, Launder and Suga can better capture the rotation effects and the resulting influence on the structures of turbulence, and therefore are satisfactorily applied to dealing with the turbulent flows of practical interest in engineering. The general approach worked out in this paper is also ap-plied to the second-moment closure and the large-eddy simulation of turbulence.
Modelling and simulation of turbulence and heat transfer in wall-bounded flows
Popovac, M.
2006-01-01
At present it is widely accepted that there is no universal turbulence model, i.e. no turbulence model can give acceptably good predictions for all turbulent flows that are found in nature or engineering. Every turbulence model is based on certain assumptions, and hence it is aimed at certain type o
Performance evaluation of RANS-based turbulence models in simulating a honeycomb heat sink
Subasi, Abdussamet; Ozsipahi, Mustafa; Sahin, Bayram; Gunes, Hasan
2017-07-01
As well-known, there is not a universal turbulence model that can be used to model all engineering problems. There are specific applications for each turbulence model that make it appropriate to use, and it is vital to select an appropriate model and wall function combination that matches the physics of the problem considered. Therefore, in this study, performance of six well-known Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes ( RANS) based turbulence models which are the Standard k {{-}} ɛ, the Renormalized Group k- ɛ, the Realizable k- ɛ, the Reynolds Stress Model, the k- ω and the Shear Stress Transport k- ω and accompanying wall functions which are the standard, the non-equilibrium and the enhanced are evaluated via 3D simulation of a honeycomb heat sink. The CutCell method is used to generate grid for the part including heat sink called test section while a hexahedral mesh is employed to discretize to inlet and outlet sections. A grid convergence study is conducted for verification process while experimental data and well-known correlations are used to validate the numerical results. Prediction of pressure drop along the test section, mean base plate temperature of the heat sink and temperature at the test section outlet are regarded as a measure of the performance of employed models and wall functions. The results indicate that selection of turbulence models and wall functions has a great influence on the results and, therefore, need to be selected carefully. Hydraulic and thermal characteristics of the honeycomb heat sink can be determined in a reasonable accuracy using RANS- based turbulence models provided that a suitable turbulence model and wall function combination is selected.
Performance evaluation of RANS-based turbulence models in simulating a honeycomb heat sink
Subasi, Abdussamet; Ozsipahi, Mustafa; Sahin, Bayram; Gunes, Hasan
2017-02-01
As well-known, there is not a universal turbulence model that can be used to model all engineering problems. There are specific applications for each turbulence model that make it appropriate to use, and it is vital to select an appropriate model and wall function combination that matches the physics of the problem considered. Therefore, in this study, performance of six well-known Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) based turbulence models which are the Standard k - ɛ, the Renormalized Group k - ɛ, the Realizable k - ɛ, the Reynolds Stress Model, the k - ω and the Shear Stress Transport k - ω and accompanying wall functions which are the standard, the non-equilibrium and the enhanced are evaluated via 3D simulation of a honeycomb heat sink. The CutCell method is used to generate grid for the part including heat sink called test section while a hexahedral mesh is employed to discretize to inlet and outlet sections. A grid convergence study is conducted for verification process while experimental data and well-known correlations are used to validate the numerical results. Prediction of pressure drop along the test section, mean base plate temperature of the heat sink and temperature at the test section outlet are regarded as a measure of the performance of employed models and wall functions. The results indicate that selection of turbulence models and wall functions has a great influence on the results and, therefore, need to be selected carefully. Hydraulic and thermal characteristics of the honeycomb heat sink can be determined in a reasonable accuracy using RANS-based turbulence models provided that a suitable turbulence model and wall function combination is selected.
Papapostolou, Vassilios
2017-09-11
Enstrophy is an intrinsic feature of turbulent flows, and its transport properties are essential for the understanding of premixed flame-turbulence interaction. The interrelation between the enstrophy transport and flow topologies, which can be assigned to eight categories based on the three invariants of the velocity-gradient tensor, has been analysed here. The enstrophy transport conditional on flow topologies in turbulent premixed flames has been analysed using a Direct Numerical Simulation database representing the corrugated flamelets (CF), thin reaction zones (TRZ) and broken reaction zones (BRZ) combustion regimes. The flame in the CF regime exhibits considerable flame-generated enstrophy, and the dilatation rate and baroclinic torque contributions to the enstrophy transport act as leading order sink and source terms, respectively. Consequently, flow topologies associated with positive dilatation rate values, contribute significantly to the enstrophy transport in the CF regime. By contrast, enstrophy decreases from the unburned to the burned gas side for the cases representing the TRZ and BRZ regimes, with diminishing influences of dilatation rate and baroclinic torque. The enstrophy transport in the TRZ and BRZ regimes is governed by the vortex-stretching and viscous dissipation contributions, similar to non-reacting flows, and topologies existing for all values of dilatation rate remain significant contributors.
The turbulent structure and transport in fog layers observed over the Tianjin area
Ye, Xinxin; Wu, Bingui; Zhang, Hongsheng
2015-02-01
This paper investigates the vertical structure and turbulence activities in fog events. Three fog cases that occurred in the winter of 2010 over Tianjin, China were selected, including two advection-radiation fog events and an advection fog event. Field observations collected at a 255-m tall meteorological tower in Tianjin were analyzed, including turbulence measurements using the eddy covariance systems installed at three levels, measurements of temperature, horizontal wind and humidity collected at 15 levels, surface radiation fluxes and horizontal visibility. The results suggest that the advection fog was more enduring and thicker than the advection-radiation fog. The fog events were characterized by low wind speed throughout the fog layer. A temperature inversion and low-level jet were observed above the advection-radiation fog layer. The surface net radiation reflected some differences among the fog events. The collapse of turbulence was a necessity for the formation fog, and moderate turbulence was favorable to the development and maintenance. The heat and water vapor fluxes in the advection-radiation fog were weaker than those in the advection fog, in which the stratification was slightly unstable. The relationships among the turbulent transport efficiencies of water vapor, temperature and momentum were examined. The results suggest the applicability of local similarity in the fog layer for the momentum transport efficiency.
Bañón Navarro, A.; Bardóczi, L.; Carter, T. A.; Jenko, F.; Rhodes, T. L.
2017-03-01
Neoclassical tearing modes have deleterious effects on plasma confinement and, if they grow large enough, they can lead to discharge termination. Therefore, they impose a major barrier in the development of operating scenarios of present-day tokamaks. Gyrokinetics offers a path toward studying multi-scale interactions with turbulence and the effect on plasma confinement. As a first step toward this goal, we have implemented static magnetic islands in nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations with the GENE code. We investigate the effect of the islands on profiles, flows, turbulence and transport and the scaling of these effects with respect to island size. We find a clear threshold island width, below which the islands have little or no effect while beyond this point the islands significantly perturb flows, increase turbulence and transport. Additionally, we study the effect of radially asymmetric islands on shear flows for the first time. We find that island induced shear flows can regulate turbulent fluctuation levels in the vicinity of the island separatrices. Throughout this work, we focus on experimentally relevant quantities, such as rms levels of density and electron temperature fluctuations, as well as amplitude and phasing of turbulence modulation. These simulations aim to provide guidelines for interpreting experimental results by comparing qualitative trends in the simulations with those obtained in tokamak experiments.
Collisional transport across the magnetic field in drift-fluid models
Madsen, Jens; Nielsen, Anders Henry; Rasmussen, Jens Juul
2015-01-01
Drift ordered fluid models are widely applied in studies of low-frequency turbulence in the edge and scrape-off layer regions of magnetically confined plasmas. Here, we show how collisional transport across the magnetic field is self-consistently incorporated into drift-fluid models without altering the drift-fluid energy integral. We demonstrate that the inclusion of collisional transport in drift-fluid models gives rise to diffusion of particle density, momentum and pressures in drift-fluid turbulence models and thereby obviate the customary use of artificial diffusion in turbulence simulations. We further derive a computationally efficient, two-dimensional model which can be time integrated for several turbulence de-correlation times using only limited computational resources. The model describes interchange turbulence in a two-dimensional plane perpendicular to the magnetic field located at the outboard midplane of a tokamak. The model domain has two regions modeling open and closed field lines. The model...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
In this paper, two sub-grid scale (SGS) models are introduced into the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), i.e., the dynamics SGS model and the dynamical system SGS model, and applied to numerically solving three-dimensional high Re turbulent cavity flows. Results are compared with those obtained from the Smagorinsky model and direct numerical simulation for the same cases. It is shown that the method with LBM dynamics SGS model has advantages of fast computation speed, suitable to simulate high Re turbulent flows. In addition, it can capture detailed fine structures of turbulent flow fields. The method with LBM dynamical system SGS model dose not contain any adjustable parameters, and can be used in simulations of various complicated turbulent flows to obtain correct information of sub-grid flow field, such as the backscatter of energy transportation between large and small scales. A new average method of eliminating the inherent unphysical oscillation of LBM is also given in the paper.
Kim, S.-W.; Chen, C.-P.
1989-01-01
A multiple-time-scale turbulence model of a single point closure and a simplified split-spectrum method is presented. In the model, the effect of the ratio of the production rate to the dissipation rate on eddy viscosity is modeled by use of the multiple-time-scales and a variable partitioning of the turbulent kinetic energy spectrum. The concept of a variable partitioning of the turbulent kinetic energy spectrum and the rest of the model details are based on the previously reported algebraic stress turbulence model. Example problems considered include: a fully developed channel flow, a plane jet exhausting into a moving stream, a wall jet flow, and a weakly coupled wake-boundary layer interaction flow. The computational results compared favorably with those obtained by using the algebraic stress turbulence model as well as experimental data. The present turbulence model, as well as the algebraic stress turbulence model, yielded significantly improved computational results for the complex turbulent boundary layer flows, such as the wall jet flow and the wake boundary layer interaction flow, compared with available computational results obtained by using the standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model.
Subfilter Scale Combustion Modelling for Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Premixed Flames
Shahbazian, Nasim
Large eddy simulation (LES) is a powerful computational tool for modelling turbulent combustion processes. However, for reactive flows, LES is still under significant development. In particular, for turbulent premixed flames, a considerable complication of LES is that the flame thickness is generally much smaller than the LES filter width such that the flame front and chemical reactions cannot be resolved on the grid. Accurate and robust subfilter-scale (SFS) models of the unresolved turbulence-chemistry interactions are therefore required and studies are needed to evaluate and improve them. In this thesis, a detailed comparison and evaluation of five different SFS models for turbulence- chemistry interactions in LES of premixed flames is presented. These approaches include both flamelet- and non-flamelet-based models, coupled with simple or tabulated chemistry. The mod- elling approaches considered herein are: algebraic- and transport-equation variants of the flame surface density (FSD) model, the presumed conditional moment (PCM) with flame prolongation of intrinsic low-dimensional manifold (FPI) tabulated chemistry, or PCM-FPI approach, evaluated with two different presumed probability density function (PDF) models; and conditional source-term estimation (CSE) approach. The predicted LES solutions are compared to the existing laboratory-scale experimental observation of Bunsen-type turbulent premixed methane-air flames, corresponding to lean and stoichiometric conditions lying from the upper limit of the flamelet regime to well within the thin reaction zones regime of the standard regimes diagram. Direct comparison of different SFS approaches allows investigation of stability and performance of the models, while the weaknesses and strengths of each approach are identified. Evaluation of algebraic and transported FSD models highlights the importance of non-equilibrium transport in turbulent premixed flames. The effect of the PDF type for the reaction progress
Sensing turbulent flow and heat transport in a cave conduit
Kurtzman, D.; Lucia, F. J.; Jennings, J. W.; Wilson, J. L.; Tyler, S. W.; Jorgensen, A. M.; Dwivedi, R.; Boston, P.; Burger, P.
2008-12-01
Cave systems provide an extreme example of complex subsurface porous media, dominated by flow through an interconnected network of conduits. Whether water or air-filled, these flow systems have been largely observed subjectively, with only a few simple quantitative measurements of flow and pressure. In the spring of 2008 a joint campaign of New Mexico Tech and the University of Nevada Reno entered the 210m deep, ~8m "diameter," keyhole shaped, subhorizontal, Left Hand Tunnel, a large air-filled conduit in Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, with the intent to observe fluid flow with modern thermally-based instruments. The conduit experiences countercurrent, thermally stratified flow, with mean velocities in each layer less than 0.1m/s. It is part of a geothermally forced, large-scale convection cell. Two instruments were deployed. A distributed temperature sensing (DTS) fiber optic cable was stretched over 1km of the tunnel, and partially suspended by balloons to the roof, to sense spatial and low-frequency (0.01Hz) temporal variations of temperature with a resolution approaching 0.05 degree C. The mean temperature difference between layers was on the order of 0.5 degree and the caveward (subhorizontal) temperature gradient was 1 degree/400m. Influences of connecting subvertical shafts, wet areas of the cave, human activity, and diurnal fluctuations were observed. The second instrument, a 7m tall tower with an array of eight 300Hz thermocouple temperature sensors, with a sensitivity approaching 0.005 degree, was deployed 200m into the tunnel and used to detect high- frequency temperature fluctuations associated with turbulence and the stratified flow. Turbulence structure of each layer was similar. Temperature fluctuation (and turbulence intensity?) was significantly greater near the boundary between layers and its steep vertical gradient of mean temperature. Results from this 3-day campaign, as limited as they are, suggest that there is a wealth of information and
Particle dispersion in homogeneous turbulence using the one-dimensional turbulence model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Guangyuan, E-mail: gysungrad@gmail.com; Lignell, David O., E-mail: davidlignell@byu.edu [Chemical Engineering Department, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602 (United States); Hewson, John C., E-mail: jchewso@sandia.gov [Fire Science and Technology Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Gin, Craig R., E-mail: cgin@math.tamu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)
2014-10-15
Lagrangian particle dispersion is studied using the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model in homogeneous decaying turbulence configurations. The ODT model has been widely and successfully applied to a number of reacting and nonreacting flow configurations, but only limited application has been made to multiphase flows. Here, we present a version of the particle implementation and interaction with the stochastic and instantaneous ODT eddy events. The model is characterized by comparison to experimental data of particle dispersion for a range of intrinsic particle time scales and body forces. Particle dispersion, velocity, and integral time scale results are presented. The particle implementation introduces a single model parameter β{sub p}, and sensitivity to this parameter and behavior of the model are discussed. Good agreement is found with experimental data and the ODT model is able to capture the particle inertial and trajectory crossing effects. These results serve as a validation case of the multiphase implementations of ODT for extensions to other flow configurations.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
We investigates the effect of Taylor-Grtler vortex on the Reynolds stress transport in the rotating turbulent channel flow by direct numerical simulation. The Taylor-Grtler vortex is detected by longitudinal average of velocity fluctuation in the channel and defined as TG fluctuation. It has been found that turbulent diffusion is significant in the Reynolds stress transportation at the suction side of rotating turbulent channel in contrast with the turbulent channel flow without rotation and Taylor-Grtler vortex plays an important role in the turbulent diffusion in Reynolds stress transport. The paper focuses on the low and moderate rotation number, but the effect of the rotation number on the Reynolds stress transport is also reported.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG YuNing; MA HuiYang; XU JingLei
2008-01-01
Modelling the turbulent flows in non-inertial frames of reference has long been a challenging task. Recently we introduced the notion of the "extended intrinsic mean spin tensor" for turbulence modelling and pointed out that, when applying the Reynolds stress models developed in the inertial frame of reference to model-ling the turbulence in a non-inertial frame of reference, the mean spin tensor should be replaced by the extended intrinsic mean spin tensor to correctly account for the rotation effects induced by the non-inertial frame of reference, to conform in phys-ics with the Reynolds stress transport equation. To exemplify the approach, we conducted numerical simulations of the fully developed turbulent channel flow in a rotating frame of reference by employing four non-linear K-εmodels. Our numerical results based on this approach at a wide range of Reynolds and Rossby numbers evince that, among the models tested, the non-linear K-ε model of Huang and Ma and the non-linear K-ε model of Craft, Launder and Suga can better capture the rotation effects and the resulting influence on the structures of turbulence, and therefore are satisfactorily applied to dealing with the turbulent flows of practical interest in engineering. The general approach worked out in this paper is also ap-plied to the second-moment closure and the large-eddy simulation of turbulence.
