WorldWideScience

Sample records for modeling system ems

  1. Modeling to Optimize Hospital Evacuation Planning in EMS Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bish, Douglas R; Tarhini, Hussein; Amara, Roel; Zoraster, Richard; Bosson, Nichole; Gausche-Hill, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    To develop optimal hospital evacuation plans within a large urban EMS system using a novel evacuation planning model and a realistic hospital evacuation scenario, and to illustrate the ways in which a decision support model may be useful in evacuation planning. An optimization model was used to produce detailed evacuation plans given the number and type of patients in the evacuating hospital, resource levels (teams to move patients, vehicles, and beds at other hospitals), and evacuation rules. Optimal evacuation plans under various resource levels and rules were developed and high-level metrics were calculated, including evacuation duration and the utilization of resources. Using this model we were able to determine the limiting resources and demonstrate how strategically augmenting the resource levels can improve the performance of the evacuation plan. The model allowed the planner to test various evacuation conditions and resource levels to demonstrate the effect on performance of the evacuation plan. We present a hospital evacuation planning analysis for a hospital in a large urban EMS system using an optimization model. This model can be used by EMS administrators and medical directors to guide planning decisions and provide a better understanding of various resource allocation decisions and rules that govern a hospital evacuation.

  2. An EM Modeling for Rescue System Design of Buried People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Leo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a rescue system for buried persons is a subject of growing importance in case of occurrence of natural disasters such as earthquake, landslides, or avalanches. In this paper a fully analytical model has been developed to get some fundamental a priori design characteristics. The proposed system is based on the detection of the victim movements due to its respiratory activity: in particular, when an electromagnetic (EM wave impinges on a human body, the analysis of the reflected wave parameters such as amplitude, frequency, phase, or delay time allows for the detection of the breathing frequency. The model is simple on purpose because the great uncertainty concerning the characterization of many environmental parameters of a general situation makes a very detailed model useless. However, it is accurate enough to provide useful information about system design, filling the gap in the literature concerning the electromagnetic formulation of such kinds of problems. A system prototype was built using laboratory equipment to experimentally validate the model, and subsequently breathing frequency measurements were carried on, both in a lossless laboratory environment and in a lossy realistic scenario.

  3. International EMS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhelle, Audun; Lossius, Hans Morten; Silfvast, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Emergency medicine service (EMS) systems in the five Nordic countries have more similarities than differences. One similarity is the involvement of anaesthesiologists as pre-hospital physicians and their strong participation for all critically ill and injured patients in-hospital. Discrepancies do...... exist, however, especially within the ground and air ambulance service, and the EMS systems face several challenges. Main problems and challenges emphasized by the authors are: (1) Denmark: the dispatch centres are presently not under medical control and are without a national criteria based system...... is the only country that has emergency medicine (EM) as a recognised speciality but there is a need for more fully trained specialists in EM; (4) Norway: the ordinary ground ambulance is pointed out as the weakest link in the EM chain and a health reform demands extensive co-operation between the new health...

  4. International EMS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhelle, Audun; Lossius, Hans Morten; Silfvast, Tom

    2004-01-01

    exist, however, especially within the ground and air ambulance service, and the EMS systems face several challenges. Main problems and challenges emphasized by the authors are: (1) Denmark: the dispatch centres are presently not under medical control and are without a national criteria based system...... enterprises to re-establish a nation-wide air ambulance service; (5) Sweden: to create evidence based medicine standards for treatment in emergency medicine, a better integration of all part of the chain of survival, a formalised education in EM and a nation wide physician staffed helicopter EMS (HEMS) cover....

  5. International EMS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhelle, Audun; Lossius, Hans Morten; Silfvast, Tom

    2004-01-01

    . Access to on-line medical advice of a physician is not available; (2) Finland: the autonomy of the individual municipalities and their responsibility to cover for primary and specialised health care, as well as the EMS, and the lack of supporting or demanding legislation regarding the EMS; (3) Iceland...... exist, however, especially within the ground and air ambulance service, and the EMS systems face several challenges. Main problems and challenges emphasized by the authors are: (1) Denmark: the dispatch centres are presently not under medical control and are without a national criteria based system...

  6. Numerical simulation of rainfall and temperature over Kenya using weather research and forecasting-environmental modelling system (WRF-EMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagero Obaigwa Philip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on one of the high resolution models used for weather forecasting at Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD. It reviews the skill and accuracy of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF - Environmental Modeling System (EMS model, in simulating weather over Kenya. The study period was March to May 2011, during the rainy season over Kenya. The model output was compared with the observed data from 27 synoptic stations spread over the study area, to determine the performance of the model in terms of its skill and accuracy in forecasting. The spatial distribution of rainfall and temperature showed that the WRF model was capable of reproducing the observed general pattern especially for temperature. The model has skill in forecasting both rainfall and temperature over the study area. However, the model may underestimate rainfall of more than 10 mm/day and displace its location and overestimate rainfall of less than 1 mm/day. Therefore, during the period of enhanced rainfall especially in the month of April and part of May the model forecast needs to be complemented by other models or forecasting methods before giving a forecast. There is need to improve its performance over the domain through review of the parameterization of small scale physical processes and more observed data need to be simulated into the model.

  7. Complete BWR--EM LOCA analysis using the WRAP--EM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmeyer, R.R.; Gregory, M.V.; Buckner, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    The Water Reactor Analysis Package, Evaluation Model (WRAP--EM), provides a complete analysis of postulated loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA's) in light--water nuclear power reactors. The system is being developed at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) for use by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to interpret and evaluate reactor vendor, evaluation model (EM) analyses. The initial version of the WRAP--EM system for analysis of boiling water reactors (BWR's) is operational. To demonstrate the complete capability of the WRAP--BWR--EM system, a LOCA analysis has been performed for the Hope Creek Plant

  8. Patient Perspectives on EMS Alternate Destination Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munjal, Kevin G; Shastry, Siri; Loo, George T; Reid, Daniel; Grudzen, Corita; Shah, Manish N; Chapin, Hugh H; First, Brandon; Sirirungruang, Sasilada; Alpert, Erin; Chason, Kevin; Richardson, Lynne D

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that a large number of ambulance transports to emergency departments (ED) could have been safely treated in an alternative environment, prompting interest in the development of more patient-centered models for prehospital care. We examined patient attitudes, perspectives, and agreement/comfort with alternate destinations and other proposed innovations in Emergency Medical Services (EMS) care delivery and determined whether demographic, socioeconomic, acuity, and EMS utilization history factors impact levels of agreement. We conducted a cross-sectional study on a convenience sample of patients and caregivers presenting to an urban academic ED between July 2012 and May 2013. Respondents were surveyed on levels of agreement with 13 statements corresponding to various aspects of a proposed patient-centered emergency response system including increased EMS access to healthcare records, shared decision making with the patient and/or primary care physician, transport to alternative destinations, and relative importance of EMS assessment versus transportation. Information on demographic and socioeconomic factors, level of acuity, and EMS utilization history were also determined via survey and chart review. Responses were analyzed descriptively and compared across patient characteristics using chi-square and regression analyses. A total of 621 patients were enrolled. The percentage of patients who agreed or strongly agreed with each of the 13 statements ranged from 48.2 to 93.8%. About 86% agreed with increased EMS access to healthcare records; approximately 72% agreed with coordinating disposition decisions with a primary physician; and about 58% supported transport to alternative destinations for low acuity conditions. No association was found between levels of agreement and the patient's level of acuity or EMS utilization history. Only Black or Hispanic race showed isolated associations with lower rates of agreement with some aspects of an innovative

  9. Complaints against an EMS system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Christopher B; Pons, Peter T; Pi, Randy

    2003-11-01

    Complaints against Emergency Medical Services (EMS) agencies represent a concerning and potentially time-consuming problem for all involved in the delivery of prehospital emergency medical care. The objective of this study was to identify the source of complaints against an EMS system to help focus quality and performance improvement and customer service efforts. We conducted a retrospective review of complaints filed against a busy urban EMS agency over a 6-year period. All complaints were included, totaled by season and by year, and categorized by originator and nature of the complaint. A total of 286 complaints were registered during the 6-year period, with an average of 48 per year and 9.3 per 10,000 responses. The most common originators of complaints were patients (53%) followed by medical personnel (19%) and family members or friends (12%). Rude behavior accounted for 23% of the complaints registered, followed by technical skills (20%), transport problems (18%), and loss of belongings (13%). The identification of areas of dissatisfaction will allow focused quality and performance improvement programs directed at customer service and risk management.

  10. EM threat analysis for wireless systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkholder, R. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Mariano, Robert J.; Schniter, P. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Gupta, I. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory)

    2006-06-01

    Modern digital radio systems are complex and must be carefully designed, especially when expected to operate in harsh propagation environments. The ability to accurately predict the effects of propagation on wireless radio performance could lead to more efficient radio designs as well as the ability to perform vulnerability analyses before and after system deployment. In this report, the authors--experts in electromagnetic (EM) modeling and wireless communication theory--describe the construction of a simulation environment that is capable of quantifying the effects of wireless propagation on the performance of digital communication.

  11. Modelo para o dimensionamento e a locação de sistemas de terraceamento em nível Model to design level terracing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nori P. Griebeler

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A erosão hídrica é um dos principais causadores da degradação das terras agrícolas, provocando expressivos prejuízos à sociedade. Em virtude desses danos, torna-se fundamental o desenvolvimento de técnicas que permitam o aumento da eficiência das práticas para a conservação do solo. Com esse objetivo, desenvolveu-se um modelo para o dimensionamento e a locação de sistemas de terraceamento em nível, utilizando modelos digitais de elevação do terreno gerados em sistemas de informações geográficas (SIG. A fim de possibilitar a aplicação do modelo desenvolvido, elaborou-se um software que permite a realização das interações necessárias para o dimensionamento do sistema. Os resultados obtidos mostram que o modelo oferece a vantagem de permitir o dimensionamento de cada terraço, considerando as condições existentes na área específica que irá contribuir com o escoamento superficial para o mesmo. A outra vantagem do modelo desenvolvido está na possibilidade de realização de simulações, permitindo a observação e o acompanhamento, de maneira fácil e objetiva, das mudanças provocadas no sistema de terraceamento, em função da alteração nas características de uso e manejo do solo.Water erosion is one of the main problems of agricultural lands degradation, causing largess damages to the society. Because of these damages, it becomes necessary the development of techniques that allow the increase of the efficiency of soil conservation practices. With this objective, a model was developed for design and location of level terracing systems using digital models of elevation of the land generated in geographic information systems (GIS. In order to facilitate the application of the developed model, it was elaborated a software. The results show that the model offers as the principal advantage the design of each terrace considering the existent conditions in the specific area that will contribute with the runoff to

  12. Development of the electromagnetic tomography system. Sensitivity study of anomalous body by model studies; EM tomography system no kaihatsu. Model kaiseki ni yoru ijotai no kando chosa kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumekawa, Y.; Miura, Y.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arai, E. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    An examination was made by a model analysis on sensitivity and the like against a resistive anomalous body, in connection with an electromagnetic tomography system with surface earthquake sources and underground receiver arrangements. A resistivity model was of a three-dimensional structure, and built with a 5 ohm{center_dot}m low resistivity anomalous body assembled in a 100 ohm{center_dot}m homogeneous medium. As a result of the examination, it was shown that the size limitation of an analyzable anomalous body was 50{times}50{times}20m at a frequency of 8 to 10kHz and that a system with high precision in a high frequency range was necessary. The examination of effects under a shallow anomalous body revealed, for example, that the fluctuation of a low frequency response was large compared with a deep anomalous body and that, where a second anomalous body existed under it, the effect also appeared with a surface earthquake source positioned in the opposite side from the anomalous body. The examination of effects under the three dimensional structure revealed, for example, that a remarkable change appeared in the data with the change in the inclined angle of the transmission line against the strike of the anomalous body. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Development of the EM tomography system. Part 2. Sensitivity studies of anomalous body by model studies; EM tomography system no kaihatsu. 2. Model kaiseki ni yoru ijotai no kando chosa kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumekawa, Y.; Miura, Y.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arai, E. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    A model analysis was used to investigate sensitivity of a two-dimensional structure on a resistivity anomalous body by using an electromagnetic tomography system. The resistivity model handled a three-dimensional structure. The model was prepared as a pseudo two-dimensional model in which a low resistivity anomalous body with 1 ohm-m was incorporated that has a basic length of 1000 m in the Y-direction in a homogenous medium having 100 ohm-m. As a result of the analysis, the following matters were elucidated: if a low resistivity anomalous body is present in a shallow subsurface, its impact starts appearing from lower frequencies than when the anomalous body exists only at a greater depth; if a high resistivity anomalous body exists, the detection sensitivity is lower than for the low resistivity anomalous body, but the analysis would be possible by using the phase because the phase has made a greater change; the source TxZ shows a change from lower frequencies than for the source TxX, and the amount of change is greater, hence the detection sensitivity on an anomalous body may be said higher with the source TxZ; however, for the anomalous body in shallow subsurface, the source TxX is more effective since it is not subjected to a too great impact at a greater depth. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  14. EM modeling for GPIR using 3D FDTD modeling codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.D.

    1994-10-01

    An analysis of the one-, two-, and three-dimensional electrical characteristics of structural cement and concrete is presented. This work connects experimental efforts in characterizing cement and concrete in the frequency and time domains with the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) modeling efforts of these substances. These efforts include Electromagnetic (EM) modeling of simple lossless homogeneous materials with aggregate and targets and the modeling dispersive and lossy materials with aggregate and complex target geometries for Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar (GPIR). Two- and three-dimensional FDTD codes (developed at LLNL) where used for the modeling efforts. Purpose of the experimental and modeling efforts is to gain knowledge about the electrical properties of concrete typically used in the construction industry for bridges and other load bearing structures. The goal is to optimize the performance of a high-sample-rate impulse radar and data acquisition system and to design an antenna system to match the characteristics of this material. Results show agreement to within 2 dB of the amplitudes of the experimental and modeled data while the frequency peaks correlate to within 10% the differences being due to the unknown exact nature of the aggregate placement.

  15. Translation of EMS: clinical practice and system oversight from core content study guide to best practices implementation in an Urban EMS system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataris, Katie; Mercer, Mary; Brown, John

    2015-01-01

    Since 2009, the seminal text in emergency medical services (EMS) medicine has been used to guide the academic development of the new subspecialty but direct application of the material into EMS oversight has not been previously described. The EMS/Disaster Medicine fellowship program at our institution scheduled a monthly meeting to systematically review the text and develop a study guide to assist the fellow and affiliated faculty in preparation for the board examination. In addition to the summary of chapter content, the review included an assessment of areas from each chapter subject where our EMS system did not exhibit recommended characteristics. A matrix was developed in the form of a gap analysis to include specific recommendations based on each perceived gap. Initial review and completion dates for each identified gap enable tracking and a responsible party. This matrix assisted the fellow with development of projects for EMS system improvement in addition to focusing and prioritizing the work of other interested physicians working in the system. By discussing expert recommendations in the setting of an actual EMS system, the faculty can teach the fellow how to approach system improvements based on prior experiences and current stakeholders. This collaborative environment facilitates system-based practice and practice-based learning, aligning with ACGME core competencies. Our educational model has demonstrated the success of translating the text into action items for EMS systems. This model may be useful in other systems and could contribute to the development of EMS system standards nationwide.

  16. Modelo de dimensionamento otimizado para sistemas energéticos renováveis em ambientes rurais Optimized sizing model for renewable energy systems in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. C. Nogueira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo o desenvolvimento de novo modelo para dimensionamento de sistemas integrados de recursos energéticos renováveis, aplicados a ambientes rurais, a partir da utilização de ferramentas de simulação e otimização desenvolvidas em MATLAB 6.0. O dimensionamento realizado apresenta custo mínimo e atende a determinado nível de confiabilidade desejado para o sistema, baseado no conceito de probabilidade de perda de fornecimento de energia à carga (LPSP para horas consecutivas. Um modelo de otimização é apresentado e três diferentes cenários de dimensionamento são calculados e comparados, mostrando a flexibilidade na elaboração de diferentes concepções de projeto. Os resultados obtidos contemplam o dimensionamento completo dos dispositivos de conversão energética e análise de custos do sistema.The purpose of this research was to develop a methodology for sizing integrated renewable energy systems, useful for rural areas, using simulation and optimization tools developed in MATLAB 6.0. The sizing model produces a system with minimum cost and high reliability level, based on the concept of loss of power supply probability (LPSP for consecutive hours. An optimization model is presented and three different sizing scenarios are calculated and compared, showing flexibility in the elaboration of different project conceptions. The obtained results show a complete sizing of the energy conversion devices and a long-term cost evaluation.

  17. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-05-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5-4.5Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders' overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Modelo hipercubo integrado a um algoritmo genético para análise de sistemas médicos emergenciais em rodovias The hypercube queuing model integrated to a genetic algorithm to analyze emergency medical systems on highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Iannoni

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O modelo hipercubo, conhecido na literatura de problemas de localização de sistemas servidor para cliente, é um modelo baseado em teoria de filas espacialmente distribuídas e aproximações Markovianas. O modelo pode ser modificado para analisar os sistemas de atendimentos emergenciais (SAEs em rodovias, considerando as particularidades da política de despacho destes sistemas. Neste estudo, combinou-se o modelo hipercubo com um algoritmo genético para otimizar a configuração e operação de SAEs em rodovias. A abordagem é efetiva para apoiar decisões relacionadas ao planejamento e operação destes sistemas, por exemplo, em determinar o tamanho ideal para as áreas de cobertura de cada ambulância, de forma a minimizar o tempo médio de resposta aos usuários e o desbalanceamento das cargas de trabalho das ambulâncias. Os resultados computacionais desta abordagem foram analisados utilizando dados reais do sistema Anjos do Asfalto (rodovia Presidente Dutra.The hypercube model, well-known in the literature on problems of server-to-customer localization systems, is based on the spatially distributed queuing theory and Markovian analysis approximations. The model can be modified to analyze Emergency Medical Systems (EMSs on highways, considering the particularities of these systems' dispatching policies. In this study, we combine the hypercube model with a genetic algorithm to optimize the configuration and operation of EMSs on highways. This approach is effective to support planning and operation decisions, such as determining the ideal size of the area each ambulance should cover to minimize not only the average time of response to the user but also ambulance workload imbalances, as well as generating a Pareto efficient boundary between these measures. The computational results of this approach were analyzed using real data Anjos do Asfalto EMS (which covers the Presidente Dutra highway.

  19. Functionalized anatomical models for EM-neuron Interaction modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Esra; Cassará, Antonino Mario; Montanaro, Hazael; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    The understanding of interactions between electromagnetic (EM) fields and nerves are crucial in contexts ranging from therapeutic neurostimulation to low frequency EM exposure safety. To properly consider the impact of in vivo induced field inhomogeneity on non-linear neuronal dynamics, coupled EM-neuronal dynamics modeling is required. For that purpose, novel functionalized computable human phantoms have been developed. Their implementation and the systematic verification of the integrated anisotropic quasi-static EM solver and neuronal dynamics modeling functionality, based on the method of manufactured solutions and numerical reference data, is described. Electric and magnetic stimulation of the ulnar and sciatic nerve were modeled to help understanding a range of controversial issues related to the magnitude and optimal determination of strength-duration (SD) time constants. The results indicate the importance of considering the stimulation-specific inhomogeneous field distributions (especially at tissue interfaces), realistic models of non-linear neuronal dynamics, very short pulses, and suitable SD extrapolation models. These results and the functionalized computable phantom will influence and support the development of safe and effective neuroprosthetic devices and novel electroceuticals. Furthermore they will assist the evaluation of existing low frequency exposure standards for the entire population under all exposure conditions.

  20. Efficacy of terbinafine and itraconazole on a experimental model of systemic sporotrichosis Eficiência de terbinafina e itraconazol em um modelo experimental de esporotricose sistêmica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Raquel Mano Meinerz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Itraconazole is currently considered the drug of choice to treat the diverse clinical presentation of sporotrichosis. On the other hand terbinafine by virtue of its excellent in vitro activity is under comparative evaluation for its therapeutic potential for a wide range of fungal infections. In this study, our aim was to determine the in vivo efficacy of terbinafine and itraconazole on a experimental model of systemic sporotrichosis. 120 rats Wistar received an injection of 2x10³ S. schenckii cells by via the lateral tail vein. After 3 days the animals were treated with terbinafine (250mg/kg and itraconazole (100 mg/kg and their respective diluents. In our model, terbinafine and itraconazole were effective in reducing the number of clinical lesions and positive organ cultures. There was statistical difference between the groups treated with the antifungals in relation to the control groups (pItraconazol é atualmente considerado a droga de escolha para o tratamento das diferentes formas clínicas da esporotricose. Por outro lado a terbinafina devido a sua excelente atividade in vitro está sendo avaliada quanto ao seu potencial terapêutico frente a diversas infecções fúngicas. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a eficácia in vivo da terbinafina e itraconazol em um modelo de esporotricose experimental sistêmica. 120 ratos Wistar receberam uma injeção de 2x10³ células de S. schenckii pela veia lateral da cauda. Após 3 dias os animais foram tratados com terbinafina (250mg/kg e itraconazol (100mg/kg e os seus respectivos diluentes. No modelo experimental estudado, a terbinafina e itraconazol se mostraram efetivos reduzindo o número de sintomas clínicos e retroisolamento positivo para o agente. Houve diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos tratados com os antifúngicos em relação aos grupos controle (p<0,05 nas alterações clínicas, achados anatomopatológicos e no retroisolamento do agente, sendo que os animais tratados

  1. Probabilistic modeling of wind energy sources integrated in a conventional power system; Modelagem probabilistica de fontes eolicas de energia integradas em sistema de potencia convencional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalence, G.W.H.

    1990-06-15

    This work describes a model capable of including non-conventional energy sources into a stochastic energy production model for conventional power sources. A wind energy system is initially considered as statistically independent of the hourly demand. The correlation between two wind systems is then considered by means of a joint wind speed distribution. The joint wind system is thereafter submitted to the stochastic energy production model considering independence between demand and wind speed. Finally the correlation wind systems and the hourly demand is studied. (author). 29 figs, 31 tabs

  2. Low Diversity Bacterial Community and the Trapping Activity of Metabolites from Cultivable Bacteria Species in the Female Reproductive System of the Oriental Fruit Fly, <em>Bactrocera dorsalisem> Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to identify the bacteria inhabiting the reproductive system of the female oriental fruit fly, <em>Bactrocera dorsalisem> (Hendel, and evaluate the chemotaxis of <em>B>. <em>dorsalis> to the metabolites produced by the bacteria. Based on 16S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE, 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were assigned to the five bacterial classes <em>Betaproteobacteria>, <em>Alphaproteobacteria>, <em>Gammaproteobacteria>, <em>Bacilli> and <em>Actinobacteria>. Nine OTUs were assigned to <em>Gammaproteobacteria>, which was the most highly represented class. <em>Enterobacteriaceae> constituted the dominant family, and within this family, three genera and five species were identified, including <em>Enterobacter sakazakiiem>, <em>Klebsiella> <em>oxytoca>, <em>Klebsiella> <em>pneumoniae,> Raoultellaem> <em>terrigena em>and <em>Enterobacter> <em>amnigenus>. In this set, the first two species were the dominant components, and the latter three species were the minor ones. Finally, we found that the metabolites produced by <em>R.> terrigenaem>, <em>K. oxytocaem> and <em>K.> pneumoniae em>were attractive to the <em>B.> dorsalisem> adults, and in field studies, <em>B.> dorsalisem> adults were most attracted to <em>K.> oxytocaem>. Collectively, our results suggest that the female reproductive system plays an important role in the transfer of enterobacteria from the gut to fruit. Our data may prompt the development of a female-targeted population control strategy for this fly.

  3. The State of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Systems in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mould-Millman, Nee-Kofi; Dixon, Julia M; Sefa, Nana; Yancey, Arthur; Hollong, Bonaventure G; Hagahmed, Mohamed; Ginde, Adit A; Wallis, Lee A

    2017-06-01

    Introduction Little is known about the existence, distribution, and characteristics of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems in Africa, or the corresponding epidemiology of prehospital illness and injury. A survey was conducted between 2013 and 2014 by distributing a detailed EMS system questionnaire to experts in paper and electronic versions. The questionnaire ascertained EMS systems' jurisdiction, operations, finance, clinical care, resources, and regulatory environment. The discovery of respondents with requisite expertise occurred in multiple phases, including snowball sampling, a review of published scientific literature, and a rigorous search of the Internet. The survey response rate was 46%, and data represented 49 of 54 (91%) African countries. Twenty-five EMS systems were identified and distributed among 16 countries (30% of African countries). There was no evidence of EMS systems in 33 (61%) countries. A total of 98,574,731 (8.7%) of the African population were serviced by at least one EMS system in 2012. The leading causes of EMS transport were (in order of decreasing frequency): injury, obstetric, respiratory, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal complaints. Nineteen percent of African countries had government-financed EMS systems and 26% had a toll-free public access telephone number. Basic emergency medical technicians (EMTs) and Basic Life Support (BLS)-equipped ambulances were the most common cadre of provider and ambulance level, respectively (84% each). Emergency Medical Services systems exist in one-third of African countries. Injury and obstetric complaints are the leading African prehospital conditions. Only a minority (system. Most systems were predominantly BLS, government operated, and fee-for-service. Mould-Millman NK , Dixon JM , Sefa N , Yancey A , Hollong BG , Hagahmed M , Ginde AA , Wallis LA . The state of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems in Africa. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(3):273-283.

  4. User's guide for the PWR LOCA analysis capability of the WRAP-EM system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beranek, F; Gregory, M V

    1980-02-01

    The Water Reactor Analysis Package (WRAP) has been expanded to provide the capability to analyze loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) in both pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs) by using evaluation models (EMs). The input specifications for modules in the WRAP-EM system are presented in this document along with the JOSHUA input templates. This document, along with the WRAP user's guide, provides a step-by-step procedure for setting up a PWR data base for the WRAP-EM system. 12 refs.

  5. Ranking transmission projects in large scale systems using an AC power flow model; Priorizacao de obras em sistemas de grande porte usando um modelo AC da rede

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, A.C.G. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fontoura Filho, R.N. [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Peres, L.A.P. Pecorelli [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Morozowski Filho, M. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Initially, this paper summarizes the approach developed by the Brazilian Planning Criteria Working Group (GTCP/ELETROBRAS) for identifying which subset of transmission investments should be postponed to meet a pre-stablished budget constraint with the least possible impact on system performance. Next, this paper presents the main features of the computational model PRIO, which allows the application of the ranking process to large scale power systems (2,000 buses and 3,000 circuits), with as many as 100 projects to be ranked. In this model, the adequacy analysis of each system state is carried out through an AC power flow coupled to a successive linear programming based remedial actions model. Case studies with the IEEE-RTS system and a configuration of the Brazilian Southeastern are presented and discussed. (author) 7 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Optimized sizing model for renewable energy systems in rural areas; Modelo de dimensionamento otimizado para sistemas energeticos renovaveis em ambiente rurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Carlos E.C. [UNIOESTE, Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas]. E-mail: cecn@correios.net.br; Zuern, Hans H. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica

    2005-05-15

    The purpose of this research was to develop a methodology for sizing integrated renewable energy systems, useful for rural areas, using simulation and optimization tools developed in MATLAB 6.0. The sizing model produces a system with minimum cost and high reliability level, based on the concept of loss of power supply probability (LPSP) for consecutive hours. An optimization model is presented and three different sizing scenarios are calculated and compared, showing flexibility in the elaboration of different project conceptions. The obtained results show a complete sizing of the energy conversion devices and a long-term cost evaluation. (author)

  7. Evaluation of "Pampa-Corte" simulation model in different beef cattle fattening systems in Spain Desempenho do modelo "Pampa-Corte" em diferentes sistemas de terminação de bovinos na Espanha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Celestino Pires Silveira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Pampa-Corte model was developed to simulate the growth of beef cattle in grazing systems in a dynamic and mechanistic way. It was validated under Brazilian conditions. This paper aims to verify the performance of the model in conventional and alternative beef cattle finishing systems in Spain. An experimental dataset of 21 Parda de Montaña calves of similar age and weight at weaning was used to evaluate the model. They were slaughtered individually on reaching 450kg liveweight. The model considered genetic group maturity rather than breed, in order to adjust growth parameters, once Parda de Montaña breed is not contemplated by AFRC (1993. Parameters from late maturing group were initially used considering adult animal size of Parda de Montaña animals; however, the best fit was with values from the early maturing group. The model predicted accurately animal growth in grazing and conventional finishing systems in Spain, although estimates were less precise when changes in animal management involved physiologic modifications.O modelo Pampa Corte foi desenvolvido para simular de forma dinâmica e mecanistica o crescimento de bovinos de corte em sistemas de pastejo, sendo validado nas condições de produção brasileiras. Este trabalho tem como finalidade demonstrar a performance do modelo em situações de engorda tradicionais e alternativos de bovinos de corte na Espanha. Com essa finalidade, foram utilizados dados de 21 animais inteiros da raça Parda de Montanha com similar idade e peso de desmame e que foram abatidos individualmente quando atingiram o peso vivo de 450kg. O modelo considera grupos genéticos no ajuste de seus parâmetros conforme AFRC (1993, entretanto, a raça Parda de Montanha não é contemplada em suas tabelas. Devido ao seu tamanho adulto, inicialmente, foram considerados os parâmetros referentes ao grupo tardio de maturidade, entretanto, os melhores ajustes ocorreram ao serem utilizados os parâmetros de animais de

  8. Environmental Management Systems (EMS Adoption in Sarawak (Malaysia: Implementation Motivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Lee Ho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental management has been in the process of evolution since Industrial Revolutions of 18th and 19th centuries. And the more recent is the development of international environmental management standards and guidelines to facilitate global trade. These environmental management standards and guidelines are usually known as Environmental Management Systems (EMS. This research investigates the implementation motivations in relation to EMS adoption in Sarawak, Malaysia organizations. Empirical findings of a survey on the above in Sarawak organizations are presented. About 112 survey questionnaires invitations were forwarded to various organizations in Sarawak and a total of 47 responses were received. The results of this research show that among the Sarawak organizations, the top three implementation motivations or benefits from implementing EMS according to their importance by the Sarawak EMS user’s organizations are 1 Legal compliance as the top benefit of EMS implementation; 2 Improvement in operational environmental protection; and 3 Corporate image advantages.

  9. Managing chamois (<em>Rupicapra rupicapraem> populations: a model with macroparasites infection and host dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosà

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The following paper contains a mathematical model for the analysis of temporal variations of a chamois (<em>Rupicapra rupicapraem> L.-Trichostrongylidae free-living system in the Brenta area (Trentino, Italy under different harvesting regimes. The numerical values of the parameters of the model were obtained through the analysis of population counts and the parasitological surveys obtained during a four year study. Different harvesting regimes could affect differently the dynamics both of the host population and its parasites. Simple demographic analysis seems to suggest that the culling of older individuals is appropriate. However, if we insert a parameter into the system which considers immunity to parasitic infection then the culling of younger individuals becomes more appropriate for the maintenance of health and population size.

  10. Modelagem da polimerização simultânea de estireno em suspensão e emulsão Modeling styrene simultaneous suspension and emulsion polymerization systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo K. Lenzi

    2004-06-01

    polymerizations, while emulsion polymerization constituents are added during the batch. The influence of the moment when emulsion feed is started on the course of the polymerization and the effects on the polymer properties are analyzed. A mathematical model is developed to describe the behavior of the system. Simulation data obtained with the proposed model are in good agreement with experimental conversion, average molecular weight and molecular weight distribution data. It was observed that the polymer particle morphology and the average molecular weight change very significantly with the emulsion feed time and that such changes can lead to bimodal molecular weight distributions. Core-shell polymer particles were obtained, with the core being formed by polymer particles from the suspension polymerization process and the shell formed by polymer particles from the emulsion one.

  11. Aplicação de um Modelo Reológico Não-Linear em Sistemas Poliméricos Dilatantes Application of Non-Linear Rheological Model to Shear-Tickening Polymeric Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo F. Navarro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A dilatância é um comportamento reológico comum a vários sistemas poliméricos embora não ocorra em polímeros puros. Existem várias teorias aplicáveis à explicação desse fenômeno e alguns modelos matemáticos para o ajuste de dados experimentais de quatro de suas seis formas de ocorrência. Neste trabalho é dado enfoque à dilatância antecedida por um comportamento newtoniano e sucedida pelo comportamento pseudoplástico. Para ajustar dados constantes da literatura para sistemas desse tipo, é apresentado um modelo híbrido e não-linear. Para o teste do modelo foram utilizados dados existentes na literatura para solução de alfa,ômega poli(t-butilestireno em óleo mineral e suspensão de partículas do copolímero de estireno com acrilato de metila em solução aquosa de poli(ácido acrílico. O modelo proposto apresenta boa concordância com os dados experimentais.Shear-thickening (dilatant behavior is common in several polymeric systems, but not in pure polymers. There are many theories that can be used to describe shear-thickening and some mathematical models that fit experimental data of three of its six types: dilatant, newtonian-dilatant, newtonian-dilatant-pseudoplastic, viscoplastic-dilatant, pseudoplastic-dilatant and newtonian-pseudoplastic-newtonian-dilatant sequences. This work deals with the behavior of newtonian-dilatant-pseudoplastic sequence behavior and proposes a hybrid, non-linear and viscous model to fit the experimental data from systems that present such rheological behavior. The systems under investigation were: a solution of alpha,omega poly(t-butylstyrene in a mineral oil (3g/dl (sample 1 and b suspension of styrene -- methyl acrylate copolymer (S-co-MA particles (15% vol. in a poly(acrylic acid (PAA (1% wt and water solution (sample 2. The proposed model agrees with the experimental data analysed.

  12. Modelling of the knowledge for monitoring expert systems in nuclear power plant safety; Modelagem do conhecimento para sistemas inteligentes de monitoracao em seguranca de usinas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Liana; Schirru, Roberto; Martinez, Aquilino S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1997-12-01

    Safety operation support systems for NPP faced problems of difficult solutions along their development. This work presents possible solution to such problems, and contribute to enhance the reliability and performance of such system using Artificial Intelligence. Knowledge representation is capital in this work since it express the dependence on variables in a rather natural way. therefore, it makes intrinsic the concepts of synchronism and concurrence in real-time approach. Other advantages are easy V and V processes and simplification of the system maintenance procedures. The inference process is carried out through the rules that are generated from knowledge base. These rules are charged following a conflict resolution optimized for time-real approach. The real application used to validate the model efficiency, consists in part of SICA (Integrated System of the Angra-1 Computers). The application results revealed very positive reducing the quantity of the SICA conventional software code programming. As far the system performance. the knowledge structures and the conflict resolution strategy adopted allowed for guarantee not only the time control for inference, but also a response time compatible with that requested for power plant safety support. (author) 12 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Abastecimento de água e esgotamento sanitário: estudo comparado de modelos de gestão em Santa Catarina Water supply and sewerage system: comparative study of management models in Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Paludo

    2013-03-01

    conclusión de que los modelos de gestión son decisiones importantes que afectan el resultado de las políticas aplicadas.This article is a comparative analysis of management water supply and sewerage system of municipalities of Indaial and Itapema (Santa Catarina. The context was described as a synthesis of the diagnosis on the water situation at the global and national regulatory frame work of water supply and sewerage system in Brazil and Santa Catarina. Among the features are compared: the historical, socioeconomic, environmental policies, and especially the political context and the results of two selected cases. The general data were based on information available in public documents, academic studies, official web pages, in order to standardize the parameters. The period compared accompanies the beginning of the discussion of the problem, ie, from 2003 until 2009. The experiences of two cities analyzed led to the conclusion that the models of management are important decisions that influence the outcome of policies.

  14. Methodology and basic algorithms of the Livermore Economic Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.B.

    1981-03-17

    The methodology and the basic pricing algorithms used in the Livermore Economic Modeling System (EMS) are described. The report explains the derivations of the EMS equations in detail; however, it could also serve as a general introduction to the modeling system. A brief but comprehensive explanation of what EMS is and does, and how it does it is presented. The second part examines the basic pricing algorithms currently implemented in EMS. Each algorithm's function is analyzed and a detailed derivation of the actual mathematical expressions used to implement the algorithm is presented. EMS is an evolving modeling system; improvements in existing algorithms are constantly under development and new submodels are being introduced. A snapshot of the standard version of EMS is provided and areas currently under study and development are considered briefly.

  15. A Monte Carlo Approach to Modeling the Breakup of the Space Launch System EM-1 Core Stage with an Integrated Blast and Fragment Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Erin; Hays, M. J.; Blackwood, J. M.; Skinner, T.

    2014-01-01

    The Liquid Propellant Fragment Overpressure Acceleration Model (L-FOAM) is a tool developed by Bangham Engineering Incorporated (BEi) that produces a representative debris cloud from an exploding liquid-propellant launch vehicle. Here it is applied to the Core Stage (CS) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS launch vehicle). A combination of Probability Density Functions (PDF) based on empirical data from rocket accidents and applicable tests, as well as SLS specific geometry are combined in a MATLAB script to create unique fragment catalogues each time L-FOAM is run-tailored for a Monte Carlo approach for risk analysis. By accelerating the debris catalogue with the BEi blast model for liquid hydrogen / liquid oxygen explosions, the result is a fully integrated code that models the destruction of the CS at a given point in its trajectory and generates hundreds of individual fragment catalogues with initial imparted velocities. The BEi blast model provides the blast size (radius) and strength (overpressure) as probabilities based on empirical data and anchored with analytical work. The coupling of the L-FOAM catalogue with the BEi blast model is validated with a simulation of the Project PYRO S-IV destruct test. When running a Monte Carlo simulation, L-FOAM can accelerate all catalogues with the same blast (mean blast, 2 s blast, etc.), or vary the blast size and strength based on their respective probabilities. L-FOAM then propagates these fragments until impact with the earth. Results from L-FOAM include a description of each fragment (dimensions, weight, ballistic coefficient, type and initial location on the rocket), imparted velocity from the blast, and impact data depending on user desired application. LFOAM application is for both near-field (fragment impact to escaping crew capsule) and far-field (fragment ground impact footprint) safety considerations. The user is thus able to use statistics from a Monte Carlo

  16. Iteration Capping For Discrete Choice Models Using the EM Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabatek, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is a well-established estimation procedure which is used in many domains of econometric analysis. Recent application in a discrete choice framework (Train, 2008) facilitated estimation of latent class models allowing for very exible treatment of unobserved

  17. FDTD modeling of EM field inside microwave cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, Shiv; Kanth, V Krushna

    2017-01-01

    This book deals with the EM analysis of closed microwave cavities based on a three-dimensional FDTD method. The EM analysis is carried out for (i) rectangular microwave ovens and (ii) hybrid-cylindrical microwave autoclaves at 2.45 GHz. The field distribution is first estimated inside domestic rectangular ovens in xy-, yz-, and zx-plane. Further, the RF leakage from the oven door is determined to study the effect of leakage radiation on wireless communication at 2.45 GHz. Furthermore, the EM analysis of the autoclave is carried out based on 3D FDTD using staircase approximation. In order to show the capability of autoclaves (excited with five source) for curing the aerospace components and materials, the field distribution inside autoclave cavity is studied in presence of aerospace samples. The FDTD based modelling of oven and autoclave are explained with the appropriate expressions and illustrations.

  18. Modeling of System Families

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feiler, Peter

    2007-01-01

    .... The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Architecture Analysis & Design Language (AADL) is an industry-standard, architecture-modeling notation specifically designed to support a component- based approach to modeling embedded systems...

  19. Modelling Railway Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Morten Peter; Viuf, P.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2000-01-01

    In this report we present a model of interlocking systems, and describe how the model may be validated by simulation. Station topologies are modelled by graphs in which the nodes denote track segments, and the edges denote connectivity for train traÆc. Points and signals are modelled by annotatio...

  20. EM modeling of RF drive in DTL tank 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurennoy, Sergey S.

    2012-01-01

    A 3-D MicroWave Studio model for the RF drive in the LANSCE DTL tank 4 has been built. Both eigensolver and time-domain modeling are used to evaluate maximal fields in the drive module and RF coupling. The LANSCE DTL tank 4 has recently been experiencing RF problems, which may or may not be related to its replaced RF coupler. This situation stimulated a request by Dan Rees to provide EM modeling of the RF drive in the DTL tank 4 (T4). Jim O'Hara provided a CAD model that was imported into the CST Microwave Studio (MWS) and after some modifications became a part of a simplified MWS model of the T4 RF drive. This technical note describes the model and presents simulation results.

  1. The Genome of <em>Sulfolobus acidocaldariusem>, a Model Organism of the <em>Crenarchaeota>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Lanming; Brügger, Kim; Skovgaard, M.

    2005-01-01

    tokodaii. The S. acidocaldarius genome contains an integrated, and probably encaptured, pARN-type conjugative plasmid which may facilitate intercellular chromosomal gene exchange in S. acidocaldarius. Moreover, it contains genes for a characteristic restriction modification system, a UV damage excision...... repair system, thermopsin, and an aromatic ring dioxygenase, all of which are absent from genomes of other Sulfolobus species. However, it lacks genes for some of their sugar transporters, consistent with it growing on a more limited range of carbon sources. These results, together with the many newly...

  2. RSMASS system model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, A.C.; Gallup, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    RSMASS system mass models have been used for more than a decade to make rapid estimates of space reactor power system masses. This paper reviews the evolution of the RSMASS models and summarizes present capabilities. RSMASS has evolved from a simple model used to make rough estimates of space reactor and shield masses to a versatile space reactor power system model. RSMASS uses unique reactor and shield models that permit rapid mass optimization calculations for a variety of space reactor power and propulsion systems. The RSMASS-D upgrade of the original model includes algorithms for the balance of the power system, a number of reactor and shield modeling improvements, and an automatic mass optimization scheme. The RSMASS-D suite of codes cover a very broad range of reactor and power conversion system options as well as propulsion and bimodal reactor systems. Reactor choices include in-core and ex-core thermionic reactors, liquid metal cooled reactors, particle bed reactors, and prismatic configuration reactors. Power conversion options include thermoelectric, thermionic, Stirling, Brayton, and Rankine approaches. Program output includes all major component masses and dimensions, efficiencies, and a description of the design parameters for a mass optimized system. In the past, RSMASS has been used as an aid to identify and select promising concepts for space power applications. The RSMASS modeling approach has been demonstrated to be a valuable tool for guiding optimization of the power system design; consequently, the model is useful during system design and development as well as during the selection process. An improved in-core thermionic reactor system model RSMASS-T is now under development. The current development of the RSMASS-T code represents the next evolutionary stage of the RSMASS models. RSMASS-T includes many modeling improvements and is planned to be more user-friendly. RSMASS-T will be released as a fully documented, certified code at the end of

  3. Maximum Likelihood in a Generalized Linear Finite Mixture Model by Using the EM Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.C.

    A generalized linear finite mixture model and an EM algorithm to fit the model to data are described. By this approach the finite mixture model is embedded within the general framework of generalized linear models (GLMs). Implementation of the proposed EM algorithm can be readily done in statistical

  4. Systemic resilience model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, Jonas; Johansson, Björn JE

    2015-01-01

    It has been realized that resilience as a concept involves several contradictory definitions, both for instance resilience as agile adjustment and as robust resistance to situations. Our analysis of resilience concepts and models suggest that beyond simplistic definitions, it is possible to draw up a systemic resilience model (SyRes) that maintains these opposing characteristics without contradiction. We outline six functions in a systemic model, drawing primarily on resilience engineering, and disaster response: anticipation, monitoring, response, recovery, learning, and self-monitoring. The model consists of four areas: Event-based constraints, Functional Dependencies, Adaptive Capacity and Strategy. The paper describes dependencies between constraints, functions and strategies. We argue that models such as SyRes should be useful both for envisioning new resilience methods and metrics, as well as for engineering and evaluating resilient systems. - Highlights: • The SyRes model resolves contradictions between previous resilience definitions. • SyRes is a core model for envisioning and evaluating resilience metrics and models. • SyRes describes six functions in a systemic model. • They are anticipation, monitoring, response, recovery, learning, self-monitoring. • The model describes dependencies between constraints, functions and strategies

  5. Selected System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Eisenlohr, F.; Puñal, O.; Klagges, K.; Kirsche, M.

    Apart from the general issue of modeling the channel, the PHY and the MAC of wireless networks, there are specific modeling assumptions that are considered for different systems. In this chapter we consider three specific wireless standards and highlight modeling options for them. These are IEEE 802.11 (as example for wireless local area networks), IEEE 802.16 (as example for wireless metropolitan networks) and IEEE 802.15 (as example for body area networks). Each section on these three systems discusses also at the end a set of model implementations that are available today.

  6. Um sistema de ventrículo pulmonar produzindo pressão pulsátil em único ventrículo: modelo experimental A pulmonary ventricle system producing pulsatile pressure in single ventricle: experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgein Emrecan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Pacientes com ventrículo único funcional têm prognóstico ruim, que resulta em insuficiência cardíaca, mesmo após tratamento cirúrgico. As operações derivação cavo-pulmonar (exceto pelas conexões do átrio direito ao ventrículo direito não apresentam sistema ventricular pulmonar com pressão pulsátil, além do fluxo reduzido ao ventrículo único. Para resolver o problema, tentamos criar um ventrículo pulmonar que produza pressão pulsátil experimentalmente. MÉTODO: Tentamos criar um sistema ventricular direito que produzisse pressão pulsátil. O modelo experimental foi realizado em seis ovelhas. As pressões do ventrículo pulmonar criado, da artéria pulmonar e do ventrículo esquerdo foram medidas após a saída da circulação extracorpórea. RESULTADOS: A média das pressões arteriais pulmonares sistólica e diastólica foi 15,6 ± 2,0 mmHg e 4,5 ± 1,5 mmHg. A média da pressão sistólica ventricular esquerda foi 76,6 ± 4,4 mmHg. CONCLUSÃO: Um ventrículo que produza pressão pulsátil é necessário para a regulação do fluxo da artéria pulmonar, com pressão venosa central e pressão pulmonar não pulsátil nas anomalias como ventrículos únicos funcionais.OBJECTIVE: Patients with functional single ventricle show bad survey, most of which result in cardiac failure even in the case that they are operated. The right heart bypass operations except for right atrium and right ventricle connections lack pulsatile pulmonary ventricle system besides the volume lack coming to the common ventricle. To solve the problem, we tried to create a pulmonary ventricle which produces pulsatile pressure experimentally. METHODS: We tried to form a right ventricle system which produces pulsatile pressure. The experimental model was carried on six sheep. The pressures of the created pulmonary ventricle, pulmonary artery and the left ventricle were measured after leaving the cardiopulmonary bypass. RESULTS: The mean of the

  7. Modeling cellular systems

    CERN Document Server

    Matthäus, Franziska; Pahle, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    This contributed volume comprises research articles and reviews on topics connected to the mathematical modeling of cellular systems. These contributions cover signaling pathways, stochastic effects, cell motility and mechanics, pattern formation processes, as well as multi-scale approaches. All authors attended the workshop on "Modeling Cellular Systems" which took place in Heidelberg in October 2014. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  8. On the modeling of planetary plasma environments by a fully kinetic electromagnetic global model HYB-em

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pohjola

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a fully kinetic electromagnetic model to study instabilities and waves in planetary plasma environments. In the particle-in-a-cell (PIC model both ions and electrons are modeled as particles. An important feature of the developed global kinetic model, called HYB-em, compared to other electromagnetic codes is that it is built up on an earlier quasi-neutral hybrid simulation platform called HYB and that it can be used in conjunction with earlier hybrid models. The HYB models have been used during the past ten years to study globally the flowing plasma interaction with various Solar System objects: Mercury, Venus, the Moon, Mars, Saturnian moon Titan and asteroids. The new stand-alone fully kinetic model enables us to (1 study the stability of various planetary plasma regions in three-dimensional space, (2 analyze the propagation of waves in a plasma environment derived from the other global HYB models. All particle processes in a multi-ion plasma which are implemented on the HYB platform (e.g. ion-neutral-collisions, chemical processes, particle loss and production processes are also automatically included in HYB-em model.

    In this brief report we study the developed approach by analyzing the propagation of high frequency electromagnetic waves in non-magnetized plasma in two cases: We study (1 expansion of a spherical wave generated from a point source and (2 propagation of a plane wave in plasma. The analysis shows that the HYB-em model is capable of describing these space plasma situations successfully. The analysis also suggests the potential of the developed model to study both high density-high magnetic field plasma environments, such as Mercury, and low density-low magnetic field plasma environments, such as Venus and Mars.

  9. On the modeling of planetary plasma environments by a fully kinetic electromagnetic global model HYB-em

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pohjola

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a fully kinetic electromagnetic model to study instabilities and waves in planetary plasma environments. In the particle-in-a-cell (PIC model both ions and electrons are modeled as particles. An important feature of the developed global kinetic model, called HYB-em, compared to other electromagnetic codes is that it is built up on an earlier quasi-neutral hybrid simulation platform called HYB and that it can be used in conjunction with earlier hybrid models. The HYB models have been used during the past ten years to study globally the flowing plasma interaction with various Solar System objects: Mercury, Venus, the Moon, Mars, Saturnian moon Titan and asteroids. The new stand-alone fully kinetic model enables us to (1 study the stability of various planetary plasma regions in three-dimensional space, (2 analyze the propagation of waves in a plasma environment derived from the other global HYB models. All particle processes in a multi-ion plasma which are implemented on the HYB platform (e.g. ion-neutral-collisions, chemical processes, particle loss and production processes are also automatically included in HYB-em model. In this brief report we study the developed approach by analyzing the propagation of high frequency electromagnetic waves in non-magnetized plasma in two cases: We study (1 expansion of a spherical wave generated from a point source and (2 propagation of a plane wave in plasma. The analysis shows that the HYB-em model is capable of describing these space plasma situations successfully. The analysis also suggests the potential of the developed model to study both high density-high magnetic field plasma environments, such as Mercury, and low density-low magnetic field plasma environments, such as Venus and Mars.

  10. Modelling of wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Henrik

    Oxygen Demand) flux and SS flux in the inlet to the WWTP. COD is measured by means of a UV absorption sensor while SS is measured by a turbidity sensor. These models include a description of the deposit of COD and SS amounts, respectively, in the sewer system, and the models can thus be used to quantify......In this thesis, models of pollution fluxes in the inlet to 2 Danish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as well as of suspended solids (SS) concentrations in the aeration tanks of an alternating WWTP and in the effluent from the aeration tanks are developed. The latter model is furthermore used...... to analyze and quantify the effect of the Aeration Tank Settling (ATS) operating mode, which is used during rain events. Furthermore, the model is used to propose a control algorithm for the phase lengths during ATS operation. The models are mainly formulated as state space model in continuous time...

  11. Integrating Green Purchasing Into Your Environmental Management System (EMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this report is to help Federal facilities integrate green purchasing into their EMS. The intended audience includes those tasked with implementing an EMS, reducing environmental impacts, meeting green purchasing requirements.

  12. Effect of Calcium and Potassium on Antioxidant System of <em>Vicia fabaem> L. Under Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayssam M. Ali

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd in soil poses a major threat to plant growth and productivity. In the present experiment, we studied the effect of calcium (Ca2+ and/or potassium (K+ on the antioxidant system, accumulation of proline (Pro, malondialdehyde (MDA, and content of photosynthetic pigments, cadmium (Cd and nutrients, <em>i.e.>, Ca2+ and K+ in leaf of <em>Vicia faba em>L. (cv. TARA under Cd stress. Plants grown in the presence of Cd exhibited reduced growth traits [root length (RL plant−1, shoot length (SL plant−1, root fresh weight (RFW plant−1, shoot fresh weight (SFW plant−1, root dry weight (RDW plant−1 and shoot dry weight (SDW plant−1] and concentration of Ca2+, K+, Chlorophyll (Chl <em>a> and Chl <em>b em>content, except content of MDA, Cd and (Pro. The antioxidant enzymes [peroxidase (POD and superoxide dismutase (SOD] slightly increased as compared to control under Cd stress. However, a significant improvement was observed in all growth traits and content of Ca2+, K+, Chl <em>a>, Chl <em>b em>,Pro and activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT, POD and SOD in plants subjected to Ca2+ and/or K+. The maximum alleviating effect was recorded in the plants grown in medium containing Ca2+ and K+ together. This study indicates that the application of Ca2+ and/or K+ had a significant and synergistic effect on plant growth. Also, application of Ca2+ and/or K+ was highly effective against the toxicity of Cd by improving activity of antioxidant enzymes and solute that led to the enhanced plant growth of faba bean plants.

  13. Efficient Blind System Identification of Non-Gaussian Auto-Regressive Models with HMM Modeling of the Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chunjian; Andersen, Søren Vang

    2007-01-01

    noise. For both models, exact EM algorithms are derived for the joint estimation of all system parameters. The exact EM algorithms are obtainable only by appropriate constraints in the model design, and have better convergence properties than algorithms employing generalized EM algorithm or empirical...... iterative schemes. The proposed methods also enjoy good data efficiency since only second order statistics is involved in the computation. When measurement noise is present, a novel Switching Kalman Smoother is incorporated into the EM algorithm, obtaining optimum nonlinear MMSE estimates of the system...

  14. Modeling Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boccara, Nino

    2010-01-01

    Modeling Complex Systems, 2nd Edition, explores the process of modeling complex systems, providing examples from such diverse fields as ecology, epidemiology, sociology, seismology, and economics. It illustrates how models of complex systems are built and provides indispensable mathematical tools for studying their dynamics. This vital introductory text is useful for advanced undergraduate students in various scientific disciplines, and serves as an important reference book for graduate students and young researchers. This enhanced second edition includes: . -recent research results and bibliographic references -extra footnotes which provide biographical information on cited scientists who have made significant contributions to the field -new and improved worked-out examples to aid a student’s comprehension of the content -exercises to challenge the reader and complement the material Nino Boccara is also the author of Essentials of Mathematica: With Applications to Mathematics and Physics (Springer, 2007).

