Sample records for modeling trihalomethane formation

  1. Factorial analysis of the trihalomethanes formation in water disinfection using chlorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Pedro M.S.M.; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C.G.; Antunes, Maria Cristina G.


    The factors that affect trihalomethane (THM) (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, chlorodibromomethane and bromoform) formation from the chlorination of aqueous solutions of hydrophobic fulvic acids (FA) were investigated in a prototype laboratorial simulation using factorial analysis. This strategy involved a fractional factorial design (16 plus 5 center experiments) of five factors (fulvic acids concentration, chlorine dose, temperature, pH and bromide concentration) and a Box Behnken design (12 plus 3 center experiments) for the detailed analysis of three factors (FA concentration, chlorine dose and temperature). The concentration of THM was determined by headspace analysis by GC-ECD. The most significant factors that affect the four THM productions were the following: chloroform-FA concentration and temperature; bromodichloromethane-FA concentration and chlorine dose; chlorodibromomethane-chlorine dose; and, bromoform-chlorine dose and bromide concentration. Moreover, linear models were obtained for the four THM concentrations in the disinfection solution as function of the FA concentration, chlorine dose and temperature, and it was observed that the complexity of the models (number of significant factors and interactions) increased with increasing bromine atoms in the THM. Also, this study shows that reducing the FA concentration the relative amount of bromated THM increases

  2. Advanced oxidation of bromide-containing drinking water: a balance between bromate and trihalomethane formation control. (United States)

    Wang, Yongjing; Yu, Jianwei; Han, Po; Sha, Jing; An, Tao; Li, Wei; Liu, Juan; Yang, Min


    Addition of H202 has been employed to repress bromate formation during ozonation of bromide-containing source water. However, the addition of H2O2 will change the oxidation pathways of organic compounds due to the generation of abundant hydroxyl radicals, which could affect the removal efficacy of trihalomethane precursors via the combination of ozone and biological activated carbon (O3-BAC). In this study, we evaluated the effects of H2O2 addition on bromate formation and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) reduction during treatment of bromide-containing (97.6-129.1 microg/L) source water by the O3-BAC process. At an ozone dose of 4.2 mg/L, an H2O2/O3 (g/g) ratio of over 1.0 was required to maintain the bromate concentration below 10.0 microg/L, while a much lower H2O2/O3 ratio was sufficient for a lower ozone dose. An H2O2/O3 (g/g) ratio below 0.3 should be avoided since the bromate concentration will increase with increasing H2O2 dose below this ratio. However, the addition of H202 at an ozone dose of 3.2 mg/L and an H2O2/O3 ratio of 1.0 resulted in a 43% decrease in THMFP removal when comparedwith the O3-BAC process. The optimum H2O2/O3 (g/g) ratio for balancing bromate and trihalomethane control was about 0.7-1.0. Fractionation of organic materials showed that the addition of H2O2 decreased the removal efficacy of the hydrophilic matter fraction of DOC by ozonation and increased the reactivity of the hydrophobic fractions during formation of trihalomethane, which may be the two main reasons responsible for the decrease in THMFP reduction efficacy. Overall, this study clearly demonstrated that it is necessary to balance bromate reduction and THMFP control when adopting an H2O2 addition strategy.

  3. Modeling Trihalomethane Formation Potential from Wastewater Chlorination (United States)


    Aerated Lagoon Chlor/Dechlor - - - King Salmon River Luke, AZ Tertiary Ultraviolet 1.2 MGD Agua Fria River / Irrigation MacDD, FL Activated Sludge...the production of wastewater effluent that will meet potable water standards wherever human contact may occur. Another example is the discharge of Shaw

  4. Iodate and iodo-trihalomethane formation during chlorination of iodide-containing waters: role of bromide. (United States)

    Criquet, Justine; Allard, Sebastien; Salhi, Elisabeth; Joll, Cynthia A; Heitz, Anna; von Gunten, Urs


    The kinetics of iodate formation is a critical factor in mitigation of the formation of potentially toxic and off flavor causing iodoorganic compounds during chlorination. This study demonstrates that the formation of bromine through the oxidation of bromide by chlorine significantly enhances the oxidation of iodide to iodate in a bromide-catalyzed process. The pH-dependent kinetics revealed species specific rate constants of k(HOBr + IO(-)) = 1.9 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1), k(BrO(-) + IO(-)) = 1.8 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1), and k(HOBr + HOI) < 1 M(-1) s(-1). The kinetics and the yield of iodate formation in natural waters depend mainly on the naturally occurring bromide and the type and concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM). The process of free chlorine exposure followed by ammonia addition revealed that the formation of iodo-trihalomethanes (I-THMs), especially iodoform, was greatly reduced by an increase of free chlorine exposure and an increase of the Br(-)/I(-) ratio. In water from the Great Southern River (with a bromide concentration of 200 μg/L), the relative I-incorporation in I-THMs decreased from 18 to 2% when the free chlorine contact time was increased from 2 to 20 min (chlorine dose of 1 mg Cl(2)/L). This observation is inversely correlated with the conversion of iodide to iodate, which increased from 10 to nearly 90%. Increasing bromide concentration also increased the conversion of iodide to iodate: from 45 to nearly 90% with a bromide concentration of 40 and 200 μg/L, respectively, and a prechlorination time of 20 min, while the I-incorporation in I-THMs decreased from 10 to 2%.

  5. Chlorination or monochloramination: Balancing the regulated trihalomethane formation and microbial inactivation in marine aquaculture waters

    KAUST Repository

    Sanawar, Huma


    Disinfection methods like chlorination are increasingly used to sanitize the water, equipment, tools and surfaces in aquaculture facilities. This is to improve water quality, and to maintain a hygienic environment for the well-being of aquatic organisms. However, chlorination can result in formation of regulated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) that can be carcinogenic and toxic. This study aims to evaluate if an optimal balance can be achieved between minimal regulated DBP formation and effective microbial inactivation with either chlorination or monochloramination for application in the Red Sea aquaculture waters. Upon chlorination, the concentration of total trihalomethanes (THMs), primarily bromoform, exceeded the regulatory limit of 80μg/L even at the lowest tested concentration of chlorine (1mg/L) and contact time (1h). Comparatively, regulated THMs concentration was only detectable at 30μg/L level in one of the three sets of monochloraminated marine aquaculture waters. The average log reduction of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) by chlorine ranged from 2.3-log to 3.2-log with different contact time. The average log reduction of ARB by monochloramine was comparatively lower at 1.9 to 2.9-log. Although viable Staphylococcus aureus was recovered from monochloraminated samples as opposed to chlorinated samples, the abundance of S. aureus was not high enough to result in any significant microbial risks. Both chlorination and monochloramination did not provide any significant improvement in the reduction of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). This study demonstrates that a systematic evaluation is needed to determine the optimal disinfectant required to balance both microbial and chemical risks. Compared to chlorine, monochloramine may be a more appropriate disinfection strategy for the treatment of aquaculture effluents prior to discharge or for recirculatory use in the aquaculture facility.

  6. Characterization of haloacetaldehyde and trihalomethane formation potentials during drinking water treatment. (United States)

    Mao, Yu-Qin; Wang, Xiao-Mao; Guo, Xian-Fen; Yang, Hong-Wei; Xie, Yuefeng F


    Haloacetaldehydes (HAs) are the third prevalent group of disinfection by-products (DBPs) of great health concern. In this study, their formation and speciation during chlorination were investigated for raw and process waters collected at three O3-biological activated carbon (BAC) advanced drinking water treatment plants. The results showed that all HA formation potentials (HAFPs) were highly enhanced whenever ozone was applied before or after conventional treatment. Sand filtration and BAC filtration could substantially reduce HAFPs. Trihalomethanes (THMs) were also measured to better understand the role of HAs in DBPs. Very different from HAFPs, THMFPs kept decreasing with the progress of treatment steps, which was mainly attributed to the different precursors for HAs and THMs. Brominated HAs were detected in bromide-containing waters. Chloral hydrate (CH) contributed from 25% to 48% to the total HAs formed in waters containing 100-150 μg L(-1) bromide, indicating the wide existence of other HAs after chlorination besides CH production. In addition, bromide incorporation factor (BIF) in HAs and THMs increased with the progress of treatment steps and the BIF values of THMs were generally higher than those of HAs. The BAC filtration following ozonation could significantly reduce HA precursors produced from ozonation but without complete removal. The brominated HAFPs in the outflow of BAC were still higher than their levels in the raw water. As a result, O3-BAC combined treatment was effective at controlling the total HAs, whereas it should be cautious for waters with high bromide levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) on MBR performance and effluent trihalomethane formation: At the initial stage of PAC addition. (United States)

    Gao, Yue; Ma, Defang; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Huang, Xia


    In this study, the MBR was used to treat municipal wastewater for reuse. Effects of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on MBR system in terms of effluent water quality, trihalomethane (THM) formation and membrane organic fouling tendency of MBR sludge supernatant at the initial stage of PAC addition were investigated. Effects of chlorine dose and contact time on THM formation and speciation were also studied. PAC addition enhanced the removal of organic matters, especially aromatic components, which improved the UV254 removal rate from 34% to 83%. PAC addition greatly reduced the membrane organic fouling tendency of MBR sludge supernatant. PAC addition reduced the MBR effluent trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) from 351.29 to 241.95μg/L, while increased THM formation reactivity by 42%. PAC addition enhanced the formation of higher toxic bromine-containing THMs. High chlorine dose and contact time resulted in higher THM formation but lower proportion of bromine-containing THMs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Trihalomethanes formation in marine environment in front of Nuweibaa desalination plant as a result of effluents loaded by chlorine residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Hamed


    Full Text Available Trihalomethanes have been identified as the most important disinfection byproducts resulted from using chlorine in desalination plants. Nuweibaa desalination plant was chosen to study their effluents impacts on the marine environment in front of the plant in the coastal area of Gulf of Aqaba. Surface and bottom Water Samples were collected from nine locations in the outfall area of this desalination plant during spring and autumn 2014, and analyzed for water temperature, pH value, Salinity, Dissolved Oxygen, Biological oxygen demand, Oxidizible organic matter, Total, fixed and volatile suspended matter, residual chlorine (free and combined and trihalomethanes. High total chlorine dosage discharged from the desalination plant achieved high levels of trihalomethanes in the receiving seawater of the outfall area. It has been estimated that about 14524.65671 kg of BOD, 74123.4 kg of OOM, 166896.4375 kg of total suspended solids, 623.634 kg of free chlorine, 469.21 kg of combined chlorine, 206.64 kg of chloroform and 76.48 kg of bromoform are discharged annually from this plant into the Gulf of Aqaba affecting the marine ecosystems. The results of THMs showed that the two main forms of THMs formed in the receiving seawater were chloroform and bromoform and ranged between (5.09–156.59, (2.82–566.06 μg/L respectively. High pH and High combined chlorine concentrations favored the formation of high concentrations of chloroform.

  9. Natural organic matter characterization by HPSEC and its contribution to trihalomethane formation in Athens water supply network. (United States)

    Samios, Stelios A; Golfinopoulos, Spyros K; Andrzejewski, Przemyslaw; Świetlik, Joanna


    Samples from the two main watersheds that provide Athens Water Supply and Sewerage Company (AWSSC) with raw water were examined for Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) and for their molecular weight distribution (MWD). In addition, water samples from water treatment plants (WTPs) and from the water supply network were examined for trihalomethane (THMs) levels. The main purpose of this study was to reveal the molecular composition of natural organic matter (NOM) and identify the individual differences between NOM from the two main Athens watersheds. High-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC), a relatively simple technique, was applied to determine different NOM fractions' composition according to molecular weight. Various THM levels in the supply network of Athens are illustrated as a result of the different reservoirs' water qualities, and a suggestion for a limited application of chlorine dioxide is made in order to minimize THM formation.

  10. Development and identification of an integrated waterworks model for trihalomethanes simulation. (United States)

    Sun, F; Chen, J; Tong, Q; Zeng, S


    To evaluate the impact that new trihalomethanes (THMs) regulations will have on the performance of conventional waterworks in China, we developed an integrated waterworks model to simulate the dynamic behavior of THMs and other associated components, e.g. organic matter, ammonia, and residual chlorine, throughout the conventional water treatment process, which included pre-chlorination, coagulation-flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and post-chlorination. A comprehensive kinetic scheme that takes into account both the physical and biological mechanisms involved in the water treatment processes and the chemical reactions that result from chlorination was proposed for model conceptualization. In addition, the Petersen matrix was designed to present the model and formulate the mass balance equations for the model variables. The model was then identified using the Hornberger-Spear-Young (HSY) algorithm and tested against field data from the Qingzhou Waterworks in Macao, China. Despite gross uncertainty associated with the field data, the model could generally provide good predictions of the simulated variables and meet the management purposes. Furthermore, the identified model parameters agreed well with values that were reported in the literature and could be reasonably interpreted.

  11. Trihalomethane exposures in indoor swimming pools: a level III fugacity model. (United States)

    Dyck, Roberta; Sadiq, Rehan; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Simard, Sabrina; Tardif, Robert


    The potential for generation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in swimming pools is high due to the concentrations of chlorine required to maintain adequate disinfection, and the presence of organics introduced by the swimmers. Health Canada set guidelines for trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water; however, no such guideline exists for swimming pool waters. Exposure occurs through ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact in swimming pools. In this research, a multimedia model is developed to evaluate exposure concentrations of THMs in the air and water of an indoor swimming pool. THM water concentration data were obtained from 15 indoor swimming pool facilities in Quebec (Canada). A level III fugacity model is used to estimate inhalation, dermal contact and ingestion exposure doses. The results of the proposed model will be useful to perform a human health risk assessment and develop risk management strategies including developing health-based guidelines for disinfection practices and the design of ventilation system for indoor swimming pools. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of thirteen haloacetic acids and ten trihalomethanes formation by peracetic acid and chlorine drinking water disinfection. (United States)

    Xue, Runmiao; Shi, Honglan; Ma, Yinfa; Yang, John; Hua, Bin; Inniss, Enos C; Adams, Craig D; Eichholz, Todd


    Free chlorine is a commonly used disinfectant in drinking water treatment. However, disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed during water disinfection. Haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs) are two major groups of DBPs. Iodo-HAAs and iodo-THMs (I-HAAs and I-THMs) are formed during the disinfection of the water containing high levels of iodide and are much more toxic than their chlorinated and brominated analogs. Peracetic acid (PAA) is a strong antimicrobial disinfectant that is expected to reduce the formation of HAAs and THMs during disinfection. In this study, the formations of thirteen HAAs and ten THMs, including the iodinated forms, have been investigated during PAA disinfection and chlorination as the comparison. The DBP formations under different iodide concentrations, pHs, and contact times were systematically investigated. Two types of commercial PAAs containing different concentrations of PAA and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) were studied. A solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was upgraded for THM analysis including I-THMs. HAAs were analyzed by following a recently developed high performance ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Results show that the ratio of PAA and H 2 O 2 concentration significantly affect the formation of I-THMs and I-HAAs. During PAA disinfection with lower PAA than H 2 O 2 , no detectable levels of THMs and HAAs were observed. During PAA disinfection with higher PAA than H 2 O 2 , low levels of monoiodoacetic acid, diiodoacetic acid, and iodoform were formed, and these levels were enhanced with the increase of iodide concentration. No significant quantities of chloro- or bromo-THMs and HAAs were formed during PAA disinfection treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phototransformation of iodate by UV irradiation: Kinetics and iodinated trihalomethane formation during subsequent chlor(am)ination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Fu-Xiang [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China); Hu, Xiao-Jun, E-mail: [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China); Xu, Bin; Zhang, Tian-Yang; Gao, Yu-Qiong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Key Laboratory of Yangtze Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)


    Highlights: • IO{sub 3}{sup −} can be photodegraded by UV irradiation with pseudo-first order kinetics. • Solution pH has no remarkable influence on the photodegradation rate of IO{sub 3}{sup −}. • The I{sup −} and HOI derived from the photoreduction of IO{sub 3}{sup −} were determined. • The presence of NOM greatly enhanced the photolysis rate of IO{sub 3}{sup −}. • NOM sources can affect the formation of I-THMs in UV-chlor(am)ination of IO{sub 3}{sup −}. - Abstract: The photodegradation of IO{sub 3}{sup −} at 254 nm and the formation of iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) during subsequent chlorination or chloramination in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) were investigated in this study. The thermodynamically stable IO{sub 3}{sup −} can be degraded by UV irradiation with pseudo-first order kinetics and the quantum yield was calculated as 0.0591 mol einstein{sup −1}. Solution pH posed no remarkable influence on the photolysis rate of IO{sub 3}{sup −}. The UV phototransformation of IO{sub 3}{sup −} was evidenced by the determination of iodide (I{sup −}) and hypoiodous acid (HOI) in solution. NOM sources not only enhanced the photodegradation rate of IO{sub 3}{sup −} by photoejecting solvated electrons, but also greatly influenced the production I-THMs in subsequent chlor(am)ination processes. In UV irradiation and sequential oxidation processes by chlorine or chloramine, the I-THMs formation was susceptible to NOM sources, especially the two major fractions of aqueous humic substances (humic acid and fulvic acid). The toxicity of disinfected waters greatly increased in chloramination over chlorination of the UV photodecomposed IO{sub 3}{sup −}, as far more I-THMs especially CHI{sub 3}, were formed. As “the fourth iodine source” of iodinated disinfection by-products, the occurrence, transportation and fate of IO{sub 3}{sup −} in aquatic environment should be of concern instead of being considered a desired

  14. A two-stage predictive model to simultaneous control of trihalomethanes in water treatment plants and distribution systems: adaptability to treatment processes. (United States)

    Domínguez-Tello, Antonio; Arias-Borrego, Ana; García-Barrera, Tamara; Gómez-Ariza, José Luis


    The trihalomethanes (TTHMs) and others disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed in drinking water by the reaction of chlorine with organic precursors contained in the source water, in two consecutive and linked stages, that starts at the treatment plant and continues in second stage along the distribution system (DS) by reaction of residual chlorine with organic precursors not removed. Following this approach, this study aimed at developing a two-stage empirical model for predicting the formation of TTHMs in the water treatment plant and subsequently their evolution along the water distribution system (WDS). The aim of the two-stage model was to improve the predictive capability for a wide range of scenarios of water treatments and distribution systems. The two-stage model was developed using multiple regression analysis from a database (January 2007 to July 2012) using three different treatment processes (conventional and advanced) in the water supply system of Aljaraque area (southwest of Spain). Then, the new model was validated using a recent database from the same water supply system (January 2011 to May 2015). The validation results indicated no significant difference in the predictive and observed values of TTHM (R 2 0.874, analytical variance distribution systems studied, proving the adaptability of the new model to the boundary conditions. Finally the predictive capability of the new model was compared with 17 other models selected from the literature, showing satisfactory results prediction and excellent adaptability to treatment processes.

  15. [Human exposure to trihalomethanes in drinking water]. (United States)

    Tominaga, M Y; Midio, A F


    Halogenated hydrocarbon compounds, some of them recognized as carcinogenic to different animal species can be found in drinking water. Chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform are the most important trihalomethanes found in potable water. They are produced in natural waters during chlorinated desinfection by the halogenation of precursors, specially humic and fulvic compounds. The review, in the MEDLINE covers the period from 1974 to 1998, presents the general aspects of the formation of trihalomethanes, sources of human exposure and their toxicological meaning for exposed organisms: toxicokinetic disposition and spectrum of toxic effects (carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic).

  16. Tracing dissolved organic carbon and trihalomethane formation potential between source water and finished drinking water at a lowland and an upland UK catchment. (United States)

    Brooks, Emma; Freeman, Christopher; Gough, Rachel; Holliman, Peter J


    Rising dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in many upland UK catchments represents a challenge for drinking water companies, in particular due to the role of DOC as a precursor in the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs). Whereas traditionally, the response of drinking water companies has been focussed on treatment processes, increasingly, efforts have been made to better understanding the role of land use and catchment processes in affecting drinking water quality. In this study, water quality, including DOC and THM formation potential (THMFP) was assessed between the water source and finished drinking water at an upland and a lowland catchment. Surprisingly, the lowland catchment showed much higher reservoir DOC concentrations apparently due to the influence of a fen within the catchment from where a major reservoir inflow stream originated. Seasonal variations in water quality were observed, driving changes in THMFP. However, the reservoirs in both catchments appeared to dampen these temporal fluctuations. Treatment process applied in the 2 catchments were adapted to reservoir water quality with much higher DOC and THMFP removal rates observed at the lowland water treatment works where coagulation-flocculation was applied. However, selectivity during this DOC removal stage also appeared to increase the proportion of brominated THMs produced. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Assessing trihalomethanes (THMs) and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation potentials in drinking water treatment plants using fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis. (United States)

    Yang, Liyang; Kim, Daekyun; Uzun, Habibullah; Karanfil, Tanju; Hur, Jin


    The formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) is a major challenge in drinking water treatments. This study explored the applicability of fluorescence excitation-emission matrices and parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) for assessing the formation potentials (FPs) of trihalomethanes (THMs) and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and the treatability of THM and NDMA precursors in nine drinking water treatment plants. Two humic-like and one tryptophan-like components were identified for the samples using PARAFAC. The total THM FP (TTHM FP) correlated strongly with humic-like component C2 (r=0.874), while NDMA FP showed a moderate and significant correlation with the tryptophan-like component C3 (r=0.628). The reduction by conventional treatment was more effective for C2 than C3, and for TTHM FP than NDMA FP. The treatability of DOM and TTHM FP correlated negatively with the absorption spectral slope (S275-295) and biological index (BIX) of the raw water, but it correlated positively with humification index (HIX). Our results demonstrated that PARAFAC components were valuable for assessing DBPs FP in drinking water treatments, and also that the raw water quality could affect the treatment efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Trihalomethanes in potable water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Bajahalan, A.S.


    These experiments were conducted to evaluate the quality of potable water in Yanbu AI-Sinaiyah, one of the leading industrial city in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The major source of water is Redsea. Desalinated water is distributed in the whole city for domestic uses. At the treatment plant chlorine is being used as disinfectant in pre and post desalination. The present study was conducted to determine the presence of disinfection by-products in potable water. Trihalomethanes are the major disinfection by-products found in the chlorinated water. Trihalomethanes identified in these experiments are chloroform, dichlorobromomethane, dibromochloromethane and tribromomethane. Thichloromethanes are considered to be carcinogenic, hence it is very important to investigate the presence of these compounds in potable water. Samples were collected from consumers tap and preserved at the site for analysis. In the laboratory samples were extracted by Tekmar Velocity XPT purge and trap unit. High purity nitrogen was purged through a sparger in the samples and purged volatiles were trapped in a carbo trap at room temperature. Then trapped components were desorbed with high purity helium and transferred to gas chromatograph injector and analysed by Varian Saturn 2200 GC-MS using 30 m long factor four capillary column. The effect of temperature and seasonal variation (winter and summer) was also monitored. Mean trihalomethane level was higher in summer (8.617 micro g/L) than in winter (5.173 micro g/L). Mean concentration of all the four THMs was 6.9 micro g/L, much less than prescribed EPA limits (80 micro g/L). About 13 brands of bottled water were also analysed for THMs. Only tribromomethane and dibromochloromethane were detected in few brands. Experiments were also conducted to remove THMs from chlorinated water and found that passing through activated charcoal and boiling the water for couple of minutes were sufficient to remove all the THMs from chlorinated water. (author)

  19. Formation of iodo-trihalomethanes, iodo-acetic acids, and iodo-acetamides during chloramination of iodide-containing waters: Factors influencing formation and reaction pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shaogang [Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuang-qing Road, Beijing, 100085 (China); Guangxi Colleges and Universities Key Laboratory of Food Safety and Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, Guangxi Key Laboratory of Chemistry and Engineering of Forest Products, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University for Nationalities, Nanning, 530006, Guangxi (China); Li, Zhenlin [Guangxi Colleges and Universities Key Laboratory of Food Safety and Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, Guangxi Key Laboratory of Chemistry and Engineering of Forest Products, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University for Nationalities, Nanning, 530006, Guangxi (China); Dong, Huiyu [Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuang-qing Road, Beijing, 100085 (China); Goodman, Bernard A. [College of Physical Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresources, Guangxi University, Nanning, 520004, Guangxi (China); Qiang, Zhimin, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuang-qing Road, Beijing, 100085 (China)


    This study investigated systematically the factors influencing the formation of iodinated disinfection by-products (I-DBPs) during chloramination of I{sup −}-containing waters, including reaction time, NH{sub 2}Cl dose, I{sup −} concentration, pH, natural organic matter (NOM) concentration, Br{sup −}/I{sup −} molar ratio, and water matrix. Among the I-DBPs detected, iodoform (CHI{sub 3}), iodoacetic acid (IAA), diiodoacetic acid (DIAA), triiodoacetic acid (TIAA), and diiodoacetamide (DIAcAm) were the major species produced from reactions between reactive iodine species (HOI/I{sub 2}) and NOM. A kinetic model involving the reactions of NH{sub 2}Cl auto-decomposition, iodine species transformation and NOM consumption was developed, which could well describe NH{sub 2}Cl decay and HOI/I{sub 2} evolution. Higher concentrations of CHI{sub 3}, IAA, DIAA, TIAA, and DIAcAm were observed in chloramination than in chlorination, whereas IO{sub 3}{sup −} was only formed significantly in chlorination. Maximum formation of I-DBPs occurred at pH 8.0, but acidic conditions favored the formation of iodinated haloacetic acids and DIAcAm. Increasing Br{sup −}/I{sup −} molar ratio from 1 to 10 did not increase the total amount of I-DBPs, but produced more bromine-substituting species. In addition, chloramination of 18 model compounds indicated that low-SUVA{sub 254} (specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm) NOM generally favored the formation of I-DBPs compared to high-SUVA{sub 254} NOM. Finally, potential pathways for I-DBPs formation from chloramination of NOM were proposed.

  20. Trihalomethanes in drinking water: Effect of natural organic matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of distribution of natural organic matter (NOM) on formation and distribution of trihalomethanes (THMs) in municipal water were investigated. Water samples were fractionated using serial ultrafiltration with membranes of molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) values of 500, 1 000 and 3 000 Da. The resulting 4 fractions of ...

  1. Radiolytic removal of trihalomethane in chlorinated seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajamohan, R.; Rajesh, Puspalata; Venugopalan, V.P.; Rangarajan, S.; Natesan, Usha


    Biofouling is one of the major operational problems in seawater cooling systems. It is controlled by application of chlorine based biocides in the range of 0.5-2.0 mg L -1 . The bromide in seawater reacts with the added chlorine and forms hypobromous acid. The brominated residual biocides react with natural organic matter present in the seawater, resulting in the formation of trihalomethanes (THM) such as bromoform (CHBr 3 ), dibromochloromethane (CHBr 2 Cl) bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl 2 ). Though THMs represent a small fraction of the added chlorine, they are relatively more persistent than residual chlorine, and hence pose a potential hazard to marine life because of their reported mutagenicity. There have been few reports on removal of THMs from chlorinated seawater. In this work, the efficacy of gamma irradiation technique for the removal of THMs from chlorine-dosed seawater was investigated. Experiments were carried out using seawater collected from Kalpakkam. Irradiation study was conducted in chlorinated (1, 3, and 5 mg L -1 of Cl 2 ) seawater by applying various dosages (0.4-5.0 kGy) of gamma radiation using a 60 Co Gamma Chamber 5000. Bromoform showed a faster rate of degradation as compared to other halocarbons like bromodichloromethane and dibromochloromethane. This shows the change in total THM concentration with variation in the radiation dose and initial Cl 2 dosing. When the percentage degradation of all the three trihalomethane species was compared with applied doses, it was found that the maximum reduction occurred at a dose of 2.5 kGy. The reduction was almost similar for all the three doses (1, 3, 5 ppm of Cl 2 ) used for chlorination. With a further increase in radiation dose to 5.0 kGy, a slight increase in reduction was observed

  2. Characterization of the precursors of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids in the Yuqiao Reservoir in China. (United States)

    Niu, Zhi-Guang; Wei, Xiao-Ting; Zhang, Ying


    To identify the primary precursors of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids in the Yuqiao Reservoir in China, dissolved organic matters in the source water were isolated and fractionated into five different fractions (with XAD resin), and both trihalomethane and haloacetic acid formation potentials in each fraction were analysed by liquid-liquid extraction and GC-ECD. The primary precursors of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids were identified using the index of disinfection by-product formation potential and specific disinfection by-product formation potential. In addition, the relationship between the specific ultraviolet absorbance and the specific disinfection by-product formation potential was studied using correlation analysis. The results indicated that during the sampling period, the hydrophobic acids and hydrophilic matter are the primary organic fractions in the Yuqiao Reservoir, accounting for 27.6-40.9% and 21.2-32.5%, respectively. Among the five fractions, the hydrophobic acids had the highest disinfection by-product formation potential and specific disinfection by-product formation potential, indicating that the hydrophobic acids were the primary precursors of the disinfection by-products in the Yuqiao Reservoir. A correlation analysis indicates that the specific ultraviolet absorbance had a moderately positive correlation with the specific disinfection by-product formation potential; therefore, the specific ultraviolet absorbance can be a reference index to analyse the ability of organic matter to generate disinfection by-products.

  3. Modeling Chondrule Formation (United States)

    Eisenhour, D. D.; Buseck, P. R.


    Over the last several decades considerable data on chondrule sizes, compositions, and textures has been collected [1]; experimental studies have greatly improved our understanding of the conditions required to produce chondrule compositions and textures [2]; and models of energetic nebular processes have provided insight into mechanisms by which chondrules may have formed [3]. While much work remains in each of these areas, the information presently available is sufficient to allow the construction of simple numerical models of chondrule formation. We have constructed a computer algorithm to investigate the consequences of forming chondrules under a variety of conditions. Variables that are considered include: 1) the mechanism of heating (e.g., EM radiation, aerodynamic drag, collisions with energetic particles), 2) peak chondrule temperature, 3) heat-source geometry, 4) pre-chondrule dust aggregate size distributions, 5) dust aggregate compositional distributions, 6) chondrule solidus and liquidus temperatures, 7) kinetic barriers to melting, and 8) the duration of heating. Output includes the size distributions and relative abundances of PO, PP, POP, BO, and NP chondrules. Given the uncertainties in the input variables, the primary purpose of the code is not to construct a single (and necessarily somewhat arbitrary) model of chondrule formation, but rather to elucidate the differences in chondrule properties associated with various sets of formation conditions. Results from a number of simulations using a variety of input parameters illustrate the importance of both composition and peak temperature on the proportion of porphyritic to non-porphyritic chondrules produced. Also apparent is the influence of the mechanism of heating on the relative size distributions of chondrule textural types. Results indicate that specific heating mechanisms require unique sets of associated conditions to account for the observed properties of chondrules. These unique sets of

  4. Formation and modeling of disinfection by-products in drinking water of six cities in China. (United States)

    Ye, Bixiong; Wang, Wuyi; Yang, Linsheng; Wei, Jianrong; E, Xueli


    Water quality parameters including TOC, UV(254), pH, chlorine dosage, bromide concentration and disinfection by-products were measured in water samples from 41 water treatment plants of six selected cities in China. Chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid were the major disinfection by-products in the drinking water of China. Bromoform and dibromoacetic acid were also detected in many water samples. Higher concentrations of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids were measured in summer compared to winter. The geographical variations in DBPs showed that TTHM levels were higher in Zhengzhou and Tianjin than other selected cities. And the HAA5 levels were highest in Changsha and Tianjin. The modeling procedure that predicts disinfection by-products formation was studied and developed using artificial neural networks. The performance of the artificial neural networks model was excellent (r > 0.84).

  5. The impact of commercially treated oil and gas produced water discharges on bromide concentrations and modeled brominated trihalomethane disinfection byproducts at two downstream municipal drinking water plants in the upper Allegheny River, Pennsylvania, USA. (United States)

    Landis, Matthew S; Kamal, Ali S; Kovalcik, Kasey D; Croghan, Carry; Norris, Gary A; Bergdale, Amy


    In 2010, a dramatic increase in the levels of total trihalomethane (THM) and the relative proportion of brominated species was observed in finished water at several Pennsylvania water utilities (PDW) using the Allegheny River as their raw water supply. An increase in bromide (Br(-)) concentrations in the Allegheny River was implicated to be the cause of the elevated water disinfection byproducts. This study focused on quantifying the contribution of Br(-) from a commercial wastewater treatment facility (CWTF) that solely treats wastes from oil and gas producers and discharges into the upper reaches of the Allegheny River, and impacts on two downstream PDWs. In 2012, automated daily integrated samples were collected on the Allegheny River at six sites during three seasonal two-week sampling campaigns to characterize Br(-) concentrations and river dispersion characteristics during periods of high and low river discharges. The CWTF discharges resulted in significant increases in Br(-) compared to upstream baseline values in PDW raw drinking water intakes during periods of low river discharge. During high river discharge, the assimilative dilution capacity of the river resulted in lower absolute halide concentrations, but significant elevations Br(-) concentrations were still observed at the nearest downstream PDW intake over baseline river levels. On days with active CWTF effluent discharge the magnitude of bromide impact increased by 39 ppb (53%) and 7 ppb (22%) for low and high river discharge campaigns, respectively. Despite a declining trend in Allegheny River Br(-) (2009-2014), significant impacts from CWTF and coal-fired power plant discharges to Br(-) concentrations during the low river discharge regime at downstream PDW intakes was observed, resulting in small modeled increases in total THM (3%), and estimated positive shifts (41-47%) to more toxic brominated THM analogs. The lack of available coincident measurements of THM, precursors, and physical parameters


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mazloomi ، R. Nabizadeh ، S. Nasseri ، K. Naddafi ، S. Nazmara ، A. H. Mahvi


    Full Text Available The reaction of disinfectants with natural organic matters existing in water lead to the formation of Disinfection By-Products. Potentially hazardous and carcinogenic characteristics of trihalomethanes (THMs are recognized. Thus removal of THMs or its precursors are necessary for human health. The aim of this study was to study the efficiency of domestic reverse osmosis (RO in removal of trihalomethanes from drinking water. A pilot scale of RO system with Polyamide membrane as Spiral-Wound, Tape wrapping module was used. Feed solution was made by using of pure chloroform. The samples containing chloroform were analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. By increasing the flow, the removal rate of chloroform decreased and with declining removal of EC, the removal of chloroform declined too. In this research, at the worst condition, the efficiency of the pilot scale reverse osmosis reached to 80 % removal of chloroform.

  7. O uso de cloro na desinfecção de águas, a formação de trihalometanos e os riscos potenciais à saúde pública Chlorine use in water disinfection, trihalomethane formation, and potential risks to public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila T. Meyer


    Full Text Available Antes do desenvolvimento da teoria dos microorganismos como causadores de doenças (1880, acreditava-se que estas eram transmitidas através de odores. A desinfecção, tanto da água de abastecimento como dos esgotos, surgiu como uma tentativa da eliminação desses odores. Existem muitos agentes desinfetantes, mas, em geral, o cloro é o principal produto utilizado na desinfecção de águas de abastecimento. A presença de compostos orgânicos em águas que sofrem o processo de cloração resulta na formação dos trihalometanos, compostos formados por um átomo de carbono, um de hidrogênio e três de halogênio (cloro, bromo, iôdo. Os trihalometanos são considerados compostos carcinogênicos e sua presença na água deve ser evitada. Levantamentos epidemiológicos relacionando a concentração dos trihalometanos com a morbidade e a mortalidade por câncer evidenciaram associações positivas em alguns casos de carcinomas. Entretanto, a substituição do cloro por outro desinfetante no tratamento da água pode trazer mais riscos do que benefícios, considerando-se que a diminuição da incidência de doenças transmissíveis pela água somente foi alcançada com a difusão do emprego da técnica de cloração.Before the development of the germ theory relating microorganisms with disease transmission (1880 people believed that diseases were transmitted by odours. Water and sewage disinfection emerged as a method for elimination of odours. There are many disinfecting agents, but chlorine is the main product used to disinfect water. Organic compounds present in water that is chlorinated can result in the formation of trihalomethanes. The latter are basically one atom of carbon, one of hydrogen, and three of a halogen (chlorine, bromine, or iodine. These are considered carcinogenic compounds and their presence in drinking water should therefore be avoided. Epidemiological research has shown an association between trihalomethane concentration

  8. Removal of trihalomethane from chlorinated seawater using gamma radiation. (United States)

    Rajamohan, R; Natesan, Usha; Venugopalan, V P; Rajesh, Puspalata; Rangarajan, S


    Chlorine addition as a biocide in seawater results in the formation of chlorination by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs). Removal of THMs is of importance as they are potential mutagenic and carcinogenic agents. In this context, a study was conducted that used ionizing radiation to remove THMs from chlorinated (1, 3, and 5 mg/L) seawater by applying various dosages (0.4-5.0 kGy) of gamma radiation. Bromoform (BF) showed a faster rate of degradation as compared to other halocarbons such as bromodichloromethane (BDCM) and dibromochloromethane (DBCM). In chlorine-dosed seawater, total irradiation dose of 0.4 to 5 kGy caused percentage reduction in the range of 6.9 to 76.7%, 2.3 to 99.6%, and 45.7 to 98.3% for BDCM, DBCM, and BF, respectively. During the irradiation process, pH of the chlorinated seawater decreased with increase in the absorbed dose; however, no change in total organic carbon (TOC) was observed. The results show that gamma dose of 2.5 kGy was adequate for maximum degradation of THM; but for complete mineralization, higher dose would be required.

  9. Risk from exposure to trihalomethanes during shower: probabilistic assessment and control. (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Champagne, Pascale


    Exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) through inhalation and dermal contact during showering and bathing may pose risks to human health. During showering and bathing, warm water (35 degrees C-45 degrees C) is generally used. Warming of chlorinated supply water may increase THMs formation through enhanced reactions between organics and residual chlorine. Exposure assessment using THMs concentrations in cold water may under-predict the possible risks to human health. In this study, THMs concentrations in warm water were estimated by developing a THMs formation rate model. Using THMs in warm water, cancer and non-cancer risks to human health were predicted for three major cities in Ontario (Canada). The parameters for risk assessments were characterized by statistical distributions. The total cancer risks from exposure to THMs during showering were predicted to be 7.6x10(-6), 6.3x10(-6) and 4.3x10(-6) for Ottawa, Hamilton and Toronto respectively. The cancer risks exceedance probabilities were estimated to be highest in Ottawa at different risk levels. The risks through inhalation exposure were found to be comparable (2.1x10(-6)-3.7x10(-6)) to those of the dermal contact (2.2x10(-6)-3.9x10(-6)) for the cities. This study predicted 36 cancer incidents from exposure to THMs during showering for these three cities, while Toronto contributed the highest number of possible cancer incidents (22), followed by Ottawa (10) and Hamilton (4). The sensitivity analyses showed that health risks could be controlled by varying shower stall volume and/or shower duration following the power law relationship.

  10. Investigation of Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water of Abbas Abad Water Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiani R


    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlorination is the most common and successful method for disinfection of drinking water, especially in developing countries. However, due to the probability of formation of disinfection by-products especially Trihalomethanes (THMs that are known as hazardous and usually carcinogenic compounds, this study was conducted to assess the investigation of THMs in drinking water of Abbas Abad water treatment plant in 2015. Methods: In this study, 81 water samples were gathered during autumn season of 2015. Temperature, pH, Ec, turbidity, and residual chlorine were measured on site. After samples preparation in the laboratory, THMs concentrations were determined using gas chromatography. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package. Results: The results showed that the minimum and maximum mean concentrations (µg/l for bromodichloromethane were 1.47 ± 0.57 and 1.90 ± 0.26, for bromoform were 1.47 ± 0.35 and 2.36 ± 1.10, for dibromochloromethane were 1.47 ± 0.42 and 1.53 ± 0.55, and for chloroform were 3.40 ± 0.70 and 7.53 ± 1.00, and all compounds were determined for stations 1 and 3, respectively. Also comparing the mean concentrations of assessed THMs with ISIRI and World Health Organization (WHO Maximum Permissible Limits (MPL showed significant differences (P < 0.05. Thus, the mean concentrations of all Trihalomethanes compounds were significantly lower than the maximum permissible limits. Conclusions: Although the mean concentrations of THMs were lower than MPL, yet due to discharge of restaurants and gardens’ wastewater into the Abbas Abad River, pre-chlorination process of water in Abbas Abad water treatment plant, high retention time and increasing loss of foliage into the water, especially in autumn season, the formation of Trihalomethanes compounds could increase. Therefore, periodic monitoring of THMs in drinking water distribution network is recommended.

  11. [Formation of disinfection by-products: temperature effect and kinetic modeling]. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Lu; Yang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Mao; Fu, Jing; Xie, Yue-Feng


    Water temperature has significant effects on the disinfection by-product (DBP) formation and concentration in many water utilities and distribution systems. To study the temperature effect on the DBP concentration, the uniform formation condition (UFC) test was referred in testing the formation concentration of DBPs [including (trihalomethanes) THMs and (haloacetic acids) HAAs] at different temperatures during chlorination of the humic acid (HA) solution. A kinetic model was consequently proposed to predict DBP concentration during chlorination. Results show that for the three detected DBPs, including chloroform (CHCl3), dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), increasing temperature could considerably enhance both the DBP formation rates and the maximum DBP concentrations, where the maximum concentrations increase exponentially with the water temperature (R2 > 0.90). By using the data-processing software Origin, the detected DBP values were fitted using the proposed first order kinetic model, and the result showed a strong correlation for each DBP at various temperatures (R > 0.94). The apparent reaction rate constant k was also derived for each DBP. In order to quantify the temperature effect on DBP formation, the Arrhenius Equation was employed to calculate the apparent reaction activation energy for each DBP-22.3, 25.5 and 40.8 kJ x mol(-1) for CHCl3, DCAA and TCAA, respectively. By comparing the model predicted and the detected DBP values at 20 and 30 degrees C, the model showed a strong performance in predicting DBP formation concentrations, which indicated the reliability and validity of this proposed kinetic model.

  12. Coevolutionary modeling in network formation

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shyoukh, Ibrahim


    Network coevolution, the process of network topology evolution in feedback with dynamical processes over the network nodes, is a common feature of many engineered and natural networks. In such settings, the change in network topology occurs at a comparable time scale to nodal dynamics. Coevolutionary modeling offers the possibility to better understand how and why network structures emerge. For example, social networks can exhibit a variety of structures, ranging from almost uniform to scale-free degree distributions. While current models of network formation can reproduce these structures, coevolutionary modeling can offer a better understanding of the underlying dynamics. This paper presents an overview of recent work on coevolutionary models of network formation, with an emphasis on the following three settings: (i) dynamic flow of benefits and costs, (ii) transient link establishment costs, and (iii) latent preferential attachment.

  13. A Model of Partnership Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talman, A.J.J.; Yang, Z.F.


    This paper presents a model of partnership formation. A set of agents wants to conduct some business or other activities. Agents may act alone or seek a partner for cooperation and need in the latter case to consider with whom to cooperate and how to share the profit in a collaborative and

  14. A model of partnership formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talman, A.J.J.; Yang, Z.F.


    This paper presents a model of partnership formation. A number of agents want to conduct some business or other activities. Agents may act alone or seek a partner for cooperation and need in the latter case to consider with whom to cooperate and how to share the profit in a collaborative and

  15. Occurrence and simulation of trihalomethanes in swimming pool water: A simple prediction method based on DOC and mass balance. (United States)

    Peng, Di; Saravia, Florencia; Abbt-Braun, Gudrun; Horn, Harald


    Trihalomethanes (THM) are the most typical disinfection by-products (DBPs) found in public swimming pool water. DBPs are produced when organic and inorganic matter in water reacts with chemical disinfectants. The irregular contribution of substances from pool visitors and long contact time with disinfectant make the forecast of THM in pool water a challenge. In this work occurrence of THM in a public indoor swimming pool was investigated and correlated with the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Daily sampling of pool water for 26 days showed a positive correlation between DOC and THM with a time delay of about two days, while THM and DOC didn't directly correlate with the number of visitors. Based on the results and mass-balance in the pool water, a simple simulation model for estimating THM concentration in indoor swimming pool water was proposed. Formation of THM from DOC, volatilization into air and elimination by pool water treatment were included in the simulation. Formation ratio of THM gained from laboratory analysis using native pool water and information from field study in an indoor swimming pool reduced the uncertainty of the simulation. The simulation was validated by measurements in the swimming pool for 50 days. The simulated results were in good compliance with measured results. This work provides a useful and simple method for predicting THM concentration and its accumulation trend for long term in indoor swimming pool water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Technical Report for Water Circulation Pumping System for Trihalomethanes (THMs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellah, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The TSWWS was added as an active source of supply to the permit (No. 03-10-13P-003) in 2010, but has never been used due to the potential for formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the distribution system. THMs are formed as a by-product when chlorine is used to disinfect water for drinking. THMs are a group of chemicals generally referred to as disinfection by-products (DBPs). THMs result from the reaction of chlorine with organic matter that is present in the water. Some of the THMs are volatile and may easily vaporize into the air. This fact forms the basis of the design of the system discussed in this technical report. In addition, the design is based on the results of a study that has shown success using aeration as a means to reduce TTHMs to within allowable concentration levels with turn-over times as long as ten days. The Primary Drinking Water Standards of Regulated Contaminants Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for TTHMs is 80 parts per billion (ppb). No other changes to the existing drinking water distribution system and chlorination operations are anticipated before switching to the TSWWS as the primary drinking water source. The two groundwater wells (Wells 20 and 18) which are currently the primary and backup water sources for the system would be maintained for use as backup supply. In the future, one of the wells may be removed from the system. A permit amendment would be filed at that time if this modification was deemed appropriate.

  17. Trihalomethane hydrolysis in drinking water at elevated temperatures. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Lu; Yang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Mao; Karanfil, Tanju; Xie, Yuefeng F


    Hydrolysis could contribute to the loss of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the drinking water at elevated temperatures. This study was aimed at investigating THM hydrolysis pertaining to the storage of hot boiled water in enclosed containers. The water pH value was in the range of 6.1-8.2 and the water temperature was varied from 65 to 95 °C. The effects of halide ions, natural organic matter, and drinking water matrix were investigated. Results showed that the hydrolysis rates declined in the order following CHBrCl2 > CHBr2Cl > CHBr3 > CHCl3. THM hydrolysis was primarily through the alkaline pathway, except for CHCl3 in water at relatively low pH value. The activation energies for the alkaline hydrolysis of CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CHBr3 were 109, 113, 115 and 116 kJ/mol, respectively. No hydrolysis intermediates could accumulate in the water. The natural organic matter, and probably other constituents, in drinking water could substantially decrease THM hydrolysis rates by more than 50%. When a drinking water was at 90 °C or above, the first order rate constants for THM hydrolysis were in the magnitude of 10(-2)‒10(-1) 1/h. When the boiled real tap water was stored in an enclosed container, THMs continued increasing during the first few hours and then kept decreasing later on due to the competition between hydrolysis and further formation. The removal of THMs, especially brominated THMs, by hydrolysis would greatly reduce one's exposure to disinfection by-products by consuming the boiled water stored in enclosed containers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of bacteria and trihalomethane compounds in sachet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portable water is essential to humans and other forms of life. Poor treatment of drinking water results in the distribution of drinking water contaminated with bacteria and trihalomethane (THMs) compounds. Five brands of sachet drinking water were analyzed for coliform colony units and THM compounds concentration using ...

  19. Adsorption of trihalomethanes by humin: Batch and fixed bed column studies. (United States)

    Cunha, G da C; Romão, L P C; Santos, M C; Araújo, B R; Navickiene, S; de Pádua, V L


    The objective of the present work was to assess the performance of batch and fixed bed column systems, using humin in natura and immobilized on sodium silicate, respectively, for the adsorption of the principal trihalomethanes (THMs) found in water supply systems. Kinetically, adsorption of THMs by humin follows a pseudo-second order reaction, with more than 50% removal in the first 5min for all compounds studied, and equilibrium described by the Freundlich model reached in 240min. The THM adsorption results were significant at phumin for removal of THMs. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Disinfection by-product formation of UV treated swimming pool water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus


    could be replicated by performing the DBP formation assay with higher chlorine concentrations to simulate extended chlorination. Post-UV chlorination of water from a swimming pool that continuously uses UV treatment to control combined chlorine could not induce secondary formation of DBPs....... The trihalomethane induction might result from a kinetic increase in formation by UV. However, this does not imply that higher trihalomethane concentrations would occur in pools that apply continuous UV treatment. The bromine fraction of the halogens in the formed trihalomethanes increased with UV dose, which......-UV chlorine consumption increased, dose-dependently, with UV treatment dose. A clear absence of trihalomethane formation by UV and UV with chlorine was observed. The post-UV chlorination clearly induced formation of DBPs; however, for the total trihalomethanes (TTHM), the inductions were not more than what...

  1. Seasonal and spatial evolution of trihalomethanes in a drinking water distribution system according to the treatment process. (United States)

    Domínguez-Tello, A; Arias-Borrego, A; García-Barrera, Tamara; Gómez-Ariza, J L


    This paper comparatively shows the influence of four water treatment processes on the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in a water distribution system. The study was performed from February 2005 to January 2012 with analytical data of 600 samples taken in Aljaraque water treatment plant (WTP) and 16 locations along the water distribution system (WDS) in the region of Andévalo and the coast of Huelva (southwest Spain), a region with significant seasonal and population changes. The comparison of results in the four different processes studied indicated a clear link of the treatment process with the formation of THM along the WDS. The most effective treatment process is preozonation and activated carbon filtration (P3), which is also the most stable under summer temperatures. Experiments also show low levels of THMs with the conventional process of preoxidation with potassium permanganate (P4), delaying the chlorination to the end of the WTP; however, this simple and economical treatment process is less effective and less stable than P3. In this study, strong seasonal variations were obtained (increase of THM from winter to summer of 1.17 to 1.85 times) and a strong spatial variation (1.1 to 1.7 times from WTP to end points of WDS) which largely depends on the treatment process applied. There was also a strong correlation between THM levels and water temperature, contact time and pH. On the other hand, it was found that THM formation is not proportional to the applied chlorine dose in the treatment process, but there is a direct relationship with the accumulated dose of chlorine. Finally, predictive models based on multiple linear regressions are proposed for each treatment process.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Concentration of trihalomethanes (THM and precursors in drinking water within distribution networks. Water chlorination is the disinfection method most widely used, having however the disadvantage of producing trihalomethanes (THM as secondary compounds, which are included in the list of priority hazardous substances in water. THM formation is influenced by the raw water composition and chlorine from the disinfection process. This paper intends to highlight the individual values of the chemical compounds precursors of THM in the water network in order to correlate them with the evolution of THM concentration. The cities of Targu Mures and Zalau were chosen as the study area having surface waters with different degrees of contamination as the water source. Pre-treatment with potassium permanganate is used at the water treatment plant in Targu Mures, while pre-chlorination is used at the water treatment plant in Zalau. Water sampling was performed weekly between March-May, 2011 in three sampling points of each city, maintained during the period of study. Total THM and their compounds as well as THM precursors (oxidability, ammonium content, nitrites and nitrates were measured. The water supplied in the distribution network corresponded integrally to the quality standards in terms of the analyzed indicators, including THM concentrations. The higher average THM concentrations in Zalau (52.01±14 μg/L compared to Targu Mures (36.43±9.14 μg/L were expected as a result of precursors concentration. In terms of THM compounds, they had similar proportions in the two localities, chloroform being clearly predominant, followed by dichlorobromoform and dibromochloroform, while bromoform was not identified. Statistical data analysis showed that the presence of THM precursors is correlated with the THM levels but not sufficient for their generation, even if they can be considered in general the basis of a valid prediction.

  3. Secondary formation of disinfection by-products by UV treatment of swimming pool water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Hansen, Kamilla M.S.; Andersen, Henrik R.


    Formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during experimental UV treatment of pool water has previously been reported with little concurrence between laboratory studies, field studies and research groups. In the current study, changes in concentration of seven out of eleven investigated volatile DBPs were observed in experiments using medium pressure UV treatment, with and without chlorine and after post-UV chlorination. Results showed that post-UV chlorine consumption increased, dose-dependently, with UV treatment dose. A clear absence of trihalomethane formation by UV and UV with chlorine was observed, while small yet statistically significant increases in dichloroacetonitrile and dichloropropanone concentrations were detected. Results indicate that post-UV chlorination clearly induced secondary formation of several DBPs. However, the formation of total trihalomethanes was no greater than what could be replicated by performing the DBP formation assay with higher chlorine concentrations to simulate extended chlorination. Post-UV chlorination of water from a swimming pool that continuously uses UV treatment to control combined chlorine could not induce secondary formation for most DBPs. Concurrence for induction of trihalomethanes was identified between post-UV chlorination treatments and simulated extended chlorination time treatment. Trihalomethanes could not be induced by UV treatment of water from a continuously UV treated pool. This indicates that literature reports of experimentally induced trihalomethane formation by UV may be a result of kinetic increase in formation by UV. However, this does not imply that higher trihalomethane concentrations would occur in pools that apply continuous UV treatment. The bromine fraction of halogens in formed trihalomethanes increased with UV dose. This indicates that UV removes bromine atoms from larger molecules that participate in trihalomethane production during post-UV chlorination. Additionally, no significant

  4. Stochastic Models of Molecule Formation on Dust (United States)

    Charnley, Steven; Wirstroem, Eva


    We will present new theoretical models for the formation of molecules on dust. The growth of ice mantles and their layered structure is accounted for and compared directly to observations through simulation of the expected ice absorption spectra


    Trihalomethanes are common contaminants of chlorinated drinking water. Studies of their health effects have been hampered by exposure misclassification, due in part to limitations inherent in using utility sampling records. We used two exposure assessment methods, one based on ut...

  6. Identification of Trihalomethanes (THMs) Levels in Water Supply: A Case Study in Perlis, Malaysia (United States)

    Jalil, Mohd Faizal Ab; Hamidin, Nasrul; Anas Nagoor Gunny, Ahmad; Nihla Kamarudzaman, Ain


    In Malaysia, chlorination is used for drinking water disinfection at water treatment plants due to its cost-effectiveness and efficiency. However, the use of chlorine poses potential health risks due to the formation of disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs). THMs are formed due to the reaction between chlorine and some natural organic matter. The objective of the study is to analyze the level of THMs in the water supply in Perlis, Malaysia. The water samples were collected from end-user tap water near the water treatment plant (WTP) located in Perlis, including Timah Tasoh WTP, Kampung Sungai Baru WTP, Arau Phase I, II, III, and IV WTPs. The THMs were analyzed using a Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that the water supply from Timah Tasoh WTP generates the most THMs, whereas Kuala Sungai Baru shows the fewest amounts of total THMs. In conclusion, the presence of THMs in tap water has caused great concern since these components can cause cancer in humans. Therefore, the identification of THM formation is crucial in order to make sure that the tap water quality remains at acceptable safety levels.

  7. Identification of Trihalomethanes (THMs Levels in Water Supply: A Case Study in Perlis, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab Jalil Mohd Faizal


    Full Text Available In Malaysia, chlorination is used for drinking water disinfection at water treatment plants due to its cost-effectiveness and efficiency. However, the use of chlorine poses potential health risks due to the formation of disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs. THMs are formed due to the reaction between chlorine and some natural organic matter. The objective of the study is to analyze the level of THMs in the water supply in Perlis, Malaysia. The water samples were collected from end-user tap water near the water treatment plant (WTP located in Perlis, including Timah Tasoh WTP, Kampung Sungai Baru WTP, Arau Phase I, II, III, and IV WTPs. The THMs were analyzed using a Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS. The results showed that the water supply from Timah Tasoh WTP generates the most THMs, whereas Kuala Sungai Baru shows the fewest amounts of total THMs. In conclusion, the presence of THMs in tap water has caused great concern since these components can cause cancer in humans. Therefore, the identification of THM formation is crucial in order to make sure that the tap water quality remains at acceptable safety levels.

  8. Field assessment of bacterial communities and total trihalomethanes: Implications for drinking water networks. (United States)

    Montoya-Pachongo, Carolina; Douterelo, Isabel; Noakes, Catherine; Camargo-Valero, Miller Alonso; Sleigh, Andrew; Escobar-Rivera, Juan-Carlos; Torres-Lozada, Patricia


    Operation and maintenance (O&M) of drinking water distribution networks (DWDNs) in tropical countries simultaneously face the control of acute and chronic risks due to the presence of microorganisms and disinfection by-products, respectively. In this study, results from a detailed field characterization of microbiological, chemical and infrastructural parameters of a tropical-climate DWDN are presented. Water physicochemical parameters and the characteristics of the network were assessed to evaluate the relationship between abiotic and microbiological factors and their association with the presence of total trihalomethanes (TTHMs). Illumina sequencing of the bacterial 16s rRNA gene revealed significant differences in the composition of biofilm and planktonic communities. The highly diverse biofilm communities showed the presence of methylotrophic bacteria, which suggest the presence of methyl radicals such as THMs within this habitat. Microbiological parameters correlated with water age, pH, temperature and free residual chlorine. The results from this study are necessary to increase the awareness of O&M practices in DWDNs required to reduce biofilm formation and maintain appropriate microbiological and chemical water quality, in relation to biofilm detachment and DBP formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Risk Assessment of Trihalomethane Production Using the Beijiang River and the Pearl River, Guangzhou as Drinking Water Sources]. (United States)

    Zhong, Hui-zhou; Wei, Chao-hai


    In order to investigate the risk of trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) in finished waters as drinking water sources, 70 samples, 114 samples, and 70 samples were collected in November 2013, April 2014 and July 2014, respectively from different locations in the Beijiang River and the Pearl River. After filtration by 0.45 μm filter membrane, a total of 254 samples were chlorinated using Uniform Formation Condition (UFC) method for determining their THM Formation Potential (THMFP). The cancer risk and non-cancer risk of THMs were estimated using USEPA risk assessment model while dominant factors for total risk potential were estimated using sensitivity analysis. Among four THM species, chloroform( CF) was the highest ranging from 101.92-2 590.85 μg x L(-1), followed by bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM) and bromoform (BF). Chloroform, the major THMs speciation, accounted for 96.17% of total THMs. Non-cancer and cancer risk from ingesting THMs was estimated. The result indicated that non-cancer risk of THMs level ranged from 2.03 x 10(-7) to 1.00 x 10(-5) and was not more than 1.0 x 10(-5), the minimum or negligible non-cancer risk level defined by the USEPA. The average cancer risk of THMs was 2.91 x 10(-4) for male and 3.30 x 10(-4) for female in the two rivers, respectively, exceeding the minimum or negligible risk level defined by the USEPA (1. 0 x 10 ~6). The difference of cancer risk between the two rivers was that BDCM ranging from 2.50 x 10(-5) to 6.37 x 10(-4) was approximately twice that of CF in Beijing River. BDCM played an important role in the total risk in the Beijiang River while CF played an important role in the total risk in the Pearl River, Guangzhou. Sensitivity analysis showed that CF played an important role in the estimation of total risk potential, and that the direct utilization of water sources from Beijiang River and the Pearl River Guangzhou is dangerous, thus pretreatment is necessary before chlorination.

  10. Secondary formation of disinfection by-products by UV treatment of swimming pool water. (United States)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Hansen, Kamilla M S; Andersen, Henrik R


    Formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during experimental UV treatment of pool water has previously been reported with little concurrence between laboratory studies, field studies and research groups. In the current study, changes in concentration of seven out of eleven investigated volatile DBPs were observed in experiments using medium pressure UV treatment, with and without chlorine and after post-UV chlorination. Results showed that post-UV chlorine consumption increased, dose-dependently, with UV treatment dose. A clear absence of trihalomethane formation by UV and UV with chlorine was observed, while small yet statistically significant increases in dichloroacetonitrile and dichloropropanone concentrations were detected. Results indicate that post-UV chlorination clearly induced secondary formation of several DBPs. However, the formation of total trihalomethanes was no greater than what could be replicated by performing the DBP formation assay with higher chlorine concentrations to simulate extended chlorination. Post-UV chlorination of water from a swimming pool that continuously uses UV treatment to control combined chlorine could not induce secondary formation for most DBPs. Concurrence for induction of trihalomethanes was identified between post-UV chlorination treatments and simulated extended chlorination time treatment. Trihalomethanes could not be induced by UV treatment of water from a continuously UV treated pool. This indicates that literature reports of experimentally induced trihalomethane formation by UV may be a result of kinetic increase in formation by UV. However, this does not imply that higher trihalomethane concentrations would occur in pools that apply continuous UV treatment. The bromine fraction of halogens in formed trihalomethanes increased with UV dose. This indicates that UV removes bromine atoms from larger molecules that participate in trihalomethane production during post-UV chlorination. Additionally, no significant


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ioana CIOBANU


    Full Text Available Compliance with the construct validity criteria is necessary for the correct assessment of the research in terms of quality and for further development of the marketing models. The identification of formative and reflective constructs as well as the correct testing of their validity and reliability are important methodological steps for marketing research as described in this article. The first part defines the reflective and the formative constructs and highlighst their particularities by analysing the theoretical criteria that differentiate them. In the second part of the study aspects of validity and trust for the formative and reflective constructs are presented as well as some empirical considerations from research literature regarding their measurement.

  12. Determination of trihalomethanes in water samples: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Pavon, Jose Luis [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)], E-mail:; Herrero Martin, Sara; Garcia Pinto, Carmelo; Moreno Cordero, Bernardo [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)


    This article reviews the most recent literature addressing the analytical methods applied for trihalomethanes (THMs) determination in water samples. This analysis is usually performed with gas chromatography (GC) combined with a preconcentration step. The detectors most widely used in this type of analyses are mass spectrometers (MS) and electron capture detectors (ECD). Here, we review the analytical characteristics, the time required for analysis, and the simplicity of the optimised methods. The main difference between these methods lies in the sample pretreatment step; therefore, special emphasis is placed on this aspect. The techniques covered are direct aqueous injection (DAI), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), headspace (HS), and membrane-based techniques. We also review the main chromatographic columns employed and consider novel aspects of chromatographic analysis, such as the use of fast gas chromatography (FGC). Concerning the detection step, besides the common techniques, the use of uncommon detectors such as fluorescence detector, pulsed discharge photoionization detector (PDPID), dry electrolytic conductivity detector (DELCD), atomic emission detector (AED) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for this type of analysis is described.

  13. Modelling oxide formation and growth on platinum (United States)

    Baroody, Heather A.; Jerkiewicz, Gregory; Eikerling, Michael H.


    We present a mathematical model of oxide formation and growth on platinum. The motivation stems from the necessity to understand platinum dissolution in the cathode catalyst layer of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. As is known, platinum oxide formation and reduction are strongly linked to platinum dissolution processes. However, a consistent model of the oxidation processes on platinum does not exist. Our oxide growth model links interfacial exchange processes between platinum and oxygen ions with the transport of oxygen ion vacancies via diffusion and migration. A parametric analysis is performed to rationalize vital trends in oxide growth kinetics. The rate determining step of oxide formation and growth is identified as the extraction of platinum atoms at the metal-oxide interface. A kinetic effect is observed while adjusting the potential when growing the oxide layer, and the solution indicates that a structural change occurs at high potentials, around 1.5 VRHE. The model compares well to experimental data for various materials from various sources.

  14. Empirical soot formation and oxidation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boussouara Karima


    Full Text Available Modelling internal combustion engines can be made following different approaches, depending on the type of problem to be simulated. A diesel combustion model has been developed and implemented in a full cycle simulation of a combustion, model accounts for transient fuel spray evolution, fuel-air mixing, ignition, combustion, and soot pollutant formation. The models of turbulent combustion of diffusion flame, apply to diffusion flames, which one meets in industry, typically in the diesel engines particulate emission represents one of the most deleterious pollutants generated during diesel combustion. Stringent standards on particulate emission along with specific emphasis on size of emitted particulates have resulted in increased interest in fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of soot particulate formation and oxidation in internal combustion engines. A phenomenological numerical model which can predict the particle size distribution of the soot emitted will be very useful in explaining the above observed results and will also be of use to develop better particulate control techniques. A diesel engine chosen for simulation is a version of the Caterpillar 3406. We are interested in employing a standard finite-volume computational fluid dynamics code, KIVA3V-RELEASE2.

  15. Continuum Modeling of Biological Network Formation

    KAUST Repository

    Albi, Giacomo


    We present an overview of recent analytical and numerical results for the elliptic–parabolic system of partial differential equations proposed by Hu and Cai, which models the formation of biological transportation networks. The model describes the pressure field using a Darcy type equation and the dynamics of the conductance network under pressure force effects. Randomness in the material structure is represented by a linear diffusion term and conductance relaxation by an algebraic decay term. We first introduce micro- and mesoscopic models and show how they are connected to the macroscopic PDE system. Then, we provide an overview of analytical results for the PDE model, focusing mainly on the existence of weak and mild solutions and analysis of the steady states. The analytical part is complemented by extensive numerical simulations. We propose a discretization based on finite elements and study the qualitative properties of network structures for various parameter values.