A near-wall two-equation model for compressible turbulent flows
Zhang, H. S.; So, R. M. C.; Speziale, C. G.; Lai, Y. G.
1992-01-01
A near-wall two-equation turbulence model of the k-epsilon type is developed for the description of high-speed compressible flows. The Favre-averaged equations of motion are solved in conjunction with modeled transport equations for the turbulent kinetic energy and solenoidal dissipation wherein a variable density extension of the asymptotically consistent near-wall model of So and co-workers is supplemented with new dilatational models. The resulting compressible two-equation model is tested in the supersonic flat plate boundary layer - with an adiabatic wall and with wall cooling - for Mach numbers as large as 10. Direct comparisons of the predictions of the new model with raw experimental data and with results from the K-omega model indicate that it performs well for a wide range of Mach numbers. The surprising finding is that the Morkovin hypothesis, where turbulent dilatational terms are neglected, works well at high Mach numbers, provided that the near wall model is asymptotically consistent. Instances where the model predictions deviate from the experiments appear to be attributable to the assumption of constant turbulent Prandtl number - a deficiency that will be addressed in a future paper.
Turbulent Boundary Layers - Experiments, Theory and Modelling
1980-01-01
DEVELOPMENT (ORGANISATION DU TRAITE DE L’ATLANTIQUE NORD ) AGARD Conference Proceedings No.271 TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYERS - EXPERIMENTS, THEORY AND...photographs of Figures 21 and 22. In this case, the photographs are taken with a single flash strobe and thus yield the instantaneous positions of the
Turbulence evolution and transport behavior during current ramp-up in ITER-like plasmas on DIII-D
McKee, G. R.; Austin, M.; Boedo, J.; Bravenec, R.; Holland, C.; Jackson, G.; Luce, T. C.; Rhodes, T. L.; Rudakov, D.; Wang, G.; Yan, Z.; Zeng, L.; Zhao, Y.
2017-08-01
Low-wavenumber density fluctuations exhibit unique characteristics during the current ramp-up phase of ITER-like discharges that can partially explain the challenges of correctly modeling transport behavior and predicting global plasma parameters during this period. A strong interaction takes place between the evolving transport, safety factor (q) and kinetic profiles as well as the appearance and evolution of low-order rational surfaces. Density fluctuations from 0.75 qualitative consistency with measured fluctuation levels, but calculations don’t exhibit reduced growth rates near low-order rational surfaces, which is inconsistent with experimental observations. This indicates a mechanism that can contribute to reconciling observed turbulence behavior with transport models, allowing for the development of more accurate predictive tools.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leconte, M.
2008-11-15
The H confinement regime is set when the heating power reaches a threshold value P{sub c} and is linked to the formation of a transport barrier in the edge region of the plasma. Such a barrier is characterized by a high pressure gradient and is submitted to ELM (edge localized mode) instabilities. ELM instabilities trigger violent quasi-periodical ejections of matter and heat that induce quasi-periodical relaxations of the transport barrier called relaxation oscillations. In this work we studied the interaction between sheared flows and turbulence in fusion plasmas. In particular, we studied the complex dynamics of a transport barrier and we show through a simulation that resonant magnetic perturbations could control relaxation oscillations without a significant loss of confinement
Transport of magnetic field by a turbulent flow of liquid sodium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Volk, R.; Odier, Ph.; Pinton, J.P. [Ecole Normale Sup rieure de Lyon, Lab. de Physique, CNRS UMR 5672, 69 (France); Ravelet, F.; Monchaux, R.; Chiffaudel, A.; Daviaud, F. [CEA Saclay, Service de Physique de l' Etat Condens, Dir. des Sciences de la Mati re, CNRS URA 2464, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Berhanu, M.; Chi, A.; Fauve, S.; Mordant, I.N.; Petrelis, F. [Ecole Normale Sup rieure, Lab. de Physique Statistique, CNRS UMR 8550, 75 - Paris (France)
2006-07-01
We study the effect of a turbulent flow of liquid sodium generated in the von Karman geometry, on the localized field of a magnet placed close to the frontier of the flow. We observe that the field can be transported by the flow on distances larger than its integral length scale. In the most turbulent configurations, the mean value of the induced field at large distance vanishes. However, the root-mean-square (rms) value of the fluctuations increases linearly with the magnetic Reynolds number. The induced field is strongly intermittent. (authors)
On the validity of the local diffusive paradigm in turbulent plasma transport
Dif-Pradalier, G.; Diamond, P. H.; Grandgirard, V.; Sarazin, Y.; Abiteboul, J.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Strugarek, A.; Ku, S.; Chang, C. S.
2010-08-01
A systematic, constructive and self-consistent procedure to quantify nonlocal, nondiffusive action at a distance in plasma turbulence is exposed and applied to turbulent heat fluxes computed from the state-of-the-art full- f , flux-driven gyrokinetic GYSELA and XGC1 codes. A striking commonality is found: heat transport below a dynamically selected mesoscale has the structure of a Lévy distribution, is strongly nonlocal, nondiffusive, scale-free, and avalanche mediated; at larger scales, we report the observation of a self-organized flow structure which we call the “ E×B staircase” after its planetary analog.
Formation, growth, and transport of soot in a three-dimensional turbulent non-premixed jet flame
Attili, Antonio
2014-07-01
The formation, growth, and transport of soot is investigated via large scale numerical simulation in a three-dimensional turbulent non-premixed n-heptane/air jet flame at a jet Reynolds number of 15,000. For the first time, a detailed chemical mechanism, which includes the soot precursor naphthalene and a high-order method of moments are employed in a three-dimensional simulation of a turbulent sooting flame. The results are used to discuss the interaction of turbulence, chemistry, and the formation of soot. Compared to temperature and other species controlled by oxidation chemistry, naphthalene is found to be affected more significantly by the scalar dissipation rate. While the mixture fraction and temperature fields show fairly smooth spatial and temporal variations, the sensitivity of naphthalene to turbulent mixing causes large inhomogeneities in the precursor fields, which in turn generate even stronger intermittency in the soot fields. A strong correlation is apparent between soot number density and the concentration of naphthalene. On the contrary, while soot mass fraction is usually large where naphthalene is present, pockets of fluid with large soot mass are also frequent in regions with very low naphthalene mass fraction values. From the analysis of Lagrangian statistics, it is shown that soot nucleates and grows mainly in a layer close to the flame and spreads on the rich side of the flame due to the fluctuating mixing field, resulting in more than half of the total soot mass being located at mixture fractions larger than 0.6. Only a small fraction of soot is transported towards the flame and is completely oxidized in the vicinity of the stoichiometric surface. These results show the leading order effects of turbulent mixing in controlling the dynamics of soot in turbulent flames. Finally, given the difficulties in obtaining quantitative data in experiments of turbulent sooting flames, this simulation provides valuable data to guide the development of
Comparison of CFD Simulation of a Hyundai I20 Model with Four Different Turbulence Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vivekanandan
2016-07-01
Full Text Available This article describes the CFD analysis of a Hyundai i20 car Model. The focus of this study is to investigate the aerodynamics characteristics of Hyundai i20 car model and the flow obtained by solving the steady-state governing continuity equations as well as the momentum conservation equations combined with one of four turbulence models (1.Spalart-Allmaras 2.k-ε Standard 3.Transition k-kl-ω 4.Transition Shear Stress Transport (SST and the solutions obtained using these different models were compared. Except transition k-kl-ω model, other three models show nearly similar velocity variations plot. Pressure variation plot are almost similar with K-ε and transition-SST models. Eddy viscosity plot are almost similar with K-ε and transition k-kl-ω models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Labit, B
2002-10-01
In a fusion machine, understanding plasma turbulence, which causes a degradation of the measured energy confinement time, would constitute a major progress in this field. In tokamaks, the measured ion and electron thermal conductivities are of comparable magnitude. The possible sources of turbulence are the temperature and density gradients occurring in a fusion plasma. Whereas the heat losses in the ion channel are reasonably well understood, the origin of the electron losses is more uncertain. In addition to the radial velocity associated to the fluctuations of the electric field, electrons are more affected than ions by the magnetic field fluctuations. In experiments, the confinement time can be conveniently expressed in terms of dimensionless parameters. Although still somewhat too imprecise, these scaling laws exhibit strong dependencies on the normalized pressure {beta} or the normalized Larmor radius, {rho}{sub *}. The present thesis assesses whether a tridimensional, electromagnetic, nonlinear fluid model of plasma turbulence driven by a specific instability can reproduce the dependence of the experimental electron heat losses on the dimensionless parameters {beta} and {rho}{sub *}. The investigated interchange instability is the Electron Temperature Gradient driven one (ETG). The model is built by using the set of Braginskii equations. The developed simulation code is global in the sense that a fixed heat flux is imposed at the inner boundary, leaving the gradients free to evolve. From the nonlinear simulations, we have put in light three characteristics for the ETG turbulence: the turbulent transport is essentially electrostatic; the potential and pressure fluctuations form radially elongated cells called streamers; the transport level is very low compared to the experimental values. The thermal transport dependence study has shown a very small role of the normalized pressure, which is in contradiction with the Ohkama's formula. On the other hand
Escauriaza, Cristian; Sandoval, Jorge; Mignot, Emmanuel; Mao, Luca
2016-11-01
Turbulent flows developed in surface storage zones (SSZ) in rivers control many physical and biogeochemical processes of contaminants in the water. These regions are characterized by low velocities and long residence times, which favor particle deposition, nutrient uptake, and flow interactions with reactive sediments. The dynamics of the flow in SSZ is driven by a shear layer that induces multiple vortical structures with a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. In this work we study the flow in a lateral SSZ of the Lluta River, a high-altitude Andean stream (4,000 masl), with a Re=45,800. We describe the large-scale turbulent coherent structures using field measurements and 3D numerical simulations. We measure the bed topography, instantaneous 3D velocities at selected points, the mean 2D free-surface velocity field, and arsenic concentration in the sediment. Numerical simulations of the flow are also performed using a DES turbulence model. We focus on the mass and momentum transport processes, analyzing the statistics of mass exchange and residence times in the SSZ. With this information we provide new insights on the flow and transport processes between the main channel and the recirculating region in natural conditions. Supported by Fondecyt 1130940.
Comparison of two stochastic models of scalar diffusion in turbulent flow
Rodean, H. C.; Lange, R.; Nasstrom, J. S.; Gavrilov, V. P.
1992-07-01
This report describes and compares two Lagrangian stochastic models for turbulent diffusion: (1) the random velocity increment model based on the Langevin equation; and (2) the random displacement model. We apply both models to identical test problems for one-dimensional (vertical) diffusion, using identical parameterizations of turbulence statistics as inputs. We compare the results and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each model. This work is part of an effort to improve the ADPIC dispersion model which is based on the eddy diffusivity model. It is also part of a cooperative research effort on the transport and dispersion of hazardous materials in the atmosphere by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Institute of Experimental Meteorology (USSR).
Groupage Cargo Transportation Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aleksejevs Ruslans
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In this work we consider a specific problem of optimal planning of maritime transportation of multiproduct cargo by ships of one (corporate strategy or several (partially corporate strategy companies: the core of the problem consists of the existence of the network of intermediate seaports (i.e. transitional seaports, where for every ship arrived the cargo handling is done, and which are situated between the starting and the finishing seaports. In this work, there are mathematical models built from scratch in the form of multicriteria optimization problem; then the goal attainment method of Gembicki is used for reducing the built models to a one-criterion problem of linear programming.
A statistical model to predict streamwise turbulent dispersion from the wall at small times
Nguyen, Quoc; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V.
2016-12-01
Data from simulations are used to develop a statistical model that can provide the streamwise dispersion distribution of passive particles released from the wall of a turbulent flow channel. It is found that a three-point gamma probability density function is the statistical distribution that can describe the dispersion of particles with Schmidt numbers ranging from 6 to 2400 at relatively short times after the release of the particles. Scaling arguments are used to physically justify and predict the parameters of the gamma three-point distribution. The model is used to predict particle separation that can occur in turbulent flow under special conditions. Close to the channel wall, turbulent convection is not the dominant transport mechanism, but molecular diffusion can dominate transport depending on the Schmidt number of the particles. This leads to turbulence-induced separation rather than mixing, and the currently proposed model can be used to predict the level of separation. Practically, these results can be applied for separating very small particles or even macromolecules in dilute suspensions.
Compressible Turbulent Channel Flows: DNS Results and Modeling
Huang, P. G.; Coleman, G. N.; Bradshaw, P.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
The present paper addresses some topical issues in modeling compressible turbulent shear flows. The work is based on direct numerical simulation of two supersonic fully developed channel flows between very cold isothermal walls. Detailed decomposition and analysis of terms appearing in the momentum and energy equations are presented. The simulation results are used to provide insights into differences between conventional time-and Favre-averaging of the mean-flow and turbulent quantities. Study of the turbulence energy budget for the two cases shows that the compressibility effects due to turbulent density and pressure fluctuations are insignificant. In particular, the dilatational dissipation and the mean product of the pressure and dilatation fluctuations are very small, contrary to the results of simulations for sheared homogeneous compressible turbulence and to recent proposals for models for general compressible turbulent flows. This provides a possible explanation of why the Van Driest density-weighted transformation is so successful in correlating compressible boundary layer data. Finally, it is found that the DNS data do not support the strong Reynolds analogy. A more general representation of the analogy is analysed and shown to match the DNS data very well.
Modelling and prediction of non-stationary optical turbulence behaviour
Doelman, Niek; Osborn, James
2016-07-01
There is a strong need to model the temporal fluctuations in turbulence parameters, for instance for scheduling, simulation and prediction purposes. This paper aims at modelling the dynamic behaviour of the turbulence coherence length r0, utilising measurement data from the Stereo-SCIDAR instrument installed at the Isaac Newton Telescope at La Palma. Based on an estimate of the power spectral density function, a low order stochastic model to capture the temporal variability of r0 is proposed. The impact of this type of stochastic model on the prediction of the coherence length behaviour is shown.
Shafer, M. W.; McKee, G. R.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Austin, M. E.; Waltz, R. E.; Candy, J.
2007-11-01
Turbulence is observed to transiently decrease locally during the formation of internal transport barriers (ITBs) following the appearance of low-order rational qmin surfaces in negative central shear discharges on DIII-D. Simultaneously, increased poloidal flow shear is observed. To further study this phenomenon, localized 2D density fluctuation measurements of turbulence and turbulence flow were obtained over 0.3 < r/a < 0.7 via the high-sensitivity beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic. Both the reduction in fluctuations and the poloidal velocity shear are found to propagate radially outward at about 1 m/s. Initial observations suggest that these effects follow the q=2 surface. Related GYRO simulations suggest transient zonal flows form near the q=2 surface to trigger these ITBs. High-frequency poloidal velocity measurements will be used to examine this mechanism.
Large eddy simulation of turbulent statistical and transport properties in stably stratified flows
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiang QIU; Yong-xiang HUANG; Zhi-ming LU; Yu-lu LIU
2009-01-01
Three dimensional large eddy simulation (LES) is performed in the inves-tigation of stably stratified turbulence with a sharp thermal interface. Main results are focused on the turbulent characteristic scale, statistical properties, transport properties,and temporal and spatial evolution of the scalar field. Results show that the buoyancy scale increases first, and then goes to a certain constant value. The stronger the mean shear, the larger the buoyancy scale. The overturning scale increases with the flow, and the mean shear improves the overturning scale. The flatness factor of temperature de-parts from the Ganssian distribution in a fairly large region, and its statistical properties are clearly different from those of the velocity fluctuations in strong stratified cases. Tur-bulent mixing starts from small scale motions, and then extends to large scale motions.