  15. Lean principles adoption in environmental management system (EMS - ISO 14001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Puvanasvaran

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the characteristic of the lean principles into ISO 14001 and to propose linkage of the lean principles and ISO 14001.Design/methodology/approach: To achieve the objective of the study, literature survey and quantitative research method using questionnaires survey are used.Findings and Originality/value: The findings of this study confirm that ISO 14001 certified company adopted lean production practices.  The study also proves that lean principles have positive and significant relationship with ISO 14001 EMS and the linkage can be made between lean principles and ISO 14001 to achieve Continual Improvement.Research limitations/implications: The small sizes of the sample of the participating companies are the main limitations of this study and this research mainly focuses on the manufacturing environment and services industry.Practical implications: This research show that all ISO 14001 companies do adopt at least one lean production practices and the main findings are lean principles has positive and highly significant relationship with ISO 14001 requirements.  This is because the integration of lean principles into ISO 14001 will serve practical methods for ISO14001 EMS to achieve the continual improvement.Originality/value: This research is amongst the first to study the combined lean principles with ISO 1400.  Based on the current situation, there is no integration within this two management system

  16. Modeling Complex Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckenberg, M

    2004-01-01

    This book by Nino Boccara presents a compilation of model systems commonly termed as 'complex'. It starts with a definition of the systems under consideration and how to build up a model to describe the complex dynamics. The subsequent chapters are devoted to various categories of mean-field type models (differential and recurrence equations, chaos) and of agent-based models (cellular automata, networks and power-law distributions). Each chapter is supplemented by a number of exercises and their solutions. The table of contents looks a little arbitrary but the author took the most prominent model systems investigated over the years (and up until now there has been no unified theory covering the various aspects of complex dynamics). The model systems are explained by looking at a number of applications in various fields. The book is written as a textbook for interested students as well as serving as a comprehensive reference for experts. It is an ideal source for topics to be presented in a lecture on dynamics of complex systems. This is the first book on this 'wide' topic and I have long awaited such a book (in fact I planned to write it myself but this is much better than I could ever have written it!). Only section 6 on cellular automata is a little too limited to the author's point of view and one would have expected more about the famous Domany-Kinzel model (and more accurate citation!). In my opinion this is one of the best textbooks published during the last decade and even experts can learn a lot from it. Hopefully there will be an actualization after, say, five years since this field is growing so quickly. The price is too high for students but this, unfortunately, is the normal case today. Nevertheless I think it will be a great success! (book review)

  17. Modeling the earth system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojima, D. [ed.

    1992-12-31

    The 1990 Global Change Institute (GCI) on Earth System Modeling is the third of a series organized by the Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies to look in depth at particular issues critical to developing a better understanding of the earth system. The 1990 GCI on Earth System Modeling was organized around three themes: defining critical gaps in the knowledge of the earth system, developing simplified working models, and validating comprehensive system models. This book is divided into three sections that reflect these themes. Each section begins with a set of background papers offering a brief tutorial on the subject, followed by working group reports developed during the institute. These reports summarize the joint ideas and recommendations of the participants and bring to bear the interdisciplinary perspective that imbued the institute. Since the conclusion of the 1990 Global Change Institute, research programs, nationally and internationally, have moved forward to implement a number of the recommendations made at the institute, and many of the participants have maintained collegial interactions to develop research projects addressing the needs identified during the two weeks in Snowmass.

  18. On the Slow Convergence of EM and VBEM in Low-Noise Linear Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kaare Brandt; Winther, Ole; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2005-01-01

    We analyze convergence of the expectation maximization (EM) and variational Bayes EM (VBEM) schemes for parameter estimation in noisy linear models. The analysis shows that both schemes are inefficient in the low-noise limit. The linear model with additive noise includes as special cases...

  19. Tilt - ellips and rho - phase modelling of VLF EM and VLF R in Candi Umbul Magelang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affanti, Adella Putri; Niasari, Sintia Windhi

    2017-07-01

    A research for geothermal energy is increased due to the need of green energy. The presence of geothermal manifestations indicate the existence of geothermal system. One of the geothermal manifestations is warm spring. CandiUmbul area which located in Telomoyo, Magelang has warm spring as the geothermal manifestation. Very Low Frequency (VLF) is one of geophysical method that can be used to map the subsurface in Candi Umbul, Telomoyo. VLF is a method using electromagnetic field that powered and transferred by the transmitter. The receiver read the electromagnetic signal which induce the rock and give information about the conductivity as the physical property measurred. In this research, after collecting and processing data, we modeled tilt-ellips data of VLF-EM and rho-phase data of VLF-R to explain the geothermal system of Candi Umbul. Both VLF-EM and VLF-R model were correlated for the interpretation. The model showed an anomalous conductive feature beneath the research area. The result of this research showed that the anomaly is oriented in NW-SE direction. This direction is assumed as a fluid path way of Candi Umbul which became the outflow of Telomoyo geothermal system. To prove the early deduction this research is still on going.

  20. Cloning, Phylogenetic Analysis and 3D Modeling of a Putative Lysosomal Acid Lipase from the Camel, <em>Camelus dromedariusem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Shokry Ataya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Acid lipase belongs to a family of enzymes that is mainly present in lysosomes of different organs and the stomach. It is characterized by its capacity to withstand acidic conditions while maintaining high lipolytic activity. We cloned for the first time the full coding sequence of camel’s lysosomal acid lipase, <em>cLIPA em>using RT-PCR technique (Genbank accession numbers JF803951 and AEG75815, for the nucleotide and aminoacid sequences respectively. The cDNA sequencing revealed an open reading frame of 1,197 nucleotides that encodes a protein of 399 aminoacids which was similar to that from<em> em>other related mammalian species. Bioinformatic analysis was used to determine the aminoacid sequence, 3D structure and phylogeny of cLIPA. Bioinformatics analysis suggested the molecular weight of the translated protein to be 45.57 kDa, which could be decreased to 43.16 kDa after the removal of a signal peptide comprising the first 21 aminoacids. The deduced <em>cLIPA em>sequences exhibited high identity with <em>Equus caballus em>(86%, <em>Numascus leucogenysem> (85%, <em>Homo sapiensem> (84%,<em> Sus scrofaem> (84%, <em>Bos taurus em>(82% and <em>Ovis aries em>(81%. cLIPA shows high aminoacid sequence identity with human and dog-gastric lipases (58%, and 59% respectively which makes it relevant to build a 3D structure model for cLIPA. The comparison confirms the presence of the catalytic triad and the oxyanion hole in cLIPA. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that camel <em>cLIPA em>is grouped with monkey, human, pig, cow and goat. The level of expression of <em>cLIPA em>in five camel tissues was examined using Real Time-PCR. The highest level of <em>cLIPA em>transcript was found in the camel testis (162%, followed by spleen (129%, liver (100%, kidney (20.5% and lung (17.4%.

  1. Information Systems Efficiency Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos Koch

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution discusses the basic concept of creating a new model for the efficiency and effectiveness assessment of company information systems. The present trends in this field are taken into account, and the attributes are retained of measuring the optimal solutions for a company’s ICT (the implementation, functionality, service, innovations, safety, relationships, costs, etc.. The proposal of a new model of assessment comes from our experience with formerly implemented and employed methods, methods which we have modified in time and adapted to companies’ needs but also to the necessaries of our research that has been done through the ZEFIS portal. The most noteworthy of them is the HOS method that we have discussed in a number of forums. Its main feature is the fact that it respects the complexity of an information system in correlation with the balanced state of its individual parts.

  2. The PX-EM algorithm for fast stable fitting of Henderson's mixed model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Dyk David A

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents procedures for implementing the PX-EM algorithm of Liu, Rubin and Wu to compute REML estimates of variance covariance components in Henderson's linear mixed models. The class of models considered encompasses several correlated random factors having the same vector length e.g., as in random regression models for longitudinal data analysis and in sire-maternal grandsire models for genetic evaluation. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the procedures. Much better results in terms of convergence characteristics (number of iterations and time required for convergence are obtained for PX-EM relative to the basic EM algorithm in the random regression.

  3. EMS Stretcher “Misadventures” in a Large, Urban EMS System: A Descriptive Analysis of Contributing Factors and Resultant Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Goodloe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. There is a paucity of data regarding EMS stretcher-operation-related injuries. This study describes and analyzes characteristics associated with undesirable stretcher operations, with or without resultant injury in a large, urban EMS agency. Methods. In the study agency, all stretcher-related “misadventures” are required to be documented, regardless of whether injury results. All stretcher-related reports between July 1, 2009 and June 30, 2010 were queried in retrospective analysis, avoiding Hawthorne effect in stretcher operations. Results. During the year studied, 129,110 patients were transported. 23 stretcher incidents were reported (0.16 per 1,000 transports. No patient injury occurred. Four EMS providers sustained minor injuries. Among contributing aspects, the most common involved operations surrounding the stretcher-ambulance safety latch, 14/23 (60.9%. From a personnel injury prevention perspective, there exists a significant relationship between combative patients and crew injury related to stretcher operation, Fisher’s exact test 0.048. Conclusions. In this large, urban EMS system, the incidence of injury related to stretcher operations in the one-year study period is markedly low, with few personnel injuries and no patient injuries incurred. Safety for EMS personnel and patients could be advanced by educational initiatives that highlight specific events and conditions contributing to stretcher-related adverse events.

  4. Fully anisotropic 3-D EM modelling on a Lebedev grid with a multigrid pre-conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaysaval, Piyoosh; Shantsev, Daniil V.; de la Kethulle de Ryhove, Sébastien; Bratteland, Tarjei

    2016-12-01

    We present a numerical algorithm for 3-D electromagnetic (EM) simulations in conducting media with general electric anisotropy. The algorithm is based on the finite-difference discretization of frequency-domain Maxwell's equations on a Lebedev grid, in which all components of the electric field are collocated but half a spatial step staggered with respect to the magnetic field components, which also are collocated. This leads to a system of linear equations that is solved using a stabilized biconjugate gradient method with a multigrid preconditioner. We validate the accuracy of the numerical results for layered and 3-D tilted transverse isotropic (TTI) earth models representing typical scenarios used in the marine controlled-source EM method. It is then demonstrated that not taking into account the full anisotropy of the conductivity tensor can lead to misleading inversion results. For synthetic data corresponding to a 3-D model with a TTI anticlinal structure, a standard vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) inversion is not able to image a resistor, while for a 3-D model with a TTI synclinal structure it produces a false resistive anomaly. However, if the VTI forward solver used in the inversion is replaced by the proposed TTI solver with perfect knowledge of the strike and dip of the dipping structures, the resulting resistivity images become consistent with the true models.

  5. Covariance Structure Model Fit Testing under Missing Data: An Application of the Supplemented EM Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li; Lee, Taehun

    2009-01-01

    We apply the Supplemented EM algorithm (Meng & Rubin, 1991) to address a chronic problem with the "two-stage" fitting of covariance structure models in the presence of ignorable missing data: the lack of an asymptotically chi-square distributed goodness-of-fit statistic. We show that the Supplemented EM algorithm provides a…

  6. Global Convergence of the EM Algorithm for Unconstrained Latent Variable Models with Categorical Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Convergence of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to a global optimum of the marginal log likelihood function for unconstrained latent variable models with categorical indicators is presented. The sufficient conditions under which global convergence of the EM algorithm is attainable are provided in an information-theoretic context by…

  7. Behaviour of oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells in an experimental model of toxic demyelination of the central nervous system Comportamento de oligodendrócitos e células de Schwann em modelo experimental de desmielinização tóxica do sistema nervoso central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominguita Lühers Graça

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells are engaged in myelin production, maintenance and repairing respectively in the central nervous system (CNS and the peripheral nervous system (PNS. Whereas oligodendrocytes act only within the CNS, Schwann cells are able to invade the CNS in order to make new myelin sheaths around demyelinated axons. Both cells have some limitations in their activities, i.e. oligodendrocytes are post-mitotic cells and Schwann cells only get into the CNS in the absence of astrocytes. Ethidium bromide (EB is a gliotoxic chemical that when injected locally within the CNS, induce demyelination. In the EB model of demyelination, glial cells are destroyed early after intoxication and Schwann cells are free to approach the naked central axons. In normal Wistar rats, regeneration of lost myelin sheaths can be achieved as early as thirteen days after intoxication; in Wistar rats immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide the process is delayed and in rats administered cyclosporine it may be accelerated. Aiming the enlightening of those complex processes, all events concerning the myelinating cells in an experimental model are herein presented and discussed.Oligodendrócitos e células de Schwann realizam a produção e manutenção das bainhas de mielina, respectivamente no sistema nervoso central (SNC e periférico (SNP. As células de Schwann, à diferença dos oligodendrócitos, são capazes de invadir o SNC para remielinizar axônios desmielinizados, sempre que os astrócitos tenham sido destruídos. O brometo de etídio é uma droga gliotóxica usada para induzir desmielinização com o desaparecimento precoce de astrócitos, de modo que as células de Schwann têm liberdade para invadir o SNC. Em ratos Wistar normais, a remielinização é detectada treze dias após desmielinização; em ratos Wistar imunossuprimidos com ciclofosfamida a reparação do tecido é tardia, enquanto que em animais tratados com ciclosporina ela

  8. Endometriose: modelo experimental em ratas Endometriosis: experimental model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Schor

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: divulgar a metodologia da indução de endometriose experimental em animais de laboratório. Método: utilizamos ratas albinas, virgens, adultas de aproximadamente três meses de idade, que foram inicialmente anestesiadas pelo éter etílico. Aberta a cavidade abdominal, identificamos os cornos uterinos e retiramos um fragmento de aproximadamente 4 cm do corno uterino direito. Esse fragmento foi mergulhado em solução fisiológica e sob lupa estereoscópica foi separado o endométrio do miométrio e feitos retângulos de aproximadamente 4 por 5 mm. Esses foram fixados por meio de fio de sutura, sobre vasos sangüíneos visíveis a olho nu, na parede lateral do abdômen, tomando-se sempre o cuidado de manter a porção do endométrio livre voltada para a luz da cavidade abdominal. Após 21 dias os animais foram novamente operados para verificarmos o tamanho dos implantes e para retirada do endométrio ectópico para análise histológica. Resultados: macroscopicamente observamos crescimento significativo dos implantes endometriais. Ao exame microscópico pudemos observar a presença de epitélio glandular e estroma semelhantes ao do endométrio tópico. Conclusões: o modelo utilizado reproduz a doença, em ratas, sendo método auxiliar de valia para estudar esta afecção, principalmente a ação de medicamentos sobre esses implantes.Purpose: to demonstrate the experimental endometriosis induction in animals. Method: we used adult female Wistar rats weighing 200 - 250 g anesthetized with ethyl ether to open the abdominal cavity. After identifying the uterine horns, we removed an approximately 4 cm fragment from the right uterine horn. This fragment was placed in physiological saline and, with the aid of a stereoscopic magnifying glass, the endometrium was separated from the myometrium and cut into rectangles of approximately 4 x 5 mm. These rectangles were fastened to the lateral abdominal wall near great blood vessels, taking care

  9. Modelling LGMD2 visual neuron system

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Qinbing; Yue, Shigang

    2015-01-01

    Two Lobula Giant Movement Detectors (LGMDs) have been identified in the lobula region of the locust visual system: LGMD1 and LGMD2. LGMD1 had been successfully used in robot navigation to avoid impending collision. LGMD2 also responds to looming stimuli in depth, and shares most the same properties with LGMD1; however, LGMD2 has its specific collision selective responds when dealing with different visual stimulus. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel way to model LGMD2, in order to em...

  10. A heuristic model for planning problem solution of reactive in electric power systems; Um modelo heuristico para solucao do problema de planejamento de reativos em sistemas de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantovani, Jose Roberto Sanches

    1995-02-01

    This work introduces a model to solve the planning problem of reactive in electric power systems. The proposed method uses mixed integer linear programming and is solved using implicit enumeration (binary search). The special heuristics to reduce candidates' initial set and to obtain discreet solutions are adopted. They were going accomplished two algorithm implementations, one sequential and other parallel. The implementation parallel uses an asynchronous programming model and is adjusted for distributed memory computer. Defined a bars candidates set for the new reactive sources allocation, the developed program supplies the location and the reactive sources magnitude that must be allocated in the system, considering safety and operation restrictions. The implementation parallel performance is evaluated for three real systems of 309, 725 and 810 bars. The results for the test systems IEEE30 and IEEE118, and the three real systems used in the implementation parallel evaluation are also presented.

  11. A fuzzy set decision making model applied to electric power systems operation planning; Um modelo de decisao baseado em conjuntos nebulosos aplicado ao planejamento da operacao de sistemas de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenca, Mauricio Mendonca

    1993-05-01

    The power system static operation planning has a main objective the determination of performance strategies which satisfy operational criteria. A fuzzy set decision model which takes the load attainment and the compromise between optimality and critical operational constraints into account is presented. The prime characteristic of this methodology is the incorporation of the planner`s preferences structure in a decision process modeled by fuzzy sets. A routine of optimal power flow calculation is used as a computational tool for solving the nonlinear model of the electric power system and for defining the universe of discourse of the decision-making problem. tests were carried on a 30-bus IEEE system in order to find a compromise solution of electric operational goal versus reactive power generation limits. Results and conclusions are presented. (author) 28 refs., 32 figs.

  12. Model-based local density sharpening of cryo-EM maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobi, Arjen J; Wilmanns, Matthias; Sachse, Carsten

    2017-10-23

    Atomic models based on high-resolution density maps are the ultimate result of the cryo-EM structure determination process. Here, we introduce a general procedure for local sharpening of cryo-EM density maps based on prior knowledge of an atomic reference structure. The procedure optimizes contrast of cryo-EM densities by amplitude scaling against the radially averaged local falloff estimated from a windowed reference model. By testing the procedure using six cryo-EM structures of TRPV1, β-galactosidase, γ-secretase, ribosome-EF-Tu complex, 20S proteasome and RNA polymerase III, we illustrate how local sharpening can increase interpretability of density maps in particular in cases of resolution variation and facilitates model building and atomic model refinement.

  13. State-space models - from the EM algorithm to a gradient approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Rasmus Kongsgaard; Petersen, Kaare Brandt; Lehn-Schiøler, Tue

    2007-01-01

    Slow convergence is observed in the EM algorithm for linear state-space models. We propose to circumvent the problem by applying any off-the-shelf quasi-Newton-type optimizer, which operates on the gradient of the log-likelihood function. Such an algorithm is a practical alternative due to the fact...... that the exact gradient of the log-likelihood function can be computed by recycling components of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. We demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method in three relevant instances of the linear state-space model. In high signal-to-noise ratios, where EM is particularly...

  14. Use of the AIC with the EM algorithm: A demonstration of a probability model selection technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glosup, J.G.; Axelrod M.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The problem of discriminating between two potential probability models, a Gaussian distribution and a mixture of Gaussian distributions, is considered. The focus of our interest is a case where the models are potentially non-nested and the parameters of the mixture model are estimated through the EM algorithm. The AIC, which is frequently used as a criterion for discriminating between non-nested models, is modified to work with the EM algorithm and is shown to provide a model selection tool for this situation. A particular problem involving an infinite mixture distribution known as Middleton`s Class A model is used to demonstrate the effectiveness and limitations of this method.

  15. Multi-beam backscatter image data processing techniques employed to EM 1002 system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, W.A.; Chakraborty, B.

    to compensate outer-beam backscatter strength data in such a way that the effect of angular backscatter strength is removed. In this work we have developed backscatter data processing techniques for EM1002 multi-beam system...

  16. Using Molecular Simulation to Model High-Resolution Cryo-EM Reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmizialtin, Serdal; Loerke, Justus; Behrmann, Elmar; Spahn, Christian M T; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y

    2015-01-01

    An explosion of new data from high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) studies has produced a large number of data sets for many species of ribosomes in various functional states over the past few years. While many methods exist to produce structural models for lower resolution cryo-EM reconstructions, high-resolution reconstructions are often modeled using crystallographic techniques and extensive manual intervention. Here, we present an automated fitting technique for high-resolution cryo-EM data sets that produces all-atom models highly consistent with the EM density. Using a molecular dynamics approach, atomic positions are optimized with a potential that includes the cross-correlation coefficient between the structural model and the cryo-EM electron density, as well as a biasing potential preserving the stereochemistry and secondary structure of the biomolecule. Specifically, we use a hybrid structure-based/ab initio molecular dynamics potential to extend molecular dynamics fitting. In addition, we find that simulated annealing integration, as opposed to straightforward molecular dynamics integration, significantly improves performance. We obtain atomistic models of the human ribosome consistent with high-resolution cryo-EM reconstructions of the human ribosome. Automated methods such as these have the potential to produce atomistic models for a large number of ribosome complexes simultaneously that can be subsequently refined manually. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of Applications to Improve the Energy Savings in Residential Buildings Based on Systemic Quality Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Fonseca i Casas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Creating a definition of the features and the architecture of a new Energy Management Software (EMS is complex because different professionals will be involved in creating that definition and in using the tool. To simplify this definition and aid in the eventual selection of an existing EMS to fit a specific need, a set of metrics that considers the primary issues and drawbacks of the EMS is decisive. This study proposes a set of metrics to evaluate and compare EMS applications. Using these metrics will allow professionals to highlight the tendencies and detect the drawbacks of current EMS applications and to eventually develop new EMS applications based on the results of the analysis. This study presents a list of the applications to be examined and describes the primary issues to be considered in the development of a new application. This study follows the Systemic Quality Model (SQMO, which has been used as a starting point to develop new EMS, but can also be used to select an existing EMS that fits the goals of a company. Using this type of analysis, we were able to detect the primary features desired in an EMS software. These features are numerically scaled, allowing professionals to select the most appropriate EMS that fits for their purposes. This allows the development of EMS utilizing an iterative and user-centric approach. We can apply this methodology to guide the development of future EMS and to define the priorities that are desired in this type of software.

  18. QSAR Modeling on Benzo[<em>c>]phenanthridine Analogues as Topoisomerase I Inhibitors and Anti-cancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi-Ngoc-Phuong Huynh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Benzo[<em>c>]phenanthridine (BCP derivatives were identified as topoisomerase I (TOP-I targeting agents with pronounced antitumor activity. In this study, hologram-QSAR, 2D-QSAR and 3D-QSAR models were developed for BCPs on topoisomerase I inbibitory activity and cytotoxicity against seven tumor cell lines including RPMI8402, CPT-K5, P388, CPT45, KB3-1, KBV-1and KBH5.0. The hologram, 2D, and 3D-QSAR models were obtained with the square of correlation coefficient R2 = 0.58 − 0.77, the square of the crossvalidation coefficient q2 = 0.41 − 0.60 as well as the external set’s square of predictive correlation coefficient r2 = 0.51 − 0.80. Moreover, the assessment method based on reliability test with confidence level of 95% was used to validate the predictive power of QSAR models and to prevent over-fitting phenomenon of classical QSAR models. Our QSAR model could be applied to design new analogues of BCPs with higher antitumor and topoisomerase I inhibitory activity.

  19. The Rasch Poisson Counts Model for Incomplete Data: An Application of the EM Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Margo G. H.

    1995-01-01

    The Rasch Poisson counts model is a latent trait model for the situation in which "K" tests are administered to "N" examinees and the test score is a count (repeated number of some event). A mixed model is presented that applies the EM algorithm and that can allow for missing data. (SLD)

  20. Characterization of the interaction between the human pathogen <em>Listeria monocytogenesem> and the model host <em>C. elegansem>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karina T.; Nielsen, Jesper S.; Hansen, Annie A.

    . In addition, C. elegans is a promising model for the identification of novel virulence factors in various pathogens. A large number of human, animal, plant and insect pathogens have been shown to kill the worm, when C. elegans was allowed to feed on pathogens in stead of its normal laboratory diet [1....... elegans. Finally, we have developed a liquid based killing assay which enables us to set up a high-throughput screening system for the identification of L. monocytogenes virulence genes required for host-pathogen interactions.     References:   [1]: Kurz, C. L., and Ewbank, J. J. (2007) Curr Opin...

  1. Modeling and estimating system availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaver, D.P.; Chu, B.B.

    1976-11-01

    Mathematical models to infer the availability of various types of more or less complicated systems are described. The analyses presented are probabilistic in nature and consist of three parts: a presentation of various analytic models for availability; a means of deriving approximate probability limits on system availability; and a means of statistical inference of system availability from sparse data, using a jackknife procedure. Various low-order redundant systems are used as examples, but extension to more complex systems is not difficult

  2. 3D time-domain airborne EM forward modeling with topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Changchun; Qi, Yanfu; Liu, Yunhe; Cai, Jing

    2016-11-01

    The time-domain finite-difference method has been widely used in simulation of the electromagnetic field diffusion. However, this method is severely restricted by the mesh size and time step. To overcome the defect, we adopted edge finite-element method for unstructured grid with Backward Euler method to conduct 3D airborne electromagnetic forward modeling directly in time-domain. The tetrahedral meshes provide the flexibility required for representing the rugged topography and complex-shape anomalous bodies. We simulated the practical shape, size and attitude of transmitting source by directly setting the loop into the well-generated grids. The characteristic properties of vector basic functions guarantee automatic satisfaction of divergence-free property of electric fields. The Galerkin's method is used to discretize the governing equations and a direct solver is adopted to solve the large sparse linear system. We adopted an algorithm with constant step in each time segment to speed up the forward modeling. Further we introduced the local mesh strategy to reduce the calculations, in which an optimized grid is designed for each sounding station. We check the accuracy of our 3D modeling results against the solution for a homogenous half-space and those for a buried vertical plate model using integral equation. The numerical experiments for a hill, a valley or undulating topography model with buried anomalous bodies were further studied that show that the topography has a serious effect on airborne EM data.

  3. Collegiate-based emergency medical services (EMS): a survey of EMS systems on college campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jonathan; Ray, Adam; Savett, Scott C; Milliron, Mark E; Koenig, George J

    2006-01-01

    Collegiate-based emergency medical systems (CBEMS) are a unique model for the delivery of prehospital care. The National Collegiate Emergency Medical Services Foundation (NCEMSF) was founded to serve as a resource for CBEMS groups. The purpose of this investigation is to describe the current state of CBEMS organizations. The NCEMSF maintains a Web-based, data collection system to gather data on CBEMS organizations. Collegiate-based emergency medical services are defined as emergency medical services in a university or college campus setting. The abstracted data from the NCEMSF registry were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The NCEMSF registry contained data on 175 groups, and 145 groups were identified as providing CBEMS. The levels of service provided by the groups were: (1) first responder, 8.3%; (2) basic life support (BLS) 66.2%; (3) intermediate life support (ILS) 4.8%; (4) advanced life support (ALS), 9.7%; and (5) combination BLS/ALS, 8.3%. Transport capabilities were provided by 31.7% of the CBEMS. The average response time was estimated at 2.6 minutes (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.35-2.91 minutes). Early defibrillation using a automated external defibrillator (AED) or ALS was available by 75.9% (95% CI, 68.8-83.0) of CBEMS. Service to the community beyond the campus was provided by 21.3% of CBEMS groups. Forty-eight percent of the services operate 24 hours/day, seven days/week. The average call volume per year was 568 responses (95% CI, 315-820), and the groups averaged 29 (95% CI, 25-34) members. During the past five years, an average of 4.3 new CBEMS groups were formed per year. Eleven of the CBEMS are based at international schools.

  4. Incubator embedded cell culture imaging system (EmSight) based on Fourier ptychographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho; Henley, Beverley M; Kim, Charlene H; Lester, Henry A; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-08-01

    Multi-day tracking of cells in culture systems can provide valuable information in bioscience experiments. We report the development of a cell culture imaging system, named EmSight, which incorporates multiple compact Fourier ptychographic microscopes with a standard multiwell imaging plate. The system is housed in an incubator and presently incorporates six microscopes. By using the same low magnification objective lenses as the objective and the tube lens, the EmSight is configured as a 1:1 imaging system that, providing large field-of-view (FOV) imaging onto a low-cost CMOS imaging sensor. The EmSight improves the image resolution by capturing a series of images of the sample at varying illumination angles; the instrument reconstructs a higher-resolution image by using the iterative Fourier ptychographic algorithm. In addition to providing high-resolution brightfield and phase imaging, the EmSight is also capable of fluorescence imaging at the native resolution of the objectives. We characterized the system using a phase Siemens star target, and show four-fold improved coherent resolution (synthetic NA of 0.42) and a depth of field of 0.2 mm. To conduct live, long-term dopaminergic neuron imaging, we cultured ventral midbrain from mice driving eGFP from the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter. The EmSight system tracks movements of dopaminergic neurons over a 21 day period.

  5. Modelling of reverberation enhancement systems

    OpenAIRE

    ROUCH , Jeremy; Schmich , Isabelle; Galland , Marie-Annick

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Electroacoustic enhancement systems are increasingly specified by acoustic consultants to address the requests for a multi-purpose use of performance halls. However, there is still a lack of simple models to predict the effect induced by these systems on the acoustic field. Two models are introduced to establish the impulse responses of a room equipped with a reverberation enhancement system. These models are based on passive impulse responses according to the modified...

  6. MODELLING OF MATERIAL FLOW SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    PÉTER TELEK

    2012-01-01

    Material flow systems are in generally very complex processes. During design, building and operation of complex systems there are many different problems. If these complex processes can be described in a simple model, the tasks will be clearer, better adaptable and easier solvable. As the material flow systems are very different, so using models is a very important aid to create uniform methods and solutions. This paper shows the details of the application possibilities of modelling in the ma...

  7. Dynamic Modeling of ALS Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of dynamic modeling and simulation of Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems is to help design them. Static steady state systems analysis provides basic information and is necessary to guide dynamic modeling, but static analysis is not sufficient to design and compare systems. ALS systems must respond to external input variations and internal off-nominal behavior. Buffer sizing, resupply scheduling, failure response, and control system design are aspects of dynamic system design. We develop two dynamic mass flow models and use them in simulations to evaluate systems issues, optimize designs, and make system design trades. One model is of nitrogen leakage in the space station, the other is of a waste processor failure in a regenerative life support system. Most systems analyses are concerned with optimizing the cost/benefit of a system at its nominal steady-state operating point. ALS analysis must go beyond the static steady state to include dynamic system design. All life support systems exhibit behavior that varies over time. ALS systems must respond to equipment operating cycles, repair schedules, and occasional off-nominal behavior or malfunctions. Biological components, such as bioreactors, composters, and food plant growth chambers, usually have operating cycles or other complex time behavior. Buffer sizes, material stocks, and resupply rates determine dynamic system behavior and directly affect system mass and cost. Dynamic simulation is needed to avoid the extremes of costly over-design of buffers and material reserves or system failure due to insufficient buffers and lack of stored material.

  8. Modeling soft interface dominated systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamorgese, A.; Mauri, R.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    The two main continuum frameworks used for modeling the dynamics of soft multiphase systems are the Gibbs dividing surface model, and the diffuse interface model. In the former the interface is modeled as a two dimensional surface, and excess properties such as a surface density, or surface energy

  9. Validation of systems biology models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasdemir, D.

    2015-01-01

    The paradigm shift from qualitative to quantitative analysis of biological systems brought a substantial number of modeling approaches to the stage of molecular biology research. These include but certainly are not limited to nonlinear kinetic models, static network models and models obtained by the

  10. From Numeric Models to Granular System Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Pedrycz

    2015-03-01

    To make this study self-contained, we briefly recall the key concepts of granular computing and demonstrate how this conceptual framework and its algorithmic fundamentals give rise to granular models. We discuss several representative formal setups used in describing and processing information granules including fuzzy sets, rough sets, and interval calculus. Key architectures of models dwell upon relationships among information granules. We demonstrate how information granularity and its optimization can be regarded as an important design asset to be exploited in system modeling and giving rise to granular models. With this regard, an important category of rule-based models along with their granular enrichments is studied in detail.

  11. A fragment based method for modeling of protein segments into cryo-EM density maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismer, Jochen; Rose, Alexander S; Tiemann, Johanna K S; Hildebrand, Peter W

    2017-11-13

    Single-particle analysis of electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is a key technology for elucidation of macromolecular structures. Recent technical advances in hardware and software developments significantly enhanced the resolution of cryo-EM density maps and broadened the applicability and the circle of users. To facilitate modeling of macromolecules into cryo-EM density maps, fast and easy to use methods for modeling are now demanded. Here we investigated and benchmarked the suitability of a classical and well established fragment-based approach for modeling of segments into cryo-EM density maps (termed FragFit). FragFit uses a hierarchical strategy to select fragments from a pre-calculated set of billions of fragments derived from structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank, based on sequence similarly, fit of stem atoms and fit to a cryo-EM density map. The user only has to specify the sequence of the segment and the number of the N- and C-terminal stem-residues in the protein. Using a representative data set of protein structures, we show that protein segments can be accurately modeled into cryo-EM density maps of different resolution by FragFit. Prediction quality depends on segment length, the type of secondary structure of the segment and local quality of the map. Fast and automated calculation of FragFit renders it applicable for implementation of interactive web-applications e.g. to model missing segments, flexible protein parts or hinge-regions into cryo-EM density maps.

  12. GIS-modelling the distribution of <em>Rattus norvegicusem> in urban areas using non toxic attractive baits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sacchi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract GIS supplies a useful way for analysing and modelling spatial distribution of brown rats <em>Rattus norvegicusem> in urban areas, supplying maps that predict the occurrence of rats over larger areas. However, two alternative procedures can be used: landscape-based models, which use habitat variables derived from remote sensing satellites or other thematic maps, and interpolation techniques, which convert point samples of species abundance. The first procedure has been previously applied, while the second has never been used until now. In this study, we valued the effectiveness of the interpolating procedure by modelling the distribution of brown rats in a large urban area of northern Italy. During spring and autumn 2004, we positioned non toxic baits in 119 spots distributed over the whole urbanized area of the city and we generated maps of rat presence/absence for the two seasons. Brown rats were irregularly scattered over the city and concentrated mainly around rivers and ditches, as well in the historic centre, particularly where buildings suffer poor maintenance. Seasonal variation of rat occurrence was also detected. Brown rat occurrence may be reliably predicted by the interpolation procedure, which appeared to be a more efficient approach to rat distribution modelling compared with landscape-based procedures. Riassunto Modelli GIS della distribuzione di <em>Rattus norvegicusem> in ambiente urbano con utilizzo di esche non tossiche. I programmi GIS rappresentano un utile strumento per analizzare e modellizzare la distribuzione del ratto delle chiaviche <em>Rattus norvegicusem> nelle aree urbane, fornendo mappe in grado di predire la presenza di questa specie su vaste aree. A questo scopo possono essere impiegate due procedure alternative: i modelli basati sul paesaggio, che utilizzano le caratteristiche ambientali desunte da mappe tematiche o immagini satellitari

  13. Coastal Modeling System Advanced Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    22 June 2012 - Day 5  Debugging and Problem solving  Model Calibration  Post-processing Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory Focus of...Efficiently: • The setup process is fast and without wasted time or effort 3 Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory 4 Coastal Modeling System (CMS) What...is the CMS? Integrated wave, current, and morphology change model in the Surface- water Modeling System (SMS). Why CMS? Operational at 10

  14. Safeguards system effectiveness modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, H.A.; Boozer, D.D.; Chapman, L.D.; Daniel, S.L.; Engi, D.; Hulme, B.L.; Varnado, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    A general methodology for the comparative evaluation of physical protection system effectiveness at nuclear facilities is presently under development. The approach is applicable to problems of sabotage or theft at fuel cycle facilities. The overall methodology and the primary analytic techniques used to assess system effectiveness are briefly outlined

  15. Safeguards system effectiveness modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, H.A.; Boozer, D.D.; Chapman, L.D.; Daniel, S.L.; Engi, D.; Hulme, B.L.; Varnado, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    A general methodology for the comparative evaluation of physical protection system effectiveness at nuclear facilities is presently under development. The approach is applicable to problems of sabotage or theft at fuel cycle facilities. In this paper, the overall methodology and the primary analytic techniques used to assess system effectiveness are briefly outlined

  16. Estimation of Item Response Models Using the EM Algorithm for Finite Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, David J.; Hanson, Bradley A.

    This paper presents a detailed description of maximum parameter estimation for item response models using the general EM algorithm. In this paper the models are specified using a univariate discrete latent ability variable. When the latent ability variable is discrete the distribution of the observed item responses is a finite mixture, and the EM…

  17. Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM): Background and Applications of Data Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM) project demonstrates the development of a comprehensive set of open source software tools that overcome obstacles to accessing data needed by automating the process of populating model input data sets with environmental data available fr...

  18. Use of the sensitivity analysis for multi-attributes decision models for oil exploration and production systems; Uso da analise de sensibilidade em modelos de decisao multiatributos para sistemas de exploracao e producao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Ricardo

    2000-07-01

    Today, oil companies must be able to survive in a hostile and competitive environment. Such environment involves volatility of oil prices, the narrow margins of profitability, and ever increasing environmental restrictions. In order to survive, firms must have the appropriate tools to consider the tradeoffs involving the financial, environmental, technological and of market parameters which are the key elements within the investment decision-making process. The aim of the present work is to analyze the behavior of the weights (relative importance) of the attributes int the multi-criteria decision model through a high dimension sensitivity analysis. Among the benefits of such method are: provide the analyst (decision-maker) with a better characterization and control of the weights of the attributes, providing the user with a clear view of the entire decision process. The methodology suggested in this dissertation was applied in two oil exploration and production case studies. The first case involved the selection of an exploratory target among three options. In this case, there is interaction of the objectives of the company, where financial, technological and of market parameters interact. In the second case, a hypothetical production project is suggested. For this second study, the decision-maker has the option of using one of the following production systems: a FPSO (Floating, Production, Storage and Offloading); a TLP (Tension Leg Platform); or a SS (Semi Submersible). The attributes for each one of the production systems are financial, technological and environmental. In this second case, the model makes it possible to simulate several options, providing the manager with the choice of the most appropriate production system to this objectives and preferences. (author)

  19. EM simulation assisted parameter extraction for the modeling of transferred-substrate InP HBTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Weimann, Nils; Doerner, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    3D EM simulations up to 325 GHz. Following an on-wafer multi-line Through-Reflect-Line (TRL) calibration procedure, the external parasitic network is de-embedded from the transistor measurements and the active device parameters are extracted in a reliable way. The small-signal model structure......In this paper an electromagnetic (EM) simulation assisted parameters extraction procedure is demonstrated for accurate modeling of down-scaled transferred-substrate InP HBTs. The external parasitic network associated with via transitions and device electrodes is carefully extracted from calibrated...

  20. Mechanical Systems, Classical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Teodorescu, Petre P

    2007-01-01

    All phenomena in nature are characterized by motion; this is an essential property of matter, having infinitely many aspects. Motion can be mechanical, physical, chemical or biological, leading to various sciences of nature, mechanics being one of them. Mechanics deals with the objective laws of mechanical motion of bodies, the simplest form of motion. In the study of a science of nature mathematics plays an important role. Mechanics is the first science of nature which was expressed in terms of mathematics by considering various mathematical models, associated to phenomena of the surrounding nature. Thus, its development was influenced by the use of a strong mathematical tool; on the other hand, we must observe that mechanics also influenced the introduction and the development of many mathematical notions. In this respect, the guideline of the present book is precisely the mathematical model of mechanics. A special accent is put on the solving methodology as well as on the mathematical tools used; vectors, ...

  1. Stochastic Modelling of Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis dynamic models of typical components in Danish heating systems are considered. Emphasis is made on describing and evaluating mathematical methods for identification of such models, and on presentation of component models for practical applications. The thesis consists of seven...... of component models, such as e.g. heat exchanger and valve models, adequate for system simulations. Furthermore, the thesis demonstrates and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using statistical methods in conjunction with physical knowledge in establishing adequate component models of heating...... research papers (case studies) together with a summary report. Each case study takes it's starting point in typical heating system components and both, the applied mathematical modelling methods and the application aspects, are considered. The summary report gives an introduction to the scope...

  2. Tools for the cryo-EM gold rush: going from the cryo-EM map to the atomistic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doo Nam; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y

    2017-12-22

    As cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) enters mainstream structural biology, the demand for fitting methods is high. Here, we review existing flexible fitting methods for cryo-EM. We discuss their importance, potential concerns and assessment strategies. We aim to give readers concrete descriptions of cryo-EM flexible fitting methods with corresponding examples. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Tools for the cryo-EM gold rush: going from the cryo-EM map to the atomistic model

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Doo Nam; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y.

    2017-01-01

    As cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) enters mainstream structural biology, the demand for fitting methods is high. Here, we review existing flexible fitting methods for cryo-EM. We discuss their importance, potential concerns and assessment strategies. We aim to give readers concrete descriptions of cryo-EM flexible fitting methods with corresponding examples.

  4. Trophic systems and chorology: data from shrews, moles and voles of Italy preyed by the barn owl / Sistemi trofici e corologia: dati su <em>Soricidae>, <em>Talpidae> ed <em>Arvicolidae> d'Italia predati da <em>Tyto albaem> (Scopoli 1769

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longino Contoli

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In small Mammals biogeography, available data are up to now by far too scanty for elucidate the distribution of a lot of taxa, especially with regard to the absence from a given area. In this respect, standardized quantitative sampling techniques, like Owl pellets analysis can enable not only to enhance faunistic knowledges, but also to estimate the actual absence probability of a given taxon "m", lacking from the diet of an individual raptor. For the last purpose, the relevant frequencies of "m" in the other ecologically similar sites of the same raptor species diets are averaged ($f_m$ : the relevant standard error (multiplicated by a coefficient, according to the desired degree of accuracy, in relation of the integral of probabilities subtracted ($overline{F}_m - a E$: then, the probability that a single specimen is not pertaining to "m" is obtained ($P_0 = 1 - F_m + a E$; lastly, the desiderate accuracy probability ($P_d$ is chosen. Now, "$N_d$" (the number of individuals of all prey species in a single site needed for obtain, with the desired probability, a specimen at least of "m" is obtained through $$N = frac{ln P_d}{ln P_0}$$ Obviously, every site-diet with more than "N" preyed individuals and without any "i" specimen is considered to be lacking of such taxon. A "usefulness index" for the above purposes is outlined and checked about three raptors. Some exanples about usefulness of the Owl pellet analysis method in biogeography are given, concerning <em>Tyto albaem> diets in peninsular Italy about: - <em>Sorex minutusem>, lacking in some quite insulated areas; - <em>Sorex araneusem> (sensu stricto, after GRAF et al., 1979, present also in lowland areas in Emilia-Romagna; - <em>Crocidura suaveolensem> and - <em>Suncus etruscusem>, present also in the southermost part of Calabria (Reggio province; - <em>Talpa caecaem>, present also in the Antiapennines of Latium (Cimini mounts; - <em>Talpa romanaem

  5. Resilience analysis for agricultural systems of north China plain based on a dynamic system model Análise de elasticidade para sistemas agrícolas da planície do norte da China baseada em um modelo dinâmico de sistema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Li

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of resilience theory to understand agricultural systems in the Luancheng County of the North China Plain. A dynanic system model coupled with social, economic and ecological subsystems of agriculture for the Luancheng County was constructed with a time step of one month. The model includes five main components, water resources, profitability, irrigation, crop yield and area. The simulated groundwater table, wheat area and yield, maize area and yield, and rural labor transfer reflected the general trend of the observed data, with calculated determination coefficients higher than 0.88. Resilience of agricultural systems, as indicated by agricultural profitability and food security, were explored for the Luancheng County. Initially, investments in agriculture increased its resilience rapidly. However, with the degradation of resources and the increases in agricultural investment, the cost of agricultural production became too high to gain profit. The rise in population increases the risk of food security. As a result, the resilience of agricultural systems decreased gradually. The Luancheng County is now in the conservation phase of the adaptive cycle. Partial adjustments should be introduced to enhance its resilience and promote the continuing development of the agricultural systems.Este trabalho se refere a um estudo de caso da teoria de elasticidade para entender sistemas agrícolas na província de Luancheng na planície do norte da China. Foi construído um modelo de sistema dinâmico acoplado a subsistemas agrícolas sociais, econômicos e ecológicos para a província de Luancheng com um intervalo de tempo de um mês. O modelo inclui cinco componentes principais: recursos hídricos, rentabilidade, irrigação, produção agrícola e área. O lençol freático simulado, a área e a produção de trigo, a área e produção de milho e a transferência de mão de obra refletiram a tendência geral dos resultados

  6. Model Reduction of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza

    for model reduction of switched systems is based on the switching generalized gramians. The reduced order switched system is guaranteed to be stable for all switching signal in this method. This framework uses stability conditions which are based on switching quadratic Lyapunov functions which are less...... conservative than the stability conditions based on common quadratic Lyapunov functions. The stability conditions which are used for this method are very useful in model reduction and design problems because they have slack variables in the conditions. Similar conditions for a class of switched nonlinear......High-Technological solutions of today are characterized by complex dynamical models. A lot of these models have inherent hybrid/switching structure. Hybrid/switched systems are powerful models for distributed embedded systems design where discrete controls are applied to continuous processes...

  7. Deep models for brain EM image segmentation: novel insights and improved performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhry, Ahmed; Peng, Hanchuan; Ji, Shuiwang

    2016-08-01

    Accurate segmentation of brain electron microscopy (EM) images is a critical step in dense circuit reconstruction. Although deep neural networks (DNNs) have been widely used in a number of applications in computer vision, most of these models that proved to be effective on image classification tasks cannot be applied directly to EM image segmentation, due to the different objectives of these tasks. As a result, it is desirable to develop an optimized architecture that uses the full power of DNNs and tailored specifically for EM image segmentation. In this work, we proposed a novel design of DNNs for this task. We trained a pixel classifier that operates on raw pixel intensities with no preprocessing to generate probability values for each pixel being a membrane or not. Although the use of neural networks in image segmentation is not completely new, we developed novel insights and model architectures that allow us to achieve superior performance on EM image segmentation tasks. Our submission based on these insights to the 2D EM Image Segmentation Challenge achieved the best performance consistently across all the three evaluation metrics. This challenge is still ongoing and the results in this paper are as of June 5, 2015. https://github.com/ahmed-fakhry/dive : sji@eecs.wsu.edu. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Distribution system modeling and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, William H

    2001-01-01

    For decades, distribution engineers did not have the sophisticated tools developed for analyzing transmission systems-often they had only their instincts. Things have changed, and we now have computer programs that allow engineers to simulate, analyze, and optimize distribution systems. Powerful as these programs are, however, without a real understanding of the operating characteristics of a distribution system, engineers using the programs can easily make serious errors in their designs and operating procedures. Distribution System Modeling and Analysis helps prevent those errors. It gives readers a basic understanding of the modeling and operating characteristics of the major components of a distribution system. One by one, the author develops and analyzes each component as a stand-alone element, then puts them all together to analyze a distribution system comprising the various shunt and series devices for power-flow and short-circuit studies. He includes the derivation of all models and includes many num...

  9. 3D airborne EM modeling based on the spectral-element time-domain (SETD) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X.; Yin, C.; Huang, X.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, B., Sr.; Cai, J.; Liu, L.

    2017-12-01

    In the field of 3D airborne electromagnetic (AEM) modeling, both finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and finite-element time-domain (FETD) method have limitations that FDTD method depends too much on the grids and time steps, while FETD requires large number of grids for complex structures. We propose a time-domain spectral-element (SETD) method based on GLL interpolation basis functions for spatial discretization and Backward Euler (BE) technique for time discretization. The spectral-element method is based on a weighted residual technique with polynomials as vector basis functions. It can contribute to an accurate result by increasing the order of polynomials and suppressing spurious solution. BE method is a stable tine discretization technique that has no limitation on time steps and can guarantee a higher accuracy during the iteration process. To minimize the non-zero number of sparse matrix and obtain a diagonal mass matrix, we apply the reduced order integral technique. A direct solver with its speed independent of the condition number is adopted for quickly solving the large-scale sparse linear equations system. To check the accuracy of our SETD algorithm, we compare our results with semi-analytical solutions for a three-layered earth model within the time lapse 10-6-10-2s for different physical meshes and SE orders. The results show that the relative errors for magnetic field B and magnetic induction are both around 3-5%. Further we calculate AEM responses for an AEM system over a 3D earth model in Figure 1. From numerical experiments for both 1D and 3D model, we draw the conclusions that: 1) SETD can deliver an accurate results for both dB/dt and B; 2) increasing SE order improves the modeling accuracy for early to middle time channels when the EM field diffuses fast so the high-order SE can model the detailed variation; 3) at very late time channels, increasing SE order has little improvement on modeling accuracy, but the time interval plays

  10. Hydronic distribution system computer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J.W.; Strasser, J.J.

    1994-10-01

    A computer model of a hot-water boiler and its associated hydronic thermal distribution loop has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). It is intended to be incorporated as a submodel in a comprehensive model of residential-scale thermal distribution systems developed at Lawrence Berkeley. This will give the combined model the capability of modeling forced-air and hydronic distribution systems in the same house using the same supporting software. This report describes the development of the BNL hydronics model, initial results and internal consistency checks, and its intended relationship to the LBL model. A method of interacting with the LBL model that does not require physical integration of the two codes is described. This will provide capability now, with reduced up-front cost, as long as the number of runs required is not large.

  11. The Statistical Analysis of General Processing Tree Models with the EM Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiangen; Batchelder, William H.

    1994-01-01

    The statistical analysis of processing tree models is advanced by showing how the parameters of estimation and hypothesis testing, based on the likelihood functions, can be accomplished by adapting the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. The adaptation makes it easy to program a personal computer to accomplish the stages of statistical…

  12. Resolution and Probabilistic Models of Components in CryoEM Maps of Mature P22 Bacteriophage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintilie, Grigore; Chen, Dong-Hua; Haase-Pettingell, Cameron A.; King, Jonathan A.; Chiu, Wah

    2016-01-01

    CryoEM continues to produce density maps of larger and more complex assemblies with multiple protein components of mixed symmetries. Resolution is not always uniform throughout a cryoEM map, and it can be useful to estimate the resolution in specific molecular components of a large assembly. In this study, we present procedures to 1) estimate the resolution in subcomponents by gold-standard Fourier shell correlation (FSC); 2) validate modeling procedures, particularly at medium resolutions, which can include loop modeling and flexible fitting; and 3) build probabilistic models that combine high-accuracy priors (such as crystallographic structures) with medium-resolution cryoEM densities. As an example, we apply these methods to new cryoEM maps of the mature bacteriophage P22, reconstructed without imposing icosahedral symmetry. Resolution estimates based on gold-standard FSC show the highest resolution in the coat region (7.6 Å), whereas other components are at slightly lower resolutions: portal (9.2 Å), hub (8.5 Å), tailspike (10.9 Å), and needle (10.5 Å). These differences are indicative of inherent structural heterogeneity and/or reconstruction accuracy in different subcomponents of the map. Probabilistic models for these subcomponents provide new insights, to our knowledge, and structural information when taking into account uncertainty given the limitations of the observed density. PMID:26743049

  13. New experimental model for training in videosurgery Novo modelo experimental para treinamento em videocirurgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Malta Batista

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop a new experimental model of lower cost for training in videosurgery. METHODS: This project was performed at the Nucleus of Experimental Surgery of the Bahiana School of Medicine and Public Health, based on previous models described in the literature and under the supervision of the full professor of Operative Technique and Experimental Surgery II. It was made a model cube-shaped, made of wood, with holes distributed in various locations, rubber stoppers for the holes and lined externally with carpet, and internally with laminate. RESULTS: The new experimental model is of low cost and reproduces quite faithfully several videosurgical procedures. CONCLUSION: Medical schools interested in the subject may adopt the new model for training in videosurgery without the need of high costs for making and using these models.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um novo modelo experimental de baixo custo para treinamento em videocirurgia MÉTODOS: Este projeto foi conduzido no Núcleo de Cirurgia Experimental da Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, baseado em modelos prévios descritos na literatura e sob a supervisão do professor titular de Técnica Operatória e Cirurgia Experimental II. Foi feito um modelo em formato de cubo, de madeira, com furos distribuídos em vários locais, tampas de borracha para os orifícios e forrado externamente com carpete e internamente com laminado. RESULTADOS: O novo modelo experimental desenvolvido é de baixo custo e reproduz de forma bastante fiel diversos procedimentos videocirúrgicos. CONCLUSÃO: Faculdades médicas interessadas no tema poderão adotar o novo modelo para o treinamento em videocirurgia sem que sejam necessários gastos elevados para a confecção e o uso desses modelos.

  14. Intrusion detection: systems and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, J. S.; Dearmond, T. G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper puts forward a review of state of the art and state of the applicability of intrusion detection systems, and models. The paper also presents a classfication of literature pertaining to intrusion detection.

  15. Plant and safety system model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltracchi, Leo

    1999-01-01

    The design and development of a digital computer-based safety system for a nuclear power plant is a complex process. The process of design and product development must result in a final product free of critical errors; operational safety of nuclear power plants must not be compromised. This paper focuses on the development of a safety system model to assist designers, developers, and regulators in establishing and evaluating requirements for a digital computer-based safety system. The model addresses hardware, software, and human elements for use in the requirements definition process. The purpose of the safety system model is to assist and serve as a guide to humans in the cognitive reasoning process of establishing requirements. The goals in the use of the model are to: (1) enhance the completeness of the requirements and (2) reduce the number of errors associated with the requirements definition phase of a project

  16. Integrated systemic model in the management of stocks and purchases in the administration of results: the financial challenge in the re-stocking Modelo sistêmico integrado em gestão de estoques e compras na administração de resultado: o desafio financeiro no ressuprimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Kalau Gonzáles

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available When purchases are carried out in the company, it is not only to replace the stock. It is also possible to obtain several financial advantages for the company, to what the working capital management is concerned. However, in order to make it happen positively, the company must have a policy of such an understanding and a decisive system which guides the entrepreneur. It is proposed in this work the creation of such a model of decision. In the literary review about this subject, several conflicting points were explained because it dealt with not only purchases but also related interdepartmental aspects. Besides, purchases simulations were performed in order to verify the applicability of formulas such as those of the purchases made in advance as well as to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of speculation. By means of the scientific survey herein formulated, it is possible to observe in balance sheets that were published, the different stocking strategies of the companies in periods of financial uncertainty, confronted with periods of monetary stability in Brazil and the results obtained. As a result to the application of the t test to the student in two samples, it was observed that, in periods of high inflation, the companies in general stocked more, invested less in available resources (cash and banks, and obtained more profit than in periods of low inflation, probably because the financial market offered more advantages. It was recommended that the companies, as they update their system due to the new perspectives of the market, review their model of stocks and production management, fostering the establishment of favorable conditions so that all the related production chain (SCM can be administered in a participatory way.Uma série de vantagens financeiras para a empresa no contexto da administração do capital de giro. Porém, para que isto possa acontecer de forma positiva, há de existir uma política da empresa com esta vis

  17. Modeling the growth of <em>Listeria monocytogenesem> in soft blue-white cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosshaug, Per Sand; Detmer, Ann; Ingmer, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a predictive model simulating growth over time of the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes in a soft blue-white cheese. The physicochemical properties in a matrix such as cheese are essential controlling factors influencing the growth of L. monocytogene...... production and retail conditions showed that the number of L. monocytogenes cells increases 3 to 3.5 log within the shelf life of the cheese....