  16. Early models of DNA damage formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Śmiałek, Małgorzata A


    Quantification of DNA damage, induced by various types of incident radiation as well as chemical agents, has been the subject of many theoretical and experimental studies, supporting the development of modern cancer therapy. The primary observations showed that many factors can lead to damage of DNA molecules. It became clear that the development of experimental techniques for exploring this phenomenon is required. Another problem was simultaneously dealt with, anticipating on how the damage is distributed within the double helix of the DNA molecule and how the single strand break formation and accumulation can influence the lethal double strand break formation. In this work the most important probabilistic models for DNA strand breakage and damage propagation are summarized and compared.

  17. Modelling Forearc Basin Formation and Stratigraphy (United States)

    Mannu, Utsav; Ueda, Kosuke; Willett, Sean; Gerya, Taras; Strasser, Michael


    Comparison of synthetic stratigraphy of forearc basins as generated in coupled plate subduction and accretionary wedge models to the stratal patterns observed for forearc basins in nature, could be used to ascertain the dynamic consistency of the interpreted deformational history of the wedge. Additionally, it could help us understand the emergence of stratigraphic patterns in forearc basins as an interplay between sedimentary flux and wedge dynamics. Here we present a simple methodology to generate synthetic stratigraphy by emplacing isochronal surfaces during the evolution of the wedge. We use a dynamic 2D, high-resolution, thermo-mechanical, subduction model coupled to an adaptive irregular surface grid to model the free surface. In this model, we track basin stratigraphy developing in the wedge top basins atop the accretionary prism by emplacing lines of Lagrangian markers at discrete times along the upper surface of the model, which subsequently are buried, transported, and deformed according to the velocity field generated in the model. We conduct numerical experiments to identify the stratigraphic signatures of different forearc basin formation mechanisms. We also study the impact of hinterland and trench sedimentation on the wedge evolution and its impact on forearc basin formation. Forearc basins that form on top of the overriding plate remain passive to the deformation history of the wedge. Forearc basins formed as negative alpha basins remain mostly undeformed. Forearc basins that form due to wedge stabilization exhibit landward tilting of strata with time. We also find that trench sedimentation enhances the landward tilting of the basin by shifting deformation landwards and potentially triggering out-of-sequence-thrust emergence/reactivation. Predicted stratigraphic features in our numerical models agree well with stratigraphic patterns observed in different types of forearc basins in the Nankai Trough, Sunda Strait and Lombok Basin offshore Japan, Java

  18. Microbial degradation of plant leachate alters lignin phenols and trihalomethane precursors (United States)

    Pellerin, Brian A.; Hernes, Peter J.; Saraceno, John Franco; Spencer, Robert G.M.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.


    Although the importance of vascular plant-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in freshwater systems has been studied, the role of leached DOC as precursors of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during drinking water treatment is not well known. Here we measured the propensity of leachates from four crops and four aquatic macrophytes to form trihalomethanes (THMs)—a regulated class of DBPs—before and after 21 d of microbial degradation. We also measured lignin phenol content and specific UV absorbance (SUVA254) to test the assumption that aromatic compounds from vascular plants are resistant to microbial degradation and readily form DBPs. Leaching solubilized 9 to 26% of total plant carbon, which formed 1.93 to 6.72 mmol THM mol C-1 However, leachate DOC concentrations decreased by 85 to 92% over the 21-d incubation, with a concomitant decrease of 67 to 92% in total THM formation potential. Carbon-normalized THM yields in the residual DOC pool increased by 2.5 times on average, consistent with the preferential uptake of nonprecursor material. Lignin phenol concentrations decreased by 64 to 96% over 21 d, but a lack of correlation between lignin content and THM yields or SUVA254 suggested that lignin-derived compounds are not the source of increased THM precursor yields in the residual DOC pool. Our results indicate that microbial carbon utilization alters THM precursors in ecosystems with direct plant leaching, but more work is needed to identify the specific dissolved organic matter components with a greater propensity to form DBPs and affect watershed management, drinking water quality, and human health.

  19. Exposure assessment for trihalomethanes in municipal drinking water and risk reduction strategy. (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat


    Lifetime exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in municipal water may pose risks to human health. Current approaches of exposure assessments use DBPs in cold water during showering, while warming of chlorinated water during showering may increase trihalomethane (THM) formation in the presence of free residual chlorine. Further, DBP exposure through dermal contact during showering is estimated using steady-state condition between the DBPs in shower water impacting on human skin and skin exposed to shower water. The lag times to achieve steady-state condition between DBPs in shower water and human skin can vary in the range of 9.8-391.2 min, while shower duration is often less than the lag times. Assessment of exposure without incorporating these factors might have misinterpreted DBP exposure in some previous studies. In this study, exposure to THMs through ingestion was estimated using cold water THMs, while THM exposure through inhalation and dermal contact during showering was estimated using THMs in warm water. Inhalation of THMs was estimated using THM partition into the shower air, while dermal uptake was estimated by incorporating lag times (e.g., unsteady and steady-state phases of exposure) during showering. Probabilistic approach was followed to incorporate uncertainty in the assessment. Inhalation and dermal contact during showering contributed 25-60% of total exposure. Exposure to THMs during showering can be controlled by varying shower stall volume, shower duration and air exchange rate following power law equations. The findings might be useful in understanding exposure to THMs, which can be extended to other volatile compounds in municipal water. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Trihalomethanes in Lisbon indoor swimming pools: occurrence, determining factors, and health risk classification. (United States)

    Silva, Zelinda Isabel; Rebelo, Maria Helena; Silva, Manuela Manso; Alves, Ana Martins; Cabral, Maria da Conceição; Almeida, Ana Cristina; Aguiar, Fátima Rôxo; de Oliveira, Anabela Lopes; Nogueira, Ana Cruz; Pinhal, Hermínia Rodrigues; Aguiar, Pedro Manuel; Cardoso, Ana Sofia


    Characterization of water quality from indoor swimming pools, using chorine-based disinfection techniques, was performed during a 6-mo period to study the occurrence, distribution, and concentration factors of trihalomethanes (THM). Several parameters such as levels of water THM, water and air chloroform, water bromodichloromethane (BDCM), water dibromochloromethane (DBCM), water bromoform (BF), free residual chlorine (FrCl), pH, water and air temperature, and permanganate water oxidizability (PWO) were determined in each pool during that period. Chloroform (CF(W)) was the THM detected at higher concentrations in all pools, followed by BDCM, DBCM, and BF detected at 99, 34, and 6% of the samples, respectively. Water THM concentrations ranged from 10.1 to 155 μg/L, with 6.5% of the samples presenting values above 100 μg/L (parametric value established in Portuguese law DL 306/2007). In this study, air chloroform (CF(Air)) concentrations ranged from 45 to 373 μg/m³ with 24% of the samples presenting values above 136 μg/m³ (considered high exposure value). Several significant correlations were observed between total THM and other parameters, namely, CF(W), CF(Air), FrCl, water temperature (T(W)), and PWO. These correlations indicate that FrCl, T(W) and PWO are parameters that influence THM formation. The exposure criterion established for water THM enabled the inclusion of 67% of Lisbon pools in the high exposure group, which reinforces the need for an improvement in pool water quality.


    Time to pregnancy in relation to total trihalomethane levels in tap waterShanna H. Swan, Cuirong Ren, Gayle C. Windham, Laura Fenster, Kirsten Waller. (University of Missouri and California Department of Health Services). We have previously reported increased risks o...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Trihalomethanes (THMs, as disinfection by-products resulted from water chlorination, can get into the body through ingestion of beverages, food or drinking water. This paper discusses the relationship between the use of drinking water from the public distribution network of Cluj-Napoca and exposure to trihalomethanes. To better characterize individual water consumption, at home and at work, we applied a questionnaire to a group of 211 subjects from Cluj-Napoca, while assessing their current exposure to THMs by collecting and analyzing water from different points of the distribution network. The data obtained were statistically processed and then used to calculate the exposure dose and cancer risk for both adults and children. The results showed that subjects consumed for drinking both bottled water and water from the distribution network, but for preparing food and beverages (tea, coffee they used only water from the public distribution network. The average daily consumption of drinking water from the distribution network, is 1.4 l/day for adults, including beverages prepared with treated water. The surveyed subjects declared that they consume coffee or tea, in percentage of 88%, 94.4% respectively. The calculation of the exposure dose, daily intake and risk of cancer was achieved by using a model developed by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR from the USA to calculate the dose and assess the risk of cancer. Our study shows that the cancer risk to THMs is increasing related to the higher daily intake of the drinking water, being higher for chloroform compared to dibromochloroform. For the measured concentrations of chloroform and dibromochloroform in drinking water and the average daily consumption of 1.4 l water/day, the probability of new cancers occurrence is at least 2.4 additional cases for 25 years of exposure and maximum 4.61 cases for 35 years of exposure in the existing background of a 1 million people.

  3. Comparison between HPSEC-OCD and F-EEMs for assessing DBPs formation in water. (United States)

    Hidayah, Euis Nurul; Chou, Yung-Chen; Yeh, Hsuan-Hsien


    In this study, natural organic matter (NOM) in source water, as well as the treated water after coagulation with or without potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 ) preoxidation, was characterized by using high performance size exclusion chromatography with organic carbon detector (HPSEC-OCD) and fluorescence excitation emission matrices (F-EEMs) with parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis. Bulk parameters, such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ultraviolet light absorbance at 254 nm (UV 254 ), were also analyzed. The results show that KMnO 4 preoxidation caused the breakdown of high molecular weight (MW) organics into low MW organics. All organics, whether those that existed in the source water or those generated by KMnO 4 preoxidation, could be partly removed by coagulation. Combining the derived organic fractions obtained from HPSEC-OCD with peak-fitting and from F-EEMs with PARAFAC on the same sample, humic substances have been specified as the main organic composition. Further, the predictive models for trihalomethanes formation potential (THMFP) and haloacetic acids formation potential (HAAFP) based on organic fractions from HPSEC-OCD have higher accuracy than those based on the components from PARAFAC modeling. These models provide useful tools to specify the organic fractions from HPSEC-OCD and F-EEMs that constitute active precursors towards trihalomethanes (THMs) or haloacetic acids (HAAs) formation in water. Further, by knowing the major organic precursors, it would facilitate choosing the appropriate water treatment process for disinfection by-products (DBPs) control.

  4. A probabilistic model of brittle crack formation (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Kunin, B.


    Probability of a brittle crack formation in an elastic solid with fluctuating strength is considered. A set Omega of all possible crack trajectories reflecting the fluctuation of the strength field is introduced. The probability P(X) that crack penetration depth exceeds X is expressed as a functional integral over Omega of a conditional probability of the same event taking place along a particular path. Various techniques are considered to evaluate the integral. Under rather nonrestrictive assumptions, the integral is reduced to solving a diffusion-type equation. A new characteristic of fracture process, 'crack diffusion coefficient', is introduced. An illustrative example is then considered where the integration is reduced to solving an ordinary differential equation. The effect of the crack diffusion coefficient and of the magnitude of strength fluctuations on probability density of crack penetration depth is presented. Practical implications of the proposed model are discussed.

  5. A New Method for the Fast Analysis of Trihalomethanes in Tap and Recycled Waters Using Headspace Gas Chromatography with Micro-Electron Capture Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydon D. Alexandrou


    Full Text Available Chemical disinfection of water supplies brings significant public health benefits by reducing microbial contamination. The process can however, result in the formation of toxic compounds through interactions between disinfectants and organic material in the source water. These new compounds are termed disinfection by-products (DBPs. The most common are the trihalomethanes (THMs such as trichloromethane (chloroform, dichlorobromomethane, chlorodibromomethane and tribromomethane (bromoform; these are commonly reported as a single value for total trihalomethanes (TTHMs. Analysis of DBPs is commonly performed via time- and solvent-intensive sample preparation techniques such as liquid–liquid and solid phase extraction. In this study, a method using headspace gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection was developed and applied for the analysis of THMs in drinking and recycled waters from across Melbourne (Victoria, Australia. The method allowed almost complete removal of the sample preparation step whilst maintaining trace level detection limits (>1 ppb. All drinking water samples had TTHM concentrations below the Australian regulatory limit of 250 µg/L but some were above the U.S. EPA limit of 60 µg/L. The highest TTHM concentration was 67.2 µg/L and lowest 22.9 µg/L. For recycled water, samples taken directly from treatment plants held significantly higher concentrations (153.2 µg/L TTHM compared to samples from final use locations (4.9–9.3 µg/L.

  6. Carbon isotopic constraints on the contribution of plant material to the natural precursors of trihalomethanes (United States)

    Bergamaschi, B.A.; Fram, M.S.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S.R.; Aiken, G.R.; Fujii, R.


    The ??13C values of individual trihalomethanes (THM) formed on reaction of chlorine with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leached from maize (corn, Zea maize L) and Scirpus acutus (an aquatic bulrush), and with DOC extracted from agricultural drainage waters were determined using purge and trap introduction into a gas chromatograph-combustion-isotope ratio monitoring mass spectrometer. We observed a 1-6.8??? difference between the ??13C values of THM produced from the maize and Scirpus leachates, similar to the isotopic difference between the whole plant materials. Both maize and Scirpus formed THM 12??? lower in 13C than whole plant material. We suggest that the low value of the THM relative to the whole plant material is evidence of distinct pools of THM-forming DOC, representing different biochemical types or chemical structures, and possessing different environmental reactivity Humic extracts of waters draining an agricultural field containing Scirpus peat soils and planted with maize formed THM with isotopic values intermediate between those of maize and Scirpus leachates, indicating maize may contribute significantly to the THM-forming DOC. The difference between the ??13C values of the whole isolate and that of the THM it yielded was 3 9???, however, suggesting diagenesis plays a role in determining the ??13C value of THM-forming DOC in the drainage waters, and precluding the direct use of isotopic mixing models to quantitatively attribute sources.The ??13C values of individual trihalomethanes (THM) formed on reaction of chlorine with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leached from maize (corn; Zea maize L.) and Scirpus acutus (an aquatic bulrush), and with DOC extracted from agricultural drainage waters were determined using purge and trap introduction into a gas chromatograph-combustion-isotope ratio monitoring mass spectrometer. We observed a 16.8qq difference between the ??13C values of THM produced from the maize and Scirpus leachates, similar to the isotopic

  7. Modelling salt finger formation using the Imperial College Ocean Model (United States)

    MacTavish, F. P.; Cotter, C. J.; Piggott, M. D.


    We present numerical simulations of salt finger formation produced using the Imperial College Ocean Model (ICOM) which is a finite element model using adaptive meshing. Our aim is to validate the model against published data and to develop the capability to simulate salt finger formation using adaptive meshes. Salt fingering is a form of double-diffusion which occurs because heat diffuses more quickly than salt. When an area of warm, salty water overlies an area of colder, fresher water, an initial perturbation can lead to some of the water from the lower layer moving into the top layer. Its temperature then increases more quickly than its salinity, so that the water is less dense than its surroundings and it will rise up more. This process repeats to form salt fingers, with salt fingers also forming in the downward direction. Salt fingers play a role in oceanic mixing, in particular they are responsible for maintaining thermohaline staircases such as the C-SALT staircase which have been observed extensively, particularly in the tropics. The study of salt fingers could therefore improve our understanding of processes in the ocean, and inform the design of subgrid parameterisations in general circulation models. We used the salt finger formation test case of Oezgoekmen et al (1998) in order to validate ICOM. The formation of salt fingers is modelled by solving the Navier-Stokes equations for a two-dimensional rectangular area of Boussinesq fluid, beginning with two layers of water, the top warm and salty and the bottom cold and fresh, with parameters chosen to match the test case of Oezgoekmen et al (1998). The positions of the interfaces between the fingering layer and the mixed layers as well as the finger growth rate and the kinetic energy are plotted against time. The results are compared with those of Oezgoekmen et al (1998). We present results from structured meshes and preliminary results using adaptive meshing.

  8. Secondary formation of disinfection by-products by UV treatment of swimming pool water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus


    be replicated by performing the DBP formation assay with higher chlorine concentrations to simulate extended chlorination. Post-UV chlorination of water from a swimming pool that continuously uses UV treatment to control combined chlorine could not induce secondary formation for most DBPs. Concurrence...... trihalomethane formation by UV may be a result of kinetic increase in formation by UV. However, this does not imply that higher trihalomethane concentrations would occur in pools that apply continuous UV treatment. The bromine fraction of halogens in formed trihalomethanes increased with UV dose. This indicates......Formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during experimental UV treatment of pool water has previously been reported with little concurrence between laboratory studies, field studies and research groups. In the current study, changes in concentration of seven out of eleven investigated volatile...

  9. A mathematical model of star formation in the Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Sharaf


    Full Text Available This paper is generally concerned with star formation in the Galaxy, especially blue stars. Blue stars are the most luminous, massive and the largest in radius. A simple mathematical model of the formation of the stars is established and put in computational algorithm. This algorithm enables us to know more about the formation of the star. Some real and artificial examples had been used to justify this model.

  10. Mark formation modeling in optical rewritable recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brusche, J.H.; Segal, A.; Vuik, C.; Urbach, H.P.


    In optical rewritable recording media, such as the Blu-ray Disc, amorphous marks are formed on a crystalline background of a phase-change layer, by means of short, high power laser pulses. In order to improve this data storage concept, it is of great importance to understand the mark formation

  11. Passive exposures of children to volatile trihalomethanes during domestic cleaning activities of their parents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andra, Syam S. [Water and Health Laboratory, Cyprus International Institute for Environmental and Public Health in association with Harvard School of Public Health, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol (Cyprus); Harvard-Cyprus Program, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Charisiadis, Pantelis [Water and Health Laboratory, Cyprus International Institute for Environmental and Public Health in association with Harvard School of Public Health, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol (Cyprus); Karakitsios, Spyros; Sarigiannis, Denis A. [Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Campus, Bldg. D, Rm 318, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Chemical Process and Energy Resources Institute, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, 57001 Thessaloniki-Thermi (Greece); Makris, Konstantinos C., E-mail: [Water and Health Laboratory, Cyprus International Institute for Environmental and Public Health in association with Harvard School of Public Health, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol (Cyprus)


    Domestic cleaning has been proposed as a determinant of trihalomethanes (THMs) exposure in adult females. We hypothesized that parental housekeeping activities could influence children's passive exposures to THMs from their mere physical presence during domestic cleaning. In a recent cross-sectional study (n=382) in Cyprus [41 children (<18y) and 341 adults (≥18y)], we identified 29 children who met the study's inclusion criteria. Linear regression models were applied to understand the association between children sociodemographic variables, their individual practices influencing ingestion and noningestion exposures to ΣTHMs, and their urinary THMs levels. Among the children-specific variables, age alone showed a statistically significant inverse association with their creatinine-adjusted urinary ΣTHMs (r{sub S}=−0.59, p<0.001). A positive correlation was observed between urinary ΣTHMs (ng g{sup −1}) of children and matched-mothers (r{sub S}=0.52, p=0.014), but this was not the case for their matched-fathers (r{sub S}=0.39, p=0.112). Time spent daily by the matched-mothers for domestic mopping, toilet and other cleaning activities using chlorine-based cleaning products was associated with their children's urinary THMs levels (r{sub S}=0.56, p=0.007). This trend was not observed between children and their matched-fathers urinary ΣTHMs levels, because of minimum amount of time spent by the latter in performing domestic cleaning. The proportion of variance of creatinine-unadjusted and adjusted urinary ΣTHMs levels in children that was explained by the matched-mothers covariates was 76% and 74% (p<0.001), respectively. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model adequately predicted urinary chloroform excretion estimates, being consistent with the corresponding measured levels. Our findings highlighted the influence of mothers' domestic cleaning activities towards enhancing passive THMs exposures of their children. The duration of such

  12. Modeling the Formation of Language: Embodied Experiments (United States)

    Steels, Luc

    This chapter gives an overview of different experiments that have been performed to demonstrate how a symbolic communication system, including its underlying ontology, can arise in situated embodied interactions between autonomous agents. It gives some details of the Grounded Naming Game, which focuses on the formation of a system of proper names, the Spatial Language Game, which focuses on the formation of a lexicon for expressing spatial relations as well as perspective reversal, and an Event Description Game, which concerns the expression of the role of participants in events through an emergent case grammar. For each experiment, details are provided how the symbolic system emerges, how the interaction is grounded in the world through the embodiment of the agent and its sensori-motor processing, and how concepts are formed in tight interaction with the emerging language.

  13. Dynamics of pathologic clot formation: a mathematical model. (United States)

    Shavlyugin, Evgeny A; Hanin, Leonid G; Khanin, Mikhail A


    Recent studies have provided evidence of a significant role of the Hageman factor in pathologic clot formation. Since auto-activation of the Hageman factor triggers the intrinsic coagulation pathway, we study the dynamics of pathologic clot formation considering the intrinsic pathway as the predominant mechanism of this process. Our methodological approach to studying the dynamics of clot formation is based on mathematical modelling. Activation of the blood coagulation cascade, particularly its intrinsic pathway, is known to involve platelets. Therefore, equations accounting for the effects of activated platelets on the intrinsic pathway activation are included in our model. This brings about a considerable increase in the values of kinetic constants involved in the model of the principal biochemical processes resulting in clot formation. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the mechanism of pathologic clot formation. Since the time window of thrombolysis is 3-6h, we hypothesize that in many cases the rate of pathologic clot formation is much lower than that of haemostatic clot. This assumption is used to simplify the mathematical model and to estimate kinetic constants of biochemical reactions that initiate pathologic clot formation. The insights we gained from our mathematical model may lead to new approaches to the prophylaxis of pathologic clot formation. We believe that one of the most efficient ways to prevent pathologic clot formation is simultaneous inhibition of activated factors ХII and ХI. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A New Model of Black Hole Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayer G. D.


    Full Text Available The formation of a black hole and its event horizon are described. Conclusions, which are the result of a thought experiment, show that Schwarzschild [1] was correct: A singularity develops at the event horizon of a newly-formed black hole. The intense gravitational field that forms near the event horizon results in the mass-energy of the black hole accumulating in a layer just inside the event horizon, rather than collapsing into a central singularity.

  15. Extrasolar planets: constraints for planet formation models. (United States)

    Santos, Nuno C; Benz, Willy; Mayor, Michel


    Since 1995, more than 150 extrasolar planets have been discovered, most of them in orbits quite different from those of the giant planets in our own solar system. The number of discovered extrasolar planets demonstrates that planetary systems are common but also that they may possess a large variety of properties. As the number of detections grows, statistical studies of the properties of exoplanets and their host stars can be conducted to unravel some of the key physical and chemical processes leading to the formation of planetary systems.

  16. Finite Element Modeling of Burr Formation in Metal Cutting


    Min, Sangkee; Dornfeld, David; Kim, J.; Shyu, B.


    In order to advance understanding of the burr formation process, a series of finite element models are introduced. First a finite element model of the burr formation of two-dimensional orthogonal cutting is introduced and validated with experimental observations. A detailed and thorough examination of the drilling burr forming process is undertaken. This information is then used in the construction of an analytical model and, leads to development of a three-dimensional finite element mode...

  17. Autonomous formation flight of helicopters: Model predictive control approach (United States)

    Chung, Hoam

    Formation flight is the primary movement technique for teams of helicopters. However, the potential for accidents is greatly increased when helicopter teams are required to fly in tight formations and under harsh conditions. This dissertation proposes that the automation of helicopter formations is a realistic solution capable of alleviating risks. Helicopter formation flight operations in battlefield situations are highly dynamic and dangerous, and, therefore, we maintain that both a high-level formation management system and a distributed coordinated control algorithm should be implemented to help ensure safe formations. The starting point for safe autonomous formation flights is to design a distributed control law attenuating external disturbances coming into a formation, so that each vehicle can safely maintain sufficient clearance between it and all other vehicles. While conventional methods are limited to homogeneous formations, our decentralized model predictive control (MPC) approach allows for heterogeneity in a formation. In order to avoid the conservative nature inherent in distributed MPC algorithms, we begin by designing a stable MPC for individual vehicles, and then introducing carefully designed inter-agent coupling terms in a performance index. Thus the proposed algorithm works in a decentralized manner, and can be applied to the problem of helicopter formations comprised of heterogenous vehicles. Individual vehicles in a team may be confronted by various emerging situations that will require the capability for in-flight reconfiguration. We propose the concept of a formation manager to manage separation, join, and synchronization of flight course changes. The formation manager accepts an operator's commands, information from neighboring vehicles, and its own vehicle states. Inside the formation manager, there are multiple modes and complex mode switchings represented as a finite state machine (FSM). Based on the current mode and collected

  18. determination of trihalomethanes in drinking water in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    1994; Rock, 1977; Scott & Horing, 1983). The formation of bromo-substituted THMs, for example, is favoured in alkaline medium. (Alawi et al.1994). And as these above factors vary in different environment, no general trend is observed by the various authors working in this field. CONCLUSION. The concentration of total ...

  19. Distribution and relevance of iodinated X-ray contrast media and iodinated trihalomethanes in an aquatic environment. (United States)

    Xu, Zhifa; Li, Xia; Hu, Xialin; Yin, Daqiang


    Distribution and relevance of iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) and iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs) in a real aquatic environment have been rarely documented. In this paper, some ICM were proven to be strongly correlated with I-DBPs through investigation of five ICM and five iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) in surface water and two drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) of the Yangtze River Delta, China. The total ICM concentrations in Taihu Lake and the Huangpu River ranged from 88.7 to 131 ng L -1 and 102-252 ng L -1 , respectively. While the total I-THM concentrations ranged from 128 to 967 ng L -1 in Taihu Lake and 267-680 ng L -1 in the Huangpu River. Iohexol, the dominant ICM, showed significant positive correlation (p < 0.01) with CHClI 2 in Taihu Lake. Iopamidol and iomeprol correlated positively (p < 0.01) with some I-THMs in the Huangpu River. The observed pronounced correlations between ICM and I-THMs indicated that ICM play an important role in the formation of I-THMs in a real aquatic environment. Characteristics of the I-THM species distributions indicated that I-THMs may be transformed by natural conditions. Both DWTPs showed negligible removal efficiencies for total ICM (<20%). Strikingly high concentrations of total I-THMs were observed in the finished water (2848 ng L -1 in conventional DWTP and 356 ng L -1 in advanced DWTP). Obvious transformation of ICM to I-THMs was observed during the chlorination and ozonization processes in DWTPs. We suggest that ICM is an important source for I-DBP formation in the real aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Exposição humana a trialometanos presentes em água tratada Human exposure to trihalomethanes in drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Y Tominaga


    Full Text Available Realizou-se uma revisão bibliográfica do período de 1974-1998, no MEDLINE, sobre compostos orgânicos halogenados derivados de hidrocarbonetos denominados de trialometanos. Muitos deles, reconhecidamente carcinogênicos para diferentes espécies animais, podem ser encontrados freqüentemente, inclusive entre nós, em águas tratadas e enviadas à população urbana. É o caso de compostos como o clorofórmio, bromodiclorometano, clorodibromometano e bromofórmio, resultantes da halogenação de precursores, principalmente substâncias húmicas e fúlvicas presentes na água que será tratada (clorada. Assim, descreve-se sua formação, fontes de exposição humana bem como os aspectos toxicológicos de maior importância: disposição cinética e espectro dos efeitos tóxicos (carcinogênicos, mutagênicos e teratogênicos decorrentes de exposições a longo prazo e baixas concentrações. Níveis seguros de exposição propostos são também fornecidos.Halogenated hydrocarbon compounds, some of them recognized as carcinogenic to different animal species can be found in drinking water. Chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform are the most important trihalomethanes found in potable water. They are produced in natural waters during chlorinated desinfection by the halogenation of precursors, specially humic and fulvic compounds. The review, in the MEDLINE covers the period from 1974 to 1998, presents the general aspects of the formation of trihalomethanes, sources of human exposure and their toxicological meaning for exposed organisms: toxicokinetic disposition and spectrum of toxic effects (carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic.

  1. Star formation history: Modeling of visual binaries (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Y. M.; Tessema, S. B.; Malkov, O. Yu.; Kovaleva, D. A.; Sytov, A. Yu.; Tutukov, A. V.


    Most stars form in binary or multiple systems. Their evolution is defined by masses of components, orbital separation and eccentricity. In order to understand star formation and evolutionary processes, it is vital to find distributions of physical parameters of binaries. We have carried out Monte Carlo simulations in which we simulate different pairing scenarios: random pairing, primary-constrained pairing, split-core pairing, and total and primary pairing in order to get distributions of binaries over physical parameters at birth. Next, for comparison with observations, we account for stellar evolution and selection effects. Brightness, radius, temperature, and other parameters of components are assigned or calculated according to approximate relations for stars in different evolutionary stages (main-sequence stars, red giants, white dwarfs, relativistic objects). Evolutionary stage is defined as a function of system age and component masses. We compare our results with the observed IMF, binarity rate, and binary mass-ratio distributions for field visual binaries to find initial distributions and pairing scenarios that produce observed distributions.

  2. A Probabilistic Model of Theory Formation (United States)

    Kemp, Charles; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.; Niyogi, Sourabh; Griffiths, Thomas L.


    Concept learning is challenging in part because the meanings of many concepts depend on their relationships to other concepts. Learning these concepts in isolation can be difficult, but we present a model that discovers entire systems of related concepts. These systems can be viewed as simple theories that specify the concepts that exist in a…

  3. Computer Modelling of Photochemical Smog Formation (United States)

    Huebert, Barry J.


    Discusses a computer program that has been used in environmental chemistry courses as an example of modelling as a vehicle for teaching chemical dynamics, and as a demonstration of some of the factors which affect the production of smog. (Author/GS)

  4. Parabolic Free Boundary Price Formation Models Under Market Size Fluctuations

    KAUST Repository

    Markowich, Peter A.


    In this paper we propose an extension of the Lasry-Lions price formation model which includes uctuations of the numbers of buyers and vendors. We analyze the model in the case of deterministic and stochastic market size uctuations and present results on the long time asymptotic behavior and numerical evidence and conjectures on periodic, almost periodic, and stochastic uctuations. The numerical simulations extend the theoretical statements and give further insights into price formation dynamics.

  5. PageRank model of opinion formation on Ulam networks (United States)

    Chakhmakhchyan, L.; Shepelyansky, D.


    We consider a PageRank model of opinion formation on Ulam networks, generated by the intermittency map and the typical Chirikov map. The Ulam networks generated by these maps have certain similarities with such scale-free networks as the World Wide Web (WWW), showing an algebraic decay of the PageRank probability. We find that the opinion formation process on Ulam networks has certain similarities but also distinct features comparing to the WWW. We attribute these distinctions to internal differences in network structure of the Ulam and WWW networks. We also analyze the process of opinion formation in the frame of generalized Sznajd model which protects opinion of small communities.

  6. Health risk assessment of trihalomethanes from tap water in Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, Z.; Mumtaz, M.; Kamal, T.


    Risk assessment study of trihalomethanes (THMs) through different exposure pathways is based on the results of THMs concentration in tap water samples collected from various locations of Karachi city. The lifetime cancer risk and hazard index of each THM species were used to estimate the health risk from THM exposure through oral ingestion and dermal absorption. Exposure to CHCl/sub 3/ either through ingestion or dermal contact was found to be the most important pathway for cancer risks from THMs. It was also found that the residents of Karachi have a higher risk of cancer through oral ingestion than through the dermal absorption. The mean hazard index value of Total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) through oral ingestion and dermal absorption was calculated to be 8.84 X 10/sup -2/ and 4.39 X 10/sup -3/, respectively. The results of hazard index were found lower than unity, which did not indicate the non-cancer effects of THMs. On the basis of cancer risk analysis, it is expected that approximately 2 of the 18 million population of Karachi could get cancer each year due to exposure to the THMs. (author)

  7. Predictive model for ice formation on superhydrophobic surfaces. (United States)

    Bahadur, Vaibhav; Mishchenko, Lidiya; Hatton, Benjamin; Taylor, J Ashley; Aizenberg, Joanna; Krupenkin, Tom


    The prevention and control of ice accumulation has important applications in aviation, building construction, and energy conversion devices. One area of active research concerns the use of superhydrophobic surfaces for preventing ice formation. The present work develops a physics-based modeling framework to predict ice formation on cooled superhydrophobic surfaces resulting from the impact of supercooled water droplets. This modeling approach analyzes the multiple phenomena influencing ice formation on superhydrophobic surfaces through the development of submodels describing droplet impact dynamics, heat transfer, and heterogeneous ice nucleation. These models are then integrated together to achieve a comprehensive understanding of ice formation upon impact of liquid droplets at freezing conditions. The accuracy of this model is validated by its successful prediction of the experimental findings that demonstrate that superhydrophobic surfaces can fully prevent the freezing of impacting water droplets down to surface temperatures of as low as -20 to -25 °C. The model can be used to study the influence of surface morphology, surface chemistry, and fluid and thermal properties on dynamic ice formation and identify parameters critical to achieving icephobic surfaces. The framework of the present work is the first detailed modeling tool developed for the design and analysis of surfaces for various ice prevention/reduction strategies. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  8. Modelling the star formation histories of nearby elliptical galaxies (United States)

    Bird, Katy

    Since Lick indices were introduced in 1994, they have been used as a source of observational data against which computer models of galaxy evolution have been compared. However, as this thesis demonstrates, observed Lick indices lead to mathematical ill-conditioning: small variations in observations can lead to very large differences in population synthesis models attempting to recreate the observed values. As such, limited reliance should be placed on any results currently or historically in the literature purporting to give the star formation history of a galaxy, or group of galaxies, where this is deduced from Lick observations taken from a single instrument, without separate verification from at least one other source. Within these limitations, this thesis also constrains the star formation histories of 21 nearby elliptical galaxies, finding that they formed 13.26 +0.09 -0.06 Gyrs ago, that all mergers are dry, and that galactic winds are formed from AGN activity (rather than being supernovae-driven). This thesis also finds evidence to support the established galaxy-formation theory of "downsizing". An existing galactic model from the literature is examined and evaluated, and the reasons for it being unable to establish star formation histories of individual galaxies are ascertained. A brand-new model is designed, developed, tested and used with two separate data sets, corroborated for 10 galaxies by data from a third source, and compared to results from a Single Stellar Population model from the literature, to model the star formation histories of nearby elliptical galaxies.

  9. Self-regulated model of galactic spiral structure formation. (United States)

    Cartin, Daniel; Khanna, Gaurav


    The presence of spiral structure in isolated galaxies is a problem that has only been partially explained by theoretical models. Because the rate and pattern of star formation in the disk must depend only on mechanisms internal to the disk, we may think of the spiral galaxy as a self-regulated system far from equilibrium. This paper uses this idea to look at a reaction-diffusion model for the formation of spiral structures in certain types of galaxies. In numerical runs of the model, spiral structure forms and persists over several revolutions of the disk, but eventually dies out.

  10. Simulation cobweb model of price formation with delayed supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatsenko Roman Nikolaevich


    Full Text Available The article presents a simulation cobweb model of price formation with delayed supply. It considers cases with absence and availability of random factors. Randomness is presented in the model as a concept of games with nature with the use of Markov chains. The article studies activity of the retail link in the described environment.

  11. A geomechanical model of a sinkhole formation (United States)

    Danchiv, Alexandru; Zamfirescu, Florian; Mocuta, Marius; Popa, Iulian; Zlibut, Alexandru; Huggenberger, Peter; Zechner, Eric; Dresmann, Horst; Scheidler, Stefan; Wiesmeier, Stefan


    On December 2010 a sinkhole was suddenly formed close to the eastern flank of Ocna-Mures salt dome. Soon after the collapse the sinkhole was filled with brine forming a salt lake called Plus Lake. The total volume of sinkhole of about 100000 m3 remained constant since February 2011. The Ocna Mures salt dome is situated on the western border of the Transylvanian basin (Romania) and has been exploited for a long time. The ceilings of some shallow mine chambers are now collapsed and filled with brine. Along the eastern flank of the salt dome there is a disturbed zone due to diapirism. Its presence is suggested by the strong fragmentation of rock in the boreholes drilled along the salt-sterile contact, as it resulted from the low values of RQD index. The sinkhole is probably due to a pressure increase along the diapir flank. The causes of this sudden increase of pressure are not well known. Most probably it is due to the damage of the tubing of a flank borehole as mentioned in a technical report of the exploiting company. The injected fresh water expelled through the breaches of the damaged borehole and, due to the high pressure flushed up the crushed material of the disturbed zone. In order to better understand the setting up of the Plus Lake joint research efforts were performed by teams from Bucharest and Basel Universities since 2013. For the geomechanical approach a numerical model was performed using the Flac 7.0 code. In a first stage the creep behavior of salt was analyzed considering a Norton creep law. It resulted that after 100 years the salt reached equilibrium, the creep could be neglected and in a first approximation mechanical equilibrium could be analyzed considering only an elasto-plastic behavior of both the salt and the sterile. For both the salt and the surrounding sedimentary rocks the Mohr-Coulomb criterion was considered. The properties of sterile rocks were estimated following the GSI system. Due to poor rock quality the strength parameters have

  12. Modelling galaxy formation with multi-scale techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, A.


    Full text: Galaxy formation and evolution depends on a wide variety of physical processes - star formation, gas cooling, supernovae explosions and stellar winds etc. - that span an enormous range of physical scales. We present a novel technique for modelling such massively multiscale systems. This has two key new elements: Lagrangian re simulation, and convergent 'sub-grid' physics. The former allows us to hone in on interesting simulation regions with very high resolution. The latter allows us to increase resolution for the physics that we can resolve, without unresolved physics spoiling convergence. We illustrate the power of our new approach by showing some new results for star formation in the Milky Way. (author)

  13. Exposure to brominated trihalomethanes in water during pregnancy and micronuclei frequency in maternal and cord blood lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stayner, Leslie Thomas; Pedersen, Marie; Patelarou, Evridiki


    BACKGROUND: Water disinfection by-products have been associated with an increased cancer risk. Micronuclei (MN) frequency in lymphocytes is a marker of genomic damage and can predict adult cancer risk. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated maternal exposure to drinking water brominated trihalomethanes (BTHM) i...

  14. Model and calculation of in situ stresses in anisotropic formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuezhi, W.; Zijun, L.; Lixin, H. [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, (China)


    In situ stresses in transversely isotropic material in relation to wellbore stability have been investigated. Equations for three horizontal in- situ stresses and a new formation fracture pressure model were described, and the methodology for determining the elastic parameters of anisotropic rocks in the laboratory was outlined. Results indicate significantly smaller differences between theoretically calculated pressures and actual formation pressures than results obtained by using the isotropic method. Implications for improvements in drilling efficiency were reviewed. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Pair formation models for sexually transmitted infections: A primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Kretzschmar


    Full Text Available For modelling sexually transmitted infections, duration of partnerships can strongly influence the transmission dynamics of the infection. If partnerships are monogamous, pairs of susceptible individuals are protected from becoming infected, while pairs of infected individuals delay onward transmission of the infection as long as they persist. In addition, for curable infections re-infection from an infected partner may occur. Furthermore, interventions based on contact tracing rely on the possibility of identifying and treating partners of infected individuals. To reflect these features in a mathematical model, pair formation models were introduced to mathematical epidemiology in the 1980's. They have since been developed into a widely used tool in modelling sexually transmitted infections and the impact of interventions. Here we give a basic introduction to the concepts of pair formation models for a susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS epidemic. We review some results and applications of pair formation models mainly in the context of chlamydia infection. Keywords: Pair formation, Mathematical model, Partnership duration, Sexually transmitted infections, Basic reproduction number

  16. Modeling Tools for Drilling, Reservoir Navigation, and Formation Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant Dutta


    Full Text Available The oil and gas industry routinely uses borehole tools for measuring or logging rock and fluid properties of geologic formations to locate hydrocarbons and maximize their production. Pore fluids in formations of interest are usually hydrocarbons or water. Resistivity logging is based on the fact that oil and gas have a substantially higher resistivity than water. The first resistivity log was acquired in 1927, and resistivity logging is still the foremost measurement used for drilling and evaluation. However, the acquisition and interpretation of resistivity logging data has grown in complexity over the years. Resistivity logging tools operate in a wide range of frequencies (from DC to GHz and encounter extremely high (several orders of magnitude conductivity contrast between the metal mandrel of the tool and the geologic formation. Typical challenges include arbitrary angles of tool inclination, full tensor electric and magnetic field measurements, and interpretation of complicated anisotropic formation properties. These challenges combine to form some of the most intractable computational electromagnetic problems in the world. Reliable, fast, and convenient numerical modeling of logging tool responses is critical for tool design, sensor optimization, virtual prototyping, and log data inversion. This spectrum of applications necessitates both depth and breadth of modeling software—from blazing fast one-dimensional (1-D modeling codes to advanced threedimensional (3-D modeling software, and from in-house developed codes to commercial modeling packages. In this paper, with the help of several examples, we demonstrate our approach for using different modeling software to address different drilling and evaluation applications. In one example, fast 1-D modeling provides proactive geosteering information from a deep-reading azimuthal propagation resistivity measurement. In the second example, a 3-D model with multiple vertical resistive fractures

  17. Modelling new particle formation events in the South African savannah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa T. Gierens


    Full Text Available Africa is one of the less studied continents with respect to atmospheric aerosols. Savannahs are complex dynamic systems sensitive to climate and land-use changes, but the interaction of these systems with the atmosphere is not well understood. Atmospheric particles, called aerosols, affect the climate on regional and global scales, and are an important factor in air quality. In this study, measurements from a relatively clean savannah environment in South Africa were used to model new particle formation and growth. There already are some combined long-term measurements of trace gas concentrations together with aerosol and meteorological variables available, but to our knowledge this is the first detailed simulation that includes all the main processes relevant to particle formation. The results show that both of the particle formation mechanisms investigated overestimated the dependency of the formation rates on sulphuric acid. From the two particle formation mechanisms tested in this work, the approach that included low volatile organic compounds to the particle formation process was more accurate in describing the nucleation events than the approach that did not. To obtain a reliable estimate of aerosol concentration in simulations for larger scales, nucleation mechanisms would need to include organic compounds, at least in southern Africa. This work is the first step in developing a more comprehensive new particle formation model applicable to the unique environment in southern Africa. Such a model will assist in better understanding and predicting new particle formation � knowledge which could ultimately be used to mitigate impacts of climate change and air quality.

  18. Nonlinear flow model for well production in an underground formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Guo


    Full Text Available Fluid flow in underground formations is a nonlinear process. In this article we modelled the nonlinear transient flow behaviour of well production in an underground formation. Based on Darcy's law and material balance equations, we used quadratic pressure gradients to deduce diffusion equations and discuss the origins of nonlinear flow issues. By introducing an effective-well-radius approach that considers skin factor, we established a nonlinear flow model for both gas and liquid (oil or water. The liquid flow model was solved using a semi-analytical method, while the gas flow model was solved using numerical simulations because the diffusion equation of gas flow is a stealth function of pressure. For liquid flow, a series of standard log-log type curves of pressure transients were plotted and nonlinear transient flow characteristics were analyzed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were used to compare the solutions of the linear and nonlinear models. The effect of nonlinearity upon pressure transients should not be ignored. For gas flow, pressure transients were simulated and compared with oil flow under the same formation and well conditions, resulting in the conclusion that, under the same volume rate production, oil wells demand larger pressure drops than gas wells. Comparisons between theoretical data and field data show that nonlinear models will describe fluid flow in underground formations realistically and accurately.

  19. Formation of Ice Giant Satellites During Thommes Model Mirgration (United States)

    Fuse, Christopher; Spiegelberg, Josephine


    Inconsistencies between ice giant planet characteristics and classic planet formation theories have led to a re-evaluation of the formation of the outer Solar system. Thommes model migration delivers proto-Uranus and Neptune from orbits interior to Saturn to their current locations. The Thommes model has also been able to reproduce the large Galilean and Saturnian moons via interactions between the proto-ice giants and the gas giant moon disks.As part of a series of investigations examining the effects of Thommes model migration on the formation of moons, N-body simulations of the formation of the Uranian and Neptunian satellite systems were performed. Previous research has yielded conflicting results as to whether satellite systems are stable during planetary migration. Some studies, such as Beaugé (2002) concluded that the system was not stable over the proposed duration of migration. Conversely, Fuse and Neville (2011) and Yokoyama et al. (2011) found that moons were retained, though the nature of the resulting system was heavily influenced by interactions with planetesimals and other large objects. The results of the current study indicate that in situ simulations of the Uranus and Neptune systems can produce stable moons. Whether with current orbital parameters or located at pre-migration, inner Solar system semi-major axes, the simulations end with 5.8 ± 0.15 or 5.9 ± 0.7 regular satellites around Uranus and Neptune, respectively. Preliminary simulations of a proto-moon disk around a single planet migrating via the Thommes model have failed to retain moons. Furthermore, simulations of ejection of the current Uranian satellite system retained at most one moon. Thus, for the Thommes model to be valid, it is likely that moon formation did not begin until after migration ended. Future work will examine the formation of gas and ice giant moons through other migration theories, such as the Nice model (Tsiganis et al. 2006).

  20. The fuzziness of Jupiter's core: linking formation and evolution models (United States)

    Helled, Ravit; Lozovsky, Michael; Vazan, Allona; Stevenson, David; Guillot, Tristan; Hubbard, William


    Juno data can be used to better constrain Jupiter's internal structure and origin. First, we present Jupiter's primordial internal structure based on formation models and show that Jupiter's core might not be distinct from the envelope, and that the deep interior can have a gradual heavy-element structure. Second, we explore how such a primordial (non-adiabatic) interior affects Jupiter's long-term evolution. Finally, we will discuss the link between these formation and evolution models and Jupiter's current-state internal structure.

  1. Models of the formation of the solar nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassen, P.; Summers, A.


    Protostellar cloud collapse and solar nebula formation models indicate that the size of the nebula produced will be larger in terms of both gas centrifugal balance R(CF) and collapse time diffusion length R(V). From this, it can be deduced that low mass nebulas are produced if (R(V)/R(CF))-squared is much greater than unity, while nebulas result for values lower than approximately unity. The total angular momentum value distinguishes most current models of the solar nebula. Analytic expressions for the surface density, nebular mass flux and photospheric temperature distributions during the formation stage are presented for simple modes illustrating and general properties of growing protostellar disks.

  2. Dynamical and photometric models of star formation in tidal tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, J.F.


    An investigation into the causes of star formation in tidal tails has been conducted using a restricted three-body dynamical model in conjunction with a broadband photometric evolutionary code. Test particles are initially placed in circular orbits around a softened point mass and then perturbed by a companion passing in a parabotic orbit. During the passage, the density evolution of the galaxy is examined both in regions within the disk and in selected comoving regions in the tidal features. Even without the inclusion of self-gravity and hydrodynamics, regions of compression form inside the disk, along the tidal tail, and in the tidal bridge causing local density increases of up to 500 percent. By assuming that the density changes relate to the star-formation rate via a Schmidt (1959) law, limits on the density changes needed to make detectable changes in the colors are calculated. A spiral galaxy population is synthesized and the effects of modest changes in the star-formation rate are explored using a broadband photometric evolutionary code. Density changes similar to those found in the dynamical models will cause detectable changes in the colors of a stellar population. From these models, it is determined that the blue colors and knotty features observed in the tidal features of some galaxies result from increased rates of star formation induced by tidally produced density increases. Limitations of this model are discussed along with photometric evolutionary models based on the density evolution in the tails. 52 refs

  3. Combat Network Synchronization of UCAV Formation Based on RTBA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengwei Ruan


    Full Text Available The paper aims at developing an efficient method to acquire a proper UCAV formation structure with robust and synchronized features. Here we introduce the RTBA (Route Temporary Blindness Avoidance model to keep the structure stable and the HPSO (hybrid particle swarm optimization method is given to find an optimal synchronized formation. The major contributions include the following: (1 setting up the dynamic hierarchy topologic structure of UCAV formation; (2 the RTB phenomenon is described and the RTBA model is put forward; (3 the node choosing rules are used to keep the invulnerability of the formation and the detective information quantifying method is given to measure the effectiveness of the connected nodes; and (4 the hybrid particle swarm optimization method is given to find an optimal synchronized topologic structure. According to the related principles and models, the simulations are given in the end, and the results show that the simplification of the model is available in engineering, and the RTBA model is useful to solve the real problems in combat in some degree.

  4. Blood trihalomethane levels and the risk of total cancer mortality in US adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok


    Background: Although animal data have suggested the carcinogenic activity of trihalomethanes (THMs), there is inconsistent evidence supporting the link between THM exposure and cancers in humans. Objectives: We investigated the association between specific and total blood THM levels with the risk of total cancer mortality in adults. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999–2004 Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Linked Mortality File of the United States. A total of 933 adults (20–59 years of age) with available blood THM levels and no missing data for other variables were included. Four different THM species (chloroform, bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM) and bromoform) were included, and the codes associated with cancer (malignant neoplasm) were C00 through C97, based on the underlying causes of death listed in the International Classification of Disease 10the Revision. Results: Compared with adults in the lowest DBCM, bromoform, and total brominated THM tertiles, those in the highest DBCM, bromoform, and total brominated THM tertiles exhibited adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of total cancer mortality of 4.97 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.59–15.50), 4.94 (95% CI = 1.56–15.61), and 3.42 (95% CI = 1.21–15.43) respectively. The risk of total cancer mortality was not associated with increases in blood chloroform and total THM levels. Conclusions: We found that the baseline blood THM species, particularly brominated THMs, were significantly associated with total cancer mortality in adults. Although this study should be confirm by other studies, our findings suggest a possible link between THM exposures and cancer. - Highlights: • Trihalomethanes (THM) are classified as either probable or possible carcinogens. • Limited evidence on the link between THM and the incidence of cancer in humans. • We investigated the association between blood THM levels and the risk of total cancer mortality. • High

  5. Star-forming galaxy models: Blending star formation into TREESPH (United States)

    Mihos, J. Christopher; Hernquist, Lars


    We have incorporated star-formation algorithms into a hybrid N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (TREESPH) in order to describe the star forming properties of disk galaxies over timescales of a few billion years. The models employ a Schmidt law of index n approximately 1.5 to calculate star-formation rates, and explicitly include the energy and metallicity feedback into the Interstellar Medium (ISM). Modeling the newly formed stellar population is achieved through the use of hybrid SPH/young star particles which gradually convert from gaseous to collisionless particles, avoiding the computational difficulties involved in creating new particles. The models are shown to reproduce well the star-forming properties of disk galaxies, such as the morphology, rate of star formation, and evolution of the global star-formation rate and disk gas content. As an example of the technique, we model an encounter between a disk galaxy and a small companion which gives rise to a ring galaxy reminiscent of the Cartwheel (AM 0035-35). The primary galaxy in this encounter experiences two phases of star forming activity: an initial period during the expansion of the ring, and a delayed phase as shocked material in the ring falls back into the central regions.

  6. Formation models of cometary ices in protoplanetary disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaparro Molano, G.; Kamp, I.


    We set out to constrain the chemical conditions in the early Solar System by analyzing chemical evolution models of protoplanetary disks and comparing them to our current knowledge of Solar System bodies, such as comets. We propose that the region located at 10 AU≤r≤30 AU is ideal for the formation

  7. Simulating galaxy formation with the IllustrisTNG model (United States)

    Pillepich, Annalisa; Springel, Volker; Nelson, Dylan; Genel, Shy; Naiman, Jill; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Hernquist, Lars; Torrey, Paul; Vogelsberger, Mark; Weinberger, Rainer; Marinacci, Federico


    We introduce an updated physical model to simulate the formation and evolution of galaxies in cosmological, large-scale gravity+magnetohydrodynamical simulations with the moving mesh code AREPO. The overall framework builds upon the successes of the Illustris galaxy formation model, and includes prescriptions for star formation, stellar evolution, chemical enrichment, primordial and metal-line cooling of the gas, stellar feedback with galactic outflows, and black hole formation, growth and multimode feedback. In this paper, we give a comprehensive description of the physical and numerical advances that form the core of the IllustrisTNG (The Next Generation) framework. We focus on the revised implementation of the galactic winds, of which we modify the directionality, velocity, thermal content and energy scalings, and explore its effects on the galaxy population. As described in earlier works, the model also includes a new black-hole-driven kinetic feedback at low accretion rates, magnetohydrodynamics and improvements to the numerical scheme. Using a suite of (25 Mpc h-1)3 cosmological boxes, we assess the outcome of the new model at our fiducial resolution. The presence of a self-consistently amplified magnetic field is shown to have an important impact on the stellar content of 1012 M⊙ haloes and above. Finally, we demonstrate that the new galactic winds promise to solve key problems identified in Illustris in matching observational constraints and affecting the stellar content and sizes of the low-mass end of the galaxy population.

  8. Modelling Global Pattern Formations for Collaborative Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grappiolo, Corrado; Cheong, Yun-Gyung; Khaled, Rilla


    We present our research towards the design of a computational framework capable of modelling the formation and evolution of global patterns (i.e. group structures) in a population of social individuals. The framework is intended to be used in collaborative environments, e.g. social serious games...

  9. Consistent partnership formation: application to a sexually transmitted disease model. (United States)

    Artzrouni, Marc; Deuchert, Eva


    We apply a consistent sexual partnership formation model which hinges on the assumption that one gender's choices drives the process (male or female dominant model). The other gender's behavior is imputed. The model is fitted to UK sexual behavior data and applied to a simple incidence model of HSV-2. With a male dominant model (which assumes accurate male reports on numbers of partners) the modeled incidences of HSV-2 are 77% higher for men and 50% higher for women than with a female dominant model (which assumes accurate female reports). Although highly stylized, our simple incidence model sheds light on the inconsistent results one can obtain with misreported data on sexual activity and age preferences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. On a Boltzmann-type price formation model

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin


    In this paper, we present a Boltzmann-type price formation model, which is motivated by a parabolic free boundary model for the evolution of price presented by Lasry and Lions in 2007. We discuss the mathematical analysis of the Boltzmann-type model and show that its solutions converge to solutions of the model by Lasry and Lions as the transaction rate tends to infinity. Furthermore, we analyse the behaviour of the initial layer on the fast time scale and illustrate the price dynamics with various numerical experiments. © 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Pattern formation of a nonlocal, anisotropic interaction model

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin


    We consider a class of interacting particle models with anisotropic, repulsive–attractive interaction forces whose orientations depend on an underlying tensor field. An example of this class of models is the so-called Kücken–Champod model describing the formation of fingerprint patterns. This class of models can be regarded as a generalization of a gradient flow of a nonlocal interaction potential which has a local repulsion and a long-range attraction structure. In contrast to isotropic interaction models the anisotropic forces in our class of models cannot be derived from a potential. The underlying tensor field introduces an anisotropy leading to complex patterns which do not occur in isotropic models. This anisotropy is characterized by one parameter in the model. We study the variation of this parameter, describing the transition between the isotropic and the anisotropic model, analytically and numerically. We analyze the equilibria of the corresponding mean-field partial differential equation and investigate pattern formation numerically in two dimensions by studying the dependence of the parameters in the model on the resulting patterns.

  12. Molecular dynamics simulations of trihalomethanes removal from water using boron nitride nanosheets. (United States)

    Azamat, Jafar; Khataee, Alireza; Joo, Sang Woo


    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the separation of trihalomethanes (THMs) from water using boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs). The studied systems included THM molecules and a functionalized BNNS membrane immersed in an aqueous solution. An external pressure was applied to the z axis of the systems. Two functionalized BNNSs with large fluorinated-hydrogenated pore (F-H-pores) and small hydrogen-hydroxyl pore (H-OH-pores) were used. The pores of the BNNS membrane were obtained by passivating each nitrogen and boron atoms at the pore edges with fluorine and hydrogen atoms in the large pore or with hydroxyl and hydrogen atoms in the small pore. The results show that the BNNS with a small functionalized pore was impermeable to THM molecules, in contrast to the BNNS with a large functionalized pore. Using these membranes, water contaminants can be removed at lower cost.

  13. Trihalomethanes (THMs) precursor fractions removal by coagulation and adsorption for bio-treated municipal wastewater: Molecular weight, hydrophobicity/hydrophily and fluorescence. (United States)

    Han, Qi; Yan, Han; Zhang, Feng; Xue, Nan; Wang, Yan; Chu, Yongbao; Gao, Baoyu


    Due to concerns over health risk of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), removal of trihalomethanes (THMs) precursor from bio-treated wastewater by coagulation and adsorption was investigated in this study. Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes and nonionic resins were applied to fractionate THMs precursor into various molecular weight (MW) fractions and hydrophobic/hydrophilic fractions. Characteristics of coagulated water and adsorbed water were evaluated by the three-dimensional excitation and emission matrix (3DEEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. Results showed that coagulation and adsorption were suitable for removing different hydrophobic/hydrophilic and fluorescent fractions. Coagulation decreased THMs concentration in hydrophobic acids (HoA) fraction from 59 μg/L to 39 μg/L, while the lowest THMs concentration (9 μg/L) in hydrophilic substances (HiS) fraction was obtained in adsorbed water. However, both coagulation and adsorption were ineffective for removing fractions with MWadsorption processes could reduce THMs formation, some specific THMs formation potential (STHMFP) in residual dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractions increased in this study. Hydrophobic acid and hydrophilic fractions increased after coagulation treatment, and low MW and hydrophobic fractions increased after adsorption treatment. In addition, active carbon adsorbed more organic matter than coagulant, but brominated disinfection byproducts (Br-DBPs) in adsorbed water turned to the major THMs species after chlorination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Vibration acceleration promotes bone formation in rodent models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Uchida

    Full Text Available All living tissues and cells on Earth are subject to gravitational acceleration, but no reports have verified whether acceleration mode influences bone formation and healing. Therefore, this study was to compare the effects of two acceleration modes, vibration and constant (centrifugal accelerations, on bone formation and healing in the trunk using BMP 2-induced ectopic bone formation (EBF mouse model and a rib fracture healing (RFH rat model. Additionally, we tried to verify the difference in mechanism of effect on bone formation by accelerations between these two models. Three groups (low- and high-magnitude vibration and control-VA groups were evaluated in the vibration acceleration study, and two groups (centrifuge acceleration and control-CA groups were used in the constant acceleration study. In each model, the intervention was applied for ten minutes per day from three days after surgery for eleven days (EBF model or nine days (RFH model. All animals were sacrificed the day after the intervention ended. In the EBF model, ectopic bone was evaluated by macroscopic and histological observations, wet weight, radiography and microfocus computed tomography (micro-CT. In the RFH model, whole fracture-repaired ribs were excised with removal of soft tissue, and evaluated radiologically and histologically. Ectopic bones in the low-magnitude group (EBF model had significantly greater wet weight and were significantly larger (macroscopically and radiographically than those in the other two groups, whereas the size and wet weight of ectopic bones in the centrifuge acceleration group showed no significant difference compared those in control-CA group. All ectopic bones showed calcified trabeculae and maturated bone marrow. Micro-CT showed that bone volume (BV in the low-magnitude group of EBF model was significantly higher than those in the other two groups (3.1±1.2mm3 v.s. 1.8±1.2mm3 in high-magnitude group and 1.3±0.9mm3 in control-VA group, but

  15. Cosmic CARNage I: on the calibration of galaxy formation models (United States)

    Knebe, Alexander; Pearce, Frazer R.; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Thomas, Peter A.; Benson, Andrew; Asquith, Rachel; Blaizot, Jeremy; Bower, Richard; Carretero, Jorge; Castander, Francisco J.; Cattaneo, Andrea; Cora, Sofía A.; Croton, Darren J.; Cui, Weiguang; Cunnama, Daniel; Devriendt, Julien E.; Elahi, Pascal J.; Font, Andreea; Fontanot, Fabio; Gargiulo, Ignacio D.; Helly, John; Henriques, Bruno; Lee, Jaehyun; Mamon, Gary A.; Onions, Julian; Padilla, Nelson D.; Power, Chris; Pujol, Arnau; Ruiz, Andrés N.; Srisawat, Chaichalit; Stevens, Adam R. H.; Tollet, Edouard; Vega-Martínez, Cristian A.; Yi, Sukyoung K.


    We present a comparison of nine galaxy formation models, eight semi-analytical, and one halo occupation distribution model, run on the same underlying cold dark matter simulation (cosmological box of comoving width 125h-1 Mpc, with a dark-matter particle mass of 1.24 × 109h-1M⊙) and the same merger trees. While their free parameters have been calibrated to the same observational data sets using two approaches, they nevertheless retain some `memory' of any previous calibration that served as the starting point (especially for the manually tuned models). For the first calibration, models reproduce the observed z = 0 galaxy stellar mass function (SMF) within 3σ. The second calibration extended the observational data to include the z = 2 SMF alongside the z ˜ 0 star formation rate function, cold gas mass, and the black hole-bulge mass relation. Encapsulating the observed evolution of the SMF from z = 2 to 0 is found to be very hard within the context of the physics currently included in the models. We finally use our calibrated models to study the evolution of the stellar-to-halo mass (SHM) ratio. For all models, we find that the peak value of the SHM relation decreases with redshift. However, the trends seen for the evolution of the peak position as well as the mean scatter in the SHM relation are rather weak and strongly model dependent. Both the calibration data sets and model results are publicly available.

  16. Panel Data Models of New Firm Formation in New England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Parajuli


    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of the determinants of new firm formation in New England at the county level from 1999 to 2009. Based on the Spatial Durbin panel model that accounts for spillover effects, it is found that population density and human capital positively affect single-unit firm births within a county and its neighbors. Population growth rate also exerts a significant positive impact on new firm formation, but most of the effect is from spatial spillovers. On the contrary, the ratio of large to small firm in terms of employment size and unemployment rate negatively influence single-unit firm births both within counties and among neighbors. However, there is no significant impact of local financial capital and personal income growth on new firm formation.

  17. Mathematical modeling of dormant cell formation in growing biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro eChihara


    Full Text Available Understanding the dynamics of dormant cells in microbial biofilms, in which the bacteria are embedded in extracellular matrix, is important for developing successful antibiotic therapies against pathogenic bacteria. Although some of the molecular mechanisms leading to bacterial persistence have been speculated in planktonic bacterial cell, how dormant cells emerge in the biofilms of pathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains unclear. The present study proposes four hypotheses of dormant cell formation; stochastic process, nutrient-dependent, oxygen-dependent, and time-dependent processes. These hypotheses were implemented into a three-dimensional individual-based model of biofilm formation. Numerical simulations of the different mechanisms yielded qualitatively different spatiotemporal distributions of dormant cells in the growing biofilm. Based on these simulation results, we discuss what kinds of experimental studies are effective for discriminating dormant cell formation mechanisms in biofilms.

  18. Mathematical modeling of dormant cell formation in growing biofilm. (United States)

    Chihara, Kotaro; Matsumoto, Shinya; Kagawa, Yuki; Tsuneda, Satoshi


    Understanding the dynamics of dormant cells in microbial biofilms, in which the bacteria are embedded in extracellular matrix, is important for developing successful antibiotic therapies against pathogenic bacteria. Although some of the molecular mechanisms leading to bacterial persistence have been speculated in planktonic bacterial cell, how dormant cells emerge in the biofilms of pathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains unclear. The present study proposes four hypotheses of dormant cell formation; stochastic process, nutrient-dependent, oxygen-dependent, and time-dependent processes. These hypotheses were implemented into a three-dimensional individual-based model of biofilm formation. Numerical simulations of the different mechanisms yielded qualitatively different spatiotemporal distributions of dormant cells in the growing biofilm. Based on these simulation results, we discuss what kinds of experimental studies are effective for discriminating dormant cell formation mechanisms in biofilms.

  19. Modeling jet and outflow feedback during star cluster formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federrath, Christoph [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Schrön, Martin [Department of Computational Hydrosystems, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Banerjee, Robi [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Klessen, Ralf S., E-mail: [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)


    Powerful jets and outflows are launched from the protostellar disks around newborn stars. These outflows carry enough mass and momentum to transform the structure of their parent molecular cloud and to potentially control star formation itself. Despite their importance, we have not been able to fully quantify the impact of jets and outflows during the formation of a star cluster. The main problem lies in limited computing power. We would have to resolve the magnetic jet-launching mechanism close to the protostar and at the same time follow the evolution of a parsec-size cloud for a million years. Current computer power and codes fall orders of magnitude short of achieving this. In order to overcome this problem, we implement a subgrid-scale (SGS) model for launching jets and outflows, which demonstrably converges and reproduces the mass, linear and angular momentum transfer, and the speed of real jets, with ∼1000 times lower resolution than would be required without the SGS model. We apply the new SGS model to turbulent, magnetized star cluster formation and show that jets and outflows (1) eject about one-fourth of their parent molecular clump in high-speed jets, quickly reaching distances of more than a parsec, (2) reduce the star formation rate by about a factor of two, and (3) lead to the formation of ∼1.5 times as many stars compared to the no-outflow case. Most importantly, we find that jets and outflows reduce the average star mass by a factor of ∼ three and may thus be essential for understanding the characteristic mass of the stellar initial mass function.

  20. A possible formation scenario for dwarf spheroidal galaxies - III. Adding star formation histories to the fiducial model (United States)

    Alarcón Jara, A. G.; Fellhauer, M.; Matus Carrillo, D. R.; Assmann, P.; Urrutia Zapata, F.; Hazeldine, J.; Aravena, C. A.