Poloidal rotation driven by nonlinear momentum transport in strong electrostatic turbulence
Wang, Lu; Diamond, P H
2016-01-01
Virtually, all existing theoretical works on turbulent poloidal momentum transport are based on quasilinear theory. Nonlinear poloidal momentum flux - $\\langle \\tilde{v}_r \\tilde{n} \\tilde{v}_{\\theta} \\rangle$ is universally neglected. However, in the strong turbulence regime where relative fluctuation amplitude is no longer small, quasilinear theory is invalid. This is true at the all-important plasma edge. In this work, nonlinear poloidal momentum flux $ \\langle \\tilde{v}_r \\tilde{n} \\tilde{v}_{\\theta} \\rangle $ in strong electrostatic turbulence is calculated using Hasegawa-Mima equation, and is compared with quasilinear poloidal Reynolds stress. A novel property is that symmetry breaking in fluctuation spectrum is not necessary for a nonlinear poloidal momentum flux. This is fundamentally different from the quasilinear Reynold stress. Furthermore, the comparison implies that the poloidal rotation drive from the radial gradient of nonlinear momentum flux is comparable to that from the quasilinear Reynolds ...
On the relevance of subcritical hydrodynamic turbulence to accretion disk transport
Lesur, G
2005-01-01
Hydrodynamic unstratified keplerian flows are known to be linearly stable at all Reynolds numbers, but may nevertheless become turbulent through nonlinear mechanisms. However, in the last ten years, conflicting points of view have appeared on this issue. We have revisited the problem through numerical simulations in the shearing sheet limit. It turns out that the effect of the Coriolis force in stabilizing the flow depends on whether the flow is cyclonic (cooperating shear and rotation vorticities) or anticyclonic (competing shear and rotation vorticities); keplerian flows are anticyclonic. We have obtained the following results: i/ The Coriolis force does not quench turbulence in subcritical flows; ii/ The resolution demand, when moving away from the marginal stability boundary, is much more severe for anticyclonic flows than for cyclonic ones. Presently available computer resources do not allow numerical codes to reach the keplerian regime. iii/ The efficiency of turbulent transport is directly correlated t...
Model Polyelectrolytes in Turbulent Couette Flow
Price, Brian; Hoagland, David A.
1997-03-01
Isolated polymer chains in strong flow are deformed significantly from their equilibrium conformations, imparting a pronounced change in the local velocity field. Turbulent drag reduction by dilute polymer solutions is an important example. The onset of drag reduction appears dependent on a characteristic shear stress at the wall τw for a given polymer. (Virk, P.S. AIChE Journal 21 1975) Length and time scales formed from τw and solvent kinematic viscosity provide different scalings of the onset with chain length. It is likely that length polydispersity could be responsible for the disparity among the previously reported results concerning the correct onset condition. We have employed preparative gel electrophoresis to produce samples of very low polydispersity to determine the onset scaling of drag reduction in turbulent couette flow. The same technique provides information about chain scission in turburlence, yielding an indirect indication of chain conformation.
Quantification of Modelling Uncertainties in Turbulent Flow Simulations
Edeling, W.N.
2015-01-01
The goal of this thesis is to make predictive simulations with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models, i.e. simulations with a systematic treatment of model and data uncertainties and their propagation through a computational model to produce predictions of quantities of interest w
Simulating tidal turbines with mesh optimisation and RANS turbulence models
Abolghasemi, A.; Piggott, M.D.; Spinneken, J.; Vire, A.; Cotter, C.J.
2015-01-01
A versatile numerical model for the simulation of flow past horizontal axis tidal turbines has been developed. Currently most large-scale marine models employed to study marine energy use the shallow water equations and therefore can fail to account for important turbulent physics. The model present
Quantification of Modelling Uncertainties in Turbulent Flow Simulations
Edeling, W.N.
2015-01-01
The goal of this thesis is to make predictive simulations with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models, i.e. simulations with a systematic treatment of model and data uncertainties and their propagation through a computational model to produce predictions of quantities of interest
An improved turbulence model for rotating shear flows*
Nagano, Yasutaka; Hattori, Hirofumi
2002-01-01
In the present study, we construct a turbulence model based on a low-Reynolds-number non-linear k e model for turbulent flows in a rotating channel. Two-equation models, in particular the non-linear k e model, are very effective for solving various flow problems encountered in technological applications. In channel flows with rotation, however, the explicit effects of rotation only appear in the Reynolds stress components. The exact equations for k and e do not have any explicit terms concerned with the rotation effects. Moreover, the Coriolis force vanishes in the momentum equation for a fully developed channel flow with spanwise rotation. Consequently, in order to predict rotating channel flows, after proper revision the Reynolds stress equation model or the non-linear eddy viscosity model should be used. In this study, we improve the non-linear k e model so as to predict rotating channel flows. In the modelling, the wall-limiting behaviour of turbulence is also considered. First, we evaluated the non-linear k e model using the direct numerical simulation (DNS) database for a fully developed rotating turbulent channel flow. Next, we assessed the non-linear k e model at various rotation numbers. Finally, on the basis of these assessments, we reconstruct the non-linear k e model to calculate rotating shear flows, and the proposed model is tested on various rotation number channel flows. The agreement with DNS and experiment data is quite satisfactory.
Card, J. M.; Chen, J. H.; Day, M.; Mahalingam, S.
1994-01-01
Turbulent non-premixed stoichiometric methane-air flames modeled with reduced kinetics have been studied using the direct numerical simulation approach. The simulations include realistic chemical kinetics, and the molecular transport is modeled with constant Lewis numbers for individual species. The effect of turbulence on the internal flame structure and extinction characteristics of methane-air flames is evaluated. Consistent with earlier DNS with simple one-step chemistry, the flame is wrinkled and in some regions extinguished by the turbulence, while the turbulence is weakened in the vicinity of the flame due to a combination of dilatation and an increase in kinematic viscosity. Unlike previous results, reignition is observed in the present simulations. Lewis number effects are important in determining the local stoichiometry of the flame. The results presented in this work are preliminary but demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating reduced kinetics for the oxidation of methane with direct numerical simulations of homogeneous turbulence to evaluate the limitations of various levels of reduction in the kinetics and to address the formation of thermal and prompt NO(x).
Optical Turbulence Characterization by WRF model above Ali, Tibet
Wang, Hongshuai; Yao, Yongqiang; Liu, Liyong; Qian, Xuan; Yin, Jia
2015-04-01
Atmospheric optical turbulence modeling and forecast for astronomy is a relatively recent discipline, but has played important roles in site survey, optimization of large telescope observing tables, and in the applications of adaptive optics technique. The numerical approach, by using of meteorological parameters and parameterization of optical turbulence, can provide all the optical turbulence parameters related, such as C2n profile, coherent length, wavefront coherent time, seeing, isoplanatic angle, and so on. This is particularly interesting for searching new sites without the long and expensive site testing campaigns with instruments. Earlier site survey results by the site survey team of National Astronomical Observatories of China imply that the south-west Tibet, Ali, is one of the world best IR and sub-mm site. For searching the best site in Ali area, numerical approach by Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model had been used to evaluate the climatology of the optical turbulence. The WRF model is configured over a domain 200km×200km with 1km horizontal resolution and 65 vertical levels from ground to the model top(10millibars) in 2010. The initial and boundary conditions for the model are provided by the 1° × 1° Global Final Analysis data from NCEP. The distribution and seasonal variation of optical turbulence parameters over this area are presented.
Modelling [CI] emission from turbulent molecular clouds
Glover, Simon C O; Micic, Milica; Molina, Faviola
2014-01-01
We use detailed numerical simulations of the coupled chemical, thermal and dynamical evolution of the gas in a turbulent molecular cloud to study the usefulness of the [CI] 609 micron and 370 micron fine structure emission lines as tracers of cloud structure. Emission from these lines is observed throughout molecular clouds, and yet the question of what we can learn from them about the physics of the clouds remains largely unexplored. We show that the fact that [CI] emission is widespread within molecular clouds is a simple consequence of the fact that the clouds are dominated by turbulent motions. Turbulence creates large density inhomogeneities, allowing radiation to penetrate deeply into the clouds. As a result, [CI] emitting gas is found throughout the cloud, rather than being concentrated at the edges. We examine how well we can use [CI] emission to trace the structure of the cloud, and show that the integrated intensity of the 609 micron line traces column density accurately over a wide range of visual ...
On the structure of turbulent gravel bed flow: Implications for sediment transport
Mohajeri, Seyed Hossein; Righetti, Maurizio; Wharton, Geraldene; Romano, Giovanni Paolo
2016-06-01
The main objective of this study was to examine the turbulent flow field over gravel particles as a first step towards understanding sediment transport in a gravel bed river. Specifically, the vertical momentum flux in gravel bed turbulent flow was investigated with particular attention to the near-bed region. Spatial organization of vertical momentum flux was studied with stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements in a horizontal layer 1mm above the gravel crests. The vertical momentum flux through the water column was described with digital PIV measurements in three vertical planes. The data showed that near the gravel bed, net turbulent momentum flux spatially varies with respect to bed topography. Analysis of the vertical velocity data revealed that near the gravel particle crests, there is a significant net vertical form-induced momentum flux approximately with the same order of magnitude as the net vertical turbulent momentum flux. Above the crests, total net vertical momentum flux is positive. However, below the crests, despite noticeable positive form-induced momentum flux, total net vertical momentum flux is negative. Results of quadrant analysis show that variation of turbulent net vertical momentum flux through water column is in agreement with prevalence of upward movement of low velocity flow (known as ejection) above gravel crests and downward movement of high velocity flow (known as sweep) below gravel crests. Below gravel crests (- 0.1 particles but their contribution is not sufficient to move fine particles in the longitudinal direction.
Galassi, D.; Tamain, P.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Baudoin, C.; Colin, C.; Fedorczak, N.; Nace, N.; Serre, E.
2017-03-01
The poloidal asymmetries of parallel flows in edge plasmas are investigated by the 3D fluid turbulence code TOKAM3X. A diverted COMPASS-like magnetic equilibrium is used for the simulations. The measurements and simulations of parallel Mach numbers are compared, and exhibit good qualitative agreement. Small-scale turbulent transport is observed to dominate near the low field side midplane, even though it co-exists with significant large-scale cross-field fluxes. Despite the turbulent nature of the plasma in the divertor region, simulations show the low effectiveness of turbulence for the cross-field transport towards the private flux region. Nevertheless, a complex pattern of fluxes associated with the average field components are found to cross the separatrix in the divertor region. Large-scale and small-scale turbulent E× B transport, along with the \
Collisional transport across the magnetic field in drift-fluid models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Jens; Naulin, Volker; Nielsen, Anders Henry
2016-01-01
Drift ordered fluid models are widely applied in studies of low-frequency turbulence in the edge and scrape-off layer regions of magnetically confined plasmas. Here, we show how collisional transport across the magnetic field is self-consistently incorporated into drift-fluid models without...... altering the drift-fluid energy integral. We demonstrate that the inclusion of collisional transport in drift-fluid models gives rise to diffusion of particle density, momentum, and pressures in drift-fluid turbulence models and, thereby, obviates the customary use of artificial diffusion in turbulence...... simulations. We further derive a computationally efficient, two-dimensional model, which can be time integrated for several turbulence de-correlation times using only limited computational resources. The model describes interchange turbulence in a two-dimensional plane perpendicular to the magnetic field...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuhrman, David R.; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Sumer, B. Mutlu
2009-01-01
A numerical model solving incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, combined with a two-equation k-omega turbulence closure, is used to study converging-diverging effects from a sloping bed on turbulent (oscillatory) wave boundary layers. Bed shear stresses from the numerical model...
Effects of Freestream Turbulence in a Model Wind Turbine Wake
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yaqing Jin
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The flow structure in the wake of a model wind turbine is explored under negligible and high turbulence in the freestream region of a wind tunnel at R e ∼ 7 × 10 4 . Attention is placed on the evolution of the integral scale and the contribution of the large-scale motions from the background flow. Hotwire anemometry was used to obtain the streamwise velocity at various streamwise and spanwise locations. The pre-multiplied spectral difference of the velocity fluctuations between the two cases shows a significant energy contribution from the background turbulence on scales larger than the rotor diameter. The integral scale along the rotor axis is found to grow linearly with distance, independent of the incoming turbulence levels. This scale appears to reach that of the incoming flow in the high turbulence case at x / d ∼ 35–40. The energy contribution from the turbine to the large-scale flow structures in the low turbulence case increases monotonically with distance. Its growth rate is reduced past x / d ∼ 6–7. There, motions larger than the rotor contribute ∼ 50 % of the total energy, suggesting that the population of large-scale motions is more intense in the intermediate field. In contrast, the wake in the high incoming turbulence is quickly populated with large-scale motions and plateau at x / d ∼ 3 .
A minimal model of self-sustaining turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thomas, Vaughan L.; Gayme, Dennice F. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Farrell, Brian F. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Ioannou, Petros J. [Department of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, Athens 15784 (Greece)
2015-10-15
In this work, we examine the turbulence maintained in a Restricted Nonlinear (RNL) model of plane Couette flow. This model is a computationally efficient approximation of the second order statistical state dynamics obtained by partitioning the flow into a streamwise averaged mean flow and perturbations about that mean, a closure referred to herein as the RNL{sub ∞} model. The RNL model investigated here employs a single member of the infinite ensemble that comprises the covariance of the RNL{sub ∞} dynamics. The RNL system has previously been shown to support self-sustaining turbulence with a mean flow and structural features that are consistent with direct numerical simulations (DNS). Regardless of the number of streamwise Fourier components used in the simulation, the RNL system’s self-sustaining turbulent state is supported by a small number of streamwise varying modes. Remarkably, further truncation of the RNL system’s support to as few as one streamwise varying mode can suffice to sustain the turbulent state. The close correspondence between RNL simulations and DNS that has been previously demonstrated along with the results presented here suggest that the fundamental mechanisms underlying wall-turbulence can be analyzed using these highly simplified RNL systems.
Turbulent transport of impurities and their effect on energy confinement
Pusztai, I; Fulop, T; Candy, J
2012-01-01
By presenting linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic similarity studies, based on a balanced neutral beam injection deuterium discharge from the DIII-D tokamak, we demonstrate that impurities alter the scaling of the transport on the charge and mass of the main species, and even more importantly, they can dramatically change the energy transport even in relatively small quantities. A poloidally varying equilibrium electrostatic potential can lead to a strong reduction or sign change of the impurity peaking factor due to the combined effect of the in-out impurity density asymmetry and the EXB drift of impurities. We present an approximate expression for the impurity peaking factor and demonstrate that impurity peaking is not significantly affected by impurity self-collisions.
Gyrokinetics Simulation of Energetic Particle Turbulence and Transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diamond, Patrick H.
2011-09-21
Progress in research during this year elucidated the physics of precession resonance and its interaction with radial scattering to form phase space density granulations. Momentum theorems for drift wave-zonal flow systems involving precession resonance were derived. These are directly generalizable to energetic particle modes. A novel nonlinear, subcritical growth mechanism was identified, which has now been verified by simulation. These results strengthen the foundation of our understanding of transport in burning plasmas
Kolesnichenko, A. V.
2004-03-01
A thermodynamic approach to the construction of a phenomenological macroscopic model of developed turbulence in a compressible fluid is considered with regard for the formation of space-time dissipative structures. A set of random variables were introduced into the model as internal parameters of the turbulent-chaos subsystem. This allowed us to obtain, by methods of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, the kinetic Fokker-Planck equation in the configuration space. This equation serves to determine the temporary evolution of the conditional probability distribution function of structural parameters pertaining to the cascade process of fragmentation of large-scale eddies and temperature inhomogeneities and to analyze Markovian stochastic processes of transition from one nonequilibrium stationary turbulent-motion state to another as a result of successive loss of stability caused by a change in the governing parameters. An alternative method for investigating the mechanisms of such transitions, based on the stochastic Langevin-type equation intimately related to the derived kinetic equation, is also considered. Some postulates and physical and mathematical assumptions used in the thermodynamic model of structurized turbulence are discussed in detail. In particular, we considered, using the deterministic transport equation for conditional means, the cardinal problem of the developed approach-the possibility of the existence of asymptotically stable stationary states of the turbulent-chaos subsystem. Also proposed is the nonequilibrium thermodynamic potential for internal coordinates, which extends the well-known Boltzmann-Planck relationship for equilibrium states to the nonequilibrium stationary states of the representing ensemble. This potential is shown to be the Lyapunov function for such states. The relation is also explored between the internal intermittence in the inertial interval of scales and the fluctuations of the energy of dissipation. This study is aimed at
Despagne, Wilfried; Frenod, Emmanuel
2014-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the road freight haulage activity. Using the physical and data flow information from a freight forwarder, we intend to model the flow of inbound and outbound goods in a freight transport hub. Approach: This paper presents the operation of a road haulage group. To deliver goods within two days to any location in France, a haulage contractor needs to be part of a network. This network handles the processing of both physical goods and data. We...