  18. Sensitivity analysis using the FRAPCON-1/EM: development of a calculation model for licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapot, J.L.C.

    1985-01-01

    The FRAPCON-1/EM is version of the FRAPCON-1 code which analyses fuel rods performance under normal operation conditions. This version yields conservative results and is used by the NRC in its licensing activities. A sensitivity analysis was made, to determine the combination of models from the FRAPCON-1/EM which yields the most conservative results for a typical Angra-1 reactor fuel rod. The present analysis showed that this code can be used as a calculation tool for the licensing of the Angra-1 reload. (F.E.) [pt

  19. Um modelo baseado em programação linear e programação de metas para análise de um sistema de produção e distribuição de suco concentrado congelado de laranja A model based on linear programming and goal programming to analyze a frozen concentrated orange juice production and distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato Munhoz

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresenta-se um modelo baseado em programação linear e programação de metas para apoiar decisões no processo de mistura e na distribuição de suco concentrado congelado de laranja. Explora-se a importância das decisões do processo de mistura para a análise da logística de distribuição do suco de laranja, além das decisões de transporte e armazenagem. O modelo utiliza conceitos conhecidos da literatura de problemas de mistura e planejamento da produção com múltiplos produtos, estágios e períodos, e foi resolvido por meio da linguagem de modelagem GAMS (General Algebraic Modeling System. Um estudo de caso foi realizado numa empresa de suco de laranja localizada no interior do estado de São Paulo, e os resultados preliminares obtidos são promissores.This work proposes a model based on linear programming and goal programming to support decisions in the blending process and distribution of frozen concentrated orange juice. This study explores the importance of blending decisions for the logistic analysis of the orange juice distribution, besides transportation and storage decisions. The model utilizes well-known concepts from the literature of blending problems and multistage, multiproduct and multiperiod production planning problems, and it was solved using the GAMS (General Algebraic Modeling System programming language. A case study was developed in an orange juice industry located in São Paulo State, and the preliminary results are promising.

  20. A ring test of a wireless <em>in vitroem> gas production system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornou, Cecile; Storm, Ida Marie Lindhardt Drejer; Hindrichsen, Ida Katarina Auf der M.

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro gas production (GP) technique has been widely used for feed evaluation. However, variability in results limits useful comparisons. Results from a ring test undertaken in four laboratories (Italy - IT, Spain - SP, Wales - WA and Denmark - DK) using the same wireless equipment (ANKOM......) or sheep (SP). Curves, corrected for blanks, were fitted using an exponential regression model with a lag time. The following variables were considered: (i) GP24 and GP48: raw values at 24 and 48 h (mL/g DM), corrected for blanks; (ii) A: asymptotic GP (mL/g DM); (iii) T1/2: time when half A is produced (h......); (iv) GPMR: maximum predicted GP rate (mL/h); (v) L: lag time (h). A mixed model including laboratories as random effect was used. A significant interaction between substrate and laboratories was found for all variables except A. The most repeatable and reproducible results were observed for A and GP48...

  1. EMS Systems in Lower-Middle Income Countries: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanto; Plummer, Virginia; Boyle, Malcolm

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Prehospital care is one of the many issues that require addressing by lower-middle income countries (LMICs) where approximately 90% of global injuries occur. This may arise from more traffic in LMICs, poor road conditions, lack of public awareness of the importance of road safety, and the lack of ability to provide first aid to the victims. However, prehospital care in LMICs remains underdeveloped. Problem There is insufficient evidence regarding the development of prehospital care among LMICs. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the status of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems in these countries. A review of medical-related electronic databases was designed to identify the development of EMS systems in LMICs. A search of the literature was undertaken using three electronic databases, CINAHL, Ovid Medline, and EMBASE via Ovid, from their commencement date until the end of July 2015. The grey literature was searched using Google Scholar. Articles were included if they reported on the establishment and current status of an EMS system and were excluded if they were letters to the editor, articles focusing on disaster management, a combination of more than one country if the other country was not a LMIC, written in a language other than English or Bahasa Indonesia, and/or focusing only on in-hospital care. There were 337 articles identified in CINAHL, 731 in Ovid Medline, 891 in EMBASE via Ovid, and 41 in Google Scholar. Based on the title and abstract, 31 articles from CINAHL, 40 from Ovid Medline, 43 from EMBASE, and 11 from Google Scholar were retrieved for further review. There were 92 articles that met the inclusion criteria with 35 articles removed, as they were duplicated, leaving 57 articles to be reviewed. From those 48 countries categorized as LMICs, there were 16 (33.3%) countries that had information about an EMS system, including injury types, patient demographic, prehospital transport, and the obstacles in implementing

  2. Mathematical modeling of aeroelastic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmisov, Petr A.; Ankilov, Andrey V.; Semenova, Elizaveta P.

    2017-12-01

    In the paper, the stability of elastic elements of a class of designs that are in interaction with a gas or liquid flow is investigated. The definition of the stability of an elastic body corresponds to the concept of stability of dynamical systems by Lyapunov. As examples the mathematical models of flowing channels (models of vibration devices) at a subsonic flow and the mathematical models of protective surface at a supersonic flow are considered. Models are described by the related systems of the partial differential equations. An analytic investigation of stability is carried out on the basis of the construction of Lyapunov-type functionals, a numerical investigation is carried out on the basis of the Galerkin method. The various models of the gas-liquid environment (compressed, incompressible) and the various models of a deformable body (elastic linear and elastic nonlinear) are considered.

  3. Controlling for <em>false negativesem> in agent-based models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secchi, Davide; Seri, Raffaello

    2017-01-01

    This article is concerned with the study of statistical power in agent-based modeling (ABM). After an overview of classic statistics theory on how to interpret Type-II error (whose occurrence is also referred to as a false negative) and power, the manuscript presents a study on ABM simulation...... articles published in management journals and other outlets likely to publish management and organizational research. Findings show that most studies are underpowered, with some being overpowered. After discussing the risks of under- and overpower, we present two formulas to approximate the number...

  4. ABSTRACT MODELS FOR SYSTEM VIRTUALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Koveshnikov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to issues of system objects securing (system files and user system or application configuration files against unauthorized access including denial of service attacks. We have suggested the method and developed abstract system virtualization models, which are used toresearch attack scenarios for different virtualization modes. Estimation for system tools virtualization technology effectiveness is given. Suggested technology is based on redirection of access requests to system objects shared among access subjects. Whole and partial system virtualization modes have been modeled. The difference between them is the following: in the whole virtualization mode all copies of access system objects are created whereon subjects’ requests are redirected including corresponding application objects;in the partial virtualization mode corresponding copies are created only for part of a system, for example, only system objects for applications. Alternative solutions effectiveness is valued relating to different attack scenarios. We consider proprietary and approved technical solution which implements system virtualization method for Microsoft Windows OS family. Administrative simplicity and capabilities of correspondingly designed system objects security tools are illustrated on this example. Practical significance of the suggested security method has been confirmed.

  5. Incubator embedded cell culture imaging system (EmSight) based on Fourier ptychographic microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho; Henley, Beverley M.; Kim, Charlene H.; Lester, Henry A.; Yang, Changhuei

    2017-02-01

    Multi-day tracking of cells in culture systems can provide valuable information in bioscience experiments. We report the development of a cell culture imaging system, named EmSight, which incorporates multiple compact Fourier ptychographic microscopes with a standard multiwell imaging plate. The system is housed in an incubator and presently incorporates six microscopes, imaging an ANSI standard 6-well plate at the same time. By using the same low magnification objective lenses (NA of 0.1) as the objective and the tube lens, the EmSight is configured as a 1:1 imaging system that, providing large field-of-view (FOV) imaging (5.7 mm × 4.3 mm) onto a low-cost CMOS imaging sensor. The EmSight improves the image resolution by capturing a series of images of the sample at varying illumination angles; the instrument reconstructs a higher-resolution image by using the iterative Fourier ptychographic algorithm. In addition to providing high-resolution brightfield and phase imaging, the EmSight is also capable of fluorescence imaging at the native resolution of the objectives. We characterized the system using a phase Siemens star target, and show four-fold improved coherent resolution (synthetic NA of 0.42) and a depth of field of 0.2 mm. To conduct live, long-term dopaminergic neuron imaging, we cultured ventral midbrain from mice driving eGFP from the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter. The EmSight system tracks movements of dopaminergic neurons over a 21 day period.

  6. Aerodynamic and Mechanical System Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Felix

    This thesis deals with mechanical multibody-systems applied to the drivetrain of a 500 kW wind turbine. Particular focus has been on gearbox modelling of wind turbines. The main part of the present project involved programming multibody systems to investigate the connection between forces, moments...

  7. Military Emergency Medical Service System Assessment: Application of the National Park Service Needs Assessment and Program Audit to Objectively Evaluate the Military EMS System of Okinawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Elliot M; Harper, Stephen A; Cunningham, Cord; Walrath, Benjamin D; DeMers, Gerard; Kharod, Chetan U

    2017-03-01

    As part of a Military Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system process improvement initiative, the authors sought to objectively evaluate the U.S. military EMS system for the island of Okinawa. They applied a program evaluation tool currently utilized by the U.S. National Park Service (NPS). A comprehensive needs assessment was conducted to evaluate the current Military EMS system in Okinawa, Japan. The NPS EMS Program Audit Worksheet was used to get an overall "score" of our assessment. After all the data had been collected, a joint committee of Military EMS physicians reviewed the findings and made formal recommendations. From 2011 to 2014, U.S. military EMS on Okinawa averaged 1,345 ± 137 patient transports annually. An advanced life support (ALS) provider would have been dispatched on 558 EMS runs (38%) based on chief complaint in 2014 had they been available. Over 36,000 man-hours were expended during this period to provide National Registry Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)-accredited instruction to certify 141 Navy Corpsman as EMT Basics. The NPS EMS Program Audit Worksheet was used and the program scored a total of 31, suggesting the program is well planned and operating within standards. This evaluation of the Military EMS system on Okinawa using the NPS program assessment and audit worksheet demonstrates the NPS evaluation instruments may offer a useful assessment tool for the evaluation of Military EMS systems. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  8. Application of modelling tecniques to manage a population of grey squirrels (<em>Sciurus carolinensisem> in Lombardy, northern Italy, and analysis of parameters estimates used in simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Tattoni

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Grey squirrel (<em>Sciurus carolinensisem>, an invasive alien species, is currently replacing the native Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris in British Isles and north-west Italy. Grey squirrel has recently been reported in the Ticino Park (Lombardy region, NW Italy and the species is likely to spread in the woodlands connecting Italy to other European countries. We used GRASS Geographical Information System (GIS and Spatially Explicit Population Dynamics Models (SEPM as a conservation tool to predict the spread of grey squirrels and to test different management options in the Ticino Regional Park and surrounding areas in a 40 years time frame. The integrated approach of SEPM and GIS allowed us to suggest public administration a cost effective action plan to stop the invasion process. We also analyse the parameters used in the model highlighting some missing data in literature: we can address future field study with the aim to improve model performance. Riassunto Modelli per la gestione di una popolazione di Scoiattolo grigio (<em>Sciurus carolinensisem> in Lombardia e stima dei parametri usati nelle simulazioni. La sostituzione da parte dello Scoiattolo grigio (<em>Sciurus carolinensisem>, specie alloctona e invasiva, dello Scoiattolo rosso (<em>Sciurus vulgarisem>, specie autoctona Europea, é attualmente in corso nelle Isole Britanniche e nell’Italia nord occidentale. Lo Scoiattolo grigio é stato recentemente segnalato nel Parco Lombardo della Valle del Ticino (Italia nord occidentale ed é probabile che si diffonda nelle foreste che connettono l’Italia agli altri paesi europei. In questo lavoro il Sistema Informativo Geografico GRASS e i modelli denominati Spatially Explicit Population Dynamics Models sono stati usati come strumento per prevedere la diffusione dello Scoiattolo grigio e per verificare differenti opzioni gestionali all’interno del Parco del

  9. Multilevel Analysis of Structural Equation Models via the EM Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, See-Heyon

    The question of how to analyze unbalanced hierarchical data generated from structural equation models has been a common problem for researchers and analysts. Among difficulties plaguing statistical modeling are estimation bias due to measurement error and the estimation of the effects of the individual's hierarchical social milieu. This paper…

  10. Preface: the hydra model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliot, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    The freshwater Hydra polyp emerged as a model system in 1741 when Abraham Trembley not only discovered its amazing regenerative potential, but also demonstrated that experimental manipulations pave the way to research in biology. Since then, Hydra flourished as a potent and fruitful model system to help answer questions linked to cell and developmental biology, as such as the setting up of an organizer to regenerate a complex missing structure, the establishment and maintainance of polarity in a multicellular organism, the development of mathematical models to explain the robust developmental rules observed in this animal, the maintainance of stemness and multipotency in a highly dynamic environment, the plasticity of differentiated cells, to name but a few. However the Hydra model system is not restricted to cell and developmental biology; during the past 270 years it has also been heavily used to investigate the relationships between Hydra and its environment, opening new horizons concerning neurophysiology, innate immunity, ecosystems, ecotoxicology, symbiosis...

  11. Modeling Multi-Level Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Iordache, Octavian

    2011-01-01

    This book is devoted to modeling of multi-level complex systems, a challenging domain for engineers, researchers and entrepreneurs, confronted with the transition from learning and adaptability to evolvability and autonomy for technologies, devices and problem solving methods. Chapter 1 introduces the multi-scale and multi-level systems and highlights their presence in different domains of science and technology. Methodologies as, random systems, non-Archimedean analysis, category theory and specific techniques as model categorification and integrative closure, are presented in chapter 2. Chapters 3 and 4 describe polystochastic models, PSM, and their developments. Categorical formulation of integrative closure offers the general PSM framework which serves as a flexible guideline for a large variety of multi-level modeling problems. Focusing on chemical engineering, pharmaceutical and environmental case studies, the chapters 5 to 8 analyze mixing, turbulent dispersion and entropy production for multi-scale sy...

  12. Modelling Inverse Gaussian Data with Censored Response Values: EM versus MCMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Sparks

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Low detection limits are common in measure environmental variables. Building models using data containing low or high detection limits without adjusting for the censoring produces biased models. This paper offers approaches to estimate an inverse Gaussian distribution when some of the data used are censored because of low or high detection limits. Adjustments for the censoring can be made if there is between 2% and 20% censoring using either the EM algorithm or MCMC. This paper compares these approaches.

  13. Systemic BCG immunization induces persistent lung mucosal multifunctional CD4 T(EM cells which expand following virulent mycobacterial challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryan A Kaveh

    Full Text Available To more closely understand the mechanisms of how BCG vaccination confers immunity would help to rationally design improved tuberculosis vaccines that are urgently required. Given the established central role of CD4 T cells in BCG induced immunity, we sought to characterise the generation of memory CD4 T cell responses to BCG vaccination and M. bovis infection in a murine challenge model. We demonstrate that a single systemic BCG vaccination induces distinct systemic and mucosal populations of T effector memory (T(EM cells in vaccinated mice. These CD4+CD44(hiCD62L(loCD27⁻ T cells concomitantly produce IFN-γ and TNF-α, or IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α and have a higher cytokine median fluorescence intensity MFI or 'quality of response' than single cytokine producing cells. These cells are maintained for long periods (>16 months in BCG protected mice, maintaining a vaccine-specific functionality. Following virulent mycobacterial challenge, these cells underwent significant expansion in the lungs and are, therefore, strongly associated with protection against M. bovis challenge. Our data demonstrate that a persistent mucosal population of T(EM cells can be induced by parenteral immunization, a feature only previously associated with mucosal immunization routes; and that these multifunctional T(EM cells are strongly associated with protection. We propose that these cells mediate protective immunity, and that vaccines designed to increase the number of relevant antigen-specific T(EM in the lung may represent a new generation of TB vaccines.

  14. Measuring the impact of emergency medical services (EMS) on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival in a developing country: A key metric for EMS systems' performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Mazen; Al Assad, Reem; Abi Aad, Yasmin; Gharios, Nour; Refaat, Marwan M; Tamim, Hani

    2017-07-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) can be used to evaluate the overall performance of the emergency medical services' (EMS) system. This study assessed the impact of EMS on OHCA survival rates in a setting where the prehospital system is underdeveloped.A retrospective chart review was carried out over a 5-year period of all adult OHCA patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) of a tertiary care center in Lebanon.A total of 271 patients with OHCA (179 [66.1%] men, mean age of 69.9 [standard deviation = 15.0 years] were enrolled. The most common OHCA location was residence/home (58.7%). The majority of arrests were witnessed (51.7%) with 6.1% witnessed by EMS; 211 patients (75.6%) were transported to the ED by EMS. Prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was done by EMS for 43.2% of the patients, whereas only 4.4% received CPR from a family member/bystander. Prehospital automated external defibrillator use was documented in 1.5% of cases in the prehospital setting. Only 2 patients had return of spontaneous circulation prior to ED arrival. Most patients (96.7%) were resuscitated in the ED. Patients presented to the ED mostly in asystole (79.3%). Forty-three patients (15.9%) survived to hospital admission and 13 (4.8%) were discharged alive with over half of them (53.8%) had a good neurological outcome upon discharge (cerebral performance category 1 or 2).Survival of EMS-treated OHCA victims in Lebanon is not as expected. Medical oversight of EMS activities is needed to link EMS activities to clinical outcomes and improve survival from cardiac arrest in Lebanon.

  15. Accurate model annotation of a near-atomic resolution cryo-EM map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryc, Corey F; Chen, Dong-Hua; Afonine, Pavel V; Jakana, Joanita; Wang, Zhao; Haase-Pettingell, Cameron; Jiang, Wen; Adams, Paul D; King, Jonathan A; Schmid, Michael F; Chiu, Wah

    2017-03-21

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has been used to determine the atomic coordinates (models) from density maps of biological assemblies. These models can be assessed by their overall fit to the experimental data and stereochemical information. However, these models do not annotate the actual density values of the atoms nor their positional uncertainty. Here, we introduce a computational procedure to derive an atomic model from a cryo-EM map with annotated metadata. The accuracy of such a model is validated by a faithful replication of the experimental cryo-EM map computed using the coordinates and associated metadata. The functional interpretation of any structural features in the model and its utilization for future studies can be made in the context of its measure of uncertainty. We applied this protocol to the 3.3-Å map of the mature P22 bacteriophage capsid, a large and complex macromolecular assembly. With this protocol, we identify and annotate previously undescribed molecular interactions between capsid subunits that are crucial to maintain stability in the absence of cementing proteins or cross-linking, as occur in other bacteriophages.

  16. System Convergence in Transport Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Cantarella, Guilio E.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental premise of most applied transport models is the existence and uniqueness of an equilibrium solution that balances demand x(t) and supply t(x). The demand consists of the people that travel in the transport system and on the defined network, whereas the supply consists of the resulting...... level-of-service attributes (e.g., travel time and cost) offered to travellers. An important source of complexity is the congestion, which causes increasing demand to affect travel time in a non-linear way. Transport models most often involve separate models for traffic assignment and demand modelling...

  17. O USO DE MODELAGEM EM UM SISTEMA DE REUSO DE EFLUENTES POR IRRIGAÇÃO: ESTUDO DE CASO / MODELING USE IN A SYSTEM FOR REUSE OF WASTEWATER FOR IRRIGATION: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIOVANI .A BROTA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Embora a irrigação seja gota a gota o consumo de água continua a aumentar e as fontes de água potável estão se esgotando. É possível observar que os aqüíferos subterrâneos estão secando e os níveis dos rios estão diminuindo e estão se tornando mais evidentes as baixas de precipitações pluviométricas. A escassez de água pode afetar cerca de milhares de pessoas num futuro muito próximo. A gestão dos recursos é fundamental na atual situação além do desenvolvimento de novos suprimentos, isto tudo para atender o consumismo dos seres humanos que utilizam a água em níveis elevados. Mas sempre há um preço a pagar pelo uso abusivo dos recursos. E os seres humanos sabem disso e acreditam que não é tarde para mudar a realidade. Um repensar sobre suas atitudes é importante. E como enfrentar os problemas sem afetar o  esenvolvimento humano e a qualidade de vida. É com esta idéia de repensar sobre suas ações e externalizar suas idéias e pensamentos que esta pesquisa apresenta modelo semi-quantitativo e quantitativo sobre o uso de sistemas naturais de tratamento de efluentes. Com o avanço da informática o uso de ferramentas de modelagem apresenta estruturas que auxiliam a dar expressão ao pensamento e ajudam a pensar sobre novas situações.

  18. Immunocytochemistry of the Neuromuscular Systems of <em>Loxosomella viviparaem> and <em>L. parguerensisem> (Entoprocta: Loxosomatidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Judith; Bright, Monika; Funch, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Little detailed information exists on the anatomy of the nervous system and the musculature of Entoprocta. Herein we describe the distribution of the neurotransmitters RFamide and serotonin as well as the myo-anatomy of adults and asexually produced budding stages of the solitary entoproct specie...

  19. Executive Information Systems' Multidimensional Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Executive Information Systems are design to improve the quality of strategic level of management in organization through a new type of technology and several techniques for extracting, transforming, processing, integrating and presenting data in such a way that the organizational knowledge filters can easily associate with this data and turn it into information for the organization. These technologies are known as Business Intelligence Tools. But in order to build analytic reports for Executive Information Systems (EIS in an organization we need to design a multidimensional model based on the business model from the organization. This paper presents some multidimensional models that can be used in EIS development and propose a new model that is suitable for strategic business requests.

  20. Numerical Modeling of Microelectrochemical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adesokan, Bolaji James

    for the reactants in the bulk electrolyte that are traveling waves. The first paper presents the mathematical model which describes an electrochemical system and simulates an electroanalytical technique called cyclic voltammetry. The model is governed by a system of advection–diffusion equations with a nonlinear...... reaction term at the boundary. We investigate the effect of flow rates, scan rates, and concentration on the cyclic voltammetry. We establish that high flow rates lead to the reduced hysteresis in the cyclic voltammetry curves and increasing scan rates lead to more pronounced current peaks. The final part...... of the paper shows that the response current in a cyclic voltammetry increases proportionally to the electrolyte concentration. In the second paper we present an experiment of an electrochemical system in a microfluidc system and compare the result to the numerical solutions. We investigate how the position...

  1. System Code Models and Capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestion, D.

    2008-01-01

    System thermalhydraulic codes such as RELAP, TRACE, CATHARE or ATHLET are now commonly used for reactor transient simulations. The whole methodology of code development is described including the derivation of the system of equations, the analysis of experimental data to obtain closure relation and the validation process. The characteristics of the models are briefly presented starting with the basic assumptions, the system of equations and the derivation of closure relationships. An extensive work was devoted during the last three decades to the improvement and validation of these models, which resulted in some homogenisation of the different codes although separately developed. The so called two-fluid model is the common basis of these codes and it is shown how it can describe both thermal and mechanical nonequilibrium. A review of some important physical models allows to illustrate the main capabilities and limitations of system codes. Attention is drawn on the role of flow regime maps, on the various methods for developing closure laws, on the role of interfacial area and turbulence on interfacial and wall transfers. More details are given for interfacial friction laws and their relation with drift flux models. Prediction of chocked flow and CFFL is also addressed. Based on some limitations of the present generation of codes, perspectives for future are drawn.

  2. Experimental Modeling of Dynamic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten Haack

    2006-01-01

    An engineering course, Simulation and Experimental Modeling, has been developed that is based on a method for direct estimation of physical parameters in dynamic systems. Compared with classical system identification, the method appears to be easier to understand, apply, and combine with physical...... insight. It is based on a sensitivity approach that is useful for choice of model structure, for experiment design, and for accuracy verification. The method is implemented in the Matlab toolkit Senstools. The method and the presentation have been developed with generally preferred learning styles in mind...

  3. System em um operador logístico (3PL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Ribeiro Novaes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With the constant technological advancement, the companies started to invest in new systems to support competitiveness in the market in which they operate. This article aims to describe the process of deployment of the technology Warehouse Management System. The tool known as WMS is a system that facilitates the handling operations and storage materials through defined parameters, but the deployment of this system need to go through steps that impact positively and negatively the company's various sectors. This study was developed because of the existence of questions related to the development of the implementation of project presenting departments and professionals involved in the process and due to the need to clarify doubts about the usefulness of system. This document was based on specific literature and complemented by a case study on the company Julio Simoes Logística S / A through an interview with the organization's representative. In order to logistics operator perform their daily activities as receipt, storage and dispatch efficiently it is necessary  a technology that provides accurate and reliable data,  and that make available information that allows the company, to improve its operations.

  4. Developing an analytical tool for evaluating EMS system design changes and their impact on cardiac arrest outcomes: combining geographic information systems with register data on survival rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sund Björn

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA is a frequent and acute medical condition that requires immediate care. We estimate survival rates from OHCA in the area of Stockholm, through developing an analytical tool for evaluating Emergency Medical Services (EMS system design changes. The study also is an attempt to validate the proposed model used to generate the outcome measures for the study. Methods and results This was done by combining a geographic information systems (GIS simulation of driving times with register data on survival rates. The emergency resources comprised ambulance alone and ambulance plus fire services. The simulation model predicted a baseline survival rate of 3.9 per cent, and reducing the ambulance response time by one minute increased survival to 4.6 per cent. Adding the fire services as first responders (dual dispatch increased survival to 6.2 per cent from the baseline level. The model predictions were validated using empirical data. Conclusion We have presented an analytical tool that easily can be generalized to other regions or countries. The model can be used to predict outcomes of cardiac arrest prior to investment in EMS design changes that affect the alarm process, e.g. (1 static changes such as trimming the emergency call handling time or (2 dynamic changes such as location of emergency resources or which resources should carry a defibrillator.

  5. Developing an analytical tool for evaluating EMS system design changes and their impact on cardiac arrest outcomes: combining geographic information systems with register data on survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund, Björn

    2013-02-15

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a frequent and acute medical condition that requires immediate care. We estimate survival rates from OHCA in the area of Stockholm, through developing an analytical tool for evaluating Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system design changes. The study also is an attempt to validate the proposed model used to generate the outcome measures for the study. This was done by combining a geographic information systems (GIS) simulation of driving times with register data on survival rates. The emergency resources comprised ambulance alone and ambulance plus fire services. The simulation model predicted a baseline survival rate of 3.9 per cent, and reducing the ambulance response time by one minute increased survival to 4.6 per cent. Adding the fire services as first responders (dual dispatch) increased survival to 6.2 per cent from the baseline level. The model predictions were validated using empirical data. We have presented an analytical tool that easily can be generalized to other regions or countries. The model can be used to predict outcomes of cardiac arrest prior to investment in EMS design changes that affect the alarm process, e.g. (1) static changes such as trimming the emergency call handling time or (2) dynamic changes such as location of emergency resources or which resources should carry a defibrillator.

  6. Compositional Modeling of Biological Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zámborszky, Judit

    2010-01-01

    Molecular interactions are wired in a fascinating way resulting in complex behavior of bio-logical systems. Theoretical modeling provides us a useful framework for understanding the dynamics and the function of such networks. The complexity of the biological systems calls for conceptual tools that manage the combinatorial explosion of the set of possible interac-tions. A suitable conceptual tool to attack complexity is compositionality, already success-fully used in the process algebra field ...

  7. Performance of GeantV EM Physics Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadio, G.; Ananya, A.; Apostolakis, J.; Aurora, A.; Bandieramonte, M.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Bianchini, C.; Brun, R.; Canal, P.; Carminati, F.; Cosmo, G.; Duhem, L.; Elvira, D.; Folger, G.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Goulas, I.; Iope, R.; Jun, S. Y.; Lima, G.; Mohanty, A.; Nikitina, T.; Novak, M.; Pokorski, W.; Ribon, A.; Seghal, R.; Shadura, O.; Vallecorsa, S.; Wenzel, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-10-01

    The recent progress in parallel hardware architectures with deeper vector pipelines or many-cores technologies brings opportunities for HEP experiments to take advantage of SIMD and SIMT computing models. Launched in 2013, the GeantV project studies performance gains in propagating multiple particles in parallel, improving instruction throughput and data locality in HEP event simulation on modern parallel hardware architecture. Due to the complexity of geometry description and physics algorithms of a typical HEP application, performance analysis is indispensable in identifying factors limiting parallel execution. In this report, we will present design considerations and preliminary computing performance of GeantV physics models on coprocessors (Intel Xeon Phi and NVidia GPUs) as well as on mainstream CPUs.

  8. Performance of GeantV EM Physics Models

    CERN Document Server

    Amadio, G; Apostolakis, J; Aurora, A; Bandieramonte, M; Bhattacharyya, A; Bianchini, C; Brun, R; Canal P; Carminati, F; Cosmo, G; Duhem, L; Elvira, D; Folger, G; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Goulas, I; Iope, R; Jun, S Y; Lima, G; Mohanty, A; Nikitina, T; Novak, M; Pokorski, W; Ribon, A; Seghal, R; Shadura, O; Vallecorsa, S; Wenzel, S; Zhang, Y

    2017-01-01

    The recent progress in parallel hardware architectures with deeper vector pipelines or many-cores technologies brings opportunities for HEP experiments to take advantage of SIMD and SIMT computing models. Launched in 2013, the GeantV project studies performance gains in propagating multiple particles in parallel, improving instruction throughput and data locality in HEP event simulation on modern parallel hardware architecture. Due to the complexity of geometry description and physics algorithms of a typical HEP application, performance analysis is indispensable in identifying factors limiting parallel execution. In this report, we will present design considerations and preliminary computing performance of GeantV physics models on coprocessors (Intel Xeon Phi and NVidia GPUs) as well as on mainstream CPUs.

  9. Performance of GeantV EM Physics Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amadio, G.; et al.

    2016-10-14

    The recent progress in parallel hardware architectures with deeper vector pipelines or many-cores technologies brings opportunities for HEP experiments to take advantage of SIMD and SIMT computing models. Launched in 2013, the GeantV project studies performance gains in propagating multiple particles in parallel, improving instruction throughput and data locality in HEP event simulation on modern parallel hardware architecture. Due to the complexity of geometry description and physics algorithms of a typical HEP application, performance analysis is indispensable in identifying factors limiting parallel execution. In this report, we will present design considerations and preliminary computing performance of GeantV physics models on coprocessors (Intel Xeon Phi and NVidia GPUs) as well as on mainstream CPUs.

  10. Reference Gene Selection in the Desert Plant <em>Eremosparton songoricuem>m>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao-Yuan Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available <em>Eremosparton songoricum em>(Litv. Vass. (<em>E. songoricumem> is a rare and extremely drought-tolerant desert plant that holds promise as a model organism for the identification of genes associated with water deficit stress. Here, we cloned and evaluated the expression of eight candidate reference genes using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. The expression of these candidate reference genes was analyzed in a diverse set of 20 samples including various <em>E. songoricumem> plant tissues exposed to multiple environmental stresses. GeNorm analysis indicated that expression stability varied between the reference genes in the different experimental conditions, but the two most stable reference genes were sufficient for normalization in most conditions.<em> EsEFem> and <em>Esα-TUB> were sufficient for various stress conditions, <em>EsEF> and <em>EsACT> were suitable for samples of differing germination stages, and <em>EsGAPDH>and <em>Es>UBQ em>were most stable across multiple adult tissue samples. The <em>Es18Sem> gene was unsuitable as a reference gene in our analysis. In addition, the expression level of the drought-stress related transcription factor <em>EsDREB2em>> em>verified the utility of<em> E. songoricumem> reference genes and indicated that no single gene was adequate for normalization on its own. This is the first systematic report on the selection of reference genes in <em>E. songoricumem>, and these data will facilitate future work on gene expression in this species.

  11. A method to eliminate refraction artifacts in EM1002 multibeam echosounder system (Swath bathymetry and seabed surveys of EEZ)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, W.A.

    - NIO/TR-01/2011 A METHOD TO ELIMINATE REFRACTION ARTIFACTS IN EM1002 MULTIBEAM ECHOSOUNDER SYSTEM (Swath Bathymetry & Seabed Surveys of Exclusive Economic Zone) By WILLIAM A. FERNANDES... are extracted. This information is written in a defined packet type format (binary) to an output file. A Method Employed to Eliminate Refraction Artifacts in EM1002 Multibeam Echosounder 2011...

  12. Flexible Fitting of Atomic Models into Cryo-EM Density Maps Guided by Helix Correspondences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Hang; Burrows, Derek W; Baker, Matthew L; Ju, Tao

    2017-06-20

    Although electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) has recently achieved resolutions of better than 3 Å, at which point molecular modeling can be done directly from the density map, analysis and annotation of a cryo-EM density map still primarily rely on fitting atomic or homology models to the density map. In this article, we present, to our knowledge, a new method for flexible fitting of known or modeled protein structures into cryo-EM density maps. Unlike existing methods that are guided by local density gradients, our method is guided by correspondences between the α-helices in the density map and model, and does not require an initial rigid-body fitting step. Compared with current methods on both simulated and experimental density maps, our method not only achieves greater accuracy for proteins with large deformations but also runs as fast or faster than many of the other flexible fitting routines. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Parametric Modeling for Fluid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Martinez, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Fluid Systems involves different projects that require parametric modeling, which is a model that maintains consistent relationships between elements as is manipulated. One of these projects is the Neo Liquid Propellant Testbed, which is part of Rocket U. As part of Rocket U (Rocket University), engineers at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida have the opportunity to develop critical flight skills as they design, build and launch high-powered rockets. To build the Neo testbed; hardware from the Space Shuttle Program was repurposed. Modeling for Neo, included: fittings, valves, frames and tubing, between others. These models help in the review process, to make sure regulations are being followed. Another fluid systems project that required modeling is Plant Habitat's TCUI test project. Plant Habitat is a plan to develop a large growth chamber to learn the effects of long-duration microgravity exposure to plants in space. Work for this project included the design and modeling of a duct vent for flow test. Parametric Modeling for these projects was done using Creo Parametric 2.0.

  14. Inclusion of environmental costs on a long-term expansion model of hydrothermal generation systems; Insercao dos custos ambientais em um modelo de expansao da geracao a longo prazo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Henrique Luz

    2008-02-15

    This dissertation presents the development of a mathematical model to be used in the hydrothermal generation expansion planning taking into account uncertainties, the guarantee of energy supply and issues related to the social and environmental problems caused by the power sector. Named 'MELP Ambiental', it is a version of MELP, a model developed by Machado Junior (2000). The environmental valuation was based on results of previous studies. The analysis of the environmental costs scenarios showed that the inclusion of a variable linked to externalities implies in changes on the investment schedule. These changes decrease the total cost (economic and environmental) related to long-term power supply expansion. (author)

  15. Boson Model of Quantized EM-Field and Nature of Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerchuck, Dmitri; Dovlatova, Alia; Alexandrov, Andrey

    2014-03-01

    The fundamental result, obtained by Dirac, that the dynamical system, which consists of the ensemble of identical bosons is equivalent to the dynamical system, which consists of the ensemble of oscillators, was used to show, that the presence of scalar charge function ρ(vec r, t) to be peer force characteristic of electromagnetic (EM) field along with vector force characteristics vec E(vec r,t), vec H(vec r,t), that was established earlier, agrees with charge neutrality of photons. The simplest analogue in its mathematical description in the physics of condensed matter is the chain of bosonic (spin S = 1) carbon atoms in trans-polyacetylene. It has been shown, that neutral photons are topological relativistic solitons with nonzero spin value, which is equal to ½ instead of prevalent viewpoint, that the photons possess by spin S = 1. Naturally, they have nonzero size, that is, they cannot be considered to be point objects. At the same time, the main excitations in so called "doped" rest massless "boson-atomic" structure of EM-field will be charged spinless EM-solitons. It seems to be reasonable to suggest, that "doping" can be effective by propagation of EM-field in the medium like to rain-clouds, although detailed mechanism has to be additionally studied. The representation of photons to be the result of spin-charge separation effect in rest massless "boson-atomic" structure of EM-field makes substantially more clear the nature of corpuscular-wave dualism.

  16. Importance of awareness in improving performance of emergency medical services (EMS) systems in enhancing traffic safety: A lesson from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Vinod; Singh, Preeti; Basu, Samyajit

    2016-10-02

    India has been slow in implementing a central emergency medical services (EMS) system across the country. "108 services" is one of the most popular services that is functional under the public-private partnership model. Limited available literature shows that despite access to services, many traffic crash victims are transported using private vehicles. The objective of this study is to understand the effectiveness of 108 services from a traffic safety perspective. A questionnaire survey is conducted to understand the awareness of EMS and their function. Using traffic-related fatalities as the dependent variable, a fixed effect panel data model is developed to analyze the effectiveness of the 108 services in improving the traffic safety. The results from the survey show that, in general, people are not aware of the 108 services. A majority of the population prefers taking victims to the hospital using their personal vehicles or any other vehicles available compared to calling an ambulance. Results from panel data analysis show that despite having an efficient system, these services failed to make significant improvement in the safety of road users in the states in which their services were subscribed. The lack of awareness of an important safety service is alarming. This could be a major reason for lower utilization of 108 services for transporting victims of traffic crashes. This article shows the importance of having efficient awareness campaigns to improve the efficiency of any similar programs that are aimed to enhance the safety of a region.

  17. Model checking embedded system designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Hendrik; Mader, Angelika H.

    2002-01-01

    Model checking has established itself as a successful tool supported technique for the verification and debugging of various hardware and software systems [16]. Not only in academia, but also by industry this technique is increasingly being regarded as a promising and practical proposition,

  18. GENERIC model for multiphase systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    GENERIC is a nonequilibrium thermodynamic formalism in which the dynamic behavior of a system is described by a single compact equation involving two types of brackets: a Poisson bracket and a dissipative bracket. This formalism has proved to be a very powerful instrument to model the dynamic

  19. An extensible analysable system model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2008-01-01

    Analysing real-world systems for vulnerabilities with respect to security and safety threats is a difficult undertaking, not least due to a lack of availability of formalisations for those systems. While both formalisations and analyses can be found for artificial systems such as software......, this does not hold for real physical systems. Approaches such as threat modelling try to target the formalisation of the real-world domain, but still are far from the rigid techniques available in security research. Many currently available approaches to assurance of critical infrastructure security...... are based on (quite successful) ad-hoc techniques. We believe they can be significantly improved beyond the state-of-the-art by pairing them with static analyses techniques. In this paper we present an approach to both formalising those real-world systems, as well as providing an underlying semantics, which...

  20. A reliability centered maintenance model applied to the auxiliary feedwater system of a nuclear power plant; Um modelo de manutencao centrada em confiabilidade aplicada ao sistema de agua de alimentacaco auxiliar de uma usina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Jefferson Borges

    1998-01-15

    The main objective of maintenance in a nuclear power plant is to assure that structures, systems and components will perform their design functions with reliability and availability in order to obtain a safety and economic electric power generation. Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) is a method of systematic review to develop or optimize Preventive Maintenance Programs. This study presents the objectives, concepts, organization and methods used in the development of RCM application to nuclear power plants. Some examples of this application are included, considering the Auxiliary Feedwater System of a generic two loops PWR nuclear power plant of Westinghouse design. (author)

  1. A Study of Wind Turbine Comprehensive Operational Assessment Model Based on EM-PCA Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Minqiang; Xu, Bin; Zhan, Yangyan; Ren, Danyuan; Liu, Dexing

    2018-01-01

    To assess wind turbine performance accurately and provide theoretical basis for wind farm management, a hybrid assessment model based on Entropy Method and Principle Component Analysis (EM-PCA) was established, which took most factors of operational performance into consideration and reach to a comprehensive result. To verify the model, six wind turbines were chosen as the research objects, the ranking obtained by the method proposed in the paper were 4#>6#>1#>5#>2#>3#, which are completely in conformity with the theoretical ranking, which indicates that the reliability and effectiveness of the EM-PCA method are high. The method could give guidance for processing unit state comparison among different units and launching wind farm operational assessment.

  2. Systems modeling for laser IFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, W. R.; Raffray, A. R.; Sviatoslavsky, I. N.

    2006-06-01

    A systems model of a laser-driven IFE power plant is being developed to assist in design trade-offs and optimization. The focus to date has been on modeling the fusion chamber, blanket and power conversion system. A self-consistent model has been developed to determine key chamber and thermal cycle parameters (e.g., chamber radius, structure and coolant temperatures, cycle efficiency, etc.) as a function of the target yield and pulse repetition rate. Temperature constraints on the tungsten armor, ferritic steel wall, and structure/coolant interface are included in evaluating the potential design space. Results are presented for a lithium cooled first wall coupled with a Brayton power cycle. LLNL work performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by the University of California LLNL under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.

  3. Modelagem de um sistema de informação para rastreabilidade na indústria do vinho baseado em uma arquitetura orientada a serviços Modeling of an information system for wine traceability based on a service oriented architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Gogliano Sobrinho

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se neste trabalho pesquisa científica que levou à modelagem de um sistema de informação para o registro de dados de rastreabilidade destinado à indústria do vinho, segundo os conceitos de uma arquitetura computacional orientada a serviços (service oriented architecture, SOA. Desde 2005, a manutenção de tais registros é obrigatória para todos os produtores que pretendem exportar para países da União Europeia. Ademais, os consumidores finais, inclusive brasileiros, preocupados com a segurança alimentar, apresentam demanda crescente por informações. Buscou-se uma solução que contemple a indústria coletivamente, por meio de consórcios ou associações de produtores, diluindo custos e compartilhando benefícios. A partir do levantamento bibliográfico realizado e de contatos com pesquisadores e representantes do setor produtivo vinícola brasileiro, em Bento Gonçalves -RS, pesquisaram-se tópicos de tecnologia da informação ligados ao tema, além de detalhes sobre o processo produtivo do vinho. A partir de um modelo do processo produtivo do vinho sugerido pelos autores, empregou-se a Unified Modeling Language (UML, para a modelagem do sistema, que utiliza a tecnologia de web services para o tráfego de dados. Com um protótipo funcional, constataram-se a viabilidade do modelo e a possibilidade de sua utilização em outros domínios.The purpose is to present a scientific research that led to the modeling of an information system which aimed at the maintenance of traceability data in the Brazilian wine industry, according to the principles of a service-oriented architecture (SOA. Since 2005, traceability data maintenance is an obligation for all producers that intend to export to any European Union country. Also, final customers, including the Brazilian ones, have been asking for information about food products. A solution that collectively contemplated the industry was sought in order to permit that producer

  4. Cotangent Models for Integrable Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesenhofer, Anna; Miranda, Eva

    2017-03-01

    We associate cotangent models to a neighbourhood of a Liouville torus in symplectic and Poisson manifolds focusing on b-Poisson/ b-symplectic manifolds. The semilocal equivalence with such models uses the corresponding action-angle theorems in these settings: the theorem of Liouville-Mineur-Arnold for symplectic manifolds and an action-angle theorem for regular Liouville tori in Poisson manifolds (Laurent- Gengoux et al., IntMath Res Notices IMRN 8: 1839-1869, 2011). Our models comprise regular Liouville tori of Poisson manifolds but also consider the Liouville tori on the singular locus of a b-Poisson manifold. For this latter class of Poisson structures we define a twisted cotangent model. The equivalence with this twisted cotangent model is given by an action-angle theorem recently proved by the authors and Scott (Math. Pures Appl. (9) 105(1):66-85, 2016). This viewpoint of cotangent models provides a new machinery to construct examples of integrable systems, which are especially valuable in the b-symplectic case where not many sources of examples are known. At the end of the paper we introduce non-degenerate singularities as lifted cotangent models on b-symplectic manifolds and discuss some generalizations of these models to general Poisson manifolds.

  5. Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) Status and Compliance Requirements for EM Consolidated Business Center Contracts - 13204

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, P.C.; Moe, M.A.; Hombach, W.G.; Urdangaray, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has developed a web-accessible database to collect actual cost data from completed EM projects to support cost estimating and analysis. This Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) database was initially deployed in early 2009 containing the cost and parametric data from 77 decommissioning, restoration, and waste management projects completed under the Rocky Flats Closure Project. In subsequent years we have added many more projects to ECAS and now have a total of 280 projects from 8 major DOE sites. This data is now accessible to DOE users through a web-based reporting tool that allows users to tailor report outputs to meet their specific needs. We are using it as a principal resource supporting the EM Consolidated Business Center (EMCBC) and the EM Applied Cost Engineering (ACE) team cost estimating and analysis efforts across the country. The database has received Government Accountability Office review as supporting its recommended improvements in DOE's cost estimating process, as well as review from the DOE Office of Acquisition and Project Management (APM). Moving forward, the EMCBC has developed a Special Contract Requirement clause or 'H-Clause' to be included in all current and future EMCBC procurements identifying the process that contractors will follow to provide DOE their historical project data in a format compatible with ECAS. Changes to DOE O 413.3B implementation are also in progress to capture historical costs as part of the Critical Decision project closeout process. (authors)

  6. NASA SPoRT Initialization Datasets for Local Model Runs in the Environmental Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Carcione, Brian; Wood, Lance; Maloney, Joseph; Estupinan, Jeral; Medlin, Jeffrey M.; Blottman, Peter; Rozumalski, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed several products for its National Weather Service (NWS) partners that can be used to initialize local model runs within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Environmental Modeling System (EMS). These real-time datasets consist of surface-based information updated at least once per day, and produced in a composite or gridded product that is easily incorporated into the WRF EMS. The primary goal for making these NASA datasets available to the WRF EMS community is to provide timely and high-quality information at a spatial resolution comparable to that used in the local model configurations (i.e., convection-allowing scales). The current suite of SPoRT products supported in the WRF EMS include a Sea Surface Temperature (SST) composite, a Great Lakes sea-ice extent, a Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVF) composite, and Land Information System (LIS) gridded output. The SPoRT SST composite is a blend of primarily the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) infrared and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System data for non-precipitation coverage over the oceans at 2-km resolution. The composite includes a special lake surface temperature analysis over the Great Lakes using contributions from the Remote Sensing Systems temperature data. The Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory Ice Percentage product is used to create a sea-ice mask in the SPoRT SST composite. The sea-ice mask is produced daily (in-season) at 1.8-km resolution and identifies ice percentage from 0 100% in 10% increments, with values above 90% flagged as ice.

  7. Graph modeling systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neergaard, Mike

    2015-10-13

    An apparatus and a method for vulnerability and reliability modeling are provided. The method generally includes constructing a graph model of a physical network using a computer, the graph model including a plurality of terminating vertices to represent nodes in the physical network, a plurality of edges to represent transmission paths in the physical network, and a non-terminating vertex to represent a non-nodal vulnerability along a transmission path in the physical network. The method additionally includes evaluating the vulnerability and reliability of the physical network using the constructed graph model, wherein the vulnerability and reliability evaluation includes a determination of whether each terminating and non-terminating vertex represents a critical point of failure. The method can be utilized to evaluate wide variety of networks, including power grid infrastructures, communication network topologies, and fluid distribution systems.

  8. Probabilistic models for feedback systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, Matthew D.; Boggs, Paul T.

    2011-02-01

    In previous work, we developed a Bayesian-based methodology to analyze the reliability of hierarchical systems. The output of the procedure is a statistical distribution of the reliability, thus allowing many questions to be answered. The principal advantage of the approach is that along with an estimate of the reliability, we also can provide statements of confidence in the results. The model is quite general in that it allows general representations of all of the distributions involved, it incorporates prior knowledge into the models, it allows errors in the 'engineered' nodes of a system to be determined by the data, and leads to the ability to determine optimal testing strategies. In this report, we provide the preliminary steps necessary to extend this approach to systems with feedback. Feedback is an essential component of 'complexity' and provides interesting challenges in modeling the time-dependent action of a feedback loop. We provide a mechanism for doing this and analyze a simple case. We then consider some extensions to more interesting examples with local control affecting the entire system. Finally, a discussion of the status of the research is also included.

  9. Generalized Path Analysis and Generalized Simultaneous Equations Model for Recursive Systems with Responses of Mixed Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tien-Lung; Shau, Wen-Yi; Hu, Fu-Chang

    2006-01-01

    This article generalizes linear path analysis (PA) and simultaneous equations models (SiEM) to deal with mixed responses of different types in a recursive or triangular system. An efficient instrumental variable (IV) method for estimating the structural coefficients of a 2-equation partially recursive generalized path analysis (GPA) model and…

  10. Stochastic Modelling of Hydrologic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Harpa

    2007-01-01

    In this PhD project several stochastic modelling methods are studied and applied on various subjects in hydrology. The research was prepared at Informatics and Mathematical Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark. The thesis is divided into two parts. The first part contains an introduct......In this PhD project several stochastic modelling methods are studied and applied on various subjects in hydrology. The research was prepared at Informatics and Mathematical Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark. The thesis is divided into two parts. The first part contains...... an introduction and an overview of the papers published. Then an introduction to basic concepts in hydrology along with a description of hydrological data is given. Finally an introduction to stochastic modelling is given. The second part contains the research papers. In the research papers the stochastic methods...... are described, as at the time of publication these methods represent new contribution to hydrology. The second part also contains additional description of software used and a brief introduction to stiff systems. The system in one of the papers is stiff....

  11. Avaliação da aplicabilidade de um modelo de credit scoring com varíaveis sistêmicas e não-sistêmicas em carteiras de crédito bancário rotativo de pessoas físicas An evaluation on the applicability of a credit scoring model, with systemic and non-systemic variables in revolving bank credit portfolio for individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Odálio dos Santos

    2007-08-01

    capability. Likewise, a more significant historical exposition of the banks to insolvency risk is being observed, such as the risk of not getting paid (partially or totally and the revolving credit borrowed by consumers. Considering the size and the importance of this market to the great commercial banks and to the economy as a whole, the scope of this research comprises the following points: 1. detailing the processes of subjective and objective credit analysis carried out by the main domestic private banks; 2. approaching the selective function of interest rates in revolving credits; 3. highlighting the main characteristics of credit scoring models; and 4. proposing a model of credit scoring for revolving credits. This model is based on systemic and non-systemic variables and directed to the reduction of insolvency risk. The applicability of the credit scoring model proposed in a sample, extracted from the consumers credit portfolio which belongs to an important medium size Brazilian private commercial bank (Bank X - fictitious name, presented a satisfactory accuracy level in the identification of prospective (96% and non-prospective (92% clients, which led to the conclusion that it included and considered adequately the representative variables of borrowers’ payment capability.

  12. Discrete modelling of drapery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoeni, Klaus; Giacomini, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Drapery systems are an efficient and cost-effective measure in preventing and controlling rockfall hazards on rock slopes. The simplest form consists of a row of ground anchors along the top of the slope connected to a horizontal support cable from which a wire mesh is suspended down the face of the slope. Such systems are generally referred to as simple or unsecured draperies (Badger and Duffy 2012). Variations such as secured draperies, where a pattern of ground anchors is incorporated within the field of the mesh, and hybrid systems, where the upper part of an unsecured drapery is elevated to intercept rockfalls originating upslope of the installation, are becoming more and more popular. This work presents a discrete element framework for simulation of unsecured drapery systems and its variations. The numerical model is based on the classical discrete element method (DEM) and implemented into the open-source framework YADE (Šmilauer et al., 2010). The model takes all relevant interactions between block, drapery and slope into account (Thoeni et al., 2014) and was calibrated and validated based on full-scale experiments (Giacomini et al., 2012).The block is modelled as a rigid clump made of spherical particles which allows any shape to be approximated. The drapery is represented by a set of spherical particle with remote interactions. The behaviour of the remote interactions is governed by the constitutive behaviour of the wire and generally corresponds to a piecewise linear stress-strain relation (Thoeni et al., 2013). The same concept is used to model wire ropes. The rock slope is represented by rigid triangular elements where material properties (e.g., normal coefficient of restitution, friction angle) are assigned to each triangle. The capabilities of the developed model to simulate drapery systems and estimate the residual hazard involved with such systems is shown. References Badger, T.C., Duffy, J.D. (2012) Drapery systems. In: Turner, A.K., Schuster R

  13. Teor de nitrato em alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônico e convencional Level of nitrate in lettuce cultivated in hydroponic and conventional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete R. Yonamini Beninni

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O monitoramento do teor de nitrato nos alimentos é importante, uma vez que poderão ser formados compostos prejudiciais à saúde humana e animal após sua ingestão. Com o objetivo de avaliar o teor de nitrato presente em alface, foram coletadas e analisadas as folhas de alface crespa comercializada no Município de Londrina, cultivada em sistemas hidropônico e convencional. Os valores encontrados variaram entre 26 e 2.568 mg.kg-1 de peso fresco, sendo que as plantas cultivadas em sistema hidropônico apresentaram teores superiores em relação às cultivadas em sistema convencional, porém abaixo do limite máximo de nitrato permitido para alface, na Europa.The control of the nitrate level in foods is important because this substance may be harmful to human and animal health. The aim of this work was to evaluate nitrate levels in lettuce produced in hydroponic and conventional systems and commercialized in Londrina, Brazil. The nitrate concentration ranged from 26 to 2,568 mg.kg-1 fresh weight. Hydroponic lettuce showed higher levels of nitrate but in all cases the level of nitrate was lower than the maximum allowed by the Comission of the European Communities.

  14. Computational models of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dabbaghian, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Computational and mathematical models provide us with the opportunities to investigate the complexities of real world problems. They allow us to apply our best analytical methods to define problems in a clearly mathematical manner and exhaustively test our solutions before committing expensive resources. This is made possible by assuming parameter(s) in a bounded environment, allowing for controllable experimentation, not always possible in live scenarios. For example, simulation of computational models allows the testing of theories in a manner that is both fundamentally deductive and experimental in nature. The main ingredients for such research ideas come from multiple disciplines and the importance of interdisciplinary research is well recognized by the scientific community. This book provides a window to the novel endeavours of the research communities to present their works by highlighting the value of computational modelling as a research tool when investigating complex systems. We hope that the reader...