    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are regarded as the basic building blocks in the formation of larger galaxies and are the most dark matter dominated systems in the Universe, known so far. There are several models that attempt to explain their formation and evolution, but they have problems modelling the formation of isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Here, we will explain a possible formation scenario in which star clusters form inside the dark matter halo of a dwarf spheroidal galaxy. These star clusters suffer from low star formation efficiency and dissolve while orbiting inside the dark matter halo. Thereby, they build the faint luminous components that we observe in dwarf spheroidal galaxies. In this paper, we study this model by adding different star formation histories to the simulations and compare the results with our previous work and observational data to show that we can explain the formation of dwarf spheroidal galaxies.

  1. Galaxy Formation in Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter Models (United States)

    Menci, N.; Grazian, A.; Lamastra, A.; Calura, F.; Castellano, M.; Santini, P.


    We investigate galaxy formation in models with dark matter (DM) constituted by sterile neutrinos. Given their large parameter space, defined by the combinations of sterile neutrino mass {m}ν and mixing parameter {\\sin }2(2θ ) with active neutrinos, we focus on models with {m}ν =7 {keV}, consistent with the tentative 3.5 keV line detected in several X-ray spectra of clusters and galaxies. We consider (1) two resonant production models with {\\sin }2(2θ )=5 × {10}-11 and {\\sin }2(2θ )=2 × {10}-10, to cover the range of mixing parameters consistent with the 3.5 keV line; (2) two scalar-decay models, representative of the two possible cases characterizing such a scenario: a freeze-in and a freeze-out case. We also consider thermal warm DM with particle mass {m}X=3 {keV}. Using a semianalytic model, we compare the predictions for the different DM scenarios with a wide set of observables. We find that comparing the predicted evolution of the stellar mass function, the abundance of satellites of Milky Way–like galaxies, and the global star formation history of galaxies with observations does not allow us to disentangle the effects of the baryonic physics from those related to the different DM models. On the other hand, the distribution of the stellar-to-halo mass ratios, the abundance of faint galaxies in the UV luminosity function at z≳ 6, and the specific star formation and age distribution of local, low-mass galaxies constitute potential probes for the DM scenarios considered. We discuss how future observations with upcoming facilities will enable us to rule out or to strongly support DM models based on sterile neutrinos.

  2. Reconnection–Condensation Model for Solar Prominence Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Takafumi [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Yokoyama, Takaaki, E-mail: [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)


    We propose a reconnection–condensation model in which topological change in a coronal magnetic field via reconnection triggers radiative condensation, thereby resulting in prominence formation. Previous observational studies have suggested that reconnection at a polarity inversion line of a coronal arcade field creates a flux rope that can sustain a prominence; however, they did not explain the origin of cool dense plasmas of prominences. Using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations, including anisotropic nonlinear thermal conduction and optically thin radiative cooling, we demonstrate that reconnection can lead not only to flux rope formation but also to radiative condensation under a certain condition. In our model, this condition is described by the Field length, which is defined as the scale length for thermal balance between radiative cooling and thermal conduction. This critical condition depends weakly on the artificial background heating. The extreme ultraviolet emissions synthesized with our simulation results have good agreement with observational signatures reported in previous studies.

  3. Morphogenesis and pattern formation in biological systems experiments and models

    CERN Document Server

    Noji, Sumihare; Ueno, Naoto; Maini, Philip


    A central goal of current biology is to decode the mechanisms that underlie the processes of morphogenesis and pattern formation. Concerned with the analysis of those phenomena, this book covers a broad range of research fields, including developmental biology, molecular biology, plant morphogenesis, ecology, epidemiology, medicine, paleontology, evolutionary biology, mathematical biology, and computational biology. In Morphogenesis and Pattern Formation in Biological Systems: Experiments and Models, experimental and theoretical aspects of biology are integrated for the construction and investigation of models of complex processes. This collection of articles on the latest advances by leading researchers not only brings together work from a wide spectrum of disciplines, but also provides a stepping-stone to the creation of new areas of discovery.

  4. Physical-chemical model of nanodiamond formation at explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyshev, A.P.; Lukyanchikov, L.A.; Lyakhov, N.Z.; Pruuel, E.R.; Sheromov, M.A.; Ten, K.A.; Titov, V.M.; Tolochko, B.P.; Zhogin, I.L.; Zubkov, P.I.


    This article presents a principally new physical-chemical model of nanodiamond formation at explosion, which describes adequately all the existing experimental data on detonation synthesis of diamonds. According to this model, the detonation wave (DW) performs activation rapidly; then the reaction mixture composition keeps varying. In the diagram C-H-O, this process results in continual motion of the point imaging the reaction mixture composition. The ratio of the diamond phase amount to the condensed carbon (CC) quantity in the explosion products is defined by the width of the section this point passes over in the diamond formation zone. Motion of the point in the area below the line H-CO results in decrease of the CC amount. Diamonds are formed by the free-radical mechanism in the unloading wave, beyond the Chapman-Jouguet plane, in a media close to a liquid state

  5. Physical-chemical model of nanodiamond formation at explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyshev, A.P. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry SB RAS, ul. Kutateladze 18, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk 630092 (Russian Federation); Lukyanchikov, L.A. [Lavrentiev Institute of Hydrodynamics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Lyakhov, N.Z. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry SB RAS, ul. Kutateladze 18, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russian Federation); Pruuel, E.R. [Lavrentiev Institute of Hydrodynamics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Sheromov, M.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Ten, K.A. [Lavrentiev Institute of Hydrodynamics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Titov, V.M. [Lavrentiev Institute of Hydrodynamics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Tolochko, B.P. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry SB RAS, ul. Kutateladze 18, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail:; Zhogin, I.L. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry SB RAS, ul. Kutateladze 18, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russian Federation); Zubkov, P.I. [Lavrentiev Institute of Hydrodynamics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)


    This article presents a principally new physical-chemical model of nanodiamond formation at explosion, which describes adequately all the existing experimental data on detonation synthesis of diamonds. According to this model, the detonation wave (DW) performs activation rapidly; then the reaction mixture composition keeps varying. In the diagram C-H-O, this process results in continual motion of the point imaging the reaction mixture composition. The ratio of the diamond phase amount to the condensed carbon (CC) quantity in the explosion products is defined by the width of the section this point passes over in the diamond formation zone. Motion of the point in the area below the line H-CO results in decrease of the CC amount. Diamonds are formed by the free-radical mechanism in the unloading wave, beyond the Chapman-Jouguet plane, in a media close to a liquid state.

  6. Modelling sea ice formation in the Terra Nova Bay polynya (United States)

    Sansiviero, M.; Morales Maqueda, M. Á.; Fusco, G.; Aulicino, G.; Flocco, D.; Budillon, G.


    Antarctic sea ice is constantly exported from the shore by strong near surface winds that open leads and large polynyas in the pack ice. The latter, known as wind-driven polynyas, are responsible for significant water mass modification due to the high salt flux into the ocean associated with enhanced ice growth. In this article, we focus on the wind-driven Terra Nova Bay (TNB) polynya, in the western Ross Sea. Brine rejected during sea ice formation processes that occur in the TNB polynya densifies the water column leading to the formation of the most characteristic water mass of the Ross Sea, the High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW). This water mass, in turn, takes part in the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW), the densest water mass of the world ocean, which plays a major role in the global meridional overturning circulation, thus affecting the global climate system. A simple coupled sea ice-ocean model has been developed to simulate the seasonal cycle of sea ice formation and export within a polynya. The sea ice model accounts for both thermal and mechanical ice processes. The oceanic circulation is described by a one-and-a-half layer, reduced gravity model. The domain resolution is 1 km × 1 km, which is sufficient to represent the salient features of the coastline geometry, notably the Drygalski Ice Tongue. The model is forced by a combination of Era Interim reanalysis and in-situ data from automatic weather stations, and also by a climatological oceanic dataset developed from in situ hydrographic observations. The sensitivity of the polynya to the atmospheric forcing is well reproduced by the model when atmospheric in situ measurements are combined with reanalysis data. Merging the two datasets allows us to capture in detail the strength and the spatial distribution of the katabatic winds that often drive the opening of the polynya. The model resolves fairly accurately the sea ice drift and sea ice production rates in the TNB polynya, leading to

  7. Numerical simulation of the hair formation -modeling of hair cycle (United States)

    Kajihara, Narumichi; Nagayama, Katsuya


    In the recent years, the fields of study of anti-aging, health and beauty, cosmetics, and hair diseases have attracted significant attention. In particular, human hair is considered to be an important aspect with regard to an attractive appearance. To this end, many workers have sought to understand the formation mechanism of the hair root. However, observing growth in the hair root is difficult, and a detailed mechanism of the process has not yet been elucidated. Hair repeats growth, retraction, and pause cycles (hair cycle) in a repetitive process. In the growth phase, hair is formed through processes of cell proliferation and differentiation (keratinization). During the retraction phase, hair growth stops, and during the resting period, hair fall occurs and new hair grows. This hair cycle is believed to affect the elongation rate, thickness, strength, and shape of hair. Therefore, in this study, we introduce a particle model as a new method to elucidate the unknown process of hair formation, and to model the hair formation process accompanying the proliferation and differentiation of the hair root cells in all three dimensions. In addition, to the growth period, the retraction and the resting periods are introduced to realize the hair cycle using this model.

  8. Modeling of antihydrogen beam formation for interferometric gravity measurements (United States)

    Gerber, Sebastian


    In this paper a detailed computational study is performed on the formation of antihydrogen via three-body-recombination of positrons and antiprotons in a Penning trap with a specific focus on formation of a beam of antihydrogen. First, an analytical model is presented to calculate the formation process of the anti-atoms, the yield of the fraction leaving the recombination plasma volume and their angular velocity distribution. This model is then benchmarked against data from different antihydrogen experiments. Subsequently, the flux of antihydrogen towards the axial opening angle of a Penning trap is evaluated for its suitability as input beam into a Talbot–Lau matter interferometer. The layout and optimization of the interferometer to measure the acceleration of antihydrogen in the Earth’s gravitational field is numerically calculated. The simulated results can assist experiments aiming to measure the weak equivalence principle of antimatter as proposed by the AEgIS experiment (Testera et al 2015 Hyperfine Interact. 233 13–20). The presented model can further help in the optimization of beam-like antihydrogen sources for CPT invariance tests of antimatter (Kuroda et al 2014 Nat. Commun. 5 3089).

  9. Formation of Toxic Iodinated Disinfection By-Products from Compounds Used in Medical Imaging (United States)

    Iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) were investigated as a source of iodine in the formation of iodo-trihalomethane (iodo-THM) and iodo-acid disinfection byproducts (DBPs), both of which are highly genotoxic and/or cytotoxic in mammalian cells. ICM are widely used at medical cen...

  10. Confronting the outflow-regulated cluster formation model with observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Fumitaka [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Li, Zhi-Yun, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)


    Protostellar outflows have been shown theoretically to be capable of maintaining supersonic turbulence in cluster-forming clumps and keeping the star formation rate per free-fall time as low as a few percent. We aim to test two basic predictions of this outflow-regulated cluster formation model, namely, (1) the clump should be close to virial equilibrium and (2) the turbulence dissipation rate should be balanced by the outflow momentum injection rate, using recent outflow surveys toward eight nearby cluster-forming clumps (B59, L1551, L1641N, Serpens Main Cloud, Serpens South, ρ Oph, IC 348, and NGC 1333). We find, for almost all sources, that the clumps are close to virial equilibrium and the outflow momentum injection rate exceeds the turbulence momentum dissipation rate. In addition, the outflow kinetic energy is significantly smaller than the clump gravitational energy for intermediate and massive clumps with M {sub cl} ≳ a few × 10{sup 2} M {sub ☉}, suggesting that the outflow feedback is not enough to disperse the clump as a whole. The number of observed protostars also indicates that the star formation rate per free-fall time is as small as a few percent for all clumps. These observationally based results strengthen the case for outflow-regulated cluster formation.

  11. Modelling of frost formation and growth on microstuctured surface (United States)

    Muntaha, Md. Ali; Haider, Md. Mushfique; Rahman, Md. Ashiqur


    Frost formation on heat exchangers is an undesirable phenomenon often encountered in different applications where the cold surface with a temperature below freezing point of water is exposed to humid air. The formation of frost on the heat transfer surface results in an increase in pressure drop and reduction in heat transfer, resulting in a reduction of the system efficiency. Many factors, including the temperature and moisture content of air, cold plate temperature, surface wettability etc., are known to affect frost formation and growth. In our present study, a model for frost growth on rectangular, periodic microgroove surfaces for a range of microgroove dimension (ten to hundreds of micron) is presented. The mathematical model is developed analytically by solving the governing heat and mass transfer equations with appropriate boundary conditions using the EES (Engineering Equation Solver) software. For temperature, a convective boundary condition at frost-air interface and a fixed cold plate surface temperature is used. Instead of considering the saturation or super-saturation models, density gradient at the surface is obtained by considering experimentally-found specified heat flux. The effect of surface wettability is incorporated by considering the distribution of condensed water droplets at the early stage of frost formation. Thickness, density and thermal conductivity of frost layer on the micro-grooved surfaces are found to vary with the dimension of the grooves. The variation of density and thickness of the frost layer on these micro-grooved surfaces under natural convection is numerally determined for a range of plate temperature and air temperature conditions and is compared with experimental results found in the open literature.

  12. Numerical modeling of batch formation in waste incineration plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obroučka Karel


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is a mathematical description of algorithm for controlled assembly of incinerated batch of waste. The basis for formation of batch is selected parameters of incinerated waste as its calorific value or content of pollutants or the combination of both. The numerical model will allow, based on selected criteria, to compile batch of wastes which continuously follows the previous batch, which is a prerequisite for optimized operation of incinerator. The model was prepared as for waste storage in containers, as well as for waste storage in continuously refilled boxes. The mathematical model was developed into the computer program and its functionality was verified either by practical measurements or by numerical simulations. The proposed model can be used in incinerators for hazardous and municipal waste.

  13. Volatile particles formation during PartEmis: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Vancassel


    Full Text Available A modelling study of the formation of volatile particles in a combustor exhaust has been carried out in the frame of the PartEmis European project. A kinetic model has been used in order to investigate nucleation efficiency of the H2O-H2SO4 binary mixture in the sampling system. A value for the fraction of the fuel sulphur S(IV converted into S(VI has been indirectly deduced from comparisons between model results and measurements. In the present study, ranges between roughly 2.5% and 6%, depending on the combustor settings and on the value assumed for the parameter describing sulphuric acid wall losses. Soot particles hygroscopicity has also been investigated as their activation is a key parameter for contrail formation. Growth factors of monodisperse particles exposed to high relative humidity (95% have been calculated and compared with experimental results. The modelling study confirms that the growth factor increases as the soot particle size decreases.

  14. Cosmological structure formation in Decaying Dark Matter models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Dalong; Chu, M.-C.; Tang, Jiayu, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China)


    The standard cold dark matter (CDM) model predicts too many and too dense small structures. We consider an alternative model that the dark matter undergoes two-body decays with cosmological lifetime τ into only one type of massive daughters with non-relativistic recoil velocity V{sub k}. This decaying dark matter model (DDM) can suppress the structure formation below its free-streaming scale at time scale comparable to τ. Comparing with warm dark matter (WDM), DDM can better reduce the small structures while being consistent with high redshfit observations. We study the cosmological structure formation in DDM by performing self-consistent N-body simulations and point out that cosmological simulations are necessary to understand the DDM structures especially on non-linear scales. We propose empirical fitting functions for the DDM suppression of the mass function and the concentration-mass relation, which depend on the decay parameters lifetime τ, recoil velocity V{sub k} and redshift. The fitting functions lead to accurate reconstruction of the the non-linear power transfer function of DDM to CDM in the framework of halo model. Using these results, we set constraints on the DDM parameter space by demanding that DDM does not induce larger suppression than the Lyman-α constrained WDM models. We further generalize and constrain the DDM models to initial conditions with non-trivial mother fractions and show that the halo model predictions are still valid after considering a global decayed fraction. Finally, we point out that the DDM is unlikely to resolve the disagreement on cluster numbers between the Planck primary CMB prediction and the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect number count for τ ∼ H{sub 0}{sup −1}.

  15. Business Models, transparency and efficient stock price formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Vali, Edward; Hvidberg, Rene

    and the lack of growth of competitors. This is a problem, because the company is deprived of having its own direct influence on its share price, which often leads to hasty short-term decisions in order to meet the expectations of the market and to benefit its shareholders in the short term. On the basis...... of this, our hypothesis is that if it is possible to improve, simplify and define the way a company communicates its business model to the market, then it must be possible for the company to create a more efficient price formation of its share. To begin with, we decided to investigate whether transparency...... the operational and tactical strategies complement each other. This brings us to the following definition of a business model: A business model is a representation of the company's concept. The concept shows in what way the company is trying to establish a unique identity in the market in comparison to its...

  16. Modeling RHIC Using the Standard Machine Format Accelerator Description (United States)

    Pilat, F.; Trahern, C. G.; Wei, J.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.


    The Standard Machine Format (SMF)(N. Malitsky, R. Talman, et. al., A Proposed Flat Yet Hierarchical Accelerator Lattice Object Model), Particle Accel. 55, 313(1996). is a structured description of accelerator lattices which supports both the hierarchy of beam lines and generic lattice objects as well as the deviations (field errors, misalignments, etc.) associated with each distinct component which are necessary for accurate modeling of beam dynamics. In this paper we discuss the use of SMF to describe the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) as well as the ancillary data structures (such as field quality measurements) that are necessarily incorporated into the RHIC SMF model. Future applications of SMF are outlined, including its use in the RHIC operational environment.

  17. Analyzing a suitable elastic geomechanical model for Vaca Muerta Formation (United States)

    Sosa Massaro, Agustin; Espinoza, D. Nicolas; Frydman, Marcelo; Barredo, Silvia; Cuervo, Sergio


    Accurate geomechanical evaluation of oil and gas reservoir rocks is important to provide design parameters for drilling, completion and predict production rates. In particular, shale reservoir rocks are geologically complex and heterogeneous. Wells need to be hydraulically fractured for stimulation and, in complex tectonic environments, it is to consider that rock fabric and in situ stress, strongly influence fracture propagation geometry. This article presents a combined wellbore-laboratory characterization of the geomechanical properties of a well in El Trapial/Curamched Field, over the Vaca Muerta Formation, located in the Neuquén Basin in Argentina. The study shows the results of triaxial tests with acoustic measurements in rock plugs from outcrops and field cores, and corresponding dynamic to static correlations considering various elastic models. The models, with increasing complexity, include the Isotropic Elastic Model (IEM), the Anisotropic Elastic Model (AEM) and the Detailed Anisotropic Elastic Model (DAEM). Each model shows advantages over the others. An IEM offers a quick overview, being easy to run without much detailed data for heterogeneous and anisotropic rocks. The DAEM requires significant amounts of data, time and a multidisciplinary team to arrive to a detailed model. Finally, an AEM suits well to an anisotropic and realistic rock without the need of massive amounts of data.

  18. Cell Competition Drives the Formation of Metastatic Tumors in a Drosophila Model of Epithelial Tumor Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichenlaub, Teresa; Cohen, Stephen M; Herranz, Héctor


    Cell competition is a homeostatic process in which proliferating cells compete for survival. Elimination of otherwise normal healthy cells through competition is important during development and has recently been shown to contribute to maintaining tissue health during organismal aging. The mechan......Cell competition is a homeostatic process in which proliferating cells compete for survival. Elimination of otherwise normal healthy cells through competition is important during development and has recently been shown to contribute to maintaining tissue health during organismal aging....... The mechanisms that allow for ongoing cell competition during adult life could, in principle, contribute to tumorigenesis. However, direct evidence supporting this hypothesis has been lacking. Here, we provide evidence that cell competition drives tumor formation in a Drosophila model of epithelial cancer. Cells...... of the Septin family protein Peanut. Cytokinesis failure due to downregulation of Peanut is required for tumorigenesis. This study provides evidence that the cellular mechanisms that drive cell competition during normal tissue growth can be co-opted to drive tumor formation and metastasis. Analogous mechanisms...

  19. Monte Carlo simulations of a model for opinion formation (United States)

    Bordogna, C. M.; Albano, E. V.


    A model for opinion formation based on the Theory of Social Impact is presented and studied by means of numerical simulations. Individuals with two states of opinion are impacted due to social interactions with: i) members of the society, ii) a strong leader with a well-defined opinion and iii) the mass media that could either support or compete with the leader. Due to that competition, the average opinion of the social group exhibits phase-transition like behaviour between different states of opinion.

  20. Simplified Modeling of Tropospheric Ozone Formation Considering Alternative Fuels Using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Aragão Ferreira da Silva


    Full Text Available Brazilian cities have been constantly exposed to air quality episodes of high ozone concentrations (O3 . Known for not be emitted directly into the environment, O3 is a result of several chemical reactions of other pollutants emitted to atmosphere. The growth of vehicle fleet and government incentives for using alternative fuels like ethanol and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG are changing the Brazilian Metropolitan Areas in terms of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde emissions, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's present in the atmosphere and known to act on the kinetics of ozone. Driven by high concentrations of tropospheric ozone in urban/industry centers and its implications for environment and population health, the target of this work is understand the kinetics of ozone formation through the creation of a mathematical model in FORTRAN 90, describing a system of coupled ordinary differential equations able to represent a simplified mechanism of photochemical reactions in the Brazilian Metropolitan Area. Evaluating the concentration results of each pollutant were possible to observe the precursor’s influence on tropospheric ozone formation, which seasons were more conducive to this one and which are the influences of weather conditions on formation of photochemical smog.

  1. A non-ideal MHD model for structure formation (United States)

    Karmakar, Pralay Kumar; Sarma, Pankaj


    The evolutionary initiation dynamics of triggered planetary structure formation is indeed a complex process yet to be well understood. We herein develop a theoretical classical model to see the gravitational fragmentation kinetics of the viscoelastic non-ideal magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) fabric. The inhomogeneous planetary disk is primarily composed of heavier dust grains (strongly correlated) together with relatively lighter electrons, ions and neutrals (weakly correlated) in a mean-fluidic approximation. A normal harmonic mode analysis results in a quadratic dispersion relation of a unique shape. It is demonstrated that the growth rate of the MHD fluctuations (magnetosonic) contributing to the planet formation rate, apart from the wave vector and its projection orientation, has a pure explicit dependency on the viscoelastic parameters. The analysis specifically shows that the effective generalized viscosity (χ) , viscoelastic relaxation time (τm) , and K-orientation (θ) play as destabilizing agencies against the non-local gravitational disk collapse. The relevancy is briefly indicated in the real astronomical context of bounded planetary structure formation and evolution.

  2. Europan double ridge morphometry as a test of formation models (United States)

    Dameron, Ashley C.; Burr, Devon M.


    Double ridges on the Jovian satellite Europa consist of two parallel ridges with a central trough. Although these features are nearly ubiquitous on Europa, their formation mechanism(s) is (are) not yet well-understood. Previous hypotheses for their formation can be divided into two groups based on 1) the expected interior slope angles and 2) the magnitude of interior/exterior slope symmetry. The published hypotheses in the first ("fracture") group entail brittle deformation of the crust, either by diapirism, shear heating, or buckling due to compression. Because these mechanisms imply uplift of near-vertical fractures, their predicted interior slopes are steeper than the angle of repose (AOR) with shallower exterior slopes. The second ("flow") group includes cryosedimentary and cryovolcanic processes - explosive or effusive cryovolcanism and tidal squeezing -, which are predicted to form ridge slopes at or below the AOR. Explosive cryovolcanism would form self-symmetric ridges, whereas effusive cryolavas and cryo-sediments deposited during tidal squeezing would likely not exhibit slope symmetry. To distinguish between these two groups of hypothesized formation mechanisms, we derived measurements of interior slope angle and interior/exterior slope symmetry at multiple locations on Europa through analysis of data from the Galileo Solid State Imaging (SSI) camera. Two types of data were used: i) elevation data from five stereo-pair digital elevation models (DEMs) covering four ridges (580 individual measurements), and ii) ridge shadow length measurements taken on individual images over 40 ridges (200 individual measurements). Our results shows that slopes measured on our DEMs, located in the Cilix and Banded Plains regions, typically fall below the AOR, and slope symmetry is dominant. Two different shadow measurement techniques implemented to calculate interior slopes yielded slope angles that also fall below the AOR. The shallow interior slopes derived from both

  3. Opinion Formation by Social Influence: From Experiments to Modeling. (United States)

    Chacoma, Andrés; Zanette, Damián H


    Predicting different forms of collective behavior in human populations, as the outcome of individual attitudes and their mutual influence, is a question of major interest in social sciences. In particular, processes of opinion formation have been theoretically modeled on the basis of a formal similarity with the dynamics of certain physical systems, giving rise to an extensive collection of mathematical models amenable to numerical simulation or even to exact solution. Empirical ground for these models is however largely missing, which confine them to the level of mere metaphors of the real phenomena they aim at explaining. In this paper we present results of an experiment which quantifies the change in the opinions given by a subject on a set of specific matters under the influence of others. The setup is a variant of a recently proposed experiment, where the subject's confidence on his or her opinion was evaluated as well. In our realization, which records the quantitative answers of 85 subjects to 20 questions before and after an influence event, the focus is put on characterizing the change in answers and confidence induced by such influence. Similarities and differences with the previous version of the experiment are highlighted. We find that confidence changes are to a large extent independent of any other recorded quantity, while opinion changes are strongly modulated by the original confidence. On the other hand, opinion changes are not influenced by the initial difference with the reference opinion. The typical time scales on which opinion varies are moreover substantially longer than those of confidence change. Experimental results are then used to estimate parameters for a dynamical agent-based model of opinion formation in a large population. In the context of the model, we study the convergence to full consensus and the effect of opinion leaders on the collective distribution of opinions.

  4. Presence of Trihalomethanes in ready-to-eat vegetables disinfected with chlorine. (United States)

    Coroneo, Valentina; Carraro, Valentina; Marras, Barbara; Marrucci, Alessandro; Succa, Sara; Meloni, Barbara; Pinna, Antonella; Angioni, Alberto; Sanna, Adriana; Schintu, Marco


    Trihalomethanes (THMs) - CHCl 3 , CHCl 2 Br, CHClBr 2 and CHBr 3 - are drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs). These compounds can also be absorbed by different types of foods, including ready-to-eat (RTE) fresh vegetables. The potential absorption of THMs during washing of RTE vegetables could pose a potential risk to consumers' health. The concentration of THMs in the water used in the manufacturing process of these products shall not exceed the limit of 100 or 80 µgL -1 according to European Union (EU) and United States legislation, respectively. By contrast, there is little information about the presence of such compounds in the final product. This study evaluated the concentration of THMs in different types of RTE vegetables (carrots, iceberg lettuce, lettuce, mixed salad, parsley, parsley and garlic, rocket salad, valerian) after washing with chlorinated water. In the 115 samples analysed, the average value of total THMs was equal to 76.7 ng g -1 . Chloroform was the THM present in the largest percentage in all the RTE vegetables. These results show that the process of washing RTE vegetables should be optimised in order to reduce the risk for consumers associated with the presence of DBPs.

  5. Micro versus macro solid phase extraction for monitoring water contaminants: a preliminary study using trihalomethanes. (United States)

    Alexandrou, Lydon D; Spencer, Michelle J S; Morrison, Paul D; Meehan, Barry J; Jones, Oliver A H


    Solid phase extraction is one of the most commonly used pre-concentration and cleanup steps in environmental science. However, traditional methods need electrically powered pumps, can use large volumes of solvent (if multiple samples are run), and require several hours to filter a sample. Additionally, if the cartridge is open to the air volatile compounds may be lost and sample integrity compromised. In contrast, micro cartridge based solid phase extraction can be completed in less than 2 min by hand, uses only microlitres of solvent and provides comparable concentration factors to established methods. It is also an enclosed system so volatile components are not lost. The sample can also be eluted directly into a detector (e.g. a mass spectrometer) if required. However, the technology is new and has not been much used for environmental analysis. In this study we compare traditional (macro) and the new micro solid phase extraction for the analysis of four common volatile trihalomethanes (trichloromethane, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and tribromomethane). The results demonstrate that micro solid phase extraction is faster and cheaper than traditional methods with similar recovery rates for the target compounds. This method shows potential for further development in a range of applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Drinking water and pregnancy outcome in central North Carolina: source, amount, and trihalomethane levels. (United States)

    Savitz, D A; Andrews, K W; Pastore, L M


    In spite of the recognition of potentially toxic chemicals in chlorinated drinking water, few studies have evaluated reproductive health consequences of such exposure. Using data from a case-control study of miscarriage, preterm delivery, and low birth weight in central North Carolina, we evaluated risk associated with water source, amount, and trihalomethane (THM) concentration. Water source was not related to any of those pregnancy outcomes, but an increasing amount of ingested water was associated with decreased risks of all three outcomes (odds ratios around 1.5 for 0 glasses per day relative to 1-3 glasses per day, falling to 0.8 for 4+ glasses per day). THM concentration and dose (concentration x amount) were not related to pregnancy outcome, with the possible exception of an increased risk of miscarriage in the highest sextile of THM concentration (adjusted odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-2.7), which was not part of an overall dose-response gradient. These data do not indicate a strong association between chlorination by-products and adverse pregnancy outcome, but given the limited quality of our exposure assessment and the increased miscarriage risk in the highest exposure group, more refined evaluation is warranted. PMID:7556013

  7. Modelling and simulation of beam formation in electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabchevski, S.; Barbarich, I.


    This paper describes a new PC version of the software package GUN-EBT for computer simulation of beam formation in rotationally symmetric electron guns with thermionic cathodes. It is based on a self-consistent physical model which takes into account the beam space charge and the initial velocity effects. The theoretical framework used for both the formulation of the model and for the interpretation of the results of numerical experiments is the formalism of the charged particle dynamics in phase space. This enables not only a trajectory analysis (ray tracing) but also a phase-space analysis of beams to be performed. The package can be used as an effective tool for computer aided design and optimization of electron guns in various electron-optical systems. The operation of the package is illustrated with a typical example. (orig.)

  8. Modelling and simulation of beam formation in electron guns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabchevski, S. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. po Elektronika; Mladenov, G. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. po Elektronika; Titov, A. [St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Barbarich, I. [St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    This paper describes a new PC version of the software package GUN-EBT for computer simulation of beam formation in rotationally symmetric electron guns with thermionic cathodes. It is based on a self-consistent physical model which takes into account the beam space charge and the initial velocity effects. The theoretical framework used for both the formulation of the model and for the interpretation of the results of numerical experiments is the formalism of the charged particle dynamics in phase space. This enables not only a trajectory analysis (ray tracing) but also a phase-space analysis of beams to be performed. The package can be used as an effective tool for computer aided design and optimization of electron guns in various electron-optical systems. The operation of the package is illustrated with a typical example. (orig.).

  9. Phase Transitions in a Social Impact Model for Opinion Formation (United States)

    Bordogna, Clelia M.; Albano, Ezequiel V.

    A model for opinion formation in a social group, based on the Theory of Social Impact developed by Latané, is studied by means of numerical simulations. Interactions among the members of the group, as well as with a strong leader competing with the mass media, are considered. The model exhibits first-order transitions between two different states of opinion, which are supported by the leader and the mass media, respectively. The social inertia of the group becomes evident when the opinion of the leader changes periodically. In this case two dynamic states are identified: for long periods of time, the group follows the changes of the leader but, decreasing the period, the opinion of the group remains unchanged. This scenery is suitable for the ocurrence of dynamic phase transitions.

  10. A Model of Digital Payment Infrastructure Formation and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina; Damsgaard, Jan


    in the regulatory environment and combining it with the disruptive and innovative nature of the mobile phone, the result is a market that is rapidly transforming from well-established structure into a state of flux. We build a model to understand and explain this transformation of the digital payment infrastructure......The payment field is being rapidly transformed. New players have emerged and are threatening the well-established positions of the incumbents. This process is driven by technology change and market forces, and it is shaped by the increasing role of the regulator. When considering the change....... The model captures the formation and development of the digital payment infrastructure with a particular emphasis on the regulator´s and innovator’s perspective. It consists of four stages characterized by slow incremental change which are followed by short and rapid bursts of discontinuity. Each stage...

  11. A Model of Filamentous Cyanobacteria Leading to Reticulate Pattern Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Tamulonis


    Full Text Available The filamentous cyanobacterium, Pseudanabaena, has been shown to produce reticulate patterns that are thought to be the result of its gliding motility. Similar fossilized structures found in the geological record constitute some of the earliest signs of life on Earth. It is difficult to tie these fossils, which are billions of years old, directly to the specific microorganisms that built them. Identifying the physicochemical conditions and microorganism properties that lead microbial mats to form macroscopic structures can lead to a better understanding of the conditions on Earth at the dawn of life. In this article, a cell-based model is used to simulate the formation of reticulate patterns in cultures of Pseudanabaena. A minimal system of long and flexible trichomes capable of gliding motility is shown to be sufficient to produce stable patterns consisting of a network of streams. Varying model parameters indicate that systems with little to no cohesion, high trichome density and persistent movement are conducive to reticulate pattern formation, in conformance with experimental observations.

  12. Regional modeling of SOA formation under consideration of HOMs (United States)

    Gatzsche, Kathrin; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Tilgner, Andreas; Berndt, Torsten; Poulain, Laurent; Wolke, Ralf


    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is the major burden of the atmospheric organic particulate matter with about 140 - 910 TgC/yr (Hallquist et al., 2009). SOA particles are formed via the oxidation of volatile organic carbons (VOCs), where the volatility of the VOCs is lowered. Therefore, gaseous compounds can either nucleate to form new particles or condense on existing particles. The framework of SOA formation under natural conditions is very complex, because there are a variety of gas-phase precursors, atmospheric degradation pathways and formed oxidation products. Up to now, atmospheric models underpredict the SOA mass. Therefore, improved regional scale model implementations are necessary to achieve a better agreement between model predictions and field measurements. Recently, highly oxidized multifunctional organic compounds (HOMs) were found in the gas phase from laboratory and field studies (Jokinen et al., 2015, Mutzel et al., 2015, Berndt et al., 2016a,b). From box model studies, it is known that HOMs are important for the early aerosol growth, however they are not yet considered in mechanisms applied in regional models. The present study utilizes the state-of-the-art multiscale model system COSMO-MUSCAT (Wolke et al., 2012), which is qualified for process studies in local and regional areas. The established model system was enhanced by a kinetic partitioning approach (Zaveri et al., 2014) for the gas-to-particle transfer of oxidized VOCs. The framework of the partitioning approach and the gas-phase mechanism were tested in a box model and evaluated with chamber studies, before implementing in the 3D model system COSMO-MUSCAT. Moreover, HOMs are implemented in the same way for the regional SOA modeling. 3D simulations were performed with an equilibrium partitioning and diffusion dependent partitioning approach, respectively. The presentation will provide first 3D simulation results including comparisons with field measurements from the TROPOS field site

  13. Dynamic model of the formation of collective heterogeneous boiling nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Class, G.


    Following a discussion of the wettability of solids by liquids and the associated wetting angles, details are given on the wetting angle hysteresis. Moreover the phenomenon of boundary line creep is demonstrated; the anticipated boundary line creep rates in the order of 10 -5 mm/sec are made responsible for the dynamic behaviour of boiling nuclei (waiting time effect and related phenomena). Probable shapes of boiling nuclei and their physico-chemical conditions are discussed. Finally, a statistical dynamical model is outlined. It describes the formation of heterogeneous boiling nuclei in a collective of latent boiling nuclei. On the basis of simple models, a quantitatively usable formulation is presented for the expected distribution functions for the boiling probability as a function of superheat, time, and system parameters. This simplified model of computation is evaluated numerically and the results are discussed with respect to the applicability to experimental data. Based on this computational model it should be possible to obtain preliminary insights into the physico-chemical phenomena which take place at the interface and which are relevant to boiling nuclei. (Auth.)

  14. A new gas cooling model for semi-analytic galaxy formation models (United States)

    Hou, Jun; Lacey, Cedric G.; Frenk, Carlos S.


    Semi-analytic galaxy formation models are widely used to gain insight into the astrophysics of galaxy formation and in model testing, parameter space searching and mock catalogue building. In this work, we present a new model for gas cooling in haloes in semi-analytic models, which improves over previous cooling models in several ways. Our new treatment explicitly includes the evolution of the density profile of the hot gas driven by the growth of the dark matter halo and by the dynamical adjustment of the gaseous corona as gas cools down. The effect of the past cooling history on the current mass cooling rate is calculated more accurately, by doing an integral over the past history. The evolution of the hot gas angular momentum profile is explicitly followed, leading to a self-consistent and more detailed calculation of the angular momentum of the cooled down gas. This model predicts higher cooled down masses than the cooling models previously used in GALFORM, closer to the predictions of the cooling models in L-GALAXIES and MORGANA, even though those models are formulated differently. It also predicts cooled down angular momenta that are higher than in previous GALFORM cooling models, but generally lower than the predictions of L-GALAXIES and MORGANA. When used in a full galaxy formation model, this cooling model improves the predictions for early-type galaxy sizes in GALFORM.

  15. Effect of reaction time on the formation of disinfection byproducts (United States)

    Rathbun, R.E.


    The effect of reaction time on the trihalomethane and nonpurgeable total organic-halide formation potentials was determined by chlorinating water samples from the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers. Samples were collected for three seasons at 12 locations on the Mississippi from Minneapolis, Minnesota, to New Orleans, Louisiana, and on the Missouri and Ohio 1.6 kilometers above their confluences with the Mississippi. Both types of compounds formed rapidly during the initial stages of the reaction-time period, with formation rates decreasing with time. The ratio of the nonpurgeable total organic-halide and trihalomethane concentrations decreased with time, with the nonpurgeable total organic-halide compounds forming faster during the first stages of the time period and the trihalomethane compounds forming faster during the latter stages of the time period. Variation with distance along the Mississippi River of the formation rates approximately paralleled the variation of the dissolved organic carbon concentration, indicating that the rates of formation, as well as the concentrations of the compounds formed, depended on the dissolved organic carbon concentration.

  16. Laboratory and Numerical Modeling of Smoke Characteristics for Superfog Formation (United States)

    Bartolome, C.; Lu, V.; Tsui, K.; Princevac, M.; Venkatram, A.; Mahalingam, S.; Achtemeier, G.; Weise, D.


    Land management techniques in wildland areas include prescribed fires to promote biodiversity and reduce risk of severe wildfires across the United States. Several fatal car pileups have been associated with smoke-related visibility reduction from prescribed burns. Such events have occurred in year 2000 on the interstate highways I-10 and I-95, 2001 on the I-4, 2006 on the I-95, and 2008 on the I-4 causing numerous fatalities, injuries, and damage to property. In some of the cases visibility reduction caused by smoke and fog combinations traveling over roadways have been reported to be less than 3 meters, defined as superfog. Our research focuses on delineating the conditions that lead to formation of the rare phenomena of superfog and creating a tool to enable land managers to effectively plan prescribed burns and prevent tragic events. It is hypothesized that the water vapor from combustion, live fuels, soil moisture, and ambient air condense onto the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) particles emitted from low intensity smoldering fires. Physical and numerical modeling has been used to investigate these interactions. A physical model in the laboratory has been developed to characterize the properties of smoke resulting from smoldering pine needle litters at the PSW Forest Service in Riverside, CA. Temporal measurements of temperature, relative humidity, sensible heat flux, radiation heat flux, convective heat flux, particulate matter concentrations and visibilities have been measured for specific cases. The size distribution and number concentrations of the fog droplets formed inside the chamber by mixing cool dry and moist warm air masses to produce near superfog visibilities were measured by a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer. Thermodynamic modeling of smoke and ambient air was conducted to estimate liquid water contents (LWC) available to condense into droplets and form significant reductions in visibility. The results show that LWC of less than 2 g m-3 can be

  17. Dynamical complexity in the perception-based network formation model (United States)

    Jo, Hang-Hyun; Moon, Eunyoung


    Many link formation mechanisms for the evolution of social networks have been successful to reproduce various empirical findings in social networks. However, they have largely ignored the fact that individuals make decisions on whether to create links to other individuals based on cost and benefit of linking, and the fact that individuals may use perception of the network in their decision making. In this paper, we study the evolution of social networks in terms of perception-based strategic link formation. Here each individual has her own perception of the actual network, and uses it to decide whether to create a link to another individual. An individual with the least perception accuracy can benefit from updating her perception using that of the most accurate individual via a new link. This benefit is compared to the cost of linking in decision making. Once a new link is created, it affects the accuracies of other individuals' perceptions, leading to a further evolution of the actual network. As for initial actual networks, we consider both homogeneous and heterogeneous cases. The homogeneous initial actual network is modeled by Erdős-Rényi (ER) random networks, while we take a star network for the heterogeneous case. In any cases, individual perceptions of the actual network are modeled by ER random networks with controllable linking probability. Then the stable link density of the actual network is found to show discontinuous transitions or jumps according to the cost of linking. As the number of jumps is the consequence of the dynamical complexity, we discuss the effect of initial conditions on the number of jumps to find that the dynamical complexity strongly depends on how much individuals initially overestimate or underestimate the link density of the actual network. For the heterogeneous case, the role of the highly connected individual as an information spreader is also discussed.

  18. Parameterization of Cloud Droplet Formation in Global Climate Models (United States)

    Nenes, A.; Seinfeld, J.H.


    An aerosol activation parameterization has been developed based on a generalized representation of aerosol size and composition within the framework of an ascending adiabatic parcel; this allows for parameterizing the activation of chemically complex aerosol with an arbitrary size distribution and mixing state. The new parameterization introduces the concept of"population splitting", in which the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that form droplets are treated as two separate populations; those that have a size close to their critical diameter and those that do not.Explicit consideration of kinetic limitations of droplet growth is introduced. Our treatment of the activation process unravels much of its complexity. As a result of this, a substantial number of conditions of droplet formation can be treated completely free of empirical information or correlations; there are, however, some conditions of droplet activation for which an empirically derived correlation is utilized. Predictions of the parameterization are compared against extensive cloud parcel model simu;lations for a variety of aerosol activation conditions that cover a wide range of chemical variability and CCN concentrations. The parameterization tracks the parcel model simulations closely and robustly. The parameterization presented here is intended to allow for a comprehensive assessment of the aerosol indirect effect in general circulation models.

  19. Modeling Coupled Processes in Clay Formations for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Rutqvist, Jonny; Zheng, Liange; Sonnenthal, Eric; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens


    As a result of the termination of the Yucca Mountain Project, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has started to explore various alternative avenues for the disposition of used nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The overall scope of the investigation includes temporary storage, transportation issues, permanent disposal, various nuclear fuel types, processing alternatives, and resulting waste streams. Although geologic disposal is not the only alternative, it is still the leading candidate for permanent disposal. The realm of geologic disposal also offers a range of geologic environments that may be considered, among those clay shale formations. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA. Clay rock/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures induced by tunnel excavation. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon et al., 2005) have all been under intensive scientific investigations (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relations with flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste. Clay/shale formations may be generally classified as indurated and plastic clays (Tsang et al., 2005). The latter (including Boom clay) is a softer material without high cohesion; its deformation is dominantly plastic. For both clay rocks, coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes are expected to have a significant impact on the long-term safety of a clay repository. For

  20. Modeling Coupled Processes in Clay Formations for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Rutqvist, Jonny; Zheng, Liange; Sonnenthal, Eric; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens


    As a result of the termination of the Yucca Mountain Project, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has started to explore various alternative avenues for the disposition of used nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The overall scope of the investigation includes temporary storage, transportation issues, permanent disposal, various nuclear fuel types, processing alternatives, and resulting waste streams. Although geologic disposal is not the only alternative, it is still the leading candidate for permanent disposal. The realm of geologic disposal also offers a range of geologic environments that may be considered, among those clay shale formations. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA. Clay rock/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures induced by tunnel excavation. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon et al., 2005) have all been under intensive scientific investigations (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relations with flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste. Clay/shale formations may be generally classified as indurated and plastic clays (Tsang et al., 2005). The latter (including Boom clay) is a softer material without high cohesion; its deformation is dominantly plastic. For both clay rocks, coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes are expected to have a significant impact on the long-term safety of a clay repository. For

  1. Modeling hot spring chemistries with applications to martian silica formation (United States)

    Marion, G.M.; Catling, D.C.; Crowley, J.K.; Kargel, J.S.


    Many recent studies have implicated hydrothermal systems as the origin of martian minerals across a wide range of martian sites. Particular support for hydrothermal systems include silica (SiO2) deposits, in some cases >90% silica, in the Gusev Crater region, especially in the Columbia Hills and at Home Plate. We have developed a model called CHEMCHAU that can be used up to 100??C to simulate hot springs associated with hydrothermal systems. The model was partially derived from FREZCHEM, which is a colder temperature model parameterized for broad ranges of temperature (mineral assemblages. Using measured solution chemistries of Yellowstone hot springs and Icelandic hot springs, we simulate salts formed during the evaporation of two low pH cases (high and low temperatures) and a high temperature, alkaline (high pH) sodic water. Simulation of an acid-sulfate case leads to precipitation of Fe and Al minerals along with silica. Consistency with martian mineral assemblages suggests that hot, acidic sulfate solutions are plausibility progenitors of minerals in the past on Mars. In the alkaline pH (8.45) simulation, formation of silica at high temperatures (355K) led to precipitation of anhydrous minerals (CaSO4, Na2SO4) that was also the case for the high temperature (353K) low pH case where anhydrous minerals (NaCl, CaSO4) also precipitated. Thus we predict that secondary minerals associated with massive silica deposits are plausible indicators on Mars of precipitation environments and aqueous chemistry. Theoretical model calculations are in reasonable agreement with independent experimental silica concentrations, which strengthens the validity of the new CHEMCHAU model. ?? 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  2. Modelling thermal radiation and soot formation in buoyant diffusion flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarco Bull, R.A.


    The radiative heat transfer plays an important role in fire problems since it is the dominant mode of heat transfer between flames and surroundings. It controls the pyrolysis, and therefore the heat release rate, and the growth rate of the fire. In the present work a numerical study of buoyant diffusion flames is carried out, with the main objective of modelling the thermal radiative transfer and the soot formation/destruction processes. In a first step, different radiative property models were tested in benchmark configurations. It was found that the FSCK coupled with the Modest and Riazzi mixing scheme was the best compromise in terms of accuracy and computational requirements, and was a good candidate to be implemented in CFD codes dealing with fire problems. In a second step, a semi-empirical soot model, considering acetylene and benzene as precursor species for soot nucleation, was validated in laminar co flow diffusion flames over a wide range of hydrocarbons (C1-C3) and conditions. In addition, the optically-thin approximation was found to produce large discrepancies in the upper part of these small laminar flames. Reliable predictions of soot volume fractions require the use of an advanced radiation model. Then the FSCK and the semi-empirical soot model were applied to simulate laboratory-scale and intermediate-scale pool fires of methane and propane. Predicted flame structures as well as the radiant heat flux transferred to the surroundings were found to be in good agreement with the available experimental data. Finally, the interaction between radiation and turbulence was quantified. (author)

  3. Influence of physical activity in the intake of trihalomethanes in indoor swimming pools. (United States)

    Marco, Esther; Lourencetti, Carolina; Grimalt, Joan O; Gari, Mercè; Fernández, Pilar; Font-Ribera, Laia; Villanueva, Cristina M; Kogevinas, Manolis


    This study describes the relationship between physical activity and intake of trihalomethanes (THMs), namely chloroform (CHCl3), bromodichloromethane (CHCl2Br), dibromochloromethane (CHClBr2) and bromoform (CHBr3), in individuals exposed in two indoor swimming pools which used different disinfection agents, chlorine (Cl-SP) and bromine (Br-SP). CHCl3 and CHBr3 were the dominant compounds in air and water of the Cl-SP and Br-SP, respectively. Physical exercise was assessed from distance swum and energy expenditure. The changes in exhaled breath concentrations of these compounds were measured from the differences after and before physical activity. A clear dependence between distance swum or energy expenditure and exhaled breath THM concentrations was observed. The statistically significant relationships involved higher THM concentrations at higher distances swum. However, air concentration was the major factor determining the CHCl3 and CHCl2Br intake in swimmers whereas distance swum was the main factor for CHBr3 intake. These two causes of THM incorporation into swimmers concurrently intensify the concentrations of these compounds into exhaled breath and pointed to inhalation as primary mechanism for THM uptake. Furthermore, the rates of THM incorporation were proportionally higher as higher was the degree of bromination of the THM species. This trend suggested that air-water partition mechanisms in the pulmonary system determined higher retention of the THM compounds with lower Henry's Law volatility constants than those of higher constant values. Inhalation is therefore the primary mechanisms for THM exposure of swimmers in indoor buildings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Occurrence and variability of iodinated trihalomethanes concentrations within two drinking-water distribution networks. (United States)

    Ioannou, Panagiotis; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C


    Non-iodo-containing trihalomethanes (TTHM) are frequently detected in chlorinated tap water and currently regulated against their carcinogenic potential. Iodinated THM (ITHM) may also form in disinfected with chlorine waters that are high in iodine content, but little is known about their magnitude and variability within the drinking-water pipe distribution network of urban areas. The main objective of this study was to determine the magnitude and variability of ITHM and TTHM levels and their corresponding daily intake estimates within the drinking water distribution systems of Limassol and Nicosia cities of Cyprus, using tap samples collected from individual households (n=37). In Limassol, mean household tap water ITHM and TTHM levels was 0.58 and 38 μg L(-1), respectively. Dichloroiodomethane (DCIM) was the dominant species of the two measured ITHM compounds accounting for 77% of total ITHM and in the range of 0.032 and 1.65 μg L(-1). The range of DCIM concentrations in Nicosia tap water samples was narrower (0.032 - 0.848 μg L(-1)). Mean total iodine concentration in tap water samples from the seaside city of Limassol was 15 μg L(-1) and approximately twice to those observed in samples from the mainland Nicosia city. However, iodine concentrations did not correlate with the ITHM levels. The calculated chronic daily intake rates of ITHM were low when compared with those of TTHM, but because of their widespread occurrence in tap water and their enhanced mammalian cell toxicity, additional research is warranted to assess the magnitude and variability of human ITHM exposures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Trihalomethane concentrations in tap water as determinant of bottled water use in the city of Barcelona. (United States)

    Font-Ribera, Laia; Cotta, Jordi Colomer; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Anna; Villanueva, Cristina M


    Bottled water consumption is increasing worldwide, despite its huge economic and environmental cost. We aim to describe personal and tap water quality determinants of bottled water use in the city of Barcelona. This cross-sectional study used data from the Health Survey of Barcelona in 2006 (N=5417 adults). The use of bottled water to drink and to cook was evaluated in relation to age, gender, educational level, district and levels of trihalomethanes (THMs), free chlorine, conductivity, chloride, sodium, pH, nitrate and aluminium in municipal tap water using Robust Poisson Regression. The prevalence of bottled water use to drink and cook was 53.9% and 6.7%, respectively. Chemical parameters in water had a large variability (interquartile range of THMs concentrations: 83.2-200.8μg/L) and were correlated between them, except aluminium. Drinking bottled water increased with educational level, while cooking with bottled water was higher among men than among women and decreased with age. After adjusting by these personal determinants, a dose-response relationship was found between concentrations of all chemicals except aluminium in tap water and bottled water use. The highest association was found for THMs, with a Prevalence Ratio of 2.00 (95%CI=1.86, 2.15) for drinking bottled water and 2.80 (95%CI=1.72, 4.58) for cooking with bottled water, among those with >150μg/L vs. tap water. More than half of Barcelona residents regularly drank bottled water, and the main determinant was the chemical composition of tap water, particularly THM level. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Modeling of tethered satellite formations using graph theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Birkelund; Smith, Roy S; Blanke, Mogens


    satellite formation and proposes a method to deduce the equations of motion for the attitude dynamics of the formation in a compact form. The use of graph theory and Lagrange mechanics together allows a broad class of formations to be described using the same framework. A method is stated for finding...... stationary configurations and an upper limit of their number is determined. The method is shown to be valid for general tethered satellite formations that form a tree structure....

  7. BioModels: expanding horizons to include more modelling approaches and formats. (United States)

    Glont, Mihai; Nguyen, Tung V N; Graesslin, Martin; Hälke, Robert; Ali, Raza; Schramm, Jochen; Wimalaratne, Sarala M; Kothamachu, Varun B; Rodriguez, Nicolas; Swat, Maciej J; Eils, Jurgen; Eils, Roland; Laibe, Camille; Malik-Sheriff, Rahuman S; Chelliah, Vijayalakshmi; Le Novère, Nicolas; Hermjakob, Henning


    BioModels serves as a central repository of mathematical models representing biological processes. It offers a platform to make mathematical models easily shareable across the systems modelling community, thereby supporting model reuse. To facilitate hosting a broader range of model formats derived from diverse modelling approaches and tools, a new infrastructure for BioModels has been developed that is available at This new system allows submitting and sharing of a wide range of models with improved support for formats other than SBML. It also offers a version-control backed environment in which authors and curators can work collaboratively to curate models. This article summarises the features available in the current system and discusses the potential benefit they offer to the users over the previous system. In summary, the new portal broadens the scope of models accepted in BioModels and supports collaborative model curation which is crucial for model reproducibility and sharing. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. NDMA formation during drinking water treatment: A multivariate analysis of factors influencing formation. (United States)

    Leavey-Roback, Shannon L; Sugar, Catherine A; Krasner, Stuart W; Suffet, Irwin H Mel


    The formation of the carcinogen N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) during drinking water treatment has raised concerns in the drinking water industry. Many bench-scale laboratory tests and pilot plant studies have been completed to try to determine which factors during water treatment increase or decrease the amount of NDMA formed in drinking water. This study used data from over 20 drinking water treatment plants in the United States and Canada to determine which factors are most highly correlated with the NDMA concentration in delivered water using a mixed effects model with a random intercept. This type of analysis has not been used previously with trihalomethane (THM) models due to the fact that those studies did not sample such a large number and range of plants as was done in this NDMA study. Ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254) in the plant influent and pre-chlorination time used at the plant were highly correlated in all models with NDMA concentration in finished water as well as the percentage change between NDMA formation potential in the plant influent and actual formation in the finished water. Specifically, an increase in UV254 absorbance in a model was associated with an increase in NDMA and an increase in pre-chlorination time in a model was associated with a decrease in NDMA. Other water quality parameters including sucralose concentration in the plant influent, polyDADMAC polymer dose, pH, and chlorine-to-ammonia weight ratio used in the plant were also correlated with NDMA concentration in the distribution system. Lastly, NDMA precursor loading was correlated with the use of polyDADMAC (where precursors were added) and the use of ozone and granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment (where precursors were removed). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Probabilistic Modeling of the Renal Stone Formation Module (United States)

    Best, Lauren M.; Myers, Jerry G.; Goodenow, Debra A.; McRae, Michael P.; Jackson, Travis C.


    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a probabilistic tool, used in mission planning decision making and medical systems risk assessments. The IMM project maintains a database of over 80 medical conditions that could occur during a spaceflight, documenting an incidence rate and end case scenarios for each. In some cases, where observational data are insufficient to adequately define the inflight medical risk, the IMM utilizes external probabilistic modules to model and estimate the event likelihoods. One such medical event of interest is an unpassed renal stone. Due to a high salt diet and high concentrations of calcium in the blood (due to bone depletion caused by unloading in the microgravity environment) astronauts are at a considerable elevated risk for developing renal calculi (nephrolithiasis) while in space. Lack of observed incidences of nephrolithiasis has led HRP to initiate the development of the Renal Stone Formation Module (RSFM) to create a probabilistic simulator capable of estimating the likelihood of symptomatic renal stone presentation in astronauts on exploration missions. The model consists of two major parts. The first is the probabilistic component, which utilizes probability distributions to assess the range of urine electrolyte parameters and a multivariate regression to transform estimated crystal density and size distributions to the likelihood of the presentation of nephrolithiasis symptoms. The second is a deterministic physical and chemical model of renal stone growth in the kidney developed by Kassemi et al. The probabilistic component of the renal stone model couples the input probability distributions describing the urine chemistry, astronaut physiology, and system parameters with the physical and chemical outputs and inputs to the deterministic stone growth model. These two parts of the model are necessary to capture the uncertainty in the likelihood estimate. The model will be driven by Monte Carlo simulations, continuously

  10. Bidirectional transport model of morphogen gradient formation via cytonemes (United States)

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Kim, Hyunjoong


    Morphogen protein gradients play an important role in the spatial regulation of patterning during embryonic development. The most commonly accepted mechanism for gradient formation is diffusion from a source combined with degradation. Recently, there has been growing interest in an alternative mechanism, which is based on the direct delivery of morphogens along thin, actin-rich cellular extensions known as cytonemes. In this paper, we develop a bidirectional motor transport model for the flux of morphogens along cytonemes, linking a source cell to a one-dimensional array of target cells. By solving the steady-state transport equations, we show how a morphogen gradient can be established, and explore how the mean velocity of the motors affects properties of the morphogen gradient such as accumulation time and robustness. In particular, our analysis suggests that in order to achieve robustness with respect to changes in the rate of synthesis of morphogen, the mean velocity has to be negative, that is, retrograde flow or treadmilling dominates. Thus the potential targeting precision of cytonemes comes at an energy cost. We then study the effects of non-uniformly allocating morphogens to the various cytonemes projecting from a source cell. This competition for resources provides a potential regulatory control mechanism not available in diffusion-based models.

  11. Modeling of microporosity formation during solidification of aluminum alloys (United States)

    Wang, T.; An, D.; Zhang, Q.; Dai, T.; Zhu, M.


    A two-dimensional (2D) multi-phase cellular automaton (MCA) model is adopted to simulate the dendrite and microporosity formation during solidification of aluminium alloys. The model involves three phases of liquid, gas, and solid. The effect of liquid-solid phase transformation on the nucleation and growth of porosity, the redistribution and diffusion of solute and hydrogen, and the effects of surface tension and environmental pressure are taken into account. The growth of both dendrite and porosity is simulated using a CA approach. The diffusion of solute and hydrogen is calculated using the finite difference (FD) method. The simulations can reveal the interactive and competitive growth of dendrites and micropores, and the microsegregationof solute and hydrogen. The porosity nuclei with large size are able to grow preferentially, while the growth of the small porosity nuclei is inhibited. Gas pores grow spherically when it is enveloped by liquid. After touching with dendrites, the shapes of pores become irregular. An increased initial hydrogen concentration reduces the incubation time of porosity nucleation, but increases the final percentage of porosity and the average porosity size at the eutectic temperature. With cooling rate decreasing, the competitive growth between gas pores becomes more evident, leading to non-uniform porosity sizes, and more irregular morphology of the porosities with larger size. The simulation results are compared reasonably well with the experimental data reported in literature.

  12. Numerical models of Oort Cloud formation and comet delivery (United States)

    Kaib, Nathan A.

    I use a newly designed numerical algorithm to simulate the dynamics of the Oort Cloud. The processes I model are the formation of the cloud, the current delivery of comets to the planetary region, and long-period comet production during comet showers. Concerning the cloud's formation, I find that the Sun's birth environment dramatically affects the structure of the inner Oort Cloud as well as the amount of material trapped in this region. In addition, the structure of this reservoir is also sensitive to the Sun's orbital history in the Milky Way. This raises the possibility that constraining our inner Oort Cloud's properties can constrain the Sun's dynamical history. In this regard, I use my simulations of comet delivery to better understand what the population of comets passing through the planetary region can tell us about the inner Oort Cloud. I find that the inner Oort Cloud (rather than the scattered disk) dominates the production of planet-crossing TNOs with perihelia beyond 15 AU and semimajor axes greater than a few hundred AU. My results indicate that two objects representing this population (2000 00 67 and 2006 SQ 372 ) have already been detected, and the detection of many analogous objects can constrain the inner Oort Cloud. In addition, these simulations of comet delivery also demonstrate that, contrary to previous understanding, the inner Oort Cloud is a significant and perhaps the dominant source of known long-period comets. This result can be used to place the first observationally motivated upper limit on the inner Oort Cloud's population. Finally, with this maximum population value, I use my comet shower simulations to show that comet showers are unlikely to be responsible for more than one minor extinction event since the Cambrian Explosion.

  13. A model of jam formation in congested traffic (United States)

    Bunzarova, N. Zh; Pesheva, N. C.; Priezzhev, V. B.; Brankov, J. G.


    We study a model of irreversible jam formation in congested vehicular traffic on an open segment of a single-lane road. The vehicles obey a stochastic discrete-time dynamics which is a limiting case of the generalized Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process. Its characteristic features are: (a) the existing clusters of jammed cars cannot break into parts; (b) when the leading vehicle of a cluster hops to the right, the whole cluster follows it deterministically, and (c) any two clusters of vehicles, occupying consecutive positions on the chain, may become nearest-neighbors and merge irreversibly into a single cluster. The above dynamics was used in a one-dimensional model of irreversible aggregation by Bunzarova and Pesheva [Phys. Rev. E 95, 052105 (2017)]. The model has three stationary non-equilibrium phases, depending on the probabilities of injection (α), ejection (β), and hopping (p) of particles: a many-particle one, MP, a completely jammed phase CF, and a mixed MP+CF phase. An exact expression for the stationary probability P(1) of a completely jammed configuration in the mixed MP+CF phase is obtained. The gap distribution between neighboring clusters of jammed cars at large lengths L of the road is studied. Three regimes of evolution of the width of a single gap are found: (i) growing gaps with length of the order O(L) when β > p; (ii) shrinking gaps with length of the order O(1) when β < p; and (iii) critical gaps at β = p, of the order O(L 1/2). These results are supported by extensive Monte Carlo calculations.

  14. Effects of ozone as a stand-alone and coagulation-aid treatment on the reduction of trihalomethanes precursors from high DOC and hardness water. (United States)

    Sadrnourmohamadi, Mehrnaz; Gorczyca, Beata


    This study investigates the effect of ozone as a stand-alone and coagulation aid on the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the water with a high level of DOC (13.8 mgL(-1)) and calcium hardness (270 mgL(-1)) CaCO3. Natural water collected from the Assiniboine River (Manitoba, Canada) was used in this study. Effectiveness of ozone treatment was evaluated by measurement of DOC, DOC fractions, UV254, and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP). Additionally, zeta potential and dissolved calcium concentration were measured to discern the mechanism of ozone reactions. Results indicated that 0.8 mg O3/mg DOC ozone stand-alone can cause up to 86% UV254 reduction and up to 27% DOC reduction. DOC fractionation results showed that ozone can change the composition of DOC in the water samples, converting the hydrophobic fractions into hydrophilic ones and resulting in the reduction of THMFP. Also, ozone caused a decrease in particle stability and dissolved calcium concentration. These simultaneous ozonation effects caused improved water flocculation and enhanced removal of DOC. This resulted in reduction of the coagulant dosage when ozone doses higher than 0.2 mg O3/mg DOC were applied prior to coagulation with ferric sulfate. Also, pre-ozonation-coagulation process achieved preferential THMFP removal for all of the ozone doses tested (0-0.8 mg O3/mg DOC), leading to a lower specific THMFP in pre-ozonated-coagulated waters than in the corresponding ozonated waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effects of Presentation Format for Behavior Modeling of Interpersonal Skills in Online Instruction (United States)

    Doo, Min Young


    The purpose of this study was to identify the most effective model presentation format in behavior modeling to teach interpersonal skills in online learning environments. Four model presentation formats were compared; video, pictures plus audio, audio only, and text-script only. The effects of the model presentation were investigated in terms of…

  16. Availability, quality and relevance of toxicogenomics data for human health risk assessment: A scoping review of the literature on trihalomethanes. (United States)

    Vachon, Julien; Pagé-Larivière, Florence; Sirard, Marc-André; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Levallois, Patrick; Campagna, Céline


    Human health risk assessment (HHRA) must be adapted to the challenges of the 21st century, and the use of toxicogenomics data in HHRA is among the changes that regulatory agencies worldwide are trying to implement. However, the use of toxicogenomics data in HHRA is still limited. The purpose of this study was to explore the availability, quality and relevance to HHRA of toxicogenomics publications as potential barriers to their use in HHRA. We conducted a scoping review of available toxicogenomics literature, using trihalomethanes as a case study. Four bibliographic databases (including the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database) were assessed. An evaluation table was developed to characterise quality and relevance of studies included on the basis of criteria proposed in the literature. Studies were selected and analysed by two independent reviewers. Only nine studies, published between 1997 and 2015, were included in the analysis. Based on the selected criteria, critical methodological details were often missing; in fact, only three out of nine studies were considered to be of adequate quality for HHRA. No studies met more than three (out of seven) criteria of relevance to HHRA (e.g. adequate number of doses and sample size, etc.). This first scoping review of toxicogenomics publications on trihalomethanes shows that low availability, quality and relevance to HHRA of toxicogenomics publications presents potential barriers to their use in HHRA. Improved reporting of methodological details and study design is needed in the future so that toxicogenomics studies can be appropriately assessed regarding their quality and value for HHRA.

  17. A Model of Electron-Positron Pair Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.


    Full Text Available The elementary electron-positron pair formation process is consideredin terms of a revised quantum electrodynamic theory, with specialattention to the conservation of energy, spin, and electric charge.The theory leads to a wave-packet photon model of narrow line widthand needle-radiation properties, not being available from conventionalquantum electrodynamics which is based on Maxwell's equations. Themodel appears to be consistent with the observed pair productionprocess, in which the created electron and positron form two raysthat start within a very small region and have original directionsalong the path of the incoming photon. Conservation of angular momentum requires the photon to possess a spin, as given by the present theory but not by the conventional one. The nonzero electric field divergence further gives rise to a local intrinsic electric charge density within the photon body, whereas there is a vanishing total charge of the latter. This may explain the observed fact that the photon decays on account of the impact from an external electric field. Such a behaviour should not become possible for a photon having zero local electric charge density.