TURBULENT TRANSPORT IN A STRONGLY STRATIFIED FORCED SHEAR LAYER WITH THERMAL DIFFUSION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garaud, Pascale [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Baskin School of Engineering, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz CA 95064 (United States)
2016-04-10
This work presents numerical results on the transport of heat and chemical species by shear-induced turbulence in strongly stratified, thermally diffusive environments. The shear instabilities driven in this regime are sometimes called “secular” shear instabilities, and can take place when the Richardson number of the flow is large, provided the Péclet number is small. We have identified a set of simple criteria to determine whether these instabilities can take place or not. Generally speaking, we find that they may be relevant whenever the thermal diffusivity of the fluid is very large (typically larger than 10{sup 14} cm{sup 2} s{sup −1}), which is the case in the outer layers of high-mass stars (M ≥ 10 M{sub ⊙}), for instance. Using a simple model setup in which the shear is forced by a spatially sinusoidal, constant-amplitude body-force, we have identified several regimes ranging from effectively unstratified to very strongly stratified, each with its own set of dynamical properties. Unless the system is in one of the two extreme regimes (effectively unstratified or completely stable), however, we find that (1) only about 10% of the input power is used toward heat transport, while the remaining 90% is viscously dissipated; (2) that the effective compositional mixing coefficient is well-approximated by the model of Zahn, with D ≃ 0.02κ{sub T}/J where κ{sub T} is the thermal diffusivity and J is the Richardson number. These results need to be confirmed, however, with simulations in different model setups and at higher effective Reynolds number.
MODELLING AND COMPUTATION OF UNSTEADY TURBULENT CAVITATION FLOWS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Ying; LU Chuan-jing; WU Lei
2006-01-01
Unsteady turbulent cavitation flows in a Venturi-type section and around a NACA0012 hydrofoil were simulated by two-dimensional computations of viscous compressible turbulent flow model.The Venturi-type section flow proved numerical precision and reliability of the physical model and the code, and further the cavitation around NACA0012 foil was investigated.These flows were calculated with a code of SIMPLE-type finite volume scheme, associated with a barotropic vapor/liquid state law which strongly links density and pressure variation.To simulate turbulent flows, modified RNG k- ε model was used.Numerical results obtained in the Venturi-type flow simulated periodic shedding of sheet cavity and was compared with experiment data, and the results of the NACA0012 foil show quasi-periodic vortex cavitation phenomenon.Results obtained concerning cavity shape and unsteady behavior, void ratio, and velocity field were found in good agreement with experiment ones.
Assessment of turbulence models for pulsatile flow inside a heart pump.
Al-Azawy, Mohammed G; Turan, A; Revell, A
2016-02-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is applied to study the unsteady flow inside a pulsatile pump left ventricular assist device, in order to assess the sensitivity to a range of commonly used turbulence models. Levels of strain and wall shear stress are directly relevant to the evaluation of risk from haemolysis and thrombosis, and thus understanding the sensitivity to these turbulence models is important in the assessment of uncertainty in CFD predictions. The study focuses on a positive displacement or pulsatile pump, and the CFD model includes valves and moving pusher plate. An unstructured dynamic layering method was employed to capture this cyclic motion, and valves were simulated in their fully open position to mimic the natural scenario, with in/outflow triggered at control planes away from the valves. Six turbulence models have been used, comprising three relevant to the low Reynolds number nature of this flow and three more intended to investigate different transport effects. In the first group, we consider the shear stress transport (SST) [Formula: see text] model in both its standard and transition-sensitive forms, and the 'laminar' model in which no turbulence model is used. In the second group, we compare the one equation Spalart-Almaras model, the standard two equation [Formula: see text] and the full Reynolds stress model (RSM). Following evaluation of spatial and temporal resolution requirements, results are compared with available experimental data. The model was operated at a systolic duration of 40% of the pumping cycle and a pumping rate of 86 BPM (beats per minute). Contrary to reasonable preconception, the 'transition' model, calibrated to incorporate additional physical modelling specifically for these flow conditions, was not noticeably superior to the standard form of the model. Indeed, observations of turbulent viscosity ratio reveal that the transition model initiates a premature increase of turbulence in this flow, when compared with
Soot and Spectral Radiation Modeling for a High-Pressure Turbulent Spray Flame
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferreryo-Fernandez, Sebastian [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Paul, Chandan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Sircar, Arpan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Imren, Abdurrahman [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Haworth, Daniel C [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Roy, Somesh P [Marquette University (United States); Modest, Michael F [University of California Merced (United States)
2017-04-26
Simulations are performed of a transient high-pressure turbulent n-dodecane spray flame under engine-relevant conditions. An unsteady RANS formulation is used, with detailed chemistry, a semi-empirical two-equation soot model, and a particle-based transported composition probability density function (PDF) method to account for unresolved turbulent fluctuations in composition and temperature. Results from the PDF model are compared with those from a locally well-stirred reactor (WSR) model to quantify the effects of turbulence-chemistry-soot interactions. Computed liquid and vapor penetration versus time, ignition delay, and flame lift-off height are in good agreement with experiment, and relatively small differences are seen between the WSR and PDF models for these global quantities. Computed soot levels and spatial soot distributions from the WSR and PDF models show large differences, with PDF results being in better agreement with experimental measurements. An uncoupled photon Monte Carlo method with line-by-line spectral resolution is used to compute the spectral intensity distribution of the radiation leaving the flame. This provides new insight into the relative importance of molecular gas radiation versus soot radiation, and the importance of turbulent fluctuations on radiative heat transfer.
Conditional moment closure modeling of a lifted turbulent flame
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIANG Yong; QIU Rong; ZHOU Wei; FAN Weicheng
2005-01-01
Results obtained using conditional moment closure (CMC) approach to modeling a lifted turbulent hydrogen flame are presented. Predictions are based on k-ε-g turbulent closure, a 23-step chemical mechanism and a radially averaged CMC model. The objectives are to find out how radially averaged CMC can represent a lifted flame and which mechanism of flame stabilization can be described by this modeling method. As a first stage of the study of multi-dimensional CMC for large eddy simulation (LES) of the lifted turbulent flames, the effect of turbulence upon combustion is included, the high-order compact finite- difference scheme (Padé) is used and previously developed characteristic-wave-based boundary conditions for multi- component perfect gas mixtures are here extended to their conditional forms but the heat release due to combustion is not part of the turbulent calculations. Attention is focused to the lift-off region of the flame which is commonly considered as a cold flow. Comparison with published experimental data and the computational results shows that the lift-off height can be accurately determined, and Favre averaged radial profiles of temperature and species mole fractions are also reasonably well predicted. Some of the current flame stabilization mechanisms are discussed.
Turbulence Modelling of A Lock-Release Oil Slick
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
The motion of a lock-release oil slick as an immiscible two-fluid gravity current is numerically studied by a finite difference algorithm based on the volume of fluid (VOF) method for the basic formulation and a rigid cover approximation for the open free surface. Detailed numerical simulation with careful model validation reveals the existence of turbulence and the adaptability of the renormalization group (RNG) k-ε model for the Reynolds-stress closure in the case of the oil slick. The time evolution and spatial distribution of the mean velocity, turbulence kinetic energy and turbulent viscosity are characterized. The mechanism for the transition from an initial gravity-inertial phase to a second gravity-viscous phase is shown to be the relaminarization effect of the initially highly turbulent slick. Compared well with known theoretical analyses and experimental observations, the turbulence modeling results in self-similar spreading laws in terms of the fact that the oil slick passes through the initial gravity-inertial phase with the front speed decreasing as t-1/3 (where t is the time measured from lock release) and the second gravity-viscous phase with the front speed decreasing as t-5/8.
Turbulence Modeling of Flows with Extensive Crossflow Separation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Argyris G. Panaras
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The reasons for the difficulty in simulating accurately strong 3-D shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions (SBLIs and high-alpha flows with classical turbulence models are investigated. These flows are characterized by the appearance of strong crossflow separation. In view of recent additional evidence, a previously published flow analysis, which attributes the poor performance of classical turbulence models to the observed laminarization of the separation domain, is reexamined. According to this analysis, the longitudinal vortices into which the separated boundary layer rolls up in this type of separated flow, transfer external inviscid air into the part of the separation adjacent to the wall, decreasing its turbulence. It is demonstrated that linear models based on the Boussinesq equation provide solutions of moderate accuracy, while non-linear ones and others that consider the particular structure of the flow are more efficient. Published and new Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS simulations are reviewed, as well as results from a recent Large Eddy Simulation (LES study, which indicate that in calculations characterized by sufficient accuracy the turbulent kinetic energy of the reverse flow inside the separation vortices is very low, i.e., the flow is almost laminar there.
A Lower Bound on Adiabatic Heating of Compressed Turbulence for Simulation and Model Validation
Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2017-04-01
The energy in turbulent flow can be amplified by compression, when the compression occurs on a timescale shorter than the turbulent dissipation time. This mechanism may play a part in sustaining turbulence in various astrophysical systems, including molecular clouds. The amount of turbulent amplification depends on the net effect of the compressive forcing and turbulent dissipation. By giving an argument for a bound on this dissipation, we give a lower bound for the scaling of the turbulent velocity with the compression ratio in compressed turbulence. That is, turbulence undergoing compression will be enhanced at least as much as the bound given here, subject to a set of caveats that will be outlined. Used as a validation check, this lower bound suggests that some models of compressing astrophysical turbulence are too dissipative. The technique used highlights the relationship between compressed turbulence and decaying turbulence.
A lower bound on adiabatic heating of compressed turbulence for simulation and model validation
Davidovits, Seth
2016-01-01
The energy in turbulent flow can be amplified by compression, when the compression occurs on a timescale shorter than the turbulent dissipation time. This mechanism may play a part in sustaining turbulence in various astrophysical systems, including molecular clouds. The amount of turbulent amplification depends on the net effect of the compressive forcing and turbulent dissipation. By giving an argument for a bound on this dissipation, we give a lower bound for the scaling of the turbulent velocity with compression ratio in compressed turbulence. That is, turbulence undergoing compression will be enhanced at least as much as the bound given here, subject to a set of caveats that will be outlined. Used as a validation check, this lower bound suggests that some simulations and models of compressing astrophysical turbulence are too dissipative. The technique used highlights the relationship between compressed turbulence and decaying turbulence.
Development of a Complete Model of Turbulence Revisited.
1983-12-01
model have been those of Bush and Fendell (Ref 14 - for the mixing-length model) and Wilcox and Traci. In neither case were effects of pressure gradient...Second Edition (1976). - - - ---. ~A 14. Bush, .B. and Fendell , F.E., "Asymptotic Analysis of Turbulent Channel and Boundary-Layer Flow," JFM, Vol 56
Second Order Model for Strongly Sheared Compressible Turbulence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
marzougui hamed
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a model designed to describe a strongly sheared compressible homogeneous turbulent flows. Such flows are far from equilibrium and are well represented by the A3 and A4 cases of the DNS of Sarkar. Speziale and Xu developed a relaxation model in incompressible turbulence able to take into account significant departures from equilibrium. In a previous paper, Radhia et al. proposed a relaxation model similar to that of Speziale and Xu .This model is based on an algebraic representation of the Reynolds stress tensor, much simpler than that of Speziale and Xu and it gave a good result for rapid axisymetric contraction. In this work, we propose to extend the Radhia et al’s. model to compressible homogenous turbulence. This model is based on the pressure-strain model of Launder et al., where we incorporate turbulent Mach number in order to take into account compressibility effects. To assess this model, two numerical simulations were performed which are similar to the cases A3 and A4 of the DNS of Sarkar.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
It has been proved that there exists a cross coupling between vertical heat turbulent transport and vertical velocity by using linear thermodynamics. This result asserts that the vertical component of heat turbulent transport flux is composed of both the transport of the vertical potential temperature gralient and the coupling transport of the vertical velocity. In this paper, the coupling effect of vertical velocity on vertical heat turbulent transportation is validated by using observed data from the atmospheric boundary layer to determine cross coupling coefficients, and a series of significant properties of turbulent transportation are opened out. These properties indicate that the cross coupling coefficient is a logarithm function of the dimensionless vertical velocity and dimensionless height, and is not only related to the friction velocity u*,but also to the coupling roughness height zwo and the coupling temperature Two of the vertical velocity.In addition, the function relations suggest that only when the vertical velocity magnitude conforms to the limitation |W/u* | ≠ 1, and is above the level zwo, then the vertical velocity leads to the cross coupling effect on the vertical heat turbulent transport flux. The cross coupling theory and experimental results provide a challenge to the traditional turbulent K closure theory and the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory.
MODELS FOR THE COUNTER-GRADIENT TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蒋剑波; 卢志明; 刘晓明; 刘宇陆
2001-01-01
The counter gradient transport phenomena on momentum, energy and passive scalar in turbulent flows were studied by use of the single response function for TSDIA. As a result, models that can describe qualitatively the phenomena are obtained. Then the results are simplified by use of the inertial range theory, and the results for lower degrees agree with results of predecessor. Finally the counter gradient-transport phenomena in channel flow and circular wake flow are analyzed.
AM06-021-007 A LES Study on Scalar Transport in Separated Turbulent Flows
反町, 洋之; 松原, 幸治; 高野, 哲夫; 杉浦, 聡; 小林, 睦夫; Hiroyuki, Sorimachi; Koji, MATSUBARA; Tetsuo, TAKANO; Satoshi, Sugiura; Mutsuo, Kobayashi; GISP; 新潟大; GIS Planners Inc.; Niigata Univ.
2006-01-01
Large eddy simulation was performed for lateral transport of scalar in a backward-facing step flow. Inlet profile is assumed to be fully developed turbulent channel flow having spanwise non-uniformity of mean temperature. Reynolds number based on center velocity and step height is set at 6,640, and Prandtl number at 0.71. Numerical validity was confirmed through comparison between numerical data and PTV measurement by Kasagi et al. Spanwise eddy diffusivity of heat was consistent with spanwis...
Tsuji, Takuya; Yokomine, Takehiko; Shimizu, Akihiko
2002-11-01
We have been engaged in the development of multi-scale adaptive simulation technique for incompressible turbulent flow. This is designed as that important scale components in the flow field are detected automatically by lifting wavelet and solved selectively. In conventional incompressible scheme, it is very common to solve Poisson equation of pressure to meet the divergence free constraints of incompressible flow. It may be not impossible to solve the Poisson eq. in the adaptive way, but this is very troublesome because it requires generation of control volume at each time step. We gave an eye on weakly compressible model proposed by Bao(2001). This model was derived from zero Mach limit asymptotic analysis of compressible Navier-Stokes eq. and does not need to solve the Poisson eq. at all. But it is relatively new and it requires demonstration study before the combination with the adaptation by wavelet. In present study, 2-D and 3-D Backstep flow were selected as test problems and applicability to turbulent flow is verified in detail. Besides, combination of adaptation by wavelet with weakly compressible model towards the adaptive turbulence simulation is discussed.
The Influence of Convergence Movement on Turbulent Transportation in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡隐樵; 左洪超
2003-01-01
Classical turbulent K closure theory of the atmospheric boundary layer assumes that the verticalturbulent transport flux of any macroscopic quantity is equivalent to that quantity's vertical gradienttransport flux. But a cross coupling between the thermodynamic processes and the dynamic processesin the atmospheric system is demonstrated based on the Curier-Prigogine principle of cross coupling oflinear thermodynamics. The vertical turbulent transportation of energy and substance in the atmosphericboundary layer is related not only to their macroscopic gradient but also to the convergence and the di-vergence movement. The transportation of the convergence or divergence movement is important for theatmospheric boundary layer of the heterogeneous underlying surface and the convection boundary layer.Based on this, the turbulent transportatiou in the atmospheric boundary layer, the energy budget of theheterogeneous underlying surface and the convection boundary layer, and the boundary layer parameteri-zation of land surface processes over the heterogeneous underlying surface are studied. This research offersclues not only for establishing the atmospheric boundary layer theory about the heterogeneous underlyingsurface, but also for overcoming the difficulties encountered recently in the application of the atmosphericboundary layer theory.