  15. Model reduction of parametrized systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlberger, Mario; Patera, Anthony; Rozza, Gianluigi; Urban, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The special volume offers a global guide to new concepts and approaches concerning the following topics: reduced basis methods, proper orthogonal decomposition, proper generalized decomposition, approximation theory related to model reduction, learning theory and compressed sensing, stochastic and high-dimensional problems, system-theoretic methods, nonlinear model reduction, reduction of coupled problems/multiphysics, optimization and optimal control, state estimation and control, reduced order models and domain decomposition methods, Krylov-subspace and interpolatory methods, and applications to real industrial and complex problems. The book represents the state of the art in the development of reduced order methods. It contains contributions from internationally respected experts, guaranteeing a wide range of expertise and topics. Further, it reflects an important effor t, carried out over the last 12 years, to build a growing research community in this field. Though not a textbook, some of the chapters ca...

  16. A structural dynamic factor model for the effects of monetary policy estimated by the EM algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse

    This paper applies the maximum likelihood based EM algorithm to a large-dimensional factor analysis of US monetary policy. Specifically, economy-wide effects of shocks to the US federal funds rate are estimated in a structural dynamic factor model in which 100+ US macroeconomic and financial time...... as opposed to the orthogonal factors resulting from the popular principal component approach to structural factor models. Correlated factors are economically more sensible and important for a richer monetary policy transmission mechanism. Secondly, I consider both static factor loadings as well as dynamic...

  17. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Aqueous Extracts and Fractionation of Different Parts of <em>Elsholtzia em>ciliata>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuangang Zu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity of extract and fractions from various parts of <em>Elsholtzia ciliataem>. The inflorescences, leaves, stems and roots of <em>E. ciliataem> were extracted separately and two phenolic component enrichment methods: ethyl acetate-water liquid-liquid extraction and macroporous resin adsorption-desorption, were adopted in this study. The antioxidant activities of water extracts and fractions of <em>E. ciliataem> were examined using different assay model systems <em>in vitroem>. The fraction root E (purified by HPD300 macroporous resin exhibited the highest total phenolics content (497.2 ± 24.9 mg GAE/g, accompanied with the highest antioxidant activity against various antioxidant systems <em>in vitroem> compared to other fractions. On the basis of the results obtained, <em>E. ciliataem> extracts can be used potentially as a ready accessible and valuable bioactive source of natural antioxidants.

  18. Modeling software systems by domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippolito, Richard; Lee, Kenneth

    1992-01-01

    The Software Architectures Engineering (SAE) Project at the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) has developed engineering modeling techniques that both reduce the complexity of software for domain-specific computer systems and result in systems that are easier to build and maintain. These techniques allow maximum freedom for system developers to apply their domain expertise to software. We have applied these techniques to several types of applications, including training simulators operating in real time, engineering simulators operating in non-real time, and real-time embedded computer systems. Our modeling techniques result in software that mirrors both the complexity of the application and the domain knowledge requirements. We submit that the proper measure of software complexity reflects neither the number of software component units nor the code count, but the locus of and amount of domain knowledge. As a result of using these techniques, domain knowledge is isolated by fields of engineering expertise and removed from the concern of the software engineer. In this paper, we will describe kinds of domain expertise, describe engineering by domains, and provide relevant examples of software developed for simulator applications using the techniques.

  19. BALANCED SCORECARDS EVALUATION MODEL THAT INCLUDES ELEMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING AHP MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovanović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is oriented on improvement of environmental management system (EMS using BSC (Balanced Scorecard model that presents strategic model of measurem ents and improvement of organisational performance. The research will present approach of objectives and environmental management me trics involvement (proposed by literature review in conventional BSC in "Ad Barska plovi dba" organisation. Further we will test creation of ECO-BSC model based on business activities of non-profit organisations in order to improve envir onmental management system in parallel with other systems of management. Using this approach we may obtain 4 models of BSC that includ es elements of environmen tal management system for AD "Barska plovidba". Taking into acc ount that implementation and evaluation need long period of time in AD "Barska plovidba", the final choice will be based on 14598 (Information technology - Software product evaluation and ISO 9126 (Software engineering - Product quality using AHP method. Those standards are usually used for evaluation of quality software product and computer programs that serve in organisation as support and factors for development. So, AHP model will be bas ed on evolution criteria based on suggestion of ISO 9126 standards and types of evaluation from two evaluation teams. Members of team & will be experts in BSC and environmental management system that are not em ployed in AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation. The members of team 2 will be managers of AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation (including manage rs from environmental department. Merging results based on previously cr eated two AHP models, one can obtain the most appropriate BSC that includes elements of environmental management system. The chosen model will present at the same time suggestion for approach choice including ecological metrics in conventional BSC model for firm that has at least one ECO strategic orientation.

  20. Estratégia de capacitação em cirurgia palpebral baseada em modelo animal Animal model-based strategy of palpebral surgery training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João França Lopes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Desenvolvimento de método de treinamento prático em cirurgia palpebral baseado em modelo animal, orientado para o oftalmologista geral e para o iniciante em cirurgia palpebral. MÉTODOS: O modelo porcino foi selecionado devido à semelhança com relação à pálpebra humana. Após breve estudo dirigido com material didático abordando aspectos básicos em cirurgia palpebral e roteiro prático detalhado dos procedimentos a serem realizados, passou-se ao treinamento prático. As técnicas de cirurgia palpebral abordadas foram ressecção pentagonal com reconstrução direta e por planos da pálpebra e técnica original de Bick. O treinamento foi monitorizado cuidadosamente por instrutores com ampla experiência no assunto. Cada aluno tinha à disposição 4 pálpebras. RESULTADOS: Quatorze oftalmologistas foram treinados por meio deste modelo no 1º Curso de Cirurgia Palpebral em Animal em dezembro de 2001. Ao final do treinamento, os alunos se mostraram mais confiantes na realização dos procedimentos realizados, acreditando que a experiência havia contribuído positivamente para o desenvolvimento prático em cirurgia palpebral. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo animal porcino de treinamento pode ser etapa valiosa na transição da esfera teórica para a habilitação prática em Plástica Ocular, e pode ser utilizado como estratégia eficaz na capacitação em ressecção pentagonal com reconstrução direta e por planos da pálpebra e técnica original de Bick.OBJETIVE: Development of an animal model for practical instruction of eyelid surgery, directed to the general ophthalmologist and to the beginner in ophthalmic plastic surgery. METHODS: The porcine model was selected due to its similarity with the human lid anatomy. After a quick guided study with instructive material concerning basic aspects in eyelid surgery, with detailed instructions on the procedures to be performed, the practical training was started. The trained surgery

  1. Cognitive models embedded in system simulation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, A.I.; Wolf, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    If we are to discuss and consider cognitive models, we must first come to grips with two questions: (1) What is cognition; (2) What is a model. Presumably, the answers to these questions can provide a basis for defining a cognitive model. Accordingly, this paper first places these two questions into perspective. Then, cognitive models are set within the context of computer simulation models and a number of computer simulations of cognitive processes are described. Finally, pervasive issues are discussed vis-a-vis cognitive modeling in the computer simulation context

  2. Thermodynamic modeling of complex systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Xiaodong

    . Contrary to earlier theories, the oil is not only present on the surface, but also in great volumes both in the water column and on the seafloor, which indicates that we do not know enough about how oil behaves in water and interacts with it. Sonar detection is one of the most important and necessary...... after an oil spill. Engineering thermodynamics could be applied in the state-of-the-art sonar products through advanced artificial technology, if the speed of sound, solubility and density of oil-seawater systems could be satisfactorily modelled. The addition of methanol or glycols into unprocessed well...... streams during subsea pipelines is necessary to inhibit gas hydrate formation, and the offshore reservoirs often mean complicated temperature and pressure conditions. Accurate description of the phase behavior and thermalphysical properties of complex systems containing petroleum fluids and polar...

  3. Studies of Catalytic Model Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holse, Christian

    of the Cu/ZnO nanoparticles is highly relevant to industrial methanol synthesis for which the direct interaction of Cu and ZnO nanocrystals synergistically boost the catalytic activity. The dynamical behavior of the nanoparticles under reducing and oxidizing environments were studied by means of ex situ X...... as the nanoparticles are reduced. The Cu/ZnO nanoparticles are tested on a  µ-reactor platform and prove to be active towards methanol synthesis, making it an excellent model system for further investigations into activity depended morphology changes....

  4. Multi-sources model and control algorithm of an energy management system for light electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannan, M.A.; Azidin, F.A.; Mohamed, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An energy management system (EMS) is developed for a scooter under normal and heavy power load conditions. ► The battery, FC, SC, EMS, DC machine and vehicle dynamics are modeled and designed for the system. ► State-based logic control algorithms provide an efficient and feasible multi-source EMS for light electric vehicles. ► Vehicle’s speed and power are closely matched with the ECE-47 driving cycle under normal and heavy load conditions. ► Sources of energy changeover occurred at 50% of the battery state of charge level in heavy load conditions. - Abstract: This paper presents the multi-sources energy models and ruled based feedback control algorithm of an energy management system (EMS) for light electric vehicle (LEV), i.e., scooters. The multiple sources of energy, such as a battery, fuel cell (FC) and super-capacitor (SC), EMS and power controller, DC machine and vehicle dynamics are designed and modeled using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The developed control strategies continuously support the EMS of the multiple sources of energy for a scooter under normal and heavy power load conditions. The performance of the proposed system is analyzed and compared with that of the ECE-47 test drive cycle in terms of vehicle speed and load power. The results show that the designed vehicle’s speed and load power closely match those of the ECE-47 test driving cycle under normal and heavy load conditions. This study’s results suggest that the proposed control algorithm provides an efficient and feasible EMS for LEV.

  5. Modelo bioeconômico para cálculo de custos e receitas em sistemas de produção de gado de corte visando à obtenção de valores econômicos de características produtivas e reprodutivas Bio-economic model to calculate costs and revenues to obtain economic values for performance traits in beef cattle production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Jorge Júnior

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi desenvolvido um modelo bioeconômico para o cálculo do desempenho, dos custos e das receitas para obtenção de valores econômicos de características de interesse econômico em sistemas de produção de gado de corte no Brasil. As informações de desempenho e de parâmetros biológicos e econômicos foram obtidas em uma propriedade de gado Nelore que realiza ciclo completo com venda de reprodutores. O modelo é determinístico e estático e foram usadas planilhas Excel para a realização dos cálculos. Com base nas informações originais, foram simulados dois sistemas de produção, um fazendo o ciclo completo com venda de reprodutores (CcoR e o outro, de cria (Cc. Foram calculados os custos e as receitas para esses dois sistemas e, a partir disto, foram obtidos seus lucros anuais. Para o cálculo dos valores econômicos foram escolhidas as características peso à desmama (PD, peso adulto da vaca (PAV, taxa de prenhez (TP e taxa de desmama (TD, que são de interesse nos dois sistemas de produção. Para avaliar o impacto das mudanças no desempenho das características sobre o lucro anual do sistema de produção, os valores iniciais das características foram aumentados em 1%. Esse aumento resultou em mudanças positivas no lucro, observando-se que a TD foi a característica que apresentou maior impacto nos dois sistemas. Para o CcoR, os valores econômicos para PD, PAV, TP e TD foram, respectivamente, R$ 0,40/kg, R$ 0,09/kg, R$ 3,20/1% e R$ 10,15/1%. Para Cc, estes valores foram, respectivamente, de R$ 1,31/kg, R$ 0,09/kg, R$ 2,41/1% e R$ 3,36/1%. O modelo foi capaz de reproduzir satisfatoriamente o sistema de produção de gado de corte estudado e pode ser adaptado para outras circunstâncias de produção.A bio-economic model was developed to calculate costs and revenues to obtain economic values (EV for performance traits of beef cattle in production systems in Brazil. Performance records, economic and biologic parameters were

  6. Reservoir Model Information System: REMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yun; Lee, Kwang-Wu; Rhee, Taehyun; Neumann, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    We describe a novel data visualization framework named Reservoir Model Information System (REMIS) for the display of complex and multi-dimensional data sets in oil reservoirs. It is aimed at facilitating visual exploration and analysis of data sets as well as user collaboration in an easier way. Our framework consists of two main modules: the data access point module and the data visualization module. For the data access point module, the Phrase-Driven Grammar System (PDGS) is adopted for helping users facilitate the visualization of data. It integrates data source applications and external visualization tools and allows users to formulate data query and visualization descriptions by selecting graphical icons in a menu or on a map with step-by-step visual guidance. For the data visualization module, we implemented our first prototype of an interactive volume viewer named REMVR to classify and to visualize geo-spatial specific data sets. By combining PDGS and REMVR, REMIS assists users better in describing visualizations and exploring data so that they can easily find desired data and explore interesting or meaningful relationships including trends and exceptions in oil reservoir model data.

  7. Modeling learning technology systems as business systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Retalis, Symeon; Papaspyrou, Nikolaos

    2003-01-01

    The design of Learning Technology Systems, and the Software Systems that support them, is largely conducted on an intuitive, ad hoc basis, thus resulting in inefficient systems that defectively support the learning process. There is now justifiable, increasing effort in formalizing the engineering

  8. Bond graph modeling of centrifugal compression systems

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Nur; Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    2015-01-01

    A novel approach to model unsteady fluid dynamics in a compressor network by using a bond graph is presented. The model is intended in particular for compressor control system development. First, we develop a bond graph model of a single compression system. Bond graph modeling offers a different perspective to previous work by modeling the compression system based on energy flow instead of fluid dynamics. Analyzing the bond graph model explains the energy flow during compressor surge. Two pri...

  9. Structuring Problem Analysis for Embedded Systems Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marincic, J.; Mader, Angelika H.; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Lucas, Yan

    Our interest is embedded systems validation as part of the model-driven approach. To design a model, the modeller needs to obtain knowledge about the system and decide what is relevant to model and how. A part of the modelling activities is inherently informal - it cannot be formalised in such a way

  10. A validation of ground ambulance pre-hospital times modeled using geographic information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Alka B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating geographic access to health services often requires determining the patient travel time to a specified service. For urgent care, many research studies have modeled patient pre-hospital time by ground emergency medical services (EMS using geographic information systems (GIS. The purpose of this study was to determine if the modeling assumptions proposed through prior United States (US studies are valid in a non-US context, and to use the resulting information to provide revised recommendations for modeling travel time using GIS in the absence of actual EMS trip data. Methods The study sample contained all emergency adult patient trips within the Calgary area for 2006. Each record included four components of pre-hospital time (activation, response, on-scene and transport interval. The actual activation and on-scene intervals were compared with those used in published models. The transport interval was calculated within GIS using the Network Analyst extension of Esri ArcGIS 10.0 and the response interval was derived using previously established methods. These GIS derived transport and response intervals were compared with the actual times using descriptive methods. We used the information acquired through the analysis of the EMS trip data to create an updated model that could be used to estimate travel time in the absence of actual EMS trip records. Results There were 29,765 complete EMS records for scene locations inside the city and 529 outside. The actual median on-scene intervals were longer than the average previously reported by 7–8 minutes. Actual EMS pre-hospital times across our study area were significantly higher than the estimated times modeled using GIS and the original travel time assumptions. Our updated model, although still underestimating the total pre-hospital time, more accurately represents the true pre-hospital time in our study area. Conclusions The widespread use of generalized EMS pre

  11. A validation of ground ambulance pre-hospital times modeled using geographic information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Evaluating geographic access to health services often requires determining the patient travel time to a specified service. For urgent care, many research studies have modeled patient pre-hospital time by ground emergency medical services (EMS) using geographic information systems (GIS). The purpose of this study was to determine if the modeling assumptions proposed through prior United States (US) studies are valid in a non-US context, and to use the resulting information to provide revised recommendations for modeling travel time using GIS in the absence of actual EMS trip data. Methods The study sample contained all emergency adult patient trips within the Calgary area for 2006. Each record included four components of pre-hospital time (activation, response, on-scene and transport interval). The actual activation and on-scene intervals were compared with those used in published models. The transport interval was calculated within GIS using the Network Analyst extension of Esri ArcGIS 10.0 and the response interval was derived using previously established methods. These GIS derived transport and response intervals were compared with the actual times using descriptive methods. We used the information acquired through the analysis of the EMS trip data to create an updated model that could be used to estimate travel time in the absence of actual EMS trip records. Results There were 29,765 complete EMS records for scene locations inside the city and 529 outside. The actual median on-scene intervals were longer than the average previously reported by 7–8 minutes. Actual EMS pre-hospital times across our study area were significantly higher than the estimated times modeled using GIS and the original travel time assumptions. Our updated model, although still underestimating the total pre-hospital time, more accurately represents the true pre-hospital time in our study area. Conclusions The widespread use of generalized EMS pre-hospital time assumptions based

  12. Physiologically based kinetic modelling based prediction of oral systemic bioavailability of flavonoids, their metabolites, and their biological effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonpawa, Rungnapa

    2017-01-01

    Flavonoids, abundantly present in fruits and vegetables, have been reported to exert various positive health effects based on <em>in vitroem> bioassays. However, effects detected in <em>in vitroem> models cannot be directly correlated to human health as most <em>in vitroem> studies have

  13. <em>Botulinum Neurotoxinem> A Injections Influence Stretching of the Gastrocnemius Muscle-Tendon Unit in an Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Tuohy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available <em>Botulinum Neurotoxinem> A (BoNT-A injections have been used for the treatment of muscle contractures and spasticity. This study assessed the influence of (BoNT-A injections on passive biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit. Mouse gastrocnemius muscle (GC was injected with BoNT-A (<em>n> = 18 or normal saline (<em>n> = 18 and passive, non-destructive, <em>in vivoem> load relaxation experimentation was performed to examine how the muscle-tendon unit behaves after chemical denervation with BoNT-A. Injection of BoNT-A impaired passive muscle recovery (15% <em>vs.> 35% recovery to pre-stretching baseline, <em>p> < 0.05 and decreased GC stiffness (0.531 ± 0.061 N/mm <em>vs.> 0.780 ± 0.037 N/mm, <em>p> < 0.05 compared to saline controls. The successful use of BoNT-A injections as an adjunct to physical therapy may be in part attributed to the disruption of the stretch reflex; thereby modulating <em>in vivoem> passive muscle properties. However, it is also possible that BoNT-A injection may alter the structure of skeletal muscle; thus modulating the <em>in vivoem> passive biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit.

  14. Avaliação qualitativa em modelo experimental fotoelástico do sistema de força gerado pela mola "T" centralizada com pré-ativações preconizadas por Burstone Qualitative evaluation in photoelastic experimental models of the force system generated by T-springs placed in the center of the interbracket space with pre-activations advocated by Burstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Guilherme Martins Maia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o sistema de forças gerado pela mola T centralizada no espaço interbraquete, com pré-ativação preconizada por Burstone. MÉTODOS: utilizando-se modelos fotoelásticos, a mola T com pré-ativações preconizadas por Burstone, confeccionada com fio retangular de titânio-molibdênio (TMA de secção 0,017"x 0,025", centralizada e com ativação de 6mm, 3mm e em posição neutra. Para melhor confiabilidade dos resultados, os testes foram repetidos em três modelos igualmente duplicados e confeccionados pelo mesmo operador. Utilizou-se uma distância interbraquetes de 27mm. Para compreensão dos resultados, as franjas foram visualizadas através do polariscópio, fotografadas e analisadas qualitativamente. RESULTADOS: por meio da análise qualitativa da ordem de franjas no modelo fotoelástico, notou-se que, nas extremidades de retração e ancoragem, ambas apresentaram simetria no sistema de força, em toda extensão radicular.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the force system generated by T-springs placed in the center of the interbracket space using the pre-activations advocated by Burstone. METHODS: Photoelastic models were used to assess T-springs fabricated with 0.017x0.025-in rectangular titanium-molybdenum alloy wire (TMA, centrally positioned, with 6.0 mm activation, 3 mm activation, and in neutral position. To ensure reliable results, tests were repeated on three photoelastic models equally duplicated and fabricated by the same operator. An interbracket distance of 27.0 mm was used. For a better understanding of the results, the fringes were viewed in a polariscope, then photographed and qualitatively analyzed. RESULTS: Through qualitative analysis of the fringe order in the photoelastic model it was noted that both the retraction and anchorage ends displayed force system symmetry across the full extent of the root.

  15. A Model Curriculum for an Emergency Medical Services (EMS Rotation for Emergency Medicine Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mancera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This EMS curriculum is designed for Emergency Medicine residents at all levels of training. Introduction: Emergency Medicine (EM physicians have routine interaction with Emergency Medical Services (EMS in their clinical practice. Additionally, the American College of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME mandates that all Emergency Medicine resident physicians receive specific training in the area of EMS.1 Historically, EMS training for EM residents has been conducted in the absence of a standardized didactic curriculum. Despite advancements in the area of prehospital training, there remains wide inconsistency in EMS training experiences among EM residency training programs.2 To our knowledge a standardized and reproducible EMS curriculum for EM residents does not exist. Objectives: The aim of this curriculum is to provide a robust learning experience for EM residents around prehospital care and EMS that fulfills the ACGME requirements and which can be easily replicated and implemented in a variety of EM residency training programs. Method: The educational strategies used in this curriculum include didactics, asynchronous learning through online modules and a focused reading list, experiential learning through ride-alongs, structured small group discussion, supervised medical command shifts, and mentored practice in organizing and delivering didactics to EMS providers.

  16. An experimental model for the transplantation of fetal central nervous system cells to the injured spinal cord in rats Modelo experimental de transplante de células do sistema nervoso central fetal para lesão de medula espinal em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa de Barros Filho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Traumatic spinal cord injury is one of the most disabling conditions occurring in man and thus stimulates a strong interest in its histopathological, biochemical, and functional changes, primarily as we search for preventive and therapeutic methods. PURPOSE: To develop an experimental model for transplantation of cells from the fetal rat central nervous system to the site of an injured spinal cord of an adult rat in which the transplanted cells survive and become integrated. This experimental model will facilitate investigations of factors that promote regeneration and functional recovery after spinal cord trauma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen adult Wistar rats underwent laminectomy, and an spinal cord lesion was made with microdissection. Fetal spinal cord tissue was then transplanted to the site of the injury. The rats were monitored over a 48-hour period, and then their vertebral column was completely removed for histological analysis. RESULTS: In 60% of transplanted rats, the fetal tissue at the injured site remained viable in the site of the lesion.INTRODUÇÃO: A lesão traumática da medula espinal consiste numa das mais incapacitantes lesões que o ser humano pode sofrer e tem despertado grande interesse no conhecimento das alterações histopatológicas, bioquímicas, funcionais e principalmente na busca de métodos de prevenção e tratamento. OBJETIVO: Propor um modelo experimental de transplante de células do sistema nervoso fetal de ratos para o sítio de lesão medular de ratos adultos que permitisse sua sobrevivência e integração para possibilitar protocolos de pesquisa para identificar outros fatores de regeneração e recuperação funcional pós trauma raquimedular. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Utilizaram-se 15 ratos adultos que foram submetidos a laminectomia e lesão de 5mm de hemimelula realizada com auxílio de microscópio óptico. Os ratos tiveram seu sítio de lesão medular transplantado com células do

  17. Uso de modelação matemática para projeto de câmaras mecanizadas de floculação em série em estações de tratamento de água The use of mathematical modeling to the design of continous flow completely mixed chambers in series for flocculation in water treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Di Bernardo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A metodologia encontrada na literatura para a otimização do gradiente de velocidade médio em reatores de mistura completa, com câmaras em série de escoamento contínuo, a partir de ensaios em reator estático tipo jarteste, baseia-se em modelos matemáticos que descrevem a cinética dos encontros entre partículas durante a floculação. Considerando-se que a aplicabilidade desta metodologia tem-se revelado inconsistente, como observado por diversos autores, este trabalho propõe uma metodologia racional para utilizar e otimizar os dados experimentais obtidos em reatores estáticos e, utilizando modelos matemáticos, obter dados para o projeto de floculadores mecanizados em série em estações de tratamento de água.The existing methodology in the literature to optimize the velocity gradients in continuous flow completely mixed reactors using batch test data (static reactors is based on mathematical models that describe the flocculation kinetics. Since this methodology has been shown to be inconsistent, as observed by several researchers, this work was carried out in order to propose a rational methodology to optimize the static reactors experimental data to obtain the design parameters of mechanized flocculation systems for water treatment plants.

  18. Mites in assai palms (Euterpe oleracea Mart. conducted under different cropping systems = Acarofauna em açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea Mart. conduzido em diferentes sistemas de cultivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Aguiar Rodrigues

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The assai palm (Euterpe oleracea is the most important palm tree of the genus Euterpe known in Brazil, which is grown under monocrop and intercrop systems. Despite its great usefulness, this palm tree is important for supplying two cost-effective food products, the fruit and the palm hearts. Due to its importance, the aim of this study was to carry out a survey of mite fauna present in assai crops in the town of São Luis, in the State of Maranhão, Brazil. Samples were collected monthly from August 2012 to July 2013, in assai groves under two systems of cultivation: monocrop and intercrop. A faunistic analysis was carried out using the ANAFAU software, when the following indices were determined: abundance, frequency, dominance, constancy and diversity. A total of 6,274 mites were found, with 4,748 in the intercrop system and 1,526 in the monocrop system. Among the occurrence of phytophagic mites, the families Tenuipalpidae and Tetranychidae were significant in both crops. For the families of predatory mites, the phytoseiid was considered super-dominant, super-abundant, super-frequent and constant; the species Amblyseius largoensis, Euseius concordis and Iphiseiodes zuluagai were dominant under both cropping systems, but the intercrop displayed greater diversity compared to the monocrop. For population dynamics, larger populations of mites were seen in periods of low rainfall under the two systems studied. = O açaizeiro (Euterpe oleraceae é a mais importante palmeira do gênero Euterpe conhecida no Brasil, que é cultivada em sistemas de cultivo solteiro e consorciado. Apesar da grande utilidade, esta palmeira se destaca no fornecimento de dois produtos alimentares economicamente rentáveis, os frutos e o palmito. Em razão da sua importância, objetivou-se com este trabalho realizar o levantamento da acarofauna presente em cultivos de açaizeiro no município de São Luís - Maranhão. As amostragens foram realizadas mensalmente, no per

  19. An Effective Math Model for Eliminating Interior Resonance Problems of EM Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yun-feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that if an E-field integral equation or an H-field integral equation is applied alone in analysis of EM scattering from a conducting body, the solution to the equation will be either nonunique or unstable at the vicinity of a certain interior frequency. An effective math model is presented here, providing an easy way to deal with this situation. At the interior resonant frequencies, the surface current density is divided into two parts: an induced surface current caused by the incident field and a resonance surface current associated with the interior resonance mode. In this paper, the presented model, based on electric field integral equation and orthogonal modal theory, is used here to filter out resonant mode; therefore, unique and stable solution will be obtained. The proposed method possesses the merits of clarity in concept and simplicity in computation. A good agreement is achieved between the calculated results and those obtained by other methods in both 2D and 3D EM scattering.

  20. Modeling Power Systems as Complex Adaptive Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Malard, Joel M.; Posse, Christian; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Lu, Ning; Katipamula, Srinivas; Mallow, J V.

    2004-12-30

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today's most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This report explores the state-of-the-art physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and deriving stable and robust control strategies for using them. We review and discuss applications of some analytic methods based on a thermodynamic metaphor, according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood. We apply these methods to the question of how power markets can be expected to behave under a variety of conditions.

  1. The simulated spectrum of the OGRE X-ray EM-CCD camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M.; Soman, M.; Holland, A.; Lumb, D.; Tutt, J.; McEntaffer, R.; Schultz, T.; Holland, K.

    2017-12-01

    The X-ray astronomical telescopes in use today, such as Chandra and XMM-Newton, use X-ray grating spectrometers to probe the high energy physics of the Universe. These instruments typically use reflective optics for focussing onto gratings that disperse incident X-rays across a detector, often a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD). The X-ray energy is determined from the position that it was detected on the CCD. Improved technology for the next generation of X-ray grating spectrometers has been developed and will be tested on a sounding rocket experiment known as the Off-plane Grating Rocket Experiment (OGRE). OGRE aims to capture the highest resolution soft X-ray spectrum of Capella, a well-known astronomical X-ray source, during an observation period lasting between 3 and 6 minutes whilst proving the performance and suitability of three key components. These three components consist of a telescope made from silicon mirrors, gold coated silicon X-ray diffraction gratings and a camera that comprises of four Electron-Multiplying (EM)-CCDs that will be arranged to observe the soft X-rays dispersed by the gratings. EM-CCDs have an architecture similar to standard CCDs, with the addition of an EM gain register where the electron signal is amplified so that the effective signal-to-noise ratio of the imager is improved. The devices also have incredibly favourable Quantum Efficiency values for detecting soft X-ray photons. On OGRE, this improved detector performance allows for easier identification of low energy X-rays and fast readouts due to the amplified signal charge making readout noise almost negligible. A simulation that applies the OGRE instrument performance to the Capella soft X-ray spectrum has been developed that allows the distribution of X-rays onto the EM-CCDs to be predicted. A proposed optical model is also discussed which would enable the missions minimum success criteria's photon count requirement to have a high chance of being met with the shortest possible

  2. Visual computing model for immune system and medical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Cao, Xinxue; Xiong, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Natural immune system is an intelligent self-organizing and adaptive system, which has a variety of immune cells with different types of immune mechanisms. The mutual cooperation between the immune cells shows the intelligence of this immune system, and modeling this immune system has an important significance in medical science and engineering. In order to build a comprehensible model of this immune system for better understanding with the visualization method than the traditional mathematic model, a visual computing model of this immune system was proposed and also used to design a medical system with the immune system, in this paper. Some visual simulations of the immune system were made to test the visual effect. The experimental results of the simulations show that the visual modeling approach can provide a more effective way for analyzing this immune system than only the traditional mathematic equations.

  3. Near-atomic cryo-EM imaging of a small protein displayed on a designed scaffolding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuxi; Gonen, Shane; Gonen, Tamir; Yeates, Todd O

    2018-03-27

    Current single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) techniques can produce images of large protein assemblies and macromolecular complexes at atomic level detail without the need for crystal growth. However, proteins of smaller size, typical of those found throughout the cell, are not presently amenable to detailed structural elucidation by cryo-EM. Here we use protein design to create a modular, symmetrical scaffolding system to make protein molecules of typical size suitable for cryo-EM. Using a rigid continuous alpha helical linker, we connect a small 17-kDa protein (DARPin) to a protein subunit that was designed to self-assemble into a cage with cubic symmetry. We show that the resulting construct is amenable to structural analysis by single-particle cryo-EM, allowing us to identify and solve the structure of the attached small protein at near-atomic detail, ranging from 3.5- to 5-Å resolution. The result demonstrates that proteins considerably smaller than the theoretical limit of 50 kDa for cryo-EM can be visualized clearly when arrayed in a rigid fashion on a symmetric designed protein scaffold. Furthermore, because the amino acid sequence of a DARPin can be chosen to confer tight binding to various other protein or nucleic acid molecules, the system provides a future route for imaging diverse macromolecules, potentially broadening the application of cryo-EM to proteins of typical size in the cell.

  4. Model Information Exchange System (MIXS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Many travel demand forecast models operate at state, regional, and local levels. While they share the same physical network in overlapping geographic areas, they use different and uncoordinated modeling networks. This creates difficulties for models ...

  5. Two sustainable energy system analysis models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Goran Krajacic, Neven Duic; da Graca Carvalho, Maria

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of two energy system analysis models both designed with the purpose of analysing electricity systems with a substantial share of fluctuating renewable energy.......This paper presents a comparative study of two energy system analysis models both designed with the purpose of analysing electricity systems with a substantial share of fluctuating renewable energy....

  6. Models for multimegawatt space power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edenburn, M.W.

    1990-06-01

    This report describes models for multimegawatt, space power systems which Sandia's Advanced Power Systems Division has constructed to help evaluate space power systems for SDI's Space Power Office. Five system models and models for associated components are presented for both open (power system waste products are exhausted into space) and closed (no waste products) systems: open, burst mode, hydrogen cooled nuclear reactor -- turboalternator system; open, hydrogen-oxygen combustion turboalternator system; closed, nuclear reactor powered Brayton cycle system; closed, liquid metal Rankine cycle system; and closed, in-core, reactor therminonic system. The models estimate performance and mass for the components in each of these systems. 17 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Applying the physically complete EMI models to the ESTCP Camp Sibert Pilot Study EM-63 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamatava, Irma; Shubitidze, Fridon; Barrowes, Benjamin; Fernández, Juan Pablo; Pasion, Leonard R.; O'Neill, Kevin

    2009-05-01

    Recently the SERDP/ESTCP office under the UXO Discrimination Pilot Study Program acquired high-density data over hundreds of targets using time-domain EM-63 sensor at Camp Sibert. The data were inverted and analyzed by various research groups using a simple dipole model approach and different classification tools. The studies demonstrated high discrimination probability with a low false-alarm rate. However in order to further improve discrimination between UXO and non-UXO items a better understanding is needed of the limits of current and emerging processing approaches. In this paper, the simple dipole model and a physically complete model called the normalized surface magnetic source (NSMS) the Camp Sibert data sets. The simple, infinitesimal dipole representation is by far the most widely employed model for UXO modeling. In this model, one approximates a target's response when excited by a primary (transmitted) field using an induced infinitesimal dipole (in turn described by a single magnetic polarizability matrix). The greatest advantage of the dipole model is that it is simple and imposes low computation costs. However, researchers have recently begun to realize the limitations of the simple dipole model as an inherently coarse description of the EMI behavior of complex, heterogeneous targets like UXO. To address these limitations, here the NSMS is employed as a more powerful forward model for data inversion and object discrimination. This method is extremely fast and equally applicable to the time or frequency domains. The object's location and orientation are estimated by using a standard nonlinear inversion-scattering approach. The discrimination performance between the dipole and NSMS models are conducted by investigating model fidelity and data density issues, positional accuracy and geological noise effects.

  8. Modeling traceability in system of systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekinerdogan, Bedir; Erata, Ferhat

    2017-01-01

    An important aspect in SoS is the realization of the concerns in different systems that work together. Identifying and locating these concerns is important to orchestrate the overall activities and hereby to achieve the overall goal of the SoS. Moreover, concerns in SoS are rarely stable and need

  9. Modeling of Nonlinear Systems using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kayoko; Yamamoto, Toru; Kawada, Kazuo

    In this paper, a newly modeling system by using Genetic Algorithm (GA) is proposed. The GA is an evolutionary computational method that simulates the mechanisms of heredity or evolution of living things, and it is utilized in optimization and in searching for optimized solutions. Most process systems have nonlinearities, so it is necessary to anticipate exactly such systems. However, it is difficult to make a suitable model for nonlinear systems, because most nonlinear systems have a complex structure. Therefore the newly proposed method of modeling for nonlinear systems uses GA. Then, according to the newly proposed scheme, the optimal structure and parameters of the nonlinear model are automatically generated.

  10. EMS call center models with and without function differentiation: a comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Buuren, M.; Kommer, G.J.; van der Mei, R.D.; Bhulai, Sandjai

    2017-01-01

    In pre-hospital health care the call center plays an important role in the coordination of emergency medical services (EMS). An EMS call center handles inbound requests for EMS and dispatches an ambulance if necessary. The time needed for triage and dispatch is part of the total response time to the

  11. Genomics and genetics of <em>Sulfolobus islandicusem> LAL14/1, a model hyperthermophilic archaeon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaubert, Carole; Danioux, Chloë; Oberto, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    perfectly or imperfectly the genomes of archaeal viruses and plasmids found in the Icelandic hot springs. Strikingly, the CRISPR_2 region of LAL14/1 carries an unusually long 1.9 kb spacer interspersed between two repeat regions and displays a high similarity to pING1-like conjugative plasmids. Finally, we...... have developed a genetic system for S. islandicus LAL14/1 and created ¿pyrEF and ¿CRISPR_1 mutants using double cross-over and pop-in/pop-out approaches, respectively. Thus, LAL14/1 is a promising model to study virus-host interactions and the CRISPR/Cas defence mechanism in Archaea....

  12. Ética da pesquisa em modelos animais Research ethics in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dieb Miziara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de animais em experimentos científicos é descrita desde o século V a.C. Avanços científicos na área da saúde são atribuídos a modelos animais. O status moral dos animais sempre foi debatido. OBJETIVOS: Este artigo visa à revisão histórica e resumo da legislação atual, para orientar pesquisadores ao utilizar modelos animais na pesquisa em otorrinolaringologia. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Pesquisa na base de dados Medline. RESULTADOS: no Brasil, por muitos anos não havia regulamentação para o uso de animais em experimentação. Eram seguidas normas de organizações nacionais e internacionais. Recentemente, foi sancionada a lei nº 11.794/08, que estabelece procedimentos para o uso científico de animais. Na otorrinolaringologia, os estudos com laringe utilizaram coelho, porco, cachorro, cobaias (Cavia porcellus e camundongo; estudos para face coelho, rato e cachorro; rinoplastia com coelho; e orelha interna com ratos e cobaias (albinas. CONCLUSÕES: Os pesquisadores envolvidos em trabalhos científicos com animais devem conhecer os princípios da lei nº 11.794/08 e pesquisar quais animais são apropriados para cada subárea estudada seus modelos com maior aplicabilidade. Os otorrinolaringologistas, especialmente aqueles que se dedicam à pesquisa, necessitam estar sempre atentos para o respeito às regras éticas de utilização de animais em seus estudos.The use of animals in scientific experiments has beendescribed since the fifth century BC. A number of scientific advances in health are attributed to animal models. The issue of the moral status of animals has always been debated. OBJECTIVES: This article aims to review and to present a historical summary of the current laws, to guide researchers who wish to use animal models in otolaryngology research. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Research on the medline database. RESULTS: For many years there were no laws ruling the use of animals in scientific experimentation in Brazil

  13. Modelling climate change effects on a Dutch coastal groundwater system using airborne electromagnetic measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faneca Sànchez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The forecast of climate change effects on the groundwater system in coastal areas is of key importance for policy makers. The Dutch water system has been deeply studied because of its complex system of low-lying areas, dunes, land won to the sea and dikes, but nowadays large efforts are still being done to find out the best techniques to describe complex fresh-brackish-saline groundwater dynamic systems. In this paper, we describe a methodology consisting of high-resolution airborne electromagnetic (EM measurements used in a 3-D variable-density transient groundwater model for a coastal area in the Netherlands. We used the airborne EM measurements in combination with borehole-logging data, electrical conductivity cone penetration tests and groundwater samples to create a 3-D fresh-brackish-saline groundwater distribution of the study area. The EM measurements proved to be an improvement compared to older techniques and provided quality input for the model. With the help of the built 3-D variable-density groundwater model, we removed the remaining inaccuracies of the 3-D chloride field and predicted the effects of three climate scenarios on the groundwater and surface water system. Results showed significant changes in the groundwater system, and gave direction for future water policy. Future research should provide more insight in the improvement of data collection for fresh-brackish-saline groundwater systems as it is of high importance to further improve the quality of the model.

  14. Model Driven Development of Data Sensitive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Petur

    2014-01-01

    to the values of variables. This theses strives to improve model-driven development of such data-sensitive systems. This is done by addressing three research questions. In the first we combine state-based modeling and abstract interpretation, in order to ease modeling of data-sensitive systems, while allowing...... efficient model-checking and model-based testing. In the second we develop automatic abstraction learning used together with model learning, in order to allow fully automatic learning of data-sensitive systems to allow learning of larger systems. In the third we develop an approach for modeling and model-based...... detection and pushing error detection to earlier stages of development. The complexity of modeling and the size of systems which can be analyzed is severely limited when introducing data variables. The state space grows exponentially in the number of variable and the domain size of the variables...

  15. Modeling of a Hydraulic Braking System

    OpenAIRE

    Lundin, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to derive an analytical model representing a reduced form of a mine hoist hydraulic braking system. Based primarily on fluid mechanical and mechanical physical modeling, along with a number of simplifying assumptions, the analytical model will be derived and expressed in the form of a system of differential equations including a set of static functions. The obtained model will be suitable for basic simulation and analysis of system dynamics, with the aim to cap...

  16. Graphical Model Debugger Framework for Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Kebin

    2010-01-01

    Model Driven Software Development has offered a faster way to design and implement embedded real-time software by moving the design to a model level, and by transforming models to code. However, the testing of embedded systems has remained at the code level. This paper presents a Graphical Model...... Debugger Framework, providing an auxiliary avenue of analysis of system models at runtime by executing generated code and updating models synchronously, which allows embedded developers to focus on the model level. With the model debugger, embedded developers can graphically test their design model...... and check the running status of the system, which offers a debugging capability on a higher level of abstraction. The framework intends to contribute a tool to the Eclipse society, especially suitable for model-driven development of embedded systems....

  17. A Study on GPU-based Iterative ML-EM Reconstruction Algorithm for Emission Computed Tomographic Imaging Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Woo Seok; Kim, Soo Mee; Park, Min Jae; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Jae Sung

    2009-01-01

    The maximum likelihood-expectation maximization (ML-EM) is the statistical reconstruction algorithm derived from probabilistic model of the emission and detection processes. Although the ML-EM has many advantages in accuracy and utility, the use of the ML-EM is limited due to the computational burden of iterating processing on a CPU (central processing unit). In this study, we developed a parallel computing technique on GPU (graphic processing unit) for ML-EM algorithm. Using Geforce 9800 GTX+ graphic card and CUDA (compute unified device architecture) the projection and backprojection in ML-EM algorithm were parallelized by NVIDIA's technology. The time delay on computations for projection, errors between measured and estimated data and backprojection in an iteration were measured. Total time included the latency in data transmission between RAM and GPU memory. The total computation time of the CPU- and GPU-based ML-EM with 32 iterations were 3.83 and 0.26 sec, respectively. In this case, the computing speed was improved about 15 times on GPU. When the number of iterations increased into 1024, the CPU- and GPU-based computing took totally 18 min and 8 sec, respectively. The improvement was about 135 times and was caused by delay on CPU-based computing after certain iterations. On the other hand, the GPU-based computation provided very small variation on time delay per iteration due to use of shared memory. The GPU-based parallel computation for ML-EM improved significantly the computing speed and stability. The developed GPU-based ML-EM algorithm could be easily modified for some other imaging geometries

  18. Development of the electromagnetic tomography system. Field test results using existing equipment; EM tomography system no kaihatsu. Kison sochi ni yoru test sokutei kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumekawa, Y.; Miura, Y.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arai, E. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    With the purpose of developing an electromagnetic tomography system, an observation was carried out with existing equipment combined, and the data was analyzed. The measuring equipment consisted of existing borehole vertical magnetic field sensors as the sensor part, MT method receivers as the receiving device, and existing CSMT method transmitters as the transmitting device. The measuring was performed at the Richmond Field Station which was abundant in existing data and which had a comparatively simple resistivity structure. The borehole vertical magnetic field sensors were lowered inside the borehole, and signal sources were arranged at 10m apart on the traverse line in the direction from northeast to southwest with the borehole as the center. The analysis of the data was made with the use of EM1D by three models, namely, 10 ohm{center_dot}m homogeneous earth model, 100 ohm{center_dot}m homogeneous earth model, and horizontal 7 layer model prepared on the basis of electric logging results; and a comparative examination was made against the measured data. As a result, it was demonstrated that the test measurement agreed very well with the model from the electric logging results and that it was the data reflecting a resistivity structure. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  19. The effect of effective microorganisms (EM on EBPR in modified contact stabilization system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab M. Rashed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Excessive phosphorus can cause eutrophication in water bodies and needs to be reduced in most wastewaters before discharge to receiving waters. The enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR process has been shown to be an economical and environmentally compatible method for reducing phosphorus from wastewaters. The experiment has been performed in order to investigate the effect of using effective microorganisms (EM as an application of Enhanced Biological Phosphorous Removal (EBPR in modified contact stabilization activated sludge system by using contact tank as a phosphorus uptake zone and using thickener tank as a phosphorus release zone. The study involved the construction of a pilot plant which was setup in the Quhafa Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP, Al Fayoum, Egypt. Then the uptake and release of total phosphorus were determined through two batch tests using sludge samples from thickener and stabilization tanks. Results showed the removal efficiencies of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5 and total phosphorus (TP of this pilot plant were 93%, 93% and 90%, respectively. On the other hand the results of batch tests showed that the reason for high ability of phosphorus removal by this pilot plant is related to the high performance of microorganisms for phosphorus accumulation. Finally providing activated EM to the anaerobic zone was to improve fermentation by achieving the enhancement of the performance of phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs and then increase phosphorous release resulting in the decrease of the average effluent phosphorus concentration.

  20. Hydrological modelling in forested systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides a brief overview of forest hydrology modelling approaches for answering important global research and management questions. Many hundreds of hydrological models have been applied globally across multiple decades to represent and predict forest hydrological p...

  1. Towards Modelling of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    2006-01-01

    The article is an attempt to use methods of category theory and topology for analysis of hybrid systems. We use the notion of a directed topological space; it is a topological space together with a set of privileged paths. Dynamical systems are examples of directed topological spaces. A hybrid...... system consists of a number of dynamical systems that are glued together according to information encoded in the discrete part of the system. We develop a definition of a hybrid system as a functor from the category generated by a transition system to the category of directed topological spaces. Its...... directed homotopy colimit (geometric realization) is a single directed topological space. The behavior of hybrid systems can be then understood in terms of the behavior of dynamical systems through the directed homotopy colimit....

  2. Service systems concepts, modeling, and programming

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Jorge; Poels, Geert

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explores the internal workings of service systems. The authors propose a lightweight semantic model for an effective representation to capture the essence of service systems. Key topics include modeling frameworks, service descriptions and linked data, creating service instances, tool support, and applications in enterprises.Previous books on service system modeling and various streams of scientific developments used an external perspective to describe how systems can be integrated. This brief introduces the concept of white-box service system modeling as an approach to mo

  3. On Verification Modelling of Embedded Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Hendrik; Mader, Angelika H.

    Computer-aided verification of embedded systems hinges on the availability of good verification models of the systems at hand. Such models must be much simpler than full design models or specifications to be of practical value, because of the unavoidable combinatorial complexities in the

  4. Balmorel open source energy system model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Frauke; Bramstoft, Rasmus; Koduvere, Hardi

    2018-01-01

    As the world progresses towards a cleaner energy future with more variable renewable energy sources, energy system models are required to deal with new challenges. This article describes design, development and applications of the open source energy system model Balmorel, which is a result of a l...... transport of local biomass as part of the optimisation and speeding up the model....

  5. Modeling, Control and Coordination of Helicopter Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Beibei; Chen, Chang; Fua, Cheng-Heng; Lee, Tong Heng

    2012-01-01

    Modeling, Control and Coordination of Helicopter Systems provides a comprehensive treatment of helicopter systems, ranging from related nonlinear flight dynamic modeling and stability analysis to advanced control design for single helicopter systems, and also covers issues related to the coordination and formation control of multiple helicopter systems to achieve high performance tasks. Ensuring stability in helicopter flight is a challenging problem for nonlinear control design and development. This book is a valuable reference on modeling, control and coordination of helicopter systems,providing readers with practical solutions for the problems that still plague helicopter system design and implementation. Readers will gain a complete picture of helicopters at the systems level, as well as a better understanding of the technical intricacies involved. This book also: Presents a complete picture of modeling, control and coordination for helicopter systems Provides a modeling platform for a general class of ro...

  6. Systems Biology—Biomedical Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Sobie, Eric A.; Lee, Young-Seon; Jenkins, Sherry L.; Iyengar, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    Because of the complexity inherent in biological systems, many researchers frequently rely on a combination of global analysis and computational approaches to gain insight into both (i) how interacting components can produce complex system behaviors, and (ii) how changes in conditions may alter these behaviors. Because the biological details of a particular system are generally not taught along with the quantitative approaches that enable hypothesis generation and analysis of the system, we d...

  7. Spectral-element Method for 3D Marine Controlled-source EM Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Yin, C.; Zhang, B., Sr.; Liu, Y.; Qiu, C.; Huang, X.; Zhu, J.

    2017-12-01

    As one of the predrill reservoir appraisal methods, marine controlled-source EM (MCSEM) has been widely used in mapping oil reservoirs to reduce risk of deep water exploration. With the technical development of MCSEM, the need for improved forward modeling tools has become evident. We introduce in this paper spectral element method (SEM) for 3D MCSEM modeling. It combines the flexibility of finite-element and high accuracy of spectral method. We use Galerkin weighted residual method to discretize the vector Helmholtz equation, where the curl-conforming Gauss-Lobatto-Chebyshev (GLC) polynomials are chosen as vector basis functions. As a kind of high-order complete orthogonal polynomials, the GLC have the characteristic of exponential convergence. This helps derive the matrix elements analytically and improves the modeling accuracy. Numerical 1D models using SEM with different orders show that SEM method delivers accurate results. With increasing SEM orders, the modeling accuracy improves largely. Further we compare our SEM with finite-difference (FD) method for a 3D reservoir model (Figure 1). The results show that SEM method is more effective than FD method. Only when the mesh is fine enough, can FD achieve the same accuracy of SEM. Therefore, to obtain the same precision, SEM greatly reduces the degrees of freedom and cost. Numerical experiments with different models (not shown here) demonstrate that SEM is an efficient and effective tool for MSCEM modeling that has significant advantages over traditional numerical methods.This research is supported by Key Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (41530320), China Natural Science Foundation for Young Scientists (41404093), and Key National Research Project of China (2016YFC0303100, 2017YFC0601900).

  8. Modeling and simulation of systems using Matlab and Simulink

    CERN Document Server

    Chaturvedi, Devendra K

    2009-01-01

    Introduction to SystemsSystemClassification of SystemsLinear SystemsTime-Varying vs. Time-Invariant Systems Lumped vs. Distributed Parameter SystemsContinuous- and Discrete-Time Systems Deterministic vs. Stochastic Systems Hard and Soft Systems Analysis of Systems Synthesis of Systems Introduction to System Philosophy System Thinking Large and Complex Applied System Engineering: A Generic ModelingSystems ModelingIntroduction Need of System Modeling Modeling Methods for Complex Systems Classification of ModelsCharacteristics of Models ModelingMathematical Modeling of Physical SystemsFormulation of State Space Model of SystemsPhysical Systems Theory System Components and Interconnections Computation of Parameters of a Component Single Port and Multiport Systems Techniques of System Analysis Basics of Linear Graph Theoretic ApproachFormulation of System Model for Conceptual SystemFormulation System Model for Physical SystemsTopological RestrictionsDevelopment of State Model of Degenerative SystemSolution of Stat...

  9. Modelling and Verification of Relay Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Bliguet, Marie Le; Kjær, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes how relay interlocking systems as used by the Danish railways can be formally modelled and verified. Such systems are documented by circuit diagrams describing their static layout. It is explained how to derive a state transition system model for the dynamic behaviour of a re...

  10. Compositional Modelling of Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strubbe, S.N.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis we present a modelling framework for compositional modelling of stochastic hybrid systems. Hybrid systems consist of a combination of continuous and discrete dynamics. The state space of a hybrid system is hybrid in the sense that it consists of a continuous component and a discrete

  11. Models of complex attitude systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo

    Existing research on public attitudes towards agricultural production systems is largely descriptive, abstracting from the processes through which members of the general public generate their evaluations of such systems. The present paper adopts a systems perspective on such evaluations, understa......Existing research on public attitudes towards agricultural production systems is largely descriptive, abstracting from the processes through which members of the general public generate their evaluations of such systems. The present paper adopts a systems perspective on such evaluations......, understanding them as embedded into a wider attitude system that consists of attitudes towards objects of different abstraction levels, ranging from personal value orientations over general socio-political attitudes to evaluations of specific characteristics of agricultural production systems. It is assumed...... that evaluative affect propagates through the system in such a way that the system becomes evaluatively consistent and operates as a schema for the generation of evaluative judgments. In the empirical part of the paper, the causal structure of an attitude system from which people derive their evaluations of pork...

  12. Modelo de oposições múltiplas modificado: abordagem baseada em traços distintivos Modified multiple oppositions' model: approach based on distinctive features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Carlesso Pagliarin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi propor uma abordagem com enfoque em traços distintivos para o Modelo de Oposições Múltiplas e testar sua aplicação em um sujeito falante do Português Brasileiro. O Modelo foi aplicado em um sujeito do sexo masculino, com desvio fonológico moderado-severo e idade de seis anos e meio. Após avaliação fonológica, procedeu-se à seleção dos sons-alvo. Considerou-se o sistema fonológico inicial, bem como os traços distintivos alterados ([+voz], [+soante], [+aproximante], [coronal/±anterior], [-contínuo]. Os traços com maior número de alterações eram [+voz, +soante, +aproximante], justificando a escolha dos seguintes sons-alvo para tratamento: /r/ x /l/ x // x // x /z/, em onset medial.Tendo como base a aplicação desse modelo em falantes do inglês, percebeu-se a necessidade de introduzir alguns procedimentos, como: a escolha dos sons-alvo a partir dos traços distintivos alterados e a estrutura da sessão terapêutica. Ao final, o sujeito foi reavaliado a fim de verificar as aquisições no sistema fonológico. Após dez sessões de fonoterapia,o sujeito adquiriu os fonemas /l, , , z/, generalizando-os para outras posições na palavra (/Z/ e /l/ em onset inicial. Verificou-se, também, a ocorrência de generalização para a mesma classe e para outras classes de sons (/b/, /d/, /g/, /v/. No entanto, o fonema /r/ não foi adquirido. Esta proposta mostrou-se efetiva, pois o sujeito apresentou melhora em seu sistema fonológico com poucas sessões terapêuticas. Pôde-se observar que o Modelo de Oposições Múltiplas, utilizando a abordagem com base em traços distintivos é eficaz, pois favoreceu diversas mudanças fonológicas.The aim of this study was to propose an approach based on distinctive features for the Multiple Oppositions Model, and to test its application on a Brazilian Portuguese speaker. The model was used with a male subject with moderate-severe phonological disorder and six years

  13. Real time EM waves monitoring system for oil industry three phase flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hajeri, S; Wylie, S R; Shaw, A; Al-Shamma'a, A I

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring fluid flow in a dynamic pipeline is a significant problem in the oil industry. In order to manage oil field wells efficiently, the oil industry requires accurate on line sensors to monitor the oil, gas, and water flow in the production pipelines. This paper describes a non-intrusive sensor that is based on an EM Waves cavity resonator. It determines and monitors the percentage volumes of each phase of three phase (oil, gas, and water) in the pipeline, using the resonant frequencies shifts that occur within an electromagnetic cavity resonator. A laboratory prototype version of the sensor system was constructed, and the experimental results were compared to the simulation results which were obtained by the use of High Frequency Structure Simulation (HFSS) software package.