  18. Modeling the mechanism of CLN025 beta-hairpin formation (United States)

    McKiernan, Keri A.; Husic, Brooke E.; Pande, Vijay S.


    Beta-hairpins are substructures found in proteins that can lend insight into more complex systems. Furthermore, the folding of beta-hairpins is a valuable test case for benchmarking experimental and theoretical methods. Here, we simulate the folding of CLN025, a miniprotein with a beta-hairpin structure, at its experimental melting temperature using a range of state-of-the-art protein force fields. We construct Markov state models in order to examine the thermodynamics, kinetics, mechanism, and rate-determining step of folding. Mechanistically, we find the folding process is rate-limited by the formation of the turn region hydrogen bonds, which occurs following the downhill hydrophobic collapse of the extended denatured protein. These results are presented in the context of established and contradictory theories of the beta-hairpin folding process. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that the AMBER-FB15 force field, at this temperature, best describes the characteristics of the full experimental CLN025 conformational ensemble, while the AMBER ff99SB-ILDN and CHARMM22* force fields display a tendency to overstabilize the native state.

  19. Modeling Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation in a 3-Dimensional Regional Air Quality Model (United States)

    Michelangeli, D.; Xia, A.; Makar, P.


    An adaptation of the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yield method of Odum et al. [1996] has been used as a framework for the SOA formation, with extrapolation to low NOx/hydrocarbon ratios conditions, and including a parameterization for oligomer formation. The modified methodology includes: (1) extrapolation of the parameters used for the SOA formation from the oxidation of toluene to low NOx/HC ratio—resembling ambient atmospheric conditions; (2) a simplified parameterization scheme for the formation of the oligomers, which comprise half of the total SOA mass in the test conditions examined, (3) temperature dependencies inherent in vaporization enthalpy; (4) interactions with primary organic aerosols (POA) and (5) compound interaction through the application of a modified UNIFAC method, including water uptake due to the existence of the SOA. In comparison with previous work, the oligomers-formation scheme helps improve the predicted SOA mass concentrations compared to observations. The SOA module is implemented into a regional air quality model (MC2AQ) in the domain of Northeastern United States and Southern Ontario and Quebec during the month of July 1999. The model results are then evaluated against observational data from the IMPROVE network. Generally, the predicted POA are reasonably described at different monitoring sites. Moreover, the concentrations of the SOA and total organic aerosol (TOA) at the rural areas are close to the observed data; however, the SOA concentrations are underpredicted at a selected urban site, which leads to the underprediction of the TOA at the urban site. This is partly due to the lumping of the chemical mechanism for the SOA formation in the urban atmosphere. Moreover, the overall gas/particle partitioning is analyzed during the study period at two representative sites. The results showed that temperature has a stronger effect on SOA formation than the presence of POA, and low temperature is favored to the formation of the SOA

  20. Opinion formation models in static and dynamic social networks (United States)

    Singh, Pramesh

    We study models of opinion formation on static as well as dynamic networks where interaction among individuals is governed by widely accepted social theories. In particular, three models of competing opinions based on distinct interaction mechanisms are studied. A common feature in all of these models is the existence of a tipping point in terms of a model parameter beyond which a rapid consensus is reached. In the first model that we study on a static network, a node adopts a particular state (opinion) if a threshold fraction of its neighbors are already in that state. We introduce a few initiator nodes which are in state '1' in a population where every node is in state '0'. Thus, opinion '1' spreads through the population until no further influence is possible. Size of the spread is greatly affected by how these initiator nodes are selected. We find that there exists a critical fraction of initiators pc that is needed to trigger global cascades for a given threshold phi. We also study heuristic strategies for selecting a set of initiator nodes in order to maximize the cascade size. The structural properties of networks also play an important role in the spreading process. We study how the dynamics is affected by changing the clustering in a network. It turns out that local clustering is helpful in spreading. Next, we studied a model where the network is dynamic and interactions are homophilic. We find that homophily-driven rewiring impedes the reaching of consensus and in the absence of committed nodes (nodes that are not influenceable on their opinion), consensus time Tc diverges exponentially with network size N . As we introduce a fraction of committed nodes, beyond a critical value, the scaling of Tc becomes logarithmic in N. We also find that slight change in the interaction rule can produce strikingly different scaling behaviors of T c . However, introducing committed agents in the system drastically improves the scaling of the consensus time regardless of

  1. Analysis of in vivo and in vitro DNA strand breaks from trihalomethane exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeAngelo Anthony


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of chlorinated surface waters to an increased risk of two major causes of human mortality, colorectal and bladder cancer. Trihalomethanes (THMs are by-products formed when chlorine is used to disinfect drinking water. The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of the THMs, trichloromethane (TCM, bromodichloromethane (BDCM, dibromochloromethane (DBCM, and tribromomethane (TBM, to induce DNA strand breaks (SB in (1 CCRF-CEM human lymphoblastic leukemia cells, (2 primary rat hepatocytes (PRH exposed in vitro, and (3 rats exposed by gavage or drinking water. Methods DNA SB were measured by the DNA alkaline unwinding assay (DAUA. CCRF-CEM cells were exposed to individual THMs for 2 hr. Half of the cells were immediately analyzed for DNA SB and half were transferred into fresh culture medium and incubated for an additional 22 hr before testing for DNA SB. PRH were exposed to individual THMs for 4 hr then assayed for DNA SB. F344/N rats were exposed to individual THMs for 4 hr, 2 weeks, and to BDCM for 5 wk then tested for DNA SB. Results CCRF-CEM cells exposed to 5- or 10-mM brominated THMs for 2 hr produced DNA SB. The order of activity was TBM>DBCM>BDCM; TCM was inactive. Following a 22-hr recovery period, all groups had fewer SB except 10-mM DBCM and 1-mM TBM. CCRF-CEM cells were found to be positive for the GSTT1-1 gene, however no activity was detected. No DNA SB, unassociated with cytotoxicity, were observed in PRH or F344/N rats exposed to individual THMs. Conclusion CCRF-CEM cells exposed to the brominated THMs at 5 or 10 mM for 2 hr showed a significant increase in DNA SB when compared to control cells. Additionally, CCRF-CEM cells exposed to DBCM and TBM appeared to have compromised DNA repair capacity as demonstrated by an increased amount of DNA SB at 22 hr following exposure. CCRF-CEM cells were found to be positive for the GSTT1-1 gene, however no activity

  2. Models for the formation of binary and millisecond radio pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van den Heuvel, E.P.J.


    The peculiar combination of a relatively short pulse period and a relatively weak surface dipole magnetic field strength of binary radio pulsars finds a consistent explanation in terms of: (i) decay of the surface dipole component of neutron star magnetic fields on a timescale of (2-5).10 6 yrs, in combination with: (ii) spin up of the rotation of the neutron star during a subsequent mass-transfer phase. The two observed classes of binary radio pulsars (very close and very wide systems, respectively) are expected to have been formed by the later evolution of binaries consisting of a neutron star and a normal companion star, in which the companion was (considerably) more massive than the neutron star, or less massive than the neutron star, respectively. In the first case the companion of the neutron star in the final system will be a fairly massive white dwarf, in a circular orbit, or a neutron star in an eccentric orbit. In the second case the final companion to the neutron star will be a low-mass (approx. 0.3 Msub solar) helium white dwarf in a wide and nearly circular orbit. In systems of the second type the neutron star was most probably formed by the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf. This explains why PSR 1953+29 has a millisecond rotation period and why PSR 0820+02 has not. Binary coalescence models for the formation of the 1.5 millisecond pulsar appear to be viable. The companion to the neutron star may have been a low-mass red dwarf, a neutron star, or a massive (> 0.7 Msub solar) white dwarf. In the red-dwarf case the progenitor system probably was a CV binary in which the white dwarf collapsed by accretion. 66 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  3. Investigating Importance Weighting of Satisfaction Scores from a Formative Model with Partial Least Squares Analysis (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Chen, Lung Hung; Tsai, Ying-Mei


    This study introduced a formative model to investigate the utility of importance weighting on satisfaction scores with partial least squares analysis. Based on the bottom-up theory of satisfaction evaluations, the measurement structure for weighted/unweighted domain satisfaction scores was modeled as a formative model, whereas the measurement…

  4. SBML qualitative models: a model representation format and infrastructure to foster interactions between qualitative modelling formalisms and tools. (United States)

    Chaouiya, Claudine; Bérenguier, Duncan; Keating, Sarah M; Naldi, Aurélien; van Iersel, Martijn P; Rodriguez, Nicolas; Dräger, Andreas; Büchel, Finja; Cokelaer, Thomas; Kowal, Bryan; Wicks, Benjamin; Gonçalves, Emanuel; Dorier, Julien; Page, Michel; Monteiro, Pedro T; von Kamp, Axel; Xenarios, Ioannis; de Jong, Hidde; Hucka, Michael; Klamt, Steffen; Thieffry, Denis; Le Novère, Nicolas; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Helikar, Tomáš


    Qualitative frameworks, especially those based on the logical discrete formalism, are increasingly used to model regulatory and signalling networks. A major advantage of these frameworks is that they do not require precise quantitative data, and that they are well-suited for studies of large networks. While numerous groups have developed specific computational tools that provide original methods to analyse qualitative models, a standard format to exchange qualitative models has been missing. We present the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Qualitative Models Package ("qual"), an extension of the SBML Level 3 standard designed for computer representation of qualitative models of biological networks. We demonstrate the interoperability of models via SBML qual through the analysis of a specific signalling network by three independent software tools. Furthermore, the collective effort to define the SBML qual format paved the way for the development of LogicalModel, an open-source model library, which will facilitate the adoption of the format as well as the collaborative development of algorithms to analyse qualitative models. SBML qual allows the exchange of qualitative models among a number of complementary software tools. SBML qual has the potential to promote collaborative work on the development of novel computational approaches, as well as on the specification and the analysis of comprehensive qualitative models of regulatory and signalling networks.

  5. Betting for Integral Formation through the Models of Arts Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Margarita Barco Rodríguez


    Full Text Available For a long time integral formation has been a main purpose of educational curricula. But even though it proves necessary on the ground of the benefits education may bring to human development, its outcomes are not always visible and many times it actually does not exist beyond the speech. In the field of arts teaching, the wholeness of human expressions seems to be one of the main goals in the formative purposes for young people and children. Such a commitment demands serious reflection on how and what artistic practices may bring to the formation of integral citizens, be it from the perspective of free expression or from a cognitivist or cultural one. Tracking the curricula in art education will allow us to understand the movement and whereabouts of such a high view, bringing together the conceptual and methodological arguments for it to match contemporaneity, so underlining the pertinence of art practices in education.

  6. Linear approximation model network and its formation via ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To overcome the deficiency of `local model network' (LMN) techniques, an alternative `linear approximation model' (LAM) network approach is proposed. Such a network models a nonlinear or practical system with multiple linear models fitted along operating trajectories, where individual models are simply networked ...

  7. Exposure assessment and the risk associated with trihalomethanes compounds in drinking water - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2012.p5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira


    Full Text Available To measure the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs in marshland of Jacarepaguá drinking water, Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil, and their associated risks. Methods: Two hundred houses were visited and samples were collected from consumer taps water. Risks estimates based on exposures were projected by employing deterministic and probabilistic approaches. Results: The THMs (dibromochloromethane, bromoform, chloroform, and bromodichloromethane ranged from 3.08 μg/l to 129.31 μg/l. Non-carcinogenic risks induced by ingestion of THMs were below the tolerable level (10 -6 . Conclusion: Data obtained in this research demonstrate that exposure to drinking water contaminants and associated risks were higher than the acceptable level.

  8. Network Formation Models With Costs for Establishing Links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.; van den Nouweland, C.G.A.M.


    In this paper we study endogenous formation of communication networks in situations where the economic possibilities of groups of players can be described by a cooperative game. We concentrate on the in uence that the existence of costs for establishing communication links has on the communication

  9. Endogenous party formation in a model of representative democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, Marco


    We extend the citizen candidate framework by allowing for endogenous party formation. When a party is formed, any member of that party that wants to be a candidate in the election, first has to run in the primary election of her party. We show that in equilibrium one left-wing and one right-wing

  10. Study Tranport Barrier Formation using Bi- Stable Sandpile Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitpitak, B.; Kanjanaput, W.; Poolyarat, N.; Picha, R; Onjun, T.


    The formation of plasma transport barrier in Tokamak is an important issue for achieving high energy confinement and sufficient fusion performance. The simulation using in this experiment simulates cycles of dropping grains in a sandpile with two stable and two unstable slope regimes which share the same characteristic as the formation of pedestal and there are several parameters used, including stable boundaries, grains in a toppling, relax process iterations per cycle, grains in a drop and number of drops per cycle. By using this simulation, the effects of the relaxation times and number of trooping grain (the number of collapsing grain in the relaxation process) can be investigated. It is found in the simulations that the pedestal region can be observed only when the number of deposited grain exceeds a critical value which is related to number of relaxation times and number of allowed trooping grain. In another words, the pedestal formation occurs when the particle deposition rate is higher than the average diffusion rate. In addition, altering amount of trooping grain can lead to remarkable effects on slope and height of the profiles. In order to achieve better energy confinement, further study of formation of plasma transport barrier is needed.

  11. Elemental abundances in Milky Way-like galaxies from a hierarchical galaxy formation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lucia, Gabriella; Tornatore, Luca; Frenk, Carlos S.; Helmi, Amina; Navarro, Julio F.; White, Simon D. M.


    We develop a new method to account for the finite lifetimes of stars and trace individual abundances within a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. At variance with previous methods, based on the storage of the (binned) past star formation history of model galaxies, our method projects the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тигран Георгиевич ГРИГОРЯН


    Full Text Available Problems of formation of the project output model related to the complexity of information transmission in the communication between the project participants and stakeholders are considered. The concept of forming a project output model based on allocation of stages of model developing and specification and efficiency of the formation of a model that takes into account the need to plan the project output value creation and transferring to the sponsor and consumers is proposed.

  13. Meniscus Dynamics in Bubble Formation. Part II: Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Marek; Bunganič, Radovan; Drahoš, Jiří


    Roč. 87, č. 10 (2009), s. 1357-1365 ISSN 0263-8762 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/1110; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200720801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : bubble formation * periodic bubbling * meniscus oscillations Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.223, year: 2009

  14. Dissecting galaxy formation models with sensitivity analysis—a new approach to constrain the Milky Way formation history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez, Facundo A.; O'Shea, Brian W.; Coleman-Smith, Christopher E.; Tumlinson, Jason; Wolpert, Robert L.


    We present an application of a statistical tool known as sensitivity analysis to characterize the relationship between input parameters and observational predictions of semi-analytic models of galaxy formation coupled to cosmological N-body simulations. We show how a sensitivity analysis can be performed on our chemo-dynamical model, ChemTreeN, to characterize and quantify its relationship between model input parameters and predicted observable properties. The result of this analysis provides the user with information about which parameters are most important and most likely to affect the prediction of a given observable. It can also be used to simplify models by identifying input parameters that have no effect on the outputs (i.e., observational predictions) of interest. Conversely, sensitivity analysis allows us to identify what model parameters can be most efficiently constrained by the given observational data set. We have applied this technique to real observational data sets associated with the Milky Way, such as the luminosity function of the dwarf satellites. The results from the sensitivity analysis are used to train specific model emulators of ChemTreeN, only involving the most relevant input parameters. This allowed us to efficiently explore the input parameter space. A statistical comparison of model outputs and real observables is used to obtain a 'best-fitting' parameter set. We consider different Milky-Way-like dark matter halos to account for the dependence of the best-fitting parameter selection process on the underlying merger history of the models. For all formation histories considered, running ChemTreeN with best-fitting parameters produced luminosity functions that tightly fit their observed counterpart. However, only one of the resulting stellar halo models was able to reproduce the observed stellar halo mass within 40 kpc of the Galactic center. On the basis of this analysis, it is possible to disregard certain models, and their

  15. NACP Site: Terrestrial Biosphere Model Output Data in Original Format (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains the original model output data submissions from the 24 terrestrial biosphere models (TBM) that participated in the North American...

  16. NACP Site: Terrestrial Biosphere Model Output Data in Original Format (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the original model output data submissions from the 24 terrestrial biosphere models (TBM) that participated in the North American Carbon...

  17. Inflationary universe models and the formation of structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandenberger, R.H.


    The main features of inflationary universe models are briefly reviewed. Inflation provides a mechanism which produces energy density fluctuations on cosmological scales. In the original models, it was not possible to obtain the correct magnitude of these fluctuations without fine tuning the particle physics models. Two mechanisms, chaotic inflation, and a dynamical relaxation process are discussed by which inflation may be realized in models which give the right magnitude of fluctuations. 22 references

  18. Particles in swimming pool filters – Does pH determine the DBP formation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Willach, Sarah; Mosbæk, Hans


    The formation was investigated for different groups of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination of filter particles from swimming pools at different pH-values and the toxicity was estimated. Specifically, the formation of the DBP group trihalomethanes (THMs), which is regulated in many...... or initial free chlorine concentrations the particles were chlorinated at different pH-values in the relevant range for swimming pools. THM and HAA formations were reduced by decreasing pH while HAN formation increased with decreasing pH. Based on the organic content the relative DBP formation from...


    KAUST Repository



    We discuss existence and uniqueness of solutions for a one-dimensional parabolic evolution equation with a free boundary. This problem was introduced by Lasry and Lions as description of the dynamical formation of the price of a trading good. Short time existence and uniqueness is established by a contraction argument. Then we discuss the issue of global-in-time-extension of the local solution which is closely related to the regularity of the free boundary. We also present numerical results. © 2009 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  20. Specification and Estimation of Network Formation and Network Interaction Models with the Exponential Probability Distribution


    Hsieh, Chih-Sheng; Lee, Lung fei


    In this paper, we model network formation and network interactions under a unified framework. The key feature of our model is to allow individuals to respond to incentives stemming from interaction benefits on certain activities when they choose friends (network links), while capturing homophily in terms of unobserved characteristic variables in network formation and activities. There are two advantages of this modeling approach: first, one can evaluate whether incentives from certain interac...

  1. Fuzzy social choice models explaining the government formation process

    CERN Document Server

    C Casey, Peter; A Goodman, Carly; Pook, Kelly Nelson; N Mordeson, John; J Wierman, Mark; D Clark, Terry


    This book explores the extent to which fuzzy set logic can overcome some of the shortcomings of public choice theory, particularly its inability to provide adequate predictive power in empirical studies. Especially in the case of social preferences, public choice theory has failed to produce the set of alternatives from which collective choices are made.  The book presents empirical findings achieved by the authors in their efforts to predict the outcome of government formation processes in European parliamentary and semi-presidential systems.  Using data from the Comparative Manifesto Project (CMP), the authors propose a new approach that reinterprets error in the coding of CMP data as ambiguity in the actual political positions of parties on the policy dimensions being coded. The range of this error establishes parties’ fuzzy preferences. The set of possible outcomes in the process of government formation is then calculated on the basis of both the fuzzy Pareto set and the fuzzy maximal set, and the pre...

  2. Colorectal Cancer and Long-Term Exposure to Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water: A Multicenter Case-Control Study in Spain and Italy


    Villanueva, Cristina M.; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Bosetti, Cristina; Righi, Elena; Molina, Antonio José; Martín, Vicente; Boldo, Elena; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina; Gómez Acebo, Inés; Altzibar, Jone M.; Jiménez Zabala, Ana; Ardanaz, Eva; Peiró, Rosana


    Background: Evidence on the association between colorectal cancer and exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking water is inconsistent. Objectives: We assessed long-term exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), the most prevalent group of chlorination by-products, to evaluate the association with colorectal cancer. Methods: A multicenter case?control study was conducted in Spain and Italy in 2008?2013. Hospital-based incident cases and population-based (Spain) and hospital-based (Italy) cont...

  3. Chloramination of nitrogenous contaminants (pharmaceuticals and pesticides): NDMA and halogenated DBPs formation

    KAUST Repository

    Le Roux, Julien


    Disinfection with chloramines is often used to reduce the production of regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs) such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). However, chloramination can lead to the formation of N-nitrosamines, including N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a probable human carcinogen. Previous research used dimethylamine (DMA) as a model precursor of NDMA, but certain widely used tertiary dimethylamines (e.g. the pharmaceutical ranitidine) show much higher conversion rates to NDMA than DMA. This study investigates the NDMA formation potential of several tertiary amines including pharmaceuticals and herbicides. The reactivity of these molecules with monochloramine (NH2Cl) is studied through the formation of NDMA, and other halogenated DBPs such as haloacetonitriles (HANs) and AOX (Adsorbable Organic Halides). Several compounds investigated formed NDMA in greater amounts than DMA, revealing the importance of structural characteristics of tertiary amines for NDMA formation. Among these compounds, the pharmaceutical ranitidine showed the highest molar conversion to NDMA. The pH and dissolved oxygen content of the solution were found to play a major role for the formation of NDMA from ranitidine. NDMA was formed in higher amounts at pH around pH 8 and a lower concentration of dissolved oxygen dramatically decreased NDMA yields. These findings seem to indicate that dichloramine (NHCl2) is not the major oxidant involved in the formation of NDMA from ranitidine, results in contradiction with the reaction mechanisms proposed in the literature. Dissolved oxygen was also found to influence the formation of other oxygen-containing DBPs (i.e. trichloronitromethane and haloketones). The results of this study identify several anthropogenic precursors of NDMA, indicating that chloramination of waters impacted by these tertiary amines could lead to the formation of significant amounts of NDMA and other non-regulated DBPs of potential health concern (e

  4. Pattern formation in flocking models: A hydrodynamic description (United States)

    Solon, Alexandre P.; Caussin, Jean-Baptiste; Bartolo, Denis; Chaté, Hugues; Tailleur, Julien


    We study in detail the hydrodynamic theories describing the transition to collective motion in polar active matter, exemplified by the Vicsek and active Ising models. Using a simple phenomenological theory, we show the existence of an infinity of propagative solutions, describing both phase and microphase separation, that we fully characterize. We also show that the same results hold specifically in the hydrodynamic equations derived in the literature for the active Ising model and for a simplified version of the Vicsek model. We then study numerically the linear stability of these solutions. We show that stable ones constitute only a small fraction of them, which, however, includes all existing types. We further argue that, in practice, a coarsening mechanism leads towards phase-separated solutions. Finally, we construct the phase diagrams of the hydrodynamic equations proposed to qualitatively describe the Vicsek and active Ising models and connect our results to the phenomenology of the corresponding microscopic models.

  5. Pattern formation in flocking models: A hydrodynamic description. (United States)

    Solon, Alexandre P; Caussin, Jean-Baptiste; Bartolo, Denis; Chaté, Hugues; Tailleur, Julien


    We study in detail the hydrodynamic theories describing the transition to collective motion in polar active matter, exemplified by the Vicsek and active Ising models. Using a simple phenomenological theory, we show the existence of an infinity of propagative solutions, describing both phase and microphase separation, that we fully characterize. We also show that the same results hold specifically in the hydrodynamic equations derived in the literature for the active Ising model and for a simplified version of the Vicsek model. We then study numerically the linear stability of these solutions. We show that stable ones constitute only a small fraction of them, which, however, includes all existing types. We further argue that, in practice, a coarsening mechanism leads towards phase-separated solutions. Finally, we construct the phase diagrams of the hydrodynamic equations proposed to qualitatively describe the Vicsek and active Ising models and connect our results to the phenomenology of the corresponding microscopic models.

  6. Modeling of higher harmonics formation in medical ultrasound systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Louise Kold; Schlaikjer, Malene; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    a valuable tool for simulating ultrasound harmonic imaging. An extended version of Field II is obtained by means of operator splitting. The pressure eld is calculated by propagation of the eld from the transducer through a number of planes. Every plane serves as a virtual aperture for the next plane...... of the approach is demonstrated by comparing results from simulations and measurements from a convex array transducer. The new simulation tool is capable of simulating the formation of higher harmonics in water on the acoustical axis. The generation of nonlinear higher harmonic components can be predicted...... with an accuracy of 2.6 dB and 2.0 dB for the second and third harmonic, respectively...

  7. Modeling of Non-isothermal Austenite Formation in Spring Steel (United States)

    Huang, He; Wang, Baoyu; Tang, Xuefeng; Li, Junling


    The austenitization kinetics description of spring steel 60Si2CrA plays an important role in providing guidelines for industrial production. The dilatometric curves of 60Si2CrA steel were measured using a dilatometer DIL805A at heating rates of 0.3 K to 50 K/s (0.3 °C/s to 50 °C/s). Based on the dilatometric curves, a unified kinetics model using the internal state variable (ISV) method was derived to describe the non-isothermal austenitization kinetics of 60Si2CrA, and the abovementioned model models the incubation and transition periods. The material constants in the model were determined using a genetic algorithm-based optimization technique. Additionally, good agreement between predicted and experimental volume fractions of transformed austenite was obtained, indicating that the model is effective for describing the austenitization kinetics of 60Si2CrA steel. Compared with other modeling methods of austenitization kinetics, this model, which uses the ISV method, has some advantages, such as a simple formula and explicit physics meaning, and can be probably used in engineering practice.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Barshaj


    Full Text Available Formation of topography, geometrical structure and micro-hardness of pig iron billet surface is considered in the paper. Mathematical models pertaining to formation of the above-mentioned characteristics of surface quality according to parameters of machining regime have been developed on the basis of the executed investigations.

  9. Dynamics of biofilm formation in a model drinking water distribution system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Arvin, Erik


    The dynamics of biofilm formation in non-chlorinated groundwater-based drinking water was studied in a model distribution system. The formation of biofilm was closely monitored for a period of 522 days by total bacterial counts (AODC), heterotrophic plate counts (R2A media), and ATP content...

  10. Predictive Modeling of Flavor Compound Formation in the Maillard Reaction: A SWOT Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.


    The importance of Maillard flavor compounds for food quality is undisputed, but we are far from being able to control such formation quantitatively in food processing. Kinetic models attempt to predict rates of formation as a function of temperature, pH, water activity/content, and chemical

  11. 2D numerical modelling of meandering channel formation (United States)

    XIAO, Y.; ZHOU, G.; YANG, F. S.


    A 2D depth-averaged model for hydrodynamic sediment transport and river morphological adjustment was established. The sediment transport submodel takes into account the influence of non-uniform sediment with bed surface armoring and considers the impact of secondary flow in the direction of bed-load transport and transverse slope of the river bed. The bank erosion submodel incorporates a simple simulation method for updating bank geometry during either degradational or aggradational bed evolution. Comparison of the results obtained by the extended model with experimental and field data, and numerical predictions validate that the proposed model can simulate grain sorting in river bends and duplicate the characteristics of meandering river and its development. The results illustrate that by using its control factors, the improved numerical model can be applied to simulate channel evolution under different scenarios and improve understanding of patterning processes.

  12. Modeling of Cloud/Radiation Processes for Cirrus Cloud Formation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liou, K


    This technical report includes five reprints and pre-prints of papers associated with the modeling of cirrus cloud and radiation processes as well as remote sensing of cloud optical and microphysical...

  13. Pair formation models for sexually transmitted infections : A primer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretzschmar, MEE; Heijne, Janneke C M

    For modelling sexually transmitted infections, duration of partnerships can strongly influence the transmission dynamics of the infection. If partnerships are monogamous, pairs of susceptible individuals are protected from becoming infected, while pairs of infected individuals delay onward

  14. An analytical model for hydraulic fracturing in shallow bedrock formations. (United States)

    dos Santos, José Sérgio; Ballestero, Thomas Paul; Pitombeira, Ernesto da Silva


    A theoretical method is proposed to estimate post-fracturing fracture size and transmissivity, and as a test of the methodology, data collected from two wells were used for verification. This method can be employed before hydrofracturing in order to obtain estimates of the potential hydraulic benefits of hydraulic fracturing. Five different pumping test analysis methods were used to evaluate the well hydraulic data. The most effective methods were the Papadopulos-Cooper model (1967), which includes wellbore storage effects, and the Gringarten-Ramey model (1974), known as the single horizontal fracture model. The hydraulic parameters resulting from fitting these models to the field data revealed that as a result of hydraulic fracturing, the transmissivity increased more than 46 times in one well and increased 285 times in the other well. The model developed by dos Santos (2008), which considers horizontal radial fracture propagation from the hydraulically fractured well, was used to estimate potential fracture geometry after hydrofracturing. For the two studied wells, their fractures could have propagated to distances of almost 175 m or more and developed maximum apertures of about 2.20 mm and hydraulic apertures close to 0.30 mm. Fracturing at this site appears to have expanded and propagated existing fractures and not created new fractures. Hydraulic apertures calculated from pumping test analyses closely matched the results obtained from the hydraulic fracturing model. As a result of this model, post-fracturing geometry and resulting post-fracturing well yield can be estimated before the actual hydrofracturing. Copyright © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin IANCU


    Full Text Available The paper work presents the STL file format, which is now used for transferring information from CAD software to a 3D printer, for obtaining the solid model in Rapid prototyping and Computer Aided Manufacturing. It’s presented also the STL format structure, its history, limitations and further development, as well as its new version to arrive and other similar file formats. As a conclusion, STL files used to transfer data from CAD package to 3D printers has a series of limitations and therefore new formats will replace it soon.

  16. Adapted Boolean network models for extracellular matrix formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollbold Johannes


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the rapid data accumulation on pathogenesis and progression of chronic inflammation, there is an increasing demand for approaches to analyse the underlying regulatory networks. For example, rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease, characterised by joint destruction and perpetuated by activated synovial fibroblasts (SFB. These abnormally express and/or secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines, collagens causing joint fibrosis, or tissue-degrading enzymes resulting in destruction of the extra-cellular matrix (ECM. We applied three methods to analyse ECM regulation: data discretisation to filter out noise and to reduce complexity, Boolean network construction to implement logic relationships, and formal concept analysis (FCA for the formation of minimal, but complete rule sets from the data. Results First, we extracted literature information to develop an interaction network containing 18 genes representing ECM formation and destruction. Subsequently, we constructed an asynchronous Boolean network with biologically plausible time intervals for mRNA and protein production, secretion, and inactivation. Experimental gene expression data was obtained from SFB stimulated by TGFβ1 or by TNFα and discretised thereafter. The Boolean functions of the initial network were improved iteratively by the comparison of the simulation runs to the experimental data and by exploitation of expert knowledge. This resulted in adapted networks for both cytokine stimulation conditions. The simulations were further analysed by the attribute exploration algorithm of FCA, integrating the observed time series in a fine-tuned and automated manner. The resulting temporal rules yielded new contributions to controversially discussed aspects of fibroblast biology (e.g., considerable expression of TNF and MMP9 by fibroblasts stimulation and corroborated previously known facts (e.g., co-expression of collagens and MMPs after TNF

  17. A model for the origin of bursty star formation in galaxies (United States)

    Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André


    We propose a simple analytic model to understand when star formation is time steady versus bursty in galaxies. Recent models explain the observed Kennicutt-Schmidt relation between star formation rate and gas surface densities in galaxies as resulting from a balance between stellar feedback and gravity. We argue that bursty star formation occurs when such an equilibrium cannot be stably sustained, and identify two regimes in which galaxy-scale star formation should be bursty: (i) at high redshift (z ≳ 1) for galaxies of all masses, and (ii) at low masses (depending on gas fraction) for galaxies at any redshift. At high redshift, characteristic galactic dynamical time-scales become too short for supernova feedback to effectively respond to gravitational collapse in galactic discs (an effect recently identified for galactic nuclei), whereas in dwarf galaxies star formation occurs in too few bright star-forming regions to effectively average out. Burstiness is also enhanced at high redshift owing to elevated gas fractions in the early Universe. Our model can thus explain the bursty star formation rates predicted in these regimes by recent high-resolution galaxy formation simulations, as well as the bursty star formation histories observationally inferred in both local dwarf and high-redshift galaxies. In our model, bursty star formation is associated with particularly strong spatiotemporal clustering of supernovae. Such clustering can promote the formation of galactic winds and our model may thus also explain the much higher wind mass loading factors inferred in high-redshift massive galaxies relative to their z ∼ 0 counterparts.

  18. Mathematical Modelling of Fluid Flow in Cone and Cavitation Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milada KOZUBKOVÁ


    Full Text Available Problem of cavitation is the undesirable phenomena occuring in the fluid flow in many hydraulic application (pumps, turbines, valves, etc.. Therefore this is in the focus of interest using experimental and mathematical methods. Based on cavitation modelling in Laval nozzle results and experience [1], [2], [4], following problem described as the water flow at the outlet from turbine blade wheel was solved. Primarily the problem is simplified into modelling of water flow in cone. Profiles of axial, radial and tangential velocity are defined on inlet zone. The value of pressure is defined on the outlet. Boundary conditions were defined by main investigator of the grant project – Energy Institute, Victor Kaplan’s Department of Fluid Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology. The value of air volume was insignificant. Cavitation was solved by Singhal model of cavitation.

  19. Formation of Hydroxylamine in Low-Temperature Interstellar Model Ices. (United States)

    Tsegaw, Yetsedaw A; Góbi, Sándor; Förstel, Marko; Maksyutenko, Pavlo; Sander, Wolfram; Kaiser, Ralf I


    We irradiated binary ice mixtures of ammonia (NH 3 ) and oxygen (O 2 ) ices at astrophysically relevant temperatures of 5.5 K with energetic electrons to mimic the energy transfer process that occurs in the track of galactic cosmic rays. By monitoring the newly formed molecules online and in situ utilizing Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy complemented by temperature-programmed desorption studies with single-photon photoionization reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometry, the synthesis of hydroxylamine (NH 2 OH), water (H 2 O), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), nitrosyl hydride (HNO), and a series of nitrogen oxides (NO, N 2 O, NO 2 , N 2 O 2 , N 2 O 3 ) was evident. The synthetic pathway of the newly formed species, along with their rate constants, is discussed exploiting the kinetic fitting of the coupled differential equations representing the decomposition steps in the irradiated ice mixtures. Our studies suggest the hydroxylamine is likely formed through an insertion mechanism of suprathermal oxygen into the nitrogen-hydrogen bond of ammonia at such low temperatures. An isotope-labeled experiment examining the electron-irradiated D3-ammonia-oxygen (ND 3 -O 2 ) ices was also conducted, which confirmed our findings. This study provides clear, concise evidence of the formation of hydroxylamine by irradiation of interstellar analogue ices and can help explain the question how potential precursors to complex biorelevant molecules may form in the interstellar medium.

  20. Observational constraints on models for giant planet formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, D.; Owen, T.; Arizona Univ., Tucson)


    Current information about element abundances and isotope ratios in the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune is reviewed. The observed enhancement of C/H compared with the solar value favors models for the origin of these bodies that invoke the accretion and degassing of an ice-rock core followed by the accumulation of a solar composition envelope. Titan may represent an example of a core-forming planetesimal. Observations of D/H and other isotope ratios must be accommodated by these models in ways that are not yet completely clear. Some additional tests are suggested

  1. Pattern formation and traveling waves in myxobacteria: Theory and modeling (United States)

    Igoshin, Oleg A.; Mogilner, Alex; Welch, Roy D.; Kaiser, Dale; Oster, George


    Recent experiments have provided new quantitative measurements of the rippling phenomenon in fields of developing myxobacteria cells. These measurements have enabled us to develop a mathematical model for the ripple phenomenon on the basis of the biochemistry of the C-signaling system, whereby individuals signal by direct cell contact. The model quantitatively reproduces all of the experimental observations and illustrates how intracellular dynamics, contact-mediated intercellular communication, and cell motility can coordinate to produce collective behavior. This pattern of waves is qualitatively different from that observed in other social organisms, especially Dictyostelium discoideum, which depend on diffusible morphogens. PMID:11752439

  2. Formation of a vesicovaginal fistula in a pig model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Jennifer; Rickardsson, Emilie; Andersen, Margrethe


    Objective: To establish an animal model of a vesicovaginal fistula that can later be used in the development of new treatment modalities. Materials and methods: Six female pigs of Landrace/Yorkshire breed were used. Vesicotomy was performed through open surgery. An standardized incision between...

  3. Analytical results for the Sznajd model of opinion formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slanina, František; Lavička, H.


    Roč. 35, - (2003), s. 279-288 ISSN 1434-6028 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/01/1091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : agent models * sociophysics Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.457, year: 2003

  4. Formation of algae growth constitutive relations for improved algae modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Drewry, Jessica Louise.


    This SAND report summarizes research conducted as a part of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve our abilities to model algal cultivation. Algae-based biofuels have generated much excitement due to their potentially large oil yield from relatively small land use and without interfering with the food or water supply. Algae mitigate atmospheric CO2 through metabolism. Efficient production of algal biofuels could reduce dependence on foreign oil by providing a domestic renewable energy source. Important factors controlling algal productivity include temperature, nutrient concentrations, salinity, pH, and the light-to-biomass conversion rate. Computational models allow for inexpensive predictions of algae growth kinetics in these non-ideal conditions for various bioreactor sizes and geometries without the need for multiple expensive measurement setups. However, these models need to be calibrated for each algal strain. In this work, we conduct a parametric study of key marine algae strains and apply the findings to a computational model.

  5. 2D numerical modelling of meandering channel formation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To simulate the bend development and lateral migration of alluvial channels, a 2D numerical model must account for bend flow effects and river bank erosion processes. Subsequent works on helical flow and forces on sed- iment grains on a transversely sloping bed (e.g.,. Einstein and Shen 1964; Engelund 1974; Bathurst.

  6. Component simulation in problems of calculated model formation of automatic machine mechanisms


    Telegin Igor; Kozlov Alexander; Zhirkov Alexander


    The paper deals with the problems of the component simulation method application in the problems of the automation of the mechanical system model formation with the further possibility of their CAD-realization. The purpose of the investigations mentioned consists in the automation of the CAD-model formation of high-speed mechanisms in automatic machines and in the analysis of dynamic processes occurred in their units taking into account their elasto-inertial properties, power dissipation, gap...

  7. Kinetic modelling: A tool to predict the formation of acrylamide in potato crisps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, J.J.; Viklund, G.Å.I.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Sjöholm, I.M.; Skog, K.I.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.


    Three empirical models were used to fit the formation of acrylamide in crisps of three different cold-sweetened potato genotypes, fried under the same experimental conditions. Statistical methods were used to compare the performance of the models, with the 'Logistic-Exponential' model performing the

  8. Understanding visual map formation through vortex dynamics of spin Hamiltonian models. (United States)

    Cho, Myoung Won; Kim, Seunghwan


    The pattern formation in orientation and ocular dominance columns is one of the most investigated problems in the brain. From a known cortical structure, we build spinlike Hamiltonian models with long-range interactions of the Mexican hat type. These Hamiltonian models allow a coherent interpretation of the diverse phenomena in the visual map formation with the help of relaxation dynamics of spin systems. In particular, we explain various phenomena of self-organization in orientation and ocular dominance map formation including the pinwheel annihilation and its dependency on the columnar wave vector and boundary conditions.

  9. Model of subgrain boundaries formation in matrix of M-MeC eutedtic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokshtejn, S.Z.; Vasilenok, L.B.; Kishkin, S.T.; Razumovskij, I.M.


    A model of subgrain boundary formation and, therefore, formation of substructure in matrix of M-MeC alloy prepared by the method of directed crystallization where M-nickel-base or cobalt-base solid solution, MeC-carbide of tantalum, niobium and hafnium is suggested. The model is based on the concept of dislocation replacement from interfaces into the matrix volume. It is stated that an essential difference of thermal expansion coefficients, a definite ratio of lattice periods of hardening phase and matrix and the presence of a dislocation network on the interface of ordered phases are the important factors determining a possibility of subgrain boundary formation

  10. Formation of borrower’s bank credit scoring integrated model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Lysenok


    Full Text Available The article proposes the borrower’s bank credit scoring model that is of particular relevance in an unstable world and Ukrainian financial markets. The essence of this integrated model is the consistent definition of indicators, which analyze the financial and economic situation and development of scoring that allows to calculate overall index, that is, the integral factor of credit scoring level of the bank to calculate which one uses the formed set of factors characterizing riskiness, profitability and liquidity of the banking institution. The author determines the factors according to their functional purpose; the former ones are divided into four groups: capital adequacy, loan portfolio quality, profitability and liquidity. Each group consists of four indicators; each indicator is assigned thresholds to determine the appropriate credit scoring level of the bank for one or another direction. The higher is the value of the integral factor, the more efficient and less risky is the financial and economic activity of banks and the higher is their credit scoring level. The study concludes that the proposed model for bank credit scoring differs with its transparency and clarity due to use in its implementation only public information. The disadvantages include the presence of the subjective factor in assigning a certain number of points based on expert and normative methods.

  11. Experimental Modeling of the Formation of Saucer-Shaped sills (United States)

    Galland, O.; Planke, S.; Malthe-Sorenssen, A.


    Many magma intrusions in sedimentary basins are sills, and especially saucer-shaped sills. These features are observed in many places (i.e. South Africa; the Norwegian and North Sea; Siberia; Argentina). Sand injectites exhibit similar geometries. The occurrence of such features in so various settings suggests that their emplacement results from fundamental processes in sedimentary basins. To understand such processes, we performed experimental modeling of saucer-shaped sill emplacement. The experiments consist of injecting a molten low viscosity vegetable oil (model magma) at a constant flow rate into a fine-grained Coulomb silica flour (model rock). When the oil starts intruding, the initially flat surface of the model inflates and forms a smooth dome. At the end of the experiment, the oil erupts at the edge of the dome. After the experiment, the oil cools and solidifies, the resulting solid intrusion is unburied and exposed, and its upper surface digitalized. For our purpose, we did our experiments without external deformation. We performed two series of experiments with varying depth of injection. The first series consisted of injection into a homogeneous medium. The resulting intrusions were cone-sheets and dykes. The second series consisted of heterogeneous models where the heterogeneity was a weak layer made of a flexible net. The resulting intrusions were made of (1) a horizontal basal sill emplaced along the weakness, and (2) inclined sheets nucleating at the edges of the basal sill and propagating upward and outward. The inclined sheets exhibited a convex shape, i.e. a decreasing slope outward. In addition, the deeper the sills emplaced, the larger they were. Our experimental results are consistent with saucer-shaped features in nature. We infer from our results that the transition between the basal sills and the inclined sheets results from a transition of emplacement processes. We suggest that the basal sill emplace by open (mode I) fracturing, whereas

  12. Valores de trihalometanos en agua de consumo de la provincia de Granada, España Trihalomethane levels in drinking water in the province of Granada (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Freire


    Full Text Available Objetivos: La cloración del agua da lugar a la formación de subproductos potencialmente dañinos para la salud, entre ellos los trihalometanos, que se han hallado elevados en algunas zonas de España. En este estudio se investigan los valores de trihalometanos en el agua de consumo suministrada por varios sistemas de abastecimiento de la provincia de Granada, en el área de actuación de la cohorte madres-hijos de la Red INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente. Métodos: Se analizaron 82 muestras de agua de consumo en dos campañas de muestreo en invierno y verano de 2006. Se determinó la concentración de cloroformo, bromodiclorometano, dibromoclorometano y bromoformo, siguiendo un procedimiento optimizado basado en cromatografía de gases y espectrometría de masas. Resultados: El rango de concentración de trihalometanos totales se situó entre 0,14 y 18,75 μg/l en la campaña de invierno y entre 0,01 y 31,87 μg/l en la de verano. El compuesto mayoritario fue cloroformo. La concentración media de trihalometanos en agua de origen superficial y subterráneo fue de 10,13 y 1,41 μg/l, respectivamente. Conclusiones: Los valores de trihalometanos encontrados son muy inferiores a la concentración máxima admisible (100 μg/l establecida por la Uniσn Europea para estos compuestos. Estos valores varνan significativamente segϊn el origen del agua, con mayores concentraciones en αreas urbana y semiurbana, donde el agua es mayoritariamente de origen superficial. La presencia de trihalometanos en la zona es menor a la descrita en otras regiones espaρolas.Objectives: Drinking water chlorination generates potentially harmful by-products, such as trihalomethanes. Trihalomethane levels are high in some parts of Spain. The aim of the present study was to investigate trihalomethane concentrations in drinking water from distinct water supplies in the province of Granada, within the framework of the Childhood and Environment (INMA study. Methods: Eighty

  13. Pattern formation through spatial interactions in a modified Daisyworld model (United States)

    Alberti, Tommaso; Primavera, Leonardo; Lepreti, Fabio; Vecchio, Antonio; Carbone, Vincenzo


    The Daisyworld model is based on a hypothetical planet, like the Earth, which receives the radiant energy coming from a Sun-like star, and populated by two kinds of identical plants differing by their colour: white daisies reflecting light and black daisies absorbing light. The interactions and feedbacks between the collective biota of the planet and the incoming radiation form a self-regulating system where the conditions for life are maintained. We investigate a modified version of the Daisyworld model where a spatial dependency on latitude is introduced, and both a variable heat diffusivity along latitude and a simple greenhouse model are included. We show that the spatial interactions between the variables of the system can generate some equilibrium patterns which can locally stabilize the coexistence of the two vegetation types. The feedback on albedo is able to generate new equilibrium solutions which can efficiently self-regulate the planet climate, even for values of the solar luminosity relatively far from the current Earth conditions. The extension to spatial Daisyworld gives room to the possibility of inhomogeneous solar forcing in a curved planet, with explicit differences between poles and equator and the direct use of the heat diffusion equation. As a first approach, to describe a spherical planet, we consider the temperature T(θ,t) and the surface coverage as depending only on time and on latitude θ (-90° ≤ θ ≤ 90°). A second step is the introduction of the greenhouse effect in the model, the process by which outgoing infrared radiation is partly screened by greenhouse gases. This effect can be described by relaxing the black-body radiation hypothesis and by introducing a grayness function g(T) in the heat equation. As a third step, we consider a latitude dependence of the Earth's conductivity, χ = χ(θ). Considering these terms, using spherical coordinates and symmetry with respect to θ, the modified Daisyworld equations reduce to the

  14. Modeling the formation and fate of odorous substances in collection systems. (United States)

    Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild


    A conceptual model that simulates the formation and fate of odorous substances in branched collection systems is presented. The model predicts the activity of the relevant biomass phenotypes under aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic conditions in force mains and gravity sewers. The formation and fate of individual, malodorous substances in the bulk water, biofilms, and sediments are modeled. The release of odorous compounds from the bulk water to the sewer gas phase, their fate in the gas phase, and their subsequent release into the urban atmosphere is simulated. Examples of model application include the prediction of hydrogen sulfide and malodorous fermentation products from force mains and gravity sewers.

  15. A model of irreversible jam formation in dense traffic (United States)

    Brankov, J. G.; Bunzarova, N. Zh.; Pesheva, N. C.; Priezzhev, V. B.


    We study an one-dimensional stochastic model of vehicular traffic on open segments of a single-lane road of finite size L. The vehicles obey a stochastic discrete-time dynamics which is a limiting case of the generalized Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process. This dynamics has been previously used by Bunzarova and Pesheva (2017) for an one-dimensional model of irreversible aggregation. The model was shown to have three stationary phases: a many-particle one, MP, a phase with completely filled configuration, CF, and a boundary perturbed MP+CF phase, depending on the values of the particle injection (α), ejection (β) and hopping (p) probabilities. Here we extend the results for the stationary properties of the MP+CF phase, by deriving exact expressions for the local density at the first site of the chain and the probability P(1) of a completely jammed configuration. The unusual phase transition, characterized by jumps in both the bulk density and the current (in the thermodynamic limit), as α crosses the boundary α = p from the MP to the CF phase, is explained by the finite-size behavior of P(1). By using a random walk theory, we find that, when α approaches from below the boundary α = p, three different regimes appear, as the size L → ∞: (i) the lifetime of the gap between the rightmost clusters is of the order O(L) in the MP phase; (ii) small jams, separated by gaps with lifetime O(1) , exist in the MP+CF phase close to the left chain boundary; and (iii) when β = p, the jams are divided by gaps with lifetime of the order O(L 1 / 2) . These results are supported by extensive Monte Carlo calculations.

  16. Digital modeling of lithium ingot formation in metal mold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepanov, A.N.; Popov, V.N.; Tibilov, V.S.; Valov, P.M.


    A two-dimensional mathematical model is developed for the process of lithium melt solidification in metal mold with regard to shrinkage phenomena on phase transition. Based on this model a computer program is designed to calculate cooling and crystallization parameters of the metal after filling the mold. Numerical experiments are performed aimed to determine the duration of complete crystallization of the casting, crystallization front velocity and shape as well as the morphology of shrinkage cavity at various parameters of the process: metal heating-up before pouring-in, initial temperature of the mold, the thickness of its wall. When metal solidifying in a thin-wall mold (δ w = 3 mm) the crystallization is of practically unidirectional nature. The surface of solidified casting top end has an insignificant concavity. In a thick-wall mold (δ w = 25 mm) the metal solidifies from both bottom and lateral faces with the result that a narrow but deep enough shrinkage cavity is formed in a head end of the casting [ru

  17. Role of conviction in nonequilibrium models of opinion formation. (United States)

    Crokidakis, Nuno; Anteneodo, Celia


    We analyze the critical behavior of a class of discrete opinion models in the presence of disorder. Within this class, each agent opinion takes a discrete value (± 1 or 0) and its time evolution is ruled by two terms, one representing agent-agent interactions and the other the degree of conviction or persuasion (a self-interaction). The mean-field limit, where each agent can interact evenly with any other, is considered. Disorder is introduced in the strength of both interactions, with either quenched or annealed random variables. With probability p (1-p), a pairwise interaction reflects a negative (positive) coupling, while the degree of conviction also follows a binary probability distribution (two different discrete probability distributions are considered). Numerical simulations show that a nonequilibrium continuous phase transition, from a disordered state to a state with a prevailing opinion, occurs at a critical point p(c) that depends on the distribution of the convictions, with the transition being spoiled in some cases. We also show how the critical line, for each model, is affected by the update scheme (either parallel or sequential) as well as by the kind of disorder (either quenched or annealed).

  18. Dynamic behavior of a social model for opinion formation (United States)

    Bordogna, Clelia M.; Albano, Ezequiel V.


    The dynamic behavior of a social group influenced by both a strong leader and the mass media, which is modeled according to the social impact theory, is studied under two situations: (i) The strong leader changes his/her state of opinion periodically while the mass media are not considered. In this case, the leader is capable of driving the group between a dynamically ordered state with a weak leader-group coupling (high-frequency regime) and a dynamically disordered state where the group follows the opinion of the leader (low-frequency regime). (ii) The mass-media change periodically their message and have to compete with a strong leader that keeps his/her state of opinion unchanged. In this case, the mass media require an amplitude threshold in order to overcome the influence of the leader and drive the system into a dynamically disordered state. The dynamic behavior characteristic of the studied social opinion model shares many features of physical systems that are relevant in the fields of statistical mechanics and condensed matter.

  19. The diversity of planetary system from formation/composition population synthesis models (United States)

    Alibert, Yann; thiabaud, amaury; marboeuf, ulysses; swoboda, david; benz, willy; mezger, klaus; leya, ingo


    Extrasolar planetary systems show an extreme diversity in mass and orbital architecture. Explaining this diversity is one of the key challenges for theoretical models and requires understanding the formation, composition and evolution of planetary systems from the stage of the protoplanetary disk up to the full mature planetary system. Such an effort needs the development of end-to-end, necessarily simplified, formation models used in a population synthesis approach. We present in this contribution such planetary system formation and composition models. Our planetary system formation models include the following effects: planetary growth by capture of solids and gas, protoplanetary disk structure and evolution, planet-planet and planet-disk interactions. In addition, we compute the composition of the solids and gas in the protoplanetary disk and their evolution with time. The formation and composition models allow therefore the determination of the composition of planets in terms of refractory elements (Mg, Si, Fe, etc…) as well as volatile compounds (water, CO2, CO, NH3, etc…), in a way that is self-consistent with the formation process of the different members of the planetary system. We will show the results of these formation/composition models, and will compare the diversity of observed and synthetic planetary systems. Considering the solar system, we will show how different formation scenarios translate into different planetary compositions. Finally, we will demonstrate how the simultaneous determination of mass and radius of a statistical number of warm to cold earth to neptune mass bodies at different ages can be used to constrain the composition (in particular the volatile content) of planets, and how the same observations (mass, radius, period) can be used in order to select planets that are best suited for follow-up habitability studies.

  20. CERIF: The Common European Research Information Format Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Jörg


    Full Text Available With increased computing power more data than ever are being and will be produced, stored and (re- used. Data are collected in databases, computed and annotated, or transformed by specific tools. The knowledge from data is documented in research publications, reports, presentations, or other types of files. The management of data and knowledge is difficult, and even more complicated is their re-use, exchange, or integration. To allow for quality analysis or integration across data sets and to ensure access to scientific knowledge, additional information - Research Information - has to be assigned to data and knowledge entities. We present the metadata model CERIF to add information to entities such as Publication, Project, Organisation, Person, Product, Patent, Service, Equipment, and Facility and to manage the semantically enhanced relationships between these entities in a formalized way. CERIF has been released as an EC Recommendation to European Member States in 2000. Here, we refer to the latest version CERIF 2008-1.0.

  1. Snow bedforms: A review, new data, and a formation model (United States)

    Filhol, Simon; Sturm, Matthew


    Snow bedforms, like sand bedforms, consist of various shapes that form under the action of wind on mobile particles. Throughout a year, they can cover up to 11% of the Earth surface, concentrated toward the poles. These forms impact the local surface energy balance and the distribution of precipitation. Only a few studies have concentrated on their genesis. Their size ranges from 2 cm (ripple marks) to 2.5 m tall (whaleback dunes). We counted a total of seven forms that are widely recognized. Among them sastrugi, an erosional shape, is the most widespread. From laser scans, we compared scaling of snow versus sand barchan morphology. We found that both have proportionally the same footprint, but snow barchans are flatter. The key difference is that snow can sinter, immobilizing the bedform and creating an erodible material. Using a model, we investigated the effect of sintering on snow dune dynamics. We found that sintering limits their size because it progressively hardens the snow and requires an ever-increasing wind speed to maintain snow transport. From the literature and results from this model, we have reclassified snow bedforms based on two parameters: wind speed and snow surface conditions. The new data show that snow dune behavior mirrors that of sand dunes, with merging, calving, and collision. However, isolated snow barchans are rare, with most of the snow surfaces encountered in the field consisting of several superimposed bedforms formed sequentially during multiple weather events. Spatially variable snow properties and geometry can explain qualitatively these widespread compound snow surfaces.

  2. A green strategy for desorption of trihalomethanes adsorbed by humin and reuse of the fixed bed column. (United States)

    Cunha, G C; Romão, L P C; Santos, M C; Costa, A S; Alexandre, M R


    The objective of the present work was to develop a thermal desorption method for the removal of trihalomethanes (THM) adsorbed by humin, followed by multiple recycling of the fixed bed column in order to avoid excessive consumption of materials and reduce operating costs. The results obtained for adsorption on a fixed bed column confirmed the effectiveness of humin as an adsorbent, extracting between 45.9% and 90.1% of the total THM (TTHM). In none of the tests was the column fully saturated after 10h. Experiments involving thermal desorption were used to evaluate the potential of the technique for column regeneration. The adsorptive capacity of the humin bed increased significantly (p<0.05) between the first and fifth desorption cycle, by 18.9%, 18.1%, 24.2%, 20.2% and 24.2% for CHBr(3), CHBr(2)Cl, CHBrCl(2), CHCl(3) and TTHM, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Numerical Solution of a Model Equation of Price Formation (United States)

    Chernogorova, T.; Vulkov, L.


    The paper [2] is devoted to the effect of reconciling the classical Black-Sholes theory of option pricing and hedging with various phenomena observed in the markets such as the influence of trading and hedging on the dynamics of an asset. Here we will discuss the numerical solution of initial boundary-value problems to a model equation of the theory. The lack of regularity in the solution as a result from Dirac delta coefficient reduces the accuracy in the numerical computations. First, we apply the finite volume method to discretize the differential problem. Second, we implement a technique of local regularization introduced by A-K. Tornberg and B. Engquist [7] for handling this equation. We derived the numerical regularization process into two steps: the Dirac delta function is regularized and then the regularized differential equation is discretized by difference schemes. Using the discrete maximum principle a priori bounds are obtained for the difference equations that imply stability and convergence of difference schemes for the problem under consideration. Numerical experiments are discussed.

  4. Dividing Streamline Formation Channel Confluences by Physical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarni Nur Trilita


    Full Text Available Confluence channels are often found in open channel network system and is the most important element. The incoming flow from the branch channel to the main cause various forms and cause vortex flow. Phenomenon can cause erosion of the side wall of the channel, the bed channel scour and sedimentation in the downstream confluence channel. To control these problems needed research into the current width of the branch channel. The incoming flow from the branch channel to the main channel flow bounded by a line distributors (dividing streamline. In this paper, the wide dividing streamline observed in the laboratory using a physical model of two open channels, a square that formed an angle of 30º. Observations were made with a variety of flow coming from each channel. The results obtained in the laboratory observation that the width of dividing streamline flow is influenced by the discharge ratio between the channel branch with the main channel. While the results of a comparison with previous studies showing that the observation in the laboratory is smaller than the results of previous research.

  5. Pattern Formation in Predator-Prey Model with Delay and Cross Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinze Lian


    Full Text Available We consider the effect of time delay and cross diffusion on the dynamics of a modified Leslie-Gower predator-prey model incorporating a prey refuge. Based on the stability analysis, we demonstrate that delayed feedback may generate Hopf and Turing instability under some conditions, resulting in spatial patterns. One of the most interesting findings is that the model exhibits complex pattern replication: the model dynamics exhibits a delay and diffusion controlled formation growth not only to spots, stripes, and holes, but also to spiral pattern self-replication. The results indicate that time delay and cross diffusion play important roles in pattern formation.

  6. Energy-saving management modelling and optimization for lead-acid battery formation process (United States)

    Wang, T.; Chen, Z.; Xu, J. Y.; Wang, F. Y.; Liu, H. M.


    In this context, a typical lead-acid battery producing process is introduced. Based on the formation process, an efficiency management method is proposed. An optimization model with the objective to minimize the formation electricity cost in a single period is established. This optimization model considers several related constraints, together with two influencing factors including the transformation efficiency of IGBT charge-and-discharge machine and the time-of-use price. An example simulation is shown using PSO algorithm to solve this mathematic model, and the proposed optimization strategy is proved to be effective and learnable for energy-saving and efficiency optimization in battery producing industries.

  7. Component simulation in problems of calculated model formation of automatic machine mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telegin Igor


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problems of the component simulation method application in the problems of the automation of the mechanical system model formation with the further possibility of their CAD-realization. The purpose of the investigations mentioned consists in the automation of the CAD-model formation of high-speed mechanisms in automatic machines and in the analysis of dynamic processes occurred in their units taking into account their elasto-inertial properties, power dissipation, gaps in kinematic pairs, friction forces, design and technological loads. As an example in the paper there are considered a formalization of stages in the computer model formation of the cutting mechanism in cold stamping automatic machine AV1818 and methods of for the computation of their parameters on the basis of its solid-state model.

  8. Ice formation in model biological membranes in the presence of cryoprotectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, M.A. E-mail:; Lesieur, P.; Kisselev, A.M.; Ollivon, M


    Ice formation in model biological membranes is studied by SAXS and WAXS in the presence of cryoprotectors: dimethyl sulfoxide and glycerol. Three types of phospholipid membranes: DPPC, DMPC, DSPC are chosen for the investigation as well-studied model biological membranes. A special cryostat is used for sample cooling from 14.1 deg. C to -55.4 deg. C. The ice formation is detected only by WAXS in binary phospholipid/water and ternary phospholipid/cryoprotector/water systems in the condition of excess solvent. Ice formation in a binary phospholipid/water system creates an abrupt decrease of the membrane repeat distance by {delta}d, the so-called ice-induced dehydration of intermembrane space. The value of {delta}d decreases as the cryoprotector concentration increases. The formation of ice does not influence the membrane structure ({delta}d=0) for cryoprotector mole fractions higher than 0.05.

  9. H2 formation on interstellar dust grains: The viewpoints of theory, experiments, models and observations (United States)

    Wakelam, Valentine; Bron, Emeric; Cazaux, Stephanie; Dulieu, Francois; Gry, Cécile; Guillard, Pierre; Habart, Emilie; Hornekær, Liv; Morisset, Sabine; Nyman, Gunnar; Pirronello, Valerio; Price, Stephen D.; Valdivia, Valeska; Vidali, Gianfranco; Watanabe, Naoki


    Molecular hydrogen is the most abundant molecule in the universe. It is the first one to form and survive photo-dissociation in tenuous environments. Its formation involves catalytic reactions on the surface of interstellar grains. The micro-physics of the formation process has been investigated intensively in the last 20 years, in parallel of new astrophysical observational and modeling progresses. In the perspectives of the probable revolution brought by the future satellite JWST, this article has been written to present what we think we know about the H2 formation in a variety of interstellar environments.

  10. Fine element (F.E.) modelling of hydrogen migration and blister formation in PHWR coolant channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, P.S.; Dutta, B.K.; Sinha, R.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.


    The formation of a cold spot in pressure tube due to its contact with calandria tube of PHWR coolant results in the migration of Hydrogen in pressure tube towards contact zone from its surrounding material. A 3-D finite element code SPARSH is developed to model the hydrogen redistribution and consequent hydride blister formation due to thermal and Hydrogen concentration gradients. In the present paper, the details and performance of this code are presented. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs

  11. Including crystal structure attributes in machine learning models of formation energies via Voronoi tessellations (United States)

    Ward, Logan; Liu, Ruoqian; Krishna, Amar; Hegde, Vinay I.; Agrawal, Ankit; Choudhary, Alok; Wolverton, Chris


    While high-throughput density functional theory (DFT) has become a prevalent tool for materials discovery, it is limited by the relatively large computational cost. In this paper, we explore using DFT data from high-throughput calculations to create faster, surrogate models with machine learning (ML) that can be used to guide new searches. Our method works by using decision tree models to map DFT-calculated formation enthalpies to a set of attributes consisting of two distinct types: (i) composition-dependent attributes of elemental properties (as have been used in previous ML models of DFT formation energies), combined with (ii) attributes derived from the Voronoi tessellation of the compound's crystal structure. The ML models created using this method have half the cross-validation error and similar training and evaluation speeds to models created with the Coulomb matrix and partial radial distribution function methods. For a dataset of 435 000 formation energies taken from the Open Quantum Materials Database (OQMD), our model achieves a mean absolute error of 80 meV/atom in cross validation, which is lower than the approximate error between DFT-computed and experimentally measured formation enthalpies and below 15% of the mean absolute deviation of the training set. We also demonstrate that our method can accurately estimate the formation energy of materials outside of the training set and be used to identify materials with especially large formation enthalpies. We propose that our models can be used to accelerate the discovery of new materials by identifying the most promising materials to study with DFT at little additional computational cost.

  12. A fermented meat model system for studies of microbial aroma formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Andersen, L.


    A fermented meat model system was developed, by which microbial formation of volatiles could be examined The model was evaluated against dry, fermented sausages with respect to microbial growth, pH and volatile profiles. Fast and slowly acidified sausages and models were produced using the starter...... and model, fast-acidified samples had a high content of ketones, sulphides and methyl-branched acids, whereas slowly acidified samples had the highest content of methyl-branched alcohols, aldehydes, their ethyl esters, phenylacetaldehyde and methional. Furthermore, model repeatability with respect to p......H, microbial growth and volatile profiles was similar to sausage production. Based on these findings, the model system was considered valid for studies of aroma formation of meat cultures for fermented sausage....

  13. Study of Heat Flux Threshold and Perturbation Effect on Transport Barrier Formation Based on Bifurcation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatthong, B.; Onjun, T.; Imbeaux, F.; Sarazin, Y.; Strugarek, A.; Picha, R.; Poolyarat, N.


    Full text: Formation of transport barrier in fusion plasma is studied using a simple one-field bistable S-curve bifurcation model. This model is characterized by an S-line with two stable branches corresponding to the low (L) and high (H) confinement modes, connected by an unstable branch. Assumptions used in this model are such that the reduction in anomalous transport is caused by v E velocity shear effect and also this velocity shear is proportional to pressure gradient. In this study, analytical and numerical approaches are used to obtain necessary conditions for transport barrier formation, i.e. the ratio of anomalous over neoclassical coefficients and heat flux thresholds which must be exceeded. Several profiles of heat sources are considered in this work including constant, Gaussian, and hyperbolic tangent forms. Moreover, the effect of perturbation in heat flux is investigated with respect to transport barrier formation

  14. Family support and acceptance, gay male identity formation, and psychological adjustment: a path model. (United States)

    Elizur, Y; Ziv, M


    While heterosexist family undermining has been demonstrated to be a developmental risk factor in the life of persons with same-gender orientation, the issue of protective family factors is both controversial and relatively neglected. In this study of Israeli gay males (N = 114), we focused on the interrelations of family support, family acceptance and family knowledge of gay orientation, and gay male identity formation, and their effects on mental health and self-esteem. A path model was proposed based on the hypotheses that family support, family acceptance, family knowledge, and gay identity formation have an impact on psychological adjustment, and that family support has an effect on gay identity formation that is mediated by family acceptance. The assessment of gay identity formation was based on an established stage model that was streamlined for cross-cultural practice by defining three basic processes of same-gender identity formation: self-definition, self-acceptance, and disclosure (Elizur & Mintzer, 2001). The testing of our conceptual path model demonstrated an excellent fit with the data. An alternative model that hypothesized effects of gay male identity on family acceptance and family knowledge did not fit the data. Interpreting these results, we propose that the main effect of family support/acceptance on gay identity is related to the process of disclosure, and that both general family support and family acceptance of same-gender orientation play a significant role in the psychological adjustment of gay men.