Modelling turbulent stellar convection zones: sub-grid scales effects
Strugarek, A; Brun, A S; Charbonneau, P; Mathis, S; Smolarkiewicz, P K
2016-01-01
The impressive development of global numerical simulations of turbulent stellar interiors unveiled a variety of possible differential rotation (solar or anti-solar), meridional circulation (single or multi-cellular), and dynamo states (stable large scale toroidal field or periodically reversing magnetic fields). Various numerical schemes, based on the so-called anelastic set of equations, were used to obtain these results. It appears today mandatory to assess their robustness with respect to the details of the numerics, and in particular to the treatment of turbulent sub-grid scales. We report on an ongoing comparison between two global models, the ASH and EULAG codes. In EULAG the sub-grid scales are treated implicitly by the numerical scheme, while in ASH their effect is generally modelled by using enhanced dissipation coefficients. We characterize the sub-grid scales effect in a turbulent convection simulation with EULAG. We assess their effect at each resolved scale with a detailed energy budget. We deriv...
Subgrid Modeling of AGN-Driven Turbulence in Galaxy Clusters
Scannapieco, Evan
2008-01-01
Hot, underdense bubbles powered by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are likely to play a key role in halting catastrophic cooling in the centers of cool-core galaxy clusters. We present three-dimensional simulations that capture the evolution of such bubbles, using an adaptive-mesh hydrodynamic code, FLASH3, to which we have added a subgrid model of turbulence and mixing. While pure-hydro simulations indicate that AGN bubbles are disrupted into resolution-dependent pockets of underdense gas, proper modeling of subgrid turbulence indicates that this a poor approximation to a turbulent cascade that continues far beyond the resolution limit. Instead, Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities act to effectively mix the heated region with its surroundings, while at the same time preserving it as a coherent structure, consistent with observations. Thus bubbles are transformed into hot clouds of mixed material as they move outwards in the hydrostatic intracluster medium (ICM), much as large airbursts lead to a distinctive ``mushroo...
Zhu, Ping; Wang, Yuting; Chen, Shuyi S.; Curcic, Milan; Gao, Cen
2016-01-01
Roll vortices in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) are important to oil operation and oil spill transport. This study investigates the impact of storm-induced sea surface temperature (SST) cooling on the roll vortices generated by the convective and dynamic instability in the ABL of Hurricane Isaac (2012) and the roll induced transport using hindcasting large eddy simulations (LESs) configured from the multiply nested Weather Research & Forecasting model. Two experiments are performed: one forced by the Unified Wave INterface - Coupled Model and the other with the SST replaced by the NCEP FNL analysis that does not include the storm-induced SST cooling. The simulations show that the roll vortices are the prevalent eddy circulations in the ABL of Isaac. The storm-induced SST cooling causes the ABL stability falls in a range that satisfies the empirical criterion of roll generation by dynamic instability, whereas the ABL stability without considering the storm-induced SST cooling meets the criterion of roll generation by convective instability. The ABL roll is skewed and the increase of convective instability enhances the skewness. Large convective instability leads to large vertical transport of heat and moisture; whereas the dominant dynamic instability results in large turbulent kinetic energy but relatively weak heat and moisture transport. This study suggests that failure to consider roll vortices or incorrect initiation of dynamic and convective instability of rolls in simulations may substantially affect the transport of momentum, energy, and pollutants in the ABL and the dispersion/advection of oil spill fume at the ocean surface.
Evaluation of Full Reynolds Stress Turbulence Models in FUN3D
Dudek, Julianne C.; Carlson, Jan-Renee
2017-01-01
Full seven-equation Reynolds stress turbulence models are a relatively new and promising tool for todays aerospace technology challenges. This paper uses two stress-omega full Reynolds stress models to evaluate challenging flows including shock-wave boundary layer interactions, separation and mixing layers. The Wilcox and the SSG/LRR full second-moment Reynolds stress models have been implemented into the FUN3D (Fully Unstructured Navier-Stokes Three Dimensional) unstructured Navier-Stokes code and are evaluated for four problems: a transonic two-dimensional diffuser, a supersonic axisymmetric compression corner, a compressible planar shear layer, and a subsonic axisymmetric jet. Simulation results are compared with experimental data and results using the more commonly used Spalart-Allmaras (SA) one-equation and the Menter Shear Stress Transport (SST-V) two-equation turbulence models.
Subgrid-scale models for large-eddy simulation of rotating turbulent flows
Silvis, Maurits; Trias, Xavier; Abkar, Mahdi; Bae, Hyunji Jane; Lozano-Duran, Adrian; Verstappen, Roel
2016-11-01
This paper discusses subgrid models for large-eddy simulation of anisotropic flows using anisotropic grids. In particular, we are looking into ways to model not only the subgrid dissipation, but also transport processes, since these are expected to play an important role in rotating turbulent flows. We therefore consider subgrid-scale models of the form τ = - 2νt S +μt (SΩ - ΩS) , where the eddy-viscosity νt is given by the minimum-dissipation model, μt represents a transport coefficient; S is the symmetric part of the velocity gradient and Ω the skew-symmetric part. To incorporate the effect of mesh anisotropy the filter length is taken in such a way that it minimizes the difference between the turbulent stress in physical and computational space, where the physical space is covered by an anisotropic mesh and the computational space is isotropic. The resulting model is successfully tested for rotating homogeneous isotropic turbulence and rotating plane-channel flows. The research was largely carried out during the CTR SP 2016. M.S, and R.V. acknowledge the financial support to attend this Summer Program.
Dynamics of turbulent western-boundary currents at low latitude in a shallow-water model
Akuetevi, C. Q. C.; Wirth, A.
2015-06-01
The dynamics of low latitude turbulent western-boundary currents (WBCs) crossing the Equator are considered using numerical results from integrations of a reduced-gravity shallow-water model. For viscosity values of 1000 m2 s-1 and greater, the boundary layer dynamics compares well to the analytical Munk-layer solution. When the viscosity is reduced, the boundary layer becomes turbulent and coherent structures in the form of anticyclonic eddies, bursts (violent detachments of the viscous sub-layer, VSL) and dipoles appear. Three distinct boundary layers emerge, the VSL, the advective boundary layer and the extended boundary layer. The first is characterized by a dominant vorticity balance between the viscous transport and the advective transport of vorticity; the second by a balance between the advection of planetary vorticity and the advective transport of relative vorticity. The extended boundary layer is the area to which turbulent motion from the boundary extends. The scaling of the three boundary layer thicknesses with viscosity is evaluated. Characteristic scales of the dynamics and dissipation are determined. A pragmatic approach to determine the eddy viscosity diagnostically for coarse-resolution numerical models is proposed.
Dynamics of turbulent western boundary currents at low latitude in a shallow water model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Q. C. Akuetevi
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The dynamics of low latitude turbulent western boundary currents crossing the equator is considered using numerical results from integrations of a reduced gravity shallow-water model. For viscosity values of 1000 m2 s−1 and more, the boundary layer dynamics compares well to the analytical Munk-layer solution. When the viscosity is reduced, the boundary layer becomes turbulent and coherent structures in form of anticyclonic eddies, bursts (violent detachments of the viscous sub-layer and dipoles appear. Three distinct boundary layers emerge, the viscous sub-layer, the advective boundary layer and the extended boundary layer. The first is characterized by a dominant vorticity balance between the viscous transport and the advective transport of vorticity. The second by a balance between the advection of planetary vorticity and the advective transport of relative vorticity. The extended boundary layer is the area to which turbulent motion from the boundary extends. The scaling of the three boundary layer thicknesses with viscosity is evaluated. Characteristic scales of the dynamics and dissipation are determined. A pragmatic approach to determine the eddy viscosity diagnostically for coarse resolution numerical models is proposed.
Dynamics of turbulent western boundary currents at low latitude in a shallow water model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Q. C. Akuetevi
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The dynamics of low latitude turbulent western boundary currents, subject to two different types of idealized wind forcing, Monsoon Wind and Trade Wind, is considered using numerical results from integrations of a reduced gravity shallow-water model. For viscosity values of 1000 m2 s−1 and above, the boundary layer dynamics compares well to the analytical solutions of the Munk-layer and the inertial-layer, derived from quasigeostrophic theory. Modifications due to variations in the layer thickness (vortex stretching are only important close to the boundary. When the viscosity is reduced the boundary layer becomes turbulent and coherent structures in form of anticyclonic eddies, bursts (violent detachments of the viscous sub-layer and dipoles appear. Three distinct boundary layers emerge, the viscous sub-layer, the advective boundary layer and the extended boundary layer. The first is characterized by a dominant vorticity balance between the viscous transport and the advective transport of vorticity. The second by a balance between the advection of planetary vorticity and the advective transport of relative vorticity. The extended boundary layer is the area to which turbulent motion from the boundary extends. The scaling of the three boundary layer thicknesses with viscosity is evaluated. A pragmatic approach to determine the eddy viscosity diagnostically for coarse resolution numerical models is proposed.
A Nonlinear k-ε Turbulence Model Applicable to High Pressure Gradient and Large Curvature Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiyao Gu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Most of the RANS turbulence models solve the Reynolds stress by linear hypothesis with isotropic model. They can not capture all kinds of vortexes in the turbomachineries. In this paper, an improved nonlinear k-ε turbulence model is proposed, which is modified from the RNG k-ε turbulence model and Wilcox's k-ω turbulence model. The Reynolds stresses are solved by nonlinear methods. The nonlinear k-ε turbulence model can calculate the near wall region without the use of wall functions. The improved nonlinear k-ε turbulence model is used to simulate the flow field in a curved rectangular duct. The results based on the improved nonlinear k-ε turbulence model agree well with the experimental results. The calculation results prove that the nonlinear k-ε turbulence model is available for high pressure gradient flows and large curvature flows, and it can be used to capture complex vortexes in a turbomachinery.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laurence, D. [Electricite de France (EDF), Direction des Etudes et Recherches, Laboratoire Nationale d`Hydraulique, B.P. 49, 78401 Chatou cedex (France)
1997-12-31
The k-{epsilon} model and Reynolds stress transport model are set out in a few words. Limitations of models are shown, particularly for turbulence generation in the turbulent viscosity context, and, more generally, the uncertainties and miscellaneous changes made to the dissipation equation. The performances of models are then compared, using results of the three latest ERCOFTA/IAHR workshops. It is shown that algebraic constraints which can be derived exactly by assuming asymptotic limits (rapid distortion, homogeneous shear at infinite time, 2D turbulence) have inhibited a better tuning of the models for real life flow where these limits are not encountered. A more pragmatic approach could be taken by allowing the constants to be functions of invariant parameters. But these functions, making the models non-linear, can lead to bifurcations or instability. One essential parameter is the distance to the wall, which recent models have tried to eliminate, although this parameter appears indirectly through the Poisson equation for the fluctuating pressure. A possible indirect model is the elliptic relaxation. Progress was recently achieved in near-wall low Re modelling, but these advances do not always result in benefits to industry since only the `wall function` approaches can be used in the high Re, 3D flows that we need to study. With the knowledge gained from near-wall modelling, it might be profitable to revisit the `wall functions` devised 20 years ago. (author). 41 refs.
Norscini, C.; Ghendrih, P.; Cartier-Michaud, T.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Milelli, D.; Sarazin, Y.; Abiteboul, J.; Estève, D.; Garbet, X.; Grandgirard, V.; Latu, G.
2014-11-01
When modeling plasma turbulence, two different means of driving the system out of equilibrium are considered. On one hand, flux driven (FD) approaches are based on the idea that no scale separation can be assumed in a turbulent system. On the other hand, gradient driven (GD) approaches rely on the idea that the back-reaction of fluctuations on the mean profiles is not a critical ingredient for turbulence self-organization and saturation. We find that FD and GD systems strongly differ in regimes close to marginal stability. The characteristic non linear upshift is recovered in GD simulations but no comparable behavior is possible in FD case. Discrepancy between the various analysis in terms of diffusion and pinch velocities and between the models is also discussed.
Pittard, J M; Hartquist, T W; Dyson, J E
2008-01-01
The interaction of a shock with a cloud has been extensively studied in the literature, where the effects of magnetic fields, radiative cooling and thermal conduction have been considered. However, the formation of fully developed turbulence has often been prevented by the artificial viscosity inherent in hydrodynamical simulations, and a uniform post-shock flow has been assumed in all previous single-cloud studies. In reality, the flow behind the shock is also likely to be turbulent, with non-uniform density, pressure and velocity structure created as the shock sweeps over inhomogenities upstream of the cloud. To address these twin issues we use a sub-grid compressible k-epsilon turbulence model to estimate the properties of the turbulence generated in shock-cloud interactions and the resulting increase in the transport coefficients that the turbulence brings. A detailed comparison with the output from an inviscid hydrodynamical code puts these new results into context. We find that cloud destruction in invi...
Plasma transport simulation modeling for helical confinement systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamazaki, K.; Amano, T.
1991-08-01
New empirical and theoretical transport models for helical confinement systems are developed based on the neoclassical transport theory including the effect of radial electric field and multi-helicity magnetic components, and the drift wave turbulence transport for electrostatic and electromagnetic modes, or the anomalous semi-empirical transport. These electron thermal diffusivities are compared with CHS (Compact Helical System) experimental data, which indicates that the central transport coefficient of the ECH plasma agrees with the neoclassical axi-symmetric value and the transport outside the half radius is anomalous. On the other hand, the transport of NBI-heated plasmas is anomalous in the whole plasma region. This anomaly is not explained by the electrostatic drift wave turbulence models in these flat-density-profile discharges. For the detailed prediction of plasma parameters in LHD (Large Helical Device), 3-D(dimensional) equilibrium/1-D transport simulations including empirical or drift wave turbulence models are carried out, which suggests that the global confinement time of LHD is determined mainly by the electron anomalous transport near the plasma edge region rather than the helical ripple transport in the core region. Even if the ripple loss can be eliminated, the increase of the global confinement is 10%. However, the rise in the central ion temperature is more than 20%. If the anomalous loss can be reduced to the half level of the present scaling, like so-called `H-mode` of the tokamak discharge, the neoclassical ripple loss through the ion channel becomes important even in the plasma core. The 5% radial inward shift of the plasma column with respect to the major radius is effective for improving plasma confinement and raising more than 50% of the fusion product by reducing this neoclassical asymmetric ion transport loss and increasing 10% in the plasma radius. (author).
Constructive modelling of structural turbulence: computational experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belotserkovskii, O M; Oparin, A M; Troshkin, O V [Institute for Computer Aided Design, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vtoraya Brestskaya st., 19/18, Moscow, 123056 (Russian Federation); Chechetkin, V M [Keldysh Institute for Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miusskaya sq., 4, Moscow, 125047 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: o.bel@icad.org.ru, E-mail: a.oparin@icad.org.ru, E-mail: troshkin@icad.org.ru, E-mail: chech@gin@keldysh.ru
2008-12-15
Constructively, the analysis of the phenomenon of turbulence must and can be performed through direct numerical simulations of mechanics supposed to be inherent to secondary flows. This one reveals itself through such instances as large vortices, structural instabilities, vortex cascades and principal modes discussed in this paper. Like fragments of a puzzle, they speak of a motion ordered with its own nuts and bolts, however chaotic it appears at first sight. This opens an opportunity for a multi-oriented approach of which a prime ideology seems to be a rational combination of grid, spectral and statistical methods. An attempt is made to bring together the above instances and produce an alternative point of view on the phenomenon in question when based on the main laws of conservation.
Iterative solvers for Navier-Stokes equations: Experiments with turbulence model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Page, M. [IREQ - Institut de Recherche d`Hydro-Quebec, Varennes (Canada); Garon, A. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal (Canada)
1994-12-31
In the framework of developing software for the prediction of flows in hydraulic turbine components, Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled with {kappa}-{omega} two-equation turbulence model are discretized by finite element method. Since the resulting matrices are large, sparse and nonsymmetric, strategies based on CG-type iterative methods must be devised. A segregated solution strategy decouples the momentum equation, the {kappa} transport equation and the {omega} transport equation. These sets of equations must be solved while satisfying constraint equations. Experiments with orthogonal projection method are presented for the imposition of essential boundary conditions in a weak sense.