  14. Modeling Control Situations in Power System Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Lind, Morten; Singh, Sri Niwas

    2010-01-01

    Increased interconnection and loading of the power system along with deregulation has brought new challenges for electric power system operation, control and automation. Traditional power system models used in intelligent operation and control are highly dependent on the task purpose. Thus, a model...... of explicit principles for model construction. This paper presents a work on using explicit means-ends model based reasoning about complex control situations which results in maintaining consistent perspectives and selecting appropriate control action for goal driven agents. An example of power system...... for intelligent operation and control must represent system features, so that information from measurements can be related to possible system states and to control actions. These general modeling requirements are well understood, but it is, in general, difficult to translate them into a model because of the lack...

  15. Holonic Models for Traffic Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciufudean, Calin; Filote, Constantin

    This paper proposes a new time-placed net model for traffic control systems, respectively railway control traffic systems. This model can be interpreted as a holonic one, and contains three modules: Transport Planning Module, Transport Control Module and Priority Control Module. For railway traffic systems we introduce a strategy in a timed-place Petri net model to solve collision and traffic jam problems.

  16. Hydrological modeling in forested systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E. Golden; G.R. Evenson; S. Tian; Devendra Amatya; Ge Sun

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing and quantifying interactions among components of the forest hydrological cycle is complex and usually requires a combination of field monitoring and modelling approaches (Weiler and McDonnell, 2004; National Research Council, 2008). Models are important tools for testing hypotheses, understanding hydrological processes and synthesizing experimental data...

  17. Life-Cycle Models for Survivable Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Linger, Richard

    2002-01-01

    .... Current software development life-cycle models are not focused on creating survivable systems, and exhibit shortcomings when the goal is to develop systems with a high degree of assurance of survivability...

  18. Model Updating Nonlinear System Identification Toolbox Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology (ZONA) proposes to develop an enhanced model updating nonlinear system identification (MUNSID) methodology that utilizes flight data with...

  19. Aplicação de modelo de simulação-otimização na gestão de perda de água em sistemas de abastecimento Leakage management with computational model in water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos César Gumier

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a aplicação de modelo matemático-computacional de simulação e otimização para localização de fugas. O modelo proposto é fundamentado no acoplamento de um simulador hidráulico baseado no Time Marching Approach - TMA com o algoritmo otimizador de Nelder-Mead e foi aplicado em uma rede de distribuição de água da cidade de Jundiaí-SP. Nos testes realizados ficou claro o funcionamento adequado do modelo apresentado, pois a fuga simulada foi localizada, sendo observado, entretanto, a necessidade de um aprimoramento na localização dos pontos de monitoramento durante a execução da simulação.This work presents a computational model as a new tool for leak localization. The considered model was developed through the coupling of hydraulic simulator based in Time Marching Approach - TMA method with the Nelder-Mead optimization algorithm. The model was applied to a real water distribution network, in the city of Jundiaí, Brazil. In the carried through tests it was clearly the adequate functioning of the presented model, therefore the simulated escape was located, being observed, however, the necessity of an improvement in the localization of the monitor points, during the execution of the simulation.

  20. An expert system for dispersion model interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skyllingstad, E.D.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-10-01

    A prototype expert system designed to diagnose dispersion model uncertainty is described in this paper with application to a puff transport model. The system obtains qualitative information from the model user and through an expert-derived knowledge base, performs a rating of the current simulation. These results can then be used in combination with dispersion model output for deciding appropriate evacuation measures. Ultimately, the goal of this work is to develop an expert system that may be operated accurately by an individual uneducated in meteorology or dispersion modeling. 5 refs., 3 figs

  1. Semantic models for adaptive interactive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hussein, Tim; Lukosch, Stephan; Ziegler, Jürgen; Calvary, Gaëlle

    2013-01-01

    Providing insights into methodologies for designing adaptive systems based on semantic data, and introducing semantic models that can be used for building interactive systems, this book showcases many of the applications made possible by the use of semantic models.Ontologies may enhance the functional coverage of an interactive system as well as its visualization and interaction capabilities in various ways. Semantic models can also contribute to bridging gaps; for example, between user models, context-aware interfaces, and model-driven UI generation. There is considerable potential for using

  2. Models of the venous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J

    2000-01-01

    of the venous system require at least three elements: a resistor, a capacitor and an inductor, with the latter being of more importance in the venous than in the arterial system. Non-linearities must be considered in pressure/flow relations in the small venules, during venous collapse, or low flow conditions...

  3. Stochastic Models of Polymer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    published in non-peer-reviewed journals (N/A for none) The dynamics of stochastic gradient algorithms (submitted); Noisy Hegselmann- Krause Systems...algorithms for big data applications. (2) We studied stochastic dynamics of polymer systems in the mean field limit. (3) We studied noisy Hegselmann- Krause

  4. Switching model photovoltaic pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Wagdy R.; Abdul-Sadek Nour, M.

    Photovoltaic (PV) pumping systems are widely used due to their simplicity, high reliability and low cost. A directly-coupled PV pumping system is the most reliable and least-cost PV system. The d.c. motor-pump group is not, however, working at its optimum operating point. A battery buffered PV pumping system introduces a battery between the PV array and the d.c. motor-pump group to ensure that the motor-pump group is operating at its optimum point. The size of the battery storage depends on system economics. If the battery is fully charged while solar radiation is available, the battery will discharge through the load while the PV array is disconnected. Hence, a power loss takes place. To overcome the above mentioned difficulty, a switched mode PV pumping is proposed. When solar radiation is available and the battery is fully charged, the battery is disconnected and the d.c. motor-pump group is directly coupled to the PV array. To avoid excessive operating voltage for the motor, a part of the PV array is switched off to reduce the voltage. As a result, the energy loss is significantly eliminated. Detailed analysis of the proposed system shows that the discharged water increases by about 10% when compared with a conventional battery-buffered system. The system transient performance just after the switching moment shows that the system returns to a steady state in short period. The variations in the system parameters lie within 1% of the rated values.

  5. Multiple system modelling of waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Ola; Bisaillon, Mattias

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Linking of models will provide a more complete, correct and credible picture of the systems. → The linking procedure is easy to perform and also leads to activation of project partners. → The simulation procedure is a bit more complicated and calls for the ability to run both models. - Abstract: Due to increased environmental awareness, planning and performance of waste management has become more and more complex. Therefore waste management has early been subject to different types of modelling. Another field with long experience of modelling and systems perspective is energy systems. The two modelling traditions have developed side by side, but so far there are very few attempts to combine them. Waste management systems can be linked together with energy systems through incineration plants. The models for waste management can be modelled on a quite detailed level whereas surrounding systems are modelled in a more simplistic way. This is a problem, as previous studies have shown that assumptions on the surrounding system often tend to be important for the conclusions. In this paper it is shown how two models, one for the district heating system (MARTES) and another one for the waste management system (ORWARE), can be linked together. The strengths and weaknesses with model linking are discussed when compared to simplistic assumptions on effects in the energy and waste management systems. It is concluded that the linking of models will provide a more complete, correct and credible picture of the consequences of different simultaneous changes in the systems. The linking procedure is easy to perform and also leads to activation of project partners. However, the simulation procedure is a bit more complicated and calls for the ability to run both models.

  6. Modeling of power electronic systems with EMTP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Kwa-Sur; Dravid, Narayan V.

    1989-01-01

    In view of the potential impact of power electronics on power systems, there is need for a computer modeling/analysis tool to perform simulation studies on power systems with power electronic components as well as to educate engineering students about such systems. The modeling of the major power electronic components of the NASA Space Station Freedom Electric Power System is described along with ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) and it is demonstrated that EMTP can serve as a very useful tool for teaching, design, analysis, and research in the area of power systems with power electronic components. EMTP modeling of power electronic circuits is described and simulation results are presented.

  7. System Level Modelling and Performance Estimation of Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg-Hansen, Anders Sejer

    The advances seen in the semiconductor industry within the last decade have brought the possibility of integrating evermore functionality onto a single chip forming functionally highly advanced embedded systems. These integration possibilities also imply that as the design complexity increases, so...... an efficient system level design methodology, a modelling framework for performance estimation and design space exploration at the system level is required. This thesis presents a novel component based modelling framework for system level modelling and performance estimation of embedded systems. The framework...... is performed by having the framework produce detailed quantitative information about the system model under investigation. The project is part of the national Danish research project, Danish Network of Embedded Systems (DaNES), which is funded by the Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation. The project...

  8. Modelling the winter distribution of a rare and endangered migrant, the Aquatic Warbler <em>Acrocephalus paludicolaem>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Bruno A; Schäffer, Norbert; van Niekerk, Adriaan

    2007-01-01

    . Such model predictions may be useful guidelines to focus further field research on the Aquatic Warbler. Given the excellent model predictions in this study, this novel technique may prove useful to model the distribution of other rare and endangered species, thus providing a means to guide future survey...

  9. Network model of security system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamczyk Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the concept of building a network security model and its application in the process of risk analysis. It indicates the possibility of a new definition of the role of the network models in the safety analysis. Special attention was paid to the development of the use of an algorithm describing the process of identifying the assets, vulnerability and threats in a given context. The aim of the article is to present how this algorithm reduced the complexity of the problem by eliminating from the base model these components that have no links with others component and as a result and it was possible to build a real network model corresponding to reality.

  10. Modeling Adaptive Behavior for Systems Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1994-01-01

    Field studies in modern work systems and analysis of recent major accidents have pointed to a need for better models of the adaptive behavior of individuals and organizations operating in a dynamic and highly competitive environment. The paper presents a discussion of some key characteristics...... of the predictive models required for the design of work supports systems, that is,information systems serving as the human-work interface. Three basic issues are in focus: 1.) Some fundamental problems in analysis and modeling modern dynamic work systems caused by the adaptive nature of human behavior; 2.......) The basic difference between the models of system functions used in engineering and design and those evolving from basic research within the various academic disciplines and finally 3.) The models and methods required for closed-loop, feedback system design....

  11. Model-based version management system framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, W.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a model-based version management system. Version Management System (VMS) a branch of software configuration management (SCM) aims to provide a controlling mechanism for evolution of software artifacts created during software development process. Controlling the evolution requires many activities to perform, such as, construction and creation of versions, identification of differences between versions, conflict detection and merging. Traditional VMS systems are file-based and consider software systems as a set of text files. File based VMS systems are not adequate for performing software configuration management activities such as, version control on software artifacts produced in earlier phases of the software life cycle. New challenges of model differencing, merge, and evolution control arise while using models as central artifact. The goal of this work is to present a generic framework model-based VMS which can be used to overcome the problem of tradition file-based VMS systems and provide model versioning services. (author)

  12. Very Large System Dynamics Models - Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Leonard Malczynski

    2008-10-01

    This paper provides lessons learned from developing several large system dynamics (SD) models. System dynamics modeling practice emphasize the need to keep models small so that they are manageable and understandable. This practice is generally reasonable and prudent; however, there are times that large SD models are necessary. This paper outlines two large SD projects that were done at two Department of Energy National Laboratories, the Idaho National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. This paper summarizes the models and then discusses some of the valuable lessons learned during these two modeling efforts.

  13. Test-driven modeling of embedded systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Allan; Madsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    To benefit maximally from model-based systems engineering (MBSE) trustworthy high quality models are required. From the software disciplines it is known that test-driven development (TDD) can significantly increase the quality of the products. Using a test-driven approach with MBSE may have...... a similar positive effect on the quality of the system models and the resulting products and may therefore be desirable. To define a test-driven model-based systems engineering (TD-MBSE) approach, we must define this approach for numerous sub disciplines such as modeling of requirements, use cases......, scenarios, behavior, architecture, etc. In this paper we present a method that utilizes the formalism of timed automatons with formal and statistical model checking techniques to apply TD-MBSE to the modeling of system architecture and behavior. The results obtained from applying it to an industrial case...

  14. Precipitation-runoff modeling system; user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavesley, G.H.; Lichty, R.W.; Troutman, B.M.; Saindon, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    The concepts, structure, theoretical development, and data requirements of the precipitation-runoff modeling system (PRMS) are described. The precipitation-runoff modeling system is a modular-design, deterministic, distributed-parameter modeling system developed to evaluate the impacts of various combinations of precipitation, climate, and land use on streamflow, sediment yields, and general basin hydrology. Basin response to normal and extreme rainfall and snowmelt can be simulated to evaluate changes in water balance relationships, flow regimes, flood peaks and volumes, soil-water relationships, sediment yields, and groundwater recharge. Parameter-optimization and sensitivity analysis capabilites are provided to fit selected model parameters and evaluate their individual and joint effects on model output. The modular design provides a flexible framework for continued model system enhancement and hydrologic modeling research and development. (Author 's abstract)

  15. An Empirical Model for Energy Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosewater, David Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scott, Paul [TransPower, Poway, CA (United States)

    2016-03-17

    Improved models of energy storage systems are needed to enable the electric grid’s adaptation to increasing penetration of renewables. This paper develops a generic empirical model of energy storage system performance agnostic of type, chemistry, design or scale. Parameters for this model are calculated using test procedures adapted from the US DOE Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage. We then assess the accuracy of this model for predicting the performance of the TransPower GridSaver – a 1 MW rated lithium-ion battery system that underwent laboratory experimentation and analysis. The developed model predicts a range of energy storage system performance based on the uncertainty of estimated model parameters. Finally, this model can be used to better understand the integration and coordination of energy storage on the electric grid.

  16. Microclimate in silvipastoral systems with eucalyptus in rank with different heights Microclima em sistemas silvipastoris com eucalipto em renques com diferentes alturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wander de Souza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to verify if the presence of trees and its height in formed silvipastoral systems with eucalyptus planted in rank can modify the microclimate and improve the environment for bovine raising during the day in summer. It was evaluated the microclimate of the environment in formed silvipastoral systems in rank of eucalyptus with 8 m, 18 m and 28 meters of height, compared to a system no shade in the summer. The experimental design was a split plot with six hour time in sub parcels. The systems are made up of parcels and the months as block in four replications and the interaction hour × system. The air temperature, black globe temperature, relative humidity and wind speed were observed to create the following indexes for thermal comfort: temperature-humidity index; black globe-humidity index; heat load index and the radiant thermal load. Excepted for the relative humidity, there was interaction for time × system for all variables and indexes. Interaction occurred for: air temperature at 10 a.m. and 6 p.m.; wind speed from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m.; temperature humidity index at 10 a.m. and 12 p.m.; black globe temperature, black globe humidity index, heat load index, and radiant thermal load at all the hours. During the summer, the system with shade of 28 m trees had the lowest average of black globe temperature; wind speed; black globe humidity index; radiant thermal load index; and heat load index. There was a reduction of wind speed average in systems 8 m, 18 m and 28 m trees in, respectively, 20.7; 50.0 and 48.0% in relation to no shade system; however it was not proportional to the height, with influence of the rank porosity and pantries height. Nevertheless, for radiant thermal load index the reduction was proportional to the height of the trees with 10.24; 12.49 and 20.76%, respectively, for 8 m, 18 m and 28 meters of height. There was a reduction of the thermal stress in the environment due to the presence of trees, being

  17. Multimodality Prediction of Chaotic Time Series with Sparse Hard-Cut EM Learning of the Gaussian Process Mixture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ya-Tong; Fan, Yu; Chen, Zi-Yi; Sun, Jian-Cheng

    2017-05-01

    The contribution of this work is twofold: (1) a multimodality prediction method of chaotic time series with the Gaussian process mixture (GPM) model is proposed, which employs a divide and conquer strategy. It automatically divides the chaotic time series into multiple modalities with different extrinsic patterns and intrinsic characteristics, and thus can more precisely fit the chaotic time series. (2) An effective sparse hard-cut expectation maximization (SHC-EM) learning algorithm for the GPM model is proposed to improve the prediction performance. SHC-EM replaces a large learning sample set with fewer pseudo inputs, accelerating model learning based on these pseudo inputs. Experiments on Lorenz and Chua time series demonstrate that the proposed method yields not only accurate multimodality prediction, but also the prediction confidence interval. SHC-EM outperforms the traditional variational learning in terms of both prediction accuracy and speed. In addition, SHC-EM is more robust and insusceptible to noise than variational learning. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No 60972106, the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under Grant No 2014M561053, the Humanity and Social Science Foundation of Ministry of Education of China under Grant No 15YJA630108, and the Hebei Province Natural Science Foundation under Grant No E2016202341.

  18. Mathematical Model for Collision-Coalescence Among Inclusions in the Bloom Continuous Caster with M-EMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hong; Jiang, Jimin; Yang, Bin; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Weixian; Dong, Guiwen

    2018-02-01

    Mathematical simulation is an effective tool to analyze the fluid flow and the inclusion behavior in the bloom continuous caster with mold electromagnetic stirring (M-EMS). The mathematical model is applied to the modeling of magnetic field, flow field, and inclusion field. Due to the introduction of Archimedes force, the collision mechanism and inclusion's slipping velocity should be modified in the inclusion mass and population conservation model. Numerically predicted magnetic field, flow field, and the inclusion spatial distribution conform to the experimental results in the existing literature. Lorentz force plays an important role in the fluid flow, and Archimedes force plays an important role in the inclusion distribution in the continuous caster. Due to Brownian collision, Stokes collision, Archimedes collision, and turbulent collision, the coalescence among inclusions occurs in the bloom continuous caster with M-EMS. Among the four types of collisions, turbulent collision occurs most frequently, followed by Archimedes collision and Stokes collision. The frequency of Brownian collision is several orders of magnitudes smaller and is therefore negligible. The inclusion volume concentration, number density, and characteristic radius exhibit a U-shape in the continuous caster without M-EMS. However, with M-EMS, they exhibit an inverted U-shape.

  19. Mathematical Model for Collision-Coalescence Among Inclusions in the Bloom Continuous Caster with M-EMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hong; Jiang, Jimin; Yang, Bin; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Weixian; Dong, Guiwen

    2018-04-01

    Mathematical simulation is an effective tool to analyze the fluid flow and the inclusion behavior in the bloom continuous caster with mold electromagnetic stirring (M-EMS). The mathematical model is applied to the modeling of magnetic field, flow field, and inclusion field. Due to the introduction of Archimedes force, the collision mechanism and inclusion's slipping velocity should be modified in the inclusion mass and population conservation model. Numerically predicted magnetic field, flow field, and the inclusion spatial distribution conform to the experimental results in the existing literature. Lorentz force plays an important role in the fluid flow, and Archimedes force plays an important role in the inclusion distribution in the continuous caster. Due to Brownian collision, Stokes collision, Archimedes collision, and turbulent collision, the coalescence among inclusions occurs in the bloom continuous caster with M-EMS. Among the four types of collisions, turbulent collision occurs most frequently, followed by Archimedes collision and Stokes collision. The frequency of Brownian collision is several orders of magnitudes smaller and is therefore negligible. The inclusion volume concentration, number density, and characteristic radius exhibit a U-shape in the continuous caster without M-EMS. However, with M-EMS, they exhibit an inverted U-shape.

  20. Brief History of Agricultural Systems Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James W.; Antle, John M.; Basso, Bruno O.; Boote, Kenneth J.; Conant, Richard T.; Foster, Ian; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Herrrero, Mario; Howitt, Richard E.; Janssen, Sandor; hide

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural systems science generates knowledge that allows researchers to consider complex problems or take informed agricultural decisions. The rich history of this science exemplifies the diversity of systems and scales over which they operate and have been studied. Modeling, an essential tool in agricultural systems science, has been accomplished by scientists from a wide range of disciplines, who have contributed concepts and tools over more than six decades. As agricultural scientists now consider the next generation models, data, and knowledge products needed to meet the increasingly complex systems problems faced by society, it is important to take stock of this history and its lessons to ensure that we avoid re-invention and strive to consider all dimensions of associated challenges. To this end, we summarize here the history of agricultural systems modeling and identify lessons learned that can help guide the design and development of next generation of agricultural system tools and methods. A number of past events combined with overall technological progress in other fields have strongly contributed to the evolution of agricultural system modeling, including development of process-based bio-physical models of crops and livestock, statistical models based on historical observations, and economic optimization and simulation models at household and regional to global scales. Characteristics of agricultural systems models have varied widely depending on the systems involved, their scales, and the wide range of purposes that motivated their development and use by researchers in different disciplines. Recent trends in broader collaboration across institutions, across disciplines, and between the public and private sectors suggest that the stage is set for the major advances in agricultural systems science that are needed for the next generation of models, databases, knowledge products and decision support systems. The lessons from history should be considered

  1. Formal Modeling and Analysis of Timed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Niebert, Peter

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-proceedings of the First International Workshop on Formal Modeling and Analysis of Timed Systems, FORMATS 2003, held in Marseille, France in September 2003. The 19 revised full papers presented together with an invited paper and the abstracts...... of two invited talks were carefully selected from 36 submissions during two rounds of reviewing and improvement. All current aspects of formal method for modeling and analyzing timed systems are addressed; among the timed systems dealt with are timed automata, timed Petri nets, max-plus algebras, real......-time systems, discrete time systems, timed languages, and real-time operating systems....

  2. Grey Box Modelling of Hydrological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thordarson, Fannar Ørn

    The main topic of the thesis is grey box modelling of hydrologic systems, as well as formulation and assessment of their embedded uncertainties. Grey box model is a combination of a white box model, a physically-based model that is traditionally formulated using deterministic ordinary differential...... the lack of fit in state space formulation, and further support decisions for a model expansion. By using stochastic differential equations to formulate the dynamics of the hydrological system, either the complexity of the model can be increased by including the necessary hydrological processes...... in the model, or formulation of process noise can be considered so that it meets the physical limits of the hydrological system and give an adequate description of the embedded uncertainty in model structure. The thesis consists of two parts: a summary report and a part which contains six scientific papers...

  3. The Guided System Development Framework: Modeling and Verifying Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno; Probst, Christian W.; Nielson, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    . The Guided System Development framework contributes to more secure communication systems by aiding the development of such systems. The framework features a simple modelling language, step-wise refinement from models to implementation, interfaces to security verification tools, and code generation from...... the verified specification. The refinement process carries thus security properties from the model to the implementation. Our approach also supports verification of systems previously developed and deployed. Internally, the reasoning in our framework is based on the Beliefs and Knowledge tool, a verification...

  4. System Advisor Model: Flat Plate Photovoltaic Performance Modeling Validation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Janine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Whitmore, Jonathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kaffine, Leah [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Blair, Nate [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dobos, Aron P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The System Advisor Model (SAM) is a free software tool that performs detailed analysis of both system performance and system financing for a variety of renewable energy technologies. This report provides detailed validation of the SAM flat plate photovoltaic performance model by comparing SAM-modeled PV system generation data to actual measured production data for nine PV systems ranging from 75 kW to greater than 25 MW in size. The results show strong agreement between SAM predictions and field data, with annualized prediction error below 3% for all fixed tilt cases and below 8% for all one axis tracked cases. The analysis concludes that snow cover and system outages are the primary sources of disagreement, and other deviations resulting from seasonal biases in the irradiation models and one axis tracking issues are discussed in detail.

  5. Coupling population dynamics with earth system models: the POPEM model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Andrés; Moreno, Raúl; Jiménez-Alcázar, Alfonso; Tapiador, Francisco J

    2017-09-16

    Precise modeling of CO 2 emissions is important for environmental research. This paper presents a new model of human population dynamics that can be embedded into ESMs (Earth System Models) to improve climate modeling. Through a system dynamics approach, we develop a cohort-component model that successfully simulates historical population dynamics with fine spatial resolution (about 1°×1°). The population projections are used to improve the estimates of CO 2 emissions, thus transcending the bulk approach of existing models and allowing more realistic non-linear effects to feature in the simulations. The module, dubbed POPEM (from Population Parameterization for Earth Models), is compared with current emission inventories and validated against UN aggregated data. Finally, it is shown that the module can be used to advance toward fully coupling the social and natural components of the Earth system, an emerging research path for environmental science and pollution research.

  6. The adrenergic retulation of the cardiovascular system in the South American rattlesnake, <em>Crotalus durissusem>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galli, G.L.J.; Jensen, Nini Skovgaard; Abe, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates adrenergic regulation of the systemic and pulmonary circulations of the anaesthetised South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus. Haemodynamic measurements were made following bolus injections of adrenaline and adrenergic antagonists administered through a systemic...... arterial catheter. Adrenaline caused a marked systemic vasoconstriction that was abolished by phentolamine, indicating this response was mediated through α-adrenergic receptors. Injection of phentolamine gave rise to a pronounced vasodilatation (systemic conductance (Gsys) more than doubled), while...... injection of propranolol caused a systemic vasoconstriction, pointing to a potent α-adrenergic, and a weaker β-adrenergic tone in the systemic vasculature of Crotalus. Overall, the pulmonary vasculature was far less responsive to adrenergic stimulation than the systemic circulation. Adrenaline caused...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury Model System Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the UAB-SCIMS Contact the UAB-SCIMS UAB Spinal Cord Injury Model System Newly Injured Health Daily Living Consumer ... Information Network The University of Alabama at Birmingham Spinal Cord Injury Model System (UAB-SCIMS) maintains this Information Network ...

  8. Statistical Model Checking for Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Du, Dehui; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents novel extensions and applications of the UPPAAL-SMC model checker. The extensions allow for statistical model checking of stochastic hybrid systems. We show how our race-based stochastic semantics extends to networks of hybrid systems, and indicate the integration technique ap...

  9. Systemic, Ecological Model for Rehabilitation Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershenson, David B.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a reformulation of Hershenson's theoretical model for rehabilitation counseling in systemic and ecological terms. This macrosystem is organized by precipitating event of disability and is composed of four systems: consumer, functional, provider, and contextual. Discusses the use of the model for selecting rehabilitation interventions…

  10. Modeling complex work systems - method meets reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Hoeve, Machteld; Lenting, Bert

    1996-01-01

    Modeling an existing task situation is often a first phase in the (re)design of information systems. For complex systems design, this model should consider both the people and the organization involved, the work, and situational aspects. Groupware Task Analysis (GTA) as part of a method for the

  11. System dynamics modelling of situation awareness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available . The feedback loops and delays in the Command and Control system also contribute to the complex dynamic behavior. This paper will build on existing situation awareness models to develop a System Dynamics model to support a qualitative investigation through...

  12. Dynamic modeling of the INAPRO aquaponic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimanzira, Divas; Keesman, Karel J.; Kloas, Werner; Baganz, Daniela; Rauschenbach, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The use of modeling techniques to analyze aquaponics systems is demonstrated with an example of dynamic modeling for the production of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicon) using the innovative double recirculating aquaponic system ASTAF-PRO. For the management

  13. Experimental model of severe acute pancreatitis in rabbits Modelo experimental de pancreatite aguda grave em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Goldenberg

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop an experimental model of severe acute pancreatitis in rabbits through a pancreatic ductal injection of sodium taurocholate. METHODS: Twenty-four albino rabbits of the New Zealand lineage were distributed into four groups of six animals (A, B, C and S. The rabbits of three experimental groups (A, B and C were submitted to a laparatomy and received a pancreatic ductal injection of 1ml/kg sodium taurocholate 5%. Also, they were submitted to further laparatomies after 4h, 8h and 12h, respectively. The control group (S was subdivided into two groups of three animals: in subgroup S1 only the pancreatic duct catheterization was performed whereas in subgroup S2 the pancreatic duct catheterization as well as an injection of 1ml/kg physiologic solution 0.9% were carried out. After 12 hours, the rabbits were evaluated. In the re-intervention, blood was collected to determine the amylasemia and a pancreatectomy was carried out to investigate interstitial infiltration, steatonecrosis and necrosis of the organ, using an optical microscope. RESULTS: There was an elevation of amylase in all groups thus proving the existence of acute pancreatitis. The size of the interlobular septum increased progressively with a greater variation between group S1 (0.13 and group C (0. 53 (p=0.035. While all the animals in group A exhibited focal cellular necrosis, it was more intense in the rabbits of group B and culminated with a high proportion of severe pancreatic necrosis in group C animals. The difference in the intensity of cellular necrosis showed statistic significance (p=0.001. CONCLUSION: The proposed experimental model demonstrated its reproducibility and effectiveness in producing severe acute pancreatitis in rabbits.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver modelo experimental de pancreatite aguda grave em coelhos por meio da injeção de taurocolato de sódio no ducto pancreático. MÉTODOS: Vinte e quatro coelhos albinos da linhagem Nova Zelândia foram distribu

  14. Formal heterogeneous system modeling with SystemC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niaki, Seyed Hosein Attarzadeh; Jakobsen, Mikkel Koefoed; Sulonen, Tero

    2012-01-01

    Electronic System Level (ESL) design of embedded systems proposes raising the abstraction level of the design entry to cope with the increasing complexity of such systems. To exploit the benefits of ESL, design languages should allow specification of models which are a) heterogeneous, to describe...... to focus on specifying the pure functional aspects. A key advantage is that the formalism is used to export the structure and behavior of the models via introspection as an abstract representation for further analysis and synthesis....

  15. Regression Models for Repairable Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 4 (2015), s. 963-972 ISSN 1387-5841 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Reliability analysis * Repair models * Regression Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics , Operational Research Impact factor: 0.782, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/SI/novak-0450902.pdf

  16. Complexação de íons de metais por matéria orgânica dissolvida: modelagem e aplicação em sistemas reais Complexation of metal ions by dissolved organic matter: modeling and application to real systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Silva Bezerra

    2009-09-01

    áticos, observou-se que o rio com maior concentração de COD (rio Bacanga apresentou maior capacidade de complexação; entretanto, a ordem foi Pb(II > Cu(II > Cd(II provavelmente devido à presença de íons Cu(II em maior quantidade nas águas dos rios.Metal ions are known by their physiological and industrial importance as well as by their environmental risk aspects. To elucidate the behavior of these elements in superficial water bodies, it is necessary to understand the various occurring interactions, mainly those related to the chemical speciation. One of the most important processes that metal species undergo in natural aquatic bodies is their interaction with dissolved organic matter (DOM, which can happen through adsorption, ionic exchange and complexation. In this work, laboratory experiments with Cu(II, Pb(II and Cd(II ions and commercial humic acid were made under various conditions (ionic strength and buffering to test the van den Berg and Kramer complexation model. After the simulation, the model was used to determine the Cu(II, Pb(II and Cd(II complexation capacity of natural waters from three important rivers in the state of Maranhao, Brazil (Itapecuru, Bacanga and Pericuma rivers. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentration was used to express the DOM concentration. The results confirmed that there is a strong interaction between the DOM and metal ions, and that the van den Berg and Kramer model (with one coordination site is suitable for estimating the complexation constant (K and the ligand site concentration (Lt. The simulated water samples used in the laboratory showed the complexation order: Cu(II > Cd(II > Pb(II; and the complexation capacity was directly proportional to the humic acid concentration. We believe that the smaller Cu(II ionic radius yields a stronger affinity with the DOM. In the experiments with natural waters, the river with more DOC (Bacanga river showed better complexation capacity; however, the order was Pb(II > Cu(II > Cd(II probably

  17. Mathematical Modeling Of Life-Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshan, Panchalam K.; Ganapathi, Balasubramanian; Jan, Darrell L.; Ferrall, Joseph F.; Rohatgi, Naresh K.

    1994-01-01

    Generic hierarchical model of life-support system developed to facilitate comparisons of options in design of system. Model represents combinations of interdependent subsystems supporting microbes, plants, fish, and land animals (including humans). Generic model enables rapid configuration of variety of specific life support component models for tradeoff studies culminating in single system design. Enables rapid evaluation of effects of substituting alternate technologies and even entire groups of technologies and subsystems. Used to synthesize and analyze life-support systems ranging from relatively simple, nonregenerative units like aquariums to complex closed-loop systems aboard submarines or spacecraft. Model, called Generic Modular Flow Schematic (GMFS), coded in such chemical-process-simulation languages as Aspen Plus and expressed as three-dimensional spreadsheet.

  18. Systematic modelling and simulation of refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bjarne D.; Jakobsen, Arne

    1998-01-01

    The task of developing a simulation model of a refrigeration system can be very difficult and time consuming. In order for this process to be effective, a systematic method for developing the system model is required. This method should aim at guiding the developer to clarify the purpose of the s......The task of developing a simulation model of a refrigeration system can be very difficult and time consuming. In order for this process to be effective, a systematic method for developing the system model is required. This method should aim at guiding the developer to clarify the purpose...... of the simulation, to select appropriate component models and to set up the equations in a well-arranged way. In this paper the outline of such a method is proposed and examples showing the use of this method for simulation of refrigeration systems are given....

  19. Modeling and analysis of stochastic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kulkarni, Vidyadhar G

    2011-01-01

    Based on the author's more than 25 years of teaching experience, Modeling and Analysis of Stochastic Systems, Second Edition covers the most important classes of stochastic processes used in the modeling of diverse systems, from supply chains and inventory systems to genetics and biological systems. For each class of stochastic process, the text includes its definition, characterization, applications, transient and limiting behavior, first passage times, and cost/reward models. Along with reorganizing the material, this edition revises and adds new exercises and examples. New to the second edi

  20. The Relationship between the Bock-Aitkin Procedure and the EM Algorithm for IRT Model Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yaowen; Ackerman, Terry A.; Fan, Meichu

    It has previously been shown that the Bock-Aitkin procedure (R. Bock and M. Aitkin, 1981) is an instance of the EM algorithm when trying to find the marginal maximum likelihood estimate for a discrete latent ability variable (latent trait). In this paper, it is shown that the Bock-Aitkin procedure is a numerical implementation of the EM algorithm…

  1. Formal heterogeneous system modeling with SystemC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niaki, Seyed Hosein Attarzadeh; Jakobsen, Mikkel Koefoed; Sulonen, Tero

    2012-01-01

    Electronic System Level (ESL) design of embedded systems proposes raising the abstraction level of the design entry to cope with the increasing complexity of such systems. To exploit the benefits of ESL, design languages should allow specification of models which are a) heterogeneous, to describe...

  2. Systems Engineering Model for ART Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Cruz, Carmen Margarita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rochau, Gary E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilson, Mollye C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The near-term objective of the EC team is to establish an operating, commercially scalable Recompression Closed Brayton Cycle (RCBC) to be constructed for the NE - STEP demonstration system (demo) with the lowest risk possible. A systems engineering approach is recommended to ensure adequate requirements gathering, documentation, and mode ling that supports technology development relevant to advanced reactors while supporting crosscut interests in potential applications. A holistic systems engineering model was designed for the ART Energy Conversion program by leveraging Concurrent Engineering, Balance Model, Simplified V Model, and Project Management principles. The resulting model supports the identification and validation of lifecycle Brayton systems requirements, and allows designers to detail system-specific components relevant to the current stage in the lifecycle, while maintaining a holistic view of all system elements.

  3. Modeling aluminum-air battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinell, R. F.; Willis, M. S.

    The performance of a complete aluminum-air battery system was studied with a flowsheet model built from unit models of each battery system component. A plug flow model for heat transfer was used to estimate the amount of heat transferred from the electrolyte to the air stream. The effect of shunt currents on battery performance was found to be insignificant. Using the flowsheet simulator to analyze a 100 cell battery system now under development demonstrated that load current, aluminate concentration, and electrolyte temperature are dominant variables controlling system performance. System efficiency was found to decrease as both load current and aluminate concentration increases. The flowsheet model illustrates the interdependence of separate units on overall system performance.

  4. Model-Based Design for Embedded Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolescu, Gabriela

    2009-01-01

    Model-based design allows teams to start the design process from a high-level model that is gradually refined through abstraction levels to ultimately yield a prototype. This book describes the main facets of heterogeneous system design. It focuses on multi-core methodological issues, real-time analysis, and modeling and validation

  5. Critically Important Object Security System Element Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Khomyackov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A stochastic model of critically important object security system element has been developed. The model includes mathematical description of the security system element properties and external influences. The state evolution of the security system element is described by the semi-Markov process with finite states number, the semi-Markov matrix and the initial semi-Markov process states probabilities distribution. External influences are set with the intensity of the Poisson thread.

  6. A model for international border management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2008-09-01

    To effectively manage the security or control of its borders, a country must understand its border management activities as a system. Using its systems engineering and security foundations as a Department of Energy National Security Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories has developed such an approach to modeling and analyzing border management systems. This paper describes the basic model and its elements developed under Laboratory Directed Research and Development project 08-684.

  7. A strategic review of electricity systems models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, A.M.; O Gallachoir, B.P.; McKeogh, E.J.; Hur, J.; Baldick, R.

    2010-01-01

    Electricity systems models are software tools used to manage electricity demand and the electricity systems, to trade electricity and for generation expansion planning purposes. Various portfolios and scenarios are modelled in order to compare the effects of decision making in policy and on business development plans in electricity systems so as to best advise governments and industry on the least cost economic and environmental approach to electricity supply, while maintaining a secure supply of sufficient quality electricity. The modelling techniques developed to study vertically integrated state monopolies are now applied in liberalised markets where the issues and constraints are more complex. This paper reviews the changing role of electricity systems modelling in a strategic manner, focussing on the modelling response to key developments, the move away from monopoly towards liberalised market regimes and the increasing complexity brought about by policy targets for renewable energy and emissions. The paper provides an overview of electricity systems modelling techniques, discusses a number of key proprietary electricity systems models used in the USA and Europe and provides an information resource to the electricity analyst not currently readily available in the literature on the choice of model to investigate different aspects of the electricity system. (author)

  8. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Kevin R.; Lawton, Craig R.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Longsine, Dennis E. (INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX); Forsythe, James Chris; Gauthier, John Henry; Le, Hai D.

    2008-10-01

    A Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project was initiated in 2005 to investigate Human Performance Modeling in a System of Systems analytic environment. SAND2006-6569 and SAND2006-7911 document interim results from this effort; this report documents the final results. The problem is difficult because of the number of humans involved in a System of Systems environment and the generally poorly defined nature of the tasks that each human must perform. A two-pronged strategy was followed: one prong was to develop human models using a probability-based method similar to that first developed for relatively well-understood probability based performance modeling; another prong was to investigate more state-of-art human cognition models. The probability-based modeling resulted in a comprehensive addition of human-modeling capability to the existing SoSAT computer program. The cognitive modeling resulted in an increased understanding of what is necessary to incorporate cognition-based models to a System of Systems analytic environment.

  9. Reliability models for Space Station power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, C.; Patton, A. D.; Kim, Y.; Wagner, H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the reliability evaluation of Space Station power system. The two options considered are the photovoltaic system and the solar dynamic system. Reliability models for both of these options are described along with the methodology for calculating the reliability indices.

  10. System identification application using Hammerstein model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saban Ozer

    because of its advanced theoretical background [3–5, 10]. However, many systems in real life have nonlinear beha- ... To describe a polynomial non-linear system with memory, the Volterra series expansion has been the ... suppression and adaptive noise suppression [19]. 2.3 Hammerstein model. Many systems can be ...

  11. Using Interaction Scenarios to Model Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars; Bøgh Andersen, Peter

    The purpose of this paper is to define and discuss a set of interaction primitives that can be used to model the dynamics of socio-technical activity systems, including information systems, in a way that emphasizes structural aspects of the interaction that occurs in such systems. The primitives...

  12. INTEGRATION OF MANAGEMENT SYSTEM QMS/EMS/OHSAS/FMS/LMS IN WATER SUPPLY ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Arsovski

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Level of difficulties arises when goes up number of integrated management systems (IMS. In this paper are given model and empirical research which provide the details of an integrated management system with five component subsystems in area of water supply. Presented model addresses the issues of scope and carracterisctics based on process approach and is tested in water supply organization in Kragujevac, Serbia. Testing in the proposed model is accomplish through realization project of design and implementation of IMS in regional water supply organization in Kragujevac.

  13. Energy demand in solar home systems; Demanda energetica em solar home systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trigoso, Federico Morante

    2000-07-01

    The central objective of this work is to understand the relationships between the energy demand and technical, economic, social and cultural factors that could influence it. For this a field research was established with the inclusion of 18 families distributed in four communities located in the South Coast of the Vale da Ribeira, Vale da Ribeira. The energy consumption of these families was measured along more than one year and, to facilitate its execution, it was necessary to develop an equipment capable to supply the daily consumption in units of Ampere-hour. This instrument was coupled to the photovoltaic systems in those communities and, besides, it was materialized a methodology of data obtaining that includes the users participation. The obtaining of data manually sought to provide an inter-relationship among the system, the user and the researcher with the purpose of, besides the data purely technicians, to obtain social and cultural information related with the energy uses. Through this methodology it was possible to verify that the energy demand is related with a series of factors that escape from the previous context. It was verified that the social and cultural behavior of the peoples will be reflected overall in the photovoltaic systems operation. The master thesis shows ways to deep in those studies that will be helpful to design methodology that includes all the parameters involved, still ignored. (author)

  14. Model Validation for Simulations of Vehicle Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    jackknife”, Annals of Statistics, 7:1-26, 1979. [45] B. Efron and G. Gong, “A leisurely look at the bootstrap, the jackknife, and cross-validation”, The...battery model developed in the Automotive Research Center, a US Army Center of Excellence for modeling and simulation of ground vehicle systems...Sandia National Laboratories and a battery model developed in the Automotive Research Center, a US Army Center of Excellence for modeling and simulation

  15. Models of cuspy triaxial stellar systems. IV: Rotating systems

    OpenAIRE

    Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    We built two self-consistent models of triaxial, cuspy, rotating stellar systems adding rotation to non-rotating models presented in previous papers of this series. The final angular velocity of the material is not constant and varies with the distance to the center and with the height over the equator of the systems, but the figure rotation is very uniform in both cases. Even though the addition of rotation to the models modifies their original semiaxes ratios, the final rotating models are ...

  16. Spatial Models and Networks of Living Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jeppe Søgaard

    with interactions defined by network topology. In this thesis I first describe three different biological models of ageing and cancer, in which spatial structure is important for the system dynamics. I then turn to describe characteristics of ecosystems consisting of three cyclically interacting species......When studying the dynamics of living systems, insight can often be gained by developing a mathematical model that can predict future behaviour of the system or help classify system characteristics. However, in living cells, organisms, and especially groups of interacting individuals, a large number...... of different factors influence the time development of the system. This often makes it challenging to construct a mathematical model from which to draw conclusions. One traditional way of capturing the dynamics in a mathematical model is to formulate a set of coupled differential equations for the essential...

  17. Concentração e conteúdo de nutrientes em lisianto, cultivado em hidroponia, em sistema NFT = Concentration and nutrient content in lisianthus grown in a hydroponic NFT system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Alice Antonello Londero Backes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico nutricional é fundamental para determinar as exigências das plantas quanto aos nutrientes, de forma a se proceder a um manejo adequado, de acordo com a espécie. Assim, para determinar as concentrações e conteúdos nutricionais adequados à produção e qualidade de plantas de lisianto em cultivo hidropônico, instalou-se um experimento onde as plantas foram cultivadas em sistema NFT, em diferentes soluções nutritivas. O experimento foi conduzido, segundo delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4x3, totalizando 12 tratamentos, com três repetições. Ostratamentos foram compostos de quatro cultivares (Echo Champagne, Mariachi Pure White, Balboa Yellow e Ávila Blue Rim e três soluções nutritivas (Teste, Steiner modificada e Barbosa. Foram avaliadas as concentrações e os conteúdos dos nutrientes nas folhas e conteúdos na parte aérea das plantas. As plantas cultivadas nas soluções Barbosa eTeste apresentaram resultados satisfatórios quanto às concentrações e aos conteúdos de nutrientes, enquanto a solução Steiner modificada produziu plantas com limitações nutricionais.The nutritional diagnosis is fundamental for determining plantnutrients, in order to correctly manage the nutritional requirements for each species. Thus, in order to determine the ideal nutrient amount and concentration for obtaining the best yield and quality of lisianthus grown hydroponically, an experiment was conducted inwhich the plants were grown under the NFT system in different nutrient solutions. The experiment was conducted according to a random block design arrangement in a 4x3 factorial scheme, totaling 12 treatments with three repetitions. The treatments werecomprised of four cultivars (Echo Champagne, Mariachi Pure White, Balboa Yellow and Ávila Blue Rim and three nutrient solutions (Test, modified Steiner and Barbosa. In the leaves, nutrient concentration and content were evaluated; in the aerial

  18. Mechatronic Systems Design Methods, Models, Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Janschek, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    In this textbook, fundamental methods for model-based design of mechatronic systems are presented in a systematic, comprehensive form. The method framework presented here comprises domain-neutral methods for modeling and performance analysis: multi-domain modeling (energy/port/signal-based), simulation (ODE/DAE/hybrid systems), robust control methods, stochastic dynamic analysis, and quantitative evaluation of designs using system budgets. The model framework is composed of analytical dynamic models for important physical and technical domains of realization of mechatronic functions, such as multibody dynamics, digital information processing and electromechanical transducers. Building on the modeling concept of a technology-independent generic mechatronic transducer, concrete formulations for electrostatic, piezoelectric, electromagnetic, and electrodynamic transducers are presented. More than 50 fully worked out design examples clearly illustrate these methods and concepts and enable independent study of th...

  19. FSM Model of a Simple Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Latkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a simulation model of a simple photovoltaic system intended as a tool for testing the use of finite state machines for simulations representing a long-term operation of renewable energy sources. The mathematical model of the photovoltaic system is described first. Then it is used to build a finite state machine model that calculates a power output of the photovoltaic system for changing values of a solar irradiance and a temperature. Data measured on a real photovoltaic installation are used to verify model’s accuracy through its comparison with a previously created and verified Matlab model. The finite state machine model presented in this paper was created using Ptolemy II software.

  20. Structural system identification: Structural dynamics model validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Red-Horse, J.R.

    1997-04-01

    Structural system identification is concerned with the development of systematic procedures and tools for developing predictive analytical models based on a physical structure`s dynamic response characteristics. It is a multidisciplinary process that involves the ability (1) to define high fidelity physics-based analysis models, (2) to acquire accurate test-derived information for physical specimens using diagnostic experiments, (3) to validate the numerical simulation model by reconciling differences that inevitably exist between the analysis model and the experimental data, and (4) to quantify uncertainties in the final system models and subsequent numerical simulations. The goal of this project was to develop structural system identification techniques and software suitable for both research and production applications in code and model validation.

  1. A MICROCOMPUTER MODEL FOR IRRIGATION SYSTEM EVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Buller, Orlan H.; Dvorak, Gary J.; Manges, Harry L.

    1988-01-01

    ICEASE (Irrigation Cost Estimator and System Evaluator) is a microcomputer model designed and developed to meet the need for conducting economic evaluation of adjustments to irrigation systems and management techniques to improve the use of irrigated water. ICEASE can calculate the annual operating costs for irrigation systems and has five options that can be used to economically evaluate improvements in the pumping plant or the way the irrigation system is used for crop production.

  2. MODEL DRIVEN DEVELOPMENT OF ONLINE BANKING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bresfelean Vasile Paul

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In case of online applications the cycle of software development varies from the routine. The online environment, the variety of users, the treatability of the mass of information created by them, the reusability and the accessibility from different devices are all factors of these systems complexity. The use of model drive approach brings several advantages that ease up the development process. Working prototypes that simplify client relationship and serve as the base of model tests can be easily made from models describing the system. These systems make possible for the banks clients to make their desired actions from anywhere. The user has the possibility of accessing information or making transactions.

  3. Modelling and parameter estimation of dynamic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Raol, JR; Singh, J

    2004-01-01

    Parameter estimation is the process of using observations from a system to develop mathematical models that adequately represent the system dynamics. The assumed model consists of a finite set of parameters, the values of which are calculated using estimation techniques. Most of the techniques that exist are based on least-square minimization of error between the model response and actual system response. However, with the proliferation of high speed digital computers, elegant and innovative techniques like filter error method, H-infinity and Artificial Neural Networks are finding more and mor

  4. System Model of Daily Sediment Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, T. C.; Dickinson, W. T.

    1980-06-01

    Input-output systems concepts have been applied to the modeling of daily runoff-sediment yield of the Thames River in southern Ontario, Canada. Spectral and correlation techniques have been used to construct a parsimonious model of daily sediment yields. It is shown that a linear discrete dynamic model is possible in terms of the log-transformed daily runoff and sediment yield sequences. The fluvial system of the Thames River watershed exhibits a weak memory on a daily basis, and the noise component corrupting the watershed fluvial system resembles a white noise process.

  5. Identification of potential drug targets in <em>Salmonella entericaem> sv. Typhimurium using metabolic modelling and experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartman, Hassan B.; Fell, David A.; Rossell, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium is an established model organism for Gram-negative, intracellular pathogens. Owing to the rapid spread of resistance to antibiotics among this group of pathogens, new approaches to identify suitable target proteins are required. Based on the genome sequence of ...

  6. Above-ground biomass models for Seabuckthorn (<em>Hippophae salicifoliaem>) in Mustang District, Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajchal, Rajesh; Meilby, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    weight of fruit and oven-dry weight of wood (stem and branches) and leaves were measured and used as a basis for developing biomass models. Diameters of the trees were measured at 30 cm above ground whereas the heights were measured in terms of the total tree height (m). Among several models tested.......91 for wood, fruit, and leaves, respectively. The models suggested for a slightly broader range of environmental conditions were: ln (woody biomass, oven-dry, kg) = -3.277 + 0.924 ln(diameter2 × height), ln(Fruit biomass, fresh, kg) = -3.146 + 0.485 ln(diameter2 × height) and ln(leaf biomass, oven-dry, kg...... of this study was to develop local biomass models for wood, fruit, and leaves of Seabuckthorn. In November 2006, a diameter-stratified sample of 30 trees was harvested in Lete and Kunjo Village Development Committees at an altitude of about 2300 m amsl in the lower part of Mustang District, Nepal. The fresh...

  7. Externalizing Behaviour for Analysing System Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2013-01-01

    System models have recently been introduced to model organisations and evaluate their vulnerability to threats and especially insider threats. Especially for the latter these models are very suitable, since insiders can be assumed to have more knowledge about the attacked organisation than outside......, if not impossible task to change behaviours. Especially when considering social engineering or the human factor in general, the ability to use different kinds of behaviours is essential. In this work we present an approach to make the behaviour a separate component in system models, and explore how to integrate...

  8. Recent Upgrades to NASA SPoRT Initialization Datasets for the Environmental Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Lafontaine, Frank J.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Rozumalski, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed several products for its NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) partners that can initialize specific fields for local model runs within the NOAA/NWS Science and Training Resource Center Environmental Modeling System (EMS). The suite of SPoRT products for use in the EMS consists of a Sea Surface Temperature (SST) composite that includes a Lake Surface Temperature (LST) analysis over the Great Lakes, a Great Lakes sea-ice extent within the SST composite, a real-time Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF) composite, and NASA Land Information System (LIS) gridded output. This paper and companion poster describe each dataset and provide recent upgrades made to the SST, Great Lakes LST, GVF composites, and the real-time LIS runs.

  9. EM Modeling of Far-Field Radiation Patterns for Antennas on the GMA-TT UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Anne I.

    2015-01-01

    To optimize communication with the Generic Modular Aircraft T-Tail (GMA-TT) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), electromagnetic (EM) simulations have been performed to predict the performance of two antenna types on the aircraft. Simulated far-field radiation patterns tell the amount of power radiated by the antennas and the aircraft together, taking into account blockage by the aircraft as well as radiation by conducting and dielectric portions of the aircraft. With a knowledge of the polarization and distance of the two communicating antennas, e.g. one on the UAV and one on the ground, and the transmitted signal strength, a calculation may be performed to find the strength of the signal travelling from one antenna to the other and to check that the transmitted signal meets the receiver system requirements for the designated range. In order to do this, the antenna frequency and polarization must be known for each antenna, in addition to its design and location. The permittivity, permeability, and geometry of the UAV components must also be known. The full-wave method of moments solution produces the appropriate dBi radiation pattern in which the received signal strength is calculated relative to that of an isotropic radiator.

  10. Model transformation based information system modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegas Vasilecas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Information systems begin to date increasingly faster because of rapidly changing business environment. Usually, small changes are not sufficient to adapt complex legacy information systems to changing business needs. A new functionality should be installed with the requirement of putting business data in the smallest possible risk. Information systems modernization problems are beeing analyzed in this paper and a method for information system modernization is proposed. It involves programming code transformation into abstract syntax tree metamodel (ASTM and model based transformation from ASTM into knowledge discovery model (KDM. The method is validated on example for SQL language.

  11. Photovoltaic System Modeling. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Clifford W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Curtis E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    We report an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for modeling AC energy from ph otovoltaic systems . Output from a PV system is predicted by a sequence of models. We quantify u ncertainty i n the output of each model using empirical distribution s of each model's residuals. We propagate uncertainty through the sequence of models by sampli ng these distributions to obtain a n empirical distribution of a PV system's output. We consider models that: (1) translate measured global horizontal, direct and global diffuse irradiance to plane - of - array irradiance; (2) estimate effective irradiance; (3) predict cell temperature; (4) estimate DC voltage, current and power ; (5) reduce DC power for losses due to inefficient maximum power point tracking or mismatch among modules; and (6) convert DC to AC power . O ur analysis consider s a notional PV system com prising an array of FirstSolar FS - 387 modules and a 250 kW AC inverter ; we use measured irradiance and weather at Albuquerque, NM. We found the uncertainty in PV syste m output to be relatively small, on the order of 1% for daily energy. We found that unce rtainty in the models for POA irradiance and effective irradiance to be the dominant contributors to uncertainty in predicted daily energy. Our analysis indicates that efforts to reduce the uncertainty in PV system output predictions may yield the greatest improvements by focusing on the POA and effective irradiance models.

  12. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Kubar, T. L.; Li, J.; Zhang, J.; Wang, W.