  15. Percolation modeling investigation of TPB formation in a solid oxide fuel cell electrode-electrolyte interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Andrew S.; Brouwer, Jacob


    A Monte Carlo percolation model has been developed and utilized to characterize the factors controlling triple phase boundary (TPB) formation in an SOFC electrode. The model accounts for (1) electronic conductor, ionic conductor, and gas phase percolation, (2) competition between percolation of gas and electronically conducting phases, and (3) determination of continuous, though not necessarily fully percolating, paths from TPBs to the bulk phases. The model results show that physical processes near the TPB, such as sorbate transport, significantly affect TPB formation in a composite electrode. Active TPB formation is found to be most significantly dependent upon continuous and competing percolation of multiple phases. Simultaneously requiring continuous paths and accounting for non-continuous boundary conditions results in lower active TPB formation levels (up to 8% of possible sites) than presented in the literature (75% of possible sites). In addition, the varying ratio of active to potential TPB sites predicted by the current model (up to 80%) differs significantly from the constant reported in the literature (80%), which lacks analyses of three-phase percolation, gas phase paths, and gas/current collector boundary conditions. This dependence of active TPB formation on percolation of all three phases is important to understand as a basis for determining SOFC performance and optimization

  16. Conceptual models of the formation of acid-rock drainage at road cuts in Tennessee (United States)

    Bradley, Michael W.; Worland, Scott; Byl, Tom


    Pyrite and other minerals containing sulfur and trace metals occur in several rock formations throughout Middle and East Tennessee. Pyrite (FeS2) weathers in the presence of oxygen and water to form iron hydroxides and sulfuric acid. The weathering and interaction of the acid on the rocks and other minerals at road cuts can result in drainage with low pH (formation and remediation of acid-drainage from roads cuts has not been researched as thoroughly as acid-mine drainage. The U.S Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Transportation, is conducting an investigation to better understand the geologic, hydrologic, and biogeochemical factors that control acid formation at road cuts. Road cuts with the potential for acid-rock drainage were identifed and evaluated in Middle and East Tennessee. The pyrite-bearing formations evaluated were the Chattanooga Shale (Devonian black shale), the Fentress Formation (coal-bearing), and the Precambrian Anakeesta Formation and similar Precambrian rocks. Conceptual models of the formation and transport of acid-rock drainage (ARD) from road cuts were developed based on the results of a literature review, site reconnaissance, and the initial rock and water sampling. The formation of ARD requires a combination of hydrologic, geochemical, and microbial interactions which affect drainage from the site, acidity of the water, and trace metal concentrations. The basic modes of ARD formation from road cuts are; 1 - seeps and springs from pyrite-bearing formations and 2 - runoff over the face of a road cut in a pyrite-bearing formation. Depending on site conditions at road cuts, the basic modes of ARD formation can be altered and the additional modes of ARD formation are; 3 - runoff over and through piles of pyrite-bearing material, either from construction or breakdown material weathered from shale, and 4 - the deposition of secondary-sulfate minerals can store trace metals and, during rainfall, result in increased

  17. Soot formation in a blast furnace - Prediction via a parametric study, using detailed kinetic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordstroem, T.; Kilpinen, P.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Group


    The objective of this work has been to investigate the soot formation in a blast furnace fired with heavy fuel oil, using detailed kinetic modelling. This work has been concentrated on parameter studies that could explain under which conditions soot is formed and how that formation could be avoided. The parameters investigated were temperature, pressure, stoichiometric ratio, pyrolysis gas composition and reactor model. The calculations were based on a reaction mechanism that consists of 100 species and 446 reactions including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAM) up to 7 aromatic rings SULA 2 Research Programme; 4 refs.

  18. A Phenomenological Model of Star Formation Efficiency in Dark Matter Halos (United States)

    Finnegan, Daniel; Alsheshakly, Ghadeer; Moustakas, John


    The efficiency of star formation in massive dark matter halos is extraordinarily low, less than 10% in >10^13 Msun sized halos. Although many physical processes have been proposed to explain this low efficiency, such as feedback from supermassive black halos and massive stars, this question remains one of the most important outstanding problems in galaxy evolution. To explore this problem, we build a simple phenomenological model to predict the variations in gas fraction and star formation efficiency as a function of halo mass. We compare our model predictions to central galaxy stellar masses and halo masses drawn from the literature, and discuss plans for our future work.

  19. On a simple model for self-regulating star formation in the galactic disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meusinger, H.


    Star formation in galaxies is a process with feedback to the interstellar medium (ISM) and possibly it is part of a self-regulating cycle. Dopita (1985) proposed a model in which star formation in spiral and irregular galaxies is self-regulated by the pressure in the ISM. In the present paper it is shown that available data for radial distributions of gas, total mass and the flux of Lyman continuum photons in the disk of our galaxy do not support such a simple model. Several possible causes are discussed. (author)

  20. Mathematical modelling of laser-induced particulate formation in direct solid microanalysis (United States)

    Bleiner, Davide


    The mechanism of laser-assisted particulate sampling was investigated by means of theoretical modelling. Bimodal particle size distribution was described as nanosized nuclei condensation in an expanding laser plume, and microsized droplet ejection in a hydrodynamically instable melt pool. Characteristics of the ambient gas turned out to be important in the formation of both size classes. Microparticle formation was found to be a process sensitive to local conditions (deterministic chaos). The model was applied to the case of ablation of silicon. Implications for the use of lasers as microsampling probes will be discussed throughout the article, as well as the impact on different solid sample classes.

  1. OpenClimateGIS - A Web Service Providing Climate Model Data in Commonly Used Geospatial Formats (United States)

    Erickson, T. A.; Koziol, B. W.; Rood, R. B.


    The goal of the OpenClimateGIS project is to make climate model datasets readily available in commonly used, modern geospatial formats used by GIS software, browser-based mapping tools, and virtual globes.The climate modeling community typically stores climate data in multidimensional gridded formats capable of efficiently storing large volumes of data (such as netCDF, grib) while the geospatial community typically uses flexible vector and raster formats that are capable of storing small volumes of data (relative to the multidimensional gridded formats). OpenClimateGIS seeks to address this difference in data formats by clipping climate data to user-specified vector geometries (i.e. areas of interest) and translating the gridded data on-the-fly into multiple vector formats. The OpenClimateGIS system does not store climate data archives locally, but rather works in conjunction with external climate archives that expose climate data via the OPeNDAP protocol. OpenClimateGIS provides a RESTful API web service for accessing climate data resources via HTTP, allowing a wide range of applications to access the climate data.The OpenClimateGIS system has been developed using open source development practices and the source code is publicly available. The project integrates libraries from several other open source projects (including Django, PostGIS, numpy, Shapely, and netcdf4-python).OpenClimateGIS development is supported by a grant from NOAA's Climate Program Office.

  2. Formation and Inhibition of Nε-(Carboxymethyllysine in Saccharide-Lysine Model Systems during Microwave Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li


    Full Text Available  Nε-(carboxymethyl lysine (CML is the most abundant advanced glycation end product (AGE, and frequently selected as an AGEs marker in laboratory studies. In this paper, the formation and inhibition of Nε-(carboxymethyllysine in saccharide-lysine model systems during microwave heating have been studied. The microwave heating treatment significantly promoted the formation of CML during Maillard reactions, which was related to the reaction temperature, time and type of saccharide. The order of CML formation for different saccharides was lactose > glucose > sucrose. Then, the inhibition effect on CML by five inhibitors was further examined. According to the results, ascorbic acid and tocopherol did not affect inhibition of CML, in contrast, thiamin, rutin and quercetin inhibited CML formation, and the inhibitory effects were concentration dependent.

  3. Study of the structure and formation of the thick disc from stellar population modelling (United States)

    Nasello, G.; Robin, A. C.; Reylé, C.; Lagarde, N.


    The thick disc is a major component of the Milky Way but, its characteristics and history are still not yet well constrained. The use of a population synthesis model, based on a scenario of formation and evolution of the Galaxy, a star formation history, and a set of stellar evolution models, is a way to improve the constraints on this population. For this reason, we use the Besançon Galaxy Model (BGM, te{Robin3}). This model in constant evolution has been, thanks to te{Lagarde7}, implemented with new evolutionary tracks (STAREVOL, te{Lagarde}) to provide global asteroseismic and surface chemical properties along the evolutionary stages. Thanks to this updated Galaxy model and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo fitting method (MCMC) we will be able to constrain the thick disc structure and history. We show preliminary results applying this MCMC method to analyse the 2MASS photometric survey.

  4. Comprehensive modelling study on observed new particle formation at the SORPES station in Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Huang


    Full Text Available New particle formation (NPF has been investigated intensively during the last 2 decades because of its influence on aerosol population and the possible contribution to cloud condensation nuclei. However, intensive measurements and modelling activities on this topic in urban metropolitan areas in China with frequent high-pollution episodes are still very limited. This study provides results from a comprehensive modelling study on the occurrence of NPF events in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region, China. The comprehensive modelling system, which combines the WRF-Chem (the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry regional chemical transport model and the MALTE-BOX sectional box model (the model to predict new aerosol formation in the lower troposphere, was shown to be capable of simulating atmospheric nucleation and subsequent growth. Here we present a detailed discussion of three typical NPF days, during which the measured air masses were notably influenced by either anthropogenic activities, biogenic emissions, or mixed ocean and continental sources. Overall, simulated NPF events were generally in good agreement with the corresponding measurements, enabling us to get further insights into NPF processes in the YRD region. Based on the simulations, we conclude that biogenic organic compounds, particularly monoterpenes, play an essential role in the initial condensational growth of newly formed clusters through their low-volatility oxidation products. Although some uncertainties remain in this modelling system, this method provides a possibility to better understand particle formation and growth processes.

  5. Comparison of Spot and Time Weighted Averaging (TWA Sampling with SPME-GC/MS Methods for Trihalomethane (THM Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don-Roger Parkinson


    Full Text Available Water samples were collected and analyzed for conductivity, pH, temperature and trihalomethanes (THMs during the fall of 2014 at two monitored municipal drinking water source ponds. Both spot (or grab and time weighted average (TWA sampling methods were assessed over the same two day sampling time period. For spot sampling, replicate samples were taken at each site and analyzed within 12 h of sampling by both Headspace (HS- and direct (DI- solid phase microextraction (SPME sampling/extraction methods followed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS. For TWA, a two day passive on-site TWA sampling was carried out at the same sampling points in the ponds. All SPME sampling methods undertaken used a 65-µm PDMS/DVB SPME fiber, which was found optimal for THM sampling. Sampling conditions were optimized in the laboratory using calibration standards of chloroform, bromoform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, 1,2-dibromoethane and 1,2-dichloroethane, prepared in aqueous solutions from analytical grade samples. Calibration curves for all methods with R2 values ranging from 0.985–0.998 (N = 5 over the quantitation linear range of 3–800 ppb were achieved. The different sampling methods were compared for quantification of the water samples, and results showed that DI- and TWA- sampling methods gave better data and analytical metrics. Addition of 10% wt./vol. of (NH42SO4 salt to the sampling vial was found to aid extraction of THMs by increasing GC peaks areas by about 10%, which resulted in lower detection limits for all techniques studied. However, for on-site TWA analysis of THMs in natural waters, the calibration standard(s ionic strength conditions, must be carefully matched to natural water conditions to properly quantitate THM concentrations. The data obtained from the TWA method may better reflect actual natural water conditions.

  6. Radiation Transfer of Models of Massive Star Formation. IV. The Model Grid and Spectral Energy Distribution Fitting (United States)

    Zhang, Yichen; Tan, Jonathan C.


    We present a continuum radiative transfer model grid for fitting observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of massive protostars. The model grid is based on the paradigm of core accretion theory for massive star formation with pre-assembled gravitationally bound cores as initial conditions. In particular, following the turbulent core model, initial core properties are set primarily by their mass and the pressure of their ambient clump. We then model the evolution of the protostar and its surround structures in a self-consistent way. The model grid contains about 9000 SEDs with four free parameters: initial core mass, the mean surface density of the environment, the protostellar mass, and the inclination. The model grid is used to fit observed SEDs via {χ }2 minimization, with the foreground extinction additionally estimated. We demonstrate the fitting process and results using the example of massive protostar G35.20-0.74. Compared with other SED model grids currently used for massive star formation studies, the properties of the protostar and its surrounding structures are more physically connected in our model grid, which reduces the dimensionality of the parameter spaces and the total number of models. This excludes possible fitting of models that are physically unrealistic or are not internally self-consistent in the context of the turbulent core model. Thus, this model grid serves not only as a fitting tool to estimate properties of massive protostars, but also as a test of core accretion theory. The SED model grid is publicly released with this paper.

  7. Application of Thermal Modelling for Geochemical Characterization of Gadvan Formation, Persian Gulf, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Vaezian


    Full Text Available In the this research, the hydrocarbon generation potential of the Gadvan Formation as a probable source rock was investigated in the central part of the Persian Gulf at the borders of Iran. Type and maturity level of kerogen were investigated in six wells using the results of Rock-Eval pyrolysis and compared with results yielded by the modelling software program known as Pars Basin Modeler (PBM. The cross-plot of hydrogen index (HI versus maximum temperature suggests that the Gadvan Formation reached early to mid-maturity stages in the studied area, which means that it could act as a gas prone source rock. Furthermore, the burial and thermal history of the Gadvan Formation was determined in one well. Two methods, Easy %Ro and time-temperature index (TTI were used for the reconstruction of thermal modelling and studying the thermal maturity level in all of the drilled wells reaching the Gadvan Formation. The results of the TTI and Easy %Ro methods were in good agreement and both of confirmed the results of Rock Eval analysis. An integrated approach using different techniques showed that the Gadvan Formation can be classified as a poor gas bearing source rock in the studied area, while its maturity increases towards the southern parts of the Persian Gulf.

  8. Modeling hydrate formation conditions in the presence of electrolytes and polar inhibitor solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osfouri, Shahriar; Azin, Reza; Gholami, Reza; Izadpanah, Amir Abbas


    Highlights: • A new predictive model is proposed for prediction of hydrate formation pressures. • A new local composition model was used to evaluate water activity in the presence of electrolyte. • MEG, DEG and TEG were used to test ability of the proposed model in the presence of polar inhibitors. • Cage occupancies by methane for the small cage were higher than carbon dioxide for gas mixtures. • The proposed model gives better match with experimental data in mixed electrolyte solutions. - Abstract: In this paper, a new predictive model is proposed for prediction of gas hydrate formation conditions in the presence of single and mixed electrolytes and solutions containing both electrolyte and a polar inhibitor such as monoethylene glycol (MEG), diethylene glycol (DEG) and triethylene glycol (TEG). The proposed model is based on the γ–φ approach, which uses modified Patel–Teja equation of state (VPT EOS) for characterizing the vapor phase, the solid solution theory by van der Waals and Platteeuw for modeling the hydrate phase, the non-electrolyte NRTL-NRF local composition model and Pitzer–Debye–Huckel equation as short-range and long-range contributions to calculate water activity in single electrolyte solutions. Also, the Margules equation was used to determine the activity of water in solutions containing polar inhibitor (glycols). The model predictions are in acceptable agreement with experimental data. For single electrolyte solutions, the model predictions are similar to available models, while for mixtures of electrolytes and mixtures of electrolytes and inhibitors, the proposed model gives significantly better predictions. In addition, the absolute average deviation of hydrate formation pressures (AADP) for 144 experimental data in solutions containing single electrolyte is 5.86% and for 190 experimental data in mixed electrolytes solutions is 5.23%. Furthermore, the proposed model has an AADP of 14.13%, 5.82% and 5.28% in solutions

  9. Theoretical model of a polarization diffractive elements for the light beams conversion holographic formation in PDLCs (United States)

    Sharangovich, Sergey N.; Semkin, Artem O.


    In this work a theoretical model of the holographic formation of the polarization diffractive optical elements for the transformation of Gaussian light beams into Bessel-like ones in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLC) is developed. The model is based on solving the equations of photo-induced Fredericks transition processes for polarization diffractive elements formation by orthogonally polarized light beams with inhomogeneous amplitude and phase profiles. The results of numerical simulation of the material's dielectric tensor changing due to the structure's formation process are presented for various recording beams' polarization states. Based on the results of numerical simulation, the ability to form the diffractive optical elements for light beams transformation by the polarization holography methods is shown.

  10. Study on the Model of Consensus Formation in Internet Based on the Directed Graph (United States)

    Hu, Chaolang; Wu, Rongjun; Liu, Jiayong


    This paper constructs a model of the consensus formation in Internet based on the directed graph after analyzing the classical models of the social consensus formation, sets up the rules for the evolvement of opinions of agents and induces the evolving algorithm of consensus in Internet. The paper presents some key parameters such as the influence area of the mainstream media, the average influence of the mainstream media, the average self-persisting ability of agents and etc. Simulation results on a small-world networks show that the less the average self-persisting capability of the agents is, the easier the guidance of the media will be. The stronger the average influence of the main stream media is, the easier the mainstream media guides the consensus. These results reflect the formation law of the network consensus and are consistent approximately with the real circumstance.

  11. A review of mathematical models for the formation of vascular networks

    KAUST Repository

    Scianna, M.


    Two major mechanisms are involved in the formation of blood vasculature: vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. The former term describes the formation of a capillary-like network from either a dispersed or a monolayered population of endothelial cells, reproducible also in vitro by specific experimental assays. The latter term describes the sprouting of new vessels from an existing capillary or post-capillary venule. Similar mechanisms are also involved in the formation of the lymphatic system through a process generally called lymphangiogenesis. A number of mathematical approaches have been used to analyze these phenomena. In this paper, we review the different types of models, with special emphasis on their ability to reproduce different biological systems and to predict measurable quantities which describe the overall processes. Finally, we highlight the advantages specific to each of the different modelling approaches. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Study of Swarm Behavior in Modeling and Simulation of Cluster Formation in Nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Pirani


    Full Text Available Modeling the multiagents cooperative systems inspired from biological self-organized systems in the context of swarm model has been under great considerations especially in the field of the cooperation of multi robots. These models are trying to optimize the behavior of artificial multiagent systems by introducing a consensus, which is a mathematical model between the agents as an intelligence property for each member of the swarm set. The application of this novel approach in the modeling of nonintelligent multi agents systems in the field of cohesion and cluster formation of nanoparticles in nanofluids has been investigated in this study. This goal can be obtained by applying the basic swarm model for agents that are more mechanistic by considering their physical properties such as their mass, diameter, as well as the physical properties of the flow. Clustering in nanofluids is one of the major issues in the study of its effects on heat transfer. Study of the cluster formation dynamics in nanofluids using the swarm model can be useful in controlling the size and formation time of the clusters as well as designing appropriate microchannels, which the nanoparticles are plunged into.

  13. Antioxidants Inhibit Formation of 3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol Esters in Model Reactions. (United States)

    Li, Chang; Jia, Hanbing; Shen, Mingyue; Wang, Yuting; Nie, Shaoping; Chen, Yi; Zhou, Yongqiang; Wang, Yuanxing; Xie, Mingyong


    The capacities of six antioxidants to inhibit the formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2 diol (3-MCPD) esters were examined in this study. Inhibitory capacities of the antioxidants were investigated both in chemical models containing the precursors (tripalmitoyl glycerol, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerol, monopalmitoyl glycerol, and sodium chloride) of 3-MCPD esters and in oil models (rapeseed oil and sodium chloride). Six antioxidants, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA), tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), propyl gallate (PG), L-ascorbyl palmitate (AP), and α-tocopherol (VE), were found to exhibit inhibiting capacities on 3-MCPD ester formation both in chemical models and in oil models. TBHQ provided the highest inhibitory capacity both in chemical models and in oil models; 44% of 3-MCPD ester formation was inhibited in the presence of TBHQ (66 mg/kg of oil) after heating of rapeseed oil at 230 °C for 30 min, followed by PG and AP. BHT, BHA, and VE appeared to have weaker inhibitory abilities in both models. VE exhibited the lowest inhibition rate; 22% of 3-MCPD esters were inhibited in the presence of VE (172 mg/kg of oil) after heating of rapeseed oil at 230 °C for 30 min. In addition, the inhibition rates of PG and VE decreased dramatically with an increase in temperature or heating time. The results suggested that some antioxidants, such as TBHQ, PG, and AP, could be the potential inhibitors of 3-MCPD esters in practice.

  14. Global weak solutions for a compressible gas-liquid model with well-formation interaction (United States)

    Evje, Steinar

    The objective of this work is to explore a compressible gas-liquid model designed for modeling of well flow processes. We build into the model well-reservoir interaction by allowing flow of gas between well and formation (surrounding reservoir). Inflow of gas and subsequent expansion of gas as it ascends towards the top of the well (a so-called gas kick) represents a major concern for various well operations in the context of petroleum engineering. We obtain a global existence result under suitable assumptions on the regularity of initial data and the rate function that controls the flow of gas between well and formation. Uniqueness is also obtained by imposing more regularity on the initial data. The key estimates are to obtain appropriate lower and upper bounds on the gas and liquid masses. For that purpose we introduce a transformed version of the original model that is highly convenient for analysis of the original model. In particular, in the analysis of the transformed model additional terms, representing well-formation interaction, can be treated by natural extensions of arguments that previously have been employed for the single-phase Navier-Stokes model. The analysis ensures that transition to single-phase regions do not appear when the initial state is a true gas-liquid mixture.

  15. A fermented meat model system for studies of microbial aroma formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Andersen, L.


    A fermented meat model system was developed, by which microbial formation of volatiles could be examined The model was evaluated against dry, fermented sausages with respect to microbial growth, pH and volatile profiles. Fast and slowly acidified sausages and models were produced using the starte......H, microbial growth and volatile profiles was similar to sausage production. Based on these findings, the model system was considered valid for studies of aroma formation of meat cultures for fermented sausage.......A fermented meat model system was developed, by which microbial formation of volatiles could be examined The model was evaluated against dry, fermented sausages with respect to microbial growth, pH and volatile profiles. Fast and slowly acidified sausages and models were produced using the starter...... cultures Pediococcus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus xylosus. Volatiles were collected and analysed by dynamic headspace sampling and GC MS. The analysis was primarily focused on volatiles arising from amino acid degradation and a total of 24 compounds, of which 19 were quantified, were used...

  16. Development of Web-Based Formative Assessment Model to Enhance Physics Concepts of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediyanto Ediyanto


    Full Text Available Pengembangan Model Penilaian Formatif Berbasis Web untuk Meningkatkan Pemahaman Konsep Fisika Siswa   Abstract: There are two approaches of learning assessment, called formative and summative. The formative assessment is applicable because it involves students directly during the process, may im-prove these students perceptive. The limited time in class makes this process difficult, then the de-velopment of both online and offline formative assessment, provide responsive feedback for teachers and students, is definitely needed. This research goal is to produce a model of web-based formative assessment for physics. This study used research design and development of the formative assess-ment-model. Questionnaire is used for product validation, consist of validation of textbook,  instrument of pre and post-learning quizzes and web product.The result of quantitative analysis shows that the developed product is valid without any revision. Based on qualitative data, the product revision follows comments and suggestions from expert’s validation, teachers and students. The product testing shows that the formative assessment-model may improve students’ conceptual comprehension. Key Words: formatice assessment-model, students’ conceptual comprehension of physics, web-based   Abstrak: Penilaian terbagi menjadi dua macam yaitu penilaian formatif dan penilaian sumatif. Penilaian formatif tepat digunakan karena prosesnya melibatkan siswa secara langsung di dalam proses pembelajaran dan mampu meningkatkan pemahaman konsep siswa. Keterbatasan waktu di kelas menyebabkan proses ini sulit dilakukan, maka perlu dikembangkan model penilaian formatif secara online dan off-line yang dapat memberikan umpan balik yang cepat bagi siswa dan guru. Tujuan dari penelitian adalah menghasilkan model web-based penilaian formatif untuk pembelajaran fisika. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan penelitian dan pengembangan model penilaian formatif. Instrumen yang digunakan

  17. Investigación de trihalometanos en agua potable del Estado Carabobo, Venezuela Trihalomethanes in the drinking water of Carabobo State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sarmiento


    Full Text Available Objetivo: La desinfección del agua con cloro en las plantas de potabilización da lugar a la formación de trihalometanos (THM. Estos compuestos están asociados a efectos adversos para la salud. En este estudio se determinó la concentración de THM en el agua para consumo humano suministrada por las redes de distribución de los dos principales sistemas de potabilización de agua del Estado Carabobo, la planta Alejo Zuloaga y el embalse Pao-Cachinche que forman el Sistema Regional del Centro I (SRC-I y la planta Lucio Baldo Soules y el embalse Pao-La Balsa que forman el Sistema Regional del Centro II (SRC-II. Métodos: Se analizaron un total de 144 muestras recolectadas durante 6 muestreos que se realizaron durante los años 2000 y 2001. La concentración de THM se determinó por cromatografía de gases, mediante la técnica de headspace. Se determinaron las concentraciones para los siguientes THM: cloroformo (CHCl3, bromoformo (CHBr3, dibromoclorometano (CHBr2Cl y diclorobromometano (CHCl2Br. Resultados: La concentración de THM totales estuvo entre 47,84 y 93,23 μg/l. El CHCl3 fue el compuesto predominante, representando el 83% de total de THM para el SRC-I y el 82% en el SRC-II. Se encontró que las concentraciones de THM totales en el SRC-I (Red Baja y Red San Diego son significativamente superiores (p Objective: Disinfection of water with chlorine in water treatment plants leads to the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs. These compounds are associated with adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to analyze THM concentrations in the water provided for human consumption in the two main water treatment systems of Carabobo State: the Alejo Zuloaga plant and the Pao-Cachinche reservoir, which form the Central Regional System I (CRS I, and the Lucio Baldo Soules plant and the Pao-La Balsa reservoir, which form the Central Regional System II (CRS II. Methods: We analyzed 144 water samples collected in 6 samplings carried out in 2000

  18. Modeling of plasma assisted formation of precipitates in zirconium containing liquid precursor droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, Alper [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Connecticut, 191 Auditorium Rd. U-3139, Storrs, CT 06269-3139 (United States); Cetegen, Baki M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Connecticut, 191 Auditorium Rd. U-3139, Storrs, CT 06269-3139 (United States)]. E-mail:


    This paper focuses on the modeling of heat and mass transfer in precursor containing droplets injected into a plasma jet and the estimation of precipitate formation in these droplets from the solute. A hybrid model is employed where the plasma temperature and velocity fields are obtained from previous experimental results and the heat and mass transfer around droplets are modeled. The precipitate formation zones from the zirconium acetate solution in these droplets are estimated based on the solute concentration field within the droplet. A simple homogeneous nucleation hypothesis is employed in predicting the regions of droplets where zirconia might precipitate. The effects of droplet size, injection velocity and angle, plasma conditions as well as the solute mass diffusivity are considered. Micrographs from single pass coating experiments give credible evidence of the presence of similar types of particle morphologies in agreement with this modeling study.

  19. Cellular automaton modeling of biological pattern formation characterization, examples, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Deutsch, Andreas


    This text explores the use of cellular automata in modeling pattern formation in biological systems. It describes several mathematical modeling approaches utilizing cellular automata that can be used to study the dynamics of interacting cell systems both in simulation and in practice. New in this edition are chapters covering cell migration, tissue development, and cancer dynamics, as well as updated references and new research topic suggestions that reflect the rapid development of the field. The book begins with an introduction to pattern-forming principles in biology and the various mathematical modeling techniques that can be used to analyze them. Cellular automaton models are then discussed in detail for different types of cellular processes and interactions, including random movement, cell migration, adhesive cell interaction, alignment and cellular swarming, growth processes, pigment cell pattern formation, tissue development, tumor growth and invasion, and Turing-type patterns and excitable media. In ...

  20. Droplet formation in microfluidic T-junction generators operating in the transitional regime. II. Modeling. (United States)

    Glawdel, Tomasz; Elbuken, Caglar; Ren, Carolyn L


    This is the second part of a two-part study on the generation of droplets at a microfluidic T-junction operating in the transition regime. In the preceding paper [Phys. Rev. E 85, 016322 (2012)], we presented our experimental observations of droplet formation and decomposed the process into three sequential stages defined as the lag, filling, and necking stages. Here we develop a model that describes the performance of microfluidic T-junction generators working in the squeezing to transition regimes where confinement of the droplet dominates the formation process. The model incorporates a detailed geometric description of the drop shape during the formation process combined with a force balance and necking criteria to define the droplet size, production rate, and spacing. The model inherently captures the influence of the intersection geometry, including the channel width ratio and height-to-width ratio, capillary number, and flow ratio, on the performance of the generator. The model is validated by comparing it to speed videos of the formation process for several T-junction geometries across a range of capillary numbers and viscosity ratios.

  1. Modeling of formation of binary-phase hollow nanospheres from metallic solid nanospheres

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jiří; Fischer, F. D.; Vollath, D.


    Roč. 57, č. 6 (2009), s. 1912-1919 ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 163 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Hollow nanosphere * Modelling * Formation Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamic s Impact factor: 3.760, year: 2009

  2. A new model for the computation of the formation factor of core rocks (United States)

    Beltrán, A.; Chávez, O.; Zaldivar, J.; Godínez, F. A.; García, A.; Zenit, R.


    Among all the rock parameters measured by modern well logging tools, the formation factor is essential because it can be used to calculate the volume of oil- and/or gas in wellsite. A new mathematical model to calculate the formation factor is analytically derived from first principles. Given the electrical properties of both rock and brine (resistivities) and tortuosity (a key parameter of the model), it is possible to calculate the dependence of the formation factor with porosity with good accuracy. When the cementation exponent ceases to remain constant with porosity; the new model is capable of capturing both: the non-linear behavior (for small porosity values) and the typical linear one in log-log plots for the formation factor vs. porosity. Comparisons with experimental data from four different conventional core rock lithologies: sands, sandstone, limestone and volcanic are shown, for all of them a good agreement is observed. This new model is robust, simple and of easy implementation for practical applications. In some cases, it could substitute Archie's law replacing its empirical nature.

  3. Item Response Theory Models for Wording Effects in Mixed-Format Scales (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Hui-Fang; Jin, Kuan-Yu


    Many scales contain both positively and negatively worded items. Reverse recoding of negatively worded items might not be enough for them to function as positively worded items do. In this study, we commented on the drawbacks of existing approaches to wording effect in mixed-format scales and used bi-factor item response theory (IRT) models to…

  4. Model Building to Facilitate Understanding of Holliday Junction and Heteroduplex Formation, and Holliday Junction Resolution (United States)

    Selvarajah, Geeta; Selvarajah, Susila


    Students frequently expressed difficulty in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in chromosomal recombination. Therefore, we explored alternative methods for presenting the two concepts of the double-strand break model: Holliday junction and heteroduplex formation, and Holliday junction resolution. In addition to a lecture and…

  5. On the internal model principle in formation control and in output synchronization of nonlinear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persis, Claudio De; Jayawardhana, Bayu


    The role of internal model principle is investigated in this paper in the context of collective synchronization and formation control problems. In the collective synchronization problem for nonlinear systems, we propose distributed control laws for passive systems which synchronize to the solution

  6. Toward a Kinetic Model for Acrylamide Formation in a Glucose-Asparagine Reaction System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, J.J.; Loon, W.A.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Ruck, A.L.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.


    A kinetic model for the formation of acrylamide in a glucose-asparagine reaction system is pro-posed. Equimolar solutions (0.2 M) of glucose and asparagine were heated at different tempera-tures (120-200 C) at pH 6.8. Besides the reactants, acrylamide, fructose, and melanoidins were quantified after

  7. A Formative Evaluation of the Children, Youth, and Families at Risk Coaching Model (United States)

    Olson, Jonathan R.; Smith, Burgess; Hawkey, Kyle R.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Borden, Lynne M.


    In this article, we describe the results of a formative evaluation of a coaching model designed to support recipients of funding through the Children, Youth, and Families at Risk (CYFAR) initiative. Results indicate that CYFAR coaches draw from a variety of types of coaching and that CYFAR principle investigators (PIs) are generally satisfied with…

  8. Modeling the barrier-layer formation in the South-Eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Durand, F.; Shankar, D.; DeBoyer Montegut, C.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Blanke, B.; Madec, G.

    The effect of salinity on the formation of the barrier layer (BL) in the South-Eastern Arabian Sea (SEAS) is investigated using an ocean general circulation model. In accordance with previous studies, the runoff distribution and the India-Sri Lanka...

  9. Computer-Mediated Impression Formation: A Test of the Sticky Cues Model Using Facebook (United States)

    Van Der Heide, Brandon Lee


    This research offers a model of online impression formation that explains how different impression-bearing cues may carry more or less informational value. This research considers the possibility that impression-bearing cues have greater informational value when those cues are distinctive and are task-relevant. This research refers to such cues as…

  10. Modeling orbital relative motion to enable formation design from application requirements (United States)

    Fasano, Giancarmine; D'Errico, Marco


    While trajectory design for single satellite Earth observation missions is usually performed by means of analytical and relatively simple models of orbital dynamics including the main perturbations for the considered cases, most literature on formation flying dynamics is devoted to control issues rather than mission design. This work aims at bridging the gap between mission requirements and relative dynamics in multi-platform missions by means of an analytical model that describes relative motion for satellites moving on near circular low Earth orbits. The development is based on the orbital parameters approach and both the cases of close and large formations are taken into account. Secular Earth oblateness effects are included in the derivation. Modeling accuracy, when compared to a nonlinear model with two body and J2 forces, is shown to be of the order of 0.1% of relative coordinates for timescales of hundreds of orbits. An example of formation design is briefly described shaping a two-satellite formation on the basis of geometric requirements for synthetic aperture radar interferometry.

  11. Computational Modelling of a Tangentially Fired Boiler With Deposit Formation Phenomena


    Modliński Norbert J.


    Any complete CFD model of pulverised coal-fired boiler needs to consider ash deposition phenomena. Wall boundary conditions (temperature and emissivity) should be temporally corrected to account for the effects of deposit growth on the combustion conditions. At present voluminous publications concerning ash related problems are available. The current paper presents development of an engineering tool integrating deposit formation models with the CFD code. It was then applied to two tangentiall...

  12. A model of advertising format competition: on the use of celebrities in ads


    C. Robert Clark; Ignatius J. Horstmann


    We develop a model that endogenizes both advertising format ads with or without celebrity endorsements and the endorsement fee. Marketing studies suggest that celebrities enhance brand recall and perception of product value. In our model, ads featuring celebrities occur when the product market is large endorsements are likely for products sold nationally and when products are sufficiently similar that the persuasive character of advertising looms large in demand running shoes, beauty products...

  13. The trainable trajectory formation model TD-HMM parameterized for the LIPS 2008 challenge


    Bailly , Gérard; Govokhina , Oxana; Breton , Gaspard; Elisei , Frédéric; Savariaux , Christophe


    International audience; We describe here the trainable trajectory formation model that will be used for the LIPS'2008 challenge organized at InterSpeech'2008. It predicts articulatory trajectories of a talking face from phonetic input. It basically uses HMM-based synthesis but asynchrony between acoustic and gestural boundaries - taking for example into account non audible anticipatory gestures - is handled by a phasing model that predicts the delays between the acoustic boundaries of allopho...

  14. Modeling gas formation and mineral precipitation in a granular iron column. (United States)

    Jeen, Sung-Wook; Amos, Richard T; Blowes, David W


    In granular iron permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), hydrogen gas formation, entrapment and release of gas bubbles, and secondary mineral precipitation have been known to affect the permeability and reactivity. The multicomponent reactive transport model MIN3P was enhanced to couple gas formation and release, secondary mineral precipitation, and the effects of these processes on hydraulic properties and iron reactivity. The enhanced model was applied to a granular iron column, which was studied for the treatment of trichloroethene (TCE) in the presence of dissolved CaCO(3). The simulation reasonably reproduced trends in gas formation, secondary mineral precipitation, permeability changes, and reactivity changes observed over time. The simulation showed that the accumulation of secondary minerals reduced the reactivity of the granular iron over time, which in turn decreased the rate of mineral accumulation, and also resulted in a gradual decrease in gas formation over time. This study provides a quantitative assessment of the evolving nature of geochemistry and permeability, resulting from coupled processes of gas formation and mineral precipitation, which leads to a better understanding of the processes controlling the granular iron reactivity, and represents an improved method for incorporating these factors into the design of granular iron PRBs.

  15. [Mechanistic modelling allows to assess pathways of DNA lesion interactions underlying chromosome aberration formation]. (United States)

    Eĭdel'man, Iu A; Slanina, S V; Sal'nikov, I V; Andreev, S G


    The knowledge of radiation-induced chromosomal aberration (CA) mechanisms is required in many fields of radiation genetics, radiation biology, biodosimetry, etc. However, these mechanisms are yet to be quantitatively characterised. One of the reasons is that the relationships between primary lesions of DNA/chromatin/chromosomes and dose-response curves for CA are unknown because the pathways of lesion interactions in an interphase nucleus are currently inaccessible for direct experimental observation. This article aims for the comparative analysis of two principally different scenarios of formation of simple and complex interchromosomal exchange aberrations: by lesion interactions at chromosome territories' surface vs. in the whole space of the nucleus. The analysis was based on quantitative mechanistic modelling of different levels of structures and processes involved in CA formation: chromosome structure in an interphase nucleus, induction, repair and interactions of DNA lesions. It was shown that the restricted diffusion of chromosomal loci, predicted by computational modelling of chromosome organization, results in lesion interactions in the whole space of the nucleus being impossible. At the same time, predicted features of subchromosomal dynamics agrees well with in vivo observations and does not contradict the mechanism of CA formation at the surface of chromosome territories. On the other hand, the "surface mechanism" of CA formation, despite having certain qualities, proved to be insufficient to explain high frequency of complex exchange aberrations observed by mFISH technique. The alternative mechanism, CA formation on nuclear centres is expected to be sufficient to explain frequent complex exchanges.

  16. Pore Formation During Solidification of Aluminum: Reconciliation of Experimental Observations, Modeling Assumptions, and Classical Nucleation Theory (United States)

    Yousefian, Pedram; Tiryakioğlu, Murat


    An in-depth discussion of pore formation is presented in this paper by first reinterpreting in situ observations reported in the literature as well as assumptions commonly made to model pore formation in aluminum castings. The physics of pore formation is reviewed through theoretical fracture pressure calculations based on classical nucleation theory for homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation, with and without dissolved gas, i.e., hydrogen. Based on the fracture pressure for aluminum, critical pore size and the corresponding probability of vacancies clustering to form that size have been calculated using thermodynamic data reported in the literature. Calculations show that it is impossible for a pore to nucleate either homogeneously or heterogeneously in aluminum, even with dissolved hydrogen. The formation of pores in aluminum castings can only be explained by inflation of entrained surface oxide films (bifilms) under reduced pressure and/or with dissolved gas, which involves only growth, avoiding any nucleation problem. This mechanism is consistent with the reinterpretations of in situ observations as well as the assumptions made in the literature to model pore formation.

  17. Rosuvastatin reduces neointima formation in a rat model of balloon injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preusch MR


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Processes of restenosis, following arterial injury, are complex involving different cell types producing various cytokines and enzymes. Among those enzymes, smooth muscle cell-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are thought to take part in cell migration, degrading of extracellular matrix, and neointima formation. MMP-9, also known as gelatinase B, is expressed immediately after vascular injury and its expression and activity can be inhibited by statins. Using an established in vivo model of vascular injury, we investigated the effect of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor rosuvastatin on MMP-9 expression and neointima formation. Materials and methods 14-week old male Sprague Dawley rats underwent balloon injury of the common carotid artery. Half of the animals received rosuvastatin (20 mg/kg body weight/day via oral gavage, beginning 3 days prior to injury. Gelatinase activity and neointima formation were analyzed 3 days and 14 days after balloon injury, respectively. 14 days after vascular injury, proliferative activity was assessed by staining for Ki67. Results After 14 days, animals in the rosuvastatin group showed a decrease in total neointima formation (0.194 ± 0.01 mm2 versus 0.124 ± 0.02 mm2, p Conclusions Rosuvastatin attenuates neointima formation without affecting early MMP-9 activity in a rat model of vascular injury.

  18. A phenomenological particle-based platelet model for simulating filopodia formation during early activation. (United States)

    Pothapragada, Seetha; Zhang, Peng; Sheriff, Jawaad; Livelli, Mark; Slepian, Marvin J; Deng, Yuefan; Bluestein, Danny


    We developed a phenomenological three-dimensional platelet model to characterize the filopodia formation observed during early stage platelet activation. Departing from continuum mechanics based approaches, this coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) particle-based model can deform to emulate the complex shape change and filopodia formation that platelets undergo during activation. The platelet peripheral zone is modeled with a two-layer homogeneous elastic structure represented by spring-connected particles. The structural zone is represented by a cytoskeletal assembly comprising of a filamentous core and filament bundles supporting the platelet's discoid shape, also modeled by spring-connected particles. The interior organelle zone is modeled by homogeneous cytoplasm particles that facilitate the platelet deformation. Nonbonded interactions among the discrete particles of the membrane, the cytoskeletal assembly, and the cytoplasm are described using the Lennard-Jones potential with empirical constants. By exploring the parameter space of this CGMD model, we have successfully simulated the dynamics of varied filopodia formations. Comparative analyses of length and thickness of filopodia show that our numerical simulations are in agreement with experimental measurements of flow-induced activated platelets. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. A variational study of the self-trapped magnetic polaron formation in double-exchange model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tao; Feng Mang; Wang Kelin


    We study the formation of self-trapped magnetic polaron (STMP) in an antiferro/ferromagnetic double-exchange model semi-analytically by variational solutions. It is shown that the Jahn-Teller effect is not essential to the STMP formation and the STMP forms in the antiferromagnetic material within the region of the order of the lattice constant. We also confirm that no ground state STMP exists in the ferromagnetic background, but the ground state bound MP could appear due to the impurity potential

  20. Modeling and experimental validation of TCE abatement and ozone formation with non thermal plasma


    Vandenbroucke, Arne; Aerts, Robby; Morent, Rino; De Geyter, Nathalie; Bogaerts, Annemie; Leys, Christophe


    In this study, the formation of ozone and the abatement of trichloroethylene (TCE) with non thermal plasma was experimentally and theoretically investigated. The model predicts that the ozone formation increases with the energy deposition and decreases with the relative humidity (RH) of the air, which is qualitatively in agreement with experimental data. For an energy deposition of 0.136 J/cm³, the abatement of 1000 ppm TCE in air with 5 % RH is dominated by atomic oxygen and to a lesser exte...

  1. Modeling secondary organic aerosol formation through cloud processing of organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chen


    Full Text Available Interest in the potential formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA through reactions of organic compounds in condensed aqueous phases is growing. In this study, the potential formation of SOA from irreversible aqueous-phase reactions of organic species in clouds was investigated. A new proposed aqueous-phase chemistry mechanism (AqChem is coupled with the existing gas-phase Caltech Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (CACM and the Model to Predict the Multiphase Partitioning of Organics (MPMPO that simulate SOA formation. AqChem treats irreversible organic reactions that lead mainly to the formation of carboxylic acids, which are usually less volatile than the corresponding aldehydic compounds. Zero-dimensional model simulations were performed for tropospheric conditions with clouds present for three consecutive hours per day. Zero-dimensional model simulations show that 48-h average SOA formation is increased by 27% for a rural scenario with strong monoterpene emissions and 7% for an urban scenario with strong emissions of aromatic compounds, respectively, when irreversible organic reactions in clouds are considered. AqChem was also incorporated into the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ version 4.4 with CACM/MPMPO and applied to a previously studied photochemical episode (3–4 August 2004 focusing on the eastern United States. The CMAQ study indicates that the maximum contribution of SOA formation from irreversible reactions of organics in clouds is 0.28 μg m−3 for 24-h average concentrations and 0.60 μg m−3 for one-hour average concentrations at certain locations. On average, domain-wide surface SOA predictions for the episode are increased by 9% when irreversible, in-cloud processing of organics is considered. Because aldehydes of carbon number greater than four are assumed to convert fully to the corresponding carboxylic acids upon reaction with OH in cloud droplets and this assumption may overestimate

  2. From Cell to Tissue Properties-Modeling Skin Electroporation With Pore and Local Transport Region Formation. (United States)

    Dermol-Cerne, Janja; Miklavcic, Damijan


    Current models of tissue electroporation either describe tissue with its bulk properties or include cell level properties, but model only a few cells of simple shapes in low-volume fractions or are in two dimensions. We constructed a three-dimensional model of realistically shaped cells in realistic volume fractions. By using a 'unit cell' model, the equivalent dielectric properties of whole tissue could be calculated. We calculated the dielectric properties of electroporated skin. We modeled electroporation of single cells by pore formation on keratinocytes and on the papillary dermis which gave dielectric properties of the electroporated epidermis and papillary dermis. During skin electroporation, local transport regions are formed in the stratum corneum. We modeled local transport regions and increase in their radii or density which affected the dielectric properties of the stratum corneum. The final model of skin electroporation accurately describes measured electric current and voltage drop on the skin during electroporation with long low-voltage pulses. The model also accurately describes voltage drop on the skin during electroporation with short high-voltage pulses. However, our results indicate that during application of short high-voltage pulses additional processes may occur which increase the electric current. Our model connects the processes occurring at the level of cell membranes (pore formation), at the level of a skin layer (formation of local transport region in the stratum corneum) with the tissue (skin layers) and even level of organs (skin). Using a similar approach, electroporation of any tissue can be modeled, if the morphology of the tissue is known.

  3. Electrical Resistivity Models in Geological Formations in the Southern Area of the East of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio García-Gutiérrez


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop electrical resistivity models in geological formations of greater interest for geological engineering in the southern area of the East of Cuba. A procedure for the generalization of the geo-electrical database was prepared to generate the referred geo-electrical models. A total of 38 works with 895 vertical electrical surveys, of which 317 (35.4% located near (parametrical drills. Three models for the Paso Real formation and one for the Capdevila, the most distributed in the region under investigation were defined. The surface quartz sands from the municipality of Sandino were identified to have higher electrical resistivity averages (1241 Ω•m, while they do not exceed 86 Ω•m in the lower horizons to resolve basic tasks of the geological engineering investigations. The assessment of the cover clayey sandy soils was satisfactory in both geological formations while the determination of the water table depth was unfavorable. The remaining tasks varied between relatively favorable to unfavorable according to the geological formations.

  4. Model for UV induced formation of gold nanoparticles in solid polymeric matrices (United States)

    Sapogova, N.; Bityurin, N.


    UV irradiation of polymeric PMMA films containing HAuCl 4 followed by annealing at 60-80 °C forms gold nanoparticles directly within the bulk material. The kinetics of nanoparticle formation was traced by extinction spectra of nanocomposite film changes vs annealing time. We propose that UV irradiation causes HAuCl 4 dissociation and thus provides a polymeric matrix with atomic gold. The presence of an oversaturated solid solution of atomic gold in the polymeric matrix leads to Au nanoparticle formation during annealing. This process can be understood as a phase transition of the first order. In this paper we apply several common kinetic models of the phase transition for describing Au nanoparticle formation inside the solid polymer matrix. We compare predictions of these models with the experimental data and show that these models cannot describe the process. We propose that the stabilization effect of the matrix on the growing gold nanoparticles is important. The simplest model introducing some probability for the transition from growing nanoparticle to the non-growing, stabilized form is suggested. It is shown that this model satisfactorily describes the experimentally observed evolution of the extinction spectrum of Au nanoparticles forming in a polymer matrix.

  5. An improved model for nucleation-limited ice formation in living cells during freezing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingru Yi

    Full Text Available Ice formation in living cells is a lethal event during freezing and its characterization is important to the development of optimal protocols for not only cryopreservation but also cryotherapy applications. Although the model for probability of ice formation (PIF in cells developed by Toner et al. has been widely used to predict nucleation-limited intracellular ice formation (IIF, our data of freezing Hela cells suggest that this model could give misleading prediction of PIF when the maximum PIF in cells during freezing is less than 1 (PIF ranges from 0 to 1. We introduce a new model to overcome this problem by incorporating a critical cell volume to modify the Toner's original model. We further reveal that this critical cell volume is dependent on the mechanisms of ice nucleation in cells during freezing, i.e., surface-catalyzed nucleation (SCN and volume-catalyzed nucleation (VCN. Taken together, the improved PIF model may be valuable for better understanding of the mechanisms of ice nucleation in cells during freezing and more accurate prediction of PIF for cryopreservation and cryotherapy applications.

  6. Neo: an object model for handling electrophysiology data in multiple formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel eGarcia


    Full Text Available Neuroscientists use many different software tools to acquire, analyse and visualise electrophysiological signals. However, incompatible data models and file formats make it difficult to exchange data between these tools. This reduces scientific productivity, renders potentially useful analysis methods inaccessible and impedes collaboration between labs.A common representation of the core data would improve interoperability and facilitate data-sharing.To that end, we propose here a language-independent object model, named Neo, suitable for representing data acquired from electroencephalographic, intracellular, or extracellular recordings, or generated from simulations. As a concrete instantiation of this object model we have developed an open source implementation in the Python programming language.In addition to representing electrophysiology data in memory for the purposes of analysis and visualisation, the Python implementation provides a set of input/output (IO modules for reading/writing the data from/to a variety of commonly used file formats.Support is included for formats produced by most of the major manufacturers of electrophysiology recording equipment and also for more generic formats such as MATLAB.Data representation and data analysis are conceptually separate: it is easier to write robust analysis code if it is focused on analysis and relies on an underlying package to handle data representation.For that reason, and also to be as lightweight as possible, the Neo object model and the associated Python package are deliberately limited to representation of data, with no functions for data analysis or visualisation.Software for neurophysiology data analysis and visualisation built on top of Neo automatically gains the benefits of interoperability, easier data sharing and automatic format conversion; there is already a burgeoning ecosystem of such tools. We intend that Neo should become the standard basis for Python tools in

  7. Formation of bromate and halogenated disinfection byproducts during chlorination of bromide-containing waters in the presence of dissolved organic matter and CuO

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chao


    Previous studies showed that significant bromate (BrO3-) can be formed via the CuO-catalyzed disproportionation of hypobromous acid (HOBr) pathway. In this study, the influence of CuO on the formation of BrO3- and halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) (e.g., trihalomethanes, THMs and haloacetic acids, HAAs) during chlorination of six dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolates was investigated. Only in the presence of slow reacting DOM (from treated Colorado River water, i.e., CRW-BF-HPO), significant BrO3- formation is observed, which competes with bromination of DOM (i.e., THM and HAA formation). Reactions between HOBr and 12 model compounds in the presence of CuO indicates that CuO-catalyzed HOBr disproportionation is completely inhibited by fast reacting phenols, while it predominates in the presence of practically unreactive compounds (acetone, butanol, propionic, and butyric acids). In the presence of slow reacting di- and tri-carboxylic acids (oxalic, malonic, succinic, and citric acids), BrO3- formation varies, depending on its competition with bromoform and dibromoacetic acid formation (i.e., bromination pathway). The latter pathway can be enhanced by CuO due to the activation of HOBr. Therefore, increasing CuO dose (0-0.2 g L-1) in a reaction system containing chlorine, bromide, and CRW-BF-HPO enhances the formation of BrO3-, total THMs and HAAs. Factors including pH and initial reactant concentrations influence the DBP formation. These novel findings have implications for elevated DBP formation during transportation of chlorinated waters in copper-containing distribution systems.

  8. Assessing photochemical ozone formation in the Pearl River Delta with a photochemical trajectory model (United States)

    Cheng, H. R.; Guo, H.; Saunders, S. M.; Lam, S. H. M.; Jiang, F.; Wang, X. M.; Simpson, I. J.; Blake, D. R.; Louie, P. K. K.; Wang, T. J.


    A photochemical trajectory model (PTM), coupled with the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) describing the degradation of 139 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the troposphere, was developed and used for the first time to simulate the formation of photochemical pollutants at Wangqingsha (WQS), Guangzhou during photochemical pollution episodes between 12 and 17 November, 2007. The simulated diurnal variations and mixing ratios of ozone were in good agreement with observed data ( R2 = 0.80, P toluene, etc. A further investigation of the relative contribution of the main emission source categories to ozone formation suggested that mobile sources were the largest contributor to regional O 3 formation (40%), followed by biogenic sources (29%), VOC product-related sources (23%), industry (6%), biomass burning (1%), and power plants (1%). The findings obtained in this study would advance our knowledge of air quality in the PRD region, and provide useful information to local government on effective control of photochemical smog in the region.

  9. An evolutionary model for collapsing molecular clouds and their star formation activity. II. Mass dependence of the star formation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora-Avilés, Manuel; Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 3-72, Morelia, Michoacán 58089 (Mexico)


    We discuss the evolution and dependence on cloud mass of the star formation rate (SFR) and efficiency (SFE) of star-forming molecular clouds (MCs) within the scenario that clouds are undergoing global collapse and that the SFR is controlled by ionization feedback. We find that low-mass clouds (M {sub max} ≲ 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}) spend most of their evolution at low SFRs, but end their lives with a mini-burst, reaching a peak SFR ∼10{sup 4} M {sub ☉} Myr{sup –1}, although their time-averaged SFR is only (SFR) ∼ 10{sup 2} M {sub ☉} Myr{sup –1}. The corresponding efficiencies are SFE{sub final} ≲ 60% and (SFE) ≲ 1%. For more massive clouds (M {sub max} ≳ 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}), the SFR first increases and then reaches a plateau because the clouds are influenced by stellar feedback since earlier in their evolution. As a function of cloud mass, (SFR) and (SFE) are well represented by the fits (SFR) ≈ 100(1 + M {sub max}/1.4 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}){sup 1.68} M {sub ☉} Myr{sup –1} and (SFE) ≈ 0.03(M {sub max}/2.5 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}){sup 0.33}, respectively. Moreover, the SFR of our model clouds follows closely the SFR-dense gas mass relation recently found by Lada et al. during the epoch when their instantaneous SFEs are comparable to those of the clouds considered by those authors. Collectively, a Monte Carlo integration of the model-predicted SFR(M) over a Galactic giant molecular cloud mass spectrum yields values for the total Galactic SFR that are within half an order of magnitude of the relation obtained by Gao and Solomon. Our results support the scenario that star-forming MCs may be in global gravitational collapse and that the low observed values of the SFR and SFE are a result of the interruption of each SF episode, caused primarily by the ionizing feedback from massive stars.

  10. Role of public support in sports fan formation processes: Approach by cultural transmission model


    FUKUYAMA, Hirofumi; 福山, 博文


    As described in this paper, we use a cultural transmission model to elucidate the formation process that transforms people into sports lovers. The cultural transmission model is useful for judging when people become sports lovers and how the sports lover share of a population changes because this model can analyze the process by which a naïve child receives various influences that form preferences. Moreover, we examine how public support of a sports team in one region affects the share of spo...

  11. Thermodynamic modeling of the formation and stability of small tin clusters and their ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodlaa, A.; Suliman, A.


    Based on the results of previous quantum-chemical study of electronic structure properties for neutral and single positively and negatively charged thin clusters in the size range of N 2-17 atoms, and on the thermodynamic laws, we have studied the thermodynamic properties of tin clusters and their ions. The characteristic amounts (cohesive enthalpy, formation enthalpy, fragmentation enthalpy, entropy and free enthalpy) for the formation and stability of these clusters at different temperatures were calculated. From the results, which are presented and discussed in this work, one can observe the following: The tin clusters Sn N (N=2-17) and their cations Sn + N and anions Sn - N are formed in the gas phase, and this agrees with experimental results. The clusters Sn 3 and Sn 1 0 are the most stable clusters of all. Here we also, find a correspondence with the results of the experimental studies. Our results go beyond that since we have found Sn 1 5 is also specially stable. By this thermodynamic study we could evaluate approximately the formation and stability of small neutral, single positively and negatively charged tin clusters. It has also allowed us to study the effects of the temperature on the formation and stability of these clusters. The importance of such study is not only what mentioned above, but it is also the first thermodynamic study for modeling the formation and stability of small tin clusters. (author)

  12. Monitoring benzene formation from benzoate in model systems by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (United States)

    Aprea, Eugenio; Biasioli, Franco; Carlin, Silvia; Märk, Tilmann D.; Gasperi, Flavia


    The presence of benzene in food and in particular in soft drinks has been reported in several studies and should be considered in fundamental investigations about formation of this carcinogen compound as well as in quality control. Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) has been used here for rapid, direct quantification of benzene and to monitor its formation in model systems related to the use of benzoate, a common preservative, in presence of ascorbic acid: a widespread situation that yields benzene in, e.g., soft drinks and fruit juices. Firstly, we demonstrate here that PTR-MS allows a rapid determination of benzene that is in quantitative agreement with independent solid phase micro-extraction/gas chromatography (SPME/GC) analysis. Secondly, as a case study, the effect of different sugars (sucrose, fructose and glucose) on benzene formation is investigated indicating that they inhibit its formation and that this effect is enhanced for reducing sugars. The sugar-induced inhibition of benzene formation depends on several parameters (type and concentration of sugar, temperature, time) but can be more than 80% in situations that can be expected in the storage of commercial soft drinks. This is consistent with the reported observations of higher benzene concentrations in sugar-free soft drinks.

  13. Formation of calcareous nodules in loess-paleosol sequences: Reviews of existing models with a proposed new "per evapotranspiration model" (United States)

    Li, Yanrong; Zhang, Weiwei; Aydin, Adnan; Deng, Xiaohong


    Loess is a product of aeolian deposition during Quaternary glaciation cycles. Loess-paleosol sequences are rich in calcareous nodules (CNs). In the literature, two models are widely cited for the formation of CNs, namely "per descendum" and "per ascendum". However, there has been no direct testing or monitoring to support either of these contradictory models. This paper reviews a large number of multidisciplinary literature to evaluate the consistency, reliability and rationality of these two models. Three main conclusions are drawn: (1) the causative factors (variation of pH value along loess-paleosol sequence, decrease of CO2 partial pressure, and reduction of solvent water) that are used to support the per descendum model do not completely explain the supersaturation of infiltration solution with CaCO3, thereby making this model questionable; (2) the per ascendum model explains the formation of CNs along narrow horizons through upward evaporation; however, it fails to produce sporadic distributions and irregular shapes of nodules on loess slope faces and the frequent appearance of nodules around plant roots. In order to reconcile these deficiencies, we conducted an extensive field survey in various parts of Shanxi province. Based on this new set of observations, it was concluded that the "per ascendum" model can be extended to explain all occurrences of CNs. This extended model is called "per evapotranspiration".

  14. Individual exposures to drinking water trihalomethanes, low birth weight and small for gestational age risk: a prospective Kaunas cohort study (United States)


    Background Evidence for an association between exposure during pregnancy to trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water and impaired fetal growth is still inconsistent and inconclusive, in particular, for various exposure routes. We examined the relationship of individual exposures to THMs in drinking water on low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), and birth weight (BW) in singleton births. Methods We conducted a cohort study of 4,161 pregnant women in Kaunas (Lithuania), using individual information on drinking water, ingestion, showering and bathing, and uptake factors of THMs in blood, to estimate an internal dose of THM. We used regression analysis to evaluate the relationship between internal THM dose and birth outcomes, adjusting for family status, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, blood pressure, ethnic group, previous preterm, infant gender, and birth year. Results The estimated internal dose of THMs ranged from 0.0025 to 2.40 mg/d. We found dose-response relationships for the entire pregnancy and trimester-specific THM and chloroform internal dose and risk for LBW and a reduction in BW. The adjusted odds ratio for third tertile vs. first tertile chloroform internal dose of entire pregnancy was 2.17, 95% CI 1.19-3.98 for LBW; the OR per every 0.1 μg/d increase in chloroform internal dose was 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.19. Chloroform internal dose was associated with a slightly increased risk of SGA (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.87-1.63 and OR 1.22, 95% CI 0.89-1.68, respectively, for second and third tertile of third trimester); the risk increased by 4% per every 0.1 μg/d increase in chloroform internal dose (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.09). Conclusions THM internal dose in pregnancy varies substantially across individuals, and depends on both water THM levels and water use habits. Increased internal dose may affect fetal growth. PMID:21501533

  15. Emerge - An empirical model for the formation of galaxies since z ˜ 10 (United States)

    Moster, Benjamin P.; Naab, Thorsten; White, Simon D. M.


    We present EMERGE, an Empirical ModEl for the foRmation of GalaxiEs, describing the evolution of individual galaxies in large volumes from z ˜ 10 to the present day. We assign a star formation rate to each dark matter halo based on its growth rate, which specifies how much baryonic material becomes available, and the instantaneous baryon conversion efficiency, which determines how efficiently this material is converted to stars, thereby capturing the baryonic physics. Satellites are quenched following the delayed-then-rapid model, and they are tidally disrupted once their subhalo has lost a significant fraction of its mass. The model is constrained with observed data extending out to high redshift. The empirical relations are very flexible, and the model complexity is increased only if required by the data, assessed by several model selection statistics. We find that for the same final halo mass galaxies can have very different star formation histories. Galaxies that are quenched at z = 0 typically have a higher peak star formation rate compared to their star-forming counterparts. EMERGE predicts stellar-to-halo mass ratios for individual galaxies and introduces scatter self-consistently. We find that at fixed halo mass, passive galaxies have a higher stellar mass on average. The intra-cluster-mass in massive haloes can be up to 8 times larger than the mass of the central galaxy. Clustering for star-forming and quenched galaxies is in good agreement with observational constraints, indicating a realistic assignment of galaxies to haloes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.K. Modi


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Additive manufacturing technology is used to make physical models of terrain using GIS surface data. Attempts have been made to understand several other GIS file formats, such as the Surfer grid and the ARC/INFO ASCII grid. The surface of the terrain in these file formats has been converted into an STL file format that is suitable for additive manufacturing. The STL surface is converted into a 3D model by making the walls and the base. In this paper, the terrain modelling work has been extended to several other widely-used GIS file formats. Terrain models can be created in less time and at less cost, and intricate geometries of terrain can be created with ease and great accuracy.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Laagvervaardigingstegnologie word gebruik om fisiese modelle van terreine vanaf GIS oppervlakdata te maak. Daar is gepoog om verskeie ander GIS lêerformate, soos die Surfer rooster en die ARC/INFO ASCII rooster, te verstaan. Die oppervlak van die terrein in hierdie lêerformate is omgeskakel in 'n STL lêerformaat wat geskik is vir laagvervaardiging. Verder is die STL oppervlak omgeskakel in 'n 3D model deur die kante en die basis te modelleer. In hierdie artikel is die terreinmodelleringswerk uitgebrei na verskeie ander algemeen gebruikte GIS lêerformate. Terreinmodelle kan so geskep word in korter tyd en teen laer koste, terwyl komplekse geometrieë van terreine met gemak en groot akkuraatheid geskep kan word.