A compressible near-wall turbulence model for boundary layer calculations
So, R. M. C.; Zhang, H. S.; Lai, Y. G.
1992-01-01
A compressible near-wall two-equation model is derived by relaxing the assumption of dynamical field similarity between compressible and incompressible flows. This requires justifications for extending the incompressible models to compressible flows and the formulation of the turbulent kinetic energy equation in a form similar to its incompressible counterpart. As a result, the compressible dissipation function has to be split into a solenoidal part, which is not sensitive to changes of compressibility indicators, and a dilational part, which is directly affected by these changes. This approach isolates terms with explicit dependence on compressibility so that they can be modeled accordingly. An equation that governs the transport of the solenoidal dissipation rate with additional terms that are explicitly dependent on the compressibility effects is derived similarly. A model with an explicit dependence on the turbulent Mach number is proposed for the dilational dissipation rate. Thus formulated, all near-wall incompressible flow models could be expressed in terms of the solenoidal dissipation rate and straight-forwardly extended to compressible flows. Therefore, the incompressible equations are recovered correctly in the limit of constant density. The two-equation model and the assumption of constant turbulent Prandtl number are used to calculate compressible boundary layers on a flat plate with different wall thermal boundary conditions and free-stream Mach numbers. The calculated results, including the near-wall distributions of turbulence statistics and their limiting behavior, are in good agreement with measurements. In particular, the near-wall asymptotic properties are found to be consistent with incompressible behavior; thus suggesting that turbulent flows in the viscous sublayer are not much affected by compressibility effects.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baudoin, C.; Tamain, P.; Ciraolo, G.; Futtersack, R.; Gallo, A.; Ghendrih, P.; Nace, N.; Norscini, C. [CEA, IRFM, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Marandet, Y. [Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS, PIIM, UMR 7345, Marseille (France)
2016-08-15
In this paper we study the impact of electron temperature fluctuations in a two-dimensional turbulent model. This modification adds a second linear instability, known as sheath-driven conducting-wall instability, with respect to the previous isothermal model only driven by the interchange instability. Non-linear simulations, backed up by the linear analysis, show that the additional mechanism can change drastically the dynamics of turbulence (scales, density-potential correlation, and statistical momentum). Moreover, its importance relatively to the interchange instability should be more significant in the private flux region than in the main scrape of layer. Its effect on heat transport is also investigated for different regimes of parameters, results show that both instabilities are at play in the heat transport. Finally, the sheath negative resistance instability could be responsible for the existence of corrugated heat flux profiles in the scrape-off layer leading to a multiple decay length. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Modelling of Turbulent Nonpremixed CH4／H2 Flame Using Second-Moment Turbulence Closure Models
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李国岫
2005-01-01
Turbulent nonpremixed CH4/H2 flame has been simulated using several typical differential secondmoment turbulence closure (SMTC) models. To clarify the applicability of the various models, the LRR-IP model,JM model, SSG model as well as two modified LRR-IP models were tested. Some of above-mentioned SMTC models cannot provide the overall satisfactory predictions of this challenging case. It is confirmed again that the standard LRR-IP model considerably overpredict the centerline velocity decay rate, and therefore performs not well. Also it is interesting to observe that the JM model does not perform well in this challenging test case, although it has already been proved successful in other cases. The SSG model produces quite satisfactory prediction and performs equally well or better than the two modified LRR-IP models in the reacting case. It can be concluded that the modified LRR-IP models as well as the SSG model are superior to the other SMTC models in the turbulent nonpremixed CH4/H2 flame.
Modeling H2 formation in the turbulent ISM: Solenoidal versus compressive turbulent forcing
Milosavljevic, Milica; Federrath, Christoph; Klessen, Ralf S
2011-01-01
We present results from high-resolution three-dimensional simulations of the turbulent interstellar medium that study the influence of the nature of the turbulence on the formation of molecular hydrogen. We have examined both solenoidal (divergence-free) and compressive (curl-free) turbulent driving, and show that compressive driving leads to faster H2 formation, owing to the higher peak densities produced in the gas. The difference in the H2 formation rate can be as much as an order of magnitude at early times, but declines at later times as the highest density regions become fully molecular and stop contributing to the total H2 formation rate. We have also used our results to test a simple prescription suggested by Gnedin et al. (2009) for modeling the influence of unresolved density fluctuations on the H2 formation rate in large-scale simulations of the ISM. We find that this approach works well when the H2 fraction is small, but breaks down once the highest density gas becomes fully molecular.
Dynamics of ion temperature gradient turbulence and transport with a static magnetic island
Izacard, Olivier; Holland, Christopher; James, Spencer D.; Brennan, Dylan P.
2016-02-01
Understanding the interaction mechanisms between large-scale magnetohydrodynamic instabilities and small-scale drift-wave microturbulence is essential for predicting and optimizing the performance of magnetic confinement based fusion energy experiments. We report progress on understanding these interactions using both analytic theory and numerical simulations performed with the BOUT++ [Dudson et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 180, 1467 (2009)] framework. This work focuses upon the dynamics of the ion temperature gradient instability in the presence of a background static magnetic island, using a weakly electromagnetic two-dimensional five-field fluid model. It is found that the island width must exceed a threshold size (comparable with the turbulent correlation length in the no-island limit) to significantly impact the turbulence dynamics, with the primary impact being an increase in turbulent fluctuation and heat flux amplitudes. The turbulent radial ion energy flux is shown to localize near the X-point, but does so asymmetrically in the poloidal dimension. An effective turbulent resistivity which acts upon the island outer layer is also calculated and shown to always be significantly (10×-100×) greater than the collisional resistivity used in the simulations.
Consalvi, Jean-Louis
2017-01-01
The time-averaged Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) introduces two unclosed terms, known as `absorption Turbulence Radiation Interaction (TRI)' and `emission TRI'. Emission TRI is related to the non-linear coupling between fluctuations of the absorption coefficient and fluctuations of the Planck function and can be described without introduction any approximation by using a transported PDF method. In this study, a hybrid flamelet/ Stochastic Eulerian Field Model is used to solve the transport equation of the one-point one-time PDF. In this formulation, the steady laminar flamelet model (SLF) is coupled to a joint Probability Density Function (PDF) of mixture fraction, enthalpy defect, scalar dissipation rate, and soot quantities and the PDF transport equation is solved by using a Stochastic Eulerian Field (SEF) method. Soot production is modeled by a semi-empirical model and the spectral dependence of the radiatively participating species, namely combustion products and soot, are computed by using a Narrow Band Correlated-k (NBCK) model. The model is applied to simulate an ethylene/methane turbulent jet flame burning in an oxygen-enriched environment. Model results are compared with the experiments and the effects of taken into account Emission TRI on flame structure, soot production and radiative loss are discussed.
Klewicki, J. C.; Chini, G. P.; Gibson, J. F.
2017-01-01
Recent and on-going advances in mathematical methods and analysis techniques, coupled with the experimental and computational capacity to capture detailed flow structure at increasingly large Reynolds numbers, afford an unprecedented opportunity to develop realistic models of high Reynolds number turbulent wall-flow dynamics. A distinctive attribute of this new generation of models is their grounding in the Navier–Stokes equations. By adhering to this challenging constraint, high-fidelity models ultimately can be developed that not only predict flow properties at high Reynolds numbers, but that possess a mathematical structure that faithfully captures the underlying flow physics. These first-principles models are needed, for example, to reliably manipulate flow behaviours at extreme Reynolds numbers. This theme issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A provides a selection of contributions from the community of researchers who are working towards the development of such models. Broadly speaking, the research topics represented herein report on dynamical structure, mechanisms and transport; scale interactions and self-similarity; model reductions that restrict nonlinear interactions; and modern asymptotic theories. In this prospectus, the challenges associated with modelling turbulent wall-flows at large Reynolds numbers are briefly outlined, and the connections between the contributing papers are highlighted. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number’. PMID:28167585
Turbulent transport regimes and the scrape-off layer heat flux width
Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.; Russell, D. A.
2015-04-01
Understanding the responsible mechanisms and resulting scaling of the scrape-off layer (SOL) heat flux width is important for predicting viable operating regimes in future tokamaks and for seeking possible mitigation schemes. In this paper, we present a qualitative and conceptual framework for understanding various regimes of edge/SOL turbulence and the role of turbulent transport as the mechanism for establishing the SOL heat flux width. Relevant considerations include the type and spectral characteristics of underlying instabilities, the location of the gradient drive relative to the SOL, the nonlinear saturation mechanism, and the parallel heat transport regime. We find a heat flux width scaling with major radius R that is generally positive, consistent with the previous findings [Connor et al., Nucl. Fusion 39, 169 (1999)]. The possible relationship of turbulence mechanisms to the neoclassical orbit width or heuristic drift mechanism in core energy confinement regimes known as low (L) mode and high (H) mode is considered, together with implications for the future experiments.
Investigation of turbulent transport and shear flows in the Edge of toroidal plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Birkenmeier, G.; Koehn, A.; Manz, P.; Nold, B.; Stroth, U. [Institut fuer Plasmaforschung, Universitaet Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Happel, T. [Lab. Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Mahdizadeh, N. [ABB Switzerland Ltd. Corporate Research, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland); Wilcox, R.; Anderson, D.T. [HSX Plasma Lab., University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Ramisch, M.
2010-08-15
Intense Langmuir-probe measurements were carried out in the toroidal low-temperature plasma of the torsatron TJ-K in order to investigate the origin and dynamics of intermittent transport events, so-called blobs, at the transition from closed to open field lines. The statistical properties of the fluctuations at the plasma boundary agree with observations made in fusion edge plasmas. Blobs were found to be generated locally through a change in turbulence drive across the separatrix. The non-linear spectral energy transfer from small-scale fluctuations into large-scale flows was measured with a 128-probe array. The results point to the transfer being a key loss channel for turbulence energy leading to a reduction in turbulent transport. Earlier observations[M.A. Pedrosa et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 215003 (2008)] of enhanced long-range correlations in the plasma potential through externally induced shear flows in TJ-II stellarator were verified. The newly measured correlation of zonal vorticity and Reynolds stress at induced flow shear indicates an enhancement of zonal-flow drive (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Kawata, Takuya; Alfredsson, P. Henrik
2016-07-01
Plane Couette flow under spanwise, anticyclonic system rotation [rotating plane Couette flow (RPCF)] is studied experimentally using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry for different Reynolds and rotation numbers in the fully turbulent regime. Similar to the laminar regime, the turbulent flow in RPCF is characterized by roll cells, however both instantaneous snapshots of the velocity field and space correlations show that the roll cell structure varies with the rotation number. All three velocity components are measured and both the mean flow and all four nonzero Reynolds stresses are obtained across the central parts of the channel. This also allows us to determine the wall shear stress from the viscous stress and the Reynolds stress in the center of the channel, and for low rotation rates the wall shear stress increases with increasing rotation rate as expected. The results show that zero absolute vorticity is established in the central parts of the channel of turbulent RPCF for high enough rotation rates, but also that the mean velocity profile for certain parameter ranges shows an S shape giving rise to a negative velocity gradient in the center of the channel. We find that from an analysis of the Reynolds stress transport equation using the present data there is a transport of the Reynolds shear stress towards the center of the channel, which may then result in a negative mean velocity gradient there.
X-33 Metal Model Testing In Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel
1997-01-01
The countrys next generation of space transportation, a reusable launch vehicle (RLV), continues to undergo wind tunnel testing at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. All four photos are a metal model of the X-33 reusable launch vehicle (about 15 inches long by 15 inches wide) being tested for Lockheed Martin Skunk Works in the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) at NASA Langley Research Center. Tests are being conducted by members of the Aerothermodynamics Branch. According to Kelly Murphy of Langleys Aerothermodynamics Branch, the aluminum and stainless steel model of the X-33 underwent aerodynamic testing in the tunnel. *The subsonic tests were conducted at the speed of Mach 25,* she said. *Force and moment testing and measurement in this tunnel lasted about one week.* Future testing of the metal model is scheduled for Langleys 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel, from the end of March to mid-April 1997, and the Unitary Wind Tunnel, from mid-April to the beginning of May. Other tunnel testing for X-33 models are scheduled from the present through June in the hypersonic tunnels, and the 14- by 22-Foot Tunnel from about mid-June to mid-July. Since 1991 Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. has been the lead center for coordinating the Agencys X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Program, an industry-led effort, which NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin has declared the agency's highest priority new program. The RLV Technology Program is a partnership among NASA, the United States Air Force and private industry to develop world leadership in low-cost space transportation. The goal of the program is to develop technologies and new operational concepts that can radically reduce the cost of access to space. The RLV program also hopes to speed the commercialization of space and improve U.S. economic competitiveness by making access to space as routine and reliable as today's airline industry, while reducing costs and enhancing safety and reliability. The RLV
A marketing mix model for a complex and turbulent environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. B. Mason
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose: This paper is based on the proposition that the choice of marketing tactics is determined, or at least significantly influenced, by the nature of the companys external environment. It aims to illustrate the type of marketing mix tactics that are suggested for a complex and turbulent environment when marketing and the environment are viewed through a chaos and complexity theory lens. Design/Methodology/Approach: Since chaos and complexity theories are proposed as a good means of understanding the dynamics of complex and turbulent markets, a comprehensive review and analysis of literature on the marketing mix and marketing tactics from a chaos and complexity viewpoint was conducted. From this literature review, a marketing mix model was conceptualised.Findings: A marketing mix model considered appropriate for success in complex and turbulent environments was developed. In such environments, the literature suggests destabilising marketing activities are more effective, whereas stabilising type activities are more effective in simple, stable environments. Therefore the model proposes predominantly destabilising type tactics as appropriate for a complex and turbulent environment such as is currently being experienced in South Africa. Implications: This paper is of benefit to marketers by emphasising a new way to consider the future marketing activities of their companies. How this model can assist marketers and suggestions for research to develop and apply this model are provided. It is hoped that the model suggested will form the basis of empirical research to test its applicability in the turbulent South African environment. Originality/Value: Since businesses and markets are complex adaptive systems, using complexity theory to understand how to cope in complex, turbulent environments is necessary, but has not been widely researched. In fact, most chaos and complexity theory work in marketing has concentrated on marketing strategy, with
New DNS and modeling results for turbulent pipe flow
Johansson, Arne; El Khoury, George; Grundestam, Olof; Schlatter, Philipp; Brethouwer, Geert; Linne Flow Centre Team
2013-11-01
The near-wall region of turbulent pipe and channel flows (as well as zero-pressure gradient boundary layers) have been shown to exhibit a very high degree of similarity in terms of all statistical moments and many other features, while even the mean velocity profile in the two cases exhibits significant differences between in the outer region. The wake part of the profile, i.e. the deviation from the log-law, in the outer region is of substantially larger amplitude in pipe flow as compared to channel flow (although weaker than in boundary layer flow). This intriguing feature has been well known but has no simple explanation. Model predictions typically give identical results for the two flows. We have analyzed a new set of DNS for pipe and channel flows (el Khoury et al. 2013, Flow, Turbulence and Combustion) for friction Reynolds numbers up to 1000 and made comparing calculations with differential Reynolds stress models (DRSM). We have strong indications that the key factor behind the difference in mean velocity in the outer region can be coupled to differences in the turbulent diffusion in this region. This is also supported by DRSM results, where interesting differences are seen depending on the sophistication of modeling the turbulent diffusion coefficient.
The study of PDF turbulence models in combustion
Hsu, Andrew T.
1991-01-01
In combustion computations, it is known that the predictions of chemical reaction rates are poor if conventional turbulence models are used. The probability density function (pdf) method seems to be the only alternative that uses local instantaneous values of the temperature, density, etc., in predicting chemical reaction rates, and thus is the only viable approach for more accurate turbulent combustion calculations. The fact that the pdf equation has a very large dimensionality renders finite difference schemes extremely demanding on computer memories and thus impractical. A logical alternative is the Monte Carlo scheme. Since CFD has a certain maturity as well as acceptance, it seems that the use of a combined CFD and Monte Carlo scheme is more beneficial. Therefore, a scheme is chosen that uses a conventional CFD flow solver in calculating the flow field properties such as velocity, pressure, etc., while the chemical reaction part is solved using a Monte Carlo scheme. The discharge of a heated turbulent plane jet into quiescent air was studied. Experimental data for this problem shows that when the temperature difference between the jet and the surrounding air is small, buoyancy effect can be neglected and the temperature can be treated as a passive scalar. The fact that jet flows have a self-similar solution lends convenience in the modeling study. Futhermore, the existence of experimental data for turbulent shear stress and temperature variance make the case ideal for the testing of pdf models wherein these values can be directly evaluated.