    2015-12-01

    Both the National Research Council Decadal Survey and the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report stressed the need for the comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with the synergistic use of global satellite observations in order to improve our weather and climate simulation and prediction capabilities. The abundance of satellite observations for fundamental climate parameters and the availability of coordinated model outputs from CMIP5 for the same parameters offer a great opportunity to understand and diagnose model biases in climate models. In addition, the Obs4MIPs efforts have created several key global observational datasets that are readily usable for model evaluations. However, a model diagnostic evaluation process requires physics-based multi-variable comparisons that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computationally- and data-intensive. In response, we have developed a novel methodology to diagnose model biases in contemporary climate models and implementing the methodology as a web-service based, cloud-enabled, provenance-supported climate-model evaluation system. The evaluation system is named Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), which is the product of the research and technology development investments of several current and past NASA ROSES programs. The current technologies and infrastructure of CMDA are designed and selected to address several technical challenges that the Earth science modeling and model analysis community faces in evaluating and diagnosing climate models. In particular, we have three key technology components: (1) diagnostic analysis methodology; (2) web-service based, cloud-enabled technology; (3) provenance-supported technology. The diagnostic analysis methodology includes random forest feature importance ranking, conditional probability distribution function, conditional sampling, and time-lagged correlation map. We have implemented the

  13. Transforming Graphical System Models to Graphical Attack Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2016-01-01

    Manually identifying possible attacks on an organisation is a complex undertaking; many different factors must be considered, and the resulting attack scenarios can be complex and hard to maintain as the organisation changes. System models provide a systematic representation of organisations...... that helps in structuring attack identification and can integrate physical, virtual, and social components. These models form a solid basis for guiding the manual identification of attack scenarios. Their main benefit, however, is in the analytic generation of attacks. In this work we present a systematic...... approach to transforming graphical system models to graphical attack models in the form of attack trees. Based on an asset in the model, our transformations result in an attack tree that represents attacks by all possible actors in the model, after which the actor in question has obtained the asset....

  14. CTBT integrated verification system evaluation model supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EDENBURN,MICHAEL W.; BUNTING,MARCUS; PAYNE JR.,ARTHUR C.; TROST,LAWRENCE C.

    2000-03-02

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a computer based model called IVSEM (Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model) to estimate the performance of a nuclear detonation monitoring system. The IVSEM project was initiated in June 1994, by Sandia's Monitoring Systems and Technology Center and has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (DOE/NN). IVSEM is a simple, ''top-level,'' modeling tool which estimates the performance of a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring system and can help explore the impact of various sensor system concepts and technology advancements on CTBT monitoring. One of IVSEM's unique features is that it integrates results from the various CTBT sensor technologies (seismic, in sound, radionuclide, and hydroacoustic) and allows the user to investigate synergy among the technologies. Specifically, IVSEM estimates the detection effectiveness (probability of detection), location accuracy, and identification capability of the integrated system and of each technology subsystem individually. The model attempts to accurately estimate the monitoring system's performance at medium interfaces (air-land, air-water) and for some evasive testing methods such as seismic decoupling. The original IVSEM report, CTBT Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model, SAND97-25 18, described version 1.2 of IVSEM. This report describes the changes made to IVSEM version 1.2 and the addition of identification capability estimates that have been incorporated into IVSEM version 2.0.

  15. CTBT integrated verification system evaluation model supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDENBURN, MICHAEL W.; BUNTING, MARCUS; PAYNE, ARTHUR C. JR.; TROST, LAWRENCE C.

    2000-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a computer based model called IVSEM (Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model) to estimate the performance of a nuclear detonation monitoring system. The IVSEM project was initiated in June 1994, by Sandia's Monitoring Systems and Technology Center and has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (DOE/NN). IVSEM is a simple, ''top-level,'' modeling tool which estimates the performance of a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring system and can help explore the impact of various sensor system concepts and technology advancements on CTBT monitoring. One of IVSEM's unique features is that it integrates results from the various CTBT sensor technologies (seismic, in sound, radionuclide, and hydroacoustic) and allows the user to investigate synergy among the technologies. Specifically, IVSEM estimates the detection effectiveness (probability of detection), location accuracy, and identification capability of the integrated system and of each technology subsystem individually. The model attempts to accurately estimate the monitoring system's performance at medium interfaces (air-land, air-water) and for some evasive testing methods such as seismic decoupling. The original IVSEM report, CTBT Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model, SAND97-25 18, described version 1.2 of IVSEM. This report describes the changes made to IVSEM version 1.2 and the addition of identification capability estimates that have been incorporated into IVSEM version 2.0

  16. Gross margin losses due to <em>Salmonella> Dublin infection in Danish dairy cattle herds estimated by simulation modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Dahl; Kudahl, Anne Braad; Østergaard, S.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella Dublin affects production and animal health in cattle herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the gross margin (GM) losses following introduction and spread of S. Dublin within dairy herds. The GM losses were estimated using an age-structured stochastic, mechanistic...... and dynamic simulation model. The model incorporated six age groups (neonatal, pre-weaned calves, weaned calves, growing heifers, breeding heifers and cows) and five infection stages (susceptible, acutely infected, carrier, super shedder and resistant). The effects of introducing one S. Dublin infectious...... heifer were estimated through 1000 simulation iterations for 12 scenarios. These 12 scenarios were combinations of three herd sizes (85, 200 and 400 cows) and four management levels (very good, good, poor and very poor). Input parameters for effects of S. Dublin on production and animal health were based...

  17. A distributed snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen E. Liston; Kelly. Elder

    2006-01-01

    SnowModel is a spatially distributed snow-evolution modeling system designed for application in landscapes, climates, and conditions where snow occurs. It is an aggregation of four submodels: MicroMet defines meteorological forcing conditions, EnBal calculates surface energy exchanges, SnowPack simulates snow depth and water-equivalent evolution, and SnowTran-3D...

  18. Model Updating Nonlinear System Identification Toolbox Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology proposes to develop an enhanced model updating nonlinear system identification (MUNSID) methodology by adopting the flight data with state-of-the-art...

  19. Power system coherency and model reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Chow, Joe H

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive treatment for understanding interarea modes in large power systems and obtaining reduced-order models using the coherency concept and selective modal analysis method.

  20. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Samoa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 7-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding the islands of Samoa at approximately 3-km resolution. While considerable...

  1. Systemic Therapy: A New Brief Intervention Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searight, H. Russell; Openlander, Patrick

    1984-01-01

    Describes a newly developing mode of problem-oriented brief therapy. The systemic therapy model emphasizes the interactional context of clients' problems and represents an efficient intervention paradigm. (Author/JAC)

  2. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): CNMI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 7-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) at approximately...

  3. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 6-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding Guam at approximately 2-km resolution. While considerable effort has been...

  4. A Telecommunications Industry Primer: A Systems Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermier, Timothy R.; Tuttle, Ronald H.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Telecommunications Systems Model to help technical educators and students understand the increasingly complex telecommunications infrastructure. Specifically looks at ownership and regulatory status, service providers, transport medium, network protocols, and end-user services. (JOW)

  5. Modeling Approaches and Systems Related to Structured Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    Lasdon 򒾂> and Maturana 򒾃> for surveys of several modern systems. A -6- N NN- %0 CAMPS (Lucas and Mitra 򒾁>) -- Computer Assisted Mathe- %l...583-589. MATURANA , S. 򒾃>. "Comparative Analysis of Mathematical Modeling Systems," informal note, Graduate School of Manage- ment, UCLA, February

  6. Conceptual Modelling of Complex Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Perši

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex system dynamics, structure and behaviour performances call for a wide range of methods, algorithms and tools to reach a model capable of finding optimal performing parameters. In the modelling process, it is up to the analyst to select the appropriate combination of methods, algorithms and tools to express significant system performances. Such a methodology for designing complex systems should be based upon conceptual modelling to perform a sensitive analysis of different system levels and views, allowing system representations for developing computer models.Complex systems, such as business systems with a continuous-discrete production process, require a well organised supply chain highly reactive to production assortment changes. Aligning two different production components distinctive in their behaviour is especially delicate at the production parameters transition point. Such system performances require distinctive designing methods that can follow the double nature of the production process behaviour in accordance with their entities dynamics caused by assortment changes. Consequently, such systems need different conceptual presentations for their purpose to be realized from different views and aspects.

  7. Modeling of High Precision Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius Augustinavičius

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modeling of a flexure-based precisionpositioning system for micro-positioning uses. The positioningsystem is featured with monolithic architecture, flexure-basedjoints and ultra fine adjustment screws. Its workspace has beenevaluated via analytical approaches. Reduction mechanism isoptimally designed. The mathematical model of the positioningsystem has been derived, which is verified by resorting to finiteelement analysis (FEA. The established analytical and (FEAmodels are helpful for a reliable architecture optimization andperformance improvement of the positioning system.

  8. Ellipsoidal bag model for heavy quark system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Pinzhen; Fudan Univ., Shanghai

    1991-01-01

    The ellipsoidal bag model is used to describe heavy quark systems such as Qanti Q, Qanti Qg and Q 2 anti Q 2 . Instead of two step model, these states are described by an uniform picture. The potential derived from the ellipsoidal bag for Qanti Q is almost equivalent to the Cornell potential. For a Q 2 anti Q 2 system with large quark pair separation, an improvement of 70 MeV is obtained comparing with the spherical bag. (orig.)

  9. Hybrid Energy System Modeling in Modelica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Binder; Christiaan J. J. Paredis; Humberto E. Garcia

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a Hybrid Energy System (HES) configuration is modeled in Modelica. Hybrid Energy Systems (HES) have as their defining characteristic the use of one or more energy inputs, combined with the potential for multiple energy outputs. Compared to traditional energy systems, HES provide additional operational flexibility so that high variability in both energy production and consumption levels can be absorbed more effectively. This is particularly important when including renewable energy sources, whose output levels are inherently variable, determined by nature. The specific HES configuration modeled in this paper include two energy inputs: a nuclear plant, and a series of wind turbines. In addition, the system produces two energy outputs: electricity and synthetic fuel. The models are verified through simulations of the individual components, and the system as a whole. The simulations are performed for a range of component sizes, operating conditions, and control schemes.

  10. Model Reduction of Fuzzy Logic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhandong Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of ℒ2-ℒ∞ model reduction for continuous-time nonlinear uncertain systems. The approach of the construction of a reduced-order model is presented for high-order nonlinear uncertain systems described by the T-S fuzzy systems, which not only approximates the original high-order system well with an ℒ2-ℒ∞ error performance level γ but also translates it into a linear lower-dimensional system. Then, the model approximation is converted into a convex optimization problem by using a linearization procedure. Finally, a numerical example is presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. System model development for nuclear thermal propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.T.; Perkins, K.R.; Buksa, J.J.; Worley, B.A.; Dobranich, D.

    1992-01-01

    A critical enabling technology in the evolutionary development of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) is the ability to predict the system performance under a variety of operating conditions. Since October 1991, US (DOE), (DOD) and NASA have initiated critical technology development efforts for NTP systems to be used on Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to the Moon and Mars. This paper presents the strategy and progress of an interagency NASA/DOE/DOD team for NTP system modeling. It is the intent of the interagency team to develop several levels of computer programs to simulate various NTP systems. An interagency team was formed for this task to use the best capabilities available and to assure appropriate peer review. The vision and strategy of the interagency team for developing NTP system models will be discussed in this paper. A review of the progress on the Level 1 interagency model is also presented

  12. Economic model of pipeline transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-07-29

    The objective of the work reported here was to develop a model which could be used to assess the economic effects of energy-conservative technological innovations upon the pipeline industry. The model is a dynamic simulator which accepts inputs of two classes: the physical description (design parameters, fluid properties, and financial structures) of the system to be studied, and the postulated market (throughput and price) projection. The model consists of time-independent submodels: the fluidics model which simulates the physical behavior of the system, and the financial model which operates upon the output of the fluidics model to calculate the economics outputs. Any of a number of existing fluidics models can be used in addition to that developed as a part of this study. The financial model, known as the Systems, Science and Software (S/sup 3/) Financial Projection Model, contains user options whereby pipeline-peculiar characteristics can be removed and/or modified, so that the model can be applied to virtually any kind of business enterprise. The several dozen outputs are of two classes: the energetics and the economics. The energetics outputs of primary interest are the energy intensity, also called unit energy consumption, and the total energy consumed. The primary economics outputs are the long-run average cost, profit, cash flow, and return on investment.

  13. System Identification, Environmental Modelling, and Control System Design

    CERN Document Server

    Garnier, Hugues

    2012-01-01

    System Identification, Environmetric Modelling, and Control Systems Design is dedicated to Professor Peter Young on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. Professor Young has been a pioneer in systems and control, and over the past 45 years he has influenced many developments in this field. This volume is comprised of a collection of contributions by leading experts in system identification, time-series analysis, environmetric modelling and control system design – modern research in topics that reflect important areas of interest in Professor Young’s research career. Recent theoretical developments in and relevant applications of these areas are explored treating the various subjects broadly and in depth. The authoritative and up-to-date research presented here will be of interest to academic researcher in control and disciplines related to environmental research, particularly those to with water systems. The tutorial style in which many of the contributions are composed also makes the book suitable as ...

  14. Environmental Management Systems (EMS ISO 14001 Implementation in Construction Industry: A Malaysian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiani Yusoff

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to explore the crucial part in EMS implementation; i.e. environmental aspects and impacts, Good Environmental Practice to be developed in construction site, as well as the level of awareness or understanding amongst site staffs on ISO 14001 EMS implementation in their organizations. Data were collected via interviews, surveys and site visits. A number of environmental aspects and impacts, and Good Environmental Practices based on ISO 14001:2004 have been identified. The level of understanding of the site staffs on ISO 14001 EMS requirements has been found to be good except for matters concerning Schedule Waste Management. In conclusion, the successful implementation of ISO 14001 EMS mainly depends on staffs‘ understanding.

  15. WMS - Warehouse Management System: Benfeitorias Proporcionadas pela Implantação em um Centro Distribuidor e Atacadista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lévistone Fávero

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente as empresas estão inseridas em ambientes altamente dinâmicos e competitivos, onde a gestão de estoque se torna uma vantagem frente aos concorrentes, quando a organização utiliza sistemas especialistas de gerenciamento de armazéns que subsidiam o processo de tomada de decisão. O estudo busca descrever as benfeitorias proporcionadas pela implantação de um sistema WMS (WAREHOUSE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM de gerenciamento de armazéns, em um centro distribuidor e atacadista do segmento de higiene pessoal e limpeza em Cordilheira Alta/SC. Na metodologia, optou-se por uma pesquisa descritiva por meio de estudo de caso qualitativo básico, com abordagem qualitativa dos dados. Os resultados apontam que a implantação do WMS trouxe resultados positivos para o processo decisório da organização, além de acarretar mudanças perceptíveis nas rotinas realizadas no centro de distribuição que demonstram a eficiência em receber, alocar, separar, embalar e expedir produtos de forma segura para atender com eficiência os pedidos dos clientes.

  16. APLICAÇÃO DA METODOLOGIA SOFT SYSTEMS PARA ESTRUTURAR PROBLEMAS EM UM CURSO DE GRADUAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDRO GUSTAVO SOUSA SANTOS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é aplicar a metodologia Soft Systems para estruturar problemas reais do curso de graduação em Engenharia de Produção da Universidade Estadual do Maranhão no município de São Luís-MA. A metodologia embora ainda pouca utilizada no Brasil, mostra-se uma útil ferramenta para identificação de problemas com o intuito de gerar a aprendizagem através da reflexão sobre a situação em estudo. Assim, durante o desenvolvimento do trabalho buscou-se a participação dos atores do sistema em estudo (professores, alunos e gestão do curso para melhor compreender o próprio sistema através de suas percepções de mundo e experiências.. Dessa forma, o presente estudo apresentou aplicabilidade da metodologia e sua contribuição para a aprendizagem do sistema em estudo para discentes, docentes e gestão do curso através do enfoque sistêmico.

  17. Controle de plantas daninhas em feijão-de-corda em sistema de semeadura direta Weed control in cowpea under no-nill system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B.F. Silva

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficiência dos herbicidas glyphosate (1.800 g ha-1 e paraquat (800 g ha-1, aplicados antes da semeadura como dessecantes, e imazamox (0, 21, 42 e 63 g ha-1 ou fenoxaprop-p-ethyl (0, 40, 80 e 120 g ha-1, aplicados em condições de pós-emergência, no controle das plantas daninhas, bem como os efeitos tóxicos ao feijão-decorda (Vigna unguiculata cv. Epace 10, em sistema de semeadura direta com irrigação. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com os tratamentos arranjados em parcelas sub-subdivididas, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos com glyphosate associado a imazamox ou fenoxaprop-p-ethyl resultaram em menor infestação das plantas daninhas, avaliadas através da fitomassa seca da parte aérea, maior produção de grãos e maior número de vagens por planta de feijão-de-corda, quando comparado com os tratamentos com paraquat associado aos herbicidas pós-emergentes. Os herbicidas imazamox e fenoxaprop-p-ethyl não causaram sintomas visuais de toxicidade ao feijão-de-corda. A dose de 80 g ha-1 de fenoxaprop-p-ethyl associada com o glyphosate (1.800 g ha-1 foi a mais eficiente no controle das plantas daninhas, na avaliação realizada 45 dias após a aplicação (DAA do fenoxaprop-p-ethyl. Este herbicida não controlou o capim-carrapicho (Cenchrus echinatus e o capim-colchão (Digitaria horizontalis nas avaliações realizadas aos 15 e 28 DAA. O imazamox não foi eficaz no controle das espécies erva-de-santa-luzia (Chamaesyce hirta e leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla.This research was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the herbicides glyphosate (1.800 g ha-1 and paraquat (800 g ha-1, applied as desiccants before sowing and fenoxaprop-p-ethyl (0, 40, 80 and 120 g ha-1 and imazamox (0, 21, 42 and 63 g ha-1, applied in post-emergence conditions, on the weed control and the phytotoxicity to cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata cv. Epace 10, under a no-till system, with

  18. Automated statistical modeling of analytical measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    The statistical modeling of analytical measurement systems at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) has been completely automated through computer software. The statistical modeling of analytical measurement systems is one part of a complete quality control program used by the Remote Analytical Laboratory (RAL) at the ICPP. The quality control program is an integration of automated data input, measurement system calibration, database management, and statistical process control. The quality control program and statistical modeling program meet the guidelines set forth by the American Society for Testing Materials and American National Standards Institute. A statistical model is a set of mathematical equations describing any systematic bias inherent in a measurement system and the precision of a measurement system. A statistical model is developed from data generated from the analysis of control standards. Control standards are samples which are made up at precise known levels by an independent laboratory and submitted to the RAL. The RAL analysts who process control standards do not know the values of those control standards. The object behind statistical modeling is to describe real process samples in terms of their bias and precision and, to verify that a measurement system is operating satisfactorily. The processing of control standards gives us this ability

  19. Three‐dimensional immersive virtual reality for studying cellular compartments in 3D models from EM preparations of neural tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghabra, Jumana; Boges, Daniya J.; Holst, Glendon R.; Kreshuk, Anna; Hamprecht, Fred A.; Srinivasan, Madhusudhanan; Lehväslaiho, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Advances in the application of electron microscopy (EM) to serial imaging are opening doors to new ways of analyzing cellular structure. New and improved algorithms and workflows for manual and semiautomated segmentation allow us to observe the spatial arrangement of the smallest cellular features with unprecedented detail in full three‐dimensions. From larger samples, higher complexity models can be generated; however, they pose new challenges to data management and analysis. Here we review some currently available solutions and present our approach in detail. We use the fully immersive virtual reality (VR) environment CAVE (cave automatic virtual environment), a room in which we are able to project a cellular reconstruction and visualize in 3D, to step into a world created with Blender, a free, fully customizable 3D modeling software with NeuroMorph plug‐ins for visualization and analysis of EM preparations of brain tissue. Our workflow allows for full and fast reconstructions of volumes of brain neuropil using ilastik, a software tool for semiautomated segmentation of EM stacks. With this visualization environment, we can walk into the model containing neuronal and astrocytic processes to study the spatial distribution of glycogen granules, a major energy source that is selectively stored in astrocytes. The use of CAVE was key to the observation of a nonrandom distribution of glycogen, and led us to develop tools to quantitatively analyze glycogen clustering and proximity to other subcellular features. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:23–38, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26179415

  20. Three-dimensional immersive virtual reality for studying cellular compartments in 3D models from EM preparations of neural tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calì, Corrado; Baghabra, Jumana; Boges, Daniya J; Holst, Glendon R; Kreshuk, Anna; Hamprecht, Fred A; Srinivasan, Madhusudhanan; Lehväslaiho, Heikki; Magistretti, Pierre J

    2016-01-01

    Advances in the application of electron microscopy (EM) to serial imaging are opening doors to new ways of analyzing cellular structure. New and improved algorithms and workflows for manual and semiautomated segmentation allow us to observe the spatial arrangement of the smallest cellular features with unprecedented detail in full three-dimensions. From larger samples, higher complexity models can be generated; however, they pose new challenges to data management and analysis. Here we review some currently available solutions and present our approach in detail. We use the fully immersive virtual reality (VR) environment CAVE (cave automatic virtual environment), a room in which we are able to project a cellular reconstruction and visualize in 3D, to step into a world created with Blender, a free, fully customizable 3D modeling software with NeuroMorph plug-ins for visualization and analysis of EM preparations of brain tissue. Our workflow allows for full and fast reconstructions of volumes of brain neuropil using ilastik, a software tool for semiautomated segmentation of EM stacks. With this visualization environment, we can walk into the model containing neuronal and astrocytic processes to study the spatial distribution of glycogen granules, a major energy source that is selectively stored in astrocytes. The use of CAVE was key to the observation of a nonrandom distribution of glycogen, and led us to develop tools to quantitatively analyze glycogen clustering and proximity to other subcellular features. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Modelling the Replication Management in Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar TOADER

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern economy, the benefits of Web services are significant because they facilitates the activities automation in the framework of Internet distributed businesses as well as the cooperation between organizations through interconnection process running in the computer systems. This paper presents the development stages of a model for a reliable information system. This paper describes the communication between the processes within the distributed system, based on the message exchange, and also presents the problem of distributed agreement among processes. A list of objectives for the fault-tolerant systems is defined and a framework model for distributed systems is proposed. This framework makes distinction between management operations and execution operations. The proposed model promotes the use of a central process especially designed for the coordination and control of other application processes. The execution phases and the protocols for the management and the execution components are presented. This model of a reliable system could be a foundation for an entire class of distributed systems models based on the management of replication process.

  2. Generic Sensor Failure Modeling for Cooperative Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Jäger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The advent of cooperative systems entails a dynamic composition of their components. As this contrasts current, statically composed systems, new approaches for maintaining their safety are required. In that endeavor, we propose an integration step that evaluates the failure model of shared information in relation to an application’s fault tolerance and thereby promises maintainability of such system’s safety. However, it also poses new requirements on failure models, which are not fulfilled by state-of-the-art approaches. Consequently, this work presents a mathematically defined generic failure model as well as a processing chain for automatically extracting such failure models from empirical data. By examining data of an Sharp GP2D12 distance sensor, we show that the generic failure model not only fulfills the predefined requirements, but also models failure characteristics appropriately when compared to traditional techniques.

  3. Generic Sensor Failure Modeling for Cooperative Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Georg; Zug, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    The advent of cooperative systems entails a dynamic composition of their components. As this contrasts current, statically composed systems, new approaches for maintaining their safety are required. In that endeavor, we propose an integration step that evaluates the failure model of shared information in relation to an application’s fault tolerance and thereby promises maintainability of such system’s safety. However, it also poses new requirements on failure models, which are not fulfilled by state-of-the-art approaches. Consequently, this work presents a mathematically defined generic failure model as well as a processing chain for automatically extracting such failure models from empirical data. By examining data of an Sharp GP2D12 distance sensor, we show that the generic failure model not only fulfills the predefined requirements, but also models failure characteristics appropriately when compared to traditional techniques. PMID:29558435

  4. Caos determinístico em um modelo simplificado de cadeia produtiva Deterministic chaos in simplified supply chain model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Bastos de Figueiredo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar um modelo teórico simplificado de cadeia produtiva onde as relações entre o número de competidores, os tempos de resposta para ajustes da produção e a intensidade da resposta das empresas levam intrinsecamente ao surgimento de oscilações caóticas na oferta e na demanda. No modelo proposto, desenvolvido com o uso da metodologia de dinâmica de sistemas, as flutuações irregulares na demanda e nos preços estão intimamente relacionadas com a própria estrutura da cadeia, ou seja, com suas regras, políticas e capacidades produtivas. São feitas considerações sobre a importância do estudo de caos aplicado à economia e são discutidas técnicas para caracterização de comportamento caótico em séries econômicas.The purpose of this study was to present a simplified supply chain model where the relations between the number of competitors, the delay in production adjustments, and the intensity response of each company lead, intrinsically, to the emergence of chaotic oscillations in supply and demand. In the considered model, developed with the use of the System Dynamics methodology, the irregular fluctuations in demand and prices are closely related to the supply chain structure, that is, its rules, policies and capabilities. Discussions about the importance of the study of chaos applied to the economy are developed and specific techniques for characterization of chaotic behavior in economic time series are presented.

  5. Energy model in regional energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mura, P.G.; Baccoli, R.; Carlini, U.; Innamorati, R.; Mariotti, S.

    2005-01-01

    In this report is presented a computational model for analysis of energy, materials and mass flux in a complex energy system, at regional scale level. Specifically is described a calculation model of electric power generation for emission forecasting of CO 2 , SO x , NO x , particulate matter, ashes, limestone, chalks [it

  6. Immune System Model Calibration by Genetic Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Presbitero, A.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.; Mancini, E.; Brands, R.; Sloot, P.

    2016-01-01

    We aim to develop a mathematical model of the human immune system for advanced individualized healthcare where medication plan is fine-tuned to fit a patient's conditions through monitored biochemical processes. One of the challenges is calibrating model parameters to satisfy existing experimental

  7. Analytical system dynamics modeling and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Fabien, Brian C

    2008-01-01

    This book offering a modeling technique based on Lagrange's energy method includes 125 worked examples. Using this technique enables one to model and simulate systems as diverse as a six-link, closed-loop mechanism or a transistor power amplifier.

  8. System level modelling with open source tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Koefoed; Madsen, Jan; Niaki, Seyed Hosein Attarzadeh

    , called ForSyDe. ForSyDe is available under the open Source approach, which allows small and medium enterprises (SME) to get easy access to advanced modeling capabilities and tools. We give an introduction to the design methodology through the system level modeling of a simple industrial use case, and we...

  9. Modelling and control of dynamic systems using gaussian process models

    CERN Document Server

    Kocijan, Juš

    2016-01-01

    This monograph opens up new horizons for engineers and researchers in academia and in industry dealing with or interested in new developments in the field of system identification and control. It emphasizes guidelines for working solutions and practical advice for their implementation rather than the theoretical background of Gaussian process (GP) models. The book demonstrates the potential of this recent development in probabilistic machine-learning methods and gives the reader an intuitive understanding of the topic. The current state of the art is treated along with possible future directions for research. Systems control design relies on mathematical models and these may be developed from measurement data. This process of system identification, when based on GP models, can play an integral part of control design in data-based control and its description as such is an essential aspect of the text. The background of GP regression is introduced first with system identification and incorporation of prior know...

  10. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics :soldier fatigue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Craig R.; Campbell, James E.; Miller, Dwight Peter

    2005-10-01

    The military has identified Human Performance Modeling (HPM) as a significant requirement and challenge of future systems modeling and analysis initiatives as can be seen in the Department of Defense's (DoD) Defense Modeling and Simulation Office's (DMSO) Master Plan (DoD 5000.59-P 1995). To this goal, the military is currently spending millions of dollars on programs devoted to HPM in various military contexts. Examples include the Human Performance Modeling Integration (HPMI) program within the Air Force Research Laboratory, which focuses on integrating HPMs with constructive models of systems (e.g. cockpit simulations) and the Navy's Human Performance Center (HPC) established in September 2003. Nearly all of these initiatives focus on the interface between humans and a single system. This is insufficient in the era of highly complex network centric SoS. This report presents research and development in the area of HPM in a system-of-systems (SoS). Specifically, this report addresses modeling soldier fatigue and the potential impacts soldier fatigue can have on SoS performance.

  11. Predictive Model of Systemic Toxicity (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to ensure chemical safety in light of regulatory advances away from reliance on animal testing, USEPA and L’Oréal have collaborated to develop a quantitative systemic toxicity prediction model. Prediction of human systemic toxicity has proved difficult and remains a ...

  12. CTBT Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edenburn, M.W.; Bunting, M.L.; Payne, A.C. Jr.

    1997-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a computer based model called IVSEM (Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model) to estimate the performance of a nuclear detonation monitoring system. The IVSEM project was initiated in June 1994, by Sandia`s Monitoring Systems and Technology Center and has been funded by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (DOE/NN). IVSEM is a simple, top-level, modeling tool which estimates the performance of a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring system and can help explore the impact of various sensor system concepts and technology advancements on CTBT monitoring. One of IVSEM`s unique features is that it integrates results from the various CTBT sensor technologies (seismic, infrasound, radionuclide, and hydroacoustic) and allows the user to investigate synergy among the technologies. Specifically, IVSEM estimates the detection effectiveness (probability of detection) and location accuracy of the integrated system and of each technology subsystem individually. The model attempts to accurately estimate the monitoring system`s performance at medium interfaces (air-land, air-water) and for some evasive testing methods such as seismic decoupling. This report describes version 1.2 of IVSEM.

  13. Modeling a Longitudinal Relational Research Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Michelle D. Hunt

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to propose a research-based model for a longitudinal data research system that addressed recommendations from a synthesis of literature related to: (1) needs reported by the U.S. Department of Education, (2) the twelve mandatory elements that define federally approved state longitudinal data systems (SLDS), (3) the…

  14. Economic Models and Algorithms for Distributed Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Neumann, Dirk; Altmann, Jorn; Rana, Omer F

    2009-01-01

    Distributed computing models for sharing resources such as Grids, Peer-to-Peer systems, or voluntary computing are becoming increasingly popular. This book intends to discover fresh avenues of research and amendments to existing technologies, aiming at the successful deployment of commercial distributed systems

  15. Installed water resource modelling systems for catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following international trends there are a growing number of modelling systems being installed for integrated water resource management, in Southern Africa. Such systems are likely to be installed for operational use in ongoing learning, research, strategic planning and consensus-building amongst stakeholders in the ...

  16. Knowledge Management System Model for Learning Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Yousif; Monamad, Roshayu

    2017-01-01

    Based on the literature of knowledge management (KM), this paper reports on the progress of developing a new knowledge management system (KMS) model with components architecture that are distributed over the widely-recognised socio-technical system (STS) aspects to guide developers for selecting the most applicable components to support their KM…

  17. Eclectic Model in the Malaysian Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Nooraini; Mohamad, Khairul Azmi; Ilmuwan, Yayasan

    2011-01-01

    The present work aims at analysing the adoption of eclectic model in the Malaysian education system. The analysis is specifically looked from the angle of Islam and the Muslims. Malaysia has a long history of education system developments, from pre to post independence of the country. From what was initially traditional, modernity later came to…

  18. Direct 4D parametric imaging for linearized models of reversibly binding PET tracers using generalized AB-EM reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmim, Arman; Zhou, Yun; Tang, Jing; Lu, Lijun; Sossi, Vesna; Wong, Dean F.

    2012-01-01

    Due to high noise levels in the voxel kinetics, development of reliable parametric imaging algorithms remains as one of most active areas in dynamic brain PET imaging, which in the vast majority of cases involves receptor/transporter studies with reversibly binding tracers. As such, the focus of this work has been to develop a novel direct 4D parametric image reconstruction scheme for such tracers. Based on a relative equilibrium (RE) graphical analysis formulation (Zhou et al., 2009b), we developed a closed-form 4D EM algorithm to directly reconstruct distribution volume (DV) parametric images within a plasma input model, as well as DV ratio (DVR) images within a reference tissue model scheme (wherein an initial reconstruction was used to estimate the reference tissue time-activity-curves). A particular challenge with the direct 4D EM formulation is that the intercept parameters in graphical (linearized) analysis of reversible tracers (e.g. Logan or RE analysis) are commonly negative (unlike for irreversible tracers; e.g. using Patlak analysis). Subsequently, we focused our attention on the AB-EM algorithm, derived by Byrne (1998) to allow inclusion of prior information about the lower (A) and upper (B) bounds for image values. We then generalized this algorithm to the 4D EM framework thus allowing negative intercept parameters. Furthermore, our 4D AB-EM algorithm incorporated, and emphasized the use of spatially varying lower bounds to achieve enhanced performance. As validation, the means of parameters estimated from 55 human 11C-raclopride dynamic PET studies were used for extensive simulations using a mathematical brain phantom. Images were reconstructed using conventional indirect as well as proposed direct parametric imaging methods. Noise vs. bias quantitative measurements were performed in various regions of the brain. Direct 4D EM reconstruction resulted in notable qualitative and quantitative accuracy improvements (over 35% noise reduction, with matched

  19. Prevalence and key figures for the poultry red mite <em>Dermanyssus gallinae em>infections in poultry farm systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparango, Olivier; Pavlićević, Aleksandar; Murano, Takako

    2009-01-01

    of this poultry ectoparasite observed more often in non intensive systems such as free-range, barns or backyards and more often in laying hens than in broiler birds. The lack of knowledge from producers and the utilisation of inadequate, ineVective or illegal chemicals in many countries have been responsible...... for the increase in infestation rates due to the spread of acaricide resistance. The costs for control methods and treatment are showing the tremendous economic impact of this ectoparasite on poultry meat and egg industries. This paper reviews the prevalence rates of this poultry pest in diVerent countries...

  20. Defence mechanisms and immune evasion in the interplay between the humane immune system and <em>Plasmodium falciparumem>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theander, T G

    1992-01-01

    antigens, which probably is precipitated by defects in the early events of T-cell activation and inhibition of IL-2 function elucidated, but soluble factors secreted either by the parasites, or by host cells as a result of exposure to the parasite, seem to be involved. 4) Immune effector mechanisms...... in the liver and the spleen are avoided by sequestration of the mature parasites to the vascular endothelium. The interplay between the human defence system and the malaria parasite governs the symptomatology, the pathology and the development of immunity to the disease. These interactions are extremely...

  1. Modelling of functional systems of managerial accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Fomina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern stage of managerial accounting development takes place under the powerful influence of managerial innovations. The article aimed at the development of integrational model of budgeting and the system of balanced indices in the system of managerial accounting that will contribute the increasing of relevance for making managerial decisions by managers of different levels management. As a result of the study the author proposed the highly pragmatical integration model of budgeting and system of the balanced indices in the system of managerial accounting, which is realized by the development of the system of gathering, consolidation, analysis, and interpretation of financial and nonfinancial information, contributes the increasing of relevance for making managerial decisions on the base of coordination and effective and purpose orientation both strategical and operative resources of an enterprise. The effective integrational process of the system components makes it possible to distribute limited resources rationally taking into account prospective purposes and strategic initiatives, to carry

  2. Degradation Modelling for Health Monitoring Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stetter, R; Witczak, M

    2014-01-01

    Condition-monitoring plays an increasingly important role for technical processes in order to improve reliability, availability, maintenance and lifetime of equipment. With increasing demands for efficiency and product quality, plus progress in the integration of automatic control systems in high-cost mechatronic and critical safety processes, the field of health monitoring is gaining interest. A similar research field is concerned with an estimation of the remaining useful life. A central question in these fields is the modelling of degradation; degradation is a process of a gradual and irreversible accumulation of damage which will finally result in a failure of the system. This paper is based on a current research project and explores various degradation modelling techniques. These results are explained on the basis of an industrial product – a system for the generation of health status information for pump systems. The result of this fuzzy-logic based system is a single number indicating the current health of a pump system

  3. World energy projection system: Model documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The World Energy Project System (WEPS) is an accounting framework that incorporates projects from independently documented models and assumptions about the future energy intensity of economic activity (ratios of total energy consumption divided by gross domestic product) and about the rate of incremental energy requirements met by hydropower, geothermal, coal, and natural gas to produce projections of world energy consumption published annually by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in the International Energy Outlook (IEO) (Figure 1). Two independently documented models presented in Figure 1, the Oil Market Simulation (OMS) model and the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES) provide projections of oil and nuclear power consumption published in the IEO. Output from a third independently documented model, and the International Coal Trade Model (ICTM), is not published in the IEO but is used in WEPS as a supply check on projections of world coal consumption produced by WEPS and published in the IEO. A WEPS model of natural gas production documented in this report provides the same type of implicit supply check on the WEPS projections of world natural gas consumption published in the IEO. Two additional models are included in Figure 1, the OPEC Capacity model and the Non-OPEC Oil Production model. These WEPS models provide inputs to the OMS model and are documented in this report

  4. OFFl Models: Novel Schema for Dynamical Modeling of Biological Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Brandon Ogbunugafor

    Full Text Available Flow diagrams are a common tool used to help build and interpret models of dynamical systems, often in biological contexts such as consumer-resource models and similar compartmental models. Typically, their usage is intuitive and informal. Here, we present a formalized version of flow diagrams as a kind of weighted directed graph which follow a strict grammar, which translate into a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs by a single unambiguous rule, and which have an equivalent representation as a relational database. (We abbreviate this schema of "ODEs and formalized flow diagrams" as OFFL. Drawing a diagram within this strict grammar encourages a mental discipline on the part of the modeler in which all dynamical processes of a system are thought of as interactions between dynamical species that draw parcels from one or more source species and deposit them into target species according to a set of transformation rules. From these rules, the net rate of change for each species can be derived. The modeling schema can therefore be understood as both an epistemic and practical heuristic for modeling, serving both as an organizational framework for the model building process and as a mechanism for deriving ODEs. All steps of the schema beyond the initial scientific (intuitive, creative abstraction of natural observations into model variables are algorithmic and easily carried out by a computer, thus enabling the future development of a dedicated software implementation. Such tools would empower the modeler to consider significantly more complex models than practical limitations might have otherwise proscribed, since the modeling framework itself manages that complexity on the modeler's behalf. In this report, we describe the chief motivations for OFFL, carefully outline its implementation, and utilize a range of classic examples from ecology and epidemiology to showcase its features.

  5. Compiling models into real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormoy, J.L.; Cherriaux, F.; Ancelin, J.

    1992-08-01

    This paper presents an architecture for building real-time systems from models, and model-compiling techniques. This has been applied for building a real-time model-based monitoring system for nuclear plants, called KSE, which is currently being used in two plants in France. We describe how we used various artificial intelligence techniques for building it: a model-based approach, a logical model of its operation, a declarative implementation of these models, and original knowledge-compiling techniques for automatically generating the real-time expert system from those models. Some of those techniques have just been borrowed from the literature, but we had to modify or invent other techniques which simply did not exist. We also discuss two important problems, which are often underestimated in the artificial intelligence literature: size, and errors. Our architecture, which could be used in other applications, combines the advantages of the model-based approach with the efficiency requirements of real-time applications, while in general model-based approaches present serious drawbacks on this point

  6. Compiling models into real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormoy, J.L.; Cherriaux, F.; Ancelin, J.

    1992-08-01

    This paper presents an architecture for building real-time systems from models, and model-compiling techniques. This has been applied for building a real-time model-base monitoring system for nuclear plants, called KSE, which is currently being used in two plants in France. We describe how we used various artificial intelligence techniques for building it: a model-based approach, a logical model of its operation, a declarative implementation of these models, and original knowledge-compiling techniques for automatically generating the real-time expert system from those models. Some of those techniques have just been borrowed from the literature, but we had to modify or invent other techniques which simply did not exist. We also discuss two important problems, which are often underestimated in the artificial intelligence literature: size, and errors. Our architecture, which could be used in other applications, combines the advantages of the model-based approach with the efficiency requirements of real-time applications, while in general model-based approaches present serious drawbacks on this point

  7. Models for large superconducting toroidal magnet systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, F.; Brechna, H.; Erb, J.; Komarek, P.; Krauth, H.; Maurer, W.

    1976-01-01

    Prior to the design of large GJ toroidal magnet systems it is appropriate to procure small scale models, which can simulate their pertinent properties and allow to investigate their relevant phenomena. The important feature of the model is to show under which circumstances the system performance can be extrapolated to large magnets. Based on parameters such as the maximum magnetic field and the current density, the maximum tolerable magneto-mechanical stresses, a simple method of designing model magnets is presented. It is shown how pertinent design parameters are changed when the toroidal dimensions are altered. In addition some conductor cost estimations are given based on reactor power output and wall loading

  8. Modeling and simulation of discrete event systems

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Byoung Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Computer modeling and simulation (M&S) allows engineers to study and analyze complex systems. Discrete-event system (DES)-M&S is used in modern management, industrial engineering, computer science, and the military. As computer speeds and memory capacity increase, so DES-M&S tools become more powerful and more widely used in solving real-life problems. Based on over 20 years of evolution within a classroom environment, as well as on decades-long experience in developing simulation-based solutions for high-tech industries, Modeling and Simulation of Discrete-Event Systems is the only book on

  9. Modeling the heart and the circulatory system

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book comprises contributions by some of the most respected scientists in the field of mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of the human cardiocirculatory system. The contributions cover a wide range of topics, from the preprocessing of clinical data to the development of mathematical equations, their numerical solution, and both in-vivo and in-vitro validation. They discuss the flow in the systemic arterial tree and the complex electro-fluid-mechanical coupling in the human heart. Many examples of patient-specific simulations are presented. This book is addressed to all scientists interested in the mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of the human cardiocirculatory system.

  10. Quantitative Models and Analysis for Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Claus

    The majority of modern software and hardware systems are reactive systems, where input provided by the user (possibly another system) and the output of the system is exchanged continuously throughout the (possibly) indefinite execution of the system. Natural examples include control systems, mobi......, energy consumption, latency, mean-time to failure, and cost. For systems integrated in mass-market products, the ability to quantify trade-offs between performance and robustness, under given technical and economic constraints, is of strategic importance....... by the environment in which they are embedded. This thesis studies the semantics and properties of a model-based framework for re- active systems, in which models and specifications are assumed to contain quantifiable information, such as references to time or energy. Our goal is to develop a theory of approximation......, in terms of a new mathematical basis for systems modeling which can incompas behavioural properties as well as environmental constraints. They continue by pointing out that, continuous performance and robustness measures are paramount when dealing with physical resource levels such as clock frequency...

  11. An Integrated Ecological Modeling System for Assessing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    We demonstrate a novel, spatially explicit assessment of the current condition of aquatic ecosystem services, with limited sensitivity analysis for the atmospheric contaminant mercury. The Integrated Ecological Modeling System (IEMS) forecasts water quality and quantity, habitat suitability for aquatic biota, fish biomasses, population densities, productivities, and contamination by methylmercury across headwater watersheds. We applied this IEMS to the Coal River Basin (CRB), West Virginia (USA), an 8-digit hydrologic unit watershed, by simulating a network of 97 stream segments using the SWAT watershed model, a watershed mercury loading model, the WASP water quality model, the PiSCES fish community estimation model, a fish habitat suitability model, the BASS fish community and bioaccumulation model, and an ecoservices post-processer. Model application was facilitated by automated data retrieval and model setup and updated model wrappers and interfaces for data transfers between these models from a prior study. This companion study evaluates baseline predictions of ecoservices provided for 1990 – 2010 for the population of streams in the CRB and serves as a foundation for future model development. Published in the journal, Ecological Modeling. Highlights: • Demonstrate a spatially-explicit IEMS for multiple scales. • Design a flexible IEMS for

  12. Modelling dependable systems using hybrid Bayesian networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil, Martin; Tailor, Manesh; Marquez, David; Fenton, Norman; Hearty, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid Bayesian network (BN) is one that incorporates both discrete and continuous nodes. In our extensive applications of BNs for system dependability assessment, the models are invariably hybrid and the need for efficient and accurate computation is paramount. We apply a new iterative algorithm that efficiently combines dynamic discretisation with robust propagation algorithms on junction tree structures to perform inference in hybrid BNs. We illustrate its use in the field of dependability with two example of reliability estimation. Firstly we estimate the reliability of a simple single system and next we implement a hierarchical Bayesian model. In the hierarchical model we compute the reliability of two unknown subsystems from data collected on historically similar subsystems and then input the result into a reliability block model to compute system level reliability. We conclude that dynamic discretisation can be used as an alternative to analytical or Monte Carlo methods with high precision and can be applied to a wide range of dependability problems

  13. Stochastic Modelling Of The Repairable System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzejczak Karol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available All reliability models consisting of random time factors form stochastic processes. In this paper we recall the definitions of the most common point processes which are used for modelling of repairable systems. Particularly this paper presents stochastic processes as examples of reliability systems for the support of the maintenance related decisions. We consider the simplest one-unit system with a negligible repair or replacement time, i.e., the unit is operating and is repaired or replaced at failure, where the time required for repair and replacement is negligible. When the repair or replacement is completed, the unit becomes as good as new and resumes operation. The stochastic modelling of recoverable systems constitutes an excellent method of supporting maintenance related decision-making processes and enables their more rational use.

  14. A system model for water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Colin; Roquier, Bastien; Soutter, Marc; Mermoud, André

    2009-03-01

    Although generally accepted as a necessary step to improve water management and planning, integrated water resources management (IWRM) methodology does not provide a clear definition of what should be integrated. The various water-related issues that IWRM might encompass are well documented in the literature, but they are generally addressed separately. Therefore, water management lacks a holistic, systems-based description, with a special emphasis on the interrelations between issues. This article presents such a system model for water management, including a graphical representation and textual descriptions of the various water issues, their components, and their interactions. This model is seen as an aide-memoire and a generic reference, providing background knowledge helping to elicit actual system definitions, in possible combination with other participatory systems approaches. The applicability of the model is demonstrated through its application to two test case studies.

  15. Intelligent Mechatronic Systems Modeling, Control and Diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Merzouki, Rochdi; Pathak, Pushparaj Mani; Ould Bouamama, Belkacem

    2013-01-01

    Acting as a support resource for practitioners and professionals looking to advance their understanding of complex mechatronic systems, Intelligent Mechatronic Systems explains their design and recent developments from first principles to practical applications. Detailed descriptions of the mathematical models of complex mechatronic systems, developed from fundamental physical relationships, are built on to develop innovative solutions with particular emphasis on physical model-based control strategies. Following a concurrent engineering approach, supported by industrial case studies, and drawing on the practical experience of the authors, Intelligent Mechatronic Systems covers range of topic and includes:  • An explanation of a common graphical tool for integrated design and its uses from modeling and simulation to the control synthesis • Introductions to key concepts such as different means of achieving fault tolerance, robust overwhelming control and force and impedance control • Dedicated chapters ...

  16. Brand Equity Evolution: a System Dynamics Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Crescitelli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges in brand management lies in monitoring brand equity over time. This paper aimsto present a simulation model able to represent this evolution. The model was drawn on brand equity concepts developed by Aaker and Joachimsthaler (2000, using the system dynamics methodology. The use ofcomputational dynamic models aims to create new sources of information able to sensitize academics and managers alike to the dynamic implications of their brand management. As a result, an easily implementable model was generated, capable of executing continuous scenario simulations by surveying casual relations among the variables that explain brand equity. Moreover, the existence of a number of system modeling tools will allow extensive application of the concepts used in this study in practical situations, both in professional and educational settings

  17. Identification models of the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipser, D

    1992-01-01

    It has been widely observed that when artificial neural networks are trained by supervised learning to do computations that also occur in the nervous system, the behavior of the model neurons often closely resembles that of the real neurons involved in the task. It is not immediately clear why this should be the case or what use can be made of models generated by supervised learning. Here, recent developments are reviewed and analysed in an attempt to clarify these issues. This analysis is facilitated by treating supervised learning models of the brain as a special case of system identification, a general and well-studied modeling paradigm. The neural systems identification paradigm provides a systematic way to generate realistic models starting with a high-level description of a hypothesized computation and some architectural and physiological constraints about the area being modeled. There is no inherent limitation to the realism that can be incorporated into identification models. This approach eliminates the need to find neural implementation algorithms by ad hoc means and provides neuroscientists with a convenient way to build models that account for observed data.

  18. Prototype models for the MOIRA computerised system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monte, Luigi [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Hakanson, Lars [Uppsala, Univ. (Sweden). Institute of Earth Sciences; Brittain, John [Oslo, Univ. (Norway). Zoological Museum

    1997-06-01

    The main aim of the present report is to describe selected models and the principles of the Decision Analysis theory that will be applied to develop the model-based computerised system `MOIRA`. A dose model and a model for predicting radiocaesium migration in lakes and the effects of countermeasures to reduce the contamination levels in the components of lacustrine system are described in detail. The principles for developing prototype models for predicting the migration of {sup 90}Sr in lake abiotic and biotic components are discussed. The environmental models described in the report are based on the use of `collective parameters` which due to mutual compensation effects of different phenomena occurring in complex systems, show low variability when the environmental conditions change. Use of such `collective parameters` not only increases the predictive power of the models, but also increases the practical applicability of the model. Among the main results described in the report, the development of an objective hierarchy table for evaluating the effectiveness of a countermeasure when the economic, social and ecological impacts are accounted for, deserves special attention.

  19. Intrinsic Uncertainties in Modeling Complex Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Curtis S; Bramson, Aaron L.; Ames, Arlo L.

    2014-09-01

    Models are built to understand and predict the behaviors of both natural and artificial systems. Because it is always necessary to abstract away aspects of any non-trivial system being modeled, we know models can potentially leave out important, even critical elements. This reality of the modeling enterprise forces us to consider the prospective impacts of those effects completely left out of a model - either intentionally or unconsidered. Insensitivity to new structure is an indication of diminishing returns. In this work, we represent a hypothetical unknown effect on a validated model as a finite perturba- tion whose amplitude is constrained within a control region. We find robustly that without further constraints, no meaningful bounds can be placed on the amplitude of a perturbation outside of the control region. Thus, forecasting into unsampled regions is a very risky proposition. We also present inherent difficulties with proper time discretization of models and representing in- herently discrete quantities. We point out potentially worrisome uncertainties, arising from math- ematical formulation alone, which modelers can inadvertently introduce into models of complex systems. Acknowledgements This work has been funded under early-career LDRD project #170979, entitled "Quantify- ing Confidence in Complex Systems Models Having Structural Uncertainties", which ran from 04/2013 to 09/2014. We wish to express our gratitude to the many researchers at Sandia who con- tributed ideas to this work, as well as feedback on the manuscript. In particular, we would like to mention George Barr, Alexander Outkin, Walt Beyeler, Eric Vugrin, and Laura Swiler for provid- ing invaluable advice and guidance through the course of the project. We would also like to thank Steven Kleban, Amanda Gonzales, Trevor Manzanares, and Sarah Burwell for their assistance in managing project tasks and resources.

  20. Reliability modeling of an engineered barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananda, M.M.A.; Singh, A.K.; Flueck, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Weibull distribution is widely used in reliability literature as a distribution of time to failure, as it allows for both increasing failure rate (IFR) and decreasing failure rate (DFR) models. It has also been used to develop models for an engineered barrier system (EBS), which is known to be one of the key components in a deep geological repository for high level radioactive waste (HLW). The EBS failure time can more realistically be modelled by an IFR distribution, since the failure rate for the EBS is not expected to decrease with time. In this paper, we use an IFR distribution to develop a reliability model for the EBS

  1. Modelling and Analyses of Embedded Systems Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekling, Aske Wiid

    We present the MoVES languages: a language with which embedded systems can be specified at a stage in the development process where an application is identified and should be mapped to an execution platform (potentially multi- core). We give a formal model for MoVES that captures and gives......-based verification is a promising approach for assisting developers of embedded systems. We provide examples of system verifications that, in size and complexity, point in the direction of industrially-interesting systems....... semantics to the elements of specifications in the MoVES language. We show that even for seem- ingly simple systems, the complexity of verifying real-time constraints can be overwhelming - but we give an upper limit to the size of the search-space that needs examining. Furthermore, the formal model exposes...

  2. Multilevel Flow Modeling of Domestic Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Lind, Morten; You, Shi

    2012-01-01

    of complementing this reasoning methodology. Domestic heating systems, as the main resource to meet the thermal requirements of end-users, have different implementations in Europe in order to achieve various degrees of controllability and heating efficiencies. As all the heating systems serve the same basic needs...... i.e. supplying and transferring thermal energy, it is off interest to use MFM to investigate similarities and differences between different implementations. In this paper, three typical domestic European heating systems, which differ from each other in the number of temperature sensors and auxiliary...... components e.g. storage tanks, are modeled using the MFM methodology. Both the goals and functions of material and energy processes and the control functions of the heating systems are represented in the MFM models. It is found that varying the physical system setup results in only little differences among...

  3. Modelling supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.; Bindner, H.; Lundsager, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Jannerup, O. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Automation, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Supervisory controllers are important to achieve optimal operation of hybrid power systems. The performance and economics of such systems depend mainly on the control strategy for switching on/off components. The modular concept described in this paper is an attempt to design standard supervisory controllers that could be used in different applications, such as village power and telecommunication applications. This paper presents some basic aspects of modelling and design of modular supervisory controllers using the object-oriented modelling technique. The functional abstraction hierarchy technique is used to formulate the control requirements and identify the functions of the control system. The modular algorithm is generic and flexible enough to be used with any system configuration and several goals (different applications). The modularity includes accepting modification of system configuration and goals during operation with minor or no changes in the supervisory controller. (au)

  4. Mathematical Modeling of Hybrid Electrical Engineering Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large class of systems that have found application in various industries and households, electrified transportation facilities and energy sector has been classified as electrical engineering systems. Their characteristic feature is a combination of continuous and discontinuous modes of operation, which is reflected in the appearance of a relatively new term “hybrid systems”. A wide class of hybrid systems is pulsed DC converters operating in a pulse width modulation, which are non-linear systems with variable structure. Using various methods for linearization it is possible to obtain linear mathematical models that rather accurately simulate behavior of such systems. However, the presence in the mathematical models of exponential nonlinearities creates considerable difficulties in the implementation of digital hardware. The solution can be found while using an approximation of exponential functions by polynomials of the first order, that, however, violates the rigor accordance of the analytical model with characteristics of a real object. There are two practical approaches to synthesize algorithms for control of hybrid systems. The first approach is based on the representation of the whole system by a discrete model which is described by difference equations that makes it possible to synthesize discrete algorithms. The second approach is based on description of the system by differential equations. The equations describe synthesis of continuous algorithms and their further implementation in a digital computer included in the control loop system. The paper considers modeling of a hybrid electrical engineering system using differential equations. Neglecting the pulse duration, it has been proposed to describe behavior of vector components in phase coordinates of the hybrid system by stochastic differential equations containing generally non-linear differentiable random functions. A stochastic vector-matrix equation describing dynamics of the

  5. Um modelo para orientação familial em oligofrenias A model for familial orientation on mental retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguinaldo Gonçalves

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available Após revisão de teorias e evidências sobre a etiologia das oligofrenias, são apresentados casos clínicos de oligofrênicos atendidos em serviço de Genética Médica, os quais servem de substrato para a proposição de um modelo de Aconselhamento Genético, que os classifica em ambiental, gênica, cromossômica, familial e idiopática.Theories and evidences on etiology of mental retardation are presented. Five cases of mental retardation from a Clinical Genetics Service are reported, as basis for an etiological model on mental retardation, quite operational in genetic counseling and familial orientation.