  17. Preformed template fluctuations promote fibril formation: Insights from lattice and all-atom models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouza, Maksim, E-mail:; Kolinski, Andrzej [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warszaw (Poland); Co, Nguyen Truong [Department of Physics, Institute of Technology, National University of HCM City, 268 Ly Thuong Kiet Street, District 10, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Institute for Computational Science and Technology, Quang Trung Software City, Tan Chanh Hiep Ward, District 12, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Nguyen, Phuong H. [Laboratoire de Biochimie Theorique, UPR 9080 CNRS, IBPC, Universite Paris 7, 13 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Li, Mai Suan, E-mail: [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)


    Fibril formation resulting from protein misfolding and aggregation is a hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Despite the fact that the fibril formation process is very slow and thus poses a significant challenge for theoretical and experimental studies, a number of alternative pictures of molecular mechanisms of amyloid fibril formation have been recently proposed. What seems to be common for the majority of the proposed models is that fibril elongation involves the formation of pre-nucleus seeds prior to the creation of a critical nucleus. Once the size of the pre-nucleus seed reaches the critical nucleus size, its thermal fluctuations are expected to be small and the resulting nucleus provides a template for sequential (one-by-one) accommodation of added monomers. The effect of template fluctuations on fibril formation rates has not been explored either experimentally or theoretically so far. In this paper, we make the first attempt at solving this problem by two sets of simulations. To mimic small template fluctuations, in one set, monomers of the preformed template are kept fixed, while in the other set they are allowed to fluctuate. The kinetics of addition of a new peptide onto the template is explored using all-atom simulations with explicit water and the GROMOS96 43a1 force field and simple lattice models. Our result demonstrates that preformed template fluctuations can modulate protein aggregation rates and pathways. The association of a nascent monomer with the template obeys the kinetics partitioning mechanism where the intermediate state occurs in a fraction of routes to the protofibril. It was shown that template immobility greatly increases the time of incorporating a new peptide into the preformed template compared to the fluctuating template case. This observation has also been confirmed by simulation using lattice models and may be invoked to understand the role of template fluctuations in

  18. Modeling Photosensitized Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation in Laboratory and Ambient Aerosols. (United States)

    Tsui, William G; Rao, Yi; Dai, Hai-Lung; McNeill, V Faye


    Photosensitized reactions involving imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC) have been experimentally observed to contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) growth. However, the extent of photosensitized reactions in ambient aerosols remains poorly understood and unaccounted for in atmospheric models. Here we use GAMMA 4.0, a photochemical box model that couples gas-phase and aqueous-phase aerosol chemistry, along with recent laboratory measurements of the kinetics of IC photochemistry, to analyze IC-photosensitized SOA formation in laboratory and ambient settings. Analysis of the laboratory results of Aregahegn et al. (2013) suggests that photosensitized production of SOA from limonene, isoprene, α-pinene, β-pinene, and toluene by 3 IC* occurs at or near the surface of the aerosol particle. Reactive uptake coefficients were derived from the experimental data using GAMMA 4.0. Simulations of aqueous aerosol SOA formation at remote ambient conditions including IC photosensitizer chemistry indicate less than 0.3% contribution to SOA growth from direct reactions of 3 IC* with limonene, isoprene, α-pinene, β-pinene, and toluene, and an enhancement of less than 0.04% of SOA formation from other precursors due to the formation of radicals in the bulk aerosol aqueous phase. Other, more abundant photosensitizer species, such as humic-like substances (HULIS), may contribute more significantly to aqueous aerosol SOA production.

  19. Evaluation of a new model system for studying the formation of heterocyclic amines. (United States)

    Messner, C; Murkovic, M


    Heterocyclic amines (HAs) are an important class of food mutagens and carcinogens, which can be found in cooked meat and fish. Increasing heating temperatures and times usually increase mutagenic activity in meat and meat extracts during cooking. We developed a model system, which allows to examine the effects of precursor composition and heating conditions (time and temperature) on the formation of HAs in meat. Homogenized and freeze dried meat samples (beef, pork chops, chicken breast and turkey breast) are heated with diethylene glycol in closed vials under stirring in a thermostated heating block. After an appropriate sample preparation (extraction and clean-up) ten different HAs were measured by HPLC analyses with gradient elution and mass selective detection. The time courses of HA-formation in the different kinds of meat at varying heating temperatures were determined up to heating times of 30 min. 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was the most abundant HA in these experiments and reached the highest concentrations in the beef meat samples, as did the other HAs (MeIQ, AalphaC) at 220 degrees C in the heating block under stirred conditions. Additionally the influence of the antioxidant TBHQ (t-butylhydroquinone) on the formation of HAs in the model system was tested. However TBHQ effected only slight reductions of HA formation in all kinds of meat.

  20. North Atlantic deep water formation and AMOC in CMIP5 models (United States)

    Heuzé, Céline


    Deep water formation in climate models is indicative of their ability to simulate future ocean circulation, carbon and heat uptake, and sea level rise. Present-day temperature, salinity, sea ice concentration and ocean transport in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre and Nordic Seas from 23 CMIP5 (Climate Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5) models are compared with observations to assess the biases, causes and consequences of North Atlantic deep convection in models. The majority of models convect too deep, over too large an area, too often and too far south. Deep convection occurs at the sea ice edge and is most realistic in models with accurate sea ice extent, mostly those using the CICE model. Half of the models convect in response to local cooling or salinification of the surface waters; only a third have a dynamic relationship between freshwater coming from the Arctic and deep convection. The models with the most intense deep convection have the warmest deep waters, due to a redistribution of heat through the water column. For the majority of models, the variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is explained by the volumes of deep water produced in the subpolar gyre and Nordic Seas up to 2 years before. In turn, models with the strongest AMOC have the largest heat export to the Arctic. Understanding the dynamical drivers of deep convection and AMOC in models is hence key to realistically forecasting Arctic oceanic warming and its consequences for the global ocean circulation, cryosphere and marine life.

  1. Modelling soot formation from wall films in a gasoline direct injection engine using a detailed population balance model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Buyu; Mosbach, Sebastian; Schmutzhard, Sebastian; Shuai, Shijin; Huang, Yaqing; Kraft, Markus


    Highlights: • Soot formation from a wall film in a GDI engine is simulated. • Spray impingement and wall film evaporation models are added to SRM Engine Suite. • Soot is modelled using a highly detailed population balance model. • Particle size distributions are measured experimentally. • Evolution of wall region is shown in equivalence ratio-temperature diagrams. - Abstract: In this study, soot formation in a Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine is simulated using a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM Engine Suite) which contains a detailed population balance soot model capable of describing particle morphology and chemical composition. In order to describe the soot formation originating from the wall film, the SRM Engine Suite is extended to include spray impingement and wall film evaporation models. The cylinder is divided into a wall and a bulk zone to resolve the equivalence ratio and temperature distributions of the mixture near the wall. The combustion chamber wall is assumed to exchange heat directly only with the wall zone. The turbulent mixing within each zone and between the two zones are simulated with different mixing models. The effects of key parameters on the temperature and equivalence ratio in the two zones are investigated. The mixing rate between the wall and bulk zone has a significant effect on the wall zone, whilst the mixing rate in the wall zone only has a negligible impact on the temperature and equivalence ratio below a certain threshold. Experimental data are obtained from a four-cylinder, gasoline-fuelled direct injection spark ignition engine operated stoichiometrically. An injection timing sweep, ranging from 120 CAD BTDC to 330 CAD BTDC, is conducted in order to investigate the effect of spray impingement on soot formation. The earliest injection case (330 CAD BTDC), which produces significantly higher levels of particle emissions than any other case, is simulated by the current model. It is found that the in-cylinder pressure

  2. A Correlation-Based Transition Model using Local Variables. Part 1; Model Formation (United States)

    Menter, F. R.; Langtry, R. B.; Likki, S. R.; Suzen, Y. B.; Huang, P. G.; Volker, S.


    A new correlation-based transition model has been developed, which is based strictly on local variables. As a result, the transition model is compatible with modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approaches, such as unstructured grids and massive parallel execution. The model is based on two transport equations, one for intermittency and one for the transition onset criteria in terms of momentum thickness Reynolds number. The proposed transport equations do not attempt to model the physics of the transition process (unlike, e.g., turbulence models) but from a framework for the implementation of correlation-based models into general-purpose CFD methods.

  3. The annual course of TCA formation in the lower troposphere: a modeling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folberth, Gerd; Pfister, Gabriele; Baumgartner, Dietmar; Putz, Erich; Weissflog, Ludwig; Elansky, Nikolai P.


    The Caspian Catchment Area is affected by many pollutants and prevailing climate conditions. - We present a modeling study investigating the influence of climate conditions and solar radiation intensity on gas-phase trichloroacetic acid (TCA) formation. As part of the ECCA-project (Ecotoxicological Risk in the Caspian Catchment Area), this modeling study uses climate data specific for the two individual climate regimes, namely 'Kalmykia' and 'Kola Peninsula'. A third regime has also been included in this study, namely 'Central Europe', which serves as a reference to somehow more moderate climate conditions. The simulations have been performed with a box modeling package (SBOX, photoRACM), which uses Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM) as its chemistry scheme. For this model a mechanism supplement has been developed including the reaction pathways of methyl chloroform photooxidation. The investigations are completed by a detailed sensitivity study addressing the impact of temperature and relative humidity. Atmospheric OH and HO 2 concentrations and the NO x /HO 2 ratio were identified as the governing quantities controlling the TCA formation trough methyl chloroform oxidation in the gas phase. Model calculations show a TCA production rate ranging between almost zero and 6.5x10 3 molecules cm -3 day -1 depending on location and season. In the Kalmykia regime the model predicts mean TCA production rates of 1.3x10 -4 and 5.4x10 -5 μg m -3 year -1 for the urban and rural environment, respectively. From the comparison of model calculations with measured TCA burdens in the soil ranging between 130 μg m -3 and 1750 μg m -3 we conclude that TCA formation through methyl chloroform photooxidation in the gas-phase is probably not the principal atmospheric TCA source in this region

  4. Thermal and topographic tests of Europa chaos formation models from Galileo E15 observations (United States)

    Nimmo, F.; Giese, B.


    Stereo topography of an area near Tyre impact crater, Europa, reveals chaos regions characterised by marginal cliffs and domical topography, rising to 100-200 m above the background plains. The regions contain blocks which have both rotated and tilted. We tested two models of chaos formation: a hybrid diapir model, in which chaos topography is caused by thermal or compositional buoyancy, and block motion occurs due to the presence of near-surface (1-3 km) melt; and a melt-through model, in which chaos regions are caused by melting and refreezing of the ice shell. None of the hybrid diapir models tested generate any melt within 1-3 km of the surface, owing to the low surface temperature. A model of ocean refreezing following melt-through gives effective elastic thicknesses and ice shell thicknesses of 0.1-0.3 and 0.5-2 km, respectively. However, for such low shell thicknesses the refreezing model requires implausibly large lateral density contrasts (50-100 kg m -3) to explain the elevation of the centres of the chaos regions. Although a global equilibrium ice shell thickness of ≈2 km is possible if Europa's mantle resembles that of Io, it is unclear whether local melt-through events are energetically possible. Thus, neither of the models tested here gives a completely satisfactory explanation for the formation of chaos regions. We suggest that surface extrusion of warm ice may be an important component of chaos terrain formation, and demonstrate that such extrusion is possible for likely ice parameters.

  5. Collaborative Language Learning in Immersive Virtual Worlds: Competence-based Formative Feedback and Open Learner Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Kickmeier-Rust


    Full Text Available The uptake of information and communication technologies in the classrooms is a key trend over the past years and decades. Teachers are using Moodle courses, e-Portfolios, Google Docs, perhaps learning games or virtual worlds such as OpenSim for educational purposes. A second trend pushes towards a formatively inspired assessment and feedback, often combined with attempts of educational data mining and learning analytics. In this paper we present a role model for teaching English as a second language using OpenSim and a tool that enables teachers to perform real-time learning analytics and direct formative feedback and interventions in the virtual learning session. Also we present an approach to aggregate and store the learning information into open learner models.

  6. A modelling study of the effects of different CCN on contrail formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleitsmann, G.; Zellner, R. [Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie


    The formation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the jet regime of a B747 airliner at cruise has been investigated by modelling calculations using the BOAT model. Both homogeneous condensation of H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-mixtures and heterogeneous deposition of H{sub 2}O on soot surfaces activated by H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} were taken into account. Whereas the heterogeneous condensation leads to particles with average diameters of about 1.3 {mu}m, the homogeneously condensed H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} particles are much smaller ({<=} 7 nm) and do not contribute to visible contrail formation. Nevertheless, they contribute to the atmospheric background aerosol. Using different SO{sub 2} emission indices, it is concluded that the contrail onset is essentially independent of this quantity and depends mainly on ambient temperature and soot activation kinetics. (author) 15 refs.

  7. A tentative opinion of modeling plasma formation in metallic wire Z pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Ning


    Numerous experiments in both single wire and in wire arrays have attracted much attention. For the wire array Z-pinch implosions the plasma formation in the metallic wire Z pinches is a key question. By means of analyzing a number of single-wire and multi-wire experiments, two models to describe the behavior of a wire array Z-pinch in initial phase are suggested. In this phase each wire carries a rising current and behaves independently in a way similar to that found in single wire Z-pinch experiments in which a comparable current in one wire is employed. Based on one- or/and two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) theory, one model is used to simulate the electrical explosion stage of the metallic wire, another is used to simulate the wire-plasma formation stage

  8. Collaborative Language Learning in Immersive Virtual Worlds: Competence-based Formative Feedback and Open Learner Modeling


    Michael D. Kickmeier-Rust; Susan Bull; Gerhilde Meissl-Egghart


    The uptake of information and communication technologies in the classrooms is a key trend over the past years and decades. Teachers are using Moodle courses, e-Portfolios, Google Docs, perhaps learning games or virtual worlds such as OpenSim for educational purposes. A second trend pushes towards a formatively inspired assessment and feedback, often combined with attempts of educational data mining and learning analytics. In this paper we present a role model for teaching English as a second ...

  9. On the asymptotic behavior of a boltzmann-type price formation model

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin


    In this paper we study the asymptotic behavior of a Boltzmann-type price formation model, which describes the trading dynamics in a financial market. In many of these markets trading happens at high frequencies and low transaction costs. This observation motivates the study of the limit as the number of transactions k tends to infinity, the transaction cost a to zero and ka=const. Furthermore we illustrate the price dynamics with numerical simulations © 2014 International Press.

  10. Model of formation of low-risk stock portfolio in modern financial markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дмитро Сергійович Богач


    Full Text Available The basic principles of formation of an investment portfolio in modern financial markets are determined. A method of forming stock portfolio due to the statistical properties of stationary process and relations between the behavior of stocks and economic sector, characterizing these actions, is proposed. Optimal points of recalculation of model depends on changes in current trends in the financial market is described

  11. Formation region and amplitude of colour superconductivity in an instanton-induced model

    CERN Document Server

    Liao Jin Feng


    Colour superconductivity is investigated in the frame of a two flavour instanton-induced model. The ratio of diquark to quark-antiquark coupling constants is restricted to be c/(N sub c -1) with 1 <=c <=2.87 and controls the formation region and amplitude of colour superconductivity. While the finite current quark mass changes the chiral transition significantly, it does not considerably change the colour superconductivity

  12. Training of administrative elite in the formation of a new democratic governance model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віктор Васильович Олійник


    Full Text Available A key condition to ensure state and public structures in terms of the systemic crisis of Ukrainian society is the formation of new administrative elite with high levels of administrative culture and spiritual and moral features. Proving the theoretical principles of a democratic model of administrative elite in the context of the transformation processes in Ukraine, the author chooses the philosophical and pedagogical ideas of Academician I. Ziaziun about improvement of Human Resource Management as a basis

  13. Unravelling the kinetics of the formation of acrylamide in the Maillard reaction of fructose and asparagine by multiresponse modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, J.J.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.


    A kinetic model for the formation of acrylamide in a fructose–asparagine reaction system at initial pH 5.5 is proposed, based on an approach called multiresponse kinetic modelling. The formation of acetic acid and formic acid from the degradation of fructose and its isomer glucose was included in

  14. Optimal pH in chlorinated swimming pools - balancing formation of by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus


    -products. The chlorine-to-precursor ratio used in the batch experiments influenced the amounts of by-products formed, but regardless of the ratio the same trends in the effect of pH were observed. Trihalomethane formation was reduced by decreasing pH but haloacetonitrile and trichloramine formation increased......In order to identify the optimal pH range for chlorinated swimming pools the formation of trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles and trichloramine was investigated in the pH-range 6.5–7.5 in batch experiments. An artificial body fluid analogue was used to simulate bather load as the precursor for by.......7 or lower. An optimal pH range for by-products formation in swimming pools was identified at pH 7.0–7.2. In the wider pH range (pH 6.8–7.5) the effect on by-product formation was negligible. Swimming pools should never be maintained at lower pH than 6.8 since formation of both haloacetonitriles...

  15. Tolerance-based interaction: a new model targeting opinion formation and diffusion in social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Topirceanu


    Full Text Available One of the main motivations behind social network analysis is the quest for understanding opinion formation and diffusion. Previous models have limitations, as they typically assume opinion interaction mechanisms based on thresholds which are either fixed or evolve according to a random process that is external to the social agent. Indeed, our empirical analysis on large real-world datasets such as Twitter, Meme Tracker, and Yelp, uncovers previously unaccounted for dynamic phenomena at population-level, namely the existence of distinct opinion formation phases and social balancing. We also reveal that a phase transition from an erratic behavior to social balancing can be triggered by network topology and by the ratio of opinion sources. Consequently, in order to build a model that properly accounts for these phenomena, we propose a new (individual-level opinion interaction model based on tolerance. As opposed to the existing opinion interaction models, the new tolerance model assumes that individual’s inner willingness to accept new opinions evolves over time according to basic human traits. Finally, by employing discrete event simulation on diverse social network topologies, we validate our opinion interaction model and show that, although the network size and opinion source ratio are important, the phase transition to social balancing is mainly fostered by the democratic structure of the small-world topology.

  16. Homeotic Genes and the ABCDE Model for Floral Organ Formation in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Murai


    Full Text Available Floral organ formation has been the subject of intensive study for over 20 years, particularly in the model dicot species Arabidopsis thaliana. These studies have led to the establishment of a general model for the development of floral organs in higher plants, the so-called ABCDE model, in which floral whorl-specific combinations of class A, B, C, D, or E genes specify floral organ identity. In Arabidopsis, class A, B, C, D, E genes encode MADS-box transcription factors except for the class A gene APETALA2. Mutation of these genes induces floral organ homeosis. In this review, I focus on the roles of these homeotic genes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, particularly with respect to the ABCDE model. Pistillody, the homeotic transformation of stamens into pistil-like structures, occurs in cytoplasmic substitution (alloplasmic wheat lines that have the cytoplasm of the related wild species Aegilops crassa. This phenomenon is a valuable tool for analysis of the wheat ABCDE model. Using an alloplasmic line, the wheat ortholog of DROOPING LEAF (TaDL, a member of the YABBY gene family, has been shown to regulate pistil specification. Here, I describe the current understanding of the ABCDE model for floral organ formation in wheat.

  17. Homeotic Genes and the ABCDE Model for Floral Organ Formation in Wheat. (United States)

    Murai, Koji


    Floral organ formation has been the subject of intensive study for over 20 years, particularly in the model dicot species Arabidopsis thaliana. These studies have led to the establishment of a general model for the development of floral organs in higher plants, the so-called ABCDE model, in which floral whorl-specific combinations of class A, B, C, D, or E genes specify floral organ identity. In Arabidopsis, class A, B, C, D, E genes encode MADS-box transcription factors except for the class A gene APETALA2. Mutation of these genes induces floral organ homeosis. In this review, I focus on the roles of these homeotic genes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), particularly with respect to the ABCDE model. Pistillody, the homeotic transformation of stamens into pistil-like structures, occurs in cytoplasmic substitution (alloplasmic) wheat lines that have the cytoplasm of the related wild species Aegilops crassa. This phenomenon is a valuable tool for analysis of the wheat ABCDE model. Using an alloplasmic line, the wheat ortholog of DROOPING LEAF (TaDL), a member of the YABBY gene family, has been shown to regulate pistil specification. Here, I describe the current understanding of the ABCDE model for floral organ formation in wheat.

  18. Analytical and numerical models of uranium ignition assisted by hydride formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totemeier, T.C.; Hayes, S.L.


    Analytical and numerical models of uranium ignition assisted by the oxidation of uranium hydride are described. The models were developed to demonstrate that ignition of large uranium ingots could not occur as a result of possible hydride formation during storage. The thermodynamics-based analytical model predicted an overall 17 C temperature rise of the ingot due to hydride oxidation upon opening of the storage can in air. The numerical model predicted locally higher temperature increases at the surface; the transient temperature increase quickly dissipated. The numerical model was further used to determine conditions for which hydride oxidation does lead to ignition of uranium metal. Room temperature ignition only occurs for high hydride fractions in the nominally oxide reaction product and high specific surface areas of the uranium metal

  19. A 3D thermal runaway propagation model for a large format lithium ion battery module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Xuning; Lu, Languang; Ouyang, Minggao; Li, Jiangqiu; He, Xiangming


    In this paper, a 3D thermal runaway (TR) propagation model is built for a large format lithium ion battery module. The 3D TR propagation model is built based on the energy balance equation. Empirical equations are utilized to simplify the calculation of the chemical kinetics for TR, whereas equivalent thermal resistant layer is employed to simplify the heat transfer through the thin thermal layer. The 3D TR propagation model is validated by experiment and can provide beneficial discussions on the mechanisms of TR propagation. According to the modeling analysis of the 3D model, the TR propagation can be delayed or prevented through: 1) increasing the TR triggering temperature; 2) reducing the total electric energy released during TR; 3) enhancing the heat dissipation level; 4) adding extra thermal resistant layer between adjacent batteries. The TR propagation is successfully prevented in the model and validated by experiment. The model with 3D temperature distribution provides a beneficial tool for researchers to study the TR propagation mechanisms and for engineers to design a safer battery pack. - Highlights: • A 3D thermal runaway (TR) propagation model for Li-ion battery pack is built. • The 3D TR propagation model can fit experimental results well. • Temperature distributions during TR propagation are presented using the 3D model. • Modeling analysis provides solutions for the prevention of TR propagation. • Quantified solutions to prevent TR propagation in battery pack are discussed.

  20. Presença de trialometanos na água e efeitos adversos na gravidez Trihalomethanes in drinking water and adverse effects on pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria dos Santos


    Full Text Available Este trabalho constituiu um estudo do tipo transversal, que objetivou avaliar a possível associação entre a exposição a trialometanos presentes na rede pública de abastecimento de água da região metropolitana de São Paulo e a ocorrência de desfechos adversos na gravidez. Para a realização deste estudo, foram selecionados 19 municípios da região metropolitana de São Paulo que eram abastecidos por apenas uma estação de tratamento de água, no período de 1998 a 2002. Partiu-se da verificação dos níveis de trialometanos na água de abastecimento e da análise da prevalência de baixo peso ao nascer, prematuridade, anomalias congênitas, defeitos no tubo neural e no sistema nervoso central, nos recém-nascidos dos municípios estudados, para se analisar a associação entre a exposição a trialometanos e a ocorrência de desfechos adversos na gravidez. A população estudada consistiu em todas as mulheres grávidas e seus filhos recém-nascidos, residentes nos municípios selecionados durante o período de estudo, que tiveram suas declarações de nascido vivo registradas no Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC. Os níveis de trialometanos foram tratados como categorias. A análise descritiva foi seguida pela análise univariada, e esta pela análise multivariada. Para expressar as possíveis associações dos desfechos pesquisados com os trialometanos foi utilizado o teste qui-quadrado, seguido da estimativa das razões de chance (odds ratio - OR com intervalos de 95% de confiança. O controle das variáveis de confusão se deu através da análise de regressão logística múltipla não condicional, seguindo os procedimentos de Hosmer e Lemeshow (2000. As variáveis que apresentaram nível de significância estatística (p This paper describes a cross-sectional study that aimed to evaluate the possible association between exposure to trihalomethanes present in public water supplies in the metropolitan region

  1. PADME – new code for modeling of planet georesources formation on heterogeneous computing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protasov Viktor


    Full Text Available Many planets were detected in last few years, but there is no clear understanding of how they are formed. The fairly clear understanding of Solar system formation was founded with time, but there are some doubts yet because we don’t know what was at the beginning of the process, and what was acquired afterward. Moreover, formed ideas often couldn’t explain some features of other systems. Searching for Earth-like terrestrial planets is another very important problem. Even if any of found exoplanets will be similar to Earth, we couldn’t say that it is a “second Earth” exactly because its internal, geological, composition could be different – Venus is a vivid example. A new method for modelling of the planet formation process in a 3D2V formulation based on two-phase approach is presented in the paper. Fluids-in-cells method by Belotserkovskii-Davydov, modified with using the Godunov’s scheme, is used to model the gas component. The dust component is described by N-body system solved with the Particle-Mesh method. The method was accelerated by using of Nvidia CUDA technology. Gas-dust disk modelling results with the formation of sealing of gas and dust that could be interpreted as potential exoplanet are given.

  2. A model of social network formation under the impact of structural balance (United States)

    Li, Pei; Cheng, Jiajun; Chen, Yingwen; Wang, Hui


    Social networks have attracted remarkable attention from both academic and industrial societies and it is of great importance to understand the formation of social networks. However, most existing research cannot be applied directly to investigate social networks, where relationships are heterogeneous and structural balance is a common phenomenon. In this paper, we take both positive and negative relationships into consideration and propose a model to characterize the process of social network formation under the impact of structural balance. In this model, a new node first establishes a link with an existing node and then tries to connect to each of the newly connected node’s neighbors. If a new link is established, the type of this link is determined by structural balance. Then we analyze the degree distribution of the generated network theoretically, and estimate the fractions of positive and negative links. All analysis results are verified by simulations. These results are of importance to understand the formation of social networks, and the model can be easily extended to consider more realistic situations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rosnawati


    Full Text Available This study aims to obtain a valid and reliable formative evaluation model of critical thinking. The method used in this research was the research and development by integrating Borg & Gall's model and  Plomp's development model. The ten steps Borg & Gall’s model were modified into five stages as the stages in the Plomp's model. The subjects in this study were 1,446 students of junior high schools in DIY, 14 mathematics teacher, and six experts. The content validity employed was expert judgment, the empirical validity and reliability used were loading factor, item analysis used PCM 1PL, and the relationship between disposition and critical thinking skill used was structural equation modeling (SEM. The developed formative evaluation model is the procedural model. There are five aspects of critical thinking skill: mathematic reasoning, interpretation, analysis, evaluation, and inference, which entirely composed of 42 items. The validity of the critical thinking skill instruments achieves a significance degree as indicated by the lowest and the highest loading factors of 0.38 and 0.74 subsequently, the reliability of every aspect in a good category. The average level of difficulty is 0.00 with the standard deviation of 0.45 which is in a good category. The peer assessment questionnaire of critical thinking disposition consists of seven aspects: truth-seeking, open-minded, analysis, systematic, self-confidence, inquisitiveness, and maturity with 23 items. The critical thinking disposition validity achieves the significance degree as indicated by the lowest and the high factor loading of 0.66 and 0.76 subsequently, and the reliability of every aspect in a good category. Based on the analysis of the structural equation model, the model fits the data.

  4. Formation of disinfection by-products: effect of temperature and kinetic modeling. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-lu; Yang, Hong-wei; Wang, Xiao-mao; Fu, Jing; Xie, Yuefeng F


    The temperature of drinking water fluctuates naturally in water distribution systems as well as often deliberately heated for household or public uses. In this study, the temperature effect on the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) was investigated by monitoring the temporal variations of twenty-one DBPs during the chlorination of a humic precursors-containing water at different temperatures. It was found that chloroform, DCAA, TCAA, DCAN and CH were detected at the considerable level of tens of μg L(-1). The three regulated DBPs (chloroform, DCAA and TCAA) were found increasing with both contact time and water temperature, while the five typical emerging DBPs (DCAN, CH, TCNM 1,1-DCPN and 1,1,1-TCPN) revealed the significant auto-decomposition in addition to the initial growth in the first few hours. Increasing water temperature could enhance the formation rates of all the eight detected DBPs and the decomposition rates of the five emerging DBPs. Further, a kinetic model was developed for the simulation of DBP formation. The validity and universality of the model were verified by its excellent correlation with the detected values of each DBP species at various temperatures. The formation rates of 1,1-DCPN and 1,1,1-TCPN, and the decomposition rate of 1,1,1-TCPN were faster as compared to the other DBPs. And the formation reaction activation energies of CH, DCAN and 1,1-DCPN were relatively large, indicating that their occurrence levels in the finished water were more susceptible to temperature variations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of maillard reaction variables and their effect on heterocyclic amine formation in chemical model systems. (United States)

    Dennis, Cara; Karim, Faris; Smith, J Scott


    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs), highly mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic by-products, form during Maillard browning reactions, specifically in muscle-rich foods. Chemical model systems allow examination of in vitro formation of HCAs while eliminating complex matrices of meat. Limited research has evaluated the effects of Maillard reaction parameters on HCA formation. Therefore, 4 essential Maillard variables (precursors molar concentrations, water amount, sugar type, and sugar amounts) were evaluated to optimize a model system for the study of 4 HCAs: 2-amino-3-methylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoline, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline. Model systems were dissolved in diethylene glycol, heated at 175 °C for 40 min, and separated using reversed-phase liquid chromatography. To define the model system, precursor amounts (threonine and creatinine) were adjusted in molar increments (0.2/0.2, 0.4/0.4, 0.6/0.6, and 0.8/0.8 mmol) and water amounts by percentage (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%). Sugars (lactose, glucose, galactose, and fructose) were evaluated in several molar amounts proportional to threonine and creatinine (quarter, half, equi, and double). The precursor levels and amounts of sugar were significantly different (P < 0.05) in regards to total HCA formation, with 0.6/0.6/1.2 mmol producing higher levels. Water concentration and sugar type also had a significant effect (P < 0.05), with 5% water and lactose producing higher total HCA amounts. A model system containing threonine (0.6 mmol), creatinine (0.6 mmol), and glucose (1.2 mmol), with 15% water was determined to be the optimal model system with glucose and 15% water being a better representation of meat systems. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Model of practical skill performance as an instrument for supervision and formative assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten; Sommer, Irene; Larsen, Karin


    learning are sparsely researched in the field of clinical education for nursing students. This paper reports on an action research study that promoted and investigated use of The Model of Practical Skill Performance as a learning tool during nursing students’ clinical placement. Clinical supervisors...... as during practice, performance and formative assessment of practical skills learning. It provided a common language about practical skills and enhanced the participants’ understanding of professionalism in practical nursing skill. In conclusion, the model helped to highlight the complexity in mastering...

  7. Computational Modelling of a Tangentially Fired Boiler With Deposit Formation Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modliński Norbert J.


    Full Text Available Any complete CFD model of pulverised coal-fired boiler needs to consider ash deposition phenomena. Wall boundary conditions (temperature and emissivity should be temporally corrected to account for the effects of deposit growth on the combustion conditions. At present voluminous publications concerning ash related problems are available. The current paper presents development of an engineering tool integrating deposit formation models with the CFD code. It was then applied to two tangentially-fired boilers. The developed numerical tool was validated by comparing it with boiler evaporator power variation based on the on-line diagnostic system with the results from the full CFD simulation.

  8. Piezoelectricity could predict sites of formation/resorption in bone remodelling and modelling. (United States)

    Fernández, J R; García-Aznar, J M; Martínez, R


    We have developed a mathematical approach for modelling the piezoelectric behaviour of bone tissue in order to evaluate the electrical surface charges in bone under different mechanical conditions. This model is able to explain how bones change their curvature, where osteoblasts or osteoclasts could detect in the periosteal/endosteal surfaces the different electrical charges promoting bone formation or resorption. This mechanism also allows to understand the BMU progression in function of the electro-mechanical bone behaviour. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Measurements and Modeling of Soot Formation and Radiation in Microgravity Jet Diffusion Flames. Volume 4 (United States)

    Ku, Jerry C.; Tong, Li; Greenberg, Paul S.


    This is a computational and experimental study for soot formation and radiative heat transfer in jet diffusion flames under normal gravity (1-g) and microgravity (0-g) conditions. Instantaneous soot volume fraction maps are measured using a full-field imaging absorption technique developed by the authors. A compact, self-contained drop rig is used for microgravity experiments in the 2.2-second drop tower facility at NASA Lewis Research Center. On modeling, we have coupled flame structure and soot formation models with detailed radiation transfer calculations. Favre-averaged boundary layer equations with a k-e-g turbulence model are used to predict the flow field, and a conserved scalar approach with an assumed Beta-pdf are used to predict gaseous species mole fraction. Scalar transport equations are used to describe soot volume fraction and number density distributions, with formation and oxidation terms modeled by one-step rate equations and thermophoretic effects included. An energy equation is included to couple flame structure and radiation analyses through iterations, neglecting turbulence-radiation interactions. The YIX solution for a finite cylindrical enclosure is used for radiative heat transfer calculations. The spectral absorption coefficient for soot aggregates is calculated from the Rayleigh solution using complex refractive index data from a Drude- Lorentz model. The exponential-wide-band model is used to calculate the spectral absorption coefficient for H20 and C02. It is shown that when compared to results from true spectral integration, the Rosseland mean absorption coefficient can provide reasonably accurate predictions for the type of flames studied. The soot formation model proposed by Moss, Syed, and Stewart seems to produce better fits to experimental data and more physically sound than the simpler model by Khan et al. Predicted soot volume fraction and temperature results agree well with published data for a normal gravity co-flow laminar

  10. C. elegans model identifies genetic modifiers of alpha-synuclein inclusion formation during aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjakko J van Ham


    Full Text Available Inclusions in the brain containing alpha-synuclein are the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease, but how these inclusions are formed and how this links to disease is poorly understood. We have developed a C. elegans model that makes it possible to monitor, in living animals, the formation of alpha-synuclein inclusions. In worms of old age, inclusions contain aggregated alpha- synuclein, resembling a critical pathological feature. We used genome-wide RNA interference to identify processes involved in inclusion formation, and identified 80 genes that, when knocked down, resulted in a premature increase in the number of inclusions. Quality control and vesicle-trafficking genes expressed in the ER/Golgi complex and vesicular compartments were overrepresented, indicating a specific role for these processes in alpha-synuclein inclusion formation. Suppressors include aging-associated genes, such as sir-2.1/SIRT1 and lagr-1/LASS2. Altogether, our data suggest a link between alpha-synuclein inclusion formation and cellular aging, likely through an endomembrane-related mechanism. The processes and genes identified here present a framework for further study of the disease mechanism and provide candidate susceptibility genes and drug targets for Parkinson's disease and other alpha-synuclein related disorders.

  11. Study of Trans Fatty Acid Formation in Oil by Heating Using Model Compounds. (United States)

    Gotoh, Naohiro; Kagiono, Satoshi; Yoshinaga, Kazuaki; Mizobe, Hoyo; Nagai, Toshiharu; Yoshida, Akihiko; Beppu, Fumiaki; Nagao, Koji


    The intake of trans fatty acids (TFAs) in foods changes the ratio of low density lipoprotein (LDL) to high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in blood, which causes cardiovascular disease. TFAs are formed by trans isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs). The most recognized formation mechanisms of TFAs are hydrogenation of liquid oil to form partially hydrogenated oil (PHO,) and biohydrogenation of UFAs to form TFA in ruminants. Heating oil also forms TFAs; however, the mechanism of formation, and the TFA isomers formed have not been well investigated. In this study, the trans isomerization mechanism of unsaturated fatty acid formation by heating was examined using the model compounds oleic acid, trioleate, linoleic acid, and trilinoleate for liquid plant oil. The formation of TFAs was found to be suppressed by the addition of an antioxidant and argon gas. Furthermore, the quantity of formed TFAs correlated with the quantity of formed polymer in trioleate heated with air and oxygen. These results suggest that radical reactions form TFAs from UFAs by heating. Furthermore, trans isomerization by heating oleic acid and linoleic acid did not change the original double bond positions. Therefore, the distribution of TFA isomers formed was very simple. In contrast, the mixtures of TFA isomers formed from PHO and ruminant UFAs are complicated because migration of double bonds occurs during hydrogenation and biohydrogenation. These findings suggest that trans isomerization by heating is executed by a completely different mechanism than in hydrogenation and biohydrogenation.

  12. Advancing predictive models for particulate formation in turbulent flames via massively parallel direct numerical simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Bisetti, Fabrizio


    Combustion of fossil fuels is likely to continue for the near future due to the growing trends in energy consumption worldwide. The increase in efficiency and the reduction of pollutant emissions from combustion devices are pivotal to achieving meaningful levels of carbon abatement as part of the ongoing climate change efforts. Computational fluid dynamics featuring adequate combustion models will play an increasingly important role in the design of more efficient and cleaner industrial burners, internal combustion engines, and combustors for stationary power generation and aircraft propulsion. Today, turbulent combustion modelling is hindered severely by the lack of data that are accurate and sufficiently complete to assess and remedy model deficiencies effectively. In particular, the formation of pollutants is a complex, nonlinear and multi-scale process characterized by the interaction of molecular and turbulent mixing with a multitude of chemical reactions with disparate time scales. The use of direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring a state of the art description of the underlying chemistry and physical processes has contributed greatly to combustion model development in recent years. In this paper, the analysis of the intricate evolution of soot formation in turbulent flames demonstrates how DNS databases are used to illuminate relevant physico-chemical mechanisms and to identify modelling needs. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society.

  13. A new generation of models for water-in-oil emulsion formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.


    Water-in-oil emulsions form after oil or petroleum products are spilled, and can make the cleanup of oil spills difficult. This paper discussed new modelling schemes designed for the formation of water-in-oil emulsions. Density, viscosity, asphaltene and resin contents were used to compute a class index for unstable, entrained water-in-oil states, meso-stable, or stable emulsions. Prediction schemes were used to estimate the water content and viscosity of the water-in-oil states and the time to formation with wave height inputs. A numerical values was used for each type of water-in-oil type. The properties of the starting oil were correlated with the numerical scheme. New regressions were then performed using a Gaussian-style regression expansion technique. Data obtained from the models suggested that water-in-oil types are stabilized by both asphaltenes and resins. The optimized model was then compared with earlier models. The study showed that the new model has the capacity to accurately predict oil-in-water types approximately 90 per cent of the time using only resin, saturate, asphaltene, viscosity, and density data. 17 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

  14. Advancing predictive models for particulate formation in turbulent flames via massively parallel direct numerical simulations. (United States)

    Bisetti, Fabrizio; Attili, Antonio; Pitsch, Heinz


    Combustion of fossil fuels is likely to continue for the near future due to the growing trends in energy consumption worldwide. The increase in efficiency and the reduction of pollutant emissions from combustion devices are pivotal to achieving meaningful levels of carbon abatement as part of the ongoing climate change efforts. Computational fluid dynamics featuring adequate combustion models will play an increasingly important role in the design of more efficient and cleaner industrial burners, internal combustion engines, and combustors for stationary power generation and aircraft propulsion. Today, turbulent combustion modelling is hindered severely by the lack of data that are accurate and sufficiently complete to assess and remedy model deficiencies effectively. In particular, the formation of pollutants is a complex, nonlinear and multi-scale process characterized by the interaction of molecular and turbulent mixing with a multitude of chemical reactions with disparate time scales. The use of direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring a state of the art description of the underlying chemistry and physical processes has contributed greatly to combustion model development in recent years. In this paper, the analysis of the intricate evolution of soot formation in turbulent flames demonstrates how DNS databases are used to illuminate relevant physico-chemical mechanisms and to identify modelling needs. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. A model of early formation of uranium molecular oxides in laser-ablated plasmas (United States)

    Finko, Mikhail; Curreli, Davide; Azer, Magdi; Weisz, David; Crowhurst, Jonathan; Rose, Timothy; Koroglu, Batikan; Radousky, Harry; Zaug, Joseph; Armstrong, Mike


    An important problem within the field of nuclear forensics is fractionation: the formation of post-detonation nuclear debris whose composition does not reflect that of the source weapon. We are investigating uranium fractionation in rapidly cooling plasma using a combined experimental and modeling approach. In particular, we use laser ablation of uranium metal samples to produce a low-temperature plasma with physical conditions similar to a condensing nuclear fireball. Here we present a first plasma-chemistry model of uranium molecular species formation during the early stage of laser ablated plasma evolution in atmospheric oxygen. The system is simulated using a global kinetic model with rate coefficients calculated according to literature data and the application of reaction rate theory. The model allows for a detailed analysis of the evolution of key uranium molecular species and represents the first step in producing a uranium fireball model that is kinetically validated against spatially and temporally resolved spectroscopy measurements. This project was sponsored by the DoD, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Grant HDTRA1-16- 1-0020. This work was performed in part under the auspices of the U.S. DoE by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52- 07NA27344.

  16. Modeling SST gradient changes, the hydrological cycle response, and deep water formation in the North Pacific (United States)

    Burls, N.; Ford, H. L.; Fedorov, A. V.; Jahn, A.; Jacobs, P.


    The absence of deep-water formation and a deep meridional overturning cell in the modern North Pacific has been attributed to the relatively fresh surface conditions in the subarctic. These conditions are, in turn, best explained by the local excess of precipitation over evaporation in the northern Pacific due to net moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific and/or moisture transport associated with the Asian monsoon. Some studies link the lack of deep-water formation in the Pacific directly to its occurrence in the Atlantic via the Atlantic-Pacific seesaw effect and idealized experiments indicate that the smaller width of the Atlantic predisposes it to higher salinity and deep-water formation. We have conducted a series of coupled model experiments across which global mean temperatures and large-scale meridional SST gradients are varied. We perturb either atmospheric CO2 concentrations or the meridional gradient in cloud radiative forcing and run each experiment out to 3000 years so that the deep ocean has equilibrated. As the strength of the meridional temperature gradient decreases across our experiments, a Pacific Meridional Overturning Circulation develops. The strength of this Pacific Meridional Overturning Circulation generally increases as the gradient weakens. In one of these experiments where the meridional SST gradient most closely resembles Pliocene reconstructions, a PMOC exists of comparable in strength to the modern AMOC. We will describe how the hydrological cycle response to reduced meridional SST gradients acts to increase the strength of the PMOC across our sensitivity experiments. Additionally, we will discuss our effort to include carbon isotopes in our Pliocene-like simulation for data-model comparisons. Calcium carbonate accumulation data from Subarctic North Pacific Site 882 and new and previously published carbon isotope records from the Pacific appear to support our modelling results suggesting that weaker meridonal SST gradients

  17. Testing models for the formation of the equatorial ridge on Iapetus via crater counting (United States)

    Damptz, Amanda L.; Dombard, Andrew J.; Kirchoff, Michelle R.


    Iapetus's equatorial ridge, visible in global views of the moon, is unique in the Solar System. The formation of this feature is likely attributed to a key event in the evolution of Iapetus, and various models have been proposed as the source of the ridge. By surveying imagery from the Cassini and Voyager missions, this study aims to compile a database of the impact crater population on and around Iapetus's equatorial ridge, assess the relative age of the ridge from differences in cratering between on ridge and off ridge, and test the various models of ridge formation. This work presents a database that contains 7748 craters ranging from 0.83 km to 591 km in diameter. The database includes the study area in which the crater is located, the latitude and longitude of the crater, the major and minor axis lengths, and the azimuthal angle of orientation of the major axis. Analysis of crater orientation over the entire study area reveals that there is no preference for long-axis orientation, particularly in the area with the highest resolution. Comparison of the crater size-frequency distributions show that the crater distribution on the ridge appears to be depleted in craters larger than 16 km with an abruptly enhanced crater population less than 16 km in diameter up to saturation. One possible interpretation is that the ridge is a relatively younger surface with an enhanced small impactor population. Finally, the compiled results are used to examine each ridge formation hypothesis. Based on these results, a model of ridge formation via a tidally disrupted sub-satellite appears most consistent with our interpretation of a younger ridge with an enhanced small impactor population.

  18. Forecasting and modelling ice layer formation on the snowpack due to freezing precipitations in the Pyrenees (United States)

    Quéno, Louis; Vionnet, Vincent; Cabot, Frédéric; Vrécourt, Dominique; Dombrowski-Etchevers, Ingrid


    In the Pyrenees, freezing precipitations in altitude occur at least once per winter, leading to the formation of a pure ice layer on the surface of the snowpack. It may lead to accidents and fatalities among mountaineers and skiers, with sometimes a higher human toll than avalanches. Such events are not predicted by the current operational systems for snow and avalanche hazard forecasting. A crowd-sourced database of surface ice layer occurrences is first built up, using reports from Internet mountaineering and ski-touring communities, to mitigate the lack of observations from conventional observation networks. A simple diagnostic of freezing precipitation is then developed, based on the cloud water content and screen temperature forecast by the Numerical Weather Prediction model AROME, operating at 2.5-km resolution. The performance of this diagnostic is assessed for the event of 5-6 January 2012, with a good representation of altitudinal and spatial distributions of the ice layer. An evaluation of the diagnostic for major events over five winters gives good skills of detection compared to the occurrences reported in the observation database. A new modelling of ice formation on the surface of the snowpack due to impinging supercooled water is added to the detailed snowpack model Crocus. It is combined to the atmospheric diagnostic of freezing precipitations and resulting snowpack simulations over a winter season capture well the formation of the main ice layers. Their influence on the snowpack stratigraphy is also realistically simulated. These simple methods enable to forecast the occurrence of surface ice layer formations with good confidence and to simulate their evolution within the snowpack, even if an accurate estimation of freezing precipitation amounts remains the main challenge.

  19. Source rock formation evaluation using TOC & Ro log model based on well-log data procesing: study case of Ngimbang formation, North East Java basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatahillah Yosar


    Full Text Available Ngimbang Formation is known as one major source of hydrocarbon supply in the North Eastern Java Basin. Aged Mid-Eocene, Ngimbang is dominated by sedimentary clastic rocks mostly shale, shaly sandstone, and thick layers of limestone (CD Limestone, with thin layers of coal. Although, laboratory analyses show the Ngimbang Formation to be a relatively rich source-rocks, such data are typically too limited to regionally quantify the distribution of organic matter. To adequately sample the formation both horizontally and vertically on a basin–wide scale, large number of costly and time consuming laboratory analyses would be required. Such analyses are prone to errors from a number of sources, and core data are frequently not available at key locations. In this paper, the authors established four TOC (Total Organic Carbon Content logging calculation models; Passey, Schmoker-Hester, Meyer-Nederloff, and Decker/Density Model by considering the geology of Ngimbang. Well data along with its available core data was used to determine the most suitable model to be applied in the well AFA-1, as well as to compare the accuracy of these TOC model values. The result shows good correlation using Decker (TOC Model and Mallick-Raju (Ro- Vitrinite Reflectance Model. Two source rocks potential zones were detected by these log models.

  20. Kinetics modeling of delta-ferrite formation and retainment during casting of supermartensitic stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nießen, Frank; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Hald, John


    , equilibrium calculations and the Scheil model in Thermo-Calc, and validated by using microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy for chemical analysis on a cast ingot. The kinetics model showed that micro-segregation from solidification homogenizes within 2–3 s (70 °C) of cooling, and that retained δ......The kinetics model for multi-component diffusion DICTRA was applied to analyze the formation and retainment of δ-ferrite during solidification and cooling of GX4-CrNiMo-16-5-1 cast supermartensitic stainless steel. The obtained results were compared with results from the Schaeffler diagram......-ferrite originates from the incomplete transformation to austenite. The kinetics model predicted the measured amount of δ-ferrite and the partitioning of Cr and Ni reasonably well. Further, it showed that slower cooling for the investigated alloy leads to less retained δ-ferrite, which is in excellent agreement...

  1. An individual-based model for biofilm formation at liquid surfaces. (United States)

    Ardré, Maxime; Henry, Hervé; Douarche, Carine; Plapp, Mathis


    The bacterium Bacillus subtilis frequently forms biofilms at the interface between the culture medium and the air. We present a mathematical model that couples a description of bacteria as individual discrete objects to the standard advection-diffusion equations for the environment. The model takes into account two different bacterial phenotypes. In the motile state, bacteria swim and perform a run-and-tumble motion that is biased toward regions of high oxygen concentration (aerotaxis). In the matrix-producer state they excrete extracellular polymers, which allows them to connect to other bacteria and to form a biofilm. Bacteria are also advected by the fluid, and can trigger bioconvection. Numerical simulations of the model reproduce all the stages of biofilm formation observed in laboratory experiments. Finally, we study the influence of various model parameters on the dynamics and morphology of biofilms.

  2. Social judgment theory based model on opinion formation, polarization and evolution (United States)

    Chau, H. F.; Wong, C. Y.; Chow, F. K.; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred


    The dynamical origin of opinion polarization in the real world is an interesting topic that physical scientists may help to understand. To properly model the dynamics, the theory must be fully compatible with findings by social psychologists on microscopic opinion change. Here we introduce a generic model of opinion formation with homogeneous agents based on the well-known social judgment theory in social psychology by extending a similar model proposed by Jager and Amblard. The agents’ opinions will eventually cluster around extreme and/or moderate opinions forming three phases in a two-dimensional parameter space that describes the microscopic opinion response of the agents. The dynamics of this model can be qualitatively understood by mean-field analysis. More importantly, first-order phase transition in opinion distribution is observed by evolving the system under a slow change in the system parameters, showing that punctuated equilibria in public opinion can occur even in a fully connected social network.

  3. Monte Carlo Error Analysis Applied to Core Formation: The Single-stage Model Revived (United States)

    Cottrell, E.; Walter, M. J.


    The last decade has witnessed an explosion of studies that scrutinize whether or not the siderophile element budget of the modern mantle can plausibly be explained by metal-silicate equilibration in a deep magma ocean during core formation. The single-stage equilibrium scenario is seductive because experiments that equilibrate metal and silicate can then serve as a proxy for the early earth, and the physical and chemical conditions of core formation can be identified. Recently, models have become more complex as they try to accommodate the proliferation of element partitioning data sets, each of which sets its own limits on the pressure, temperature, and chemistry of equilibration. The ability of single stage models to explain mantle chemistry has subsequently been challenged, resulting in the development of complex multi-stage core formation models. Here we show that the extent to which extant partitioning data are consistent with single-stage core formation depends heavily upon (1) the assumptions made when regressing experimental partitioning data (2) the certainty with which regression coefficients are known and (3) the certainty with which the core/mantle concentration ratios of the siderophile elements are known. We introduce a Monte Carlo algorithm coded in MATLAB that samples parameter space in pressure and oxygen fugacity for a given mantle composition (nbo/t) and liquidus, and returns the number of equilibrium single-stage liquidus “solutions” that are permissible, taking into account the uncertainty in regression parameters and range of acceptable core/mantle ratios. Here we explore the consequences of regression parameter uncertainty and the impact of regression construction on model outcomes. We find that the form of the partition coefficient (Kd with enforced valence state, or D) and the handling of the temperature effect (based on 1-atm free energy data or high P-T experimental observations) critically affects model outcomes. We consider the most

  4. Kinetic modeling studies of SOA formation from α-pinene ozonolysis (United States)

    Gatzsche, Kathrin; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Tilgner, Andreas; Mutzel, Anke; Berndt, Torsten; Wolke, Ralf


    This paper describes the implementation of a kinetic gas-particle partitioning approach used for the simulation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation within the SPectral Aerosol Cloud Chemistry Interaction Model (SPACCIM). The kinetic partitioning considers the diffusion of organic compounds into aerosol particles and the subsequent chemical reactions in the particle phase. The basic kinetic partitioning approach is modified by the implementation of chemical backward reaction of the solute within the particle phase as well as a composition-dependent particle-phase bulk diffusion coefficient. The adapted gas-phase chemistry mechanism for α-pinene oxidation has been updated due to the recent findings related to the formation of highly oxidized multifunctional organic compounds (HOMs). Experimental results from a LEAK (Leipziger Aerosolkammer) chamber study for α-pinene ozonolysis were compared with the model results describing this reaction system.The performed model studies reveal that the particle-phase bulk diffusion coefficient and the particle-phase reactivity are key parameters for SOA formation. Using the same particle-phase reactivity for both cases, we find that liquid particles with higher particle-phase bulk diffusion coefficients have 310 times more organic material formed in the particle phase compared to higher viscous semi-solid particles with lower particle-phase bulk diffusion coefficients. The model results demonstrate that, even with a moderate particle-phase reactivity, about 61 % of the modeled organic mass consists of reaction products that are formed in the liquid particles. This finding emphasizes the potential role of SOA processing. Moreover, the initial organic aerosol mass concentration and the particle radius are of minor importance for the process of SOA formation in liquid particles. A sensitivity study shows that a 22-fold increase in particle size merely leads to a SOA increase of less than 10 %.Due to two additional

  5. Frameworks for change in healthcare organisations: a formative evaluation of the NHS Change Model. (United States)

    Martin, Graham P; Sutton, Elizabeth; Willars, Janet; Dixon-Woods, Mary


    Organisational change in complex healthcare systems is a multifaceted process. The English National Health Service recently introduced a 'Change Model' that seeks to offer an evidence-based framework for guiding change. We report findings from a formative evaluation of the NHS Change Model and make recommendations for those developing the Model and its users. The evaluation involved 28 interviews with managers and clinicians making use of the Change Model in relation to a variety of projects. Interviews were fully transcribed and were analysed using an approach based on the Framework method. Participants saw the Change Model as valuable and practically useful. Fidelity to core principles of the Model was variable: participants often altered the Model, especially when using it to orchestrate the work of others. In challenging organisational contexts, the Change Model was sometimes used to delegitimise opposition rather than identify shared purpose among different interest groups. Those guiding change may benefit from frameworks, guidance and toolkits to structure and inform their planning and activities. Participants' experiences suggested the Change Model has much potential. Further work on its design and on supporting materials may optimise the approach, but its utility rests in particular on organisational cultures that support faithful application. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions:]br]

  6. Formation of model-free motor memories during motor adaptation depends on perturbation schedule. (United States)

    Orban de Xivry, Jean-Jacques; Lefèvre, Philippe


    Motor adaptation to an external perturbation relies on several mechanisms such as model-based, model-free, strategic, or repetition-dependent learning. Depending on the experimental conditions, each of these mechanisms has more or less weight in the final adaptation state. Here we focused on the conditions that lead to the formation of a model-free motor memory (Huang VS, Haith AM, Mazzoni P, Krakauer JW. Neuron 70: 787-801, 2011), i.e., a memory that does not depend on an internal model or on the size or direction of the errors experienced during the learning. The formation of such model-free motor memory was hypothesized to depend on the schedule of the perturbation (Orban de Xivry JJ, Ahmadi-Pajouh MA, Harran MD, Salimpour Y, Shadmehr R. J Neurophysiol 109: 124-136, 2013). Here we built on this observation by directly testing the nature of the motor memory after abrupt or gradual introduction of a visuomotor rotation, in an experimental paradigm where the presence of model-free motor memory can be identified (Huang VS, Haith AM, Mazzoni P, Krakauer JW. Neuron 70: 787-801, 2011). We found that relearning was faster after abrupt than gradual perturbation, which suggests that model-free learning is reduced during gradual adaptation to a visuomotor rotation. In addition, the presence of savings after abrupt introduction of the perturbation but gradual extinction of the motor memory suggests that unexpected errors are necessary to induce a model-free motor memory. Overall, these data support the hypothesis that different perturbation schedules do not lead to a more or less stabilized motor memory but to distinct motor memories with different attributes and neural representations. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. A genetic algorithm for a bi-objective mathematical model for dynamic virtual cell formation problem (United States)

    Moradgholi, Mostafa; Paydar, Mohammad Mahdi; Mahdavi, Iraj; Jouzdani, Javid


    Nowadays, with the increasing pressure of the competitive business environment and demand for diverse products, manufacturers are force to seek for solutions that reduce production costs and rise product quality. Cellular manufacturing system (CMS), as a means to this end, has been a point of attraction to both researchers and practitioners. Limitations of cell formation problem (CFP), as one of important topics in CMS, have led to the introduction of virtual CMS (VCMS). This research addresses a bi-objective dynamic virtual cell formation problem (DVCFP) with the objective of finding the optimal formation of cells, considering the material handling costs, fixed machine installation costs and variable production costs of machines and workforce. Furthermore, we consider different skills on different machines in workforce assignment in a multi-period planning horizon. The bi-objective model is transformed to a single-objective fuzzy goal programming model and to show its performance; numerical examples are solved using the LINGO software. In addition, genetic algorithm (GA) is customized to tackle large-scale instances of the problems to show the performance of the solution method.

  8. Comparing Fourier optics and contrast transfer function modeling of image formation in low energy electron microscopy. (United States)

    Yu, K M; Locatelli, A; Altman, M S


    A theoretical understanding of image formation in cathode lens microscopy can facilitate image interpretation. We compare Fourier Optics (FO) and Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) approaches that were recently adapted from other realms of microscopy to model image formation in low energy electron microscopy (LEEM). Although these two approaches incorporate imaging errors from several sources similarly, they differ in the way that the image intensity is calculated. The simplification that is used in the CTF calculation advantageously leads to its computational efficiency. However, we find that lens aberrations, and spatial and temporal coherence may affect the validity of the CTF approach to model LEEM image formation under certain conditions. In particular, these effects depend strongly on the nature of the object being imaged and also become more pronounced with increasing defocus. While the use of the CTF approach appears to be justified for objects that are routinely imaged with LEEM, comparison of theory to experimental observations of a focal image series for rippled, suspended graphene reveals one example where FO works, but CTF does not. This work alerts us to potential pitfalls and guides the effective use of FO and CTF approaches. It also lays the foundation for quantitative image evaluation using these methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental design, modeling and optimization of polyplex formation between DNA oligonucleotides and branched polyethylenimine. (United States)

    Clima, Lilia; Ursu, Elena L; Cojocaru, Corneliu; Rotaru, Alexandru; Barboiu, Mihail; Pinteala, Mariana


    The complexes formed by DNA and polycations have received great attention owing to their potential application in gene therapy. In this study, the binding efficiency between double-stranded oligonucleotides (dsDNA) and branched polyethylenimine (B-PEI) has been quantified by processing of the images captured from the gel electrophoresis assays. The central composite experimental design has been employed to investigate the effects of controllable factors on the binding efficiency. On the basis of experimental data and the response surface methodology, a multivariate regression model has been constructed and statistically validated. The model has enabled us to predict the binding efficiency depending on experimental factors, such as concentrations of dsDNA and B-PEI as well as the initial pH of solution. The optimization of the binding process has been performed using simplex and gradient methods. The optimal conditions determined for polyplex formation have yielded a maximal binding efficiency close to 100%. In order to reveal the mechanism of complex formation at the atomic-scale, a molecular dynamic simulation has been carried out. According to the computation results, B-PEI amine hydrogen atoms have interacted with oxygen atoms from dsDNA phosphate groups. These interactions have led to the formation of hydrogen bonds between macromolecules, stabilizing the polyplex structure.

  10. Explicit modelling of SOA formation from α-pinene photooxidation: sensitivity to vapour pressure estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Valorso


    Full Text Available The sensitivity of the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA to the estimated vapour pressures of the condensable oxidation products is explored. A highly detailed reaction scheme was generated for α-pinene photooxidation using the Generator for Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A. Vapour pressures (Pvap were estimated with three commonly used structure activity relationships. The values of Pvap were compared for the set of secondary species generated by GECKO-A to describe α-pinene oxidation. Discrepancies in the predicted vapour pressures were found to increase with the number of functional groups borne by the species. For semi-volatile organic compounds (i.e. organic species of interest for SOA formation, differences in the predicted Pvap range between a factor of 5 to 200 on average. The simulated SOA concentrations were compared to SOA observations in the Caltech chamber during three experiments performed under a range of NOx conditions. While the model captures the qualitative features of SOA formation for the chamber experiments, SOA concentrations are systematically overestimated. For the conditions simulated, the modelled SOA speciation appears to be rather insensitive to the Pvap estimation method.

  11. Modeling and analysis of the chip formation and transient cutting force during elliptical vibration cutting process (United States)

    Lin, Jieqiong; Guan, Liang; Lu, Mingming; Han, Jinguo; Kan, Yudi


    In traditional diamond cutting, the cutting force is usually large and it will affect tool life and machining quality. Elliptical vibration cutting (EVC) as one of the ultra-precision machining technologies has a lot of advantages, such as reduces cutting force, extend tool life and so on. It's difficult to predict the transient cutting force of EVC due to its unique elliptical motion trajectory. Study on chip formation will helpfully to predict cutting force. The geometric feature of chip has important effects on cutting force, however, few scholars have studied the chip formation. In order to investigate the time-varying cutting force of EVC, the geometric feature model of chip is established based on analysis of chip formation, and the effects of cutting parameters on the geometric feature of chip are analyzed. To predict transient force quickly and effectively, the geometric feature of chip is introduced into the cutting force model. The calculated results show that the error between the predicted cutting force in this paper and that in the literature is less than 2%, which proves its feasibility.

  12. Modeling and analysis of the chip formation and transient cutting force during elliptical vibration cutting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqiong Lin


    Full Text Available In traditional diamond cutting, the cutting force is usually large and it will affect tool life and machining quality. Elliptical vibration cutting (EVC as one of the ultra-precision machining technologies has a lot of advantages, such as reduces cutting force, extend tool life and so on. It’s difficult to predict the transient cutting force of EVC due to its unique elliptical motion trajectory. Study on chip formation will helpfully to predict cutting force. The geometric feature of chip has important effects on cutting force, however, few scholars have studied the chip formation. In order to investigate the time-varying cutting force of EVC, the geometric feature model of chip is established based on analysis of chip formation, and the effects of cutting parameters on the geometric feature of chip are analyzed. To predict transient force quickly and effectively, the geometric feature of chip is introduced into the cutting force model. The calculated results show that the error between the predicted cutting force in this paper and that in the literature is less than 2%, which proves its feasibility.

  13. A novel thermo-hydraulic coupling model to investigate the crater formation in electrical discharge machining (United States)

    Tang, Jiajing; Yang, Xiaodong


    A novel thermo-hydraulic coupling model was proposed in this study to investigate the crater formation in electrical discharge machining (EDM). The temperature distribution of workpiece materials was included, and the crater formation process was explained from the perspective of hydrodynamic characteristics of the molten region. To better track the morphology of the crater and the movement of debris, the level-set method was introduced in this study. Simulation results showed that the crater appears shortly after the ignition of the discharge, and the molten material is removed by vaporizing in the initial stage, then by splashing at the following time. The driving force for the detachment of debris in the splashing removal stage comes from the extremely large pressure difference in the upper part of the molten region, and the morphology of the crater is also influenced by the shearing flow of molten material. It was found that the removal ratio of molten material is only about 7.63% under the studied conditions, leaving most to form the re-solidification layer on the surface of the crater. The size of the crater reaches the maximum at the end of discharge duration then experiences a slight reduction because of the reflux of molten material after the discharge. The results of single pulse discharge experiments showed that the morphologies and sizes between the simulation crater and actual crater are good at agreement, verifying the feasibility of the proposed thermo-hydraulic coupling model in explaining the mechanisms of crater formation in EDM.

  14. Systemic EP4 Inhibition Increases Adhesion Formation in a Murine Model of Flexor Tendon Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Geary

    Full Text Available Flexor tendon injuries are a common clinical problem, and repairs are frequently complicated by post-operative adhesions forming between the tendon and surrounding soft tissue. Prostaglandin E2 and the EP4 receptor have been implicated in this process following tendon injury; thus, we hypothesized that inhibiting EP4 after tendon injury would attenuate adhesion formation. A model of flexor tendon laceration and repair was utilized in C57BL/6J female mice to evaluate the effects of EP4 inhibition on adhesion formation and matrix deposition during flexor tendon repair. Systemic EP4 antagonist or vehicle control was given by intraperitoneal injection during the late proliferative phase of healing, and outcomes were analyzed for range of motion, biomechanics, histology, and genetic changes. Repairs treated with an EP4 antagonist demonstrated significant decreases in range of motion with increased resistance to gliding within the first three weeks after injury, suggesting greater adhesion formation. Histologic analysis of the repair site revealed a more robust granulation zone in the EP4 antagonist treated repairs, with early polarization for type III collagen by picrosirius red staining, findings consistent with functional outcomes. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated accelerated peaks in F4/80 and type III collagen (Col3a1 expression in the antagonist group, along with decreases in type I collagen (Col1a1. Mmp9 expression was significantly increased after discontinuing the antagonist, consistent with its role in mediating adhesion formation. Mmp2, which contributes to repair site remodeling, increases steadily between 10 and 28 days post-repair in the EP4 antagonist group, consistent with the increased matrix and granulation zones requiring remodeling in these repairs. These findings suggest that systemic EP4 antagonism leads to increased adhesion formation and matrix deposition during flexor tendon healing. Counter to our hypothesis that EP4 antagonism


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Maksimchenko


    Full Text Available The developed experimentally-statistical model of the cladding composite layer formation process on slide-ways allows to operate technological modes of cladding by flexible instrument (CFI in order to obtain the set properties of a coating (thickness, continuity, adhesion strength.The established optimum technological modes of CFI process providing formation of continuous, strongly adhered to a basis composite coatings of the required thickness have been used for applying coatings on working surfaces of slide-ways of metal-cutting machine tool beds that has allowed to lower friction factor in coupling on the average by 1.3–1.7-fold and to improve uniformity of slow moving of machine tool units by 1.74-fold in comparison with slide-ways without a coating. 

  16. A-DROP: A predictive model for the formation of oil particle aggregates (OPAs) (United States)

    Zhao, Lin; Boufadel, Michel C.; Geng, Xiaolong; Lee, Kenneth; King, Thomas; Robinson, Brian; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.


    Oil–particle interactions play a major role in removal of free oil from the water column. We present a new conceptual–numerical model, A-DROP, to predict oil amount trapped in oil–particle aggregates. A new conceptual formulation of oil–particle coagulation efficiency is introduced to account for the effects of oil stabilization by particles, particle hydrophobicity, and oil–particle size ratio on OPA formation. A-DROP was able to closely reproduce the oil trapping efficiency reported in experimental studies. The model was then used to simulate the OPA formation in a typical nearshore environment. Modeling results indicate that the increase of particle concentration in the swash zone would speed up the oil–particle interaction process; but the oil amount trapped in OPAs did not correspond to the increase of particle concentration. The developed A-DROP model could become an important tool in understanding the natural removal of oil and developing oil spill countermeasures by means of oil–particle aggregation.