On the modeling of wave-enhanced turbulence nearshore
Moghimi, Saeed; Thomson, Jim; Özkan-Haller, Tuba; Umlauf, Lars; Zippel, Seth
2016-07-01
A high resolution k-ω two-equation turbulence closure model, including surface wave forcing was employed to fully resolve turbulence dissipation rate profiles close to the ocean surface. Model results were compared with observations from Surface Wave Instrument Floats with Tracking (SWIFTs) in the nearshore region at New River Inlet, North Carolina USA, in June 2012. A sensitivity analysis for different physical parameters and wave and turbulence formulations was performed. The flux of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) prescribed by wave dissipation from a numerical wave model was compared with the conventional prescription using the wind friction velocity. A surface roughness length of 0.6 times the significant wave height was proposed, and the flux of TKE was applied at a distance below the mean sea surface that is half of this roughness length. The wave enhanced layer had a total depth that is almost three times the significant wave height. In this layer the non-dimensionalized Terray scaling with power of - 1.8 (instead of - 2) was applicable.
Modeling of Fine-Particle Formation in Turbulent Flames
Raman, Venkat; Fox, Rodney O.
2016-01-01
The generation of nanostructured particles in high-temperature flames is important both for the control of emissions from combustion devices and for the synthesis of high-value chemicals for a variety of applications. The physiochemical processes that lead to the production of fine particles in turbulent flames are highly sensitive to the flow physics and, in particular, the history of thermochemical compositions and turbulent features they encounter. Consequently, it is possible to change the characteristic size, structure, composition, and yield of the fine particles by altering the flow configuration. This review describes the complex multiscale interactions among turbulent fluid flow, gas-phase chemical reactions, and solid-phase particle evolution. The focus is on modeling the generation of soot particles, an unwanted pollutant from automobile and aircraft engines, as well as metal oxides, a class of high-value chemicals sought for specialized applications, including emissions control. Issues arising due to the numerical methods used to approximate the particle number density function, the modeling of turbulence-chemistry interactions, and model validation are also discussed.
Subgrid-scale model for radiative transfer in turbulent participating media
Soucasse, L.; Rivière, Ph.; Soufiani, A.
2014-01-01
The simulation of turbulent flows of radiating gases, taking into account all turbulence length scales with an accurate radiation transport solver, is computationally prohibitive for high Reynolds or Rayleigh numbers. This is particularly the case when the small structures are not optically thin. We develop in this paper a radiative transfer subgrid model suitable for the coupling with direct numerical simulations of turbulent radiating fluid flows. Owing to the linearity of the Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE), the emission source term is spatially filtered to define large-scale and subgrid-scale radiation intensities. The large-scale or filtered intensity is computed with a standard ray tracing method on a coarse grid, and the subgrid intensity is obtained analytically (in Fourier space) from the Fourier transform of the subgrid emission source term. A huge saving of computational time is obtained in comparison with direct ray tracing applied on the fine mesh. Model accuracy is checked for three 3D fluctuating temperature fields. The first field is stochastically generated and allows us to discuss the effects of the filtering level and of the optical thicknesses of the whole medium, of the integral length scale, and of the cutoff wave length. The second and third cases correspond respectively to turbulent natural convection of humid air in a cubical box, and to the flow of hot combustion products inside a channel. In all cases, the achieved accuracy on radiative powers and wall fluxes is about a few percents.
Development of a recursion RNG-based turbulence model
Zhou, YE; Vahala, George; Thangam, S.
1993-01-01
Reynolds stress closure models based on the recursion renormalization group theory are developed for the prediction of turbulent separated flows. The proposed model uses a finite wavenumber truncation scheme to account for the spectral distribution of energy. In particular, the model incorporates effects of both local and nonlocal interactions. The nonlocal interactions are shown to yield a contribution identical to that from the epsilon-renormalization group (RNG), while the local interactions introduce higher order dispersive effects. A formal analysis of the model is presented and its ability to accurately predict separated flows is analyzed from a combined theoretical and computational stand point. Turbulent flow past a backward facing step is chosen as a test case and the results obtained based on detailed computations demonstrate that the proposed recursion -RNG model with finite cut-off wavenumber can yield very good predictions for the backstep problem.
Refined Turbulence Modeling for Swirl Velocity in Turbomachinery Seals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Namhyo Kim
2003-01-01
Full Text Available A generalized new form of the rotation-sensitive source term coefficient previously proposed by Bardina and colleagues as an extension of the standard k-ε turbulence model was developed. The proposal made by Bardina and colleagues focused on rotating flows without significant turbulence generation, and the result was a negative-valued constant coefficient. The new functional form developed here for the coefficient has global as well as local dependence. The new model predictions of laser Doppler anemometry measurements of swirling flows in labyrinth seals were compared with the swirl distribution measurements and with the standard k-ε model (i.e., no rotation source term predictions. It was found that for the labyrinth seal cases for which detailed measurements are available, the standard k-ε model gives unsatisfactory predictions, whereas the new model gives significantly improved predictions.
Experimental Investigation of Active Feedback Control of Turbulent Transport in a Magnetized Plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gilmore, Mark Allen [University of New Mexico
2013-07-07
A new and unique basic plasma science laboratory device - the HelCat device (HELicon-CAThode) - has been constructed and is operating at the University of New Mexico. HelCat is a 4 m long, 0.5 m diameter device, with magnetic field up to 2.2 kG, that has two independent plasmas sources - an RF helicon source, and a thermionic cathode. These two sources, which can operate independently or simultaneously, are capable of producing plasmas with a wide range of parameters and turbulence characteristics, well suited to a variety of basic plasma physics experiments. An extensive set of plasma diagnostics is also operating. Experiments investigating the active feedback control of turbulent transport of particles and heat via electrode biasing to affect plasma ExB flows are underway, and ongoing.
Interstellar Turbulence II: Implications and Effects
Scalo, J
2004-01-01
Interstellar turbulence has implications for the dispersal and mixing of the elements, cloud chemistry, cosmic ray scattering, and radio wave propagation through the ionized medium. This review discusses the observations and theory of these effects. Metallicity fluctuations are summarized, and the theory of turbulent transport of passive tracers is reviewed. Modeling methods, turbulent concentration of dust grains, and the turbulent washout of radial abundance gradients are discussed. Interstellar chemistry is affected by turbulent transport of various species between environments with different physical properties and by turbulent heating in shocks, vortical dissipation regions, and local regions of enhanced ambipolar diffusion. Cosmic rays are scattered and accelerated in turbulent magnetic waves and shocks, and they generate turbulence on the scale of their gyroradii. Radio wave scintillation is an important diagnostic for small scale turbulence in the ionized medium, giving information about the power spe...
Non-Gaussian PDF Modeling of Turbulent Boundary Layer Fluctuating Pressure Excitation
Steinwolf, Alexander; Rizzi, Stephen A.
2003-01-01
The purpose of the study is to investigate properties of the probability density function (PDF) of turbulent boundary layer fluctuating pressures measured on the exterior of a supersonic transport aircraft. It is shown that fluctuating pressure PDFs differ from the Gaussian distribution even for surface conditions having no significant discontinuities. The PDF tails are wider and longer than those of the Gaussian model. For pressure fluctuations upstream of forward-facing step discontinuities and downstream of aft-facing step discontinuities, deviations from the Gaussian model are more significant and the PDFs become asymmetrical. Various analytical PDF distributions are used and further developed to model this behavior.
Guo, Xiaofeng; Yang, Ting; Sun, Yele
2015-08-01
Based on observations at the heights of 140 and 280 m on the Beijing 325-m meteorological tower, this study presents an assessment of the averaging period effects on eddy-covariance measurements of the momentum/scalar flux and transport efficiency during wintertime haze pollution. The study period, namely from January 6 to February 28 2013, is divided into different episodes of particulate pollution, as featured by varied amounts of the turbulent exchange and conditions of the atmospheric stability. Overall, turbulent fluxes of the momentum and scalars (heat, water vapor, and CO2) increase with the averaging period, namely from 5, 15, and 30 up to 60 min, an outcome most evident during the `transient' episodes (each lasting for 2-3 days, i.e., preceded and followed by clean-air days with mean concentrations of PM1 less than 40 μg m-3). The conventional choice of 30 min is deemed to be appropriate for calculating the momentum flux and its transport efficiency. By comparison, scalar fluxes and their transport efficiencies appear more sensitive to the choice of an averaging period, particularly at the upper level (i.e., 280 m). It is presupposed that, for urban environments, calculating the momentum and scalar fluxes could invoke separate averaging periods, rather than relying on a single prescription (e.g., 30 min). Furthermore, certain characteristics of urban turbulence are found less sensitive to the choice of an averaging period, such as the relationship between the heat-to-momentum transport efficiency and the local stability parameter.
An improved turbulence model for separation flow in a centrifugal pump
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yun Ren
2016-06-01
Full Text Available For the stable and reliable operation of centrifugal pump, the transient flow must be studied and the separation region should be avoided. Three-dimensional, incompressible, steady, and transient flows in a centrifugal pump at specific speed within 74 were numerically studied using shear stress transport k-ω turbulence model, and an improved explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model–rotation-curvature turbulence model was proposed by considering the effects of rotation and curvature in the impeller passages in this work. Steady and transient computations were conducted to compare with the experiments. The comparison of pump hydraulic performance showed that the explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model–rotation-curvature turbulence model was better than the original model, especially between 0.6QBEP and 1.2QBEP; the improved model could enhance the head prediction of pump by about 1%–7% than that with the original model. Then, the visualization of the vortex evolution was observed to validate the unsteady simulations. Good agreement was investigated between calculations and visualizations. It is indicated that the explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model–rotation-curvature model can successfully capture the separation flow.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horton, W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Hu, G. [Globalstar LP, San Jose, CA (United States)
1998-07-01
The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates.
Initial Conditions and Modeling for Shock Driven Turbulence
Grinstein, Fernando
2016-11-01
We focus on the simulation of shock-driven material mixing driven by flow instabilities and initial conditions. Beyond complex multi-scale resolution of shocks and variable density turbulence, me must address the equally difficult problem of predicting flow transition promoted by energy deposited at the material interfacial layer during the shock interface interactions. Transition involves unsteady large-scale coherent-structure dynamics which can be captured by LES, but not by URANS based on equilibrium turbulence assumptions and single-point-closure modeling. Such URANS is frequently preferred on the engineering end of computation capabilities for full-scale configurations - and with reduced 1D/2D dimensionality being also a common aspect. With suitable initialization around each transition - e.g., reshock, URANS can be used to simulate the subsequent near-equilibrium weakly turbulent flow. We demonstrate 3D state-of-the-art URANS performance in one such flow regime. We simulate the CEA planar shock-tube experiments by Poggi et al. (1998) with an ILES strategy. Laboratory turbulence and mixing data are used to benchmark ILES. In turn, the ILES generated data is used to initialize and as reference to assess state-of-the-art 3D URANS. We find that by prescribing physics-based 3D initial conditions and allowing for 3D flow convection with just enough resolution, the additionally computed dissipation in 3D URANS effectively blends with the modeled dissipation to yield significantly improved statistical predictions.
Multiscale Turbulence Models Based on Convected Fluid Microstructure
Holm, Darryl D
2012-01-01
The Euler-Poincar\\'e approach to complex fluids is used to derive multiscale equations for computationally modelling Euler flows as a basis for modelling turbulence. The model is based on a \\emph{kinematic sweeping ansatz} (KSA) which assumes that the mean fluid flow serves as a Lagrangian frame of motion for the fluctuation dynamics. Thus, we regard the motion of a fluid parcel on the computationally resolvable length scales as a moving Lagrange coordinate for the fluctuating (zero-mean) motion of fluid parcels at the unresolved scales. Even in the simplest 2-scale version on which we concentrate here, the contributions of the fluctuating motion under the KSA to the mean motion yields a system of equations that extends known results and appears to be suitable for modelling nonlinear backscatter (energy transfer from smaller to larger scales) in turbulence using multiscale methods.
Turbulence modelling of flow fields in thrust chambers
Chen, C. P.; Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.
1993-01-01
Following the consensus of a workshop in Turbulence Modelling for Liquid Rocket Thrust Chambers, the current effort was undertaken to study the effects of second-order closure on the predictions of thermochemical flow fields. To reduce the instability and computational intensity of the full second-order Reynolds Stress Model, an Algebraic Stress Model (ASM) coupled with a two-layer near wall treatment was developed. Various test problems, including the compressible boundary layer with adiabatic and cooled walls, recirculating flows, swirling flows, and the entire SSME nozzle flow were studied to assess the performance of the current model. Detailed calculations for the SSME exit wall flow around the nozzle manifold were executed. As to the overall flow predictions, the ASM removes another assumption for appropriate comparison with experimental data to account for the non-isotropic turbulence effects.
Magnetic reversals in a modified shell model for magnetohydrodynamics turbulence.
Nigro, Giuseppina; Carbone, Vincenzo
2010-07-01
The aim of the paper is the study of dynamo action using a simple nonlinear model in the framework of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The nonlinear behavior of the system is described by using a shell model for velocity field and magnetic field fluctuations, modified for the magnetic field at the largest scale by a term describing a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation. Turbulent fluctuations generate a dynamical situation where the large-scale magnetic field jumps between two states which represent the opposite polarities of the magnetic field. Despite its simplicity, the model has the capability to describe a long time series of reversals from which we infer results about the statistics of persistence times and scaling laws of cancellations between opposite polarities for different magnetic diffusivity coefficients. These properties of the model are compared with real paleomagnetic data, thus revealing the origin of long-range correlations in the process.
Magnetic moment nonconservation in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence models.
Dalena, S; Greco, A; Rappazzo, A F; Mace, R L; Matthaeus, W H
2012-07-01
The fundamental assumptions of the adiabatic theory do not apply in the presence of sharp field gradients or in the presence of well-developed magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. For this reason, in such conditions the magnetic moment μ is no longer expected to be constant. This can influence particle acceleration and have considerable implications in many astrophysical problems. Starting with the resonant interaction between ions and a single parallel propagating electromagnetic wave, we derive expressions for the magnetic moment trapping width Δμ (defined as the half peak-to-peak difference in the particle magnetic moments) and the bounce frequency ω(b). We perform test-particle simulations to investigate magnetic moment behavior when resonance overlapping occurs and during the interaction of a ring-beam particle distribution with a broadband slab spectrum. We find that the changes of magnetic moment and changes of pitch angle are related when the level of magnetic fluctuations is low, δB/B(0) = (10(-3),10(-2)), where B(0) is the constant and uniform background magnetic field. Stochasticity arises for intermediate fluctuation values and its effect on pitch angle is the isotropization of the distribution function f(α). This is a transient regime during which magnetic moment distribution f(μ) exhibits a characteristic one-sided long tail and starts to be influenced by the onset of spatial parallel diffusion, i.e., the variance grows linearly in time as in normal diffusion. With strong fluctuations f(α) becomes completely isotropic, spatial diffusion sets in, and the f(μ) behavior is closely related to the sampling of the varying magnetic field associated with that spatial diffusion.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tao Zhi; Cheng Zeyuan; Zhu Jianqin; Li Haiwang
2016-01-01
A variety of turbulence models were used to perform numerical simulations of heat transfer for hydrocarbon fuel flowing upward and downward through uniformly heated vertical pipes at supercritical pressure. Inlet temperatures varied from 373 K to 663 K, with heat flux rang-ing from 300 kW/m2 to 550 kW/m2. Comparative analyses between predicted and experimental results were used to evaluate the ability of turbulence models to respond to variable thermophys-ical properties of hydrocarbon fuel at supercritical pressure. It was found that the prediction per-formance of turbulence models is mainly determined by the damping function, which enables them to respond differently to local flow conditions. Although prediction accuracy for experimental results varied from condition to condition, the shear stress transport (SST) and launder and sharma models performed better than all other models used in the study. For very small buoyancy-influenced runs, the thermal-induced acceleration due to variations in density lead to the impairment of heat transfer occurring in the vicinity of pseudo-critical points, and heat transfer was enhanced at higher temperatures through the combined action of four thermophysical properties: density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and specific heat. For very large buoyancy-influenced runs, the thermal-induced acceleration effect was over predicted by the LS and AB models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tao Zhi
2016-10-01
Full Text Available A variety of turbulence models were used to perform numerical simulations of heat transfer for hydrocarbon fuel flowing upward and downward through uniformly heated vertical pipes at supercritical pressure. Inlet temperatures varied from 373 K to 663 K, with heat flux ranging from 300 kW/m2 to 550 kW/m2. Comparative analyses between predicted and experimental results were used to evaluate the ability of turbulence models to respond to variable thermophysical properties of hydrocarbon fuel at supercritical pressure. It was found that the prediction performance of turbulence models is mainly determined by the damping function, which enables them to respond differently to local flow conditions. Although prediction accuracy for experimental results varied from condition to condition, the shear stress transport (SST and launder and sharma models performed better than all other models used in the study. For very small buoyancy-influenced runs, the thermal-induced acceleration due to variations in density lead to the impairment of heat transfer occurring in the vicinity of pseudo-critical points, and heat transfer was enhanced at higher temperatures through the combined action of four thermophysical properties: density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and specific heat. For very large buoyancy-influenced runs, the thermal-induced acceleration effect was over predicted by the LS and AB models.