  6. Oxygen production System Models for Lunar ISRU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo

    2007-01-01

    In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) seeks to make human space exploration feasible; by using available resources from a planet or the moon to produce consumables, parts, and structures that otherwise would be brought from Earth. Producing these in situ reduces the mass of such that must be launched and doing so allows more payload mass' for each mission. The production of oxygen from lunar regolith, for life support and propellant, is one of the tasks being studied under ISRU. NASA is currently funding three processes that have shown technical merit for the production of oxygen from regolith: Molten Salt Electrolysis, Hydrogen Reduction of Ilmenite, and Carbothermal Reduction. The ISRU program is currently developing system models of, the , abovementioned processes to: (1) help NASA in the evaluation process to select the most cost-effective and efficient process for further prototype development, (2) identify key parameters, (3) optimize the oxygen production process, (4) provide estimates on energy and power requirements, mass and volume.of the system, oxygen production rate, mass of regolith required, mass of consumables, and other important parameters, and (5) integrate into the overall end-to-end ISRU system model, which could be integrated with mission architecture models. The oxygen production system model is divided into modules that represent unit operations (e.g., reactor, water electrolyzer, heat exchanger). Each module is modeled theoretically using Excel and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), and will be validated using experimental data from on-going laboratory work. This modularity (plug-n-play) feature of each unit operation allows the use of the same model on different oxygen production systems simulations resulting in comparable results. In this presentation, preliminary results for mass, power, volume will be presented along with brief description of the oxygen production system model.

  7. Sistema de informações para acompanhamento, controle e auditoria em saúde pública Information system for tracking, control and audit in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna S. F. Cerchiari

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta alternativas para a gestão dos recursos destinados à saúde pública, por meio de um sistema de informações para os programas de diabetes e hipertensão e resulta do interesse em analisar a efetividade dos programas destinados aos portadores de doenças crônico-degenerativas. As questões analisadas foram focadas em fatores que traduzem a efetividade das ações desenvolvidas, isto é, a capacidade de gerar resultados a partir dos investimentos feitos. Isso ocorreu por meio de um modelo proposto para análise do resultado, mediante o estabelecimento de um indicador que consolidou três frentes de resultado, o número de óbitos, internações e atendimentos ambulatoriais. O índice estabelecido para análise da efetividade derivou em um indicador de custos. Como percurso metodológico foi aplicado o modelo teórico de planejamento e controle de produção (PCP elaborado por Erdmann (1998, que considera sete etapas para a consolidação de informações fragmentadas em um sistema.This article presents alternatives to the management of resources destined for public health through an information system for diabetes and hypertension programs. It intends to analyze the effectiveness of the programs focused on chronic and degenerative disease porters. The questions analyzed were centered on factors that translated the developed actions effectiveness, that is, the capacity to get results through investments you have made. We used a model to investigate the results, intervening in the establishment of an indicator that consolidated three fronts of results, the number of deaths, hospitalizations and ambulatory appointments. The established index for effectiveness analysis resulted in a cost indicator. As a methodology we used a theoretical model of Production Control and Plan (PCP, elaborated by Erdmann (1998, which considered seven stages for a consolidation of a fragmented information system.

  8. Modeling wave trains in coastal regions; Modelagem de trens de ondas em regioes costeiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, Ana M.S.; Nachbin, A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica Pura e Aplicada (IMPA)

    2008-07-01

    Our goal is to present a model that captures how the sea bottom topography or submarine structures can influence the evolution of water wave trains over a varying topography at intermediate depth. To obtain such a model, we consider Euler equations for inviscid fluids and we perform the asymptotic simplification of the nonlinear potential theory equations together with the method of multiple scales to get a reduced model. Such a model is called reduced because it simplifies nonlinear potential theory from two spatial dimensions to one dimension along the free boundary. We consider a varying topography at the bottom and/or the presence of submarine structures together with a free boundary at the surface of the sea. For modeling such a geometry we transform our Cartesian system into curvilinear coordinates through a conformal mapping that maps the original physical domain into a simpler domain (a strip). This modeling strategy allows us to capture and understand the dynamics of water waves in regions where offshore exploration activity already exists or not. Through an efficient model we can get important information regarding the dynamics of waves in coastal regions and also questions on the viability of oil and gas recovery in these regions. (author)

  9. Qualitative models for space system engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbus, Kenneth D.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this project were: (1) to investigate the implications of qualitative modeling techniques for problems arising in the monitoring, diagnosis, and design of Space Station subsystems and procedures; (2) to identify the issues involved in using qualitative models to enhance and automate engineering functions. These issues include representing operational criteria, fault models, alternate ontologies, and modeling continuous signals at a functional level of description; and (3) to develop a prototype collection of qualitative models for fluid and thermal systems commonly found in Space Station subsystems. Potential applications of qualitative modeling to space-systems engineering, including the notion of intelligent computer-aided engineering are summarized. Emphasis is given to determining which systems of the proposed Space Station provide the most leverage for study, given the current state of the art. Progress on using qualitative models, including development of the molecular collection ontology for reasoning about fluids, the interaction of qualitative and quantitative knowledge in analyzing thermodynamic cycles, and an experiment on building a natural language interface to qualitative reasoning is reported. Finally, some recommendations are made for future research.

  10. LOKI: a practical modelling and support system for telepresence systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, M.; Bridgewater, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    The use of Virtual Reality headset systems, in combination with a tele-presence ''head'' is discussed. The system is attached to a Unimate Puma robot arm and manipulated by the operator, using information gathered by the camera and auditory system, displayed via the Virtual Reality helmet. Operator commands are cross checked by using a modelling system, held on the Virtual Reality system. This system was found to supply a good sense of spacial awareness of the robot's domain. Actions which might move the robot outside its suitable operating envelope, or create a collision with the environment, were successfully blocked. This approach is seen as useful within the area of tele-operation. (author)

  11. Isolated Richter's syndrome in central nervous system: case report Sindrome de Richter isolada em sistema nervoso central: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene S.R. Resende

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse large cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma associated with chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL, or Richter's syndrome, is a rare and serious complication. Isolated Richter's syndrome in the central nervous system is very rare; only 12 cases have been reported. We describe a 74-year-old patient with diffuse large cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma in the right frontal region with the appearance of multiform glioblastoma.Linfoma não Hodgkin difuso de grandes células em paciente portador de leucemia linfóide crônica (LLC, ou síndrome de Richter, é complicação rara e grave nesta leucemia. Síndrome de Richter isolada no sistema nervoso central é muito rara, tendo sido encontrados apenas 12 casos descritos. Descrevemos paciente de 74 anos, que apresentou linfoma não Hodgkin difuso de grandes células em região frontal direita, simulando glioblastoma multiforme.

  12. Modeling and Control of Underwater Robotic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schjoelberg, I:

    1996-12-31

    This doctoral thesis describes modeling and control of underwater vehicle-manipulator systems. The thesis also presents a model and a control scheme for a system consisting of a surface vessel connected to an underwater robotic system by means of a slender marine structure. The equations of motion of the underwater vehicle and manipulator are described and the system kinematics and properties presented. Feedback linearization technique is applied to the system and evaluated through a simulation study. Passivity-based controllers for vehicle and manipulator control are presented. Stability of the closed loop system is proved and simulation results are given. The equation of motion for lateral motion of a cable/riser system connected to a surface vessel at the top end and to a thruster at the bottom end is described and stability analysis and simulations are presented. The equations of motion in 3 degrees of freedom of the cable/riser, surface vessel and robotic system are given. Stability analysis of the total system with PD-controllers is presented. 47 refs., 32 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Modeling and simulation of blood collection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Edgar; Xie, Xiaolan; Augusto, Vincent; Garraud, Olivier

    2012-03-01

    This paper addresses the modeling and simulation of blood collection systems in France for both fixed site and mobile blood collection with walk in whole blood donors and scheduled plasma and platelet donors. Petri net models are first proposed to precisely describe different blood collection processes, donor behaviors, their material/human resource requirements and relevant regulations. Petri net models are then enriched with quantitative modeling of donor arrivals, donor behaviors, activity times and resource capacity. Relevant performance indicators are defined. The resulting simulation models can be straightforwardly implemented with any simulation language. Numerical experiments are performed to show how the simulation models can be used to select, for different walk in donor arrival patterns, appropriate human resource planning and donor appointment strategies.

  14. Modeling and Simulation Tools: From Systems Biology to Systems Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Brett G; Swat, Maciej J; Moné, Martijn J

    2016-01-01

    Modeling is an integral component of modern biology. In this chapter we look into the role of the model, as it pertains to Systems Medicine, and the software that is required to instantiate and run it. We do this by comparing the development, implementation, and characteristics of tools that have been developed to work with two divergent methodologies: Systems Biology and Pharmacometrics. From the Systems Biology perspective we consider the concept of "Software as a Medical Device" and what this may imply for the migration of research-oriented, simulation software into the domain of human health.In our second perspective, we see how in practice hundreds of computational tools already accompany drug discovery and development at every stage of the process. Standardized exchange formats are required to streamline the model exchange between tools, which would minimize translation errors and reduce the required time. With the emergence, almost 15 years ago, of the SBML standard, a large part of the domain of interest is already covered and models can be shared and passed from software to software without recoding them. Until recently the last stage of the process, the pharmacometric analysis used in clinical studies carried out on subject populations, lacked such an exchange medium. We describe a new emerging exchange format in Pharmacometrics which covers the non-linear mixed effects models, the standard statistical model type used in this area. By interfacing these two formats the entire domain can be covered by complementary standards and subsequently the according tools.

  15. Functional Modeling for Monitoring of Robotic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Haiyan; Bateman, Rikke R.; Zhang, Xinxin

    2018-01-01

    supervisors or cooperators. In this work, we focus on developing a modeling framework for monitoring robotic system based on means-end analysis and the concept of action phases from action theory. A circular cascaded action phase structure is proposed for building the model of cyclical robotic events......With the expansion of robotic applications in the industrial domain, it is important that the robots can execute their tasks in a safe and reliable way. A monitoring system can be implemented to ensure the detection of abnormal situations of the robots and report the abnormality to their human....... This functional model provide a formal way of decompose robotic tasks and analyze each level of conditions for an action to be executed successfully. It can be used for monitoring robotic systems by checking the preconditions in the action phases and identifying the failure modes. The proposed method...

  16. Modelling and Analysing Socio-Technical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Nielson, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Modern organisations are complex, socio-technical systems consisting of a mixture of physical infrastructure, human actors, policies and processes. An in-creasing number of attacks on these organisations exploits vulnerabilities on all different levels, for example combining a malware attack...... with social engineering. Due to this combination of attack steps on technical and social levels, risk assessment in socio-technical systems is complex. Therefore, established risk assessment methods often abstract away the internal structure of an organisation and ignore human factors when modelling...... and assessing attacks. In our work we model all relevant levels of socio-technical systems, and propose evaluation techniques for analysing the security properties of the model. Our approach simplifies the identification of possible attacks and provides qualified assessment and ranking of attacks based...

  17. The Red Sea Modeling and Forecasting System

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Despite its importance for a variety of socio-economical and political reasons and the presence of extensive coral reef gardens along its shores, the Red Sea remains one of the most under-studied large marine physical and biological systems in the global ocean. This contribution will present our efforts to build advanced modeling and forecasting capabilities for the Red Sea, which is part of the newly established Saudi ARAMCO Marine Environmental Research Center at KAUST (SAMERCK). Our Red Sea modeling system compromises both regional and nested costal MIT general circulation models (MITgcm) with resolutions varying between 8 km and 250 m to simulate the general circulation and mesoscale dynamics at various spatial scales, a 10-km resolution Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the atmospheric conditions, a 4-km resolution European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) to simulate the Red Sea ecosystem, and a 1-km resolution WAVEWATCH-III model to simulate the wind driven surface waves conditions. We have also implemented an oil spill model, and a probabilistic dispersion and larval connectivity modeling system (CMS) based on a stochastic Lagrangian framework and incorporating biological attributes. We are using the models outputs together with available observational data to study all aspects of the Red Sea circulations. Advanced monitoring capabilities are being deployed in the Red Sea as part of the SAMERCK, comprising multiple gliders equipped with hydrographical and biological sensors, high frequency (HF) surface current/wave mapping, buoys/ moorings, etc, complementing the available satellite ocean and atmospheric observations and Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The Red Sea models have also been equipped with advanced data assimilation capabilities. Fully parallel ensemble-based Kalman filtering (EnKF) algorithms have been implemented with the MITgcm and ERSEM for assimilating all available multivariate satellite and in-situ data sets. We

  18. Spatial Database Modeling for Indoor Navigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlib, Dariusz; Gnat, Miłosz

    2013-12-01

    For many years, cartographers are involved in designing GIS and navigation systems. Most GIS applications use the outdoor data. Increasingly, similar applications are used inside buildings. Therefore it is important to find the proper model of indoor spatial database. The development of indoor navigation systems should utilize advanced teleinformation, geoinformatics, geodetic and cartographical knowledge. The authors present the fundamental requirements for the indoor data model for navigation purposes. Presenting some of the solutions adopted in the world they emphasize that navigation applications require specific data to present the navigation routes in the right way. There is presented original solution for indoor data model created by authors on the basis of BISDM model. Its purpose is to expand the opportunities for use in indoor navigation.

  19. Integrated Model of Bioenergy and Agriculture System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurjonsson, Hafthor Ægir; Elmegaard, Brian; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2015-01-01

    approach that builds on Life Cycle Inventory and carries out Life Cycle Impact Assessment for a con- sequential Life Cycle Assessment on integrated bioenergy and agriculture systems. The model framework is built in Python which connects various freely available soft- ware that handle different aspects......Due to increased burden on the environment caused by human activities, focus on industrial ecology designs are gaining more attention. In that perspective an environ- mentally effective integration of bionergy and agriculture systems has significant potential. This work introduces a modeling...... of the overall model. C- TOOL and Yasso07 are used in the carbon balance of agri- culture, Dynamic Network Analysis is used for the energy simulation and Brightway2 is used to build a Life Cycle Inventory compatible database and processes it for vari- ous impacts assessment methods. The model is success- fully...

  20. Infectious disease modeling a hybrid system approach

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xinzhi

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents infectious diseases modeled mathematically, taking seasonality and changes in population behavior into account, using a switched and hybrid systems framework. The scope of coverage includes background on mathematical epidemiology, including classical formulations and results; a motivation for seasonal effects and changes in population behavior, an investigation into term-time forced epidemic models with switching parameters, and a detailed account of several different control strategies. The main goal is to study these models theoretically and to establish conditions under which eradication or persistence of the disease is guaranteed. In doing so, the long-term behavior of the models is determined through mathematical techniques from switched systems theory. Numerical simulations are also given to augment and illustrate the theoretical results and to help study the efficacy of the control schemes.

  1. Executable UML Modeling For Automotive Embedded Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, Sebastien

    2000-01-01

    Engineers are more and more faced to the hard problem of sophisticated real-time System whereas time to market becomes always smaller. Object oriented modeling supported by UML standard brings effective solutions to such problems. However the possibility to specify real-time aspects of an application are not yet fully satisfactory Indeed, existing industrial proposals supply good answers to concurrency specification problem but they are yet limited regarding to real-time quantitative properties specification of an application. This work aims to construct a complete and consistent UML methodology based on a profile dedicated to automotive embedded Systems modeling and prototyping. This profile contains ail needed extensions to express easily the real-time quantitative properties of an application. Moreover, thanks to the formalization of UML protocol state machines, real-time concepts have been well-integrated in the object oriented paradigm. The main result of this deep integration is that a user is now able to model real-time Systems through the classical object oriented view i.e. without needing any specific knowing in real-time area. In order to answer to an industrial requirement, Systems prototyping (key point for car industry) the ACCORD/UML approach allows also to build executable models of an application. For that purpose, the method supplies a set of rules allow.ng to remove UML ambiguous semantics points, to complete semantics variation points and then to obtain a complete and coherent global model of an application being executable. The work of UML extension and its using formalization realized all along this thesis supplied also a complete and non-ambiguous modeling framework for automotive electronics Systems development. This is also a base particularly well-suited to tackle other facets of the Systems development as automatic and optimized code generation, validation, simulation or tests. (author) [fr

  2. Modelling carbon emissions in electric systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, E.T.; Yang, Q.; Forbes, A.B.; Wright, P.; Livina, V.N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We model carbon emissions in electric systems. • We estimate emissions in generated and consumed energy with UK carbon factors. • We model demand profiles with novel function based on hyperbolic tangents. • We study datasets of UK Elexon database, Brunel PV system and Irish SmartGrid. • We apply Ensemble Kalman Filter to forecast energy data in these case studies. - Abstract: We model energy consumption of network electricity and compute Carbon emissions (CE) based on obtained energy data. We review various models of electricity consumption and propose an adaptive seasonal model based on the Hyperbolic tangent function (HTF). We incorporate HTF to define seasonal and daily trends of electricity demand. We then build a stochastic model that combines the trends and white noise component and the resulting simulations are estimated using Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), which provides ensemble simulations of groups of electricity consumers; similarly, we estimate carbon emissions from electricity generators. Three case studies of electricity generation and consumption are modelled: Brunel University photovoltaic generation data, Elexon national electricity generation data (various fuel types) and Irish smart grid data, with ensemble estimations by EnKF and computation of carbon emissions. We show the flexibility of HTF-based functions for modelling realistic cycles of energy consumption, the efficiency of EnKF in ensemble estimation of energy consumption and generation, and report the obtained estimates of the carbon emissions in the considered case studies

  3. A predictive model of the effect of environmental factors on the occurrence of otters (<em>Lutra lutraem> L. in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildikó Kemenes

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A survey of the distribution of otters (<em>Lutra lutraem> L. in Hungary revealed that this species is common in most parts of the country where there appear to be suitable aquatic habitats. However, there were a large number of apparently "good" habitats where no otters were found. On the other hand, in some places where, based on a qualitative assessment, otters should not have been present, we still found signs of them. The only strictly and consistently limiting factor was heavy chemical pollution of the water which could not be assayed during the survey but was analysed based on data provided by the water authorities. These observations led us to employ a quantitative method which takes into account 3 scalable and 5 non-scalable variables of the environment and their relationships which might influence the occurrence of otters. The technique was based on a non-parametric multiple regression method specifically developed for use on PCs. This so called logistic regression model is useful for investigating the relationships between a binary dependent variable and a set of categorical independent variables. We recorded the presence (1 or absence (0 of signs of otters as well as the water depth, steepness of the bank, density of the bank vegetation and the presence or absence of various disturbance factors, such as agricultural use of the water bank, obvious signs of pollution of the water, etc., at 369 sites in Hungary. The three former environmental variables were scaled, whereas the disturbance factors were each assigned a value of either 0 or 1 (0 = absent, 1 = present. The analysis has shown that this method can be used to characterise particular combinations of factors at which otters were most likely to occur and even predictions can be made on the probability of finding otters at particular places with a known combination of these environmental factors. Besides its theoretical importance, this method is a very

  4. Fujisaki Model Based Intonation Modeling for Korean TTS System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeongchang; Lee, Jinsik; Lee, Gary Geunbae

    One of the enduring problems in developing high-quality TTS (text-to-speech) system is pitch contour generation. Considering language specific knowledge, an adjusted Fujisaki model for Korean TTS system is introduced along with refined machine learning features. The results of quantitative and qualitative evaluations show the validity of our system: the accuracy of the phrase command prediction is 0.8928; the correlations of the predicted amplitudes of a phrase command and an accent command are 0.6644 and 0.6002, respectively; our method achieved the level of "fair" naturalness (3.6) in a MOS scale for generated F0 curves.

  5. Complex Systems and Self-organization Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Bertelle, Cyrille; Kadri-Dahmani, Hakima

    2009-01-01

    The concern of this book is the use of emergent computing and self-organization modelling within various applications of complex systems. The authors focus their attention both on the innovative concepts and implementations in order to model self-organizations, but also on the relevant applicative domains in which they can be used efficiently. This book is the outcome of a workshop meeting within ESM 2006 (Eurosis), held in Toulouse, France in October 2006.

  6. Agent-based models of cellular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannata, Nicola; Corradini, Flavio; Merelli, Emanuela; Tesei, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Software agents are particularly suitable for engineering models and simulations of cellular systems. In a very natural and intuitive manner, individual software components are therein delegated to reproduce "in silico" the behavior of individual components of alive systems at a given level of resolution. Individuals' actions and interactions among individuals allow complex collective behavior to emerge. In this chapter we first introduce the readers to software agents and multi-agent systems, reviewing the evolution of agent-based modeling of biomolecular systems in the last decade. We then describe the main tools, platforms, and methodologies available for programming societies of agents, possibly profiting also of toolkits that do not require advanced programming skills.

  7. Modeling the Dynamic Digestive System Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Estes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available “Modeling the Dynamic Digestive System Microbiome” is a hands-on activity designed to demonstrate the dynamics of microbiome ecology using dried pasta and beans to model disturbance events in the human digestive system microbiome. This exercise demonstrates how microbiome diversity is influenced by: 1 niche availability and habitat space and 2 a major disturbance event, such as antibiotic use. Students use a pictorial key to examine prepared models of digestive system microbiomes to determine what the person with the microbiome “ate.” Students then model the effect of taking antibiotics by removing certain “antibiotic sensitive” pasta. Finally, they add in “environmental microbes” or “native microbes” to recolonize the digestive system, determine how resilient their model microbome community is to disturbance, and discuss the implications. Throughout the exercise, students discuss differences in the habitat space available and microbiome community diversity. This exercise can be modified to discuss changes in the microbiome due to diet shifts and the emergence of antibiotic resistance in more depth.

  8. Model-based testing for embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zander, Justyna; Mosterman, Pieter J

    2011-01-01

    What the experts have to say about Model-Based Testing for Embedded Systems: "This book is exactly what is needed at the exact right time in this fast-growing area. From its beginnings over 10 years ago of deriving tests from UML statecharts, model-based testing has matured into a topic with both breadth and depth. Testing embedded systems is a natural application of MBT, and this book hits the nail exactly on the head. Numerous topics are presented clearly, thoroughly, and concisely in this cutting-edge book. The authors are world-class leading experts in this area and teach us well-used

  9. The PQUAL Open System Quality Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian IONITA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality assessment of open business enterprise systems is very important because those plat-forms play a central role in the organizations that implement them. The current paper proposes a new easily applicable software quality model called PQUAL that evaluates the quality of such systems. The quality characteristics are identified and analyzed using the ISO/IEC 9126 international standard as a starting point. The paper develops metrics to measure the quality level for the characteristics. The PQUAL model is applied to compare the quality of the DocuMentor and YAWL platforms.

  10. Business Models for Power System Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boscan, Luis; Poudineh, Rahmatallah

    2016-01-01

    As intermittent, renewable resources gain more share in the generation mix, the need for power system flexibility increases more than ever. Parallel to this, technological change and the emergence of new players bringing about innovative solutions are boosting the development of flexibility......-enabling business models, adding new activities to the existing supply chain. Ranging from technological to market-based innovation, this chapter reviews the latest developments in these emerging models. The main conclusion is that when flexibility becomes scarce in the system, new players with their innovative...

  11. Experimental model of gastroesophageal reflux in rats Modelo experimental de refluxo gastroesofágico em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Vieira Gaia Filho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop an experimental model of gastroesophageal reflux in rats. METHODS: Sixty Wistar rats underwent surgery and were assigned to one of the three groups of twenty animals each. The animals in group A underwent total esophageal myectomy and, in group (B, underwent partial myectomy. The third group was the control group (C. A contrast radiographic study of the esophagus was performed to evaluate gastroesophageal reflux. The anatomopathological study of the esophagus was used to evaluate esophagitis. RESULTS: During the 30-day postoperative follow-up, 14 animals in group A presented with reflux of barium in the esophagus. The presence of barium in the esophagus was observed in 7 animals in group B and in 2 animals in the control group. The result of the histopathology examination was controversial. A marked weight loss in the rats undergoing total myectomy was observed, however there was no significant statistical difference. CONCLUSION: Total myectomy in the lower third of the esophagus caused gastroesophageal reflux in the majority of the animals.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um modelo experimental de refluxo gastroesofágico em ratos. MÉTODOS: Sessenta ratos, Wistar, foram operados e distribuídos em três grupos de vinte animais. Os animais foram submetidos a miectomia total do esôfago em um grupo(A, e em outro grupo foram submetidos a miectomia parcial(B. O terceiro grupo foi o grupo controle(C. Para avaliar o refluxo gastroesofágico realizou-se o estudo radiológico contrastado do esôfago. O estudo anátomo-patológico do esôfago foi utilizado para avaliar esofagite. RESULTADOS: Durante os 30 dias de pós-operatório, 14 animais do grupo A apresentaram refluxo de Bário no esôfago. Em 07 animais do grupo B e em 02 do grupo controle, foram observados a presença de Bário no esôfago. O resultado do histopatológico foi controverso. Observou-se perda ponderal importante nos ratos submetidos a miectomia total, porém não existiu

  12. Understanding and Modeling Teams As Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie C. Gorman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available By its very nature, much of teamwork is distributed across, and not stored within, interdependent people working toward a common goal. In this light, we advocate a systems perspective on teamwork that is based on general coordination principles that are not limited to cognitive, motor, and physiological levels of explanation within the individual. In this article, we present a framework for understanding and modeling teams as dynamical systems and review our empirical findings on teams as dynamical systems. We proceed by (a considering the question of why study teams as dynamical systems, (b considering the meaning of dynamical systems concepts (attractors; perturbation; synchronization; fractals in the context of teams, (c describe empirical studies of team coordination dynamics at the perceptual-motor, cognitive-behavioral, and cognitive-neurophysiological levels of analysis, and (d consider the theoretical and practical implications of this approach, including new kinds of explanations of human performance and real-time analysis and performance modeling. Throughout our discussion of the topics we consider how to describe teamwork using equations and/or modeling techniques that describe the dynamics. Finally, we consider what dynamical equations and models do and do not tell us about human performance in teams and suggest future research directions in this area.

  13. A multiscale modeling approach for biomolecular systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowling, Alan, E-mail: bowling@uta.edu; Haghshenas-Jaryani, Mahdi, E-mail: mahdi.haghshenasjaryani@mavs.uta.edu [The University of Texas at Arlington, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (United States)

    2015-04-15

    This paper presents a new multiscale molecular dynamic model for investigating the effects of external interactions, such as contact and impact, during stepping and docking of motor proteins and other biomolecular systems. The model retains the mass properties ensuring that the result satisfies Newton’s second law. This idea is presented using a simple particle model to facilitate discussion of the rigid body model; however, the particle model does provide insights into particle dynamics at the nanoscale. The resulting three-dimensional model predicts a significant decrease in the effect of the random forces associated with Brownian motion. This conclusion runs contrary to the widely accepted notion that the motor protein’s movements are primarily the result of thermal effects. This work focuses on the mechanical aspects of protein locomotion; the effect ATP hydrolysis is estimated as internal forces acting on the mechanical model. In addition, the proposed model can be numerically integrated in a reasonable amount of time. Herein, the differences between the motion predicted by the old and new modeling approaches are compared using a simplified model of myosin V.

  14. Energy Systems Modelling Research and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Alberg Østergaard, Poul

    2015-01-01

    This editorial introduces the seventh volume of the International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management. The volume presents part of the outcome of the project Energy Systems Modelling Research and Analysis (ENSYMORA) funded by the Danish Innovation Fund. The project carried out...... by 11 university and industry partners has improved the basis for decision-making within energy planning and energy scenario making by providing new and improved tools and methods for energy systems analyses....

  15. Automated Qualitative Modeling of Dynamic Physical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Resnick, Naomi Ribner, Ruth Schonfeld, Re- becca Simmons, Cindy Wible, and especially David Clemens, Nomi Harris, Michele Popper , Karen Sarachik, and...describe a part of a system by using a component name, such as "mo- tor." MM accepts both geometric and component descriptions, and allows t, e two...not a scientific discovery program along the lines of, say, BACON [201, which could also be said to be constructing models of systems. Thus the first

  16. Drinking Water Temperature Modelling in Domestic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Moerman, A.; Blokker, M.; Vreeburg, J.; van der Hoek, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Domestic water supply systems are the final stage of the transport process to deliver potable water to the customers’ tap. Under the influence of temperature, residence time and pipe materials the drinking water quality can change while the water passes the domestic drinking water system. According to the Dutch Drinking Water Act the drinking water temperature may not exceed the 25 °C threshold at point-of-use level. This paper provides a mathematical approach to model the heating of drinking...

  17. Improvements in continuum modeling for biomolecular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiao; Ben-Zhuo, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Modeling of biomolecular systems plays an essential role in understanding biological processes, such as ionic flow across channels, protein modification or interaction, and cell signaling. The continuum model described by the Poisson- Boltzmann (PB)/Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations has made great contributions towards simulation of these processes. However, the model has shortcomings in its commonly used form and cannot capture (or cannot accurately capture) some important physical properties of the biological systems. Considerable efforts have been made to improve the continuum model to account for discrete particle interactions and to make progress in numerical methods to provide accurate and efficient simulations. This review will summarize recent main improvements in continuum modeling for biomolecular systems, with focus on the size-modified models, the coupling of the classical density functional theory and the PNP equations, the coupling of polar and nonpolar interactions, and numerical progress. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91230106) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences Program for Cross & Cooperative Team of the Science & Technology Innovation.

  18. System of systems dependability – Theoretical models and applications examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukowski, L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to generalise the concept of "dependability" in a way, that could be applied to all types of systems, especially the system of systems (SoS), operating under both normal and abnormal work conditions. In order to quantitatively assess the dependability we applied service continuity oriented approach. This approach is based on the methodology of service engineering and is closely related to the idea of resilient enterprise as well as to the concept of disruption-tolerant operation. On this basis a framework for evaluation of SoS dependability has been developed in a static as well as dynamic approach. The static model is created as a fuzzy logic-oriented advisory expert system and can be particularly useful at the design stage of SoS. The dynamic model is based on the risk oriented approach, and can be useful both at the design stage and for management of SoS. The integrated model of dependability can also form the basis for a new definition of the dependability engineering, namely as a superior discipline to reliability engineering, safety engineering, security engineering, resilience engineering and risk engineering. - Highlights: • A framework for evaluation of system of systems dependability is presented. • The model is based on the service continuity concept and consists of two parts. • The static part can be created as a fuzzy logic-oriented advisory expert system. • The dynamic, risk oriented part, is related to the concept of throughput chain. • A new definition of dependability engineering is proposed.

  19. Modeling leaks from liquid hydrogen storage systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, William Stanley, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This report documents a series of models for describing intended and unintended discharges from liquid hydrogen storage systems. Typically these systems store hydrogen in the saturated state at approximately five to ten atmospheres. Some of models discussed here are equilibrium-based models that make use of the NIST thermodynamic models to specify the states of multiphase hydrogen and air-hydrogen mixtures. Two types of discharges are considered: slow leaks where hydrogen enters the ambient at atmospheric pressure and fast leaks where the hydrogen flow is usually choked and expands into the ambient through an underexpanded jet. In order to avoid the complexities of supersonic flow, a single Mach disk model is proposed for fast leaks that are choked. The velocity and state of hydrogen downstream of the Mach disk leads to a more tractable subsonic boundary condition. However, the hydrogen temperature exiting all leaks (fast or slow, from saturated liquid or saturated vapor) is approximately 20.4 K. At these temperatures, any entrained air would likely condense or even freeze leading to an air-hydrogen mixture that cannot be characterized by the REFPROP subroutines. For this reason a plug flow entrainment model is proposed to treat a short zone of initial entrainment and heating. The model predicts the quantity of entrained air required to bring the air-hydrogen mixture to a temperature of approximately 65 K at one atmosphere. At this temperature the mixture can be treated as a mixture of ideal gases and is much more amenable to modeling with Gaussian entrainment models and CFD codes. A Gaussian entrainment model is formulated to predict the trajectory and properties of a cold hydrogen jet leaking into ambient air. The model shows that similarity between two jets depends on the densimetric Froude number, density ratio and initial hydrogen concentration.

  20. Características da assistência ao trabalho de parto e parto em três modelos de atenção no SUS, no Município de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil Characteristics of labor and delivery care in three healthcare models within the Unified National Health System in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Emilie Vogt

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudo transversal com 831 gestantes, de risco habitual, sobre o manejo do trabalho de parto num Centro de Parto Normal (CPN, num hospital vencedor do título "Galba de Araújo" (HG e numa maternidade com modelo assistencial prevalente (HP. O uso da ocitocina no CPN foi de 27,9%, no HG 59,5% e no HP 40,1%, enquanto a amniotomia foi realizada em 67,6%, 73,6% e 82,2% das mulheres, respectivamente. A realização da episiotomia foi menor nas modalidades com incorporação de práticas humanizadas: 7,2% no CPN e 14,8% no HG versus 54,9% no HP. A prática de oferta liberal no HG resultou numa taxa de analgesia superior (54,4% à do HP (7,7%. O percentual de internação dos recém-nascidos e o de parto a fórceps foram mais altas no HP, mas não houve diferenças para o índice de Apgar e para a taxa de cesárea. Os resultados sugerem resistência ao uso seletivo de intervenções em todos os modelos assistenciais, embora favoreçam o CPN como estratégia no controle das intervenções durante o trabalho de parto e parto nas gestantes de risco habitual sem prejuízos para as mulheres e os recém-nascidos.This cross-sectional study of 831 low-risk pregnancies compared the management of labor and delivery in a birthing center, a hospital that had previously won the "Galba de Araújo" Award (for excellence in obstetric and neonatal care, and a standard-protocol maternity facility. The rates for use of ocytocin during labor were 27.9%, 59.5%, and 40.1%, while amniotomy was performed in 67.6%, 73.6%, and 82.2% of the women, respectively. Episiotomy rates were lower in the first two facilities, which have adopted patient-centered obstetric practices (7.2% at the birthing center and 14.8% at the award-winning hospital as compared to 54.9% at the standard maternity facility. The liberal offer of epidural anesthesia at the awarding-winning hospital resulted in a higher anesthesia rate (54.4% as compared to the standard facility (7.7%. Forceps delivery and

  1. Transforming Graphical System Models To Graphical Attack Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof; Kammüller, Florian; Mauw, S.; Kordy, B.

    2015-01-01

    Manually identifying possible attacks on an organisation is a complex undertaking; many different factors must be considered, and the resulting attack scenarios can be complex and hard to maintain as the organisation changes. System models provide a systematic representation of organisations that

  2. Guideliness for system modeling: fault tree [analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Hwan; Yang, Joon Eon; Kang, Dae Il; Hwang, Mee Jeong

    2004-07-01

    This document, the guidelines for system modeling related to Fault Tree Analysis(FTA), is intended to provide the guidelines with the analyzer to construct the fault trees in the level of the capability category II of ASME PRA standard. Especially, they are to provide the essential and basic guidelines and the related contents to be used in support of revising the Ulchin 3 and 4 PSA model for risk monitor within the capability category II of ASME PRA standard. Normally the main objective of system analysis is to assess the reliability of system modeled by Event Tree Analysis (ETA). A variety of analytical techniques can be used for the system analysis, however, FTA method is used in this procedures guide. FTA is the method used for representing the failure logic of plant systems deductively using AND, OR or NOT gates. The fault tree should reflect all possible failure modes that may contribute to the system unavailability. This should include contributions due to the mechanical failures of the components, Common Cause Failures (CCFs), human errors and outages for testing and maintenance. This document identifies and describes the definitions and the general procedures of FTA and the essential and basic guidelines for reving the fault trees. Accordingly, the guidelines for FTA will be capable to guide the FTA to the level of the capability category II of ASME PRA standard.

  3. A Note on Parameter Estimation for Lazarsfeld's Latent Class Model Using the EM Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, B. S.

    1984-01-01

    Latent class analysis is formulated as a problem of estimating parameters in a finite mixture distribution. The EM algorithm is used to find the maximum likelihood estimates, and the case of categorical variables with more than two categories is considered. (Author)

  4. An EM Algorithm for Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Process Factor Analysis Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taehun

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is developed and implemented to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters and the associated standard error estimates characterizing temporal flows for the latent variable time series following stationary vector ARMA processes, as well as the parameters defining the…

  5. Modelling the crop: from system dynamics to systems biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    There is strong interplant competition in a crop stand for various limiting resources, resulting in complex compensation and regulation mechanisms along the developmental cascade of the whole crop. Despite decades-long use of principles in system dynamics (e.g. feedback control), current crop models

  6. A through calculation of 1,100 MWe PWR large break LOCA by THYDE-P1 EM model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Masayuki; Asahi, Yoshiro; Hirano, Masashi

    1984-07-01

    THYDE-P1 is a code to analyze both the blowdown and refill-reflood phases of loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Up to now, THYDE-P1 has been applied to various experiment analyses, which show its high capability to analyze LOCAs as a best estimate (BE) calculation code. In this report, evaluation model (EM) calculation method, especialy in the blowdown and refill phases, is established equivalently to WREM/J2 which is regarded as appropriate for an EM calculation code, and the results of them are compared and discussed. The present calculation was the first executed by THYDE-P1-EM, and was performed as Sample Calculation Run 80 which was a part of a series of THYDE-P sample calculations. The calculation was carried out from the LOCA initiation till 400 seconds for a guillotine break at the cold leg of a commercial 1,100 MWe PWR plant. The calculated results agreed well to that of the WREM/J2 code. (author)

  7. The Launch Systems Operations Cost Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Frank A.; Hamaker, Joseph W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    One of NASA's primary missions is to reduce the cost of access to space while simultaneously increasing safety. A key component, and one of the least understood, is the recurring operations and support cost for reusable launch systems. In order to predict these costs, NASA, under the leadership of the Independent Program Assessment Office (IPAO), has commissioned the development of a Launch Systems Operations Cost Model (LSOCM). LSOCM is a tool to predict the operations & support (O&S) cost of new and modified reusable (and partially reusable) launch systems. The requirements are to predict the non-recurring cost for the ground infrastructure and the recurring cost of maintaining that infrastructure, performing vehicle logistics, and performing the O&S actions to return the vehicle to flight. In addition, the model must estimate the time required to cycle the vehicle through all of the ground processing activities. The current version of LSOCM is an amalgamation of existing tools, leveraging our understanding of shuttle operations cost with a means of predicting how the maintenance burden will change as the vehicle becomes more aircraft like. The use of the Conceptual Operations Manpower Estimating Tool/Operations Cost Model (COMET/OCM) provides a solid point of departure based on shuttle and expendable launch vehicle (ELV) experience. The incorporation of the Reliability and Maintainability Analysis Tool (RMAT) as expressed by a set of response surface model equations gives a method for estimating how changing launch system characteristics affects cost and cycle time as compared to today's shuttle system. Plans are being made to improve the model. The development team will be spending the next few months devising a structured methodology that will enable verified and validated algorithms to give accurate cost estimates. To assist in this endeavor the LSOCM team is part of an Agency wide effort to combine resources with other cost and operations professionals to

  8. SYSTEMS MODELING OF PROSTATE REGULATION AND ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prostate is an androgen-dependent tissue that is an important site of disease in human males as well as an important indicator of androgen status in animals. The rat prostate is used for studying antiandrogenic drugs as well as for evaluation of endocrine disruption (e.g., Hershberger Assay). Pubertal changes in the prostate have been observed to be as sensitive to environmental antiandrogens as in utero effects. The goal of this research is to model the biology of prostate androgen function on a systems level to determine the factors responsible for the dose-response observable with androgens and antiandrogens in the male rat. This includes investigation of the roles of positive and negative feedback loops in prostatic response following castration and dosing with testosterone and/or antiandrogens. A biologically-based, systems-level model will be developed describing the regulation of the prostate by androgens. The model will extend an existing model for the male rat central axis, which describes feedback between luteinizing hormone and testosterone production in the testes, to include the prostate and conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The prostate model will describe binding of androgens to the androgen receptor, 5α-reductase catalyzed production of DHT, and gene regulation affecting cell proliferation, apoptosis, and prostatic fluid production. The model will combine pharmacokinetic models for endogenous hormones (i.e., testost

  9. Cognitive Systems Modeling and Analysis of Command and Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlander, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Military operations, counter-terrorism operations and emergency response often oblige operators and commanders to operate within distributed organizations and systems for safe and effective mission accomplishment. Tactical commanders and operators frequently encounter violent threats and critical demands on cognitive capacity and reaction time. In the future they will make decisions in situations where operational and system characteristics are highly dynamic and non-linear, i.e. minor events, decisions or actions may have serious and irreversible consequences for the entire mission. Commanders and other decision makers must manage true real time properties at all levels; individual operators, stand-alone technical systems, higher-order integrated human-machine systems and joint operations forces alike. Coping with these conditions in performance assessment, system development and operational testing is a challenge for both practitioners and researchers. This paper reports on research from which the results led to a breakthrough: An integrated approach to information-centered systems analysis to support future command and control systems research development. This approach integrates several areas of research into a coherent framework, Action Control Theory (ACT). It comprises measurement techniques and methodological advances that facilitate a more accurate and deeper understanding of the operational environment, its agents, actors and effectors, generating new and updated models. This in turn generates theoretical advances. Some good examples of successful approaches are found in the research areas of cognitive systems engineering, systems theory, and psychophysiology, and in the fields of dynamic, distributed decision making and naturalistic decision making.

  10. Electromagnetic field vulnerability of complex systems – an application of EM topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kanyou Nana

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In complex systems like ships or airplanes many tasks vital to the function of the system are executed by electronic equipment. Earlier research Camp (2004 – Nitsch (2005 has shown that there are frequency ranges in many of these systems, in which disturbances in the system will be observed if an external electromagnetic field exceeds a certain amplitude limit. On the basis of a simplified model in which the dominating coupling mechanisms in complex systems are shown, we will present a method which allows to analyze the vulnerability to electromagnetic fields. The method is based on the segmentation of the initial problem into subproblems with respect to the coupling mechanisms. Under the assumption that the obtained classes can be handled separately, the subproblems are solved and superposed to the overall solution. The Electromagnetic Topology Baum (1982 – Lee (1982 is used to solve the subproblems. This leads to a hybrid method combining different solution approaches. The subproblems are decomposed into smaller subproblems with respect to the shielding levels. This procedure allows us to determine the coupled disturbances into the system. Finally the solution is verified with respect to prescripted limits.

  11. Modelling water uptake efficiency of root systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Daniel; Tron, Stefania; Schröder, Natalie; Bodner, Gernot; Javaux, Mathieu; Vanderborght, Jan; Vereecken, Harry; Schnepf, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Water uptake is crucial for plant productivity. Trait based breeding for more water efficient crops will enable a sustainable agricultural management under specific pedoclimatic conditions, and can increase drought resistance of plants. Mathematical modelling can be used to find suitable root system traits for better water uptake efficiency defined as amount of water taken up per unit of root biomass. This approach requires large simulation times and large number of simulation runs, since we test different root systems under different pedoclimatic conditions. In this work, we model water movement by the 1-dimensional Richards equation with the soil hydraulic properties described according to the van Genuchten model. Climatic conditions serve as the upper boundary condition. The root system grows during the simulation period and water uptake is calculated via a sink term (after Tron et al. 2015). The goal of this work is to compare different free software tools based on different numerical schemes to solve the model. We compare implementations using DUMUX (based on finite volumes), Hydrus 1D (based on finite elements), and a Matlab implementation of Van Dam, J. C., & Feddes 2000 (based on finite differences). We analyse the methods for accuracy, speed and flexibility. Using this model case study, we can clearly show the impact of various root system traits on water uptake efficiency. Furthermore, we can quantify frequent simplifications that are introduced in the modelling step like considering a static root system instead of a growing one, or considering a sink term based on root density instead of considering the full root hydraulic model (Javaux et al. 2008). References Tron, S., Bodner, G., Laio, F., Ridolfi, L., & Leitner, D. (2015). Can diversity in root architecture explain plant water use efficiency? A modeling study. Ecological modelling, 312, 200-210. Van Dam, J. C., & Feddes, R. A. (2000). Numerical simulation of infiltration, evaporation and shallow

  12. Bionic models for identification of biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerget, O. M.

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes a clinical decision support system that processes biomedical data. For this purpose a bionic model has been designed based on neural networks, genetic algorithms and immune systems. The developed system has been tested on data from pregnant women. The paper focuses on the approach to enable selection of control actions that can minimize the risk of adverse outcome. The control actions (hyperparameters of a new type) are further used as an additional input signal. Its values are defined by a hyperparameter optimization method. A software developed with Python is briefly described.

  13. Statistical Model Checking for Biological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Statistical Model Checking (SMC) is a highly scalable simulation-based verification approach for testing and estimating the probability that a stochastic system satisfies a given linear temporal property. The technique has been applied to (discrete and continuous time) Markov chains, stochastic...... timed automata and most recently hybrid systems using the tool Uppaal SMC. In this paper we enable the application of SMC to complex biological systems, by combining Uppaal SMC with ANIMO, a plugin of the tool Cytoscape used by biologists, as well as with SimBiology®, a plugin of Matlab to simulate...

  14. Protótipo de sistema de documentação em enfermagem no puerpério Documentation system prototype for postpartum nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia Sales Santos Veríssimo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Desenvolver protótipo de sistema de documentação em enfermagem no puerpério. MÉTODOS: Planejamento de software utilizou modelo baseado em orientação a objetos, que englobou: compreensão e definição do contexto e dos modos de utilização projeto de arquitetura do sistema, identificação dos principais objetos do sistema, desenvolvimento dos modelos do projeto, especificação das interfaces dos objetos. Foram utilizadas as linguagem Structured Query Language (SQL, MySQL e Hypertext Preprocessor (php. RESULTADOS: O protótipo apresenta os requisitos planejados, entre eles: uso da Classificação Internacional para a Prática de Enfermagem (CIPE® versão 1.0 como código de apoio para execução do processo de enfermagem; apresentação dos eixos da CIPE® versão 1.0 em ordem de uso; geração de relatórios sobre a prática de uso dos processos de enfermagem. CONCLUSÃO: O protótipo de sistema de documentação proposto foi desenvolvido com sucesso com possibilidade de registros de enfermagem por meio de linguagem padronizada.OBJECTIVE: To develop a documentation system prototype for postpartum nursing. METHODS: For the software planning, a model based on object orientation was used, which included: understanding and definition of the context and usage modes of the system design project, identification of the main objects of the system, development of project models, specification of object interfaces. The languages Structured Query Language (SQL, MySQL and Hypertext Preprocessor (php were used. RESULTS: The prototype shows the planned requirements, among them: use of the International Classification For Nursing Practice (ICNP® version 1.0 as support code to perform the nursing process; presentation of the axes of ICNP® version 1.0 in order of use; elaboration of reports about the usage practice of nursing processes. CONCLUSION: The proposed documentation system prototype was successfully developed, allowing professional

  15. Data Model Management for Space Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Daniel J.; Ramirez, Paul; Mattmann, chris

    2006-01-01

    The Reference Architecture for Space Information Management (RASIM) suggests the separation of the data model from software components to promote the development of flexible information management systems. RASIM allows the data model to evolve independently from the software components and results in a robust implementation that remains viable as the domain changes. However, the development and management of data models within RASIM are difficult and time consuming tasks involving the choice of a notation, the capture of the model, its validation for consistency, and the export of the model for implementation. Current limitations to this approach include the lack of ability to capture comprehensive domain knowledge, the loss of significant modeling information during implementation, the lack of model visualization and documentation capabilities, and exports being limited to one or two schema types. The advent of the Semantic Web and its demand for sophisticated data models has addressed this situation by providing a new level of data model management in the form of ontology tools. In this paper we describe the use of a representative ontology tool to capture and manage a data model for a space information system. The resulting ontology is implementation independent. Novel on-line visualization and documentation capabilities are available automatically, and the ability to export to various schemas can be added through tool plug-ins. In addition, the ingestion of data instances into the ontology allows validation of the ontology and results in a domain knowledge base. Semantic browsers are easily configured for the knowledge base. For example the export of the knowledge base to RDF/XML and RDFS/XML and the use of open source metadata browsers provide ready-made user interfaces that support both text- and facet-based search. This paper will present the Planetary Data System (PDS) data model as a use case and describe the import of the data model into an ontology tool

  16. The Investigation of EM Scattering from the Time-Varying Overturning Wave Crest Model by the IEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Meng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the electromagnetic (EM scattering of time-varying overturning wave crests is a worthwhile endeavor. Overturning wave crest is one of the reasons of sea spike generation, which increases the probability of false radar alarms and reduces the performance of multitarget detection in the environment. A three-dimensional (3D time-varying overturning wave crest model is presented in this paper; this 3D model is an improvement of the traditional two-dimensional (2D time-varying overturning wave crest model. The integral equation method (IEM was employed to investigate backward scattering radar cross sections (RCS at various incident angles of the 3D overturning wave crest model. The super phenomenon, where the intensity of horizontal polarization scattering is greater than that of vertical polarization scattering, is an important feature of sea spikes. Simulation results demonstrate that super phenomena may occur in some time samples as variations in the overturning wave crest.

  17. An EM Algorithm for Double-Pareto-Lognormal Generalized Linear Model Applied to Heavy-Tailed Insurance Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Calderín-Ojeda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Generalized linear models might not be appropriate when the probability of extreme events is higher than that implied by the normal distribution. Extending the method for estimating the parameters of a double Pareto lognormal distribution (DPLN in Reed and Jorgensen (2004, we develop an EM algorithm for the heavy-tailed Double-Pareto-lognormal generalized linear model. The DPLN distribution is obtained as a mixture of a lognormal distribution with a double Pareto distribution. In this paper the associated generalized linear model has the location parameter equal to a linear predictor which is used to model insurance claim amounts for various data sets. The performance is compared with those of the generalized beta (of the second kind and lognorma distributions.

  18. Session 6: Dynamic Modeling and Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csank, Jeffrey; Chapman, Jeffryes; May, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    These presentations cover some of the ongoing work in dynamic modeling and dynamic systems analysis. The first presentation discusses dynamic systems analysis and how to integrate dynamic performance information into the systems analysis. The ability to evaluate the dynamic performance of an engine design may allow tradeoffs between the dynamic performance and operability of a design resulting in a more efficient engine design. The second presentation discusses the Toolbox for Modeling and Analysis of Thermodynamic Systems (T-MATS). T-MATS is a Simulation system with a library containing the basic building blocks that can be used to create dynamic Thermodynamic Systems. Some of the key features include Turbo machinery components, such as turbines, compressors, etc., and basic control system blocks. T-MAT is written in the Matlab-Simulink environment and is open source software. The third presentation focuses on getting additional performance from the engine by allowing the limit regulators only to be active when a limit is danger of being violated. Typical aircraft engine control architecture is based on MINMAX scheme, which is designed to keep engine operating within prescribed mechanical/operational safety limits. Using a conditionally active min-max limit regulator scheme, additional performance can be gained by disabling non-relevant limit regulators

  19. Mars 2020 Model Based Systems Engineering Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, Alexandra Marie

    2017-01-01

    The pilot study is led by the Integration Engineering group in NASA's Launch Services Program (LSP). The Integration Engineering (IE) group is responsible for managing the interfaces between the spacecraft and launch vehicle. This pilot investigates the utility of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) with respect to managing and verifying interface requirements. The main objectives of the pilot are to model several key aspects of the Mars 2020 integrated operations and interface requirements based on the design and verification artifacts from Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) and to demonstrate how MBSE could be used by LSP to gain further insight on the interface between the spacecraft and launch vehicle as well as to enhance how LSP manages the launch service. The method used to accomplish this pilot started through familiarization of SysML, MagicDraw, and the Mars 2020 and MSL systems through books, tutorials, and NASA documentation. MSL was chosen as the focus of the model since its processes and verifications translate easily to the Mars 2020 mission. The study was further focused by modeling specialized systems and processes within MSL in order to demonstrate the utility of MBSE for the rest of the mission. The systems chosen were the In-Flight Disconnect (IFD) system and the Mass Properties process. The IFD was chosen as a system of focus since it is an interface between the spacecraft and launch vehicle which can demonstrate the usefulness of MBSE from a system perspective. The Mass Properties process was chosen as a process of focus since the verifications for mass properties occur throughout the lifecycle and can demonstrate the usefulness of MBSE from a multi-discipline perspective. Several iterations of both perspectives have been modeled and evaluated. While the pilot study will continue for another 2 weeks, pros and cons of using MBSE for LSP IE have been identified. A pro of using MBSE includes an integrated view of the disciplines, requirements, and

  20. Model based control of refrigeration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloth Larsen, L.F.

    2005-11-15

    The subject for this Ph.D. thesis is model based control of refrigeration systems. Model based control covers a variety of different types of controls, that incorporates mathematical models. In this thesis the main subject therefore has been restricted to deal with system optimizing control. The optimizing control is divided into two layers, where the system oriented top layers deals with set-point optimizing control and the lower layer deals with dynamical optimizing control in the subsystems. The thesis has two main contributions, i.e. a novel approach for set-point optimization and a novel approach for desynchronization based on dynamical optimization. The focus in the development of the proposed set-point optimizing control has been on deriving a simple and general method, that with ease can be applied on various compositions of the same class of systems, such as refrigeration systems. The method is based on a set of parameter depended static equations describing the considered process. By adapting the parameters to the given process, predict the steady state and computing a steady state gradient of the cost function, the process can be driven continuously towards zero gradient, i.e. the optimum (if the cost function is convex). The method furthermore deals with system constrains by introducing barrier functions, hereby the best possible performance taking the given constrains in to account can be obtained, e.g. under extreme operational conditions. The proposed method has been applied on a test refrigeration system, placed at Aalborg University, for minimization of the energy consumption. Here it was proved that by using general static parameter depended system equations it was possible drive the set-points close to the optimum and thus reduce the power consumption with up to 20%. In the dynamical optimizing layer the idea is to optimize the operation of the subsystem or the groupings of subsystems, that limits the obtainable system performance. In systems

  1. Quantitative system validation in model driven design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanns, Hilger; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Raskin, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    The European STREP project Quasimodo1 develops theory, techniques and tool components for handling quantitative constraints in model-driven development of real-time embedded systems, covering in particular real-time, hybrid and stochastic aspects. This tutorial highlights the advances made...