  17. Mechanistic constitutive model for wormlike micelle solutions with flow-induced structure formation (United States)

    Dutta, Sarit; Graham, Michael


    We present a tensor constitutive model for stress and flow-induced structure formation in dilute wormlike micellar solutions. The fluid is treated as a dilute suspension of rigid Brownian rods whose length varies dynamically. Consistent with the mechanism of Turner and Cates, flow-induced alignment of the rods is assumed to promote increase of rod length that corresponds to the formation of flow-induced structures observed in experiments. At very high deformation rate, hydrodynamic stresses cause the rod length to decrease. These mechanisms are implemented in a phenomenological equation governing the evolution of rod length, with the number density of rods appropriately modified to ensure conservation of surfactant mass. The model leads first to an increase in both shear and extensional viscosity as deformation rate increases and then to a decrease at higher rates. If the rate constant for flow-induced rod growth is sufficiently large, the model predicts a multivalued relation between stress and deformation rate in both shear and uniaxial extension in agreement with experimental results. By design, the model is simple enough to serve as a tractable constitutive relation for computational fluid dynamics studies.

  18. A minimalist feedback-regulated model for galaxy formation during the epoch of reionization (United States)

    Furlanetto, Steven R.; Mirocha, Jordan; Mebane, Richard H.; Sun, Guochao


    Near-infrared surveys have now determined the luminosity functions of galaxies at 6 ≲ z ≲ 8 to impressive precision and identified a number of candidates at even earlier times. Here, we develop a simple analytic model to describe these populations that allows physically motivated extrapolation to earlier times and fainter luminosities. We assume that galaxies grow through accretion on to dark matter haloes, which we model by matching haloes at fixed number density across redshift, and that stellar feedback limits the star formation rate. We allow for a variety of feedback mechanisms, including regulation through supernova energy and momentum from radiation pressure. We show that reasonable choices for the feedback parameters can fit the available galaxy data, which in turn substantially limits the range of plausible extrapolations of the luminosity function to earlier times and fainter luminosities: for example, the global star formation rate declines rapidly (by a factor of ∼20 from z = 6 to 15 in our fiducial model), but the bright galaxies accessible to observations decline even faster (by a factor ≳ 400 over the same range). Our framework helps us develop intuition for the range of expectations permitted by simple models of high-z galaxies that build on our understanding of 'normal' galaxy evolution. We also provide predictions for galaxy measurements by future facilities, including James Webb Space Telescope and Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope.

  19. Novel model for end-neuroma formation in the amputated rabbit forelimb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuiken Todd A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The forelimb amputee poses many reconstructive challenges in the clinical setting, and there is a paucity of established surgical models for study. To further elucidate the pathogenic process in amputation neuroma formation, we created a reproducible, well-tolerated rabbit forelimb amputation model. Methods Upon approval from the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, 5 New Zealand White rabbits underwent left forelimb amputation. During this initial surgery, the median, radial and ulnar nerves were transected 1.6-2.5 (mean 2.0 cm distal to the brachial plexus, transposed onto the anterior chest wall and preserved at length. Six weeks subsequent to the amputation, the distal 5 mm of each neuroma was excised, and the remaining stump underwent histomorphometric analysis. Results The nerve cross sectional areas increased by factors of 1.99, 3.17, and 2.59 in the median (p = 0.077, radial (p Conclusion Given that the surgical model appears well-tolerated by the rabbits and that patterns of morphologic change are consistent and reproducible, we are encouraged to further investigate the utility of this model in the pathogenesis of neuroma formation.

  20. Modeling the formation of globular cluster systems in the Virgo cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hui; Gnedin, Oleg Y.


    The mass distribution and chemical composition of globular cluster (GC) systems preserve fossil record of the early stages of galaxy formation. The observed distribution of GC colors within massive early-type galaxies in the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey (ACSVCS) reveals a multi-modal shape, which likely corresponds to a multi-modal metallicity distribution. We present a simple model for the formation and disruption of GCs that aims to match the ACSVCS data. This model tests the hypothesis that GCs are formed during major mergers of gas-rich galaxies and inherit the metallicity of their hosts. To trace merger events, we use halo merger trees extracted from a large cosmological N-body simulation. We select 20 halos in the mass range of 2 × 10 12 to 7 × 10 13 M ☉ and match them to 19 Virgo galaxies with K-band luminosity between 3 × 10 10 and 3 × 10 11 L ☉ . To set the [Fe/H] abundances, we use an empirical galaxy mass-metallicity relation. We find that a minimal merger ratio of 1:3 best matches the observed cluster metallicity distribution. A characteristic bimodal shape appears because metal-rich GCs are produced by late mergers between massive halos, while metal-poor GCs are produced by collective merger activities of less massive hosts at early times. The model outcome is robust to alternative prescriptions for cluster formation rate throughout cosmic time, but a gradual evolution of the mass-metallicity relation with redshift appears to be necessary to match the observed cluster metallicities. We also affirm the age-metallicity relation, predicted by an earlier model, in which metal-rich clusters are systematically several billion younger than their metal-poor counterparts.

  1. A global model of thunderstorm electricity and the prediction of whistler duct formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stansbery, E.K.


    A two-dimensional numerical model is created to calculate the electric field and current that flow from a thunderstorm source into the global electrical circuit. The model includes a hemisphere in which the thunderstorm is located, an equalization layer, and a passive magnetic conjugate hemisphere. To maintain the fair weather electric field, the output current from the thunderstorm is allowed to spread out in the ionosphere or flow along the magnetic field lines into the conjugate hemisphere. The vertical current is constant up to approximately 65 km, decays and is redirected horizontally in the ionosphere. Approximately half of the current that reaches the ionosphere flows along magnetic field lines into the conjugate hemisphere while the rest is spread out in the ionosphere and redirected to the fair weather portion of the storm hemisphere. Our results show that it is important to include a realistic model of the equalization layer to evaluate the role of thunderstorm charging of the global circuit. The mapping of thunderstorm electric fields at middle and subauroral latitudes into the magnetic equatorial plane is studied. The geomagnetic field lines are assumed to be dipolar above approximately 150 km. The horizontal electric field computed in the ionosphere by our model is of sufficient size and shape for the formation of electron density irregularities in the magnetosphere. The mechanism involves a localized convection of ionization tubes by ExB drift. It is shown that the horizontal range of the electric field disturbance in the ionosphere must be within approximately 160 km to produce density irregularities necessary for the formation of whistler ducts. Although the electric field strength at ionospheric heights depends sensitively on the conductivity profile, the results presented show that whistler duct formation is possible by thunderstorm generated electric fields.*

  2. The Romulus cosmological simulations: a physical approach to the formation, dynamics and accretion models of SMBHs (United States)

    Tremmel, M.; Karcher, M.; Governato, F.; Volonteri, M.; Quinn, T. R.; Pontzen, A.; Anderson, L.; Bellovary, J.


    We present a novel implementation of supermassive black hole (SMBH) formation, dynamics and accretion in the massively parallel tree+SPH code, ChaNGa. This approach improves the modelling of SMBHs in fully cosmological simulations, allowing for a more detailed analysis of SMBH-galaxy co-evolution throughout cosmic time. Our scheme includes novel, physically motivated models for SMBH formation, dynamics and sinking timescales within galaxies and SMBH accretion of rotationally supported gas. The sub-grid parameters that regulate star formation (SF) and feedback from SMBHs and SNe are optimized against a comprehensive set of z = 0 galaxy scaling relations using a novel, multidimensional parameter search. We have incorporated our new SMBH implementation and parameter optimization into a new set of high-resolution, large-scale cosmological simulations called Romulus. We present initial results from our flagship simulation, Romulus25, showing that our SMBH model results in SF efficiency, SMBH masses and global SF and SMBH accretion histories at high redshift that are consistent with observations. We discuss the importance of SMBH physics in shaping the evolution of massive galaxies and show how SMBH feedback is much more effective at regulating SF compared to SNe feedback in this regime. Further, we show how each aspect of our SMBH model impacts this evolution compared to more common approaches. Finally, we present a science application of this scheme studying the properties and time evolution of an example dual active galactic nucleus system, highlighting how our approach allows simulations to better study galaxy interactions and SMBH mergers in the context of galaxy-BH co-evolution.

  3. On the Appearance of Thresholds in the Dynamical Model of Star Formation (United States)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.


    The Kennicutt–Schmidt (KS) relationship between the surface density of the star formation rate (SFR) and the gas surface density has three distinct power laws that may result from one model in which gas collapses at a fixed fraction of the dynamical rate. The power-law slope is 1 when the observed gas has a characteristic density for detection, 1.5 for total gas when the thickness is about constant as in the main disks of galaxies, and 2 for total gas when the thickness is regulated by self-gravity and the velocity dispersion is about constant, as in the outer parts of spirals, dwarf irregulars, and giant molecular clouds. The observed scaling of the star formation efficiency (SFR per unit CO) with the dense gas fraction (HCN/CO) is derived from the KS relationship when one tracer (HCN) is on the linear part and the other (CO) is on the 1.5 part. Observations of a threshold density or column density with a constant SFR per unit gas mass above the threshold are proposed to be selection effects, as are observations of star formation in only the dense parts of clouds. The model allows a derivation of all three KS relations using the probability distribution function of density with no thresholds for star formation. Failed galaxies and systems with sub-KS SFRs are predicted to have gas that is dominated by an equilibrium warm phase where the thermal Jeans length exceeds the Toomre length. A squared relation is predicted for molecular gas-dominated young galaxies.

  4. Full wave model of image formation in optical coherence tomography applicable to general samples. (United States)

    Munro, Peter R T; Curatolo, Andrea; Sampson, David D


    We demonstrate a highly realistic model of optical coherence tomography, based on an existing model of coherent optical microscopes, which employs a full wave description of light. A defining feature of the model is the decoupling of the key functions of an optical coherence tomography system: sample illumination, light-sample interaction and the collection of light scattered by the sample. We show how such a model can be implemented using the finite-difference time-domain method to model light propagation in general samples. The model employs vectorial focussing theory to represent the optical system and, thus, incorporates general illumination beam types and detection optics. To demonstrate its versatility, we model image formation of a stratified medium, a numerical point-spread function phantom and a numerical phantom, based upon a physical three-dimensional structured phantom employed in our laboratory. We show that simulated images compare well with experimental images of a three-dimensional structured phantom. Such a model provides a powerful means to advance all aspects of optical coherence tomography imaging.

  5. North Atlantic deep water formation and AMOC in CMIP5 models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Heuzé


    Full Text Available Deep water formation in climate models is indicative of their ability to simulate future ocean circulation, carbon and heat uptake, and sea level rise. Present-day temperature, salinity, sea ice concentration and ocean transport in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre and Nordic Seas from 23 CMIP5 (Climate Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5 models are compared with observations to assess the biases, causes and consequences of North Atlantic deep convection in models. The majority of models convect too deep, over too large an area, too often and too far south. Deep convection occurs at the sea ice edge and is most realistic in models with accurate sea ice extent, mostly those using the CICE model. Half of the models convect in response to local cooling or salinification of the surface waters; only a third have a dynamic relationship between freshwater coming from the Arctic and deep convection. The models with the most intense deep convection have the warmest deep waters, due to a redistribution of heat through the water column. For the majority of models, the variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC is explained by the volumes of deep water produced in the subpolar gyre and Nordic Seas up to 2 years before. In turn, models with the strongest AMOC have the largest heat export to the Arctic. Understanding the dynamical drivers of deep convection and AMOC in models is hence key to realistically forecasting Arctic oceanic warming and its consequences for the global ocean circulation, cryosphere and marine life.

  6. Numerical model of the glacially-induced intraplate earthquakes and faults formation (United States)

    Petrunin, Alexey; Schmeling, Harro


    According to the plate tectonics, main earthquakes are caused by moving lithospheric plates and are located mainly at plate boundaries. However, some of significant seismic events may be located far away from these active areas. The nature of the intraplate earthquakes remains unclear. It is assumed, that the triggering of seismicity in the eastern Canada and northern Europe might be a result of the glacier retreat during a glacial-interglacial cycle (GIC). Previous numerical models show that the impact of the glacial loading and following isostatic adjustment is able to trigger seismicity in pre-existing faults, especially during deglaciation stage. However this models do not explain strong glaciation-induced historical earthquakes (M5-M7). Moreover, numerous studies report connection of the location and age of major faults in the regions undergone by glaciation during last glacial maximum with the glacier dynamics. This probably imply that the GIC might be a reason for the fault system formation. Our numerical model provides analysis of the strain-stress evolution during the GIC using the finite volume approach realised in the numerical code Lapex 2.5D which is able to operate with large strains and visco-elasto-plastic rheology. To simulate self-organizing faults, the damage rheology model is implemented within the code that makes possible not only visualize faulting but also estimate energy release during the seismic cycle. The modeling domain includes two-layered crust, lithospheric mantle and the asthenosphere that makes possible simulating elasto-plastic response of the lithosphere to the glaciation-induced loading (unloading) and viscous isostatic adjustment. We have considered three scenarios for the model: horizontal extension, compression and fixed boundary conditions. Modeling results generally confirm suppressing seismic activity during glaciation phases whereas retreat of a glacier triggers earthquakes for several thousand years. Tip of the glacier

  7. Modeling the legal field of formation of socially responsible conduct among pharmacy specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Tkachenko


    Full Text Available Observation of legal and legislative standards of the company activities is the fundamental principle of social responsibility (SR. The results of the literature analysis show the lack of fundamental research of regulatory and legal support of formation of socially responsible conduct of pharmacists (SRCPh. AIM: modeling the legal framework and determining the completeness and content of the current regulatory and legal framework on formation of a system of SRCPh throughout the professional lifespan development. Materials and methods. The materials of the study were national and international regulatory legal acts, regulating SR, the activities of pharmaceutical organizations (PhO and getting a pharmaceutical education. During the work, such methods as searching information, systematization, content analysis, comparison and generalization were used. During the investigation, we summarized the legal framework that in various aspects forms the socially responsible conduct of the pharmacists throughout the lifespan professional development; and a model of the legal field of this process was formed. A content analysis of this regulatory framework in aspect of responsibility of the PhO and pharmacists with a description of the problem legal questions in the context of SR was carried out. In this article, attention is paid to the basic level of the legal field, within which general principles of social relations are formed in all spheres of the economy. Conclusions. We have formed a model of the legal field formation of a SRCPh system throughout the professional lifespan development. The model is a complex, multilevel system. The regulatory framework in the model is distributed according to two criteria (hierarchical and regulating relations in the system of socially responsible conduct of the pharmacists and includes 27 basic normative legal acts. We have identified problems in the legal field of the basic level of SRCPh formation: the indistinctness

  8. Effect of Resveratrol on the Prevention of Intra-Abdominal Adhesion Formation in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangbing Wei


    Full Text Available Background: Intra-abdominal adhesions are a very common complication following abdominal surgery. Our previous studies have demonstrated that the inhibition of inflammation at the sites of peritoneal injury can prevent the formation of intra-abdominal adhesions. Resveratrol is a natural extract with a broad range of anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, we propose that resveratrol can reduce the formation of intra-abdominal adhesions after surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resveratrol on intra-abdominal adhesion prevention in a rat model with surgery-induced peritoneal adhesions. Materials and Methods: The cecum wall and its opposite parietal peritoneum were abraded following laparotomy to induce intra-abdominal adhesion formation. Varying doses of resveratrol were administered to the animals. On the eighth day after surgery, the adhesion score was assessed using a visual scoring system. Picrosirius red staining and a hydroxyproline assay were used to assess the amount of collagen deposition in the adhesion tissues. The levels of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1 were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Western blotting was performed to determine the protein expression of TGF-β1, fibrinogen, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA in rat peritoneal adhesion tissue. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to quantify the mRNA expression of TGF-β1, fibrinogen, and α-SMA. Results: Resveratrol significantly reduced intra-abdominal adhesion formation and fibrin deposition in the rat model. Furthermore, resveratrol significantly reduced the serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β1. The protein and mRNA expression of TGF-β1, fibrinogen, and α-SMA in the rat peritoneum and adhesion tissues were also down-regulated due to resveratrol intervention. Conclusion: Resveratrol can effectively prevent the formation of postoperative intra

  9. A model of early formation of uranium molecular oxides in laser-ablated plasmas (United States)

    Finko, Mikhail S.; Curreli, Davide; Weisz, David G.; Crowhurst, Jonathan C.; Rose, Timothy P.; Koroglu, Batikan; Radousky, Harry B.; Armstrong, Michael R.


    In this work, we present a newly constructed U x O y reaction mechanism that consists of 30 reaction channels (21 of which are reversible channels) for 11 uranium molecular species (including ions). Both the selection of reaction channels and calculation of corresponding rate coefficients is accomplished via a comprehensive literature review and application of basic reaction rate theory. The reaction mechanism is supplemented by a detailed description of oxygen plasma chemistry (19 species and 142 reaction channels) and is used to model an atmospheric laser ablated uranium plume via a 0D (global) model. The global model is used to analyze the evolution of key uranium molecular species predicted by the reaction mechanism, and the initial stage of formation of uranium oxide species.

  10. Bioprinting by laser-induced forward transfer for tissue engineering applications: jet formation modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezel, C; Hallo, L [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, UMR 5107 Universite Bordeaux 1-CNRS-CEA, 33405 Talence, Cedex (France); Souquet, A; Guillemot, F, E-mail: mezel@celia.u-bordeaux1.f [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Universite Bordeaux 2 - UMR 577, 146 Rue Leo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France)


    In this paper, a nanosecond LIFT process is analyzed both from experimental and modeling points of view. Experimental results are first presented and compared to simple estimates obtained from physical analysis, i.e. energy balance, jump relations and analytical pocket dynamics. Then a self-consistent 2D axisymmetric modeling strategy is presented. It is shown that data accessible from experiments, i.e. jet diameter and velocity, can be reproduced. Moreover, some specific mechanisms involved in the rear-surface deformation and jet formation may be described by some scales of hydrodynamic process, i.e. shock waves propagation and expansion waves, as a consequence of the laser heating. It shows that the LIFT process is essentially driven by hydrodynamics and thermal transfer, and that a coupled approach including self-consistent laser energy deposition, heating by thermal conduction and specific models for matter is required.

  11. Bioprinting by laser-induced forward transfer for tissue engineering applications: jet formation modeling. (United States)

    Mézel, C; Souquet, A; Hallo, L; Guillemot, F


    In this paper, a nanosecond LIFT process is analyzed both from experimental and modeling points of view. Experimental results are first presented and compared to simple estimates obtained from physical analysis, i.e. energy balance, jump relations and analytical pocket dynamics. Then a self-consistent 2D axisymmetric modeling strategy is presented. It is shown that data accessible from experiments, i.e. jet diameter and velocity, can be reproduced. Moreover, some specific mechanisms involved in the rear-surface deformation and jet formation may be described by some scales of hydrodynamic process, i.e. shock waves propagation and expansion waves, as a consequence of the laser heating. It shows that the LIFT process is essentially driven by hydrodynamics and thermal transfer, and that a coupled approach including self-consistent laser energy deposition, heating by thermal conduction and specific models for matter is required.

  12. Modeling transcriptional networks regulating secondary growth and wood formation in forest trees. (United States)

    Liu, Lijun; Filkov, Vladimir; Groover, Andrew


    The complex interactions among the genes that underlie a biological process can be modeled and presented as a transcriptional network, in which genes (nodes) and their interactions (edges) are shown in a graphical form similar to a wiring diagram. A large number of genes have been identified that are expressed during the radial woody growth of tree stems (secondary growth), but a comprehensive understanding of how these genes interact to influence woody growth is currently lacking. Modeling transcriptional networks has recently been made tractable by next-generation sequencing-based technologies that can comprehensively catalog gene expression and transcription factor-binding genome-wide, but has not yet been extensively applied to undomesticated tree species or woody growth. Here we discuss basic features of transcriptional networks, approaches for modeling biological networks, and examples of biological network models developed for forest trees to date. We discuss how transcriptional network research is being developed in the model forest tree genus, Populus, and how this research area can be further developed and applied. Transcriptional network models for forest tree secondary growth and wood formation could ultimately provide new predictive models to accelerate hypothesis-driven research and develop new breeding applications. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  13. Opinion formation and distribution in a bounded-confidence model on various networks (United States)

    Meng, X. Flora; Van Gorder, Robert A.; Porter, Mason A.


    In the social, behavioral, and economic sciences, it is important to predict which individual opinions eventually dominate in a large population, whether there will be a consensus, and how long it takes for a consensus to form. Such ideas have been studied heavily both in physics and in other disciplines, and the answers depend strongly both on how one models opinions and on the network structure on which opinions evolve. One model that was created to study consensus formation quantitatively is the Deffuant model, in which the opinion distribution of a population evolves via sequential random pairwise encounters. To consider heterogeneity of interactions in a population along with social influence, we study the Deffuant model on various network structures (deterministic synthetic networks, random synthetic networks, and social networks constructed from Facebook data). We numerically simulate the Deffuant model and conduct regression analyses to investigate the dependence of the time to reach steady states on various model parameters, including a confidence bound for opinion updates, the number of participating entities, and their willingness to compromise. We find that network structure and parameter values both have important effects on the convergence time and the number of steady-state opinion groups. For some network architectures, we observe that the relationship between the convergence time and model parameters undergoes a transition at a critical value of the confidence bound. For some networks, the steady-state opinion distribution also changes from consensus to multiple opinion groups at this critical value.

  14. Dynamic model based on voltage transfer curve for pattern formation in dielectric barrier glow discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ben; He, Feng; Ouyang, Jiting, E-mail: [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Duan, Xiaoxi [Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China)


    Simulation work is very important for understanding the formation of self-organized discharge patterns. Previous works have witnessed different models derived from other systems for simulation of discharge pattern, but most of these models are complicated and time-consuming. In this paper, we introduce a convenient phenomenological dynamic model based on the basic dynamic process of glow discharge and the voltage transfer curve (VTC) to study the dielectric barrier glow discharge (DBGD) pattern. VTC is an important characteristic of DBGD, which plots the change of wall voltage after a discharge as a function of the initial total gap voltage. In the modeling, the combined effect of the discharge conditions is included in VTC, and the activation-inhibition effect is expressed by a spatial interaction term. Besides, the model reduces the dimensionality of the system by just considering the integration effect of current flow. All these greatly facilitate the construction of this model. Numerical simulations turn out to be in good accordance with our previous fluid modeling and experimental result.

  15. Design of formative assessment model for professional behavior using stages of change theory. (United States)

    Hashemi, Akram; Mirzazadeh, Azim; Shirazi, Mandana; Asghari, Fariba


    Background: Professionalism is a core competency of physicians. This study was conducted to design a model for formative assessment of professional commitment in medical students according to stages of change theory. Methods: In this qualitative study, data were collected through literature review & focus group interviews in the Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2013 and analyzed using content analysis approach. Results: Review of the literature and results of focus group interviews led to design a formative assessment model of professional commitment in three phases, including pre-contemplation, contemplation, and readiness for behavior change that each one has interventional and assessment components. In the second phase of the study, experts' opinion collected in two main categories: the educational environment (factors related to students, students' assessment and educational program); and administrative problems (factors related to subcultures, policymakers or managers and budget). Moreover, there was a section of recommendations for each category related to curriculum, professors, students, assessments, making culture, the staff and reinforcing administrative factors. Conclusion: This type of framework analysis made it possible to develop a conceptual model that could be effective on forming the professional commitment and behavioral change in medical students.

  16. Evolutionary-Hierarchical Bases of the Formation of Cluster Model of Innovation Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Vladimirovna Dubrovskaya


    Full Text Available The functioning of a modern economic system is based on the interaction of objects of different hierarchical levels. Thus, the problem of the study of innovation processes taking into account the mutual influence of the activities of these economic actors becomes important. The paper dwells evolutionary basis for the formation of models of innovation development on the basis of micro and macroeconomic analysis. Most of the concepts recognized that despite a big number of diverse models, the coordination of the relations between economic agents is of crucial importance for the successful innovation development. According to the results of the evolutionary-hierarchical analysis, the authors reveal key phases of the development of forms of business cooperation, science and government in the domestic economy. It has become the starting point of the conception of the characteristics of the interaction in the cluster models of innovation development of the economy. Considerable expectancies on improvement of the national innovative system are connected with the development of cluster and network structures. The main objective of government authorities is the formation of mechanisms and institutions that will foster cooperation between members of the clusters. The article explains that the clusters cannot become the factors in the growth of the national economy, not being an effective tool for interaction between the actors of the regional innovative systems.

  17. A mathematical model for adaptive vein formation during exploratory migration of Physarum polycephalum: routing while scouting (United States)

    Schenz, Daniel; Shima, Yasuaki; Kuroda, Shigeru; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki; Ueda, Kei-Ichi


    Exploring free space (scouting) efficiently is a non-trivial task for organisms of limited perception, such as the amoeboid Physarum polycephalum. However, the strategy behind its exploratory behaviour has not yet been characterised. In this organism, as the extension of the frontal part into free space is directly supported by the transport of body mass from behind, the formation of transport channels (routing) plays the main role in that strategy. Here, we study the organism’s exploration by letting it expand through a corridor of constant width. When turning at a corner of the corridor, the organism constructed a main transport vein tracing a centre-in-centre line. We argue that this is efficient for mass transport due to its short length, and check this intuition with a new algorithm that can predict the main vein’s position from the frontal tip’s progression. We then present a numerical model that incorporates reaction-diffusion dynamics for the behaviour of the organism’s growth front and current reinforcement dynamics for the formation of the vein network in its wake, as well as interactions between the two. The accuracy of the model is tested against the behaviour of the real organism and the importance of the interaction between growth tip dynamics and vein network development is analysed by studying variants of the model. We conclude by offering a biological interpretation of the well-known current reinforcement rule in the context of the natural exploratory behaviour of Physarum polycephalum.

  18. SOA formation from partitioning and heterogeneous reactions: model study in the presence of inorganic species. (United States)

    Jang, Myoseon; Czoschke, Nadine M; Northcross, Amanda L; Cao, Gang; Shaof, David


    A predictive model for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation by both partitioning and heterogeneous reactions was developed for SOA created from ozonolysis of alpha-pinene in the presence of preexisting inorganic seed aerosols. SOA was created in a 2 m3 polytetrafluoroethylene film indoor chamber under darkness. Extensive sets of SOA experiments were conducted varying humidity, inorganic seed compositions comprising of ammonium sulfate and sulfuric acid, and amounts of inorganic seed mass. SOA mass was decoupled into partitioning (OM(P)) and heterogeneous aerosol production (OM(H)). The reaction rate constant for OM(H) production was subdivided into three categories (fast, medium, and slow) to consider different reactivity of organic products for the particle phase heterogeneous reactions. The influence of particle acidity on reaction rates was treated in a previous semiempirical model. Model OM(H) was developed with medium and strong acidic seed aerosols, and then extrapolated to OM(H) in weak acidic conditions, which are more relevant to atmospheric aerosols. To demonstrate the effects of preexisting glyoxal derivatives (e.g., glyoxal hydrate and dimer) on OM(H), SOA was created with a seed mixture comprising of aqueous glyoxal and inorganic species. Our results show that heterogeneous SOA formation was also influenced by preexisting reactive glyoxal derivatives.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez, Facundo A.; O'Shea, Brian W.; Coleman-Smith, Christopher E.; Tumlinson, Jason; Wolpert, Robert L.


    We use the semi-analytic model ChemTreeN, coupled to cosmological N-body simulations, to explore how different galaxy formation histories can affect observational properties of Milky Way like galaxies' stellar halos and their satellite populations. Gaussian processes are used to generate model emulators that allow one to statistically estimate a desired set of model outputs at any location of a p-dimensional input parameter space. This enables one to explore the full input parameter space orders of magnitude faster than could be done otherwise. Using mock observational data sets generated by ChemTreeN itself, we show that it is possible to successfully recover the input parameter vectors used to generate the mock observables if the merger history of the host halo is known. However, our results indicate that for a given observational data set, the determination of 'best-fit' parameters is highly susceptible to the particular merger history of the host. Very different halo merger histories can reproduce the same observational data set, if the 'best-fit' parameters are allowed to vary from history to history. Thus, attempts to characterize the formation history of the Milky Way using these kind of techniques must be performed statistically, analyzing large samples of high-resolution N-body simulations.

  20. Metformin and atorvastatin reduce adhesion formation in a rat uterine horn model. (United States)

    Yilmaz, Bulent; Aksakal, Orhan; Gungor, Tayfun; Sirvan, Levent; Sut, Necdet; Kelekci, Sefa; Soysal, Sunullah; Mollamahmutoglu, Leyla


    The aim of the present study was to determine whether atorvastatin and metformin are effective in preventing adhesions in a rat uterine horn model. A total of 40 non-pregnant, female Wistar albino rats, weighing 180-210 g, were used as a model for post-operative adhesion formation. The rats were randomized into four groups after seven standard lesions were inflicted in each uterine horn and lower abdominal sidewall using bipolar cauterization. The rats were given atorvastatin 2.5 mg/kg/day, p.o. (10 rats), atorvastatin 30 mg/kg/day, p.o. (10 rats), metformin 50 mg/kg/day, p.o. (10 rats) and no treatment was applied in the control group (10 rats). The animals were killed 2 weeks later and adhesions were scored both clinically and pathologically by authors blinded to groups. One rat in the control group died before the end of the 2 week period. Total clinical adhesion scores regarding extent, severity and degree of adhesions and histopathological findings including inflammation and fibrosis were significantly lower in the metformin (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively) and atorvastatin 30 mg/kg/day (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively) groups when compared with control group. Metformin and atorvastatin are both effective for prevention of adhesion formation in a rat uterine horn model.

  1. Modeling the Effect of Finite-Rate Hydrogen Diffusion on Porosity Formation in Aluminum Alloys (United States)

    Carlson, Kent D.; Lin, Zhiping; Beckermann, Christoph


    A volume-averaged model for finite-rate diffusion of hydrogen in the melt is developed to predict pore formation during the solidification of aluminum alloys. The calculation of the micro-/macro-scale gas species transport in the melt is coupled with a model for the feeding flow and pressure field. The rate of pore growth is shown to be proportional to the local level of gas supersaturation in the melt, as well as various microstructural parameters. Parametric studies of one-dimensional solidification under an imposed temperature gradient and cooling rate illustrate that the model captures important phenomena observed in porosity formation in aluminum alloys. The transition from gas to shrinkage dominated porosity and the effects of different solubilities of hydrogen in the eutectic solid, capillary pressures at pore nucleation, and pore number densities are investigated in detail. Comparisons between predicted porosity percentages and previous experimental measurements show good correspondence, although some uncertainties remain regarding the extent of impingement of solid on the pores.

  2. Osteopontin reduces biofilm formation in a multi-species model of dental biofilm. (United States)

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Raarup, Merete K; Wejse, Peter L; Nyvad, Bente; Städler, Brigitte M; Sutherland, Duncan S; Birkedal, Henrik; Meyer, Rikke L


    Combating dental biofilm formation is the most effective means for the prevention of caries, one of the most widespread human diseases. Among the chemical supplements to mechanical tooth cleaning procedures, non-bactericidal adjuncts that target the mechanisms of bacterial biofilm formation have gained increasing interest in recent years. Milk proteins, such as lactoferrin, have been shown to interfere with bacterial colonization of saliva-coated surfaces. We here study the effect of bovine milk osteopontin (OPN), a highly phosphorylated whey glycoprotein, on a multispecies in vitro model of dental biofilm. While considerable research effort focuses on the interaction of OPN with mammalian cells, there are no data investigating the influence of OPN on bacterial biofilms. Biofilms consisting of Streptococcus oralis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus downei and Streptococcus sanguinis were grown in a flow cell system that permitted in situ microscopic analysis. Crystal violet staining showed significantly less biofilm formation in the presence of OPN, as compared to biofilms grown without OPN or biofilms grown in the presence of caseinoglycomacropeptide, another phosphorylated milk protein. Confocal microscopy revealed that OPN bound to the surface of bacterial cells and reduced mechanical stability of the biofilms without affecting cell viability. The bacterial composition of the biofilms, determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization, changed considerably in the presence of OPN. In particular, colonization of S. mitis, the best biofilm former in the model, was reduced dramatically. OPN strongly reduces the amount of biofilm formed in a well-defined laboratory model of acidogenic dental biofilm. If a similar effect can be observed in vivo, OPN might serve as a valuable adjunct to mechanical tooth cleaning procedures.

  3. GISAXS modelling of helium-induced nano-bubble formation in tungsten and comparison with TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Matt; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Bernard, Elodie; Kirby, Nigel; Kluth, Patrick; Riley, Daniel; Corr, Cormac


    Grazing-incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) is a powerful non-destructive technique for the measurement of nano-bubble formation in tungsten under helium plasma exposure. Here, we present a comparative study between transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and GISAXS measurements of nano-bubble formation in tungsten exposed to helium plasma in the Large Helical Device (LHD) fusion experiment. Both techniques are in excellent agreement, suggesting that nano-bubbles range from spheroidal to ellipsoidal, displaying exponential diameter distributions with mean diameters μ=0.68 ± 0.04 nm and μ=0.6 ± 0.1 nm measured by TEM and GISAXS respectively. Depth distributions were also computed, with calculated exponential depth distributions with mean depths of 8.4 ± 0.5 nm and 9.1 ± 0.4 nm for TEM and GISAXS. In GISAXS modelling, spheroidal particles were fitted with an aspect ratio ε=0.7 ± 0.1. The GISAXS model used is described in detail. - Highlights: • GISAXS and TEM were used to measure nano-bubble formation in W exposed to He plasma in the large helical device. • Nano-bubbles had an exponential diameter distributions with averages 0.6 ± 0.1 nm and 0.68 ± 0.04 nm measured by GISAXS and TEM. • Nano-bubbles had an exponential depth distributions with average depths of 9.1 ± 0.4 nm and 8.4 ± 0.5 nm for GISAXS and TEM. • The GISAXS model used to analyse diffraction patterns is explained in detail.

  4. Spatial modeling of HIV cryptic viremia and 2-LTR formation during raltegravir intensification. (United States)

    Cardozo, E Fabian; Luo, Rutao; Piovoso, Michael J; Zurakowski, Ryan


    Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART) can suppress plasma HIV below the limit of detection in normal assays. Recently reported results suggest that viral replication may continue in some patients, despite undetectable levels in the blood. It has been suggested that the appearance of the circularized episomal HIV DNA artifact 2-LTR following treatment intensification with the integrase inhibitor raltegravir is a marker of ongoing viral replication. Other work has suggested that lymphoid organs may be a site of reduced antiviral penetration and increased viral production. In this study we model the hypothesis that this ongoing replication occurs in lymphoid follicle sanctuary sites and investigate the patterns of 2-LTR formation expected after raltegravir application. Experimental data is used to estimate the reaction and diffusion parameters in the model, and Monte-Carlo simulations are used to explore model behavior subject to variation in these rates. The results suggest that conditions for the formation of an observed transient peak in 2-LTR formation following raltegravir intensification include a sanctuary site diameter larger than 0.2mm, a viral basic reproductive ratio within the site larger than 1, and a total volume of active sanctuary sites above 20mL. Significant levels of uncontrolled replication can occur in the sanctuary sites without measurable changes in the plasma viral load. By contrast, subcritical replication (where the basic reproductive ratio of the virus is less than 1 in all sites) always results in monotonic increases of measured 2-LTR following raltegravir intensification, occurring at levels below the limit of detection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The trends of modeling the ways of formation, distribution and exploitation of megapolis lands using geo-information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostyantyn Mamonov


    Full Text Available The areas of need for ways of modeling the formation, distribution and use of land metropolis using GIS are identified. The article is to define the areas of modeling ways of formation, distribution and use of land metropolis using GIS. In the study, the following objectives are set: to develop an algorithm process data base (Data System creation for pecuniary valuation of land settlements with the use of GIS; to offer process model taking into account the influence of one factor modules using geographic information systems; to identify components of geo providing expert money evaluation of land metropolis; to describe the general procedure for expert money assessment of land and property by using geographic information system software; to develop an algorithm methods for expert evaluation of land. Identified tools built algorithms used for modeling the ways of formation, distribution and use of land metropolis using GIS. Directions ways of modeling the formation, distribution and use of land metropolis using GIS.

  6. Modeling Local Item Dependence Due to Common Test Format with a Multidimensional Rasch Model (United States)

    Baghaei, Purya; Aryadoust, Vahid


    Research shows that test method can exert a significant impact on test takers' performance and thereby contaminate test scores. We argue that common test method can exert the same effect as common stimuli and violate the conditional independence assumption of item response theory models because, in general, subsets of items which have a shared…

  7. Film models for transport phenomena with fog formation: The classical film model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, Jos; Chesters, A.K.


    In the present analysis the classical film model (or film theory) is reviewed and extended. First, on the basis of a thorough analysis, the governing equations of diffusion, energy and momentum of a stagnant film are derived and solved. Subsequently, the well-known correction factors for the effect

  8. Formation-evolution model of uranium-productive basin and its recognition criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zuyi; Li Ziying; Zhou Weixun; Guan Taiyang


    Based on geologic-tectonic setting and dynamic evolution of important U-productive basins both at home and abroad, authors distinguish six type of U-productive basins, and nominate each type by typical representative of this type, namely Chu-Sarysu and Syr-Darya type, Central Kyzylkum type, Zaural and West-Siberia type, Zabaikal type, Bohemia type, and South Texas type. The formation-evolution model of each type of U-productive basin has been established and recognition criteria have been proposed. Finially, the difference between each type U-productive basin is discussed and some assumption on prospecting for U-productive basins is proposed. (authors)

  9. Models for formation of macroheterogeneous structure in radiation-grafted polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babkin, I.Yu.; Burukhin, S.B.; Maksimov, A.F.


    Mathematical models, which describe the formation of grafted polymer layer with respect to variations in sorption and kinetic characteristics due to the changes in composition of the modified polymer and grafted polymer under variable boundary conditions were obtained. The influence of heat effect of polymerization reaction on concentration profiles was estimated. Taking into account the nonlinear diffusion kinetics, the conditions providing diffuse and step profiles of concentration of grafted polymer in polymer matrix were revealed. Step concentration profiles were shown to be associated with a nonlinear dependence of diffusion and kinetic parameters of polymerization on the composition of modified polymer. 22 refs.; 11 figs.; 2 tabs

  10. Models of the plasma corona formation and stratification of exploding micro-wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, N.B.; Sarkisov, G.S.; Struve, K.W.; McDaniel, D.H.


    There are proposed the models pf plasma corona formation and stratification of a gas-plasma core of exploding micro-wire. The opportunity of use for the description of physical processes in a formed plasma corona of an electronic magnetohydrodynamics is generalized in view of change of particle number as a result of evaporation, ionization and a leaving of electrons on a wire surface. Necessity of the account of influence of a hot plasma corona on stratification of a gas-plasma core was grounded [ru

  11. On a price formation free boundary model by Lasry and Lions

    KAUST Repository

    Caffarelli, Luis A.


    We discuss global existence and asymptotic behaviour of a price formation free boundary model introduced by Lasry and Lions in 2007. Our results are based on a construction which transforms the problem into the heat equation with specially prepared initial datum. The key point is that the free boundary present in the original problem becomes the zero level set of this solution. Using the properties of the heat operator we can show global existence, regularity and asymptotic results of the free boundary. 2011 Académie des sciences.

  12. Modelling university human capital formation and measuring its efficiency: evidence from Florence University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Ferrari


    Full Text Available In this paper, an analysis of the technical efficiency in the formation of 2,236 graduates in 1998 in the University of Florence, that is, in the university human capital formation, is performed, by modelling the production process as one in which the student produces himself as a graduate. The tool utilized is the DEA methodology, under the hypothesis of variable returns to scale. The production factors are represented by a set of human and capital resources provided by the faculties, along with individual factors represented by secondary school diploma score and by the length of university study. The analysis is conducted both for the overall graduates, and at a faculty level, in order to emphasize the contribution provided by the latter to efficiency. There is evidence that the students graduated with an average efficiency greater than 90% and therefore with an unexploited productive capacity lower than 10%. At a faculty level, Formation Science appears to be the most efficient, whereas Economics is the less efficient one. By and large, the contribution to efficiency provided by faculties is greater than that brought by students individual characteristics.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Osipova


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the practical experience, theoretical and methodological backgrounds toformation of research competence of future software engineers. Also in this article we defined the content, structure, criteria and indicators of research competence of future software engineers and characterized levels of the formedness of research competence of futuresoftware engineers and explained main phases of its formation. In consideration of the specificity of formation of research competence of software engineers, job market requirements and social order much attention in article is paid to student participation in research projects of the Chair, particularly in international projects and projects commissioned by the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine. The important factor of effective formation of research competence of future software engineers is student's work on chair of scientific schools, their training in IT companies and IT departments of higher education institutions and other educational establishments, including abroad. Also we pay attention to the need of group work of participants of the educational process that can beprovided with their participation in scientific problem groups, scientific schools, work on joint research projects. The conducted research confirms the effectiveness of implementation of the proposed model offormation of research competence of future software engineers.

  14. Modelling nanoparticles formation in the plasma plume induced by nanosecond pulsed lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girault, M. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS-Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications (CELIA), Universite de Bordeaux 1, 43 rue Pierre Noailles, Talence (France); Hallo, L., E-mail: [CEA CESTA, 15 Avenue des Sablieres CS 60001, 33116 Le Barp Cedex (France); Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications (CELIA), Universite de Bordeaux 1, 43 rue Pierre Noailles, Talence (France); Lavisse, L.; Lucas, M.C. Marco de [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS-Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Hebert, D. [CEA CESTA, 15 Avenue des Sablieres CS 60001, 33116 Le Barp Cedex (France); Potin, V.; Jouvard, J.-M. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS-Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticles spatial localization in the plume induced by a pulsed laser. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Plasma plume obtained by laser irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particles and debris formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Powder generation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conditions of formation. - Abstract: Nanoparticles formation in a laser-induced plasma plume in the ambient air has been investigated by using numerical simulations and physical models. For high irradiances, or for ultrashort laser pulses, nanoparticles are formed by condensation, as fine powders, in the expanding plasma for very high pairs of temperature and pressure. At lower irradiances, or nanosecond laser pulses, another thermodynamic paths are possible, which cross the liquid-gas transition curve while laser is still heating the target and the induced plasma. In this work, we explore the growth of nanoparticles in the plasma plume induced by nanosecond pulsed lasers as a function of the laser irradiance. Moreover, the influence of the ambient gas has also been investigated.

  15. From shavenbaby to the naked valley: trichome formation as a model for evolutionary developmental biology. (United States)

    Arif, Saad; Kittelmann, Sebastian; McGregor, Alistair P


    Microtrichia or trichomes are non-sensory actin protrusions produced by the epidermal cells of many insects. Studies of trichome formation in Drosophila have over the last 30 years provided key insights towards our understanding of gene regulation, gene regulatory networks (GRNs), development, the genotype to phenotype map, and the evolution of these processes. Here we review classic studies that have used trichome formation as a model to shed light on Drosophila development as well as recent research on the architecture of the GRN underlying trichome formation. This includes the findings that both small peptides and microRNAs play important roles in the regulation and evolution of this network. In addition, we review research on the evolution of trichome patterns that has provided novel insights into the function and architecture of cis-regulatory modules, and into the genetic basis of morphological change. We conclude that further research on these apparently simple and often functionally enigmatic structures will continue to provide new and important knowledge about development and evolution. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A Model Formative Assessment Strategy to Promote Student-Centered Self-Regulated Learning in Higher Education (United States)

    Bose, Jayakumar; Rengel, Zed


    Adult learners are already involved in the process of self-regulation; hence, higher education institutions should focus on strengthening students' self-regulatory skills. Self-regulation can be facilitated through formative assessment. This paper proposes a model formative assessment strategy that would complement existing university teaching,…

  17. Formation of shatter cones by symmetric fracture bifurcation: Phenomenological modeling and validation (United States)

    Kenkmann, Thomas; Hergarten, Stefan; Kuhn, Thomas; Wilk, Jakob


    Several models of shatter cone formation require a heterogeneity at the cone apex of high impedance mismatch to the surrounding bulk rock. This heterogeneity is the source of spherically expanding waves that interact with the planar shock front or the following release wave. While these models are capable of explaining the overall conical shape of shatter cones, they are not capable of explaining the subcone structure and the diverging and branching striations that characterize the surface of shatter cones and lead to the so-called horse-tailing effect. Here, we use the hierarchical arrangement of subcone ridges of shatter cone surfaces as key for understanding their formation. Tracing a single subcone ridge from its apex downward reveals that each ridge branches after some distance into two symmetrically equivalent subcone ridges. This pattern is repeated to form new branches. We propose that subcone ridges represent convex-curved fracture surfaces and their intersection corresponds to the bifurcation axis. The characteristic diverging striations are interpreted as the intersection lineations delimiting each subcone. Multiple symmetric crack branching is the result of rapid fracture propagation that may approach the Raleigh wave speed. We present a phenomenological model that fully constructs the shatter cone geometry to any order. The overall cone geometry including apex angle of the enveloping cone and the degree of concavity (horse-tailing) is largely governed by the convexity of the subcone ridges. Straight cones of various apical angles, constant slope, and constant bifurcation angles form if the subcone convexity is low (30°). Increasing subcone convexity leads to a stronger horse-tailing effect and the bifurcation angles increase with increasing distance from the enveloping cone apex. The model predicts possible triples of enveloping cone angle, bifurcation angle, and subcone angle. Measurements of these quantities on four shatter cones from different

  18. Tropical Cyclone Formation in 30-day Simulation Using Cloud-System-Resolving Global Nonhydrostatic Model (NICAM) (United States)

    Yanase, W.; Satoh, M.; Iga, S.; Tomita, H.


    We are developing an icosahedral-grid non-hydrostatic AGCM, which can explicitly represent cumulus or meso-scale convection over the entire globe. We named the model NICAM (Nonhydrostatic ICosahedral Atmospheric Model). On 2005, we have performed a simulations with horizontal grid intervals of 14, 7 and 3.5 km using realistic topography and sea surface temperature in April 2004 (Miura et al., 2007; GRL). It simulated a typhoon Sudal that actually developed over the Northwestern Pacific in 2004. In the present study, the NICAM model with the horizontal grid interval of 14 km was used for perpetual July experiment with 30 forecasting days. In this simulation, several tropical cyclones formed over the wesetern and eastern North Pacific, althought the formation over the western North Pacific occured a little further north to the actually observed region. The mature tropical cyclones with intense wind speed had a structure of a cloud-free eye and eye wall. We have found that the enviromental parameters associated with the tropical cyclone genesis explain well the simulated region of tropical cyclone generation. Over the North Atlantic and eastern North Pacific, westward-moving disturbances like African wave are simulated, which seems to be related to the cyclone formation over the eastern North Pacific. On the other hand, the simulated tropical cyclones over the western North Pacifis seem to form by different factors as has been suggested by the previous studies based on observation. Although the model still has some problems and is under continuous improvement, we can discuss what dynamics is to be represented using a global high-resolution model.

  19. Formation of Behavioural Finance as the Natural Stage of the Human Model Evolution in Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Pavlovich Ivanitsky


    Full Text Available The paper presents the background analysis of the formation of human model in economics. in the conditions of the constantly performing development of the economic science until the neoclassic paradigm and its modifications. Among them is behavioural finance, which presents a special interest for modern researchers. The evolution of the model of making economically significant decisions in inter-temporal and essential dimensions is the subject matter of the research. We have shown that the concept of the economic human model itself is the multidimensional one. In parallel with the processes of economical, social and political changes and economic science development, the economic human model was becoming more complex and relevant for each period of time. In this regard, we followed the stages of defining the concept of “subject rationality”. The study determines the significant traits implemented by researchers to create a full and consistent human model. We demonstrate the gradual development of economists’ idea of different types of the motivation of economic agents. Along with the financial factors of motivation, the scientists begin to take into account non-financial ones. This approach can help researchers get more “humanistic” view at the economic human. The modern concept of the economic human with attention to its implicit restrictions is formed through the complication of requirements to the rationality and its components crystallization. In the paper, we characterize contribution of the domestic scientists to the development of new directions of economic theory. The research describes the role of different regional economic scientific schools in the process of the formation of the Russian behavioural finance school

  20. Numerical modeling of soot formation in a turbulent C2H4/air diffusion flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manedhar Reddy Busupally


    Full Text Available Soot formation in a lifted C2H4-Air turbulent diffusion flame is studied using two different paths for soot nucleation and oxidation; by a 2D axisymmetric RANS simulation using ANSYS FLUENT 15.0. The turbulence-chemistry interactions are modeled using two different approaches: steady laminar flamelet approach and flamelet-generated manifold. Chemical mechanism is represented by POLIMI to study the effect of species concentration on soot formation. P1 approximation is employed to approximate the radiative transfer equation into truncated series expansion in spherical harmonics while the weighted sum of gray gases is invoked to model the absorption coefficient while the soot model accounts for nucleation, coagulation, surface growth, and oxidation. The first route for nucleation considers acetylene concentration as a linear function of soot nucleation rate, whereas the second route considers two and three ring aromatic species as function of nucleation rate. Equilibrium-based and instantaneous approach has been used to estimate the OH concentration for soot oxidation. Lee and Fenimore-Jones soot oxidation models are studied to shed light on the effect of OH on soot oxidation. Moreover, the soot-radiation interactions are also included in terms of absorption coefficient of soot. Furthermore, the soot-turbulence interactions have been invoked using a temperature/mixture fraction-based single variable PDF. Both the turbulence-chemistry interaction models are able to accurately predict the flame liftoff height, and for accurate prediction of flame length, radiative heat loss should be accounted in an accurate way. The soot-turbulence interactions are found sensitive to the PDF used in present study.

  1. Modelling pollutant emissions in diesel engines, influence of biofuel on pollutant formation. (United States)

    Petranović, Zvonimir; Bešenić, Tibor; Vujanović, Milan; Duić, Neven


    In order to reduce the harmful effect on the environment, European Union allowed using the biofuel blends as fuel for the internal combustion engines. Experimental studies have been carried on, dealing with the biodiesel influence on the emission concentrations, showing inconclusive results. In this paper numerical model for pollutant prediction in internal combustion engines is presented. It describes the processes leading towards the pollutant emissions, such as spray particles model, fuel disintegration and evaporation model, combustion and the chemical model for pollutant formation. Presented numerical model, implemented in proprietary software FIRE ® , is able to capture chemical phenomena and to predict pollutant emission concentration trends. Using the presented model, numerical simulations of the diesel fuelled internal combustion engine have been performed, with the results validated against the experimental data. Additionally, biodiesel has been used as fuel and the levels of pollutant emissions have been compared to the diesel case. Results have shown that the biodiesel blends release lower nitrogen oxide emissions than the engines powered with the regular diesel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of solution nonideality on modeling transmembrane water transport and diffusion-limited intracellular ice formation during cryopreservation (United States)

    Zhao, Gang; Takamatsu, Hiroshi; He, Xiaoming


    A new model was developed to predict transmembrane water transport and diffusion-limited ice formation in cells during freezing without the ideal-solution assumption that has been used in previous models. The model was applied to predict cell dehydration and intracellular ice formation (IIF) during cryopreservation of mouse oocytes and bovine carotid artery endothelial cells in aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) solution with glycerol as the cryoprotectant or cryoprotective agent. A comparison of the predictions between the present model and the previously reported models indicated that the ideal-solution assumption results in under-prediction of the amount of intracellular ice at slow cooling rates (cryopreservation for practical applications.

  3. Impact of biogenic emissions on ozone formation in the Mediterranean area - a BEMA modelling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunis, P.; Cuvelier, C.


    The aim of this modelling study is to understand and quantify the influence of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions on the formation of tropospheric ozone in the Burriana area (north of Valencia) on the east coast of Spain. The mesoscale modelling system used consists of the meteorology/transport module TVM and the chemical reaction mechanism RACM. The results of the model simulations are validated and compared with the data collected during the biogenic emissions in the mediterranean area (BEMA) field campaign that took place in June 1997. Anthropogenic and biogenic emission inventories have been constructed with an hourly resolution. Averaged (over the land area and over 24 h) emission fluxes for AVOC, anthropogenic NO x , BVOC and biogenic NO x are given by 16.0, 9.9, 6.2, and 0.7 kg km -2 day -1 , respectively. The impact of biogenic emissions is investigated on peak ozone values by performing simulations with and without biogenic emissions; while keeping anthropogenic emissions constant. The impact on ozone formation is also studied in combination with some anthropogenic emissions reduction strategies, i.e. when anthropogenic VOC emissions and/or NO x emissions are reduced. A factor separation technique is applied to isolate the impact due to biogenic emissions from the overall impact due to biogenic and anthropogenic emissions together. The results indicate that the maximum impact of biogenic emissions on ozone formation represents at the most 10 ppb, while maximum ozone values are of the order of 100 ppb. At different locations the maximum impact is reached at different times of the day depending on the arrival time of the sea breeze. It is also shown that this impact does not coincide in time with the maximum simulated ozone concentrations that are reached over the day. By performing different emission reduction scenarios, BVOC impacts are found to be sensitive mainly to NO x , and not to AVOC. Finally, it is shown that amongst the various

  4. Spatial Distributions of Metal Atoms During Carbon SWNTs Formation: Measurements and Modelling (United States)

    Cau, M.; Dorval, N.; Attal-Tretout, B.; Cochon, J. L.; Loiseau, A.; Farhat, S.; Hinkov, I.; Scott, C. D.


    Experiments and modelling have been undertaken to clarify the role of metal catalysts during single-wall carbon nanotube formation. For instance, we wonder whether the metal catalyst is active as an atom, a cluster, a liquid or solid nanoparticle [1]. A reactor has been developed for synthesis by continuous CO2-laser vaporisation of a carbon-nickel-cobalt target in laminar helium flow. The laser induced fluorescence technique [2] is applied for local probing of gaseous Ni, Co and CZ species throughout the hot carbon flow of the target heated up to 3500 K. A rapid depletion of C2 in contrast to the spatial extent of metal atoms is observed in the plume (Fig. 1). This asserts that C2 condenses earlier than Ni and Co atoms.[3, 4]. The depletion is even faster when catalysts are present. It may indicate that an interaction between metal atoms and carbon dimers takes place in the gas as soon as they are expelled from the target surface. Two methods of modelling are used: a spatially I-D calculation developed originally for the arc process [5], and a zero-D time dependent calculation, solving the chemical kinetics along the streamlines [6]. The latter includes Ni cluster formation. The peak of C2 density is calculated close to the target surface where the temperature is the highest. In the hot region, C; is dominant. As the carbon products move away from the target and mix with the ambient helium, they recombine into larger clusters, as demonstrated by the peak of C5 density around 1 mm. The profile of Ni-atom density compares fairly well with the measured one (Fig. 2). The early increase is due to the drop of temperature, and the final decrease beyond 6 mm results from Ni cluster formation at the eutectic temperature (approx.1600 K).

  5. Accurate Treatment of Collisions and Water-Delivery in Models of Terrestrial Planet Formation (United States)

    Haghighipour, Nader; Maindl, Thomas; Schaefer, Christoph


    It is widely accepted that collisions among solid bodies, ignited by their interactions with planetary embryos is the key process in the formation of terrestrial planets and transport of volatiles and chemical compounds to their accretion zones. Unfortunately, due to computational complexities, these collisions are often treated in a rudimentary way. Impacts are considered to be perfectly inelastic and volatiles are considered to be fully transferred from one object to the other. This perfect-merging assumption has profound effects on the mass and composition of final planetary bodies as it grossly overestimates the masses of these objects and the amounts of volatiles and chemical elements transferred to them. It also entirely neglects collisional-loss of volatiles (e.g., water) and draws an unrealistic connection between these properties and the chemical structure of the protoplanetary disk (i.e., the location of their original carriers). We have developed a new and comprehensive methodology to simulate growth of embryos to planetary bodies where we use a combination of SPH and N-body codes to accurately model collisions as well as the transport/transfer of chemical compounds. Our methodology accounts for the loss of volatiles (e.g., ice sublimation) during the orbital evolution of their careers and accurately tracks their transfer from one body to another. Results of our simulations show that traditional N-body modeling of terrestrial planet formation overestimates the amount of the mass and water contents of the final planets by over 60% implying that not only the amount of water they suggest is far from being realistic, small planets such as Mars can also form in these simulations when collisions are treated properly. We will present details of our methodology and discuss its implications for terrestrial planet formation and water delivery to Earth.

  6. A systematics of optical model compound nucleus formation cross sections for neutrons, proton, deuteron, 3He and alpha particle incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Toru


    Simple formulae to reproduce the optical model compound nucleus formation cross sections for neutron, proton, deuteron, triton, 3 He and alpha particles are presented for target nuclei of light to medium weight mass region. (author)

  7. Analogue modelling of microcontinent formation: a case study from the Danakil Block, southern Red Sea (United States)

    Molnar, Nicolas; Cruden, Alexander; Betts, Peter


    The kinematic evolution of the Danakil Block is well constrained but the processes responsible for the formation of an isolated continental segment around 13 Ma ago with an independent pole of rotation are still matter of debate. We performed three-dimensional analogue experiments of rotational continental extension containing a pre-existing linear weakness zones in the lithospheric mantle to investigate the formation of the Red Sea, including the Danakil Block. We imposed a rotational extensional boundary condition that simulates the progressive anticlockwise rotation of the Arabian Plate with respect to the Nubia Plate over the last 13-15 Ma and we simulated the presence of a narrow thermal anomaly related to the northward channelling of Afar plume by varying the viscosity of the model lithospheric mantle. The results from experiments containing a linear zone of weakness oriented at low angles with respect to the rift axis show that early stages of deformation are characterised by the development of two rift sub-parallel compartments that delimit an intra-rift block in the vicinity of the weak lithosphere boundary zone, which are analogous to the two rift branches that confine the Danakil Block in the southern Red Sea. The imposed rotational boundary condition creates a displacement gradient along the intra-rift block and prevents the nucleation of the early rift compartments to the north of the block, enhancing the formation of an independently rotating intra-rift segment. Comparison with geodetic data supports our modelling results, which are also in agreement with the "crank-arm" model of Sichler (1980. La biellette Danakile: un modèle pour l'évolution géodynamique de l'Afar. Bull. la Société Géologique Fr. 22, 925-933). Additional analogue models of i) orthogonal extension with an identical lithospheric mantle weakness and, ii) rotational extension with a homogeneous lithosphere (i.e., no lithospheric mantle weakness) show no evidence of developing

  8. From pattern formation to material computation multi-agent modelling of physarum polycephalum

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Jeff


    This book addresses topics of mobile multi-agent systems, pattern formation, biological modelling, artificial life, unconventional computation, and robotics. The behaviour of a simple organism which is capable of remarkable biological and computational feats that seem to transcend its simple component parts is examined and modelled. In this book the following question is asked: How can something as simple as Physarum polycephalum - a giant amoeboid single-celled organism which does not possess any neural tissue, fixed skeleton or organised musculature - can approximate complex computational behaviour during its foraging, growth and adaptation of its amorphous body plan, and with such limited resources? To answer this question the same apparent limitations as faced by the organism are applied: using only simple components with local interactions. A synthesis approach is adopted and a mobile multi-agent system with very simple individual behaviours is employed. It is shown their interactions yield emergent beha...

  9. A Model of Digital Payment Infrastructure Formation and Development Under a Emerging SEPA Regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina; Damsgaard, Jan

    The Single Euro Payments Area (SEPA) is probably the most ambitious self-regulatory project aimed at creating a single integrated European digital payments market since the introduction of the Euro. SEPA aims to make EU more innovative and competitive. When considering the SEPA initiative...... and combining it with the disruptive and innovative nature the mobile phone permeates, the result is a market that is rapidly transforming from well-established into a state of flux. We build a model to understand and explain this transformation of the digital payment infrastructure. The model captures...... the formation and development of digital payment infrastructure with a particular emphasis on the regulator´s perspective. It consists of four stages characterized by slow incremental change following by short rapid bursts of discontinuity. Each stage is portrayed by its evolutionary dynamics, the nature...

  10. Interplay between social debate and propaganda in an opinion formation model (United States)

    Gimenez, M. C.; Revelli, J. A.; Lama, M. S. de la; Lopez, J. M.; Wio, H. S.


    We introduce a simple model of opinion dynamics in which a two-state agent modified Sznajd model evolves due to the simultaneous action of stochastic driving and a periodic signal. The stochastic effect mimics a social temperature, so the agents may adopt decisions in support for or against some opinion or position, according to a modified Sznajd rule with a varying probability. The external force represents a simplified picture by which society feels the influence of the external effects of propaganda. By means of Monte Carlo simulations we have shown the dynamical interplay between the social condition or mood and the external influence, finding a stochastic resonance-like phenomenon when we depict the noise-to-signal ratio as a function of the social temperature. In addition, we have also studied the effects of the system size and the external signal strength on the opinion formation dynamics.

  11. A coupled carbonation-rust formation mechanical damage model for steel corrosion in reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Huyen; Bary, B.; L'Hostis, Valerie; DeLarrard, T.


    This paper aims at presenting a strategy to simulate the corrosion of steel reinforcement due to carbonation of concrete in atmospheric environment. We propose a model coupling drying, carbonation, diffusion of oxygen, formation of rust and mechanics to describe these phenomena. The rust layer is assumed to be composed of two sub-layers with different elastic modulus. An unstable layer with a low modulus (from 0.1 to 5 GPa) is located next to the transformed medium, and another more stable one with a higher modulus (from 100 to 150 GPa) at the interface with steel reinforcement. This model is applied to a numerical meso-structure composed of 4 phases: mortar matrix, randomly distributed aggregates, steel rebar and rust layers to underline the effect of aggregates on damage initiation and corresponding crack pattern of concrete cover. (authors)

  12. Investigation of sulfate and nitrate formation on mineral dust particles by receptor modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hien, P.D.; Bac, V.T.; Thinh, N.T.H. [Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission, Hanoi (Vietnam)


    The formation of sulfate and nitrate by heterogeneous reactions of gaseous precursors on mineral dust particles was investigated using positive matrix factorization (PMF) of coarse PM10 (particulate diameters from 2.2 to 10 {mu} m) collected at urban (Hanoi) and rural (Lucnam) sites in northern Vietnam. Air samples were analyzed for ionic and elemental components using ion chromatography and proton induced X-ray emission methods. PMF revealed six similar sources/types of coarse PM10 at the two sites, namely soil dust containing nitrate and sulfate, coal fly ash from distant and local sources, soil dust containing organic matter and ammonium sulfate and marine aerosol. Traffic (road) dust was found only at the urban site. From the PMF factor models, the yields of NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} can be estimated and their possible chemical forms in different particulate types can be suggested. The yields of nitrate and sulfate formation on mineral dust particles increase with the (Ca)/(Si) ratio, which is greater in soil dust than in coal fly ash. Nitrate is bound to Ca-richest soil dust particles. Ammonium was found in dust particles containing soil organic matter, which also hold the largest amount of sulfate. The comparison of urban and rural receptor models provided synergy for the source identification and insights into the properties of mineral dust particles relevant to their interactions with acidic gases in ambient air.

  13. An integrative approach for modeling and simulation of heterocyst pattern formation in cyanobacteria filaments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Torres-Sánchez


    Full Text Available Heterocyst differentiation in cyanobacteria filaments is one of the simplest examples of cellular differentiation and pattern formation in multicellular organisms. Despite of the many experimental studies addressing the evolution and sustainment of heterocyst patterns and the knowledge of the genetic circuit underlying the behavior of single cyanobacterium under nitrogen deprivation, there is still a theoretical gap connecting these two macroscopic and microscopic processes. As an attempt to shed light on this issue, here we explore heterocyst differentiation under the paradigm of systems biology. This framework allows us to formulate the essential dynamical ingredients of the genetic circuit of a single cyanobacterium into a set of differential equations describing the time evolution of the concentrations of the relevant molecular products. As a result, we are able to study the behavior of a single cyanobacterium under different external conditions, emulating nitrogen deprivation, and simulate the dynamics of cyanobacteria filaments by coupling their respective genetic circuits via molecular diffusion. These two ingredients allow us to understand the principles by which heterocyst patterns can be generated and sustained. In particular, our results point out that, by including both diffusion and noisy external conditions in the computational model, it is possible to reproduce the main features of the formation and sustainment of heterocyst patterns in cyanobacteria filaments as observed experimentally. Finally, we discuss the validity and possible improvements of the model.

  14. An integrative approach for modeling and simulation of heterocyst pattern formation in cyanobacteria filaments. (United States)

    Torres-Sánchez, Alejandro; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Falo, Fernando


    Heterocyst differentiation in cyanobacteria filaments is one of the simplest examples of cellular differentiation and pattern formation in multicellular organisms. Despite of the many experimental studies addressing the evolution and sustainment of heterocyst patterns and the knowledge of the genetic circuit underlying the behavior of single cyanobacterium under nitrogen deprivation, there is still a theoretical gap connecting these two macroscopic and microscopic processes. As an attempt to shed light on this issue, here we explore heterocyst differentiation under the paradigm of systems biology. This framework allows us to formulate the essential dynamical ingredients of the genetic circuit of a single cyanobacterium into a set of differential equations describing the time evolution of the concentrations of the relevant molecular products. As a result, we are able to study the behavior of a single cyanobacterium under different external conditions, emulating nitrogen deprivation, and simulate the dynamics of cyanobacteria filaments by coupling their respective genetic circuits via molecular diffusion. These two ingredients allow us to understand the principles by which heterocyst patterns can be generated and sustained. In particular, our results point out that, by including both diffusion and noisy external conditions in the computational model, it is possible to reproduce the main features of the formation and sustainment of heterocyst patterns in cyanobacteria filaments as observed experimentally. Finally, we discuss the validity and possible improvements of the model.