Meyers, Johan
2012-01-01
As a generalization of the mass-flux based classical stream-tube, the concept of momentum and energy transport tubes is discussed as a flow visualization tool. These transport tubes have the property, respectively, that no fluxes of momentum or energy exist over their respective tube mantles. As an example application using data from large-eddy simulation, such tubes are visualized for the mean-flow structure of turbulent flow in large wind farms, in fully developed wind-turbine-array boundary layers. The three-dimensional organization of energy transport tubes changes considerably when turbine spacings are varied, enabling the visualization of the path taken by the kinetic energy flux that is ultimately available at any given turbine within the array.
NUMERICAL SIMULATION FOR THE STEPPED SPILLWAY OVERFLOW WITH TURBULENCE MODEL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
Stepped spillways have increasingly become a very important measure for flood discharge and energy dissipation. Therefore, the velocity, pressure and other characteristics of the flow on the stepped spillway should be known clearly. But so far the study for the stepped spillway overflow is only based on the model test. In this paper, the stepped spillway overflow was simulated by the Reynolds stress turbulence model. The simulation results were analyzed and compared with measured data, which shows they are satisfactory.
An Oriented-Eddy Collision Model for Turbulence Prediction
2007-06-15
kinetic energy, K, and dissipation rate, E). There is also a hypothesized algebraic constitutive equation relating these two scalar quantities and the...elliptic relaxation ( Durbin ) have even expanded the predictive scope of these models. Nevertheless, it is well understood at this time, even by CFD users...Publisher, 1993 P.A. Durbin , Near-wall turbulence closure modeling without ’damping functions’, Theoret. Comput. Fluid Dynamics 3, 1-13, 1991. W. C
Hoffie, Andreas Frank
Large eddy simulation (LES) combined with the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model is used to simulate spatially developing turbulent reacting shear layers with high heat release and high Reynolds numbers. The LES-ODT results are compared to results from direct numerical simulations (DNS), for model development and validation purposes. The LES-ODT approach is based on LES solutions for momentum and pressure on a coarse grid and solutions for momentum and reactive scalars on a fine, one-dimensional, but three-dimensionally coupled ODT subgrid, which is embedded into the LES computational domain. Although one-dimensional, all three velocity components are transported along the ODT domain. The low-dimensional spatial and temporal resolution of the subgrid scales describe a new modeling paradigm, referred to as autonomous microstructure evolution (AME) models, which resolve the multiscale nature of turbulence down to the Kolmogorv scales. While this new concept aims to mimic the turbulent cascade and to reduce the number of input parameters, AME enables also regime-independent combustion modeling, capable to simulate multiphysics problems simultaneously. The LES as well as the one-dimensional transport equations are solved using an incompressible, low Mach number approximation, however the effects of heat release are accounted for through variable density computed by the ideal gas equation of state, based on temperature variations. The computations are carried out on a three-dimensional structured mesh, which is stretched in the transverse direction. While the LES momentum equation is integrated with a third-order Runge-Kutta time-integration, the time integration at the ODT level is accomplished with an explicit Forward-Euler method. Spatial finite-difference schemes of third (LES) and first (ODT) order are utilized and a fully consistent fractional-step method at the LES level is used. Turbulence closure at the LES level is achieved by utilizing the Smagorinsky
Frauholz, Sarah; Müller, Siegfried; Behr, Marek
2014-01-01
Due to the thick boundary layers in hypersonic flows, the state of the boundary layer significantly influences the whole flow field as well as surface heat loads. Hence, for engineering applications the efficient numerical prediction of laminar-to-turbulent transition is a challenging and important task. Within the framework of the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations, Langtry/Menter [1] proposed the -Re?t transition model using two transport equations for the intermittency and Re?t combined with the Shear Stress Transport turbulence model (SST) [2]. The transition model contains two empirical correlations for onset and length of transition. Langtry/Menter [1] designed and validated the correlations for the subsonic and transonic flow regime. For our applications in the hypersonic flow regime, the development of a new set of correlations proved necessary, even when using the same SST turbulence model [3]. Within this paper, we propose a next step and couple the transition model with the SSG/LRR-! Reynold...
A Streamwise Constant Model of Turbulence in Plane Couette Flow
Gayme, D F; Papachristodoulou, A; Bamieh, B; Doyle, J C
2010-01-01
There is a consensus that turbulent flow is characterized by coherent structures. In particular, streamwise and quasi-streamwise elongated structures have been observed in both numerical simulations and experiments. Using this idea the mean behavior of fully turbulent plane Couette flow is modeled using a streamwise constant projection of the Navier Stokes equations. This assumption results in a two dimensional, three velocity component (2D/3C) model. We first use a steady state version of this 2D/3C model to demonstrate that the nonlinear coupling in the equations provides the mathematical mechanisms associated with the shape of the turbulent velocity profile. In simulating the full model we borrow some ideas from robust control and represent uncertainty as well as modeling errors using small amplitude noise forcing. Simulations of the 2D/3C model under small amplitude Gaussian forcing of the cross stream components is compared to DNS data. The results indicate that a streamwise constant projection of the Na...
Atmospheric Turbulence Modeling for Aero Vehicles: Fractional Order Fits
Kopasakis, George
2015-01-01
Atmospheric turbulence models are necessary for the design of both inlet/engine and flight controls, as well as for studying coupling between the propulsion and the vehicle structural dynamics for supersonic vehicles. Models based on the Kolmogorov spectrum have been previously utilized to model atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, a more accurate model is developed in its representative fractional order form, typical of atmospheric disturbances. This is accomplished by first scaling the Kolmogorov spectral to convert them into finite energy von Karman forms and then by deriving an explicit fractional circuit-filter type analog for this model. This circuit model is utilized to develop a generalized formulation in frequency domain to approximate the fractional order with the products of first order transfer functions, which enables accurate time domain simulations. The objective of this work is as follows. Given the parameters describing the conditions of atmospheric disturbances, and utilizing the derived formulations, directly compute the transfer function poles and zeros describing these disturbances for acoustic velocity, temperature, pressure, and density. Time domain simulations of representative atmospheric turbulence can then be developed by utilizing these computed transfer functions together with the disturbance frequencies of interest.
Stochastic models of intracellular transport
Bressloff, Paul C.
2013-01-09
The interior of a living cell is a crowded, heterogenuous, fluctuating environment. Hence, a major challenge in modeling intracellular transport is to analyze stochastic processes within complex environments. Broadly speaking, there are two basic mechanisms for intracellular transport: passive diffusion and motor-driven active transport. Diffusive transport can be formulated in terms of the motion of an overdamped Brownian particle. On the other hand, active transport requires chemical energy, usually in the form of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis, and can be direction specific, allowing biomolecules to be transported long distances; this is particularly important in neurons due to their complex geometry. In this review a wide range of analytical methods and models of intracellular transport is presented. In the case of diffusive transport, narrow escape problems, diffusion to a small target, confined and single-file diffusion, homogenization theory, and fractional diffusion are considered. In the case of active transport, Brownian ratchets, random walk models, exclusion processes, random intermittent search processes, quasi-steady-state reduction methods, and mean-field approximations are considered. Applications include receptor trafficking, axonal transport, membrane diffusion, nuclear transport, protein-DNA interactions, virus trafficking, and the self-organization of subcellular structures. © 2013 American Physical Society.
Collisional transport across the magnetic field in drift-fluid models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Jens; Naulin, Volker; Nielsen, Anders Henry;
2016-01-01
Drift ordered fluid models are widely applied in studies of low-frequency turbulence in the edge and scrape-off layer regions of magnetically confined plasmas. Here, we show how collisional transport across the magnetic field is self-consistently incorporated into drift-fluid models without...... simulations. We further derive a computationally efficient, two-dimensional model, which can be time integrated for several turbulence de-correlation times using only limited computational resources. The model describes interchange turbulence in a two-dimensional plane perpendicular to the magnetic field...... located at the outboard midplane of a tokamak. The model domain has two regions modeling open and closed field lines. The model employs a computational expedient model for collisional transport. Numerical simulations show good agreement between the full and the simplified model for collisional transport....
Modelling turbulence effects in wildland fire propagation by the randomized level-set method
Pagnini, Gianni
2014-01-01
Turbulence is of paramount importance in wildland fire propagation since it randomly transports the hot air mass that can pre-heat and then ignite the area ahead the fire. This contributes to give a random character to the firefront position together with other phenomena as for example fire spotting, vegetation distribution (patchiness), gaseous combustion fluctuation, small-scale terrain elevation changes. Here only turbulence is considered. The level-set method is used to numerically describe the evolution of the fireline contour that is assumed to have a random motion because of turbulence. The progression of the combustion process is then described by a level-set contour distributed according to a weight function given by the probability density function of the air particles in turbulent motion. From the comparison between the ordinary and the randomized level-set methods, it emerges that the proposed modelling approach turns out to be suitable to simulate a moving firefront fed by the ground fuel and dri...
Goods Transport Modelling, Vol 1
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Morten Steen (red.); Kristiansen, Jørgen
The report is a study of data requirements and methodologies for goods transport. The study is intended to provide the basis for general discussion about the application of goods transport models in Denmark. The report provides an overview of different types of models and data availability....
Modelling of pressure-strain correlation in compressible turbulent flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Siyuan Huang; Song Fu
2008-01-01
Previous studies carried out in the early 1990s conjectured that the main compressible effects could be associated with the dilatational effects of velocity fluctuation.Later,it was shown that the main compressibility effect came from the reduced pressure-strain term due to reduced pressure fluctuations.Although better understanding of the compressible turbulence is generally achieved with the increased DNS and experimental research effort,there are still some discrepancies among these recent findings.Analysis of the DNS and experimental data suggests that some of the discrepancies are apparent if the compressible effect is related to the turbulent Mach number,Mt.From the comparison of two classes of compressible flow,homogenous shear flow and inhomogeneous shear flow(mixing layer),we found that the effect of compressibility on both classes of shear flow can be characterized in three categories corresponding to three regions of turbulent Mach numbers:the low-Mt,the moderate-Mt and high-Mt regions.In these three regions the effect of compressibility on the growth rate of the turbulent mixing layer thickness is rather different.A simple approach to the reduced pressure-strain effect may not necessarily reduce the mixing-layer growth rate,and may even cause an increase in the growth rate.The present work develops a new second-moment model for the compressible turbulence through the introduction of some blending functions of Mt to account for the compressibility effects on the flow.The model has been successfully applied to the compressible mixing layers.
Relevant Criteria for Testing the Quality of Turbulence Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frandsen, Sten; Jørgensen, Hans E.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2007-01-01
turbines when seeking wind characteristics that correspond to one blade and the entire rotor, respectively. For heights exceeding 50-60m the gust factor increases with wind speed. For heights larger the 60-80m, present assumptions on the value of the gust factor are significantly conservative, both for 3......Seeking relevant criteria for testing the quality of turbulence models, the scale of turbulence and the gust factor have been estimated from data and compared with predictions from first-order models of these two quantities. It is found that the mean of the measured length scales is approx. 10......% smaller than the IEC model, for wind turbine hub height levels. The mean is only marginally dependent on trends in time series. It is also found that the coefficient of variation of the measured length scales is about 50%. 3sec and 10sec pre-averaging of wind speed data are relevant for MW-size wind...
Detonability of white dwarf plasma: turbulence models at low densities
Fenn, D.; Plewa, T.
2017-06-01
We study the conditions required to produce self-sustained detonations in turbulent, carbon-oxygen degenerate plasma at low densities. We perform a series of three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of turbulence driven with various degrees of compressibility. The average conditions in the simulations are representative of models of merging binary white dwarfs. We find that material with very short ignition times is abundant in case turbulence is driven compressively. This material forms contiguous structures that persist over many ignition times, and that we identify as prospective detonation kernels. Detailed analysis of prospective kernels reveals that these objects are centrally condensed and their shape is characterized by low curvature, supportive of self-sustained detonations. The key characteristic of the newly proposed detonation mechanism is thus high degree of compressibility of turbulent drive. The simulated detonation kernels have sizes notably smaller than the spatial resolution of any white dwarf merger simulation performed to date. The resolution required to resolve kernels is 0.1 km. Our results indicate a high probability of detonations in such well-resolved simulations of carbon-oxygen white dwarf mergers. These simulations will likely produce detonations in systems of lower total mass, thus broadening the population of white dwarf binaries capable of producing Type Ia supernovae. Consequently, we expect a downward revision of the lower limit of the total merger mass that is capable of producing a prompt detonation. We review application of the new detonation mechanism to various explosion scenarios of single, Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs.
Equilibrium-eulerian les model for turbulent poly-dispersed particle-laden flow
Icardi, Matteo
2013-04-01
An efficient Eulerian method for poly-dispersed particles in turbulent flows is implemented, verified and validated for a channel flow. The approach couples a mixture model with a quadrature-based moment method for the particle size distribution in a LES framework, augmented by an approximate deconvolution method to reconstructs the unfiltered velocity. The particle velocity conditioned on particle size is calculated with an equilibrium model, valid for low Stokes numbers. A population balance equation is solved with the direct quadrature method of moments, that efficiently represents the continuous particle size distribution. In this first study particulate processes are not considered and the capability of the model to properly describe particle transport is investigated for a turbulent channel flow. First, single-phase LES are validated through comparison with DNS. Then predictions for the two-phase system, with particles characterised by Stokes numbers ranging from 0.2 to 5, are compared with Lagrangian DNS in terms of particle velocity and accumulation at the walls. Since this phenomenon (turbophoresis) is driven by turbulent fluctuations and depends strongly on the particle Stokes number, the approximation of the particle size distribution, the choice of the sub-grid scale model and the use of an approximate deconvolution method are important to obtain good results. Our method can be considered as a fast and efficient alternative to classical Lagrangian methods or Eulerian multi-fluid models in which poly-dispersity is usually neglected.
Mixing Model Performance in Non-Premixed Turbulent Combustion
Pope, Stephen B.; Ren, Zhuyin
2002-11-01
In order to shed light on their qualitative and quantitative performance, three different turbulent mixing models are studied in application to non-premixed turbulent combustion. In previous works, PDF model calculations with detailed kinetics have been shown to agree well with experimental data for non-premixed piloted jet flames. The calculations from two different groups using different descriptions of the chemistry and turbulent mixing are capable of producing the correct levels of local extinction and reignition. The success of these calculations raises several questions, since it is not clear that the mixing models used contain an adequate description of the processes involved. To address these questions, three mixing models (IEM, modified Curl and EMST) are applied to a partially-stirred reactor burning hydrogen in air. The parameters varied are the residence time and the mixing time scale. For small relative values of the mixing time scale (approaching the perfectly-stirred limit) the models</