  2. Model Checking - Automated Verification of Computational Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 7. Model Checking - Automated Verification of Computational Systems. Madhavan Mukund. General Article Volume 14 Issue 7 July 2009 pp 667-681. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  3. Advances in Modelling, System Identification and Parameter ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    models determined from flight test data by using parameter estimation methods find extensive use in design/modification of flight control systems, high fidelity flight simulators and evaluation of handling qualitites of aircraft and rotorcraft. R K Mehra et al present new algorithms and results for flutter tests and adaptive notching ...

  4. Packet models revisited: tandem and priority systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R.H. Mandjes (Michel)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe examine two extensions of traditional single-node packet-scale queueing models: tandem networks and (strict) priority systems. Two generic input processes are considered: periodic and Poisson arrivals. For the two-node tandem, an exact expression is derived for the joint distribution

  5. System identification application using Hammerstein model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saban Ozer

    . 20(1): 1175–1188. [4] Hizir N B, Phan M Q, Betti R and Longman R W 2012. Identification of discrete-time bilinear systems through equivalent linear models. Nonlinear Dyn. 69(4): 2065–2078. [5] Hong X, Mitchell R J, Chen S, Harris C J, Li K ...

  6. Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonjes, David J., E-mail: david.tonjes@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States); Waste Reduction and Management Institute, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); Center for Bioenergy Research and Development, Advanced Energy Research and Technology Center, Stony Brook University, 1000 Innovation Rd., Stony Brook, NY 11794-6044 (United States); Mallikarjun, Sreekanth, E-mail: sreekanth.mallikarjun@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. • When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. • When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. • For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets.

  7. Temperature Calculations in the Coastal Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    with the change of water turbidity in coastal and estuarine systems. Water quality and ecological models often require input of water temperature...of the American Society of Civil Engineers 81(717): 1–11. Sánchez, A., W. Wu, H. Li, M. E. Brown, C. W. Reed, J. D. Rosati, and Z. Demirbilek. 2014

  8. Modelling Web-Based Instructional Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retalis, Symeon; Avgeriou, Paris

    2002-01-01

    The size and complexity of modern instructional systems, which are based on the World Wide Web, bring about great intricacy in their crafting, as there is not enough knowledge or experience in this field. This imposes the use of new instructional design models in order to achieve risk-mitigation,

  9. Control Architecture Modeling for Future Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai

    and operation structures; and finally the application to some concrete study cases, including a present system balancing, and proposed control structures such as Microgrids and Cells. In the second part, the main contributions are the outline of a formation strategy, integrating the design and model...

  10. ECONOMIC AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING INNOVATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Makarov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents one of the mathematical tools for modeling innovation processes. With the help of Kondratieff long waves can define innovation cycles. However, complexity of the innovation system implies a qualitative description. The article describes the problems of this area of research.

  11. Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonjes, David J.; Mallikarjun, Sreekanth

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. • When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. • When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. • For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets

  12. Modeling-Enabled Systems Nutritional Immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghna eVerma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the fundamental role of nutrition in the maintenance of health, the immune response and disease prevention. Emerging global mechanistic insights in the field of nutritional immunology cannot be gained through reductionist methods alone or by analyzing a single nutrient at a time. We propose to investigate nutritional immunology as a massively interacting system of interconnected multistage and multiscale networks that encompass hidden mechanisms by which nutrition, microbiome, metabolism, genetic predisposition and the immune system interact to delineate health and disease. The review sets an unconventional path to applying complex science methodologies to nutritional immunology research, discovery and development through ‘use cases’ centered around the impact of nutrition on the gut microbiome and immune responses. Our systems nutritional immunology analyses, that include modeling and informatics methodologies in combination with pre-clinical and clinical studies, have the potential to discover emerging systems-wide properties at the interface of the immune system, nutrition, microbiome, and metabolism.

  13. Model based management of a reservoir system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharaw, B.; Westerhoff, T. [Fraunhofer IITB, Ilmenau (Germany). Anwendungszentrum Systemtechnik; Puta, H.; Wernstedt, J. [Technische Univ. Ilmenau (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The main goals of reservoir management systems consist of prevention against flood water damages, the catchment of raw water and keeping all of the quality parameters within their limits besides controlling the water flows. In consideration of these goals a system model of the complete reservoir system Ohra-Schmalwasser-Tambach Dietharz was developed. This model has been used to develop optimized strategies for minimization of raw water production cost, for maximization of electrical energy production and to cover flood situations, as well. Therefore a proper forecast of the inflow to the reservoir from the catchment areas (especially flooding rivers) and the biological processes in the reservoir is important. The forecast model for the inflow to the reservoir is based on the catchment area model of Lorent and Gevers. It uses area precipitation, water supply from the snow cover, evapotranspiration and soil wetness data to calculate the amount of flow in rivers. The other aim of the project is to ensure the raw water quality using quality models, as well. Then a quality driven raw water supply will be possible. (orig.)

  14. Modelling transitions in urban water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, W; Urich, C; Bach, P M; Rogers, B C; de Haan, F J; Brown, R R; Mair, M; McCarthy, D T; Kleidorfer, M; Sitzenfrei, R; Deletic, A

    2017-12-01

    Long term planning of urban water infrastructure requires acknowledgement that transitions in the water system are driven by changes in the urban environment, as well as societal dynamics. Inherent to the complexity of these underlying processes is that the dynamics of a system's evolution cannot be explained by linear cause-effect relationships and cannot be predicted under narrow sets of assumptions. Planning therefore needs to consider the functional behaviour and performance of integrated flexible infrastructure systems under a wide range of future conditions. This paper presents the first step towards a new generation of integrated planning tools that take such an exploratory planning approach. The spatially explicit model, denoted DAnCE4Water, integrates urban development patterns, water infrastructure changes and the dynamics of socio-institutional changes. While the individual components of the DAnCE4Water model (i.e. modules for simulation of urban development, societal dynamics and evolution/performance of water infrastructure) have been developed elsewhere, this paper presents their integration into a single model. We explain the modelling framework of DAnCE4Water, its potential utility and its software implementation. The integrated model is validated for the case study of an urban catchment located in Melbourne, Australia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Active State Model for Autonomous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Han; Chien, Steve; Zak, Michail; James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan; Fisher, Forest

    2003-01-01

    The concept of the active state model (ASM) is an architecture for the development of advanced integrated fault-detection-and-isolation (FDI) systems for robotic land vehicles, pilotless aircraft, exploratory spacecraft, or other complex engineering systems that will be capable of autonomous operation. An FDI system based on the ASM concept would not only provide traditional diagnostic capabilities, but also integrate the FDI system under a unified framework and provide mechanism for sharing of information between FDI subsystems to fully assess the overall health of the system. The ASM concept begins with definitions borrowed from psychology, wherein a system is regarded as active when it possesses self-image, self-awareness, and an ability to make decisions itself, such that it is able to perform purposeful motions and other transitions with some degree of autonomy from the environment. For an engineering system, self-image would manifest itself as the ability to determine nominal values of sensor data by use of a mathematical model of itself, and selfawareness would manifest itself as the ability to relate sensor data to their nominal values. The ASM for such a system may start with the closed-loop control dynamics that describe the evolution of state variables. As soon as this model was supplemented with nominal values of sensor data, it would possess self-image. The ability to process the current sensor data and compare them with the nominal values would represent self-awareness. On the basis of self-image and self-awareness, the ASM provides the capability for self-identification, detection of abnormalities, and self-diagnosis.

  16. Size and complexity in model financial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Kapadia, Sujit; May, Robert M

    2012-11-06

    The global financial crisis has precipitated an increasing appreciation of the need for a systemic perspective toward financial stability. For example: What role do large banks play in systemic risk? How should capital adequacy standards recognize this role? How is stability shaped by concentration and diversification in the financial system? We explore these questions using a deliberately simplified, dynamic model of a banking system that combines three different channels for direct transmission of contagion from one bank to another: liquidity hoarding, asset price contagion, and the propagation of defaults via counterparty credit risk. Importantly, we also introduce a mechanism for capturing how swings in "confidence" in the system may contribute to instability. Our results highlight that the importance of relatively large, well-connected banks in system stability scales more than proportionately with their size: the impact of their collapse arises not only from their connectivity, but also from their effect on confidence in the system. Imposing tougher capital requirements on larger banks than smaller ones can thus enhance the resilience of the system. Moreover, these effects are more pronounced in more concentrated systems, and continue to apply, even when allowing for potential diversification benefits that may be realized by larger banks. We discuss some tentative implications for policy, as well as conceptual analogies in ecosystem stability and in the control of infectious diseases.

  17. A Modeling Pattern for Layered System Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shames, Peter M.; Sarrel, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Communications between systems is often initially represented at a single, high level of abstraction, a link between components. During design evolution it is usually necessary to elaborate the interface model, defining it from several different, related viewpoints and levels of abstraction. This paper presents a pattern to model such multi-layered interface architectures simply and efficiently, in a way that supports expression of technical complexity, interfaces and behavior, and analysis of complexity. Each viewpoint and layer of abstraction has its own properties and behaviors. System elements are logically connected both horizontally along the communication path, and vertically across the different layers of protocols. The performance of upper layers depends on the performance of lower layers, yet the implementation of lower layers is intentionally opaque to upper layers. Upper layers are hidden from lower layers except as sources and sinks of data. The system elements may not be linked directly at each horizontal layer but only via a communication path, and end-to-end communications may depend on intermediate components that are hidden from them, but may need to be shown in certain views and analyzed for certain purposes. This architectural model pattern uses methods described in ISO 42010, Recommended Practice for Architectural Description of Software-intensive Systems and CCSDS 311.0-M-1, Reference Architecture for Space Data Systems (RASDS). A set of useful viewpoints and views are presented, along with the associated modeling representations, stakeholders and concerns. These viewpoints, views, and concerns then inform the modeling pattern. This pattern permits viewing the system from several different perspectives and at different layers of abstraction. An external viewpoint treats the systems of interest as black boxes and focuses on the applications view, another view exposes the details of the connections and other components between the black boxes

  18. Wind Energy Management System EMS Integration Project: Incorporating Wind Generation and Load Forecast Uncertainties into Power Grid Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Guttromson, Ross T.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.

    2010-01-01

    The power system balancing process, which includes the scheduling, real time dispatch (load following) and regulation processes, is traditionally based on deterministic models. Since the conventional generation needs time to be committed and dispatched to a desired megawatt level, the scheduling and load following processes use load and wind and solar power production forecasts to achieve future balance between the conventional generation and energy storage on the one side, and system load, intermittent resources (such as wind and solar generation), and scheduled interchange on the other side. Although in real life the forecasting procedures imply some uncertainty around the load and wind/solar forecasts (caused by forecast errors), only their mean values are actually used in the generation dispatch and commitment procedures. Since the actual load and intermittent generation can deviate from their forecasts, it becomes increasingly unclear (especially, with the increasing penetration of renewable resources) whether the system would be actually able to meet the conventional generation requirements within the look-ahead horizon, what the additional balancing efforts would be needed as we get closer to the real time, and what additional costs would be incurred by those needs. To improve the system control performance characteristics, maintain system reliability, and minimize expenses related to the system balancing functions, it becomes necessary to incorporate the predicted uncertainty ranges into the scheduling, load following, and, in some extent, into the regulation processes. It is also important to address the uncertainty problem comprehensively by including all sources of uncertainty (load, intermittent generation, generators’ forced outages, etc.) into consideration. All aspects of uncertainty such as the imbalance size (which is the same as capacity needed to mitigate the imbalance) and generation ramping requirement must be taken into account. The latter

  19. Produção de ovinos de corte em quatro sistemas de produção Meat sheep production on four different production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Henrique Espírito Candal Poli

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O desempenho potencial de cordeiros e ovelhas da raça Suffolk em pastagem de capim-tifton 85 (Cynodon spp. e azevém (Lolium multiflorum foi avaliado em diferentes sistemas de criação: cordeiros desmamados com 60 dias e mantidos em pastagem; cordeiros com ovelhas mantidos em pastagem; cordeiros com ovelhas mantidos em pastagem com creep feeding; cordeiros em confinamento alimentados com feno de alfafa + ração balanceada. Os tratamentos foram impostos quando os cordeiros apresentavam 60 dias de idade até o abate, aos 32 kg, e alocados em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três repetições. Nos tratamentos em pasto, utilizou-se o sistema de pastejo contínuo com lotação variável. Verificou-se efeito importante dos tratamentos no desempenho dos cordeiros. Os animais em confinamento destacaram-se pelo maior ganho de peso diário e pela menor idade de abate. A suplementação de 1% PV em creep feeding não teve efeito em cordeiros com mais de 60 dias de idade mantidos com as mães em pastagem de capim-tifton 85. A presença da mãe no pasto teve efeito importante e positivo no desempenho individual de cordeiros em comparação aos cordeiros desmamados aos 60 dias.The potential performance of lambs and ewes from the Suffolk breed in pasture of Tifton grass 85 (Cynodon spp. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum was evaluated in different production systems: lambs weaned with 60 days and kept in pasture; lambs with ewes and kept in pasture; lambs with ewes and kept in pasture with creep feeding; feedlot confined lambs with alfalfa hay + balanced ration. The treatments were applied when the lambs reached 60 days of age until slaughter time, at 32 kg, and were allocated in a completely randomized experimental design, with three replications. A continuous grazing system, with variable stocking rate, was used in pasture treatments. Important effect of the treatments on performance of the lambs was observed. Feedlot confined lambs showed

  20. Diversidade funcional em sistemas de montado: fluxo de nutrientes em Quercus rotundifolia Lam. Functional diversity in “montado” systems: nutrients fluxes in Quercus rotundifolia Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Nunes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Os componentes dos ciclos de nutrientes em montados de Quercus rotundifolia Lam., relacionados com a precipitação foram estudados na região de Évora, de Novembro de 1996 a Dezembro de 2000. A precipitação bruta, o gotejo a diferentes distâncias do tronco e o escorrimento ao longo do tronco das árvores foram quantificados de modo contínuo, sendo colhidas amostras semanalmente para se proceder à respectiva caracterização química. A quantidade de nutrientes transferidos para o solo através das diferentes soluções foi também determinada. Verificou-se um acréscimo da concentração das espécies iónicas no gotejo em relação à precipitação bruta, o qual foi ainda mais manifesto no escorrimento ao longo do tronco. Estudaram-se, igualmente, as características físico-químicas do solo sob e fora da influência da copa destas árvores, num montado relativamente esparso. Além disso, também se avaliou a quantidade das camadas orgânicas e a quantidade de nutrientes aí retidos. As características físicas e químicas do solo apresentaram, de um modo geral, uma diferenciação positiva em resultado da presença das árvores. Avaliou-se a taxa de mineralização de N nas áreas sob e fora da acção do coberto das árvores, tendo-se observado uma mais elevada disponibilidade deste nutriente nas áreas do sob coberto.Nutrient cycling in Quercus rotundifolia Lam. systems, regarding precipitation was studied at Évora (Southern Portugal, since November of 1996 until December of 2000. The amounts of gross rainfall, throughfall (at different distances from the tree trunk and stemflow were measured continuously and samples for chemical analysis were collected weekly. The concentration of nutrients was higher in the throughfall than in the gross rainfall, especially in the areas closer to the tree trunk. Nutrients transferred to soil, through bulk rainfall, throughfall and stemflow were quantified. The highest concentration of nutrients

  1. ALTM system in Amazonian forest areas; Sistema ALTM em areas da Floresta Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallem Filho, Silas; Bonatto, Amarildo [Esteio Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Airborne Laser Scanning provides faster and more accurate Digital Elevation Model and Digital Terrain Model tasks compared to conventional photogrammetry. The system generates Laser pulses towards the terrain, perpendicular to the flight line, scanning the terrain surface and recording the distances from the sensor to the ground for each pulse. The main characteristics of the system is the measurement of the first and the last return for each pulse, allowing the objects identification that are above the ground as, for example, vegetation. With this capability it is possible the determination of volumes and biomass estimate, besides the virtual removal of vegetation covering. The Digital Terrain Models are used for Digital Ortho photos rectification and to obtain contour lines for topography maps. The correct points classification according the elevation, allows the representation of the terrain with larger amount of points than the stereo plotting, in areas densely vegetated where the operator esteems the height of the vegetable covering to interpret the terrain. Some additional products, as hypsometric images and intensity images helps in the identification of features on pipeline projects as well as the obtaining of the obstacles height. (author)

  2. An ontology-driven, diagnostic modeling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Peter J; Ferraro, Jeffrey P; Holmen, John; Wu, Xinzi; Mynam, Kumar; Ebert, Matthew; Dean, Nathan; Jones, Jason

    2013-06-01

    To present a system that uses knowledge stored in a medical ontology to automate the development of diagnostic decision support systems. To illustrate its function through an example focused on the development of a tool for diagnosing pneumonia. We developed a system that automates the creation of diagnostic decision-support applications. It relies on a medical ontology to direct the acquisition of clinic data from a clinical data warehouse and uses an automated analytic system to apply a sequence of machine learning algorithms that create applications for diagnostic screening. We refer to this system as the ontology-driven diagnostic modeling system (ODMS). We tested this system using samples of patient data collected in Salt Lake City emergency rooms and stored in Intermountain Healthcare's enterprise data warehouse. The system was used in the preliminary development steps of a tool to identify patients with pneumonia in the emergency department. This tool was compared with a manually created diagnostic tool derived from a curated dataset. The manually created tool is currently in clinical use. The automatically created tool had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.920 (95% CI 0.916 to 0.924), compared with 0.944 (95% CI 0.942 to 0.947) for the manually created tool. Initial testing of the ODMS demonstrates promising accuracy for the highly automated results and illustrates the route to model improvement. The use of medical knowledge, embedded in ontologies, to direct the initial development of diagnostic computing systems appears feasible.

  3. Three-dimensional immersive virtual reality for studying cellular compartments in 3D models from EM preparations of neural tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Cali, Corrado

    2015-07-14

    Advances for application of electron microscopy to serial imaging are opening doors to new ways of analyzing cellular structure. New and improved algorithms and workflows for manual and semiautomated segmentation allow to observe the spatial arrangement of the smallest cellular features with unprecedented detail in full three-dimensions (3D). From larger samples, higher complexity models can be generated; however, they pose new challenges to data management and analysis. Here, we review some currently available solutions and present our approach in detail. We use the fully immersive virtual reality (VR) environment CAVE (cave automatic virtual environment), a room where we are able to project a cellular reconstruction and visualize in 3D, to step into a world created with Blender, a free, fully customizable 3D modeling software with NeuroMorph plug-ins for visualization and analysis of electron microscopy (EM) preparations of brain tissue. Our workflow allows for full and fast reconstructions of volumes of brain neuropil using ilastik, a software tool for semiautomated segmentation of EM stacks. With this visualization environment, we can walk into the model containing neuronal and astrocytic processes to study the spatial distribution of glycogen granules, a major energy source that is selectively stored in astrocytes. The use of CAVE was key to observe a nonrandom distribution of glycogen, and led us to develop tools to quantitatively analyze glycogen clustering and proximity to other subcellular features. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. System and mathematical modeling of quadrotor dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jacob M.; Kim, Jinho; Gadsden, S. Andrew; Wilkerson, Stephen A.

    2015-05-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are becoming increasingly visible in our daily lives; and range in operation from search and rescue, monitoring hazardous environments, and to the delivery of goods. One of the most popular UAS are based on a quad-rotor design. These are typically small devices that rely on four propellers for lift and movement. Quad-rotors are inherently unstable, and rely on advanced control methodologies to keep them operating safely and behaving in a predictable and desirable manner. The control of these devices can be enhanced and improved by making use of an accurate dynamic model. In this paper, we examine a simple quadrotor model, and note some of the additional dynamic considerations that were left out. We then compare simulation results of the simple model with that of another comprehensive model.

  5. Aircraft system modeling error and control error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Nilesh V. (Inventor); Kaneshige, John T. (Inventor); Krishnakumar, Kalmanje S. (Inventor); Burken, John J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for modeling error-driven adaptive control of an aircraft. Normal aircraft plant dynamics is modeled, using an original plant description in which a controller responds to a tracking error e(k) to drive the component to a normal reference value according to an asymptote curve. Where the system senses that (1) at least one aircraft plant component is experiencing an excursion and (2) the return of this component value toward its reference value is not proceeding according to the expected controller characteristics, neural network (NN) modeling of aircraft plant operation may be changed. However, if (1) is satisfied but the error component is returning toward its reference value according to expected controller characteristics, the NN will continue to model operation of the aircraft plant according to an original description.

  6. Cost effectiveness of recycling: a systems model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonjes, David J; Mallikarjun, Sreekanth

    2013-11-01

    Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Constructing a systems psychodynamic wellness model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchen Henning

    2012-03-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to construct and refine the SPWM in order to understand psychological wellness at the individual, group and organisational levels. Motivation for the study: There is no psychological wellness model that integrates the principles of systems psychodynamics and positive psychology. Systems psychodynamics traditionally focuses on so-called negative behaviour whilst positive psychology tends to idealise positive behaviour. This research tried to merge these views in order to apply them to individual, group and organisational behaviour. Research design, approach and method: The researchers used qualitative, descriptive and conceptual research. They conducted an in-depth literature study to construct the model. They then refined it using the LP. Main findings: The researchers identified 39 themes. They categorised them into three different levels. Three first-level themes emerged as the highest level of integration: identity, hope and love. The nine second-level themes each consisted of three more themes. They were less complex and abstract than the first-level themes. The least complex 27 third-level themes followed. Practical/managerial implications: One can apply the SPWM as a qualitative diagnostic tool for understanding individual, group and organisational wellness and for consulting on systemic wellness. Contribution/value-add: The SPWM offers a model for understanding individual, group and organisational wellness and for consulting on systemic wellness.

  8. Model Predictive Control for Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus

    In this thesis, we consider control strategies for flexible distributed energy resources in the future intelligent energy system – the Smart Grid. The energy system is a large-scale complex network with many actors and objectives in different hierarchical layers. Specifically the power system must...... significantly. A Smart Grid calls for flexible consumers that can adjust their consumption based on the amount of green energy in the grid. This requires coordination through new large-scale control and optimization algorithms. Trading of flexibility is key to drive power consumption in a sustainable direction....... In Denmark, we expect that distributed energy resources such as heat pumps, and batteries in electric vehicles will mobilize part of the needed flexibility. Our primary objectives in the thesis were threefold: 1.Simulate the components in the power system based on simple models from literature (e.g. heat...

  9. Control system modelling for superconducting accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarski, T.; Pozniak, K.; Romaniuk, R.

    2006-01-01

    A digital control of superconducting cavities for a linear accelerator is presented. The LLRF - Low Level Radio Frequency system for FLASH project in DESY is introduced. FPGA based controller supported by MATLAB system was developed to investigate the novel firmware implementation. Algebraic model in complex domain is proposed for the system analyzing. Calibration procedure of a signal path is considered for a multi-channel control. Identification of the system parameters is carried out by the least squares method application. Control tables: Feed-Forward and Set- Point are determined for the required cavity performance, according to the recognized process. Feedback loop is tuned by fitting a complex gain of a corrector unit. Adaptive control algorithm is applied for feed-forward and feedback modes. Experimental results are presented for a cavity representative operation. (orig.)

  10. Overvoltage of atmospheric origin in distribution systems; Sobretensoes de origem atmosferica em sistemas de distribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Nelson Massakazu

    1996-07-01

    Some fundamental aspects related to lightning surges in distribution systems are focused, covering issues such as frequency of occurrence of over voltages, wave propagation through discontinuity points and discharge current through arrester. Concepts related to statistical analysis of lightning currents are presented together with the way of relating this data to the occurrence of direct strokes and induced surges. A significant reduction in expected number of over voltages is noticed when the lightning currents front time is taken into account. Calculations show that the results for direct strokes and induced over voltages, applying two different expressions for the lateral attraction distance (electro geometrical model and Eriksson's model) are close to each other. The behaviors of the voltage and of the current are analyzed by means of the travelling wave theory, for several types of discontinuities normally encountered in distribution lines. An evaluation on the influence of several parameters in arrester discharge currents was carried out by means of an analytical model and through computer simulations. The analytical model, for lines without neutral wire, includes exact calculation and the use of mathematical expressions obtained through exponential approximation and convolution. The conclusion is that there are some parameters that influence basically the initial stage of the current and others that influence in a more global way, up to the last stage. (author)

  11. Which coordinate system for modelling path integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerstaff, Robert J; Cheung, Allen

    2010-03-21

    Path integration is a navigation strategy widely observed in nature where an animal maintains a running estimate, called the home vector, of its location during an excursion. Evidence suggests it is both ancient and ubiquitous in nature, and has been studied for over a century. In that time, canonical and neural network models have flourished, based on a wide range of assumptions, justifications and supporting data. Despite the importance of the phenomenon, consensus and unifying principles appear lacking. A fundamental issue is the neural representation of space needed for biological path integration. This paper presents a scheme to classify path integration systems on the basis of the way the home vector records and updates the spatial relationship between the animal and its home location. Four extended classes of coordinate systems are used to unify and review both canonical and neural network models of path integration, from the arthropod and mammalian literature. This scheme demonstrates analytical equivalence between models which may otherwise appear unrelated, and distinguishes between models which may superficially appear similar. A thorough analysis is carried out of the equational forms of important facets of path integration including updating, steering, searching and systematic errors, using each of the four coordinate systems. The type of available directional cue, namely allothetic or idiothetic, is also considered. It is shown that on balance, the class of home vectors which includes the geocentric Cartesian coordinate system, appears to be the most robust for biological systems. A key conclusion is that deducing computational structure from behavioural data alone will be difficult or impossible, at least in the absence of an analysis of random errors. Consequently it is likely that further theoretical insights into path integration will require an in-depth study of the effect of noise on the four classes of home vectors. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd

  12. Research of an emergency medical system for mass casualty incidents in Shanghai, China: a system dynamics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenya; Lv, Yipeng; Hu, Chaoqun; Liu, Xu; Chen, Haiping; Xue, Chen; Zhang, Lulu

    2018-01-01

    Emergency medical system for mass casualty incidents (EMS-MCIs) is a global issue. However, China lacks such studies extremely, which cannot meet the requirement of rapid decision-support system. This study aims to realize modeling EMS-MCIs in Shanghai, to improve mass casualty incident (MCI) rescue efficiency in China, and to provide a possible method of making rapid rescue decisions during MCIs. This study established a system dynamics (SD) model of EMS-MCIs using the Vensim DSS program. Intervention scenarios were designed as adjusting scales of MCIs, allocation of ambulances, allocation of emergency medical staff, and efficiency of organization and command. Mortality increased with the increasing scale of MCIs, medical rescue capability of hospitals was relatively good, but the efficiency of organization and command was poor, and the prehospital time was too long. Mortality declined significantly when increasing ambulances and improving the efficiency of organization and command; triage and on-site first-aid time were shortened if increasing the availability of emergency medical staff. The effect was the most evident when 2,000 people were involved in MCIs; however, the influence was very small under the scale of 5,000 people. The keys to decrease the mortality of MCIs were shortening the prehospital time and improving the efficiency of organization and command. For small-scale MCIs, improving the utilization rate of health resources was important in decreasing the mortality. For large-scale MCIs, increasing the number of ambulances and emergency medical professionals was the core to decrease prehospital time and mortality. For super-large-scale MCIs, increasing health resources was the premise.

  13. Statistical modeling to support power system planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staid, Andrea

    This dissertation focuses on data-analytic approaches that improve our understanding of power system applications to promote better decision-making. It tackles issues of risk analysis, uncertainty management, resource estimation, and the impacts of climate change. Tools of data mining and statistical modeling are used to bring new insight to a variety of complex problems facing today's power system. The overarching goal of this research is to improve the understanding of the power system risk environment for improved operation, investment, and planning decisions. The first chapter introduces some challenges faced in planning for a sustainable power system. Chapter 2 analyzes the driving factors behind the disparity in wind energy investments among states with a goal of determining the impact that state-level policies have on incentivizing wind energy. Findings show that policy differences do not explain the disparities; physical and geographical factors are more important. Chapter 3 extends conventional wind forecasting to a risk-based focus of predicting maximum wind speeds, which are dangerous for offshore operations. Statistical models are presented that issue probabilistic predictions for the highest wind speed expected in a three-hour interval. These models achieve a high degree of accuracy and their use can improve safety and reliability in practice. Chapter 4 examines the challenges of wind power estimation for onshore wind farms. Several methods for wind power resource assessment are compared, and the weaknesses of the Jensen model are demonstrated. For two onshore farms, statistical models outperform other methods, even when very little information is known about the wind farm. Lastly, chapter 5 focuses on the power system more broadly in the context of the risks expected from tropical cyclones in a changing climate. Risks to U.S. power system infrastructure are simulated under different scenarios of tropical cyclone behavior that may result from climate

  14. Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drysdale, Alan; Thomas, Mark; Fresa, Mark; Wheeler, Ray

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to CELSS, a critical technology for the Space Exploration Initiative. OCAM (object-oriented CELSS analysis and modeling) models carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen recycling. Multiple crops and plant types can be simulated. Resource recovery options from inedible biomass include leaching, enzyme treatment, aerobic digestion, and mushroom and fish growth. The benefit of using many small crops overlapping in time, instead of a single large crop, is demonstrated. Unanticipated results include startup transients which reduce the benefit of multiple small crops. The relative contributions of mass, energy, and manpower to system cost are analyzed in order to determine appropriate research directions.

  15. Modelling of stationary bulk hydrogen storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venter, R.D.; Pucher, G. [Centre for Hydrogen and Electrochemical Studies (CHES), University of Toronto (Canada)

    1997-08-01

    The employment of bulk hydrogen storage systems within industry appears increasingly to be a near-term prospect given the steadily increasing levels of hydrogen production. The current study defines and outlines a cost model through which comparative and informative assessments of different stationary bulk hydrogen storage reservoir types can be made. The reservoir types investigated include: mined salt caverns, depleted natural gas reservoirs and liquid vessels. Using the model, cost of storage for these potential bulk hydrogen containment technologies is estimated and compared in qualitative terms. for similar storage applications. (Author)

  16. Agregação e estabilidade de agregados do solo em sistemas agropecuários em Mato Grosso do Sul Soil aggregation and aggregate stability under crop-pasture systems in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cesar Salton

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Sistemas de manejo do solo, incluindo lavouras em plantio direto, lavouras (soja em rotação com pastagens em plantio direto e pastagens permanentes (Brachiaria sp., foram avaliados quanto à agregação do solo e estabilidade dos agregados. Em três experimentos de longa duração (9 e 11 anos localizados em Mato Grosso do Sul, o solo foi amostrado nas camadas de 0 a 5, 5 a 10 e 10 a 20 cm, para determinação da estabilidade dos agregados em água e a seco. Foram calculados o diâmetro médio ponderado (DMP e o índice de estabilidade dos agregados (IEA. Em todos os experimentos, nos sistemas com pastagens, seja de forma isolada ou em rotação com lavouras, foi verificado maior volume do solo, constituindo agregados com tamanho superior a 4,76 mm. Os sistemas com pastagens também apresentaram maior DMP e maior IEA em todos os experimentos. O sistema apenas com lavouras apresentou, nos três experimentos, o maior volume de solo com agregados de tamanho entre 0,25 e 2,00 mm. Esses efeitos ocorreram de forma semelhante em todas as profundidades avaliadas. Entre os locais, observou-se o efeito do teor de argila na agregação, sendo maior em Maracaju e menor em Campo Grande. Foi observada estreita relação entre a estabilidade dos agregados e o teor de C no solo. A formação de macroagregados parece estar relacionada à presença de raízes, que são mais abundantes sob pastagem de gramíneas.Soil management systems, with crops under no-tillage (NT, crops (soybean in rotation with pastures under NT and permanent pastures (Brachiaria sp., were evaluated for soil aggregation and aggregate stability. Three long-term experiments (9 and 11 years in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul were sampled in the layers 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm for determination of the aggregate stability in wet and dry sieving. The mean weight diameter (MWD and the aggregate stability index (IAS were calculated. In all experiments, the greatest soil volume was verified in the

  17. Modelling and simulation of railway cable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teichelmann, G.; Schaub, M.; Simeon, B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Zentrum Mathematik M2

    2005-12-15

    Mathematical models and numerical methods for the computation of both static equilibria and dynamic oscillations of railroad catenaries are derived and analyzed. These cable systems form a complex network of string and beam elements and lead to coupled partial differential equations in space and time where constraints and corresponding Lagrange multipliers express the interaction between carrier, contact wire, and pantograph head. For computing static equilibria, three different algorithms are presented and compared, while the dynamic case is treated by a finite element method in space, combined with stabilized time integration of the resulting differential algebraic system. Simulation examples based on reference data from industry illustrate the potential of such computational tools. (orig.)

  18. Chaos from simple models to complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cencini, Massimo; Vulpiani, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Chaos: from simple models to complex systems aims to guide science and engineering students through chaos and nonlinear dynamics from classical examples to the most recent fields of research. The first part, intended for undergraduate and graduate students, is a gentle and self-contained introduction to the concepts and main tools for the characterization of deterministic chaotic systems, with emphasis to statistical approaches. The second part can be used as a reference by researchers as it focuses on more advanced topics including the characterization of chaos with tools of information theor

  19. Modeling of digital communication systems using SIMULINK

    CERN Document Server

    Giordano, Arthur A

    2015-01-01

    Arthur Giordano, PhD, is a consultant in the field of military and commercial communications specializing in wireless communications. He is a co-founder of G5 Scientific, LLC, is a senior member of the IEEE and has taught graduate communications courses. He has developed numerous models using MathWorks®' SIMULINK®® to characterize digital communications systems. Allen Levesque, PhD, is a consultant specializing in digital communications systems, and is a partner in G5 Scientific, LLC. He has taught graduate courses in digital communications at Worcester Polytechnic Institute and is currently

  20. Spatial Models and Networks of Living Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jeppe Søgaard

    . Such systems are known to be stabilized by spatial structure. Finally, I analyse data from a large mobile phone network and show that people who are topologically close in the network have similar communication patterns. This main part of the thesis is based on six different articles, which I have co...... with interactions defined by network topology. In this thesis I first describe three different biological models of ageing and cancer, in which spatial structure is important for the system dynamics. I then turn to describe characteristics of ecosystems consisting of three cyclically interacting species...

  1. Flexible AC transmission systems modelling and control

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Pal, Bikash

    2012-01-01

    The extended and revised second edition of this successful monograph presents advanced modeling, analysis and control techniques of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS). The book covers comprehensively a range of power-system control problems: from steady-state voltage and power flow control, to voltage and reactive power control, to voltage stability control, to small signal stability control using FACTS controllers. In the six years since the first edition of the book has been published research on the FACTS has continued to flourish while renewable energy has developed into a mature and

  2. System reliability time-dependent models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debernardo, H.D.

    1991-06-01

    A probabilistic methodology for safety system technical specification evaluation was developed. The method for Surveillance Test Interval (S.T.I.) evaluation basically means an optimization of S.T.I. of most important system's periodically tested components. For Allowed Outage Time (A.O.T.) calculations, the method uses system reliability time-dependent models (A computer code called FRANTIC III). A new approximation, which was called Independent Minimal Cut Sets (A.C.I.), to compute system unavailability was also developed. This approximation is better than Rare Event Approximation (A.E.R.) and the extra computing cost is neglectible. A.C.I. was joined to FRANTIC III to replace A.E.R. on future applications. The case study evaluations verified that this methodology provides a useful probabilistic assessment of surveillance test intervals and allowed outage times for many plant components. The studied system is a typical configuration of nuclear power plant safety systems (two of three logic). Because of the good results, these procedures will be used by the Argentine nuclear regulatory authorities in evaluation of technical specification of Atucha I and Embalse nuclear power plant safety systems. (Author) [es

  3. An L-system model for root system mycorrhization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Schweiger, Peter; Jansa, Jan; Leitner, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Mineral phosphate fertilisers are a non-renewable resource; rock phosphate reserves are estimated to be depleted in 50 to 100 years. In order to prevent a severe phosphate crisis in the 21st century, there is a need to decrease agricultural inputs such as P fertilisers by making use of plant mechanisms that increase P acquisition efficiency. Most plants establish mycorrhizal symbiosis as an adaptation to increase/economize their P acquisition from the soil. However, there is a great functional diversity in P acquisition mechanisms among different fungal species that colonize the roots (Thonar et al. 2011), and the composition of mycorrhizal community is known to depend strongly on agricultural management practices. Thus, the agroecosystem management may substantially affect the mycorrhizal functioning and also the use of P fertilizers. To date, it is still difficult to quantify the potential input savings for the agricultural crops through manipulation of their symbiotic microbiome, mainly due to lack of mechanistic understanding of P uptake dynamics by the fungal hyphae. In a first attempt, Schnepf et al. (2008b) have used mathematical modelling to show on the single root scale how different fungal growth pattern influence root P uptake. However, their approach was limited by the fact that it was restricted to the scale of a single root. The goal of this work is to advance the dynamic, three-dimensional root architecture model of Leitner et al. (2010) to include root system infection with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and growth of external mycelium. The root system infection model assumes that there is an average probability of infection (primary infection), that the probability of infection of a new root segment immediately adjacent to an existing infection is much higher than the average (secondary infection), that infected root segments have entry points that are the link between internal and external mycelium, that only uninfected root segments are susceptible

  4. Asset Condition, Information Systems and Decision Models

    CERN Document Server

    Willett, Roger; Brown, Kerry; Mathew, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Asset Condition, Information Systems and Decision Models, is the second volume of the Engineering Asset Management Review Series. The manuscripts provide examples of implementations of asset information systems as well as some practical applications of condition data for diagnostics and prognostics. The increasing trend is towards prognostics rather than diagnostics, hence the need for assessment and decision models that promote the conversion of condition data into prognostic information to improve life-cycle planning for engineered assets. The research papers included here serve to support the on-going development of Condition Monitoring standards. This volume comprises selected papers from the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd World Congresses on Engineering Asset Management, which were convened under the auspices of ISEAM in collaboration with a number of organisations, including CIEAM Australia, Asset Management Council Australia, BINDT UK, and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Chin...

  5. Mathematical Models and Methods for Living Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chaplain, Mark; Pugliese, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The aim of these lecture notes is to give an introduction to several mathematical models and methods that can be used to describe the behaviour of living systems. This emerging field of application intrinsically requires the handling of phenomena occurring at different spatial scales and hence the use of multiscale methods. Modelling and simulating the mechanisms that cells use to move, self-organise and develop in tissues is not only fundamental to an understanding of embryonic development, but is also relevant in tissue engineering and in other environmental and industrial processes involving the growth and homeostasis of biological systems. Growth and organization processes are also important in many tissue degeneration and regeneration processes, such as tumour growth, tissue vascularization, heart and muscle functionality, and cardio-vascular diseases.

  6. Workload modelling for data-intensive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lassnig, Mario

    This thesis presents a comprehensive study built upon the requirements of a global data-intensive system, built for the ATLAS Experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. First, a scalable method is described to capture distributed data management operations in a non-intrusive way. These operations are collected into a globally synchronised sequence of events, the workload. A comparative analysis of this new data-intensive workload against existing computational workloads is conducted, leading to the discovery of the importance of descriptive attributes in the operations. Existing computational workload models only consider the arrival rates of operations, however, in data-intensive systems the correlations between attributes play a central role. Furthermore, the detrimental effect of rapid correlated arrivals, so called bursts, is assessed. A model is proposed that can learn burst behaviour from captured workload, and in turn forecast potential future bursts. To help with the creation of a full representative...

  7. Soja em sucessão a adubos verdes no sistema de plantio direto e convencional em solo de Cerrado Soybean grown after green manures under no-tillage and conventional management systems in savannah soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Camillo de Carvalho

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A adubação verde é uma prática em que se procura preservar a qualidade do ambiente sem prescindir de produtividades elevadas das culturas e do retorno econômico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho da cultura da soja em sucessão a adubos verdes nos sistemas de plantio direto e de preparo convencional do solo (uma gradagem pesada + duas gradagens leves. O experimento foi realizado num Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, originalmente sob vegetação de Cerrado em Selvíria, MS. Utilizaram-se quatro adubos verdes: mucuna-preta, guandu, crotalária e milheto, e área de pousio (vegetação espontânea. O cultivo de diferentes adubos verdes na primavera não influencia a produtividade da soja em sucessão, tanto em plantio direto quanto no sistema de preparo convencional do solo. Em ano com precipitação normal, o preparo convencional do solo proporciona maior produtividade da soja do que o sistema de plantio direto.The green manures aim to preserve the environment quality without discarding the largest yield of economic crops. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of soybean grown after green manures under no-tillage and conventional tillage (one disk harrow + two leveling harrow systems. The experiment was carried out in a Distrophic Red Latossol (typic Hapludox, covered by savannah vegetation, in Selvíria, MS, Brazil. The green manures utilized were: black velvet bean, pigeon pea, sunn hemp, millet and fallow area (spontaneous vegetation. The green manures previously grown in spring do not affect the soybean yield, in both no-tillage and conventional tillage systems. In year without dry periods, the conventional tillage provided greater grain yield.

  8. Forecasting US renewables in the national energy modelling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diedrich, R.; Petersik, T.W.

    2001-01-01

    The Energy information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) forecasts US renewable energy supply and demand in the context of overall energy markets using the National Energy Modelling System (NEMS). Renewables compete with other supply and demand options within the residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electricity sectors of the US economy. NEMS forecasts renewable energy for grid-connected electricity production within the Electricity Market Module (EM), and characterizes central station biomass, geothermal, conventional hydroelectric, municipal solid waste, solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, and wind-powered electricity generating technologies. EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 1998, projecting US energy markets, forecasts marketed renewables to remain a minor part of US energy production and consumption through to 2020. The USA is expected to remain primarily a fossil energy producer and consumer throughout the period. An alternative case indicates that biomass, wind, and to some extent geothermal power would likely increase most rapidly if the US were to require greater use of renewables for power supply, though electricity prices would increase somewhat. (author)

  9. FRAM Modelling Complex Socio-technical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2012-01-01

    There has not yet been a comprehensive method that goes behind 'human error' and beyond the failure concept, and various complicated accidents have accentuated the need for it. The Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) fulfils that need. This book presents a detailed and tested method that can be used to model how complex and dynamic socio-technical systems work, and understand both why things sometimes go wrong but also why they normally succeed.

  10. Transforming Systems Engineering through Model Centric Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-08

    for Creative Technologies ( ICT ). Section 5 describes research into the use of mission and system modeling and simulation, and its relationships to...be used in MDAO (UC03).  The metamodel provided by ICT represents information and metrics captured while observing the users of the gaming...Engineering Simulation MDAO 4.2 GRAPHICAL CONOPS (USC ICT – RICHMOND VIEW) The USC Institute for Creative Technologies ( ICT ) will support this use

  11. Towards a community Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Community Climate System Model, version 2 (CCSM2), was released in June 2002. CCSM2 has several new components and features, which I will discuss briefly. I will also show a few results from a multi-century equilibrium run with this model, emphasizing the improvements over the earlier simulation using the original CSM. A few flaws and inadequacies in CCSM2 have been identified. I will also discuss briefly work underway to improve the model and present results, if available. CCSM2, with improvements, will be the basis for the development of a Community Earth System Model (CESM). The highest priority for expansion of the model involves incorporation of biogeosciences into the coupled model system, with emphasis given to the carbon, nitrogen and iron cycles. The overall goal of the biogeosciences project within CESM is to understand the regulation of planetary energetics, planetary ecology, and planetary metabolism through exchanges of energy, momentum, and materials among atmosphere, land, and ocean, and the response of the climate system through these processes to changes in land cover and land use. In particular, this research addresses how biogeochemical coupling of carbon, nitrogen, and iron cycles affects climate and how human perturbations of these cycles alter climate. To accomplish these goals, the Community Land Model, the land component of CCSM2, is being developed to include river routing, carbon and nitrogen cycles, emissions of mineral aerosols and biogenic volatile organic compounds, dry deposition of various gases, and vegetation dynamics. The carbon and nitrogen cycles are being implemented using parameterizations developed as part of a state-of-the-art ecosystem biogeochemistry model. The primary goal of this research is to provide an accurate net flux of CO2 between the land and the atmosphere so that CESM can be used to study the dynamics of the coupled climate-carbon system. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds are also based on a

  12. Modelagem por compartimentos para integrar e comunicar conhecimento em nutrição Compartmental modeling to integrate and communicate nutritional knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar O. Oviedo-Rondón

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta palestra tem o objetivo de apresentar e discutir metodologias utilizadas para modelar e integrar o conhecimento clássico em nutrição animal, e o produzido por novas ciências moleculares como nutrigenoma, proteoma e metaboloma. Estas ciências e a bioinformática estão ajudando a expandir rapidamente o conhecimento dos sistemas biológicos de interesse em nutrição animal. Na palestra discutirei como é importante dedicar parte de nosso tempo a integrar o conhecimento existente para esclarecer os problemas em pesquisa, utilizando as ferramentas mais adequadas para evitar duplicação de pesquisas, que causam desperdício de recursos humanos, econômicos, e de tempo. A modelagem matemática por compartimentos utilizando programas de computador pode ser a melhor maneira de acumular estas informações, integrar diferentes descobertas, e comunicar o conhecimento atual dos sistemas, e do metabolismo de nutrientes às novas gerações, e avançar na determinação mais adequada das exigências nutricionais.This presentation aims to present and discuss methodologies used to model and integrate classical knowledge in animal nutrition, and new discoveries produced by new molecular sciences like nutrigenomics, proteomics and metabolomics. These sciences and bioinformatics are helping to expand >very quickly the knowledge of the biological systems of interest in animal nutrition. I will discuss the importance of dedicating part of our efforts to integrate current knowledge to prioritize research problems using the most adequate tools. This will help to avoid research duplication that causes waste of valuable resources. Compartmental mathematical modeling using computer software could be one of the best ways to accumulate this information. It can help to integrate new discoveries, communicate the knowledge about animal systems and nutrient metabolism to a new generation of scientists, and advance to more accurate determination of nutrient

  13. Design Concept Evaluation Using System Throughput Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequeira, G.; Nutt, W. M.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is currently developing the technical bases to support the submittal of a license application for construction of a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The Office of Repository Development (ORD) is responsible for developing the design of the proposed repository surface facilities for the handling of spent nuclear fuel and high level nuclear waste. Preliminary design activities are underway to sufficiently develop the repository surface facilities design for inclusion in the license application. The design continues to evolve to meet mission needs and to satisfy both regulatory and program requirements. A system engineering approach is being used in the design process since the proposed repository facilities are dynamically linked by a series of sub-systems and complex operations. In addition, the proposed repository facility is a major system element of the overall waste management process being developed by the OCRWM. Such an approach includes iterative probabilistic dynamic simulation as an integral part of the design evolution process. A dynamic simulation tool helps to determine if: (1) the mission and design requirements are complete, robust, and well integrated; (2) the design solutions under development meet the design requirements and mission goals; (3) opportunities exist where the system can be improved and/or optimized; and (4) proposed changes to the mission, and design requirements have a positive or negative impact on overall system performance and if design changes may be necessary to satisfy these changes. This paper will discuss the type of simulation employed to model the waste handling operations. It will then discuss the process being used to develop the Yucca Mountain surface facilities model. The latest simulation model and the results of the simulation and how the data were used in the design

  14. Modelling of Integrated Renewable Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akella, A. K.; Saini, R. P.; Sharma, M. P.

    2007-10-01

    Energy is supplied in the form of electricity, heat or fuels and an energy supply system must guarantee sufficient production and distribution of energy. An energy supply system based on renewable energy can be utilized as integrated renewable energy system (IRES), which can satisfy the energy needs of an area in appropriate & sustainable manner. Given the key role of renewable energy in rural electrification of remote rural areas, the IRES for a given area can be modeled & optimized for meeting the energy needs. In the present paper, Jaunpur block of Uttaranchal state of India has been selected as remote area. Based upon the data collected, the resource potential and energy demand has been calculated & presented. The model on the basis of unit cost of the energy has been optimized using LINDO software 6.10 version. The results indicated that the optimized model has been found to the best choice for meeting the energy needs of the area. The results further indicated that for the above area, either an IRES consisting of the above sources can provide a feasible solution in terms of energy fulfillments in the range of EPDF from 1.0 to 0.75.

  15. A magnetorheological actuation system: test and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Shaju; Chaudhuri, Anirban; Wereley, Norman M

    2008-01-01

    Self-contained actuation systems, based on frequency rectification of the high frequency motion of an active material, can produce high force and stroke output. Magnetorheological (MR) fluids are active fluids whose rheological properties can be altered by the application of a magnetic field. By using MR fluids as the energy transmission medium in such hybrid devices, a valving system with no moving parts can be implemented and used to control the motion of an output cylinder shaft. The MR fluid based valves are configured in the form of an H-bridge to produce bi-directional motion in an output cylinder by alternately applying magnetic fields in the two opposite arms of the bridge. The rheological properties of the MR fluid are modeled using both Bingham plastic and bi-viscous models. In this study, the primary actuation is performed using a compact terfenol-D rod driven pump and frequency rectification of the rod motion is done using passive reed valves. The pump and reed valve configuration along with MR fluidic valves form a compact hydraulic actuation system. Actuator design, analysis and experimental results are presented in this paper. A time domain model of the actuator is developed and validated using experimental data

  16. VIIP: Central Nervous System (CNS) Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jerry; Mulugeta, Lealem; Nelson, Emily; Raykin, Julia; Feola, Andrew; Gleason, Rudy; Samuels, Brian; Ethier, C. Ross; Myers, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Current long-duration missions to the International Space Station and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit expose astronauts to increased risk of Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. It has been hypothesized that the headward shift of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood in microgravity may cause significant elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP), which in turn may then induce VIIP syndrome through interaction with various biomechanical pathways. However, there is insufficient evidence to confirm this hypothesis. In this light, we are developing lumped-parameter models of fluid transport in the central nervous system (CNS) as a means to simulate the influence of microgravity on ICP. The CNS models will also be used in concert with the lumped parameter and finite element models of the eye described in the related IWS works submitted by Nelson et al., Feola et al. and Ethier et al.

  17. World Energy Projection System model documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutzler, M.J.; Anderson, A.T.

    1997-09-01

    The World Energy Projection System (WEPS) was developed by the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting within the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the independent statistical and analytical agency of the US Department of Energy. WEPS is an integrated set of personal computer based spreadsheets containing data compilations, assumption specifications, descriptive analysis procedures, and projection models. The WEPS accounting framework incorporates projections from independently documented models and assumptions about the future energy intensity of economic activity (ratios of total energy consumption divided by gross domestic product GDP), and about the rate of incremental energy requirements met by natural gas, coal, and renewable energy sources (hydroelectricity, geothermal, solar, wind, biomass, and other renewable resources). Projections produced by WEPS are published in the annual report, International Energy Outlook. This report documents the structure and procedures incorporated in the 1998 version of the WEPS model. It has been written to provide an overview of the structure of the system and technical details about the operation of each component of the model for persons who wish to know how WEPS projections are produced by EIA

  18. Multidimensional Learner Model In Intelligent Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliyska, B.; Rozeva, A.

    2009-11-01

    The learner model in an intelligent learning system (ILS) has to ensure the personalization (individualization) and the adaptability of e-learning in an online learner-centered environment. ILS is a distributed e-learning system whose modules can be independent and located in different nodes (servers) on the Web. This kind of e-learning is achieved through the resources of the Semantic Web and is designed and developed around a course, group of courses or specialty. An essential part of ILS is learner model database which contains structured data about learner profile and temporal status in the learning process of one or more courses. In the paper a learner model position in ILS is considered and a relational database is designed from learner's domain ontology. Multidimensional modeling agent for the source database is designed and resultant learner data cube is presented. Agent's modules are proposed with corresponding algorithms and procedures. Multidimensional (OLAP) analysis guidelines on the resultant learner module for designing dynamic learning strategy have been highlighted.

  19. Ângulo de giro e espaçamento entre carreadores em sistemas autopropelidos de irrigação com o aspersor Plona-RL400 Wetted angle and towpath spacing for traveling gun systems with the Plona-RL400 gun sprinkler model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliani do Prado

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Valores determinados em laboratório, de vazão, raio de alcance e do perfil radial de aplicação de água do aspersor canhão PLONA-RL400, foram utilizados em simulações digitais da uniformidade de aplicação de água desse aspersor operando, na ausência de ventos, com diferentes ângulos de giro e espaçamentos entre carreadores, em sistemas autopropelidos de irrigação. Os valores simulados de uniformidade de aplicação de água foram apresentados em três grupos distintos, cada um dos quais representando condições operacionais (bocal e pressão que determinam a ocorrência da mesma forma geométrica (I, II ou III do perfil radial adimensional de aplicação de água do aspersor avaliado. Para os perfis do tipo I, II e III, observou-se que espaçamentos de carreadores menores que 50% do diâmetro molhado ou situados entre 80 e 90% do diâmetro molhado proporcionaram os maiores valores de uniformidade. Em todas as formas geométricas do perfil, os melhores valores de uniformidade de aplicação de água foram obtidos com ângulos de giro do aspersor entre 180 e 210º.Values of flow rate, radius of throw and radial precipitation profile obtained in laboratory with the PLONA-RL400 gun sprinkler are presented. These values were used on digital simulations of water application uniformity, under no wind conditions, provided by traveling gun machines operating with this sprinkler under different combinations of wetted angle and towpath spacing. Simulated uniformity values were presented arranged under three different clusters, each one corresponding to a different set of sprinkler operational conditions (nozzle versus service pressure that results on the same geometrical shape (I, II or III of PLONA-RL400 radial precipitation profile. For the three profile shapes, it was observed that towpath spacings shorter than 50% of the sprinkler wetted diameter and on the range between 80 and 90% of the sprinkler wetted diameter provide higher

  20. Intelligent Model for Video Survillance Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vidhya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Video surveillance system senses and trails out all the threatening issues in the real time environment. It prevents from security threats with the help of visual devices which gather the information related to videos like CCTV’S and IP (Internet Protocol cameras. Video surveillance system has become a key for addressing problems in the public security. They are mostly deployed on the IP based network. So, all the possible security threats exist in the IP based application might also be the threats available for the reliable application which is available for video surveillance. In result, it may increase cybercrime, illegal video access, mishandling videos and so on. Hence, in this paper an intelligent model is used to propose security for video surveillance system which ensures safety and it provides secured access on video.