  15. Model of two-dimensional electron gas formation at ferroelectric interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguado-Puente, P.; Bristowe, N. C.; Yin, B.; Shirasawa, R.; Ghosez, Philippe; Littlewood, P. B.; Artacho, Emilio


    The formation of a two-dimensional electron gas at oxide interfaces as a consequence of polar discontinuities has generated an enormous amount of activity due to the variety of interesting effects it gives rise to. Here, we study under what circumstances similar processes can also take place underneath ferroelectric thin films. We use a simple Landau model to demonstrate that in the absence of extrinsic screening mechanisms, a monodomain phase can be stabilized in ferroelectric films by means of an electronic reconstruction. Unlike in the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructure, the emergence with thickness of the free charge at the interface is discontinuous. This prediction is confirmed by performing first-principles simulations of free-standing slabs of PbTiO3. The model is also used to predict the response of the system to an applied electric field, demonstrating that the two-dimensional electron gas can be switched on and off discontinuously and in a nonvolatile fashion. Furthermore, the reversal of the polarization can be used to switch between a two-dimensional electron gas and a two-dimensional hole gas, which should, in principle, have very different transport properties. We discuss the possible formation of polarization domains and how such configuration competes with the spontaneous accumulation of free charge at the interfaces.

  16. Generalized additive models reveal the intrinsic complexity of wood formation dynamics. (United States)

    Cuny, Henri E; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Kiessé, Tristan Senga; Hartmann, Felix P; Barbeito, Ignacio; Fournier, Meriem


    The intra-annual dynamics of wood formation, which involves the passage of newly produced cells through three successive differentiation phases (division, enlargement, and wall thickening) to reach the final functional mature state, has traditionally been described in conifers as three delayed bell-shaped curves followed by an S-shaped curve. Here the classical view represented by the 'Gompertz function (GF) approach' was challenged using two novel approaches based on parametric generalized linear models (GLMs) and 'data-driven' generalized additive models (GAMs). These three approaches (GFs, GLMs, and GAMs) were used to describe seasonal changes in cell numbers in each of the xylem differentiation phases and to calculate the timing of cell development in three conifer species [Picea abies (L.), Pinus sylvestris L., and Abies alba Mill.]. GAMs outperformed GFs and GLMs in describing intra-annual wood formation dynamics, showing two left-skewed bell-shaped curves for division and enlargement, and a right-skewed bimodal curve for thickening. Cell residence times progressively decreased through the season for enlargement, whilst increasing late but rapidly for thickening. These patterns match changes in cell anatomical features within a tree ring, which allows the separation of earlywood and latewood into two distinct cell populations. A novel statistical approach is presented which renews our understanding of xylogenesis, a dynamic biological process in which the rate of cell production interplays with cell residence times in each developmental phase to create complex seasonal patterns.

  17. Mechanistic Model for Ash Deposit Formation in Biomass Suspension-Fired Boilers. Part 2: Model Verification by Use of Full Scale Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Broholm; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming


    A model for deposit formation in suspension firing of biomass has been developed. The model describes deposit build-up by diffusion and subsequent condensation of vapors, thermoforesis of aerosols, convective diffusion of small particles, impaction of large particles and reaction. The model...... of some physical parameters related to the description of surface capture are suggested. Based on these examinations of the model ability to describe observed deposit formation rates, the proposed model can be regarded as a promising tool for description of deposit formation in full-scale biomass...... describes particle sticking or rebound by a combination of the description of (visco)elsatic particles impacting a solid surface and particle capture by a viscous surface. The model is used to predict deposit formation rates measured during tests conducted with probes in full-scale suspension-fired biomass...

  18. Evaluation of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Formation and Diversity in a Modified Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (United States)

    Zeng, X.; Shao, P.; Song, X.


    Terrestrial ecosystem formation and diversity have great impact on the stability and frangibility of ecosystem. It is important that Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) can capture these essential properties so that they can correctly simulate the succession and transition of terrestrial ecosystem in company with the global climate change. Previous studies have shown that DGVMs can roughly reproduce the spatial distributions of different vegetation types as well as the dependence of the vegetation distribution on climate conditions, however, the capability of DGVMs to reproduce the global vegetation distribution and ecosystem formation has not been fully evaluated. This study is based on our modified DGVM coupled with the Community Land Model (CLM-DGVM). The modified CLM-DGVM can simulate 12 plant functional types (PFTs) besides the bare soil. It allows two or more PFTs coexisting in a grid cell, in contrast to the DGVMs which tend to generate the ecosystem with single dominant plant functional type and hence lose the functional diversity of ecosystem. Our results show that the density distributions of fractional coverage (DDFC) of three vegetation categories (e.g., forest, grassland, and shrubland) and PFTs are different with the observation. In particular, the model overestimates the DDFC over regions with tree coverage larger than 70%, but underestimates the DDFC over regions with tree coverage less than 40%. Furthermore, the functional diversity of PFTs in each gridcell is generally lower than that in the observation. Sensitivity tests show that substantial changes in the terrestrial ecosystem usually occur within the areas where two or more PFTs coexist with comparable fractions, i.e., and the functional diversity is high. These results imply that current CLM-DGVM may not be able to appropriately produce the averaged amplitude and spatial pattern of the transition in global ecosystem. Therefore, we suggest that extensive studies are required to improve

  19. The Red MSX Source survey: critical tests of accretion models for the formation of massive stars (United States)

    Davies, Ben; Hoare, Melvin G.; Lumsden, Stuart L.; Hosokawa, Takashi; Oudmaijer, René D.; Urquhart, James S.; Mottram, Joseph C.; Stead, Joseph


    There is currently no accepted theoretical framework for the formation of the most massive stars, and the manner in which protostars continue to accrete and grow in mass beyond ˜10 M⊙ is still a controversial topic. In this study we use several prescriptions of stellar accretion and a description of the Galactic gas distribution to simulate the luminosities and spatial distribution of massive protostellar population of the Galaxy. We then compare the observables of each simulation to the results of the Red MSX Source (RMS) survey, a recently compiled data base of massive young stellar objects (YSO). We find that the observations are best matched by accretion rates which increase as the protostar grows in mass, such as those predicted by the turbulent core and competitive accretion (i.e. Bondi-Hoyle) models. These 'accelerating accretion' models provide very good qualitative and quantitative fits to the data, though we are unable to distinguish between these two models on our simulations alone. We rule out models with accretion rates which are constant with time, and those which are initially very high and which fall away with time, as these produce results which are quantitatively and/or qualitatively incompatible with the observations. To simultaneously match the low- and high-luminosity YSO distribution we require the inclusion of a 'swollen-star' pre-main-sequence phase, the length of which is well-described by the Kelvin-Helmholz time-scale. Our results suggest that the lifetime of the YSO phase is ˜105 yr, whereas the compact H II region phase lasts between ˜2 and 4 × 105 yr depending on the final mass of the star. Finally, the absolute numbers of YSOs are best matched by a globally averaged star formation rate for the Galaxy of 1.5-2 M⊙.

  20. Deleterious Effects of Intermittent Recombinant Parathyroid Hormone on Cartilage Formation in a Rabbit Microfracture Model: a Preliminary Study


    Feeley, Brian T.; Doty, Steven B.; Devcic, Zlatko; Warren, Russell F.; Lane, Joseph M.


    Intermittent parathyroid hormone administration can enhance fracture healing in an animal model. Despite the success of exogenous parathyroid hormone on fracture healing and spine fusion, few studies have examined the role of parathyroid hormone on cartilage formation. We determined the effects of intermittent parathyroid hormone on cartilage formation in a rabbit microfracture model of cartilage regeneration. Twelve rabbits were divided into three equal groups: (1) microfracture alone, (2) m...

  1. Moist Thermodynamics of Tropical Cyclone Formation and Intensification in High-Resolution Climate Models (United States)

    Wing, A. A.; Camargo, S. J.; Sobel, A. H.; Kim, D.; Moon, Y.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Murakami, H.; Reed, K. A.; Vecchi, G. A.; Wehner, M. F.; Zarzycki, C. M.; Zhao, M.


    In recent years, climate models have improved such that high-resolution simulations are able to reproduce the climatology of tropical cyclone activity with some fidelity and show some skill in seasonal forecasting. However, biases remain in many models, motivating a better understanding of what factors control the representation of tropical cyclone activity in climate models. We explore tropical cyclogenesis and intensification processes in six high-resolution climate models from NOAA/GFDL, NCAR, and NASA, including both coupled and uncoupled configurations. Our analysis framework focuses on how convection, moisture, clouds and related processes are coupled and employs budgets of column moist static energy and the spatial variance of column moist static energy. The latter allows us to quantify the different feedback processes responsible for the amplification of moist static energy anomalies associated with the organization of convection and cyclogenesis, including surface flux feedbacks and cloud-radiative feedbacks. We track the formation and evolution of tropical cyclones in the climate model simulations and apply our analysis along the individual tracks and composited over many tropical cyclones. We use two methods of compositing: a composite over all TC track points in a given intensity range, and a composite relative to the time of lifetime maximum intensity for each storm (at the same stage in the TC life cycle).

  2. Formation and reduction of carcinogenic furan in various model systems containing food additives. (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Sil; Her, Jae-Young; Lee, Kwang-Geun


    The aim of this study was to analyse and reduce furan in various model systems. Furan model systems consisting of monosaccharides (0.5M glucose and ribose), amino acids (0.5M alanine and serine) and/or 1.0M ascorbic acid were heated at 121°C for 25 min. The effects of food additives (each 0.1M) such as metal ions (iron sulphate, magnesium sulphate, zinc sulphate and calcium sulphate), antioxidants (BHT and BHA), and sodium sulphite on the formation of furan were measured. The level of furan formed in the model systems was 6.8-527.3 ng/ml. The level of furan in the model systems of glucose/serine and glucose/alanine increased 7-674% when food additives were added. In contrast, the level of furan decreased by 18-51% in the Maillard reaction model systems that included ribose and alanine/serine with food additives except zinc sulphate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Model of Formation of Professional Competence of Future Software Engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Sedov


    Full Text Available The rapid technological development of modern society fundamentally changes processes of production, communication and services. There is a great demand for specialists who are competent in recently emerged industries. Moreover, the gap between scientific invention and its wide distribution and consumption has significantly reduced. Therefore, we face an urgent need for preparation of specialists in higher education that meet the requirements of modern society and labour market. Particularly relevant is the issue of training of future software engineers in the system of master’s degree, which is the level of education that trains not only professionals, but also scientists and university teachers. The article presents a developed model of formation of professional competence of future software engineers in the system of master’s degree. The model comprises units of training of future software engineers, identifies methodological approaches, a number of general didactic and methodological principles that underpin learning processes in higher education. It describes methods, forms of organization and means that are used in the system of master’s degree, and also provides pedagogical conditions of effective implementation of the model. The developed model addresses the issue of individualization, intensification and optimization of studying. While developing the model, special attention was paid to updating the content of education and searching for new organizational forms of training of future software engineers.

  4. Geo3DML: A standard-based exchange format for 3D geological models (United States)

    Wang, Zhangang; Qu, Honggang; Wu, Zixing; Wang, Xianghong


    A geological model (geomodel) in three-dimensional (3D) space is a digital representation of the Earth's subsurface, recognized by geologists and stored in resultant geological data (geodata). The increasing demand for data management and interoperable applications of geomodelscan be addressed by developing standard-based exchange formats for the representation of not only a single geological object, but also holistic geomodels. However, current standards such as GeoSciML cannot incorporate all the geomodel-related information. This paper presents Geo3DML for the exchange of 3D geomodels based on the existing Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. Geo3DML is based on a unified and formal representation of structural models, attribute models and hierarchical structures of interpreted resultant geodata in different dimensional views, including drills, cross-sections/geomaps and 3D models, which is compatible with the conceptual model of GeoSciML. Geo3DML aims to encode all geomodel-related information integrally in one framework, including the semantic and geometric information of geoobjects and their relationships, as well as visual information. At present, Geo3DML and some supporting tools have been released as a data-exchange standard by the China Geological Survey (CGS).

  5. Modeling the methane hydrate formation in an aqueous film submitted to steady cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avendano-Gomez, J.R. [ESIQIE, Laboratorio de Ingenieria Quimica Ambiental, Mexico (Mexico). Inst. Politecnico Nacional; Garcia-Sanchez, F. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica, Mexico (Mexico). Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo; Gurrola, D.V. [UPIBI, Laboratorio de Diseno de Plantas, Mexico (Mexico). Inst. Politecnico Nacional


    Gas hydrates, or clathrate hydrates, are ice-like compounds that results from the kinetic process of crystallization of an aqueous solution supersaturated with a dissolved gas. This paper presented a model that took into account two factors involved in the hydrate crystallization, notably the stochastic nature of crystallization that causes sub-cooling and the heat resulting from the exothermic enthalpy of hydrate formation. The purpose of this study was to model the thermal evolution inside a hydrate forming system which was submitted to an imposed steady cooling. The study system was a cylindrical thin film of aqueous solution at 19 Mpa. The study involved using methane as the hydrate forming molecule. It was assumed that methane was homogeneously dissolved in the aqueous phase. Ethane hydrate was formed through a kinetic process of nucleation and crystallization. In order to predict the onset time of nucleation, the induction time needed to be considered. This paper discussed the probability of nucleation as well as the estimation of the rate of nucleation. It also presented the mathematical model and boundary conditions. These included assumptions and derivation of the model; boundary conditions; initial conditions; and numerical solution of the model equation. It was concluded that the heat source must be considered when investigating crystallization effects. 34 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  6. Ice formation and development in aged, wintertime cumulus over the UK : observations and modelling (United States)

    Crawford, I.; Bower, K. N.; Choularton, T. W.; Dearden, C.; Crosier, J.; Westbrook, C.; Capes, G.; Coe, H.; Connolly, P.; Dorsey, J. R.; Gallagher, M. W.; Williams, P.; Trembath, J.; Cui, Z.; Blyth, A.


    In-situ high resolution aircraft measurements of cloud microphysical properties were made in coordination with ground based remote sensing observations of Radar and Lidar as part of the Aerosol Properties, PRocesses And InfluenceS on the Earth's climate (APPRAISE) project. A narrow but extensive line (~100 km long) of shallow convective clouds over the southern UK was studied. Cloud top temperatures were observed to be higher than ~-8 °C, but the clouds were seen to consist of supercooled droplets and varying concentrations of ice particles. No ice particles were observed to be falling into the cloud tops from above. Current parameterisations of ice nuclei (IN) numbers predict too few particles will be active as ice nuclei to account for ice particle concentrations at the observed near cloud top temperatures (~-7 °C). The role of biological particles, consistent with concentrations observed near the surface, acting as potential efficient high temperature IN is considered important in this case. It was found that very high concentrations of ice particles (up to 100 L-1) could be produced by powerful secondary ice particle production emphasising the importance of understanding primary ice formation in slightly supercooled clouds. Aircraft penetrations at -3.5 °C, showed peak ice crystal concentrations of up to 100 L-1 which together with the characteristic ice crystal habits observed (generally rimed ice particles and columns) suggested secondary ice production had occurred. To investigate whether the Hallett-Mossop (HM) secondary ice production process could account for these observations, ice splinter production rates were calculated. These calculated rates and observations could only be reconciled provided the constraint that only droplets >24 μm in diameter could lead to splinter production, was relaxed slightly by 2 μm. Model simulations of the case study were also performed with the WRF (Weather, Research and Forecasting) model and ACPIM (Aerosol Cloud and

  7. ART-ML - a novel XML format for the biological procedures modeling and the representation of blood flow simulation. (United States)

    Karvounis, E C; Tsakanikas, V D; Fotiou, E; Fotiadis, D I


    The paper proposes a novel Extensible Markup Language (XML) based format called ART-ML that aims at supporting the interoperability and the reuse of models of blood flow, mass transport and plaque formation, exported by ARTool. ARTool is a platform for the automatic processing of various image modalities of coronary and carotid arteries. The images and their content are fused to develop morphological models of the arteries in easy to handle 3D representations. The platform incorporates efficient algorithms which are able to perform blood flow simulation. In addition atherosclerotic plaque development is estimated taking into account morphological, flow and genetic factors. ART-ML provides a XML format that enables the representation and management of embedded models within the ARTool platform and the storage and interchange of well-defined information. This approach influences in the model creation, model exchange, model reuse and result evaluation.

  8. Is Cass's Model of Homosexual Identity Formation Relevant to Today's Society? (United States)

    Kenneady, Donna Ann; Oswalt, Sara B.


    Cass's Homosexual Identity Formation Model (1979) is one of the most well-known and well-referenced models of identity development for gay males and lesbians. This article provides a review of Cass's six steps of the model, as well as research support for and critiques of the model. As the model was developed more than 30 years ago, the…

  9. Thermodynamic analysis and kinetic modelling of dioxin formation and emissions from power boilers firing salt-laden hog fuel. (United States)

    Duo, Wenli; Leclerc, Denys


    Both organic chlorine (e.g. PVC) and inorganic chlorides (e.g. NaCl) can be significant chlorine sources for dioxin and furan (PCDD/F) formation in combustion processes. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of high temperature salt chemistry. Its influence on PCDD/F formation in power boilers burning salt-laden wood waste is examined through the relationships between Cl2, HCl, NaCl(g) and NaCl(c). These analyses show that while HCl is a product of combustion of PVC-laden municipal solid waste, NaCl can be converted to HCl in hog fuel boilers by reactions with SO2 or alumino-silicate materials. Cl2 is a strong chlorinating agent for PCDD/F formation. HCl can be oxidized to Cl2 by O2, and Cl2 can be reduced back to HCl by SO2. The presence of sulphur at low concentrations thus enhances PCDD/F formation by increasing HCl concentrations. At high concentrations, sulphur inhibits de novo formation of PCDD/Fs through Cl2 reduction by excess SO2. The effect of NH3, CO and NOx on PCDD/F formation is also discussed. A semi-empirical kinetic model is proposed. This model considers both precursor and de novo formation mechanisms. A simplified version is used as a stack emission model. The kinetic model indicates that stack dioxin emissions will increase linearly with decreasing electrostatic precipitator (ESP) efficiency and exponentially with increasing ESP temperature.

  10. Aperiodic dynamics in a deterministic adaptive network model of attitude formation in social groups (United States)

    Ward, Jonathan A.; Grindrod, Peter


    Adaptive network models, in which node states and network topology coevolve, arise naturally in models of social dynamics that incorporate homophily and social influence. Homophily relates the similarity between pairs of nodes' states to their network coupling strength, whilst social influence causes coupled nodes' states to convergence. In this paper we propose a deterministic adaptive network model of attitude formation in social groups that includes these effects, and in which the attitudinal dynamics are represented by an activato-inhibitor process. We illustrate that consensus, corresponding to all nodes adopting the same attitudinal state and being fully connected, may destabilise via Turing instability, giving rise to aperiodic dynamics with sensitive dependence on initial conditions. These aperiodic dynamics correspond to the formation and dissolution of sub-groups that adopt contrasting attitudes. We discuss our findings in the context of cultural polarisation phenomena. Social influence. This reflects the fact that people tend to modify their behaviour and attitudes in response to the opinions of others [22-26]. We model social influence via diffusion: agents adjust their state according to a weighted sum (dictated by the evolving network) of the differences between their state and the states of their neighbours. Homophily. This relates the similarity of individuals' states to their frequency and strength of interaction [27]. Thus in our model, homophily drives the evolution of the weighted ‘social' network. A precise formulation of our model is given in Section 2. Social influence and homophily underpin models of social dynamics [21], which cover a wide range of sociological phenomena, including the diffusion of innovations [28-32], complex contagions [33-36], collective action [37-39], opinion dynamics [19,20,40,10,11,13,15,41,16], the emergence of social norms [42-44], group stability [45], social differentiation [46] and, of particular relevance

  11. Optimised formation of blue Maillard reaction products of xylose and glycine model systems and associated antioxidant activity. (United States)

    Yin, Zi; Sun, Qian; Zhang, Xi; Jing, Hao


    A blue colour can be formed in the xylose (Xyl) and glycine (Gly) Maillard reaction (MR) model system. However, there are fewer studies on the reaction conditions for the blue Maillard reaction products (MRPs). The objective of this study is to investigate characteristic colour formation and antioxidant activities in four different MR model systems and to determine the optimum reaction conditions for the blue colour formation in a Xyl-Gly MR model system, using the random centroid optimisation program. The blue colour with an absorbance peak at 630 nm appeared before browning in the Xyl-Gly MR model system, while no blue colour formation but only browning was observed in the xylose-alanine, xylose-aspartic acid and glucose-glycine MR model systems. The Xyl-Gly MR model system also showed higher antioxidant activity than the other three model systems. The optimum conditions for blue colour formation were as follows: xylose and glycine ratio 1:0.16 (M:M), 0.20 mol L⁻¹ NaHCO₃, 406.1 mL L⁻¹ ethanol, initial pH 8.63, 33.7°C for 22.06 h, which gave a much brighter blue colour and a higher peak at 630 nm. A characteristic blue colour could be formed in the Xyl-Gly MR model system and the optimum conditions for the blue colour formation were proposed and confirmed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. A Unified Model for Methylmercury Formation and Bioaccumulation in the Global Ocean (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Schartup, A. T.; Soerensen, A.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Sunderland, E. M.


    Marine fish consumption is the main exposure pathway for methylmercury (MeHg), a neurotoxin, in many countries. The Hg in the ocean is mainly from atmospheric deposition in inorganic forms. How the deposited Hg is methylated and accumulated in biota remain an open question. We develop a 3D model (MITgcm) for MeHg formation and bioaccumulation in the global ocean and evaluate the driving factors. The model is based on a previous published inorganic Hg model and is coupled with the bioaccumulation model for marine methylmercury (BAM3) with ocean biogeochemistry from DARWIN model. We develop a unified scheme that scales methylation by microbe activity and assumes demethylation a function of short wave radiation and temperature. The model result agrees well with currently available observations at the 0-100 m (mod.: 43±52 fM vs obs.: 69±67 fM, 1 fM = 10-15 mol/L), 500 m (360±280 fM vs 340±260 fM), and 1000 m depth (260±170 fM vs 290±210 fM). In the surface ocean, we find the MeHg concentrations are a function of latitude, resulting from photodemethylation. The model reproduces the high concentrations observed over the sub-thermocline of Pacific Subarctic Gyre, which is associated with active microbe activity. On the other hand, both the model and observations suggest low concentrations over oligotrophic regions such as Indian Ocean Gyre. In the tropical oceans, the model predicts the highest MeHg concentrations, consistent with observation, and it is caused by the overlapping high atmospheric deposition and active microbe activities. The model captures the high concentrations in the subsurface of the Arctic and Southern Ocean where low temperature slows down abiotic demethylation. The modeled global average MeHg concentration in phytoplankton is 2.0 ng/g (by wet weight), within the same range of observations. High concentrations are modeled over tropical and high-latitude regions due to the dominance of small sized prochlorococcus and high seawater concentrations

  13. Aspects of modeling regarding the contribution of nitrogen to the formation of grape yields (United States)

    Blidariu, Cosmin; Boldea, Marius; Sala, Florin


    The research focused on determining the influence of organic fertilization equivalent to 150, 200 and 250 kg ha-1 nitrogen, on the productivity indices that participate in the formation of the grape yield: grape berry weight, number of grape berries, rachis weight. Quality indices of grapes were also analyzed: structure index, berry index, as well as yield quality, through dry matter. The distribution analysis of the experimental data revealed that production increase dy/dx increases dramatically with the total fertilizer dose (x + x0), it being proportional to the saturation deficit (a-y), where a is the biologically maximum yield (asymptote). Constants a, b and x0 for each parameter were determined by confrontation with the experimental data, through the least square method, and they were used in modeling the contribution of nitrogen to the formation of grape yields. Although the equivalent quantity of nitrogen in the soil is 150 units, its use is different in the proposed model, depending on the parameter under study. When the focus is on grape berry weight, the enhancement of this parameter is at the level of 97 units, whereas the enhancement of dry matter is 300 units. Analysis of the experimental data revealed that productive parameters are in positive correlation with different intensity levels. Regression analysis, Stuart, A., 1987, facilitated prediction models for the productive characters under study, with high to very high degree of certainty ((Gb = f(Nb):r2 = 0.880;p<0.01;Gs = f(NrB):r2 = 0.852;p<0.01).

  14. Modelling formation of new radiation belts and response to ULF oscillations following March 24, 1991 SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, M.K.; Kotelnikov, A.D.; Li, X.; Lyon, J.G.; Roth, I.; Temerin, M.; Wygant, J.R.; Blake, J.B.; Gussenhoven, M.S.; Yumoto, K.; Shiokawa, K.


    The rapid formation of a new proton radiation belt at L≅2.5 following the March 24, 1991 Storm Sudden Commencement (SSC) observed at the CRRES satellite is modelled using a relativistic guiding center test particle code. The new radiation belt formed on a time scale shorter than the drift period of eg. 20 MeV protons. The SSC is modelled by a bipolar electric field and associated compression and relaxation in the magnetic field, superimposed on a background dipole magnetic field. The source population consists of solar protons that populated the outer magnetosphere during the solar proton event that preceeded the SSC and trapped inner zone protons. The simulations show that both populations contribute to drift echoes in the 20 endash 80 MeV range measured by the Aerospace instrument and in lower energy channels of the Protel instrument on CRRES, while primary contribution to the newly trapped population is from solar protons. Proton acceleration by the SSC differs from electron acceleration in two notable ways: different source populations contribute and nonrelativistic conservation of the first adiabatic invariant leads to greater energization of protons for a given decrease in L than for relativistic electrons. Model drift echoes, energy spectra and flux distribution in L at the time of injection compare well with CRRES observations. On the outbound pass, ∼2 hours after the SSC, the broad spectral peak of the new radiation belt extends to higher energies (20 endash 40 MeV) than immediately after formation. Electron flux oscillations observed at this later time are attributed to post-SSC impulses evident in ground magnetograms, while two minute period ULF oscillations also evident in CRRES field data appear to be cavity modes in the inner magnetosphere. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  15. How To Model Supernovae in Simulations of Star and Galaxy Formation (United States)

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Wetzel, Andrew; Kereš, Dušan; Faucher-Giguére, Claude-André; Quataert, Eliot; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Murray, Norman; Hayward, Christopher C.; El-Badry, Kareem


    We study the implementation of mechanical feedback from supernovae (SNe) and stellar mass loss in galaxy simulations, within the Feedback In Realistic Environments (FIRE) project. We present the FIRE-2 algorithm for coupling mechanical feedback, which can be applied to any hydrodynamics method (e.g. fixed-grid, moving-mesh, and mesh-less methods), and black hole as well as stellar feedback. This algorithm ensures manifest conservation of mass, energy, and momentum, and avoids imprinting "preferred directions" on the ejecta. We show that it is critical to incorporate both momentum and thermal energy of mechanical ejecta in a self-consistent manner, accounting for SNe cooling radii when they are not resolved. Using idealized simulations of single SN explosions, we show that the FIRE-2 algorithm, independent of resolution, reproduces converged solutions in both energy and momentum. In contrast, common "fully-thermal" (energy-dump) or "fully-kinetic" (particle-kicking) schemes in the literature depend strongly on resolution: when applied at mass resolution ≳ 100 M⊙, they diverge by orders-of-magnitude from the converged solution. In galaxy-formation simulations, this divergence leads to orders-of-magnitude differences in galaxy properties, unless those models are adjusted in a resolution-dependent way. We show that all models that individually time-resolve SNe converge to the FIRE-2 solution at sufficiently high resolution (simulations and cosmological galaxy-formation simulations, the FIRE-2 algorithm converges much faster than other sub-grid models without re-tuning parameters.

  16. An LES-PBE-PDF approach for modeling particle formation in turbulent reacting flows (United States)

    Sewerin, Fabian; Rigopoulos, Stelios


    Many chemical and environmental processes involve the formation of a polydispersed particulate phase in a turbulent carrier flow. Frequently, the immersed particles are characterized by an intrinsic property such as the particle size, and the distribution of this property across a sample population is taken as an indicator for the quality of the particulate product or its environmental impact. In the present article, we propose a comprehensive model and an efficient numerical solution scheme for predicting the evolution of the property distribution associated with a polydispersed particulate phase forming in a turbulent reacting flow. Here, the particulate phase is described in terms of the particle number density whose evolution in both physical and particle property space is governed by the population balance equation (PBE). Based on the concept of large eddy simulation (LES), we augment the existing LES-transported probability density function (PDF) approach for fluid phase scalars by the particle number density and obtain a modeled evolution equation for the filtered PDF associated with the instantaneous fluid composition and particle property distribution. This LES-PBE-PDF approach allows us to predict the LES-filtered fluid composition and particle property distribution at each spatial location and point in time without any restriction on the chemical or particle formation kinetics. In view of a numerical solution, we apply the method of Eulerian stochastic fields, invoking an explicit adaptive grid technique in order to discretize the stochastic field equation for the number density in particle property space. In this way, sharp moving features of the particle property distribution can be accurately resolved at a significantly reduced computational cost. As a test case, we consider the condensation of an aerosol in a developed turbulent mixing layer. Our investigation not only demonstrates the predictive capabilities of the LES-PBE-PDF model but also


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Andrés N.; Domínguez, Mariano J.; Yaryura, Yamila; Lambas, Diego García; Cora, Sofía A.; Martínez, Cristian A. Vega-; Gargiulo, Ignacio D.; Padilla, Nelson D.; Tecce, Tomás E.; Orsi, Álvaro; Arancibia, Alejandra M. Muñoz


    We present a fast and accurate method to select an optimal set of parameters in semi-analytic models of galaxy formation and evolution (SAMs). Our approach compares the results of a model against a set of observables applying a stochastic technique called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), a self-learning algorithm for localizing regions of maximum likelihood in multidimensional spaces that outperforms traditional sampling methods in terms of computational cost. We apply the PSO technique to the SAG semi-analytic model combined with merger trees extracted from a standard Lambda Cold Dark Matter N-body simulation. The calibration is performed using a combination of observed galaxy properties as constraints, including the local stellar mass function and the black hole to bulge mass relation. We test the ability of the PSO algorithm to find the best set of free parameters of the model by comparing the results with those obtained using a MCMC exploration. Both methods find the same maximum likelihood region, however, the PSO method requires one order of magnitude fewer evaluations. This new approach allows a fast estimation of the best-fitting parameter set in multidimensional spaces, providing a practical tool to test the consequences of including other astrophysical processes in SAMs


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasser, R.; Ida, S. [Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Matsumura, S. [School of Science and Engineering, Division of Physics, Fulton Building, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Mojzsis, S. J. [Collaborative for Research in Origins (CRiO), Department of Geological Sciences, University of Colorado, UCB 399, 2200 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0399 (United States); Werner, S. C. [The Centre for Earth Evolution and Dynamics, University of Oslo, Sem Saelandsvei 24, NO-0371 Oslo (Norway)


    The Grand Tack model of terrestrial planet formation has emerged in recent years as the premier scenario used to account for several observed features of the inner solar system. It relies on the early migration of the giant planets to gravitationally sculpt and mix the planetesimal disk down to ∼1 au, after which the terrestrial planets accrete from material remaining in a narrow circumsolar annulus. Here, we investigate how the model fares under a range of initial conditions and migration course-change (“tack”) locations. We run a large number of N-body simulations with tack locations of 1.5 and 2 au and test initial conditions using equal-mass planetary embryos and a semi-analytical approach to oligarchic growth. We make use of a recent model of the protosolar disk that takes into account viscous heating, includes the full effect of type 1 migration, and employs a realistic mass–radius relation for the growing terrestrial planets. Our results show that the canonical tack location of Jupiter at 1.5 au is inconsistent with the most massive planet residing at 1 au at greater than 95% confidence. This favors a tack farther out at 2 au for the disk model and parameters employed. Of the different initial conditions, we find that the oligarchic case is capable of statistically reproducing the orbital architecture and mass distribution of the terrestrial planets, while the equal-mass embryo case is not.

  19. Characterization of Flame Cut Heavy Steel: Modeling of Temperature History and Residual Stress Formation (United States)

    Jokiaho, T.; Laitinen, A.; Santa-aho, S.; Isakov, M.; Peura, P.; Saarinen, T.; Lehtovaara, A.; Vippola, M.


    Heavy steel plates are used in demanding applications that require both high strength and hardness. An important step in the production of such components is cutting the plates with a cost-effective thermal cutting method such as flame cutting. Flame cutting is performed with a controlled flame and oxygen jet, which burns the steel and forms a cutting edge. However, the thermal cutting of heavy steel plates causes several problems. A heat-affected zone (HAZ) is generated at the cut edge due to the steep temperature gradient. Consequently, volume changes, hardness variations, and microstructural changes occur in the HAZ. In addition, residual stresses are formed at the cut edge during the process. In the worst case, unsuitable flame cutting practices generate cracks at the cut edge. The flame cutting of thick steel plate was modeled using the commercial finite element software ABAQUS. The results of modeling were verified by X-ray diffraction-based residual stress measurements and microstructural analysis. The model provides several outcomes, such as obtaining more information related to the formation of residual stresses and the temperature history during the flame cutting process. In addition, an extensive series of flame cut samples was designed with the assistance of the model.

  20. Conceptual model for transport processes in the Culebra Dolomite Member, Rustler Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, R.M. [Holt Hydrogeology, Placitas, NM (United States)


    The Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation represents a possible pathway for contaminants from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant underground repository to the accessible environment. The geologic character of the Culebra is consistent with a double-porosity, multiple-rate model for transport in which the medium is conceptualized as consisting of advective porosity, where solutes are carried by the groundwater flow, and fracture-bounded zones of diffusive porosity, where solutes move through slow advection or diffusion. As the advective travel length or travel time increases, the nature of transport within a double-porosity medium changes. This behavior is important for chemical sorption, because the specific surface area per unit mass of the diffusive porosity is much greater than in the advective porosity. Culebra transport experiments conducted at two different length scales show behavior consistent with a multiple-rate, double-porosity conceptual model for Culebra transport. Tracer tests conducted on intact core samples from the Culebra show no evidence of significant diffusion, suggesting that at the core scale the Culebra can be modeled as a single-porosity medium where only the advective porosity participates in transport. Field tracer tests conducted in the Culebra show strong double-porosity behavior that is best explained using a multiple-rate model.

  1. Quantum chemical studies of a model for peptide bond formation. 3. Role of magnesium cation in formation of amide and water from ammonia and glycine (United States)

    Oie, T.; Loew, G. H.; Burt, S. K.; MacElroy, R. D.


    The SN2 reaction between glycine and ammonia molecules with magnesium cation Mg2+ as a catalyst has been studied as a model reaction for Mg(2+)-catalyzed peptide bond formation using the ab initio Hartree-Fock molecular orbital method. As in previous studies of the uncatalyzed and amine-catalyzed reactions between glycine and ammonia, two reaction mechanisms have been examined, i.e., a two-step and a concerted reaction. The stationary points of each reaction including intermediate and transition states have been identified and free energies calculated for all geometry-optimized reaction species to determine the thermodynamics and kinetics of each reaction. Substantial decreases in free energies of activation were found for both reaction mechanisms in the Mg(2+)-catalyzed amide bond formation compared with those in the uncatalyzed and amine-catalyzed amide bond formation. The catalytic effect of the Mg2+ cation is to stabilize both the transition states and intermediate, and it is attributed to the neutralization of the developing negative charge on the electrophile and formation of a conformationally flexible nonplanar five-membered chelate ring structure.

  2. Disappearing scales in carps: re-visiting Kirpichnikov's model on the genetics of scale pattern formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Casas

    Full Text Available The body of most fishes is fully covered by scales that typically form tight, partially overlapping rows. While some of the genes controlling the formation and growth of fish scales have been studied, very little is known about the genetic mechanisms regulating scale pattern formation. Although the existence of two genes with two pairs of alleles (S&s and N&n regulating scale coverage in cyprinids has been predicted by Kirpichnikov and colleagues nearly eighty years ago, their identity was unknown until recently. In 2009, the 'S' gene was found to be a paralog of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, fgfr1a1, while the second gene called 'N' has not yet been identified. We re-visited the original model of Kirpichnikov that proposed four major scale pattern types and observed a high degree of variation within the so-called scattered phenotype due to which this group was divided into two sub-types: classical mirror and irregular. We also analyzed the survival rates of offspring groups and found a distinct difference between Asian and European crosses. Whereas nude × nude crosses involving at least one parent of Asian origin or hybrid with Asian parent(s showed the 25% early lethality predicted by Kirpichnikov (due to the lethality of the NN genotype, those with two Hungarian nude parents did not. We further extended Kirpichnikov's work by correlating changes in phenotype (scale-pattern to the deformations of fins and losses of pharyngeal teeth. We observed phenotypic changes which were not restricted to nudes, as described by Kirpichnikov, but were also present in mirrors (and presumably in linears as well; not analyzed in detail here. We propose that the gradation of phenotypes observed within the scattered group is caused by a gradually decreasing level of signaling (a dose-dependent effect probably due to a concerted action of multiple pathways involved in scale formation.

  3. Disappearing scales in carps: Re-visiting Kirpichnikov's model on the genetics of scale pattern formation

    KAUST Repository

    Casas, Laura


    The body of most fishes is fully covered by scales that typically form tight, partially overlapping rows. While some of the genes controlling the formation and growth of fish scales have been studied, very little is known about the genetic mechanisms regulating scale pattern formation. Although the existence of two genes with two pairs of alleles (S&s and N&n) regulating scale coverage in cyprinids has been predicted by Kirpichnikov and colleagues nearly eighty years ago, their identity was unknown until recently. In 2009, the \\'S\\' gene was found to be a paralog of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, fgfr1a1, while the second gene called \\'N\\' has not yet been identified. We re-visited the original model of Kirpichnikov that proposed four major scale pattern types and observed a high degree of variation within the so-called scattered phenotype due to which this group was divided into two sub-types: classical mirror and irregular. We also analyzed the survival rates of offspring groups and found a distinct difference between Asian and European crosses. Whereas nude x nude crosses involving at least one parent of Asian origin or hybrid with Asian parent(s) showed the 25% early lethality predicted by Kirpichnikov (due to the lethality of the NN genotype), those with two Hungarian nude parents did not. We further extended Kirpichnikov\\'s work by correlating changes in phenotype (scale-pattern) to the deformations of fins and losses of pharyngeal teeth. We observed phenotypic changes which were not restricted to nudes, as described by Kirpichnikov, but were also present in mirrors (and presumably in linears as well; not analyzed in detail here). We propose that the gradation of phenotypes observed within the scattered group is caused by a gradually decreasing level of signaling (a dosedependent effect) probably due to a concerted action of multiple pathways involved in scale formation. 2013 Casas et al.

  4. Disappearing scales in carps: re-visiting Kirpichnikov's model on the genetics of scale pattern formation. (United States)

    Casas, Laura; Szűcs, Réka; Vij, Shubha; Goh, Chin Heng; Kathiresan, Purushothaman; Németh, Sándor; Jeney, Zsigmond; Bercsényi, Miklós; Orbán, László


    The body of most fishes is fully covered by scales that typically form tight, partially overlapping rows. While some of the genes controlling the formation and growth of fish scales have been studied, very little is known about the genetic mechanisms regulating scale pattern formation. Although the existence of two genes with two pairs of alleles (S&s and N&n) regulating scale coverage in cyprinids has been predicted by Kirpichnikov and colleagues nearly eighty years ago, their identity was unknown until recently. In 2009, the 'S' gene was found to be a paralog of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, fgfr1a1, while the second gene called 'N' has not yet been identified. We re-visited the original model of Kirpichnikov that proposed four major scale pattern types and observed a high degree of variation within the so-called scattered phenotype due to which this group was divided into two sub-types: classical mirror and irregular. We also analyzed the survival rates of offspring groups and found a distinct difference between Asian and European crosses. Whereas nude × nude crosses involving at least one parent of Asian origin or hybrid with Asian parent(s) showed the 25% early lethality predicted by Kirpichnikov (due to the lethality of the NN genotype), those with two Hungarian nude parents did not. We further extended Kirpichnikov's work by correlating changes in phenotype (scale-pattern) to the deformations of fins and losses of pharyngeal teeth. We observed phenotypic changes which were not restricted to nudes, as described by Kirpichnikov, but were also present in mirrors (and presumably in linears as well; not analyzed in detail here). We propose that the gradation of phenotypes observed within the scattered group is caused by a gradually decreasing level of signaling (a dose-dependent effect) probably due to a concerted action of multiple pathways involved in scale formation.

  5. [Studies of ozone formation potentials for benzene and ethylbenzene using a smog chamber and model simulation]. (United States)

    Jia, Long; Xu, Yong-Fu


    Ozone formation potentials from irradiations of benzene-NO(x) and ethylbenzene-NO(x) systems under the conditions of different VOC/NO(x) ratios and RH were investigated using a characterized chamber and model simulation. The repeatability of the smog chamber experiment shows that for two sets of ethylbenzene-NO(x) irradiations with similar initial concentrations and reaction conditions, such as temperature, relative humidity and relative light intensity, the largest difference in O3 between two experiments is only 4% during the whole experimental run. On the basis of smog chamber experiments, ozone formation of photo-oxidation of benzene and ethylbenzene was simulated in terms of the master chemical mechanism (MCM). The peak ozone values for benzene and ethylbenzene simulated by MCM are higher than the chamber data, and the difference between the MCM-simulated results and chamber data increases with increasing RH. Under the conditions of sunlight irradiations, with benzene and ethylbenzene concentrations being in the range of (10-50) x 10(-9) and NO(x) concentrations in the range of (10-100) x 10(-9), the 6 h ozone contributions of benzene and ethylbenzene were obtained to be (3.1-33) x 10(-9) and (2.6-122) x 10(-9), whereas the peak O3 contributions of benzene and ethylbenzene were (3.5-54) x 10(-9) and (3.8-164) x 10(-9), respectively. The MCM-simulated maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) values for benzene and ethylbenzene were 0.25/C and 0.97/C (per carbon), respectively. The maximum ozone reactivity (MOR) values for these two species were obtained to be 0.73/C and 1.03/C, respectively. The MOR value of benzene from MCM is much higher than that obtained by carter from SAPRC, indicating that SAPRC may underestimate the ozone formation potential of benzene.

  6. High-Burnup-Structure (HBS): Model Development in MARMOT for HBS Formation and Stability Under Radiation and High Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bai, X. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Y. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Biner, B. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    A detailed phase field model for the formation of High Burnup Structure (HBS) was developed and implemented in MARMOT. The model treats the HBS formation as an irradiation-induced recrystallization. The model takes into consideration the stored energy associated with dislocations formed under irradiation. The accumulation of radiation damage, hence, increases the system free energy and triggers recrystallization. The increase in the free energy due to the formation of new grain boundaries is offset by the reduction in the free energy by creating dislocation-free grains at the expense of the deformed grains. The model was first used to study the growth of recrystallized flat and circular grains. The model reults were shown to agree well with theorrtical predictions. The case of HBS formation in UO2 was then investigated. It was found that a threshold dislocation density of (or equivalently a threshold burn-up of 33-40 GWd/t) is required for HBS formation at 1200K, which is in good agrrement with theory and experiments. In future studies, the presence of gas bubbles and their effect on the formation and evolution of HBS will be considered.

  7. High-Burnup-Structure (HBS): Model Development in MARMOT for HBS Formation and Stability Under Radiation and High Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.; Bai, X.; Zhang, Y.; Biner, B.


    A detailed phase field model for the formation of High Burnup Structure (HBS) was developed and implemented in MARMOT. The model treats the HBS formation as an irradiation-induced recrystallization. The model takes into consideration the stored energy associated with dislocations formed under irradiation. The accumulation of radiation damage, hence, increases the system free energy and triggers recrystallization. The increase in the free energy due to the formation of new grain boundaries is offset by the reduction in the free energy by creating dislocation-free grains at the expense of the deformed grains. The model was first used to study the growth of recrystallized flat and circular grains. The model results were shown to agree well with theoretical predictions. The case of HBS formation in UO2 was then investigated. It was found that a threshold dislocation density of (or equivalently a threshold burn-up of 33-40 GWd/t) is required for HBS formation at 1200K, which is in good agreement with theory and experiments. In future studies, the presence of gas bubbles and their effect on the formation and evolution of HBS will be considered.

  8. Global modeling of secondary organic aerosol formation from aromatic hydrocarbons: high- vs. low-yield pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Henze


    Full Text Available Formation of SOA from the aromatic species toluene, xylene, and, for the first time, benzene, is added to a global chemical transport model. A simple mechanism is presented that accounts for competition between low and high-yield pathways of SOA formation, wherein secondary gas-phase products react further with either nitric oxide (NO or hydroperoxy radical (HO2 to yield semi- or non-volatile products, respectively. Aromatic species yield more SOA when they react with OH in regions where the [NO]/[HO2] ratios are lower. The SOA yield thus depends upon the distribution of aromatic emissions, with biomass burning emissions being in areas with lower [NO]/[HO2] ratios, and the reactivity of the aromatic with respect to OH, as a lower initial reactivity allows transport away from industrial source regions, where [NO]/[HO2] ratios are higher, to more remote regions, where this ratio is lower and, hence, the ultimate yield of SOA is higher. As a result, benzene is estimated to be the most important aromatic species with regards to global formation of SOA, with a total production nearly equal that of toluene and xylene combined. Global production of SOA from aromatic sources via the mechanisms identified here is estimated at 3.5 Tg/yr, resulting in a global burden of 0.08 Tg, twice as large as previous estimates. The contribution of these largely anthropogenic sources to global SOA is still small relative to biogenic sources, which are estimated to comprise 90% of the global SOA burden, about half of which comes from isoprene. Uncertainty in these estimates owing to factors ranging from the atmospheric relevance of chamber conditions to model deficiencies result in an estimated range of SOA production from aromatics of 2–12 Tg/yr. Though this uncertainty range affords a significant anthropogenic contribution to global SOA, it is evident from comparisons to recent observations that additional pathways for

  9. Global modeling of secondary organic aerosol formation from aromatic hydrocarbons: high- vs. low-yield pathways (United States)

    Henze, D. K.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Ng, N. L.; Kroll, J. H.; Fu, T.-M.; Jacob, D. J.; Heald, C. L.


    Formation of SOA from the aromatic species toluene, xylene, and, for the first time, benzene, is added to a global chemical transport model. A simple mechanism is presented that accounts for competition between low and high-yield pathways of SOA formation, wherein secondary gas-phase products react further with either nitric oxide (NO) or hydroperoxy radical (HO2) to yield semi- or non-volatile products, respectively. Aromatic species yield more SOA when they react with OH in regions where the [NO]/[HO2] ratios are lower. The SOA yield thus depends upon the distribution of aromatic emissions, with biomass burning emissions being in areas with lower [NO]/[HO2] ratios, and the reactivity of the aromatic with respect to OH, as a lower initial reactivity allows transport away from industrial source regions, where [NO]/[HO2] ratios are higher, to more remote regions, where this ratio is lower and, hence, the ultimate yield of SOA is higher. As a result, benzene is estimated to be the most important aromatic species with regards to global formation of SOA, with a total production nearly equal that of toluene and xylene combined. Global production of SOA from aromatic sources via the mechanisms identified here is estimated at 3.5 Tg/yr, resulting in a global burden of 0.08 Tg, twice as large as previous estimates. The contribution of these largely anthropogenic sources to global SOA is still small relative to biogenic sources, which are estimated to comprise 90% of the global SOA burden, about half of which comes from isoprene. Uncertainty in these estimates owing to factors ranging from the atmospheric relevance of chamber conditions to model deficiencies result in an estimated range of SOA production from aromatics of 2-12 Tg/yr. Though this uncertainty range affords a significant anthropogenic contribution to global SOA, it is evident from comparisons to recent observations that additional pathways for production of anthropogenic SOA still exist beyond those accounted

  10. The Formation of Concentric Eyewalls with Heat Sink in a Simple Tropical Cyclone Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yi Peng


    Full Text Available A linearized, two-layer axisymmetric model analogous to Schubert el al. (1980 is used to simulate the formation of concentric eyewalls in an ideal strong tropical cyclone. By imposing a heat sink near the center of a cyclone the induced perturbation wind, through thermodynamic adjustment to the heat sink, forms a double-peak structure when the disturbance is added to the basic state tangential wind. The heat sink represents, in a crude way, evaporative cooling of precipitation falling from cloud during late stage convective activity or a cooling through environmental advection. Detailed profiling of the induced double-peak wind structure is dependent on the radial profile of the imposed heat sink. After the double-peak tangential wind structure is formed, if a heat source corresponding to a new convective activity is generated inside the outer maximum tangential wind, the outer eyewall contracts and strengthens while the inner eyewall weakens. This result suggests that thermodynamic adjustments to changes in the heating of a tropical-cyclone-core region may contribute to the formation of the double-eyewall phenomenon.

  11. Modeling solvent evaporation during thin film formation in phase separating polymer mixtures. (United States)

    Cummings, John; Lowengrub, John S; Sumpter, Bobby G; Wise, Steven M; Kumar, Rajeev


    Preparation of thin films by dissolving polymers in a common solvent followed by evaporation of the solvent has become a routine processing procedure. However, modeling of thin film formation in an evaporating solvent has been challenging due to a need to simulate processes at multiple length and time scales. In this work, we present a methodology based on the principles of linear non-equilibrium thermodynamics, which allows systematic study of various effects such as the changes in the solvent properties due to phase transformation from liquid to vapor and polymer thermodynamics resulting from such solvent transformations. The methodology allows for the derivation of evaporative flux and boundary conditions near each surface for simulations of systems close to the equilibrium. We apply it to study thin film microstructural evolution in phase segregating polymer blends dissolved in a common volatile solvent and deposited on a planar substrate. Effects of the evaporation rates, interactions of the polymers with the underlying substrate and concentration dependent mobilities on the kinetics of thin film formation are studied.

  12. Subject-independent modeling and representation data on the formation and distribution of innovative value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Aleksey


    Full Text Available Creating an innovation environment is shown in the context of interaction of economic agents in the creation and consumption of innovative value-based infrastructure approach. The problem of the complexity of collecting heterogeneous data on the formation and distribution of innovative value in the conditions of the dynamic nature of the research object and the environment is formulated. An information model providing a subject-independent representation of data on innovation value flows is proposed and allows to automate the processes of data collection and analysis with the minimization of time costs. The article was prepared in the course of carrying out research work within the framework of the project part of the state task in the field of scientific activity in accordance with the assignment 26.2758.2017 / 4.6 for 2017-2019. on the topic “System for analyzing the formation and distribution of the value of innovative products based on the infrastructure concept”.

  13. Methylene blue 1% solution on the prevention of intraperitoneal adhesion formation in a dog model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Augusto Machado Silva

    Full Text Available Intraperitoneal adhesions usually are formed after abdominal surgeries and may cause technical difficulties during surgical intervention, chronic abdominal pain and severe obstructions of the gastrointestinal tract. The current study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of methylene blue (MB 1% solution on the prevention of intraperitoneal postsurgical adhesion formation in a canine surgical trauma model. Twenty bitches were submitted to falciform ligament resection, omentectomy, ovariohysterectomy and scarification of a colonic segment. Prior to abdominal closure, 10 bitches received 1mg kg-1 MB intraperitoneally (MB group and 10 bitches received no treatment (control group, CT. On the 15th postoperative day the bitches were submitted to laparoscopy to assess adhesions. The mean adhesion scores were 13.9 (±5.6 for MB group and 20.5 (±6.4 for the CT group (P=0,043. In conclusion, the 1% MB solution was efficient on the prevention of intraperitoneal postoperative adhesion formation in bitches, especially those involving the colonic serosa.

  14. Mountains on Io: High-resolution Galileo observations, initial interpretations, and formation models (United States)

    Turtle, E.P.; Jaeger, W.L.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; McEwen, A.S.; Milazzo, M.; Moore, J.; Phillips, C.B.; Radebaugh, J.; Simonelli, D.; Chuang, F.; Schuster, P.; Alexander, D.D.A.; Capraro, K.; Chang, S.-H.; Chen, A.C.; Clark, J.; Conner, D.L.; Culver, A.; Handley, T.H.; Jensen, D.N.; Knight, D.D.; LaVoie, S.K.; McAuley, M.; Mego, V.; Montoya, O.; Mortensen, H.B.; Noland, S.J.; Patel, R.R.; Pauro, T.M.; Stanley, C.L.; Steinwand, D.J.; Thaller, T.F.; Woncik, P.J.; Yagi, G.M.; Yoshimizu, J.R.; Alvarez Del Castillo, E.M.; Beyer, R.; Branston, D.; Fishburn, M.B.; Muller, Birgit; Ragan, R.; Samarasinha, N.; Anger, C.D.; Cunningham, C.; Little, B.; Arriola, S.; Carr, M.H.; Asphaug, E.; Morrison, D.; Rages, K.; Banfield, D.; Bell, M.; Burns, J.A.; Carcich, B.; Clark, B.; Currier, N.; Dauber, I.; Gierasch, P.J.; Helfenstein, P.; Mann, M.; Othman, O.; Rossier, L.; Solomon, N.; Sullivan, R.; Thomas, P.C.; Veverka, J.; Becker, T.; Edwards, K.; Gaddis, L.; Kirk, R.; Lee, E.; Rosanova, T.; Sucharski, R.M.; Beebe, R.F.; Simon, A.; Belton, M.J.S.; Bender, K.; Fagents, S.; Figueredo, P.; Greeley, R.; Homan, K.; Kadel, S.; Kerr, J.; Klemaszewski, J.; Lo, E.; Schwarz, W.; Williams, D.; Williams, K.; Bierhaus, B.; Brooks, S.; Chapman, C.R.; Merline, B.; Keller, J.; Tamblyn, P.; Bouchez, A.; Dyundian, U.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Showman, A.; Spitale, J.; Stewart, S.; Vasavada, A.; Breneman, H.H.; Cunningham, W.F.; Johnson, T.V.; Jones, T.J.; Kaufman, J.M.; Klaasen, K.P.; Levanas, G.; Magee, K.P.; Meredith, M.K.; Orton, G.S.; Senske, D.A.; West, A.; Winther, D.; Collins, G.; Fripp, W.J.; Head, J. W.; Pappalardo, R.; Pratt, S.; Prockter, L.; Spaun, N.; Colvin, T.; Davies, M.; DeJong, E.M.; Hall, J.; Suzuki, S.; Gorjian, Z.; Denk, T.; Giese, B.; Koehler, U.; Neukum, G.; Oberst, J.; Roatsch, T.; Tost, W.; Wagner, R.; Dieter, N.; Durda, D.; Geissler, P.; Greenberg, R.J.; Hoppa, G.; Plassman, J.; Tufts, R.; Fanale, F.P.; Granahan, J.C.


    During three close flybys in late 1999 and early 2000 the Galileo spacecraft ac-quired new observations of the mountains that tower above Io's surface. These images have revealed surprising variety in the mountains' morphologies. They range from jagged peaks several kilometers high to lower, rounded structures. Some are very smooth, others are covered by numerous parallel ridges. Many mountains have margins that are collapsing outward in large landslides or series of slump blocks, but a few have steep, scalloped scarps. From these observations we can gain insight into the structure and material properties of Io's crust as well as into the erosional processes acting on Io. We have also investigated formation mechanisms proposed for these structures using finite-element analysis. Mountain formation might be initiated by global compression due to the high rate of global subsidence associated with Io's high resurfacing rate; however, our models demonstrate that this hypothesis lacks a mechanism for isolating the mountains. The large fraction (???40%) of mountains that are associated with paterae suggests that in some cases these features are tectonically related. Therefore we have also simulated the stresses induced in Io's crust by a combination of a thermal upwelling in the mantle with global lithospheric compression and have shown that this can focus compressional stresses. If this mechanism is responsible for some of Io's mountains, it could also explain the common association of mountains with paterae. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Evidence for the Formation of Benzacridine Derivatives in Alkaline-Treated Sunflower Meal and Model Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Bongartz


    Full Text Available Sunflower extraction meal (SEM is an economically interesting protein source. During alkaline extraction of proteins, the presence of chlorogenic acid (CQA in the meal gives rise to the formation of o-quinones. Reactions with nucleophiles present in proteins can lead to green discoloration. Although such reactions have been known for a long time, there is a lack of information on the chemical nature of the reaction products. SEM and model systems consisting of amino acids and CQA were subjected to alkaline treatment and, for comparison, to oxidation of CQA by polyphenoloxidase (PPO. Several green trihydroxy benzacridine (TBA derivatives were tentatively identified in all samples by UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS. Surprisingly, in alkaline-treated samples of particular amino acids as well as in SEM, the same six TBA isomers were detected. In contrast, the enzymatically oxidized samples resulted in only three TBA derivatives. Contrary to previous findings, neither peptide nor amino acid residues were attached to the resultant benzacridine core. The results indicate that the formation of TBA derivatives is caused by the reaction between CQA quinones and free NH2 groups. Further research is necessary to elucidate the structure of the addition products for a comprehensive evaluation of food and feed safety aspects.

  16. Saponin Interactions with Model Membrane Systems - Langmuir Monolayer Studies, Hemolysis and Formation of ISCOMs. (United States)

    de Groot, Carolin; Müller-Goymann, Christel C


    Saponins are used in medicine due to their pharmacological and immunological effects. To better understand interactions of saponins with model membranes and natural membranes of, for example, erythrocytes, Langmuir film balance experiments are well established. For most saponins, a strong interaction with cholesterol was demonstrated in dependence of both the aglycone part and the sugar moieties and is suggested to be correlated with a strong hemolytic activity, high toxicity, and high surface activity, as was demonstrated for the steroid saponin digitonin. In general, changes in the sugar chain or in substituents of the aglycone result in a modification of the saponin properties. A promising saponin with regard to fairly low hemolytic activity and high adjuvant effect is α -tomatine, which still shows a high affinity for cholesterol. An interaction with cholesterol and lipids has also been proven for the Quillaja saponin from the bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina. This triterpene saponin was approved in marketed vaccines as an adjuvant due to the formation of immunostimulating complexes. Immunostimulating complexes consist of a Quillaja saponin, cholesterol, phospholipids, and a corresponding antigen. Recently, another saponin from Quillaja brasiliensis was successfully tested in immunostimulating complexes, too. Based on the results of interaction studies, the formation of drug delivery systems such as immunostimulating complexes or similar self-assembled colloids is postulated for a variety of saponins. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Effects of glucose on the formation of PhIP in a model system. (United States)

    Skog, K; Jägerstad, M


    The effect of glucose on the formation of the food mutagen PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) was studied in a model system. When a mixture of creatine (0.9 mmol), phenylalanine (0.9 mmol) and glucose (0.45 mmol) was heated in diethylene glycol and water (3 ml, 5:1) for 10 min at 180 or 225 degrees C several mutagens were produced. Identification by HPLC, UV absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry revealed the presence of PhIP as well as 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline and minor amounts of 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline. Heating the system without glucose produced PhIP as a single mutagen, but in considerably lower amount. An inhibiting effect of glucose in high concentrations was demonstrated. When glucose was added in more than or equimolar amounts of the other two reactants, the formation of mutagens was markedly reduced. Tyrosine heated under the same conditions, with creatine and glucose, showed mutagenic activity. However, no PhIP nor any other known food mutagen was identified from the tyrosine mixture.

  18. Inflammation-driven bone formation in a mouse model of ankylosing spondylitis: sequential not parallel processes. (United States)

    Tseng, Hsu-Wen; Pitt, Miranda E; Glant, Tibor T; McRae, Allan F; Kenna, Tony J; Brown, Matthew A; Pettit, Allison R; Thomas, Gethin P


    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an immune-mediated arthritis particularly targeting the spine and pelvis and is characterised by inflammation, osteoproliferation and frequently ankylosis. Current treatments that predominately target inflammatory pathways have disappointing efficacy in slowing disease progression. Thus, a better understanding of the causal association and pathological progression from inflammation to bone formation, particularly whether inflammation directly initiates osteoproliferation, is required. The proteoglycan-induced spondylitis (PGISp) mouse model of AS was used to histopathologically map the progressive axial disease events, assess molecular changes during disease progression and define disease progression using unbiased clustering of semi-quantitative histology. PGISp mice were followed over a 24-week time course. Spinal disease was assessed using a novel semi-quantitative histological scoring system that independently evaluated the breadth of pathological features associated with PGISp axial disease, including inflammation, joint destruction and excessive tissue formation (osteoproliferation). Matrix components were identified using immunohistochemistry. Disease initiated with inflammation at the periphery of the intervertebral disc (IVD) adjacent to the longitudinal ligament, reminiscent of enthesitis, and was associated with upregulated tumor necrosis factor and metalloproteinases. After a lag phase, established inflammation was temporospatially associated with destruction of IVDs, cartilage and bone. At later time points, advanced disease was characterised by substantially reduced inflammation, excessive tissue formation and ectopic chondrocyte expansion. These distinct features differentiated affected mice into early, intermediate and advanced disease stages. Excessive tissue formation was observed in vertebral joints only if the IVD was destroyed as a consequence of the early inflammation. Ectopic excessive tissue was predominantly

  19. Star-formation and stellar feedback recipes in galaxy evolution models (United States)

    Hensler, Gerhard; Recchi, Simone; Ploeckinger, Sylvia; Kuehtreiber, Matthias; Steyrleithner, Patrick; Liu, Lei


    Modeling galaxy formation and evolution is critically depending on star formation (SF). Since cosmological and galaxy-scale simulations cannot resolve the spatial and density scales on which SF acts, a large variety of methods are developed and applied over the last decades. Nonetheless, we are still in the test phase how the choice of parameters affects the models and how they agree with observations.As a simple ansatz, recipes are based on power-law SF dependences on gas density as justified by gas cooling and collapse timescales. In order to prevent SF spread throughout the gas, temperature and density thresholds are also used, although gas dynamical effects, like e.g. gas infall, seem to trigger SF significantly.The formed stars influence their environment immediately by energetic and materialistic feedback. It has been experienced in numerical models that supernova typeII explosions act with a too long time delay to regulate the SF, but that winds and ionizing radiation by massive stars must be included. The implementation of feedback processes, their efficiencies and timescales, is still in an experimental state, because they depend also on the physical state of the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM).Combining a SF-gas density relation with stellar heating vs. gas cooling and taking the temperature dependence into account, we have derived an analytical expression of self-regulated SF which is free of arbitrary parameters. We have performed numerical models to study this recipe and different widely used SF criteria in both, particle and grid codes. Moreover, we compare the SF behavior between single-gas phase and multi-phase treatments of the ISM.Since dwarf galaxies (DGs) are most sensitive to environmental influences and contain only low SF rates, we explore two main affects on their models: 1. For external effects we compare SF rates of isolated and ram-pressure suffering DGs. Moreover, we find a SF enhancement in tidal-tail DGs by the compressive tidal

  20. Generic models of deep formation water calculated with PHREEQC using the "gebo"-database (United States)

    Bozau, E.; van Berk, W.


    To identify processes during the use of formation waters for geothermal energy production an extended hydrogeochemical thermodynamic database (named "gebo"-database) for the well known and commonly used software PHREEQC has been developed by collecting and inserting data from literature. The following solution master species: Fe(+2), Fe(+3), S(-2), C(-4), Si, Zn, Pb, and Al are added to the database "pitzer.dat" which is provided with the code PHREEQC. According to the solution master species the necessary solution species and phases (solid phases and gases) are implemented. Furthermore, temperature and pressure adaptations of the mass action law constants, Pitzer parameters for the calculation of activity coefficients in waters of high ionic strength and solubility equilibria among gaseous and aqueous species of CO2, methane, and hydrogen sulphide are implemented into the "gebo"-database. Combined with the "gebo"-database the code PHREEQC can be used to test the behaviour of highly concentrated solutions (e.g. formation waters, brines). Chemical changes caused by temperature and pressure gradients as well as the exposure of the water to the atmosphere and technical equipments can be modelled. To check the plausibility of additional and adapted data/parameters experimental solubility data from literature (e.g. sulfate and carbonate minerals) are compared to modelled mineral solubilities at elevated levels of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), temperature, and pressure. First results show good matches between modelled and experimental mineral solubility for barite, celestite, anhydrite, and calcite in high TDS waters indicating the plausibility of additional and adapted data and parameters. Furthermore, chemical parameters of geothermal wells in the North German Basin are used to test the "gebo"-database. The analysed water composition (starting with the main cations and anions) is calculated by thermodynamic equilibrium reactions of pure water with the minerals found in

  1. A theoretical model of drumlin formation based on observations at Múlajökull, Iceland (United States)

    Iverson, Neal R.; McCracken, Reba; Zoet, Lucas; Benediktsson, Ívar; Schomacker, Anders; Johnson, Mark; Finlayson, Andrew; Phillips, Emrys; Everest, Jeremy


    Theoretical models of drumlin formation have generally been developed in isolation from observations in modern drumlin forming environments - a major limitation on the empiricism necessary to confidently formulate models and test them. Observations at a rare modern drumlin field exposed by the recession of the Icelandic surge-type glacier, Múlajökull, allow an empirically-grounded and physi